WorldWideScience

Sample records for camera tubes

  1. Ultra-fast framing camera tube

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalibjian, Ralph

    1981-01-01

    An electronic framing camera tube features focal plane image dissection and synchronized restoration of the dissected electron line images to form two-dimensional framed images. Ultra-fast framing is performed by first streaking a two-dimensional electron image across a narrow slit, thereby dissecting the two-dimensional electron image into sequential electron line images. The dissected electron line images are then restored into a framed image by a restorer deflector operated synchronously with the dissector deflector. The number of framed images on the tube's viewing screen is equal to the number of dissecting slits in the tube. The distinguishing features of this ultra-fast framing camera tube are the focal plane dissecting slits, and the synchronously-operated restorer deflector which restores the dissected electron line images into a two-dimensional framed image. The framing camera tube can produce image frames having high spatial resolution of optical events in the sub-100 picosecond range.

  2. Framing-camera tube developed for sub-100-ps range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new framing-camera tube, developed by Electronics Engineering, is capable of recording two-dimensional image frames with high spatial resolution in the sub-100-ps range. Framing is performed by streaking a two-dimensional electron image across narrow slits; the resulting electron-line images from the slits are restored into a framed image by a restorer deflector operating synchronously with the dissector deflector. We have demonstrated its performance in a prototype tube by recording 125-ps-duration framed images of 2.5-mm patterns. The limitation in the framing speed is in the external electronic drivers for the deflectors and not in the tube design characteristics. Shorter frame durations (below 100 ps) can be obtained by use of faster deflection drivers

  3. Environmental test report for the WX-32335 SEC camera tube. [for International Ultraviolet Explorer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malanoski, R. J.

    1973-01-01

    The environmental testing activity on the WX-32335 was carried out to determine if this tube type could withstand the environmental requirements established for the International Ultraviolet Explorer (IUE) camera tube (WX-32224). The results of the tests led to the following conclusions: (1) The WX-32335 as processed with a CsTe photocathode surface can withstand the temperature extremes established for the IUE camera tube without damage to the photocathode surface or without introducing background signal in the tube after one hour of dark integration. (2) The WX-32335 built with a WX-32224 type target support structure can withstand the sinusoidal vibration requirements established for the IUE camera tube. (3) Although the vibration test of the WX-32335 type tubes built with the flat target ring structure could not be completed, there was no indication that these tubes could not withstand the sinusoidal vibration requirements established for the IUE camera tube.

  4. Nondestructive test of brazed cooling tubes of prototype bolometer camera housing using active infrared thermography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahiliani, Kumudni; Pandya, Santosh P; Pandya, Shwetang; Jha, Ratneshwar; Govindarajan, J

    2011-01-01

    The active infrared thermography technique is used for assessing the brazing quality of an actively cooled bolometer camera housing developed for steady state superconducting tokamak. The housing is a circular pipe, which has circular tubes vacuum brazed on the periphery. A unique method was adopted to monitor the temperature distribution on the internal surface of the pipe. A stainless steel mirror was placed inside the pipe and the reflected IR radiations were viewed using an IR camera. The heat stimulus was given by passing hot water through the tubes and the temperature distribution was monitored during the transient phase. The thermographs showed a significant nonuniformity in the brazing with a contact area of around 51%. The thermography results were compared with the x-ray radiographs and a good match between the two was observed. Benefits of thermography over x-ray radiography testing are emphasized. PMID:21280850

  5. Study of performance of small gamma camera consisting of crystal pixel array and position sensitive photomultiplier tube

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Jie; LIU Shi-Tao; LEI Xiao-Wen; YAN Tian-Xin; XU Zi-Zong; WANG Zhao-Min

    2005-01-01

    The performance of gamma camera with NaI(T1) array coupled with position sensitive photomultiplier tube (PSPMT) R2486 has been studied. The pixel size of NaI(T1) crystal is 2mm×2mm and the overall dimension of the array is 48.2mm×48.2mm×5mm. There are 484 pixels in a 22×22 matrix. Because each pixel can produce a much focused light spot and restrict the spread of photons, position resolution of the gamma camera is mainly determined by pixel size. It is shown that crystal array pixel can reduce shrinkage effect and improve intrinsic position resolution greatly via restricting the spread of photons. Experimental results demonstrate that its position resolution and linearity are much improved comparing with the gamma camera using planar crystals coupled with PSPMT.

  6. A charged-particle manipulator utilizing a co-axial tube electrodynamic trap with an integrated camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, L.; Whitten, W. B.; Pau, S.

    2011-10-01

    A charged-particle manipulator was designed and fabricated with an integrated imaging camera allowing real-time in-situ monitoring of trapped particle motion even when the trap device is under motion or rotation. The trap device was made of two co-axial electrically conductive tubes with diameters of 5.5 mm and 7 mm for the inner tube and outer tube, respectively; the imaging camera with its optical fiber bundle was integrated within the tubular trap device to realize a single instrument functioning as a manipulator. Motion of suspended microparticles of 3 μm to 50 μm in diameter can be monitored using the integrated camera regardless of the trap device orientations. This manipulator provides capability of controlled manipulation of trapped particles by tuning the operating conditions while monitoring the feedback of real-time particle motion. Imaging of suspended particles was not interrupted while the manipulator was translated and/or rotated. This integrated manipulator can be used for charged particle transport and repositioning.

  7. Humidity compensation of bad-smell sensing system using a detector tube and a built-in camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirano, Hiroyuki; Nakamoto, Takamichi

    2011-09-01

    We developed a low-cost sensing system robust against humidity change for detecting and estimating concentration of bad smell, such as hydrogen sulfide and ammonia. In the previous study, we developed automated measurement system for a gas detector tube using a built-in camera instead of the conventional manual inspection of the gas detector tube. Concentration detectable by the developed system ranges from a few tens of ppb to a few tens of ppm. However, we previously found that the estimated concentration depends not only on actual concentration, but on humidity. Here, we established the method to correct the influence of humidity by creating regression function with its inputs of discoloration rate and humidity. We studied 2 methods (Backpropagation, Radial basis function network) to get regression function and evaluated them. Consequently, the system successfully estimated the concentration on a practical level even when humidity changes.

  8. Vacuum Camera Cooler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laugen, Geoffrey A.

    2011-01-01

    Acquiring cheap, moving video was impossible in a vacuum environment, due to camera overheating. This overheating is brought on by the lack of cooling media in vacuum. A water-jacketed camera cooler enclosure machined and assembled from copper plate and tube has been developed. The camera cooler (see figure) is cup-shaped and cooled by circulating water or nitrogen gas through copper tubing. The camera, a store-bought "spy type," is not designed to work in a vacuum. With some modifications the unit can be thermally connected when mounted in the cup portion of the camera cooler. The thermal conductivity is provided by copper tape between parts of the camera and the cooled enclosure. During initial testing of the demonstration unit, the camera cooler kept the CPU (central processing unit) of this video camera at operating temperature. This development allowed video recording of an in-progress test, within a vacuum environment.

  9. Gastrostomy Tube (G-Tube)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... endoscope (a thin, flexible tube with a tiny camera and light at the tip) inserted through the ... Nemours Foundation, iStock, Getty Images, Corbis, Veer, Science Photo Library, Science Source Images, Shutterstock, and Clipart.com

  10. A fast position estimation method for a control rod guide tube inspection robot with a single camera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One of the problems in the inspection of control rod guide tubes using a mobile robot is accurate estimation of the robot's position. The problem is usually explained by the question 'Where am I?'. We can solve this question by a method called dead reckoning using odometers. But it has some inherent drawbacks such that the position error grows without bound unless an independent reference is used periodically to reduce the errors. In this paper, we presented one method to overcome this drawback by using a vision sensor. Our method is based on the classical Lucas Kanade algorithm for on image tracking. In this algorithm, an optical flow must be calculated at every image frame, thus it has intensive computing load. In order to handle large motions, it is preferable to use a large integration window. But a small integration window is more preferable to keep the details contained in the images. We used the robot's movement information obtained from the dead reckoning as an input parameter for the feature tracking algorithm in order to restrict the position of an integration window. By means of this method, we could reduce the size of an integration window without any loss of its ability to handle large motions and could avoid the trade off in the accuracy. And we could estimate the position of our robot relatively fast without on intensive computing time and the inherent drawbacks mentioned above. We studied this algorithm for applying it to the control rod guide tubes inspection robot and tried an inspection without on operator's intervention

  11. Robotic Tube-Gap Inspector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Jeffrey L.; Gutow, David A.; Maslakowski, John E.

    1993-01-01

    Robotic vision system measures small gaps between nearly parallel tubes. Robot-held video camera examines closely spaced tubes while computer determines gaps between tubes. Video monitor simultaneously displays data on gaps.

  12. Gamma camera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The design of a collimation system for a gamma camera for use in nuclear medicine is described. When used with a 2-dimensional position sensitive radiation detector, the novel system can produce superior images than conventional cameras. The optimal thickness and positions of the collimators are derived mathematically. (U.K.)

  13. CCD Camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, Roger R.

    1983-01-01

    A CCD camera capable of observing a moving object which has varying intensities of radiation eminating therefrom and which may move at varying speeds is shown wherein there is substantially no overlapping of successive images and wherein the exposure times and scan times may be varied independently of each other.

  14. Mini gamma camera, camera system and method of use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majewski, Stanislaw; Weisenberger, Andrew G.; Wojcik, Randolph F.

    2001-01-01

    A gamma camera comprising essentially and in order from the front outer or gamma ray impinging surface: 1) a collimator, 2) a scintillator layer, 3) a light guide, 4) an array of position sensitive, high resolution photomultiplier tubes, and 5) printed circuitry for receipt of the output of the photomultipliers. There is also described, a system wherein the output supplied by the high resolution, position sensitive photomultipiler tubes is communicated to: a) a digitizer and b) a computer where it is processed using advanced image processing techniques and a specific algorithm to calculate the center of gravity of any abnormality observed during imaging, and c) optional image display and telecommunications ports.

  15. Preliminary field evaluation of solid state cameras for security applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recent developments in solid state imager technology have resulted in a series of compact, lightweight, all-solid-state closed circuit television (CCTV) cameras. Although it is widely known that the various solid state cameras have less light sensitivity and lower resolution than their vacuum tube counterparts, the potential for having a much longer Mean Time Between Failure (MTBF) for the all-solid-state cameras is generating considerable interest within the security community. Questions have been raised as to whether the newest and best of the solid state cameras are a viable alternative to the high maintenance vacuum tube cameras in exterior security applications. To help answer these questions, a series of tests were performed by Sandia National Laboratories at various test sites and under several lighting conditions. In general, all-solid-state cameras need to be improved in four areas before they can be used as wholesale replacements for tube cameras in exterior security applications: resolution, sensitivity, contrast, and smear. However, with careful design some of the higher performance cameras can be used for perimeter security systems, and all of the cameras have applications where they are uniquely qualified. Many of the cameras are well suited for interior assessment and surveillance uses, and several of the cameras are well designed as robotics and machine vision devices

  16. Proactive PTZ Camera Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qureshi, Faisal Z.; Terzopoulos, Demetri

    We present a visual sensor network—comprising wide field-of-view (FOV) passive cameras and pan/tilt/zoom (PTZ) active cameras—capable of automatically capturing closeup video of selected pedestrians in a designated area. The passive cameras can track multiple pedestrians simultaneously and any PTZ camera can observe a single pedestrian at a time. We propose a strategy for proactive PTZ camera control where cameras plan ahead to select optimal camera assignment and handoff with respect to predefined observational goals. The passive cameras supply tracking information that is used to control the PTZ cameras.

  17. Streak Tubes for Diagnostics of Lasers and Plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokolov, A. Yu; Konovalov, P. I.; Nurtdinov, R. I.; Vikulin, M. P.; Pryanishnikov, I. G.; Dolotov, A. S.; Krapiva, P. S.

    2016-09-01

    Designing a facility for laser fusion research requires sufficient advancement in diagnostics techniques for lasers and plasmas, including those involving streak camera imaging. Maximum specifications of streak cameras depend on the parameters of streak tubes. The paper illustrates how these devices function, and which of their parameters are limiting. The paper presents a novel technological platform designed at VNIIA, which was used to develop a new generation of streak tubes. Using these streak tubes in streak cameras, the efficiency of streak camera imaging techniques can be improved by several orders of magnitude, and new techniques can be designed.

  18. Electronographic cameras for space astronomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carruthers, G. R.; Opal, C. B.

    1972-01-01

    Magnetically-focused electronographic cameras have been under development at the Naval Research Laboratory for use in far-ultraviolet imagery and spectrography, primarily in astronomical and optical-geophysical observations from sounding rockets and space vehicles. Most of this work has been with cameras incorporating internal optics of the Schmidt or wide-field all-reflecting types. More recently, we have begun development of electronographic spectrographs incorporating an internal concave grating, operating at normal or grazing incidence. We also are developing electronographic image tubes of the conventional end-window-photo-cathode type, for far-ultraviolet imagery at the focus of a large space telescope, with image formats up to 120 mm in diameter.

  19. Portable mini gamma camera for medical applications

    CERN Document Server

    Porras, E; Benlloch, J M; El-Djalil-Kadi-Hanifi, M; López, S; Pavon, N; Ruiz, J A; Sánchez, F; Sebastiá, A

    2002-01-01

    A small, portable and low-cost gamma camera for medical applications has been developed and clinically tested. This camera, based on a scintillator crystal and a Position Sensitive Photo-Multiplier Tube, has a useful field of view of 4.6 cm diameter and provides 2.2 mm of intrinsic spatial resolution. Its mobility and light weight allow to reach the patient from any desired direction. This camera images small organs with high efficiency and so addresses the demand for devices of specific clinical applications. In this paper, we present the camera and briefly describe the procedures that have led us to choose its configuration and the image reconstruction method. The clinical tests and diagnostic capability are also presented and discussed.

  20. Preliminary field evaluation of solid state cameras for security applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recent developments in solid state imager technology have resulted in a series of compact, lightweight, all-solid-state closed circuit television (CCTV) cameras. Although it is widely known that the various solid state cameras have less light sensitivity and lower resolution than their vacuum tube counterparts, the potential for having a much longer Mean Time Between Failure (MTBF) for the all-solid-state cameras is generating considerable interest within the security community. Questions have been raised as to whether the newest and best of the solid state cameras are a viable alternative to the high maintenance vacuum tube cameras in exterior security applications. To help answer these questions, a series of tests were performed by Sandia National Laboratories at various test sites and under several lighting conditions. The results of these tests as well as a description of the test equipment, test sites, and procedures are presented in this report

  1. Making Ceramic Cameras

    Science.gov (United States)

    Squibb, Matt

    2009-01-01

    This article describes how to make a clay camera. This idea of creating functional cameras from clay allows students to experience ceramics, photography, and painting all in one unit. (Contains 1 resource and 3 online resources.)

  2. Constrained space camera assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heckendorn, Frank M.; Anderson, Erin K.; Robinson, Casandra W.; Haynes, Harriet B.

    1999-01-01

    A constrained space camera assembly which is intended to be lowered through a hole into a tank, a borehole or another cavity. The assembly includes a generally cylindrical chamber comprising a head and a body and a wiring-carrying conduit extending from the chamber. Means are included in the chamber for rotating the body about the head without breaking an airtight seal formed therebetween. The assembly may be pressurized and accompanied with a pressure sensing means for sensing if a breach has occurred in the assembly. In one embodiment, two cameras, separated from their respective lenses, are installed on a mounting apparatus disposed in the chamber. The mounting apparatus includes means allowing both longitudinal and lateral movement of the cameras. Moving the cameras longitudinally focuses the cameras, and moving the cameras laterally away from one another effectively converges the cameras so that close objects can be viewed. The assembly further includes means for moving lenses of different magnification forward of the cameras.

  3. Neutron camera employing row and column summations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clonts, Lloyd G.; Diawara, Yacouba; Donahue, Jr, Cornelius; Montcalm, Christopher A.; Riedel, Richard A.; Visscher, Theodore

    2016-06-14

    For each photomultiplier tube in an Anger camera, an R.times.S array of preamplifiers is provided to detect electrons generated within the photomultiplier tube. The outputs of the preamplifiers are digitized to measure the magnitude of the signals from each preamplifier. For each photomultiplier tube, a corresponding summation circuitry including R row summation circuits and S column summation circuits numerically add the magnitudes of the signals from preamplifiers for each row and for each column to generate histograms. For a P.times.Q array of photomultiplier tubes, P.times.Q summation circuitries generate P.times.Q row histograms including R entries and P.times.Q column histograms including S entries. The total set of histograms include P.times.Q.times.(R+S) entries, which can be analyzed by a position calculation circuit to determine the locations of events (detection of a neutron).

  4. Harpicon camera for HDTV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanada, Jun

    1992-08-01

    Ikegami has been involved in broadcast equipment ever since it was established as a company. In conjunction with NHK it has brought forth countless television cameras, from black-and-white cameras to color cameras, HDTV cameras, and special-purpose cameras. In the early days of HDTV (high-definition television, also known as "High Vision") cameras the specifications were different from those for the cameras of the present-day system, and cameras using all kinds of components, having different arrangements of components, and having different appearances were developed into products, with time spent on experimentation, design, fabrication, adjustment, and inspection. But recently the knowhow built up thus far in components, , printed circuit boards, and wiring methods has been incorporated in camera fabrication, making it possible to make HDTV cameras by metbods similar to the present system. In addition, more-efficient production, lower costs, and better after-sales service are being achieved by using the same circuits, components, mechanism parts, and software for both HDTV cameras and cameras that operate by the present system.

  5. Digital Pinhole Camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lancor, Rachael; Lancor, Brian

    2014-01-01

    In this article we describe how the classic pinhole camera demonstration can be adapted for use with digital cameras. Students can easily explore the effects of the size of the pinhole and its distance from the sensor on exposure time, magnification, and image quality. Instructions for constructing a digital pinhole camera and our method for…

  6. Adapting Virtual Camera Behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burelli, Paolo

    2013-01-01

    In a three-dimensional virtual environment aspects such as narrative and interaction completely depend on the camera since the camera defines the player’s point of view. Most research works in automatic camera control aim to take the control of this aspect from the player to automatically gen......- erate cinematographic game experiences reducing, however, the player’s feeling of agency. We propose a methodology to integrate the player in the camera control loop that allows to design and generate personalised cinematographic expe- riences. Furthermore, we present an evaluation of the afore......- mentioned methodology showing that the generated camera movements are positively perceived by novice asnd intermediate players....

  7. Results of the prototype camera for FACT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderhub, H. [ETH Zurich, Institute for Particle Physics, CH-8093 Zurich (Switzerland); Backes, M. [Technische Universitaet Dortmund, D-44221 Dortmund (Germany); Biland, A.; Boller, A.; Braun, I. [ETH Zurich, Institute for Particle Physics, CH-8093 Zurich (Switzerland); Bretz, T. [Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne, CH-1015 Lausanne (Switzerland); Commichau, S.; Commichau, V. [ETH Zurich, Institute for Particle Physics, CH-8093 Zurich (Switzerland); Dorner, D. [ETH Zurich, Institute for Particle Physics, CH-8093 Zurich (Switzerland); INTEGRAL Science Data Center, CH-1290 Versoix (Switzerland); Gendotti, A.; Grimm, O.; Gunten, H. von; Hildebrand, D.; Horisberger, U. [ETH Zurich, Institute for Particle Physics, CH-8093 Zurich (Switzerland); Koehne, J.-H. [Technische Universitaet Dortmund, D-44221 Dortmund (Germany); Kraehenbuehl, T., E-mail: thomas.kraehenbuehl@phys.ethz.c [ETH Zurich, Institute for Particle Physics, CH-8093 Zurich (Switzerland); Kranich, D.; Lorenz, E.; Lustermann, W. [ETH Zurich, Institute for Particle Physics, CH-8093 Zurich (Switzerland); Mannheim, K. [Universitaet Wuerzburg, D-97074 Wuerzburg (Germany)

    2011-05-21

    The maximization of the photon detection efficiency (PDE) is a key issue in the development of cameras for Imaging Atmospheric Cherenkov Telescopes. Geiger-mode Avalanche Photodiodes (G-APD) are a promising candidate to replace the commonly used photomultiplier tubes by offering a larger PDE and in addition a facilitated handling. The FACT (First G-APD Cherenkov Telescope) project evaluates the feasibility of this change by building a camera based on 1440 G-APDs for an existing small telescope. As a first step towards a full camera, a prototype module using 144 G-APDs was successfully built and tested. The strong temperature dependence of G-APDs is compensated using a feedback system, which allows to keep the gain of the G-APDs constant to 0.5%.

  8. GRACE star camera noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Nate

    2016-08-01

    Extending results from previous work by Bandikova et al. (2012) and Inacio et al. (2015), this paper analyzes Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) star camera attitude measurement noise by processing inter-camera quaternions from 2003 to 2015. We describe a correction to star camera data, which will eliminate a several-arcsec twice-per-rev error with daily modulation, currently visible in the auto-covariance function of the inter-camera quaternion, from future GRACE Level-1B product releases. We also present evidence supporting the argument that thermal conditions/settings affect long-term inter-camera attitude biases by at least tens-of-arcsecs, and that several-to-tens-of-arcsecs per-rev star camera errors depend largely on field-of-view.

  9. Microchannel plate streak camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ching L.

    1989-01-01

    An improved streak camera in which a microchannel plate electron multiplier is used in place of or in combination with the photocathode used in prior streak cameras. The improved streak camera is far more sensitive to photons (UV to gamma-rays) than the conventional x-ray streak camera which uses a photocathode. The improved streak camera offers gamma-ray detection with high temporal resolution. It also offers low-energy x-ray detection without attenuation inside the cathode. Using the microchannel plate in the improved camera has resulted in a time resolution of about 150 ps, and has provided a sensitivity sufficient for 1000 KeV x-rays.

  10. Solid state video cameras

    CERN Document Server

    Cristol, Y

    2013-01-01

    Solid State Video Cameras reviews the state of the art in the field of solid-state television cameras as compiled from patent literature. Organized into 10 chapters, the book begins with the basic array types of solid-state imagers and appropriate read-out circuits and methods. Documents relating to improvement of picture quality, such as spurious signal suppression, uniformity correction, or resolution enhancement, are also cited. The last part considerssolid-state color cameras.

  11. Polarization encoded color camera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schonbrun, Ethan; Möller, Guðfríður; Di Caprio, Giuseppe

    2014-03-15

    Digital cameras would be colorblind if they did not have pixelated color filters integrated into their image sensors. Integration of conventional fixed filters, however, comes at the expense of an inability to modify the camera's spectral properties. Instead, we demonstrate a micropolarizer-based camera that can reconfigure its spectral response. Color is encoded into a linear polarization state by a chiral dispersive element and then read out in a single exposure. The polarization encoded color camera is capable of capturing three-color images at wavelengths spanning the visible to the near infrared. PMID:24690806

  12. Ringfield lithographic camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweatt, William C.

    1998-01-01

    A projection lithography camera is presented with a wide ringfield optimized so as to make efficient use of extreme ultraviolet radiation from a large area radiation source (e.g., D.sub.source .apprxeq.0.5 mm). The camera comprises four aspheric mirrors optically arranged on a common axis of symmetry with an increased etendue for the camera system. The camera includes an aperture stop that is accessible through a plurality of partial aperture stops to synthesize the theoretical aperture stop. Radiation from a mask is focused to form a reduced image on a wafer, relative to the mask, by reflection from the four aspheric mirrors.

  13. Microprocessor-controlled, wide-range streak camera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bechtel Nevada/NSTec recently announced deployment of their fifth generation streak camera. This camera incorporates many advanced features beyond those currently available for streak cameras. The arc-resistant driver includes a trigger lockout mechanism, actively monitors input trigger levels, and incorporates a high-voltage fault interrupter for user safety and tube protection. The camera is completely modular and may deflect over a variable full-sweep time of 15 nanoseconds to 500 microseconds. The camera design is compatible with both large- and small-format commercial tubes from several vendors. The embedded microprocessor offers Ethernet connectivity, and XML [extensible markup language]-based configuration management with non-volatile parameter storage using flash-based storage media. The camera's user interface is platform-independent (Microsoft Windows, Unix, Linux, Macintosh OSX) and is accessible using an AJAX [asynchronous Javascript and XML]-equipped modem browser, such as Internet Explorer 6, Firefox, or Safari. User interface operation requires no installation of client software or browser plug-in technology. Automation software can also access the camera configuration and control using HTTP [hypertext transfer protocol]. The software architecture supports multiple-simultaneous clients, multiple cameras, and multiple module access with a standard browser. The entire user interface can be customized

  14. Microprocessor-controlled wide-range streak camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Amy E.; Hollabaugh, Craig

    2006-08-01

    Bechtel Nevada/NSTec recently announced deployment of their fifth generation streak camera. This camera incorporates many advanced features beyond those currently available for streak cameras. The arc-resistant driver includes a trigger lockout mechanism, actively monitors input trigger levels, and incorporates a high-voltage fault interrupter for user safety and tube protection. The camera is completely modular and may deflect over a variable full-sweep time of 15 nanoseconds to 500 microseconds. The camera design is compatible with both large- and small-format commercial tubes from several vendors. The embedded microprocessor offers Ethernet connectivity, and XML [extensible markup language]-based configuration management with non-volatile parameter storage using flash-based storage media. The camera's user interface is platform-independent (Microsoft Windows, Unix, Linux, Macintosh OSX) and is accessible using an AJAX [asynchronous Javascript and XML]-equipped modem browser, such as Internet Explorer 6, Firefox, or Safari. User interface operation requires no installation of client software or browser plug-in technology. Automation software can also access the camera configuration and control using HTTP [hypertext transfer protocol]. The software architecture supports multiple-simultaneous clients, multiple cameras, and multiple module access with a standard browser. The entire user interface can be customized.

  15. Experiments with and results of inside tube test systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The most frequent test is visual inspection by means of camera systems, nowadays normally using high-resolution CCD cameras. Although they do not reach the resolution of tube cameras, they have the advantage of a more compact design which is of extreme importance for inside tube testing with regard to passableness. The camera systems are fastened to a working head at the front of the inside tube manipulator, and freely movable in all directions by remote control. The photos taken by it are recorded on a videotape, and sound as well as captions may be added at will for documentation purposes. Visual testing is particularly suited for detecting extensive corroded or eroded spots from inside the tube. This is not only true for the welding seam zone, but also for bends, basic material and socket edges. (orig./DG)

  16. Ear tube insertion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myringotomy; Tympanostomy; Ear tube surgery; Pressure equalization tubes; Ventilating tubes; Ear infection - tubes; Otitis - tubes ... trapped fluid can flow out of the middle ear. This prevents hearing loss and reduces the risk ...

  17. Camera Operator and Videographer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Pam

    2007-01-01

    Television, video, and motion picture camera operators produce images that tell a story, inform or entertain an audience, or record an event. They use various cameras to shoot a wide range of material, including television series, news and sporting events, music videos, motion pictures, documentaries, and training sessions. Those who film or…

  18. CCD Luminescence Camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janesick, James R.; Elliott, Tom

    1987-01-01

    New diagnostic tool used to understand performance and failures of microelectronic devices. Microscope integrated to low-noise charge-coupled-device (CCD) camera to produce new instrument for analyzing performance and failures of microelectronics devices that emit infrared light during operation. CCD camera also used to indentify very clearly parts that have failed where luminescence typically found.

  19. Thermal Cameras and Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gade, Rikke; Moeslund, Thomas B.

    2014-01-01

    Thermal cameras are passive sensors that capture the infrared radiation emitted by all objects with a temperature above absolute zero. This type of camera was originally developed as a surveillance and night vision tool for the military, but recently the price has dropped, significantly opening up...... a broader field of applications. Deploying this type of sensor in vision systems eliminates the illumination problems of normal greyscale and RGB cameras. This survey provides an overview of the current applications of thermal cameras. Applications include animals, agriculture, buildings, gas detection......, industrial, and military applications, as well as detection, tracking, and recognition of humans. Moreover, this survey describes the nature of thermal radiation and the technology of thermal cameras....

  20. Dry imaging cameras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I K Indrajit

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Dry imaging cameras are important hard copy devices in radiology. Using dry imaging camera, multiformat images of digital modalities in radiology are created from a sealed unit of unexposed films. The functioning of a modern dry camera, involves a blend of concurrent processes, in areas of diverse sciences like computers, mechanics, thermal, optics, electricity and radiography. Broadly, hard copy devices are classified as laser and non laser based technology. When compared with the working knowledge and technical awareness of different modalities in radiology, the understanding of a dry imaging camera is often superficial and neglected. To fill this void, this article outlines the key features of a modern dry camera and its important issues that impact radiology workflow.

  1. Camera as Cultural Critique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Suhr, Christian

    2015-01-01

    What does the use of cameras entail for the production of cultural critique in anthropology? Visual anthropological analysis and cultural critique starts at the very moment a camera is brought into the field or existing visual images are engaged. The framing, distances, and interactions between...... researchers, cameras, and filmed subjects already inherently comprise analytical decisions. It is these ethnographic qualities inherent in audiovisual and photographic imagery that make it of particular value to a participatory anthropological enterprise that seeks to resist analytic closure and seeks instead...

  2. Ear Tubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of the ear drum or eustachian tube, Down Syndrome, cleft palate, and barotrauma (injury to the middle ear caused by a reduction of air pressure, ... specialist) may be warranted if you or your child has experienced repeated ... fluid in the middle ear, barotrauma, or have an anatomic abnormality that ...

  3. Radioisotope study of Eustachian tube. A preliminary report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Rossi, G.; Campioni, P.; Vaccaro, A.

    1988-08-01

    Radioisotope studies of Eustachian tube are suggested in the preoperative phase of tympanoplasty, in order to assess tubal drainage and secretion. The use of gamma camera fitted to a computer allowed the AA, to calculate some semi-quantitative parameters for an exact assessment of the radioactivity transit from the tympanic cass up to the pharyngeal cavity, throughout the Eustachian tube.

  4. The power of YouTube

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moriarty, Philip

    2014-03-01

    As one of the presenters of the hugely successful Sixty Symbols series of YouTube science videos, Philip Moriarty describes his experiences in front of the camera and how they have transformed his ideas about bringing physics to wider audiences.

  5. The BCAM Camera

    CERN Document Server

    Hashemi, K S

    2000-01-01

    The BCAM, or Boston CCD Angle Monitor, is a camera looking at one or more light sources. We describe the application of the The BCAM, or Boston CCD Angle Monitor, is a camera looking at one or more light sources. We describe the application of the BCAM to the ATLAS forward muon detector alignment system. We show that the camera's performance is only weakly dependent upon the brightness, focus and diameter of the source image. Its resolution is dominated by turbulence along the external light path. The camera electronics is radiation-resistant. With a field of view of ± 10 mrad, it tracks the bearing of a light source 16 m away with better than 3 µrad accuracy, well within the ATLAS requirements.

  6. TARGETLESS CAMERA CALIBRATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Barazzetti

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In photogrammetry a camera is considered calibrated if its interior orientation parameters are known. These encompass the principal distance, the principal point position and some Additional Parameters used to model possible systematic errors. The current state of the art for automated camera calibration relies on the use of coded targets to accurately determine the image correspondences. This paper presents a new methodology for the efficient and rigorous photogrammetric calibration of digital cameras which does not require any longer the use of targets. A set of images depicting a scene with a good texture are sufficient for the extraction of natural corresponding image points. These are automatically matched with feature-based approaches and robust estimation techniques. The successive photogrammetric bundle adjustment retrieves the unknown camera parameters and their theoretical accuracies. Examples, considerations and comparisons with real data and different case studies are illustrated to show the potentialities of the proposed methodology.

  7. Advanced CCD camera developments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Condor, A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)

    1994-11-15

    Two charge coupled device (CCD) camera systems are introduced and discussed, describing briefly the hardware involved, and the data obtained in their various applications. The Advanced Development Group Defense Sciences Engineering Division has been actively designing, manufacturing, fielding state-of-the-art CCD camera systems for over a decade. These systems were originally developed for the nuclear test program to record data from underground nuclear tests. Today, new and interesting application for these systems have surfaced and development is continuing in the area of advanced CCD camera systems, with the new CCD camera that will allow experimenters to replace film for x-ray imaging at the JANUS, USP, and NOVA laser facilities.

  8. The MKID Camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maloney, P. R.; Czakon, N. G.; Day, P. K.; Duan, R.; Gao, J.; Glenn, J.; Golwala, S.; Hollister, M.; LeDuc, H. G.; Mazin, B.; Noroozian, O.; Nguyen, H. T.; Sayers, J.; Schlaerth, J.; Vaillancourt, J. E.; Vayonakis, A.; Wilson, P.; Zmuidzinas, J.

    2009-12-01

    The MKID Camera project is a collaborative effort of Caltech, JPL, the University of Colorado, and UC Santa Barbara to develop a large-format, multi-color millimeter and submillimeter-wavelength camera for astronomy using microwave kinetic inductance detectors (MKIDs). These are superconducting, micro-resonators fabricated from thin aluminum and niobium films. We couple the MKIDs to multi-slot antennas and measure the change in surface impedance produced by photon-induced breaking of Cooper pairs. The readout is almost entirely at room temperature and can be highly multiplexed; in principle hundreds or even thousands of resonators could be read out on a single feedline. The camera will have 576 spatial pixels that image simultaneously in four bands at 750, 850, 1100 and 1300 microns. It is scheduled for deployment at the Caltech Submillimeter Observatory in the summer of 2010. We present an overview of the camera design and readout and describe the current status of testing and fabrication.

  9. Gamma camera system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A detailed description is given of a novel gamma camera which is designed to produce superior images than conventional cameras used in nuclear medicine. The detector consists of a solid state detector (e.g. germanium) which is formed to have a plurality of discrete components to enable 2-dimensional position identification. Details of the electronic processing circuits are given and the problems and limitations introduced by noise are discussed in full. (U.K.)

  10. A compact gamma camera with scintillation array and parallel-hole collimator

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Jie; MA Hongguang; MA Wenyan; ZENG Hui; WANG Zhaomin; XU Zizhong

    2008-01-01

    A new compact gamma camera for small object imaging has been developed. It consists of a pixelized Nal(T1) scintillator array coupled to a position sensitive photomultiplier tube (Hamamatsu R2486) with a parallel-hole lead collimator. The compact camera has better spatial resolution than Anger camera. The average value of intrinsic spatial resolutions is 2.3 mm (FWHM). The overall spatial resolution (FWHM) is 3, 5 and 6 mm at 0, 2.5 and 3 mm SCD (source-to-collimator distance), respectively. The phantom studies with the compact camera have demonstrated that parallel-hole collimator gamma camera is a practical technique for nuclear medicine application.

  11. Segment Based Camera Calibration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马颂德; 魏国庆; 等

    1993-01-01

    The basic idea of calibrating a camera system in previous approaches is to determine camera parmeters by using a set of known 3D points as calibration reference.In this paper,we present a method of camera calibration in whih camera parameters are determined by a set of 3D lines.A set of constraints is derived on camea parameters in terms of perspective line mapping.Form these constraints,the same perspective transformation matrix as that for point mapping can be computed linearly.The minimum number of calibration lines is 6.This result generalizes that of Liu,Huang and Faugeras[12] for camera location determination in which at least 8 line correspondences are required for linear computation of camera location.Since line segments in an image can be located easily and more accurately than points,the use of lines as calibration reference tends to ease the computation in inage preprocessing and to improve calibration accuracy.Experimental results on the calibration along with stereo reconstruction are reported.

  12. Spacecraft camera image registration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamel, Ahmed A. (Inventor); Graul, Donald W. (Inventor); Chan, Fred N. T. (Inventor); Gamble, Donald W. (Inventor)

    1987-01-01

    A system for achieving spacecraft camera (1, 2) image registration comprises a portion external to the spacecraft and an image motion compensation system (IMCS) portion onboard the spacecraft. Within the IMCS, a computer (38) calculates an image registration compensation signal (60) which is sent to the scan control loops (84, 88, 94, 98) of the onboard cameras (1, 2). At the location external to the spacecraft, the long-term orbital and attitude perturbations on the spacecraft are modeled. Coefficients (K, A) from this model are periodically sent to the onboard computer (38) by means of a command unit (39). The coefficients (K, A) take into account observations of stars and landmarks made by the spacecraft cameras (1, 2) themselves. The computer (38) takes as inputs the updated coefficients (K, A) plus synchronization information indicating the mirror position (AZ, EL) of each of the spacecraft cameras (1, 2), operating mode, and starting and stopping status of the scan lines generated by these cameras (1, 2), and generates in response thereto the image registration compensation signal (60). The sources of periodic thermal errors on the spacecraft are discussed. The system is checked by calculating measurement residuals, the difference between the landmark and star locations predicted at the external location and the landmark and star locations as measured by the spacecraft cameras (1, 2).

  13. Deployable Wireless Camera Penetrators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badescu, Mircea; Jones, Jack; Sherrit, Stewart; Wu, Jiunn Jeng

    2008-01-01

    A lightweight, low-power camera dart has been designed and tested for context imaging of sampling sites and ground surveys from an aerobot or an orbiting spacecraft in a microgravity environment. The camera penetrators also can be used to image any line-of-sight surface, such as cliff walls, that is difficult to access. Tethered cameras to inspect the surfaces of planetary bodies use both power and signal transmission lines to operate. A tether adds the possibility of inadvertently anchoring the aerobot, and requires some form of station-keeping capability of the aerobot if extended examination time is required. The new camera penetrators are deployed without a tether, weigh less than 30 grams, and are disposable. They are designed to drop from any altitude with the boost in transmitting power currently demonstrated at approximately 100-m line-of-sight. The penetrators also can be deployed to monitor lander or rover operations from a distance, and can be used for surface surveys or for context information gathering from a touch-and-go sampling site. Thanks to wireless operation, the complexity of the sampling or survey mechanisms may be reduced. The penetrators may be battery powered for short-duration missions, or have solar panels for longer or intermittent duration missions. The imaging device is embedded in the penetrator, which is dropped or projected at the surface of a study site at 90 to the surface. Mirrors can be used in the design to image the ground or the horizon. Some of the camera features were tested using commercial "nanny" or "spy" camera components with the charge-coupled device (CCD) looking at a direction parallel to the ground. Figure 1 shows components of one camera that weighs less than 8 g and occupies a volume of 11 cm3. This camera could transmit a standard television signal, including sound, up to 100 m. Figure 2 shows the CAD models of a version of the penetrator. A low-volume array of such penetrator cameras could be deployed from an

  14. Neutron tubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Ka-Ngo; Lou, Tak Pui; Reijonen, Jani

    2008-03-11

    A neutron tube or generator is based on a RF driven plasma ion source having a quartz or other chamber surrounded by an external RF antenna. A deuterium or mixed deuterium/tritium (or even just a tritium) plasma is generated in the chamber and D or D/T (or T) ions are extracted from the plasma. A neutron generating target is positioned so that the ion beam is incident thereon and loads the target. Incident ions cause D-D or D-T (or T-T) reactions which generate neutrons. Various embodiments differ primarily in size of the chamber and position and shape of the neutron generating target. Some neutron generators are small enough for implantation in the body. The target may be at the end of a catheter-like drift tube. The target may have a tapered or conical surface to increase target surface area.

  15. Straightening tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hexagonal wrapper tubes, especially for nuclear reactor core sub-assemblies, may suffer from unacceptable bow as a result of welding wear pads to the wrapper and heat treatment. Straightening of the bow is effected by a method wherein at each of a series of axially spaced locations the faces or vertices of the tube are measured relative to a reference to determine the direction of bow at the locations. From these measurements, the appropriate axial locations for the application of corrective loading can be determined, whereby by application of the loading at a selected face or vertex for such measurements the bow is reduced. Such loading, by an actuator, can be repeated at the locations until the bow is reduced to within tolerances. (author)

  16. CAOS-CMOS camera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riza, Nabeel A; La Torre, Juan Pablo; Amin, M Junaid

    2016-06-13

    Proposed and experimentally demonstrated is the CAOS-CMOS camera design that combines the coded access optical sensor (CAOS) imager platform with the CMOS multi-pixel optical sensor. The unique CAOS-CMOS camera engages the classic CMOS sensor light staring mode with the time-frequency-space agile pixel CAOS imager mode within one programmable optical unit to realize a high dynamic range imager for extreme light contrast conditions. The experimentally demonstrated CAOS-CMOS camera is built using a digital micromirror device, a silicon point-photo-detector with a variable gain amplifier, and a silicon CMOS sensor with a maximum rated 51.3 dB dynamic range. White light imaging of three different brightness simultaneously viewed targets, that is not possible by the CMOS sensor, is achieved by the CAOS-CMOS camera demonstrating an 82.06 dB dynamic range. Applications for the camera include industrial machine vision, welding, laser analysis, automotive, night vision, surveillance and multispectral military systems. PMID:27410361

  17. The Dark Energy Camera

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flaugher, B. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States). et al.

    2015-04-11

    The Dark Energy Camera is a new imager with a 2.2-degree diameter field of view mounted at the prime focus of the Victor M. Blanco 4-meter telescope on Cerro Tololo near La Serena, Chile. The camera was designed and constructed by the Dark Energy Survey Collaboration, and meets or exceeds the stringent requirements designed for the wide-field and supernova surveys for which the collaboration uses it. The camera consists of a five element optical corrector, seven filters, a shutter with a 60 cm aperture, and a CCD focal plane of 250-μm thick fully depleted CCDs cooled inside a vacuum Dewar. The 570 Mpixel focal plane comprises 62 2k x 4k CCDs for imaging and 12 2k x 2k CCDs for guiding and focus. The CCDs have 15μm x 15μm pixels with a plate scale of 0.263" per pixel. A hexapod system provides state-of-the-art focus and alignment capability. The camera is read out in 20 seconds with 6-9 electrons readout noise. This paper provides a technical description of the camera's engineering, construction, installation, and current status.

  18. The Dark Energy Camera

    CERN Document Server

    Flaugher, B; Honscheid, K; Abbott, T M C; Alvarez, O; Angstadt, R; Annis, J T; Antonik, M; Ballester, O; Beaufore, L; Bernstein, G M; Bernstein, R A; Bigelow, B; Bonati, M; Boprie, D; Brooks, D; Buckley-Geer, E J; Campa, J; Cardiel-Sas, L; Castander, F J; Castilla, J; Cease, H; Cela-Ruiz, J M; Chappa, S; Chi, E; Cooper, C; da Costa, L N; Dede, E; Derylo, G; DePoy, D L; de Vicente, J; Doel, P; Drlica-Wagner, A; Eiting, J; Elliott, A E; Emes, J; Estrada, J; Neto, A Fausti; Finley, D A; Flores, R; Frieman, J; Gerdes, D; Gladders, M D; Gregory, B; Gutierrez, G R; Hao, J; Holland, S E; Holm, S; Huffman, D; Jackson, C; James, D J; Jonas, M; Karcher, A; Karliner, I; Kent, S; Kessler, R; Kozlovsky, M; Kron, R G; Kubik, D; Kuehn, K; Kuhlmann, S; Kuk, K; Lahav, O; Lathrop, A; Lee, J; Levi, M E; Lewis, P; Li, T S; Mandrichenko, I; Marshall, J L; Martinez, G; Merritt, K W; Miquel, R; Munoz, F; Neilsen, E H; Nichol, R C; Nord, B; Ogando, R; Olsen, J; Palio, N; Patton, K; Peoples, J; Plazas, A A; Rauch, J; Reil, K; Rheault, J -P; Roe, N A; Rogers, H; Roodman, A; Sanchez, E; Scarpine, V; Schindler, R H; Schmidt, R; Schmitt, R; Schubnell, M; Schultz, K; Schurter, P; Scott, L; Serrano, S; Shaw, T M; Smith, R C; Soares-Santos, M; Stefanik, A; Stuermer, W; Suchyta, E; Sypniewski, A; Tarle, G; Thaler, J; Tighe, R; Tran, C; Tucker, D; Walker, A R; Wang, G; Watson, M; Weaverdyck, C; Wester, W; Woods, R; Yanny, B

    2015-01-01

    The Dark Energy Camera is a new imager with a 2.2-degree diameter field of view mounted at the prime focus of the Victor M. Blanco 4-meter telescope on Cerro Tololo near La Serena, Chile. The camera was designed and constructed by the Dark Energy Survey Collaboration, and meets or exceeds the stringent requirements designed for the wide-field and supernova surveys for which the collaboration uses it. The camera consists of a five element optical corrector, seven filters, a shutter with a 60 cm aperture, and a CCD focal plane of 250 micron thick fully-depleted CCDs cooled inside a vacuum Dewar. The 570 Mpixel focal plane comprises 62 2kx4k CCDs for imaging and 12 2kx2k CCDs for guiding and focus. The CCDs have 15 microns x15 microns pixels with a plate scale of 0.263 arc sec per pixel. A hexapod system provides state-of-the-art focus and alignment capability. The camera is read out in 20 seconds with 6-9 electrons readout noise. This paper provides a technical description of the camera's engineering, construct...

  19. The Dark Energy Camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flaugher, B.; Diehl, H. T.; Honscheid, K.; Abbott, T. M. C.; Alvarez, O.; Angstadt, R.; Annis, J. T.; Antonik, M.; Ballester, O.; Beaufore, L.; Bernstein, G. M.; Bernstein, R. A.; Bigelow, B.; Bonati, M.; Boprie, D.; Brooks, D.; Buckley-Geer, E. J.; Campa, J.; Cardiel-Sas, L.; Castander, F. J.; Castilla, J.; Cease, H.; Cela-Ruiz, J. M.; Chappa, S.; Chi, E.; Cooper, C.; da Costa, L. N.; Dede, E.; Derylo, G.; DePoy, D. L.; de Vicente, J.; Doel, P.; Drlica-Wagner, A.; Eiting, J.; Elliott, A. E.; Emes, J.; Estrada, J.; Fausti Neto, A.; Finley, D. A.; Flores, R.; Frieman, J.; Gerdes, D.; Gladders, M. D.; Gregory, B.; Gutierrez, G. R.; Hao, J.; Holland, S. E.; Holm, S.; Huffman, D.; Jackson, C.; James, D. J.; Jonas, M.; Karcher, A.; Karliner, I.; Kent, S.; Kessler, R.; Kozlovsky, M.; Kron, R. G.; Kubik, D.; Kuehn, K.; Kuhlmann, S.; Kuk, K.; Lahav, O.; Lathrop, A.; Lee, J.; Levi, M. E.; Lewis, P.; Li, T. S.; Mandrichenko, I.; Marshall, J. L.; Martinez, G.; Merritt, K. W.; Miquel, R.; Muñoz, F.; Neilsen, E. H.; Nichol, R. C.; Nord, B.; Ogando, R.; Olsen, J.; Palaio, N.; Patton, K.; Peoples, J.; Plazas, A. A.; Rauch, J.; Reil, K.; Rheault, J.-P.; Roe, N. A.; Rogers, H.; Roodman, A.; Sanchez, E.; Scarpine, V.; Schindler, R. H.; Schmidt, R.; Schmitt, R.; Schubnell, M.; Schultz, K.; Schurter, P.; Scott, L.; Serrano, S.; Shaw, T. M.; Smith, R. C.; Soares-Santos, M.; Stefanik, A.; Stuermer, W.; Suchyta, E.; Sypniewski, A.; Tarle, G.; Thaler, J.; Tighe, R.; Tran, C.; Tucker, D.; Walker, A. R.; Wang, G.; Watson, M.; Weaverdyck, C.; Wester, W.; Woods, R.; Yanny, B.; DES Collaboration

    2015-11-01

    The Dark Energy Camera is a new imager with a 2.°2 diameter field of view mounted at the prime focus of the Victor M. Blanco 4 m telescope on Cerro Tololo near La Serena, Chile. The camera was designed and constructed by the Dark Energy Survey Collaboration and meets or exceeds the stringent requirements designed for the wide-field and supernova surveys for which the collaboration uses it. The camera consists of a five-element optical corrector, seven filters, a shutter with a 60 cm aperture, and a charge-coupled device (CCD) focal plane of 250 μm thick fully depleted CCDs cooled inside a vacuum Dewar. The 570 megapixel focal plane comprises 62 2k × 4k CCDs for imaging and 12 2k × 2k CCDs for guiding and focus. The CCDs have 15 μm × 15 μm pixels with a plate scale of 0.″263 pixel-1. A hexapod system provides state-of-the-art focus and alignment capability. The camera is read out in 20 s with 6-9 electron readout noise. This paper provides a technical description of the camera's engineering, construction, installation, and current status.

  20. CAOS-CMOS camera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riza, Nabeel A; La Torre, Juan Pablo; Amin, M Junaid

    2016-06-13

    Proposed and experimentally demonstrated is the CAOS-CMOS camera design that combines the coded access optical sensor (CAOS) imager platform with the CMOS multi-pixel optical sensor. The unique CAOS-CMOS camera engages the classic CMOS sensor light staring mode with the time-frequency-space agile pixel CAOS imager mode within one programmable optical unit to realize a high dynamic range imager for extreme light contrast conditions. The experimentally demonstrated CAOS-CMOS camera is built using a digital micromirror device, a silicon point-photo-detector with a variable gain amplifier, and a silicon CMOS sensor with a maximum rated 51.3 dB dynamic range. White light imaging of three different brightness simultaneously viewed targets, that is not possible by the CMOS sensor, is achieved by the CAOS-CMOS camera demonstrating an 82.06 dB dynamic range. Applications for the camera include industrial machine vision, welding, laser analysis, automotive, night vision, surveillance and multispectral military systems.

  1. HIGH SPEED CAMERA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, B.T. Jr.; Davis, W.C.

    1957-12-17

    This patent relates to high speed cameras having resolution times of less than one-tenth microseconds suitable for filming distinct sequences of a very fast event such as an explosion. This camera consists of a rotating mirror with reflecting surfaces on both sides, a narrow mirror acting as a slit in a focal plane shutter, various other mirror and lens systems as well as an innage recording surface. The combination of the rotating mirrors and the slit mirror causes discrete, narrow, separate pictures to fall upon the film plane, thereby forming a moving image increment of the photographed event. Placing a reflecting surface on each side of the rotating mirror cancels the image velocity that one side of the rotating mirror would impart, so as a camera having this short a resolution time is thereby possible.

  2. Artificial human vision camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goudou, J.-F.; Maggio, S.; Fagno, M.

    2014-10-01

    In this paper we present a real-time vision system modeling the human vision system. Our purpose is to inspire from human vision bio-mechanics to improve robotic capabilities for tasks such as objects detection and tracking. This work describes first the bio-mechanical discrepancies between human vision and classic cameras and the retinal processing stage that takes place in the eye, before the optic nerve. The second part describes our implementation of these principles on a 3-camera optical, mechanical and software model of the human eyes and associated bio-inspired attention model.

  3. The Star Formation Camera

    OpenAIRE

    Scowen, Paul A.; Jansen, Rolf; Beasley, Matthew; Calzetti, Daniela; Desch, Steven; Fullerton, Alex; Gallagher, John; Lisman, Doug; Macenka, Steve; Malhotra, Sangeeta; McCaughrean, Mark; Nikzad, Shouleh; O'Connell, Robert; Oey, Sally; Padgett, Deborah

    2009-01-01

    The Star Formation Camera (SFC) is a wide-field (~15'x19, >280 arcmin^2), high-resolution (18x18 mas pixels) UV/optical dichroic camera designed for the Theia 4-m space-borne space telescope concept. SFC will deliver diffraction-limited images at lambda > 300 nm in both a blue (190-517nm) and a red (517-1075nm) channel simultaneously. Our aim is to conduct a comprehensive and systematic study of the astrophysical processes and environments relevant for the births and life cycles of stars and ...

  4. Automatic Camera Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burelli, Paolo; Preuss, Mike

    2014-01-01

    Automatically generating computer animations is a challenging and complex problem with applications in games and film production. In this paper, we investigate howto translate a shot list for a virtual scene into a series of virtual camera configurations — i.e automatically controlling the virtual...... camera. We approach this problem by modelling it as a dynamic multi-objective optimisation problem and show how this metaphor allows a much richer expressiveness than a classical single objective approach. Finally, we showcase the application of a multi-objective evolutionary algorithm to generate a shot...

  5. photomultiplier tubes

    CERN Multimedia

    photomultiplier tubes. A device to convert light into an electric signal (the name is often abbreviated to PM). Photomultipliers are used in all detectors based on scintillating material (i.e. based on large numbers of fibres which produce scintillation light at the passage of a charged particle). A photomultiplier consists of 3 main parts: firstly, a photocathode where photons are converted into electrons by the photoelectric effect; secondly, a multiplier chain consisting of a serie of dynodes which multiply the number of electron; finally, an anode, which collects the resulting current.

  6. photomultiplier tube

    CERN Multimedia

    photomultiplier tubes. A device to convert light into an electric signal (the name is often abbreviated to PM). Photomultipliers are used in all detectors based on scintillating material (i.e. based on large numbers of fibres which produce scintillation light at the passage of a charged particle). A photomultiplier consists of 3 main parts: firstly, a photocathode where photons are converted into electrons by the photoelectric effect; secondly, a multiplier chain consisting of a serie of dynodes which multiply the number of electron; finally, an anode, which collects the resulting current.

  7. Tube furnace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Kenneth G.; Frohwein, Eugene J.; Taylor, Robert W.; Bowen, David W.

    1991-01-01

    A vermiculite insulated tube furnace is heated by a helically-wound resistance wire positioned within a helical groove on the surface of a ceramic cylinder, that in turn is surroundingly disposed about a doubly slotted stainless steel cylindrical liner. For uniform heating, the pitch of the helix is of shorter length over the two end portions of the ceramic cylinder. The furnace is of large volume, provides uniform temperature, offers an extremely precise programmed heating capability, features very rapid cool-down, and has a modest electrical power requirement.

  8. The method of radiographic testing of tube-to-tube-plate welds for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Non-destructive testing of tube-to-tube-plate welds is a complicated procedure because of small dimensions and inconvenient for control shape of the weld. Especially difficult is testing the joints without nozzle or circular groove in tube plate. The method of examination of these welds, based on the application of the isotopic source and of the compensator of the thickness of absorber is described. The specially developed cameras and equipment are also described. The attained sensitivity of testing enabled meeting the requirements obligatory for nuclear power installations. (author)

  9. Underwater camera with depth measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei-Chih; Lin, Keng-Ren; Tsui, Chi L.; Schipf, David; Leang, Jonathan

    2016-04-01

    The objective of this study is to develop an RGB-D (video + depth) camera that provides three-dimensional image data for use in the haptic feedback of a robotic underwater ordnance recovery system. Two camera systems were developed and studied. The first depth camera relies on structured light (as used by the Microsoft Kinect), where the displacement of an object is determined by variations of the geometry of a projected pattern. The other camera system is based on a Time of Flight (ToF) depth camera. The results of the structural light camera system shows that the camera system requires a stronger light source with a similar operating wavelength and bandwidth to achieve a desirable working distance in water. This approach might not be robust enough for our proposed underwater RGB-D camera system, as it will require a complete re-design of the light source component. The ToF camera system instead, allows an arbitrary placement of light source and camera. The intensity output of the broadband LED light source in the ToF camera system can be increased by putting them into an array configuration and the LEDs can be modulated comfortably with any waveform and frequencies required by the ToF camera. In this paper, both camera were evaluated and experiments were conducted to demonstrate the versatility of the ToF camera.

  10. Communities, Cameras, and Conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, Barbara

    2012-01-01

    Communities, Cameras, and Conservation (CCC) is the most exciting and valuable program the author has seen in her 30 years of teaching field science courses. In this citizen science project, students and community volunteers collect data on mountain lions ("Puma concolor") at four natural areas and public parks along the Front Range of Colorado.…

  11. Advanced Virgo phase cameras

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Schaaf, L.; Agatsuma, K.; van Beuzekom, M.; Gebyehu, M.; van den Brand, J.

    2016-05-01

    A century after the prediction of gravitational waves, detectors have reached the sensitivity needed to proof their existence. One of them, the Virgo interferometer in Pisa, is presently being upgraded to Advanced Virgo (AdV) and will come into operation in 2016. The power stored in the interferometer arms raises from 20 to 700 kW. This increase is expected to introduce higher order modes in the beam, which could reduce the circulating power in the interferometer, limiting the sensitivity of the instrument. To suppress these higher-order modes, the core optics of Advanced Virgo is equipped with a thermal compensation system. Phase cameras, monitoring the real-time status of the beam constitute a critical component of this compensation system. These cameras measure the phases and amplitudes of the laser-light fields at the frequencies selected to control the interferometer. The measurement combines heterodyne detection with a scan of the wave front over a photodetector with pin-hole aperture. Three cameras observe the phase front of these laser sidebands. Two of them monitor the in-and output of the interferometer arms and the third one is used in the control of the aberrations introduced by the power recycling cavity. In this paper the working principle of the phase cameras is explained and some characteristic parameters are described.

  12. The world's fastest camera

    CERN Multimedia

    Piquepaille, Roland

    2006-01-01

    This image processor is not your typical digital camera. It took 6 years to 20 people and $6 million to build the "Regional Calorimeter Trigger"(RCT) which will be a component of the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) experiment, one of the detectors on the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) in Geneva, Switzerland (1 page)

  13. Make a Pinhole Camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Diane K.; Novati, Alexander

    2009-01-01

    On Earth, using ordinary visible light, one can create a single image of light recorded over time. Of course a movie or video is light recorded over time, but it is a series of instantaneous snapshots, rather than light and time both recorded on the same medium. A pinhole camera, which is simple to make out of ordinary materials and using ordinary…

  14. Image Sensors Enhance Camera Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    In the 1990s, a Jet Propulsion Laboratory team led by Eric Fossum researched ways of improving complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS) image sensors in order to miniaturize cameras on spacecraft while maintaining scientific image quality. Fossum s team founded a company to commercialize the resulting CMOS active pixel sensor. Now called the Aptina Imaging Corporation, based in San Jose, California, the company has shipped over 1 billion sensors for use in applications such as digital cameras, camera phones, Web cameras, and automotive cameras. Today, one of every three cell phone cameras on the planet feature Aptina s sensor technology.

  15. MISR radiometric camera-by-camera Cloud Mask V004

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This file contains the Radiometric camera-by-camera Cloud Mask dataset. It is used to determine whether a scene is classified as clear or cloudy. A new parameter...

  16. A tube-in-tube thermophotovoltaic generator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ashcroft, J.; Campbell, B.; Depoy, D.

    1996-12-31

    A thermophotovoltaic device includes at least one thermal radiator tube, a cooling tube concentrically disposed within each thermal radiator tube and an array of thermophotovoltaic cells disposed on the exterior surface of the cooling tube. A shell having a first end and a second end surrounds the thermal radiator tube. Inner and outer tubesheets, each having an aperture corresponding to each cooling tube, are located at each end of the shell. The thermal radiator tube extends within the shell between the inner tubesheets. The cooling tube extends within the shell through the corresponding apertures of the two inner tubesheets to the corresponding apertures of the two outer tubesheets. A plurality of the thermal radiator tubes can be arranged in a staggered or an in-line configuration within the shell.

  17. Dual cameras acquisition and display system of retina-like sensor camera and rectangular sensor camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Nan; Cao, Fengmei; Lin, Yabin; Bai, Tingzhu; Song, Shengyu

    2015-04-01

    For a new kind of retina-like senor camera and a traditional rectangular sensor camera, dual cameras acquisition and display system need to be built. We introduce the principle and the development of retina-like senor. Image coordinates transformation and interpolation based on sub-pixel interpolation need to be realized for our retina-like sensor's special pixels distribution. The hardware platform is composed of retina-like senor camera, rectangular sensor camera, image grabber and PC. Combined the MIL and OpenCV library, the software program is composed in VC++ on VS 2010. Experience results show that the system can realizes two cameras' acquisition and display.

  18. SPECT detectors: the Anger Camera and beyond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Todd E; Furenlid, Lars R

    2011-09-01

    The development of radiation detectors capable of delivering spatial information about gamma-ray interactions was one of the key enabling technologies for nuclear medicine imaging and, eventually, single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). The continuous sodium iodide scintillator crystal coupled to an array of photomultiplier tubes, almost universally referred to as the Anger Camera after its inventor, has long been the dominant SPECT detector system. Nevertheless, many alternative materials and configurations have been investigated over the years. Technological advances as well as the emerging importance of specialized applications, such as cardiac and preclinical imaging, have spurred innovation such that alternatives to the Anger Camera are now part of commercial imaging systems. Increased computing power has made it practical to apply advanced signal processing and estimation schemes to make better use of the information contained in the detector signals. In this review we discuss the key performance properties of SPECT detectors and survey developments in both scintillator and semiconductor detectors and their readouts with an eye toward some of the practical issues at least in part responsible for the continuing prevalence of the Anger Camera in the clinic. PMID:21828904

  19. SPECT detectors: the Anger Camera and beyond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Todd E.; Furenlid, Lars R.

    2011-09-01

    The development of radiation detectors capable of delivering spatial information about gamma-ray interactions was one of the key enabling technologies for nuclear medicine imaging and, eventually, single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). The continuous sodium iodide scintillator crystal coupled to an array of photomultiplier tubes, almost universally referred to as the Anger Camera after its inventor, has long been the dominant SPECT detector system. Nevertheless, many alternative materials and configurations have been investigated over the years. Technological advances as well as the emerging importance of specialized applications, such as cardiac and preclinical imaging, have spurred innovation such that alternatives to the Anger Camera are now part of commercial imaging systems. Increased computing power has made it practical to apply advanced signal processing and estimation schemes to make better use of the information contained in the detector signals. In this review we discuss the key performance properties of SPECT detectors and survey developments in both scintillator and semiconductor detectors and their readouts with an eye toward some of the practical issues at least in part responsible for the continuing prevalence of the Anger Camera in the clinic.

  20. Combustion pinhole camera system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witte, Arvel B.

    1984-02-21

    A pinhole camera system utilizing a sealed optical-purge assembly which provides optical access into a coal combustor or other energy conversion reactors. The camera system basically consists of a focused-purge pinhole optical port assembly, a conventional TV vidicon receiver, an external, variable density light filter which is coupled electronically to the vidicon automatic gain control (agc). The key component of this system is the focused-purge pinhole optical port assembly which utilizes a purging inert gas to keep debris from entering the port and a lens arrangement which transfers the pinhole to the outside of the port assembly. One additional feature of the port assembly is that it is not flush with the interior of the combustor.

  1. Ultra Fast X-ray Streak Camera for TIM Based Platforms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marley, E; Shepherd, R; Fulkerson, E S; James, L; Emig, J; Norman, D

    2012-05-02

    Ultra fast x-ray streak cameras are a staple for time resolved x-ray measurements. There is a need for a ten inch manipulator (TIM) based streak camera that can be fielded in a newer large scale laser facility. The LLNL ultra fast streak camera's drive electronics have been upgraded and redesigned to fit inside a TIM tube. The camera also has a new user interface that allows for remote control and data acquisition. The system has been outfitted with a new sensor package that gives the user more operational awareness and control.

  2. Camera Surveillance Quadrotor

    OpenAIRE

    Hjelm, Emil; Yousif, Robert

    2015-01-01

    A quadrotor is a helicopter with four rotors placed at equal distance from the crafts centre of gravity, controlled by letting the different rotors generate different amount of thrust. It uses various sensors to stay stable in the air, correct readings from these sensors are therefore critical. By reducing vibrations, electromagnetic interference and external disturbances the quadrotor’s stability can increase. The purpose of this project is to analyse the feasibility of a quadrotor camera su...

  3. Iterative reconstruction of detector response of an Anger gamma camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morozov, A.; Solovov, V.; Alves, F.; Domingos, V.; Martins, R.; Neves, F.; Chepel, V.

    2015-05-01

    Statistical event reconstruction techniques can give better results for gamma cameras than the traditional centroid method. However, implementation of such techniques requires detailed knowledge of the photomultiplier tube light-response functions. Here we describe an iterative method which allows one to obtain the response functions from flood irradiation data without imposing strict requirements on the spatial uniformity of the event distribution. A successful application of the method for medical gamma cameras is demonstrated using both simulated and experimental data. An implementation of the iterative reconstruction technique capable of operating in real time is presented. We show that this technique can also be used for monitoring photomultiplier gain variations.

  4. The Star Formation Camera

    CERN Document Server

    Scowen, Paul A; Beasley, Matthew; Calzetti, Daniela; Desch, Steven; Fullerton, Alex; Gallagher, John; Lisman, Doug; Macenka, Steve; Malhotra, Sangeeta; McCaughrean, Mark; Nikzad, Shouleh; O'Connell, Robert; Oey, Sally; Padgett, Deborah; Rhoads, James; Roberge, Aki; Siegmund, Oswald; Shaklan, Stuart; Smith, Nathan; Stern, Daniel; Tumlinson, Jason; Windhorst, Rogier; Woodruff, Robert

    2009-01-01

    The Star Formation Camera (SFC) is a wide-field (~15'x19, >280 arcmin^2), high-resolution (18x18 mas pixels) UV/optical dichroic camera designed for the Theia 4-m space-borne space telescope concept. SFC will deliver diffraction-limited images at lambda > 300 nm in both a blue (190-517nm) and a red (517-1075nm) channel simultaneously. Our aim is to conduct a comprehensive and systematic study of the astrophysical processes and environments relevant for the births and life cycles of stars and their planetary systems, and to investigate and understand the range of environments, feedback mechanisms, and other factors that most affect the outcome of the star and planet formation process. This program addresses the origins and evolution of stars, galaxies, and cosmic structure and has direct relevance for the formation and survival of planetary systems like our Solar System and planets like Earth. We present the design and performance specifications resulting from the implementation study of the camera, conducted ...

  5. Hemispherical Laue camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, James C. M.; Chu, Sungnee G.

    1980-01-01

    A hemispherical Laue camera comprises a crystal sample mount for positioning a sample to be analyzed at the center of sphere of a hemispherical, X-radiation sensitive film cassette, a collimator, a stationary or rotating sample mount and a set of standard spherical projection spheres. X-radiation generated from an external source is directed through the collimator to impinge onto the single crystal sample on the stationary mount. The diffracted beam is recorded on the hemispherical X-radiation sensitive film mounted inside the hemispherical film cassette in either transmission or back-reflection geometry. The distances travelled by X-radiation diffracted from the crystal to the hemispherical film are the same for all crystal planes which satisfy Bragg's Law. The recorded diffraction spots or Laue spots on the film thereby preserve both the symmetry information of the crystal structure and the relative intensities which are directly related to the relative structure factors of the crystal orientations. The diffraction pattern on the exposed film is compared with the known diffraction pattern on one of the standard spherical projection spheres for a specific crystal structure to determine the orientation of the crystal sample. By replacing the stationary sample support with a rotating sample mount, the hemispherical Laue camera can be used for crystal structure determination in a manner previously provided in conventional Debye-Scherrer cameras.

  6. Gamma ray camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez-Mendez, Victor

    1997-01-01

    A gamma ray camera for detecting rays emanating from a radiation source such as an isotope. The gamma ray camera includes a sensor array formed of a visible light crystal for converting incident gamma rays to a plurality of corresponding visible light photons, and a photosensor array responsive to the visible light photons in order to form an electronic image of the radiation therefrom. The photosensor array is adapted to record an integrated amount of charge proportional to the incident gamma rays closest to it, and includes a transparent metallic layer, photodiode consisting of a p-i-n structure formed on one side of the transparent metallic layer, and comprising an upper p-type layer, an intermediate layer and a lower n-type layer. In the preferred mode, the scintillator crystal is composed essentially of a cesium iodide (CsI) crystal preferably doped with a predetermined amount impurity, and the p-type upper intermediate layers and said n-type layer are essentially composed of hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H). The gamma ray camera further includes a collimator interposed between the radiation source and the sensor array, and a readout circuit formed on one side of the photosensor array.

  7. Development and application of a small gamma camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Kenneth Lee, II

    This work investigates the design, construction, and application of a portable gamma camera based on a single position-sensitive photomultiplier tube (PSPMT) rather than an array of conventional photomultiplier tubes as used in the majority of gamma cameras. The PSPMT is an innovation in phototube design which allows two-dimensional (2-D) position information to be obtained from a single phototube. PSPMT-based portable gamma cameras can have several distinct advantages over portable systems using conventional technology: lower weight, reduced electronics, and smaller size. These advantages imply that PSPMT imagers can be more portable and possibly less expensive than their conventional counterparts. Additionally, this design can be incorporated as modules in conjugate imaging, orthogonal view, or ring detector systems, or even in conventional large-area planar imagers. The PSPMT design is applicable for diagnostic clinical procedures and for basic biomedical research. Clinically, this system could be used for intraoperative imaging; bedside imaging of non-transportable patients, e.g., in an intensive care unit, nursing home, or burn unit; and imaging in outpatient settings. In research settings such as radiopharmaceutical development laboratories, the PSPMT camera is suitable for imaging of small animals. The University of Chicago Small Gamma Camera (SGC) is a PSPMT-based gamma camera. Two SGC systems have been designed and constructed. Computer simulations and physical measurements have been applied to the performance characterization of the SGC. A maximum-likelihood position estimation scheme has been implemented in the system in place of the Anger position estimation scheme used in the majority of conventional gamma cameras. The SGC has been evaluated for several nuclear medicine imaging applications as well as laboratory research imaging. The clinical applications include planar and tomographic imaging. Radiotracer imaging with the SGC has been applied to the

  8. Titanium condenser tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The corrosion resistance of titanium in sea water is extremely excellent, but titanium tubes are expensive, and the copper alloy tubes resistant in polluted sea water were developed, therefore they were not used practically. In 1970, ammonia attack was found on the copper alloy tubes in the air-cooled portion of condensers, and titanium tubes have been used as the countermeasure. As the result of the use, the galvanic attack an copper alloy tube plates with titanium tubes as cathode and the hydrogen absorption at titanium tube ends owing to excess electrolytic protection were observed, but the corrosion resistance of titanium tubes was perfect. These problems can be controlled by the application of proper electrolytic protection. The condensers with all titanium tubes adopted recently in USA are intended to realize perfectly no-leak condensers as the countermeasure to the corrosion in steam generators of PWR plants. Regarding large condensers of nowadays, three problems are pointed out, namely the vibration of condenser tubes, the method of joining tubes and tube plates, and the tubes of no coolant leak. These three problems in case of titanium tubes were studied, and the problem of the fouling of tubes was also examined. The intervals of supporting plates for titanium tubes should be narrowed. The joining of titanium tubes and titanium tube plates by welding is feasible and promising. The cleaning with sponge balls is effective to control fouling. (Kako, I.)

  9. An ISPA-camera for gamma rays

    CERN Document Server

    Puertolas, D; Pani, R; Leutz, H; Gys, Thierry; De Notaristefani, F; D'Ambrosio, C

    1995-01-01

    With the recently developed ISPA (Imaging Silicon Pixel Array)-tube attached either to a planar YAlO3(Ce) (YAP) disc (1mm thick) or to a matrix of optically-separated YAP-crystals (5mm high, 0.6 x 0.6 mm2 cross-section) we achieved high spatial resolution of 57Co-122 keV photons. The vacuum-sealed ISPA-tube is only 4 cm long with 3.5 cm diameter and consists of a photocathode viewed at 3 cm distance by a silicon pixel chip, directly detecting the photoelectrons. The chip-anode consists of 1024 rectangular pixels with 75 µm x 500 µm edges, each bump-bonded to their individual front-end electronics. The total pixel array read-out time is 10 µs. The measured intrinsic spatial resolutions (FWHM) of this ISPA-camera are 700 µm (planar YAP) and 310 µm (YAP-matrix). Apart from its already demonstrated application for particle tracking with scintillating fibres, the ISPA-tube provides also an excellent tool in medicine, biology and chemistry.

  10. Adaptive compressive sensing camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Charles; Hsu, Ming K.; Cha, Jae; Iwamura, Tomo; Landa, Joseph; Nguyen, Charles; Szu, Harold

    2013-05-01

    We have embedded Adaptive Compressive Sensing (ACS) algorithm on Charge-Coupled-Device (CCD) camera based on the simplest concept that each pixel is a charge bucket, and the charges comes from Einstein photoelectric conversion effect. Applying the manufactory design principle, we only allow altering each working component at a minimum one step. We then simulated what would be such a camera can do for real world persistent surveillance taking into account of diurnal, all weather, and seasonal variations. The data storage has saved immensely, and the order of magnitude of saving is inversely proportional to target angular speed. We did design two new components of CCD camera. Due to the matured CMOS (Complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor) technology, the on-chip Sample and Hold (SAH) circuitry can be designed for a dual Photon Detector (PD) analog circuitry for changedetection that predicts skipping or going forward at a sufficient sampling frame rate. For an admitted frame, there is a purely random sparse matrix [Φ] which is implemented at each bucket pixel level the charge transport bias voltage toward its neighborhood buckets or not, and if not, it goes to the ground drainage. Since the snapshot image is not a video, we could not apply the usual MPEG video compression and Hoffman entropy codec as well as powerful WaveNet Wrapper on sensor level. We shall compare (i) Pre-Processing FFT and a threshold of significant Fourier mode components and inverse FFT to check PSNR; (ii) Post-Processing image recovery will be selectively done by CDT&D adaptive version of linear programming at L1 minimization and L2 similarity. For (ii) we need to determine in new frames selection by SAH circuitry (i) the degree of information (d.o.i) K(t) dictates the purely random linear sparse combination of measurement data a la [Φ]M,N M(t) = K(t) Log N(t).

  11. PAU camera: detectors characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casas, Ricard; Ballester, Otger; Cardiel-Sas, Laia; Castilla, Javier; Jiménez, Jorge; Maiorino, Marino; Pío, Cristóbal; Sevilla, Ignacio; de Vicente, Juan

    2012-07-01

    The PAU Camera (PAUCam) [1,2] is a wide field camera that will be mounted at the corrected prime focus of the William Herschel Telescope (Observatorio del Roque de los Muchachos, Canary Islands, Spain) in the next months. The focal plane of PAUCam is composed by a mosaic of 18 CCD detectors of 2,048 x 4,176 pixels each one with a pixel size of 15 microns, manufactured by Hamamatsu Photonics K. K. This mosaic covers a field of view (FoV) of 60 arcmin (minutes of arc), 40 of them are unvignetted. The behaviour of these 18 devices, plus four spares, and their electronic response should be characterized and optimized for the use in PAUCam. This job is being carried out in the laboratories of the ICE/IFAE and the CIEMAT. The electronic optimization of the CCD detectors is being carried out by means of an OG (Output Gate) scan and maximizing it CTE (Charge Transfer Efficiency) while the read-out noise is minimized. The device characterization itself is obtained with different tests. The photon transfer curve (PTC) that allows to obtain the electronic gain, the linearity vs. light stimulus, the full-well capacity and the cosmetic defects. The read-out noise, the dark current, the stability vs. temperature and the light remanence.

  12. Transmission electron microscope CCD camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downing, Kenneth H.

    1999-01-01

    In order to improve the performance of a CCD camera on a high voltage electron microscope, an electron decelerator is inserted between the microscope column and the CCD. This arrangement optimizes the interaction of the electron beam with the scintillator of the CCD camera while retaining optimization of the microscope optics and of the interaction of the beam with the specimen. Changing the electron beam energy between the specimen and camera allows both to be optimized.

  13. Novel gamma cameras

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The gamma-ray cameras described are based on radiation imaging devices which permit the direct recording of the distribution of radioactive material from a radiative source, such as a human organ. They consist in principle of a collimator, a converter matrix converting gamma photons to electrons, and an electron image multiplier producing a multiplied electron output, and means for reading out the information. The electron image multiplier is a device which produces a multiplied electron image. It can be in principle, either gas avalanche electron multiplier or a multi-channel plate. The multi-channel plate employed is a novel device, described elsewhere. The three described embodiments, in which the converter matrix can be either of metal type or of scintillation crystal type, were designed and are being developed

  14. The Circular Camera Movement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Lennard Højbjerg

    2014-01-01

    It has been an accepted precept in film theory that specific stylistic features do not express specific content. Nevertheless, it is possible to find many examples in the history of film in which stylistic features do express specific content: for instance, the circular camera movement is used...... repeatedly to convey the feeling of a man and a woman falling in love. This raises the question of why producers and directors choose certain stylistic features to narrate certain categories of content. Through the analysis of several short film and TV clips, this article explores whether...... or not there are perceptual aspects related to specific stylistic features that enable them to be used for delimited narrational purposes. The article further attempts to reopen this particular stylistic debate by exploring the embodied aspects of visual perception in relation to specific stylistic features...

  15. Radiation camera motion correction system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffer, P.B.

    1973-12-18

    The device determines the ratio of the intensity of radiation received by a radiation camera from two separate portions of the object. A correction signal is developed to maintain this ratio at a substantially constant value and this correction signal is combined with the camera signal to correct for object motion. (Official Gazette)

  16. LISS-4 camera for Resourcesat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Sandip; Dave, Himanshu; Dewan, Chirag; Kumar, Pradeep; Sansowa, Satwinder Singh; Dave, Amit; Sharma, B. N.; Verma, Anurag

    2006-12-01

    The Indian Remote Sensing Satellites use indigenously developed high resolution cameras for generating data related to vegetation, landform /geomorphic and geological boundaries. This data from this camera is used for working out maps at 1:12500 scale for national level policy development for town planning, vegetation etc. The LISS-4 Camera was launched onboard Resourcesat-1 satellite by ISRO in 2003. LISS-4 is a high-resolution multi-spectral camera with three spectral bands and having a resolution of 5.8m and swath of 23Km from 817 Km altitude. The panchromatic mode provides a swath of 70Km and 5-day revisit. This paper briefly discusses the configuration of LISS-4 Camera of Resourcesat-1, its onboard performance and also the changes in the Camera being developed for Resourcesat-2. LISS-4 camera images the earth in push-broom mode. It is designed around a three mirror un-obscured telescope, three linear 12-K CCDs and associated electronics for each band. Three spectral bands are realized by splitting the focal plane in along track direction using an isosceles prism. High-speed Camera Electronics is designed for each detector with 12- bit digitization and digital double sampling of video. Seven bit data selected from 10 MSBs data by Telecommand is transmitted. The total dynamic range of the sensor covers up to 100% albedo. The camera structure has heritage of IRS- 1C/D. The optical elements are precisely glued to specially designed flexure mounts. The camera is assembled onto a rotating deck on spacecraft to facilitate +/- 26° steering in Pitch-Yaw plane. The camera is held on spacecraft in a stowed condition before deployment. The excellent imageries from LISS-4 Camera onboard Resourcesat-1 are routinely used worldwide. Such second Camera is being developed for Resourcesat-2 launch in 2007 with similar performance. The Camera electronics is optimized and miniaturized. The size and weight are reduced to one third and the power to half of the values in Resourcesat

  17. Effect of scatter media on small gamma camera imaging characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Effect of scatter media materials and thickness, located between radioactivity and small gamma camera, on imaging characteristics was evaluated. The small gamma camera developed for breast imaging was consisted of collimator, NaI(TI) crystal (60x60x6 mm3). PSPMT (position sensitive photomultiplier tube), NIMs and personal computer. Monte Carlo simulation was performed to evaluate the system sensitivity with different scatter media thickness (0∼8 cm) and materials (air and acrylie) with parallel hole collimator and diverging collimator. The sensitivity and spatial resolution was measured using the small gamma camera with the same condition applied to the simulation. Counts was decreased by 10% (air) and 54% (acrylic) with the parallel hole collimator and by 35% (air) and 63% (acrylic) with the diverging collimator. Spatial resolution was decreased as increasing the thickness of scatter media. This study substantiate the importance of a gamma camera positioning and the minimization of the distance between detector and target lesion in the clinical application of a gamma camera

  18. Tracheostomy tube - speaking

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000465.htm Tracheostomy tube - speaking To use the sharing features on ... are even speaking devices that can help you. Tracheostomy Tubes and Speaking Air passing through vocal cords ( ...

  19. Neural Tube Defects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neural tube defects are birth defects of the brain, spine, or spinal cord. They happen in the ... that she is pregnant. The two most common neural tube defects are spina bifida and anencephaly. In ...

  20. Camera sensitivity study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlueter, Jonathan; Murphey, Yi L.; Miller, John W. V.; Shridhar, Malayappan; Luo, Yun; Khairallah, Farid

    2004-12-01

    As the cost/performance Ratio of vision systems improves with time, new classes of applications become feasible. One such area, automotive applications, is currently being investigated. Applications include occupant detection, collision avoidance and lane tracking. Interest in occupant detection has been spurred by federal automotive safety rules in response to injuries and fatalities caused by deployment of occupant-side air bags. In principle, a vision system could control airbag deployment to prevent this type of mishap. Employing vision technology here, however, presents a variety of challenges, which include controlling costs, inability to control illumination, developing and training a reliable classification system and loss of performance due to production variations due to manufacturing tolerances and customer options. This paper describes the measures that have been developed to evaluate the sensitivity of an occupant detection system to these types of variations. Two procedures are described for evaluating how sensitive the classifier is to camera variations. The first procedure is based on classification accuracy while the second evaluates feature differences.

  1. Gamma camera system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The invention provides a composite solid state detector for use in deriving a display, by spatial coordinate information, of the distribution or radiation emanating from a source within a region of interest, comprising several solid state detector components, each having a given surface arranged for exposure to impinging radiation and exhibiting discrete interactions therewith at given spatially definable locations. The surface of each component and the surface disposed opposite and substantially parallel thereto are associated with impedence means configured to provide for each opposed surface outputs for signals relating the given location of the interactions with one spatial coordinate parameter of one select directional sense. The detector components are arranged to provide groupings of adjacently disposed surfaces mutually linearly oriented to exhibit a common directional sense of the spatial coordinate parameter. Means interconnect at least two of the outputs associated with each of the surfaces within a given grouping for collecting the signals deriving therefrom. The invention also provides a camera system for imaging the distribution of a source of gamma radiation situated within a region of interest

  2. Proportional counter radiation camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borkowski, C.J.; Kopp, M.K.

    1974-01-15

    A gas-filled proportional counter camera that images photon emitting sources is described. A two-dimensional, positionsensitive proportional multiwire counter is provided as the detector. The counter consists of a high- voltage anode screen sandwiched between orthogonally disposed planar arrays of multiple parallel strung, resistively coupled cathode wires. Two terminals from each of the cathode arrays are connected to separate timing circuitry to obtain separate X and Y coordinate signal values from pulse shape measurements to define the position of an event within the counter arrays which may be recorded by various means for data display. The counter is further provided with a linear drift field which effectively enlarges the active gas volume of the counter and constrains the recoil electrons produced from ionizing radiation entering the counter to drift perpendicularly toward the planar detection arrays. A collimator is interposed between a subject to be imaged and the counter to transmit only the radiation from the subject which has a perpendicular trajectory with respect to the planar cathode arrays of the detector. (Official Gazette)

  3. Evaluation of the Effect of Tube Pitch and Surface Alterations on Temperature Field at Sprinkled Tube Bundle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kracík Petr

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Water flowing on a sprinkled tube bundle forms three basic modes: It is the Droplet mode (liquid drips from one tube to another, the Jet mode (with an increasing flow rate droplets merge into a column and the Membrane (Sheet mode (with further increasing of falling film liquid flow rate columns merge and create sheets between the tubes. With sufficient flow rate sheets merge at this state and the tube bundle is completely covered by a thin liquid film. There are several factors influencing the individual mode types as well as heat transfer. Beside the above mentioned falling film liquid flow rate they are for instance tube diameters, tube pitches in a tube bundle or a physical condition of a falling film liquid. This paper presents a summary of data measured at atmospheric pressure at a tube bundle consisting of copper tubes of 12 milimeters diameter and of the studied tube length one meter. The tubes are positioned horizontally one above another with the tested pitches of 15, 20, 25 and 30 mm and there is a distribution tube placed above them with water flowing out. The thermal gradient of 15–40 has been tested with all pitches where the falling film liquid’s temperature at the inlet of the distribution tube was 15 °C. The liquid was heated during the flow through the exchanger and the temperature of the sprinkled (heater liquid at the inlet of the exchanger with a constant flow rate about 7.2 litres per minute was 40 °C. The tested flow of the falling film liquid ranged from 1.0 to 13.0 litres per minute. Sequences of 180 exposures have been recorded in partial flow rate stages by thermographic camera with record frequency of 30 Hz which were consequently assessed using the Matlab programme. This paper presents results achieved at the above mentioned pitches and at three types of tube bundle surfaces.

  4. Citizen Camera-Witnessing: A Case Study of the Umbrella Movement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wai Han Lo

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Citizen camera-witness is a new concept by which to describe using mobile camera phone to engage in civic expression. I argue that the meaning of this concept should not be limited to painful testimony; instead, it is a mode of civic camera-mediated mass self-testimony to brutality. The use of mobile phone recordings in Hong Kong’s Umbrella Movement is examined to understand how mobile cameras are employed as personal witnessing devices to provide recordings to indict unjust events and engage others in the civic movement. This study has examined the Facebook posts and You Tube videos of the Umbrella Movement between September 22, 2014 and December 22, 2014. The results suggest that the camera phone not only contributes to witnessing the brutal repression of the state, but also witnesses the beauty of the movement, and provides a testimony that allows for rituals to develop and semi-codes to be transformed.

  5. FlashCam: a fully-digital camera for the medium-sized telescopes of the Cherenkov Telescope Array

    OpenAIRE

    Pühlhofer, G.; Bauer, C.; Bernhard, S.; Capasso, M.; Diebold, S; Eisenkolb, F.; Florin, D.; Föhr, C.; S Funk; Gadola, A.; Garrecht, F.; Hermann, G.; Jung, I.; Kalekin, O.(Erlangen Centre for Astroparticle Physics, Friedrich-Alexander-Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg, Erlangen, Germany); Kalkuhl, C.

    2015-01-01

    The FlashCam group is currently preparing photomultiplier-tube based cameras proposed for the medium-sized telescopes (MST) of the Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA). The cameras are designed around the FlashCam readout concept which is the first fully-digital readout system for Cherenkov cameras, based on commercial FADCs and FPGAs as key components for the front-end electronics modules and a high performance camera server as back-end. This contribution describes the progress of the full-scale ...

  6. Vision Sensors and Cameras

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoefflinger, Bernd

    Silicon charge-coupled-device (CCD) imagers have been and are a specialty market ruled by a few companies for decades. Based on CMOS technologies, active-pixel sensors (APS) began to appear in 1990 at the 1 μm technology node. These pixels allow random access, global shutters, and they are compatible with focal-plane imaging systems combining sensing and first-level image processing. The progress towards smaller features and towards ultra-low leakage currents has provided reduced dark currents and μm-size pixels. All chips offer Mega-pixel resolution, and many have very high sensitivities equivalent to ASA 12.800. As a result, HDTV video cameras will become a commodity. Because charge-integration sensors suffer from a limited dynamic range, significant processing effort is spent on multiple exposure and piece-wise analog-digital conversion to reach ranges >10,000:1. The fundamental alternative is log-converting pixels with an eye-like response. This offers a range of almost a million to 1, constant contrast sensitivity and constant colors, important features in professional, technical and medical applications. 3D retino-morphic stacking of sensing and processing on top of each other is being revisited with sub-100 nm CMOS circuits and with TSV technology. With sensor outputs directly on top of neurons, neural focal-plane processing will regain momentum, and new levels of intelligent vision will be achieved. The industry push towards thinned wafers and TSV enables backside-illuminated and other pixels with a 100% fill-factor. 3D vision, which relies on stereo or on time-of-flight, high-speed circuitry, will also benefit from scaled-down CMOS technologies both because of their size as well as their higher speed.

  7. 21 CFR 868.5800 - Tracheostomy tube and tube cuff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Tracheostomy tube and tube cuff. 868.5800 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5800 Tracheostomy tube and tube cuff. (a) Identification. A tracheostomy tube and tube cuff is a device intended to be placed into...

  8. An Inexpensive Digital Infrared Camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Allan

    2012-01-01

    Details are given for the conversion of an inexpensive webcam to a camera specifically sensitive to the near infrared (700-1000 nm). Some experiments and practical applications are suggested and illustrated. (Contains 9 figures.)

  9. NEI You Tube Videos: Amblyopia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... YouTube Videos > NEI YouTube Videos: Amblyopia NEI YouTube Videos YouTube Videos Home Age-Related Macular Degeneration Amblyopia ... of Prematurity Science Spanish Videos Webinars NEI YouTube Videos: Amblyopia NEI on Twitter NEI on YouTube NEI ...

  10. NEI You Tube Videos: Amblyopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... NEI YouTube Videos > NEI YouTube Videos: Amblyopia NEI YouTube Videos YouTube Videos Home Age-Related Macular Degeneration ... Retinopathy of Prematurity Science Spanish Videos Webinars NEI YouTube Videos: Amblyopia NEI on Twitter NEI on YouTube ...

  11. NEI You Tube Videos: Amblyopia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... NEI YouTube Videos > NEI YouTube Videos: Amblyopia NEI YouTube Videos YouTube Videos Home Age-Related Macular Degeneration ... Retinopathy of Prematurity Science Spanish Videos Webinars NEI YouTube Videos: Amblyopia NEI on Twitter NEI on YouTube ...

  12. The future of consumer cameras

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battiato, Sebastiano; Moltisanti, Marco

    2015-03-01

    In the last two decades multimedia, and in particular imaging devices (camcorders, tablets, mobile phones, etc.) have been dramatically diffused. Moreover the increasing of their computational performances, combined with an higher storage capability, allows them to process large amount of data. In this paper an overview of the current trends of consumer cameras market and technology will be given, providing also some details about the recent past (from Digital Still Camera up today) and forthcoming key issues.

  13. A new design of filter system in streak camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Pengyu; Bai, Yonglin

    2015-10-01

    In order to reduce the frequency of researchers routing in and out of the testing site and ensure the fluency of the testing we design a new filter system applied to the streak cameras. This system promotes streak cameras' abilities on spatial discrimination and time resolution. This paper focuses on the instruction of the piezoelectric motor's principle based on field-effect tubes. Filter wheel is driven by piezoelectric motor. It can effectively avoid the influences of high field produced by streak tube. Finally we achieve auto regulation at different gears and promote the efficiency of operations and guarantee the safety of researchers. CD4046 introduces the driven clock of this system and we use an inverter to get two synchronous inverted signals. These signals are amplified by field-effect tubes to more than 300V. The amplified ones are integrated at the output terminals to generate sinusoidal signal. The test shows that in this filter system piezoelectric motor operates at its resonance frequency under a control signal of 62.5 KHz. Its working current is 1.9A and driving power is almost 10W. By adjusting the gears, the filter wheel costs less than 2 seconds to calibrate. We accomplish the test in respected results.

  14. Lunar Lava Tube Sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    York, Cheryl Lynn; Walden, Bryce; Billings, Thomas L.; Reeder, P. Douglas

    1992-01-01

    Large (greater than 300 m diameter) lava tube caverns appear to exist on the Moon and could provide substantial safety and cost benefits for lunar bases. Over 40 m of basalt and regolith constitute the lava tube roof and would protect both construction and operations. Constant temperatures of -20 C reduce thermal stress on structures and machines. Base designs need not incorporate heavy shielding, so lightweight materials can be used and construction can be expedited. Identification and characterization of lava tube caverns can be incorporated into current precursor lunar mission plans. Some searches can even be done from Earth. Specific recommendations for lunar lava tube search and exploration are (1) an Earth-based radar interferometer, (2) an Earth-penetrating radar (EPR) orbiter, (3) kinetic penetrators for lunar lava tube confirmation, (4) a 'Moon Bat' hovering rocket vehicle, and (5) the use of other proposed landers and orbiters to help find lunar lava tubes.

  15. G-APDs in Cherenkov astronomy: The FACT camera

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kraehenbuehl, T., E-mail: thomas.kraehenbuehl@phys.ethz.ch [ETH Zurich, Institute for Particle Physics, CH-8093 Zurich (Switzerland); Anderhub, H. [ETH Zurich, Institute for Particle Physics, CH-8093 Zurich (Switzerland); Backes, M. [Technische Universitaet Dortmund, D-44221 Dortmund (Germany); Biland, A.; Boller, A.; Braun, I. [ETH Zurich, Institute for Particle Physics, CH-8093 Zurich (Switzerland); Bretz, T. [Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne, CH-1015 Lausanne (Switzerland); Commichau, V.; Djambazov, L. [ETH Zurich, Institute for Particle Physics, CH-8093 Zurich (Switzerland); Dorner, D.; Farnier, C. [ISDC Data Center for Astrophysics, CH-1290 Versoix (Switzerland); Gendotti, A.; Grimm, O.; Gunten, H. von; Hildebrand, D.; Horisberger, U.; Huber, B.; Kim, K.-S. [ETH Zurich, Institute for Particle Physics, CH-8093 Zurich (Switzerland); Koehne, J.-H.; Krumm, B. [Technische Universitaet Dortmund, D-44221 Dortmund (Germany); and others

    2012-12-11

    Geiger-mode avalanche photodiodes (G-APD, SiPM) are a much discussed alternative to photomultiplier tubes in Cherenkov astronomy. The First G-APD Cherenkov Telescope (FACT) collaboration builds a camera based on a hexagonal array of 1440 G-APDs and has now finalized its construction phase. A light-collecting solid PMMA cone is glued to each G-APD to eliminate dead space between the G-APDs by increasing the active area, and to restrict the light collection angle of the sensor to the reflector area in order to reduce the amount of background light. The processing of the signals is integrated in the camera and includes the digitization using the domino ring sampling chip DRS4.

  16. Tubing weld cracking test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A tubing weld cracking (TWC) test was developed for applications involving advanced austenitic alloys (such as modified 800H and 310HCbN). Compared to the Finger hot cracking test, the TWC test shows an enhanced ability to evaluate the crack sensitivity of tubing materials. The TWC test can evaluate the cracking tendency of base as well as filter materials. Thus, it is a useful tool for tubing suppliers, filler metal producers and fabricators

  17. SUB-CAMERA CALIBRATION OF A PENTA-CAMERA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Jacobsen

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Penta cameras consisting of a nadir and four inclined cameras are becoming more and more popular, having the advantage of imaging also facades in built up areas from four directions. Such system cameras require a boresight calibration of the geometric relation of the cameras to each other, but also a calibration of the sub-cameras. Based on data sets of the ISPRS/EuroSDR benchmark for multi platform photogrammetry the inner orientation of the used IGI Penta DigiCAM has been analyzed. The required image coordinates of the blocks Dortmund and Zeche Zollern have been determined by Pix4Dmapper and have been independently adjusted and analyzed by program system BLUH. With 4.1 million image points in 314 images respectively 3.9 million image points in 248 images a dense matching was provided by Pix4Dmapper. With up to 19 respectively 29 images per object point the images are well connected, nevertheless the high number of images per object point are concentrated to the block centres while the inclined images outside the block centre are satisfying but not very strongly connected. This leads to very high values for the Student test (T-test of the finally used additional parameters or in other words, additional parameters are highly significant. The estimated radial symmetric distortion of the nadir sub-camera corresponds to the laboratory calibration of IGI, but there are still radial symmetric distortions also for the inclined cameras with a size exceeding 5μm even if mentioned as negligible based on the laboratory calibration. Radial and tangential effects of the image corners are limited but still available. Remarkable angular affine systematic image errors can be seen especially in the block Zeche Zollern. Such deformations are unusual for digital matrix cameras, but it can be caused by the correlation between inner and exterior orientation if only parallel flight lines are used. With exception of the angular affinity the systematic image errors

  18. Categorising YouTube

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas Mosebo Simonsen

    2011-01-01

    This article provides a genre analytical approach to creating a typology of the User Generated Content (UGC) of YouTube. The article investigates the construction of navigation processes on the YouTube website. It suggests a pragmatic genre approach that is expanded through a focus on YouTube’s technological affordances. Through an analysis of the different pragmatic contexts of YouTube, it is argued that a taxonomic understanding of YouTube must be analysed in regards to the vacillation of a...

  19. Steam generator tube performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A survey of steam generator operating experience for 1986 has been carried out for 184 pressurized water and pressurized heavy-water reactors, and 1 water-cooled, graphite-moderated reactor. Tubes were plugged at 75 of the reactors (40.5%). In 1986, 3737 tubes were plugged (0.14% of those in service) and 3148 tubes were repaired by sleeving. A small number of reactors accounted for the bulk of the plugged tubes, a phenomenon consistent with previous years. For 1986, the available tubesheet sludge data for 38 reactors has been compiled into tabular form, and sludge/deposit data will be incorporated into all future surveys

  20. The Clementine longwave infrared camera

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Priest, R.E.; Lewis, I.T.; Sewall, N.R.; Park, H.S.; Shannon, M.J.; Ledebuhr, A.G.; Pleasance, L.D. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Massie, M.A. [Pacific Advanced Technology, Solvang, CA (United States); Metschuleit, K. [Amber/A Raytheon Co., Goleta, CA (United States)

    1995-04-01

    The Clementine mission provided the first ever complete, systematic surface mapping of the moon from the ultra-violet to the near-infrared regions. More than 1.7 million images of the moon, earth and space were returned from this mission. The longwave-infrared (LWIR) camera supplemented the UV/Visible and near-infrared mapping cameras providing limited strip coverage of the moon, giving insight to the thermal properties of the soils. This camera provided {approximately}100 m spatial resolution at 400 km periselene, and a 7 km across-track swath. This 2.1 kg camera using a 128 x 128 Mercury-Cadmium-Telluride (MCT) FPA viewed thermal emission of the lunar surface and lunar horizon in the 8.0 to 9.5 {micro}m wavelength region. A description of this light-weight, low power LWIR camera along with a summary of lessons learned is presented. Design goals and preliminary on-orbit performance estimates are addressed in terms of meeting the mission`s primary objective for flight qualifying the sensors for future Department of Defense flights.

  1. A camera for a narrow and deep welding groove

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vehmanen, Miika S.; Korhonen, Mika; Mäkynen, Anssi J.

    2008-06-01

    In this paper welding seam imaging in a very narrow and deep groove is presented. Standard camera optics can not be used as it does not reach the bottom of the groove. Therefore, selecting suitable imaging optics and components was the main challenge of the study. The implementation is based on image transmission via a borescope. The borescope has a long and narrow tube with graded index relay optics inside. To avoid excessive heating, the borescope tube is enclosed in a cooling pipe. The performance of the imaging system was tested by measuring its modulation transfer function (MTF) and visually evaluated its distortion. The results show that a borescope providing VGA resolution is adequate for the application. The spectrum of the welding processes was studied to determine optimum window to observe the welding seam and electrode. Optimal bandwidth was found in region of 700nm-1000nm.

  2. Steam generator tube failures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A review and summary of the available information on steam generator tubing failures and the impact of these failures on plant safety is presented. The following topics are covered: pressurized water reactor (PWR), Canadian deuterium uranium (CANDU) reactor, and Russian water moderated, water cooled energy reactor (VVER) steam generator degradation, PWR steam generator tube ruptures, the thermal-hydraulic response of a PWR plant with a faulted steam generator, the risk significance of steam generator tube rupture accidents, tubing inspection requirements and fitness-for-service criteria in various countries, and defect detection reliability and sizing accuracy. A significant number of steam generator tubes are defective and are removed from service or repaired each year. This wide spread damage has been caused by many diverse degradation mechanisms, some of which are difficult to detect and predict. In addition, spontaneous tube ruptures have occurred at the rate of about one every 2 years over the last 20 years, and incipient tube ruptures (tube failures usually identified with leak detection monitors just before rupture) have been occurring at the rate of about one per year. These ruptures have caused complex plant transients which have not always been easy for the reactor operators to control. Our analysis shows that if more than 15 tubes rupture during a main steam line break, the system response could lead to core melting. Although spontaneous and induced steam generator tube ruptures are small contributors to the total core damage frequency calculated in probabilistic risk assessments, they are risk significant because the radionuclides are likely to bypass the reactor containment building. The frequency of steam generator tube ruptures can be significantly reduced through appropriate and timely inspections and repairs or removal from service

  3. Steam generator tube failures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MacDonald, P.E.; Shah, V.N.; Ward, L.W.; Ellison, P.G.

    1996-04-01

    A review and summary of the available information on steam generator tubing failures and the impact of these failures on plant safety is presented. The following topics are covered: pressurized water reactor (PWR), Canadian deuterium uranium (CANDU) reactor, and Russian water moderated, water cooled energy reactor (VVER) steam generator degradation, PWR steam generator tube ruptures, the thermal-hydraulic response of a PWR plant with a faulted steam generator, the risk significance of steam generator tube rupture accidents, tubing inspection requirements and fitness-for-service criteria in various countries, and defect detection reliability and sizing accuracy. A significant number of steam generator tubes are defective and are removed from service or repaired each year. This wide spread damage has been caused by many diverse degradation mechanisms, some of which are difficult to detect and predict. In addition, spontaneous tube ruptures have occurred at the rate of about one every 2 years over the last 20 years, and incipient tube ruptures (tube failures usually identified with leak detection monitors just before rupture) have been occurring at the rate of about one per year. These ruptures have caused complex plant transients which have not always been easy for the reactor operators to control. Our analysis shows that if more than 15 tubes rupture during a main steam line break, the system response could lead to core melting. Although spontaneous and induced steam generator tube ruptures are small contributors to the total core damage frequency calculated in probabilistic risk assessments, they are risk significant because the radionuclides are likely to bypass the reactor containment building. The frequency of steam generator tube ruptures can be significantly reduced through appropriate and timely inspections and repairs or removal from service.

  4. Dark Energy Camera for Blanco

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Binder, Gary A.; /Caltech /SLAC

    2010-08-25

    In order to make accurate measurements of dark energy, a system is needed to monitor the focus and alignment of the Dark Energy Camera (DECam) to be located on the Blanco 4m Telescope for the upcoming Dark Energy Survey. One new approach under development is to fit out-of-focus star images to a point spread function from which information about the focus and tilt of the camera can be obtained. As a first test of a new algorithm using this idea, simulated star images produced from a model of DECam in the optics software Zemax were fitted. Then, real images from the Mosaic II imager currently installed on the Blanco telescope were used to investigate the algorithm's capabilities. A number of problems with the algorithm were found, and more work is needed to understand its limitations and improve its capabilities so it can reliably predict camera alignment and focus.

  5. The GISMO-2 Bolometer Camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staguhn, Johannes G.; Benford, Dominic J.; Fixsen, Dale J.; Hilton, Gene; Irwin, Kent D.; Jhabvala, Christine A.; Kovacs, Attila; Leclercq, Samuel; Maher, Stephen F.; Miller, Timothy M.; Moseley, Samuel H.; Sharp, Elemer H.; Wollack, Edward J.

    2012-01-01

    We present the concept for the GISMO-2 bolometer camera) which we build for background-limited operation at the IRAM 30 m telescope on Pico Veleta, Spain. GISM0-2 will operate Simultaneously in the 1 mm and 2 mm atmospherical windows. The 1 mm channel uses a 32 x 40 TES-based Backshort Under Grid (BUG) bolometer array, the 2 mm channel operates with a 16 x 16 BUG array. The camera utilizes almost the entire full field of view provided by the telescope. The optical design of GISM0-2 was strongly influenced by our experience with the GISMO 2 mm bolometer camera which is successfully operating at the 30m telescope. GISMO is accessible to the astronomical community through the regular IRAM call for proposals.

  6. BLAST Autonomous Daytime Star Cameras

    CERN Document Server

    Rex, M; Devlin, M J; Gundersen, J; Klein, J; Pascale, E; Wiebe, D; Rex, Marie; Chapin, Edward; Devlin, Mark J.; Gundersen, Joshua; Klein, Jeff; Pascale, Enzo; Wiebe, Donald

    2006-01-01

    We have developed two redundant daytime star cameras to provide the fine pointing solution for the balloon-borne submillimeter telescope, BLAST. The cameras are capable of providing a reconstructed pointing solution with an absolute accuracy < 5 arcseconds. They are sensitive to stars down to magnitudes ~ 9 in daytime float conditions. Each camera combines a 1 megapixel CCD with a 200 mm f/2 lens to image a 2 degree x 2.5 degree field of the sky. The instruments are autonomous. An internal computer controls the temperature, adjusts the focus, and determines a real-time pointing solution at 1 Hz. The mechanical details and flight performance of these instruments are presented.

  7. Image Intensifier Modules For Use With Commercially Available Solid State Cameras

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Howard; Tyler, Al; Lake, Donald W.

    1989-04-01

    configured as required by a specific camera application. Modular line and matrix scan cameras incorporating sensors with fiber optic faceplates (Fig 4) are also available. These units retain the advantages of interchangeability, simple construction, ruggedness, and optical precision offered by the more common lens input units. Fiber optic faceplate cameras are used for a wide variety of applications. A common usage involves mating of the Reticon-supplied camera to a customer-supplied intensifier tube for low light level and/or short exposure time situations.

  8. EDICAM (Event Detection Intelligent Camera)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► We present EDICAM's hardware modules. ► We present EDICAM's main design concepts. ► This paper will describe EDICAM firmware architecture. ► Operation principles description. ► Further developments. -- Abstract: A new type of fast framing camera has been developed for fusion applications by the Wigner Research Centre for Physics during the last few years. A new concept was designed for intelligent event driven imaging which is capable of focusing image readout to Regions of Interests (ROIs) where and when predefined events occur. At present these events mean intensity changes and external triggers but in the future more sophisticated methods might also be defined. The camera provides 444 Hz frame rate at full resolution of 1280 × 1024 pixels, but monitoring of smaller ROIs can be done in the 1–116 kHz range even during exposure of the full image. Keeping space limitations and the harsh environment in mind the camera is divided into a small Sensor Module and a processing card interconnected by a fast 10 Gbit optical link. This camera hardware has been used for passive monitoring of the plasma in different devices for example at ASDEX Upgrade and COMPASS with the first version of its firmware. The new firmware and software package is now available and ready for testing the new event processing features. This paper will present the operation principle and features of the Event Detection Intelligent Camera (EDICAM). The device is intended to be the central element in the 10-camera monitoring system of the Wendelstein 7-X stellarator

  9. Hologram recording tubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajchman, J. H.

    1973-01-01

    Optical memories allow extremely large numbers of bits to be stored and recalled in a matter of microseconds. Two recording tubes, similar to conventional image-converting tubes, but having a soft-glass surface on which hologram is recorded, do not degrade under repeated hologram read/write cycles.

  10. Welding Tubes In Place

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meredith, R.

    1984-01-01

    Special welding equipment joins metal tubes that carry pressurized cyrogenic fluids. Equipment small enough to be used in confined spaces in which such tubes often mounted. Welded joints lighter in weight and more leak-proof than joints made with mechanical fittings.

  11. Categorising YouTube

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Thomas Mosebo

    2011-01-01

    This article provides a genre analytical approach to creating a typology of the User Generated Content (UGC) of YouTube. The article investigates the construction of navigation processes on the YouTube website. It suggests a pragmatic genre approach that is expanded through a focus on YouTube’s...... technological affordances. Through an analysis of the different pragmatic contexts of YouTube, it is argued that a taxonomic understanding of YouTube must be analysed in regards to the vacillation of a user-driven bottom-up folksonomy and a hierarchical browsing system that emphasises a culture of competition...... and which favours the already popular content of YouTube. With this taxonomic approach, the UGC videos are registered and analysed in terms of empirically based observations. The article identifies various UGC categories and their principal characteristics. Furthermore, general tendencies of the UGC within...

  12. Cooling the dark energy camera instrument

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmitt, R.L.; Cease, H.; /Fermilab; DePoy, D.; /Ohio State U.; Diehl, H.T.; Estrada, J.; Flaugher, B.; /Fermilab; Kuhlmann, S.; /Ohio State U.; Onal, Birce; Stefanik, A.; /Fermilab

    2008-06-01

    DECam, camera for the Dark Energy Survey (DES), is undergoing general design and component testing. For an overview see DePoy, et al in these proceedings. For a description of the imager, see Cease, et al in these proceedings. The CCD instrument will be mounted at the prime focus of the CTIO Blanco 4m telescope. The instrument temperature will be 173K with a heat load of 113W. In similar applications, cooling CCD instruments at the prime focus has been accomplished by three general methods. Liquid nitrogen reservoirs have been constructed to operate in any orientation, pulse tube cryocoolers have been used when tilt angles are limited and Joule-Thompson or Stirling cryocoolers have been used with smaller heat loads. Gifford-MacMahon cooling has been used at the Cassegrain but not at the prime focus. For DES, the combined requirements of high heat load, temperature stability, low vibration, operation in any orientation, liquid nitrogen cost and limited space available led to the design of a pumped, closed loop, circulating nitrogen system. At zenith the instrument will be twelve meters above the pump/cryocooler station. This cooling system expected to have a 10,000 hour maintenance interval. This paper will describe the engineering basis including the thermal model, unbalanced forces, cooldown time, the single and two-phase flow model.

  13. Camera assisted multimodal user interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannuksela, Jari; Silvén, Olli; Ronkainen, Sami; Alenius, Sakari; Vehviläinen, Markku

    2010-01-01

    Since more processing power, new sensing and display technologies are already available in mobile devices, there has been increased interest in building systems to communicate via different modalities such as speech, gesture, expression, and touch. In context identification based user interfaces, these independent modalities are combined to create new ways how the users interact with hand-helds. While these are unlikely to completely replace traditional interfaces, they will considerably enrich and improve the user experience and task performance. We demonstrate a set of novel user interface concepts that rely on built-in multiple sensors of modern mobile devices for recognizing the context and sequences of actions. In particular, we use the camera to detect whether the user is watching the device, for instance, to make the decision to turn on the display backlight. In our approach the motion sensors are first employed for detecting the handling of the device. Then, based on ambient illumination information provided by a light sensor, the cameras are turned on. The frontal camera is used for face detection, while the back camera provides for supplemental contextual information. The subsequent applications triggered by the context can be, for example, image capturing, or bar code reading.

  14. Pressure tube type reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heretofore, a pressure tube type reactor has a problem in that the evaluation for the reactor core performance is complicate and no sufficient consideration is made for the economical property, to increase the size of a calandria tank and make the cost expensive. Then, in the present invention, the inner diameter of a pressure tube is set to greater than 50% of the lattice gap in a square lattice like arrangement, and the difference between the inner and the outer diameters of the calandria tube is set smaller than 20% of the lattice gap. Further, the inner diameter of the pressure tube is set to greater than 40% and the difference between the inner and the outer diameters of the calandria tube is set smaller than 30% of the lattice gap in a triangle lattice arrangement. Then, heavy water-to-fuel volume ratio can be determined appropriately and the value for the coolant void coefficient is made more negative side, to improve the self controllability inherent to the reactor. In particular, when 72 to 90 fuel rods are arranged per one pressure tube, the power density per one fuel rod is can be increased by about twice. Accordingly, the number of the pressure tubes can be reduced about to one-half, thereby enabling to remarkably decrease the diameter of the reactor core and to reduce the size of the calandria, which is economical. (N.H.)

  15. Isolated Fallopian Tube Torsion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Kardakis

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Isolated torsion of the Fallopian tube is a rare gynecological cause of acute lower abdominal pain, and diagnosis is difficult. There are no pathognomonic symptoms; clinical, imaging, or laboratory findings. A preoperative ultrasound showing tubular adnexal masses of heterogeneous echogenicity with cystic component is often present. Diagnosis can rarely be made before operation, and laparoscopy is necessary to establish the diagnosis. Unfortunately, surgery often is performed too late for tube conservation. Isolated Fallopian tube torsion should be suspected in case of acute pelvic pain, and prompt intervention is necessary.

  16. First Avalanche-photodiode camera test (FACT): A novel camera using G-APDs for the observation of very high-energy {gamma}-rays with Cherenkov telescopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braun, I. [ETH Zurich, CH-8093 Zurich (Switzerland); Commichau, S.C. [ETH Zurich, CH-8093 Zurich (Switzerland)], E-mail: commichau@phys.ethz.ch; Rissi, M. [ETH Zurich, CH-8093 Zurich (Switzerland); Backes, M. [Dortmund University of Technology, D-44221 Dortmund (Germany); Biland, A. [ETH Zurich, CH-8093 Zurich (Switzerland); Bretz, T. [University of Wuerzburg, D-97074 Wuerzburg (Germany); Britvitch, I.; Commichau, V.; Gunten, H. von; Hildebrand, D.; Horisberger, U.; Kranich, D. [ETH Zurich, CH-8093 Zurich (Switzerland); Lorenz, E. [ETH Zurich, CH-8093 Zurich (Switzerland); Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik, D-80805 Muenchen (Germany); Lustermann, W. [ETH Zurich, CH-8093 Zurich (Switzerland); Mannheim, K. [University of Wuerzburg, D-97074 Wuerzburg (Germany); Neise, D. [Dortmund University of Technology, D-44221 Dortmund (Germany); Pauss, F. [ETH Zurich, CH-8093 Zurich (Switzerland); Pohl, M. [University of Geneva, CH-1211 Geneva (Switzerland); Renker, D. [Paul Scherrer Institut (PSI) Villigen, CH-5232 Villigen (Switzerland); Rhode, W. [Dortmund University of Technology, D-44221 Dortmund (Germany)] (and others)

    2009-10-21

    We present a project for a novel camera using Geiger-mode Avalanche Photodiodes (G-APDs), to be installed in a small telescope (former HEGRA CT3) on the MAGIC site in La Palma (Canary Island, Spain). This novel type of semiconductor photon detector provides several superior features compared to conventional photomultiplier tubes (PMTs). The most promising one is a much higher Photon Detection Efficiency.

  17. Kinking of medical tubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingles, David

    2004-05-01

    The phenomenon of kinking in medical tubing remains a problem for some applications, particularly critical ones such as transporting gasses or fluids. Design features are described to prevent its occurrence.

  18. Lytro camera technology: theory, algorithms, performance analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgiev, Todor; Yu, Zhan; Lumsdaine, Andrew; Goma, Sergio

    2013-03-01

    The Lytro camera is the first implementation of a plenoptic camera for the consumer market. We consider it a successful example of the miniaturization aided by the increase in computational power characterizing mobile computational photography. The plenoptic camera approach to radiance capture uses a microlens array as an imaging system focused on the focal plane of the main camera lens. This paper analyzes the performance of Lytro camera from a system level perspective, considering the Lytro camera as a black box, and uses our interpretation of Lytro image data saved by the camera. We present our findings based on our interpretation of Lytro camera file structure, image calibration and image rendering; in this context, artifacts and final image resolution are discussed.

  19. Architectural Design Document for Camera Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thuesen, Gøsta

    1998-01-01

    Architecture of camera simulator models and data interface for the Maneuvering of Inspection/Servicing Vehicle (MIV) study.......Architecture of camera simulator models and data interface for the Maneuvering of Inspection/Servicing Vehicle (MIV) study....

  20. Power vacuum tubes handbook

    CERN Document Server

    Whitaker, Jerry

    2012-01-01

    Providing examples of applications, Power Vacuum Tubes Handbook, Third Edition examines the underlying technology of each type of power vacuum tube device in common use today. The author presents basic principles, reports on new development efforts, and discusses implementation and maintenance considerations. Supporting mathematical equations and extensive technical illustrations and schematic diagrams help readers understand the material. Translate Principles into Specific Applications This one-stop reference is a hands-on guide for engineering personnel involved in the design, specification,

  1. FlashCam: a fully-digital camera for the medium-sized telescopes of the Cherenkov Telescope Array

    CERN Document Server

    Pühlhofer, G; Bernhard, S; Capasso, M; Diebold, S; Eisenkolb, F; Florin, D; Föhr, C; Funk, S; Gadola, A; Garrecht, F; Hermann, G; Jung, I; Kalekin, O; Kalkuhl, C; Kasperek, J; Kihm, T; Lahmann, R; Manalaysay, A; Marszalek, A; Pfeifer, M; Rajda, P J; Reimer, O; Santangelo, A; Schanz, T; Schwab, T; Steiner, S; Straumann, U; Tenzer, C; Vollhardt, A; Weitzel, Q; Werner, F; Wolf, D; Zietara, K

    2015-01-01

    The FlashCam group is currently preparing photomultiplier-tube based cameras proposed for the medium-sized telescopes (MST) of the Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA). The cameras are designed around the FlashCam readout concept which is the first fully-digital readout system for Cherenkov cameras, based on commercial FADCs and FPGAs as key components for the front-end electronics modules and a high performance camera server as back-end. This contribution describes the progress of the full-scale FlashCam camera prototype currently under construction, as well as performance results also obtained with earlier demonstrator setups. Plans towards the production and implementation of FlashCams on site are also briefly presented.

  2. Aeronautical tubes and pipes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beauclair, N.

    1984-12-01

    The main and subcomponent French suppliers of aircraft tubes and pipes are discussed, and the state of the industry is analyzed. Quality control is essential for tubes with regard to their i.d. and metallurgical compositions. French regulations do not allow welded seam tubes in hydraulic circuits unless no other form is available, and then rustproofed steel must be installed. The actual low level of orders for any run of tubes dictates that the product is only one of several among the manufacturers' line. Automation, both in NDT and quality control, assures that the tubes meet specifications. A total of 10 French companies participate in the industry, serving both civil and military needs, with some companies specializing only in titanium, steel, or aluminum materials. Concerns wishing to enter the market must upgrade their equipment to meet the higher aeronautical specifications and be prepared to furnish tubes and pipes that serve both functional and structural purposes simultaneously. Additionally, pipe-bending machines must also perform to tight specifications. Pipes can range from 0.2 mm exterior diameter to 40 mm, with wall thicknesses from 0.02 mm to 3 mm. A chart containing a list of manufacturers and their respective specifications and characteristics is presented, and a downtrend in production with reduction of personnel is noted.

  3. Clearing obstructed feeding tubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcuard, S P; Stegall, K L; Trogdon, S

    1989-01-01

    This is a report of an in vitro study evaluating the ability of six solutions to dissolve clotted enteral feeding, which can cause feeding tube occlusion. The following clotted enteral feeding products were tested: Ensure Plus, Ensure Plus with added protein (Promod 20 g/liter), Osmolite, Enrich, and Pulmocare. Clot dissolution was then tested by adding Adolf's Meat Tenderizer, Viokase, Sprite, Pepsi, Coke, or Mountain Dew. Distilled water served as control. Dissolution score for each mixture was assessed blindly. Best dissolution was observed with Viokase in pH 7.9 solution (p less than 0.01). Similar results were obtained when feeding tube patency was restored in eight in vitro occluded feeding tubes (Dobbhoff, French size 8) by using first Pepsi (two/eight successful) and then Viokase in pH 7.9 (six/six successful). We also report our experience in the first 10 patients with occluded feeding tubes using this Viokase solution injected through a Drum catheter into the feeding tube. In seven patients, this method proved to be successful, and the reasons for failure in three patients include a knotted tube, impacted tablet powder, and a formula clot fo 24 hr duration and 45 cm in length. PMID:2494372

  4. A gas laser tube

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tetsuo, F.; Tokhikhide, N.

    1984-04-19

    A gas laser tube is described in which contamination of the laser gas mixture by the coolant is avoided, resulting in a longer service life of the mirrors. The holder contains two tubes, one inside the other. The laser gas mixture flows through the internal tube. An electrode is fastened to the holder. The coolant is pumped through the slot between the two tubes, for which a hole is cut into the holder. The external tube has a ring which serves to seal the cavity containing the coolant from the atmosphere. The internal tube has two rings, one to seal the laser gas mixture and the other to seal the coolant. A slot is located between these two rings, which leads to the atmosphere (the atmosphere layer). With this configuration, the degradation of the sealing properties of the internal ring caused by interaction with the atmospheric layer is not reflected in the purity of the laser gas mixture. Moreover, pollution of the mirrors caused by the penetration of the coolant into the cavity is eliminated.

  5. The Dark Energy Survey Camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flaugher, Brenna

    2012-03-01

    The Dark Energy Survey Collaboration has built the Dark Energy Camera (DECam), a 3 square degree, 520 Megapixel CCD camera which is being mounted on the Blanco 4-meter telescope at CTIO. DECam will be used to carry out the 5000 sq. deg. Dark Energy Survey, using 30% of the telescope time over a 5 year period. During the remainder of the time, and after the survey, DECam will be available as a community instrument. Construction of DECam is complete. The final components were shipped to Chile in Dec. 2011 and post-shipping checkout is in progress in Dec-Jan. Installation and commissioning on the telescope are taking place in 2012. A summary of lessons learned and an update of the performance of DECam and the status of the DECam installation and commissioning will be presented.

  6. An optical metasurface planar camera

    CERN Document Server

    Arbabi, Amir; Kamali, Seyedeh Mahsa; Horie, Yu; Han, Seunghoon; Faraon, Andrei

    2016-01-01

    Optical metasurfaces are 2D arrays of nano-scatterers that modify optical wavefronts at subwavelength spatial resolution. They are poised to revolutionize optical design by enabling complex low cost systems where multiple metasurfaces are lithographically stacked on top of each other and are integrated with electronics. For imaging applications, metasurface stacks can perform sophisticated image corrections and can be directly integrated with image sensors. Here, we demonstrate this concept with a miniature flat camera integrating a monolithic metasurface lens doublet corrected for monochromatic aberrations, and an image sensor. The doublet lens, which acts as a fisheye photographic objective, has an f-number of 0.9, an angle-of-view larger than 60$^\\circ$$\\times$60$^\\circ$, and operates at 850 nm wavelength with large transmission. The camera exhibits high image quality, which indicates the potential of this technology to produce a paradigm shift in future designs of imaging systems for microscopy, photograp...

  7. Camera Movement in Narrative Cinema

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jakob Isak

    2007-01-01

    Just like art historians have focused on e.g. composition or lighting, this dissertation takes a single stylistic parameter as its object of study: camera movement. Within film studies this localized avenue of middle-level research has become increasingly viable under the aegis of a perspective...... known as ‘the poetics of cinema.’ The dissertation embraces two branches of research within this perspective: stylistics and historical poetics (stylistic history). The dissertation takes on three questions in relation to camera movement and is accordingly divided into three major sections. The first...... cinematic poetics and interpretive criticism sensitive to style may gain from each other. There is no reason why stylistically informed interpretive criticism cannot be considered within a functional framework and there is no reason why one should not use a functional taxonomy as a basis on which to launch...

  8. Combustion pinhole-camera system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witte, A.B.

    1982-05-19

    A pinhole camera system is described utilizing a sealed optical-purge assembly which provides optical access into a coal combustor or other energy conversion reactors. The camera system basically consists of a focused-purge pinhole optical port assembly, a conventional TV vidicon receiver, an external, variable density light filter which is coupled electronically to the vidicon automatic gain control (agc). The key component of this system is the focused-purge pinhole optical port assembly which utilizes a purging inert gas to keep debris from entering the port and a lens arrangement which transfers the pinhole to the outside of the port assembly. One additional feature of the port assembly is that it is not flush with the interior of the combustor.

  9. Dynamic tube/support interaction in heat exchanger tubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, S.S.

    1991-01-01

    The supports for heat exchanger tubes are usually plates with drilled holes; other types of supports also have been used. To facilitate manufacture and to allow for thermal expansion of the tubes, small clearances are used between tubes and tube supports. The dynamics of tube/support interaction in heat exchangers is fairly complicated. Understanding tube dynamics and its effects is important for heat exchangers. This paper summarizes the current state of the art on this subject and to identify future research needs. Specifically, the following topics are discussed: dynamics of loosely supported tubes, tube/support gap dynamics, tube response in flow, tube damage and wear, design considerations, and future research needs. 55 refs., 1 fig.

  10. ISO camera array development status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sibille, F.; Cesarsky, C.; Agnese, P.; Rouan, D.

    1989-01-01

    A short outline is given of the Infrared Space Observatory Camera (ISOCAM), one of the 4 instruments onboard the Infrared Space Observatory (ISO), with the current status of its two 32x32 arrays, an InSb charge injection device (CID) and a Si:Ga direct read-out (DRO), and the results of the in orbit radiation simulation with gamma ray sources. A tentative technique for the evaluation of the flat fielding accuracy is also proposed.

  11. Graphic design of pinhole cameras

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, H. B.; Chu, W. P.

    1979-01-01

    The paper describes a graphic technique for the analysis and optimization of pinhole size and focal length. The technique is based on the use of the transfer function of optical elements described by Scott (1959) to construct the transfer function of a circular pinhole camera. This transfer function is the response of a component or system to a pattern of lines having a sinusoidally varying radiance at varying spatial frequencies. Some specific examples of graphic design are presented.

  12. A G-APD based Camera for Imaging Atmospheric Cherenkov Telescopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderhub, H. [Eidgenoessische Technische Hochschule Zuerich, 8093 Zuerich (Switzerland); Backes, M. [Technische Universitaet Dortmund, 44221 Dortmund (Germany); Biland, A.; Boller, A.; Braun, I. [Eidgenoessische Technische Hochschule Zuerich, 8093 Zuerich (Switzerland); Bretz, T. [Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne, 1015 Lausanne (Switzerland); Commichau, S.; Commichau, V.; Dorner, D.; Gendotti, A. [Eidgenoessische Technische Hochschule Zuerich, 8093 Zuerich (Switzerland); Grimm, O., E-mail: oliver.grimm@phys.ethz.c [Eidgenoessische Technische Hochschule Zuerich, 8093 Zuerich (Switzerland); Gunten, H. von; Hildebrand, D.; Horisberger, U. [Eidgenoessische Technische Hochschule Zuerich, 8093 Zuerich (Switzerland); Koehne, J.-H. [Technische Universitaet Dortmund, 44221 Dortmund (Germany); Kraehenbuehl, T.; Kranich, D.; Lorenz, E.; Lustermann, W. [Eidgenoessische Technische Hochschule Zuerich, 8093 Zuerich (Switzerland); Mannheim, K. [Universitaet Wuerzburg, 97074 Wuerzburg (Germany)

    2011-02-01

    Imaging Atmospheric Cherenkov Telescopes (IACT) for Gamma-ray astronomy are presently using photomultiplier tubes as photo sensors. Geiger-mode avalanche photodiodes (G-APD) promise an improvement in sensitivity and, important for this application, ease of construction, operation and ruggedness. G-APDs have proven many of their features in the laboratory, but a qualified assessment of their performance in an IACT camera is best undertaken with a prototype. This paper describes the design and construction of a full-scale camera based on G-APDs realized within the FACT project (First G-APD Cherenkov Telescope).

  13. 21 CFR 886.1120 - Opthalmic camera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Opthalmic camera. 886.1120 Section 886.1120 Food... DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 886.1120 Opthalmic camera. (a) Identification. An ophthalmic camera is an AC-powered device intended to take photographs of the eye and the surrounding...

  14. 21 CFR 892.1110 - Positron camera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Positron camera. 892.1110 Section 892.1110 Food... DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1110 Positron camera. (a) Identification. A positron camera is a device intended to image the distribution of positron-emitting radionuclides in the...

  15. 16 CFR 501.1 - Camera film.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Camera film. 501.1 Section 501.1 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION RULES, REGULATIONS, STATEMENT OF GENERAL POLICY OR INTERPRETATION AND... 500 § 501.1 Camera film. Camera film packaged and labeled for retail sale is exempt from the...

  16. Solid-state array cameras.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strull, G; List, W F; Irwin, E L; Farnsworth, D L

    1972-05-01

    Over the past few years there has been growing interest shown in the rapidly maturing technology of totally solid-state imaging. This paper presents a synopsis of developments made in this field at the Westinghouse ATL facilities with emphasis on row-column organized monolithic arrays of diffused junction phototransistors. The complete processing sequence applicable to the fabrication of modern highdensity arrays is described from wafer ingot preparation to final sensor testing. Special steps found necessary for high yield processing, such as surface etching prior to both sawing and lapping, are discussed along with the rationale behind their adoption. Camera systems built around matrix array photosensors are presented in a historical time-wise progression beginning with the first 50 x 50 element converter developed in 1965 and running through the most recent 400 x 500 element system delivered in 1972. The freedom of mechanical architecture made available to system designers by solid-state array cameras is noted from the description of a bare-chip packaged cubic inch camera. Hybrid scan systems employing one-dimensional line arrays are cited, and the basic tradeoffs to their use are listed. PMID:20119094

  17. Unassisted 3D camera calibration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atanassov, Kalin; Ramachandra, Vikas; Nash, James; Goma, Sergio R.

    2012-03-01

    With the rapid growth of 3D technology, 3D image capture has become a critical part of the 3D feature set on mobile phones. 3D image quality is affected by the scene geometry as well as on-the-device processing. An automatic 3D system usually assumes known camera poses accomplished by factory calibration using a special chart. In real life settings, pose parameters estimated by factory calibration can be negatively impacted by movements of the lens barrel due to shaking, focusing, or camera drop. If any of these factors displaces the optical axes of either or both cameras, vertical disparity might exceed the maximum tolerable margin and the 3D user may experience eye strain or headaches. To make 3D capture more practical, one needs to consider unassisted (on arbitrary scenes) calibration. In this paper, we propose an algorithm that relies on detection and matching of keypoints between left and right images. Frames containing erroneous matches, along with frames with insufficiently rich keypoint constellations, are detected and discarded. Roll, pitch yaw , and scale differences between left and right frames are then estimated. The algorithm performance is evaluated in terms of the remaining vertical disparity as compared to the maximum tolerable vertical disparity.

  18. Experimental study of the water jet induced by underwater electrical discharge in a narrow rectangular tube

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koita, T.; Zhu, Y.; Sun, M.

    2016-05-01

    This paper reports an experimental investigation on the effects of explosion depth and tube width on the water jet induced by an underwater electrical discharge in a narrow rectangular tube. The water jet formation and bubble structure were evaluated from the images recorded by a high-speed video camera. Two typical patterns of jet formation and four general patterns of bubble implosion were observed, depending on the explosion depth and tube width. The velocity of the water jet was calculated from the recorded images. The jet velocity was observed to depend on not only the explosion depth and energy, but also on the tube width. We proposed an empirical formula defining the water jet velocity in the tube as a function of the tube width and explosion depth and energy.

  19. Oblique detonation waves stabilized in rectangular-cross-section bent tubes

    OpenAIRE

    Kudo, Yusuke; Nagura, Yuuto; Kasahara, Jiro; Sasamoto, Yuya; Matsuo, Akiko

    2011-01-01

    Oblique detonation waves, which are generated by a fundamental detonation phenomenon occurring in bent tubes, may be applied to fuel combustion in high-efficiency engines such as a pulse detonation engine (PDE) and a rotating detonation engine (RDE). The present study has experimentally demonstrated that steady-state oblique detonation waves propagated stably through rectangular-cross-section bent tubes by visualizing these waves using a high-speed camera and the shadowgraph method. The obliq...

  20. HHEBBES! All sky camera system: status update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bettonvil, F.

    2015-01-01

    A status update is given of the HHEBBES! All sky camera system. HHEBBES!, an automatic camera for capturing bright meteor trails, is based on a DSLR camera and a Liquid Crystal chopper for measuring the angular velocity. Purpose of the system is to a) recover meteorites; b) identify origin/parental bodies. In 2015, two new cameras were rolled out: BINGO! -alike HHEBBES! also in The Netherlands-, and POgLED, in Serbia. BINGO! is a first camera equipped with a longer focal length fisheye lens, to further increase the accuracy. Several minor improvements have been done and the data reduction pipeline was used for processing two prominent Dutch fireballs.

  1. Acceptance tests of a new gamma camera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For best patient service, a QA programme is needed to produce quantitative/qualitative data and keep records of the results and equipment faults. Gamma cameras must be checked against the manufacturer's specifications.The service manual is usually useful to achieve this goal. Acceptance tests are very important not only to accept a new gamma camera system for routine clinical use but also to have a role in a reference for future measurements. In this study, acceptance tests were performed for a new gamma camera in our department. It is a General Electric MG system with two detectors, two collimators. They are low energy general purpose (LEGP) and medium energy general purpose (MEGP). All intrinsic calibrations and corrections were done by the service engineer at installation (PM tune, dynamic correction, energy calibration, geometric calibration, energy correction, linearity correction and second order corrections).After installation, calibrations and corrections, a close physical inspection of the mechanical and electrical safety aspects of the cameras were done by the responsible physicist of the department. The planar system is based on measurement of system uniformity, resolution/linearity and multiple window spatial registration. All test procedures were performed according to NEMA procedures developed by the manufacturer. Intrinsic uniformity: NEMA uniformity was done first by using service manual and then other isotope uniformities were acquired with 99mTc, 131I, 201Tl and 67Ga. They were evaluated qualitatively and quantitatively, but non-uniformities were observed, especially for detector II, The service engineers repeated all tests and made necessary corrections. We repeated all the intrinsic uniformity tests. 99mTc intrinsic images were also performed at 'no correction', 'no energy correction', 'no linearity correction', 'all correction' and '±10% off peak', and compared. Extrinsic uniformity: At the beginning, collimators were checked for defects

  2. Categorising YouTube

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Mosebo Simonsen

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available This article provides a genre analytical approach to creating a typology of the User Generated Content (UGC of YouTube. The article investigates the construction of navigationprocesses on the YouTube website. It suggests a pragmatic genre approach that is expanded through a focus on YouTube’s technological affordances. Through an analysis of the different pragmatic contexts of YouTube, it is argued that a taxonomic understanding of YouTube must be analysed in regards to the vacillation of a user-driven bottom-up folksonomy and a hierarchical browsing system that emphasises a culture of competition and which favours the already popular content of YouTube. With this taxonomic approach, the UGC videos are registered and analysed in terms of empirically based observations. The article identifies various UGC categories and their principal characteristics. Furthermore, general tendencies of the UGC within the interacting relationship of new and old genres are discussed. It is argued that the utility of a conventional categorical system is primarily of analytical and theoretical interest rather than as a practical instrument.

  3. Effect of tube size on electromagnetic tube bulging

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The commercial finite code ANSYS was employed for the simulation of the electromagnetic tube bulging process. The finite element model and boundary conditions were thoroughly discussed. ANSYS/EMAG was used to model the time varying electromagnetic field in order to obtain the radial and axial magnetic pressure acting on the tube. The magnetic pressure was then used as boundary conditions to model the high velocity deformation of various length tube with ANSYS/LSDYNA. The time space distribution of magnetic pressure on various length tubes was presented. Effect of tube size on the distribution of radial magnetic pressure and axial magnetic pressure and high velocity deformation were discussed. According to the radial magnetic pressure ratio of tube end to tube center and corresponding dimensionless length ratio of tube to coil, the free electromagnetic tube bulging was studied in classification. The calculated results show good agreements with practice.

  4. Kajian Efektifitas Sistem Struktur Tube Dengan Sistem Struktur Tube In Tube Di Bawah Beban Gempa

    OpenAIRE

    Sihotang, Dian Frisca

    2010-01-01

    Berkembangnya teknologi telah melahirkan berbagai sistem struktur bangunan tahan gempa, seperti penggunaan sistem tube.Tube adalah merupakan frame penahan gaya yang menahan gaya gaya lateral dengan struktur kantilever kotak yang memiliki jarak kolom yang berdekatan yang dipasang pada sekeliling gedung, sehingga penampilan wajah depan gedung seperti lubang jendela jendela yang terbuka. Rancangan tube ini kemudian dimodifikasi lagi dengan menambah pengaku pada bagian dalam ( konsep tube in tube...

  5. Cryogenic mechanism for ISO camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luciano, G.

    1987-12-01

    The Infrared Space Observatory (ISO) camera configuration, architecture, materials, tribology, motorization, and development status are outlined. The operating temperature is 2 to 3 K, at 2.5 to 18 microns. Selected material is a titanium alloy, with MoS2/TiC lubrication. A stepping motor drives the ball-bearing mounted wheels to which the optical elements are fixed. Model test results are satisfactory, and also confirm the validity of the test facilities, particularly for vibration tests at 4K.

  6. Video clustering using camera motion

    OpenAIRE

    Tort Alsina, Laura

    2012-01-01

    Com el moviment de càmera en un clip de vídeo pot ser útil per a la seva classificació en termes semàntics. [ANGLÈS] This document contains the work done in INP Grenoble during the second semester of the academic year 2011-2012, completed in Barcelona during the first months of the 2012-2013. The work presented consists in a camera motion study in different types of video in order to group fragments that have some similarity in the content. In the document it is explained how the data extr...

  7. Optimising camera traps for monitoring small mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glen, Alistair S; Cockburn, Stuart; Nichols, Margaret; Ekanayake, Jagath; Warburton, Bruce

    2013-01-01

    Practical techniques are required to monitor invasive animals, which are often cryptic and occur at low density. Camera traps have potential for this purpose, but may have problems detecting and identifying small species. A further challenge is how to standardise the size of each camera's field of view so capture rates are comparable between different places and times. We investigated the optimal specifications for a low-cost camera trap for small mammals. The factors tested were 1) trigger speed, 2) passive infrared vs. microwave sensor, 3) white vs. infrared flash, and 4) still photographs vs. video. We also tested a new approach to standardise each camera's field of view. We compared the success rates of four camera trap designs in detecting and taking recognisable photographs of captive stoats (Mustelaerminea), feral cats (Felis catus) and hedgehogs (Erinaceuseuropaeus). Trigger speeds of 0.2-2.1 s captured photographs of all three target species unless the animal was running at high speed. The camera with a microwave sensor was prone to false triggers, and often failed to trigger when an animal moved in front of it. A white flash produced photographs that were more readily identified to species than those obtained under infrared light. However, a white flash may be more likely to frighten target animals, potentially affecting detection probabilities. Video footage achieved similar success rates to still cameras but required more processing time and computer memory. Placing two camera traps side by side achieved a higher success rate than using a single camera. Camera traps show considerable promise for monitoring invasive mammal control operations. Further research should address how best to standardise the size of each camera's field of view, maximise the probability that an animal encountering a camera trap will be detected, and eliminate visible or audible cues emitted by camera traps.

  8. The Dark Energy Camera (DECam)

    CERN Document Server

    Honscheid, K; Abbott, T; Annis, J; Antonik, M; Barcel, M; Bernstein, R; Bigelow, B; Brooks, D; Buckley-Geer, E; Campa, J; Cardiel, L; Castander, F; Castilla, J; Cease, H; Chappa, S; Dede, E; Derylo, G; Diehl, T; Doel, P; De Vicente, J; Eiting, J; Estrada, J; Finley, D; Flaugher, B; Gaztañaga, E; Gerdes, D; Gladders, M; Guarino, V; Gutíerrez, G; Hamilton, J; Haney, M; Holland, S; Huffman, D; Karliner, I; Kau, D; Kent, S; Kozlovsky, M; Kubik, D; Kühn, K; Kuhlmann, S; Kuk, K; Leger, F; Lin, H; Martínez, G; Martínez, M; Merritt, W; Mohr, J; Moore, P; Moore, T; Nord, B; Ogando, R; Olsen, J; Onal, B; Peoples, J; Qian, T; Roe, N; Sánchez, E; Scarpine, V; Schmidt, R; Schmitt, R; Schubnell, M; Schultz, K; Selen, M; Shaw, T; Simaitis, V; Slaughter, J; Smith, C; Spinka, H; Stefanik, A; Stuermer, W; Talaga, R; Tarle, G; Thaler, J; Tucker, D; Walker, A; Worswick, S; Zhao, A

    2008-01-01

    In this paper we describe the Dark Energy Camera (DECam), which will be the primary instrument used in the Dark Energy Survey. DECam will be a 3 sq. deg. mosaic camera mounted at the prime focus of the Blanco 4m telescope at the Cerro-Tololo International Observatory (CTIO). It consists of a large mosaic CCD focal plane, a five element optical corrector, five filters (g,r,i,z,Y), a modern data acquisition and control system and the associated infrastructure for operation in the prime focus cage. The focal plane includes of 62 2K x 4K CCD modules (0.27"/pixel) arranged in a hexagon inscribed within the roughly 2.2 degree diameter field of view and 12 smaller 2K x 2K CCDs for guiding, focus and alignment. The CCDs will be 250 micron thick fully-depleted CCDs that have been developed at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL). Production of the CCDs and fabrication of the optics, mechanical structure, mechanisms, and control system for DECam are underway; delivery of the instrument to CTIO is scheduled ...

  9. Downhole pulse tube refrigerators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swift, G.; Gardner, D. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States). Condensed Matter and Thermal Physics Group

    1997-12-01

    This report summarizes a preliminary design study to explore the plausibility of using pulse tube refrigeration to cool instruments in a hot down-hole environment. The original motivation was to maintain Dave Reagor`s high-temperature superconducting electronics at 75 K, but the study has evolved to include three target design criteria: cooling at 30 C in a 300 C environment, cooling at 75 K in a 50 C environment, cooling at both 75 K and 30 C in a 250 C environment. These specific temperatures were chosen arbitrarily, as representative of what is possible. The primary goals are low cost, reliability, and small package diameter. Pulse-tube refrigeration is a rapidly growing sub-field of cryogenic refrigeration. The pulse tube refrigerator has recently become the simplest, cheapest, most rugged and reliable low-power cryocooler. The authors expect this technology will be applicable downhole because of the ratio of hot to cold temperatures (in absolute units, such as Kelvin) of interest in deep drilling is comparable to the ratios routinely achieved with cryogenic pulse-tube refrigerators.

  10. Prawns in Bamboo Tube

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1998-01-01

    Ingredients: 400 grams Jiwei prawns, 25 grams pork shreds, 5 grams sliced garlic. Condiments: 5 grams cooking oil, minced ginger root and scallions, cooking wine, salt, pepper and MSG (optional) Method: 1. Place the Shelled prawns into a bowl and mix with all the condiments. 2. Stuff the prawns into a fresh bamboo tube,

  11. Thermal anomaly at the Earth's surface associated with a lava tube

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piombo, Antonello; Di Bari, Marco; Tallarico, Andrea; Dragoni, Michele

    2016-10-01

    Lava tubes are frequently encountered in volcanic areas. The formation of lava tubes has strong implications on the volcanic hazard during effusive eruptions. The thermal dissipation of lava flowing in a tube is reduced in respect to the lava flowing in an open channel so the lava may threaten areas that would not be reached by flows in open channels: for this reason it is important to detect the presence of lava tubes. In this work we propose a model to detect the presence and the characteristics of lava tubes by their thermal footprint at the surface. We model numerically the temperature distribution and the heat flow, both in the steady and the transient state, and we take into account the principal thermal effects due to the presence of an active lava tube, i.e. the conduction to the ground and the atmosphere, the convection and the radiation in the atmosphere. We assume that lava fluid is at high temperature, in motion inside a sloping tube under the gravity force. The thermal profile across the tube direction, in particular the width of the temperature curve, allows to evaluate the depth of the tube. The values of maximum temperature and of tube depth allow to estimate the area of the tube section. The shape of the temperature curve and its asymmetry can give information about the geometry of the tube. If we observe volcanic areas at different times by thermal cameras, we can detect anomalies and evaluate their causes during an eruption; in particular, we can evaluate whether they are due to active lava flows or not and what is their state. For lava tubes, we can connect thermal anomalies with lava tube position, characteristics and state.

  12. Eustachian tube function in children after insertion of ventilation tubes.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heerbeek, N. van; Ingels, K.J.A.O.; Snik, A.F.M.; Zielhuis, G.A.

    2001-01-01

    This study was performed to assess the effect of the insertion of ventilation tubes and the subsequent aeration of the middle ear on eustachian tube (ET) function in children. Manometric ET function tests were performed repeatedly for 3 months after the placement of ventilation tubes in 83 children

  13. Restore condition of Incore thimble tubes in guide tubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solanas, A.; Izquierdo, J.

    2014-07-01

    Aging of Nuclear Power Plant and succession of outages lead to wear and twist of the thimbles tubes but also to the fooling of Incore guide tubes. These can create friction and a high strength must be used for thimble tubes withdrawal. (Author)

  14. Action selection for single-camera SLAM

    OpenAIRE

    Vidal-Calleja, Teresa A.; Sanfeliu, Alberto; Andrade-Cetto, J

    2010-01-01

    A method for evaluating, at video rate, the quality of actions for a single camera while mapping unknown indoor environments is presented. The strategy maximizes mutual information between measurements and states to help the camera avoid making ill-conditioned measurements that are appropriate to lack of depth in monocular vision systems. Our system prompts a user with the appropriate motion commands during 6-DOF visual simultaneous localization and mapping with a handheld camera. Additionall...

  15. Development of biostereometric experiments. [stereometric camera system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herron, R. E.

    1978-01-01

    The stereometric camera was designed for close-range techniques in biostereometrics. The camera focusing distance of 360 mm to infinity covers a broad field of close-range photogrammetry. The design provides for a separate unit for the lens system and interchangeable backs on the camera for the use of single frame film exposure, roll-type film cassettes, or glass plates. The system incorporates the use of a surface contrast optical projector.

  16. Movement-based Interaction in Camera Spaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksson, Eva; Riisgaard Hansen, Thomas; Lykke-Olesen, Andreas

    2006-01-01

    In this paper we present three concepts that address movement-based interaction using camera tracking. Based on our work with several movement-based projects we present four selected applications, and use these applications to leverage our discussion, and to describe our three main concepts space......, relations, and feedback. We see these as central for describing and analysing movement-based systems using camera tracking and we show how these three concepts can be used to analyse other camera tracking applications....

  17. Comparative evaluation of consumer grade cameras and mobile phone cameras for close range photogrammetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chikatsu, Hirofumi; Takahashi, Yoji

    2009-08-01

    The authors have been concentrating on developing convenient 3D measurement methods using consumer grade digital cameras, and it was concluded that consumer grade digital cameras are expected to become a useful photogrammetric device for the various close range application fields. On the other hand, mobile phone cameras which have 10 mega pixels were appeared on the market in Japan. In these circumstances, we are faced with alternative epoch-making problem whether mobile phone cameras are able to take the place of consumer grade digital cameras in close range photogrammetric applications. In order to evaluate potentials of mobile phone cameras in close range photogrammetry, comparative evaluation between mobile phone cameras and consumer grade digital cameras are investigated in this paper with respect to lens distortion, reliability, stability and robustness. The calibration tests for 16 mobile phone cameras and 50 consumer grade digital cameras were conducted indoors using test target. Furthermore, practability of mobile phone camera for close range photogrammetry was evaluated outdoors. This paper presents that mobile phone cameras have ability to take the place of consumer grade digital cameras, and develop the market in digital photogrammetric fields.

  18. Laser welding of a tube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For sleeving PWR steam generator tubes, the welding laser work is made under protection of a primary gas going out by the crossing window of the laser and under a secondary gas flowing axially through the head and the tube

  19. Quarter-wave pulse tube

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swift, G. W.; Gardner, D. L.; Backhaus, S. N.

    2011-10-01

    In high-power pulse-tube refrigerators, the pulse tube itself can be very long without too much dissipation of acoustic power on its walls. The pressure amplitude, the volume-flow-rate amplitude, and the time phase between them evolve significantly along a pulse tube that is about a quarter-wavelength long. Proper choice of length and area makes the oscillations at the ambient end of the long pulse tube optimal for driving a second, smaller pulse-tube refrigerator, thereby utilizing the acoustic power that would typically have been dissipated in the first pulse-tube refrigerator's orifice. Experiments show that little heat is carried from the ambient heat exchanger to the cold heat exchanger in such a long pulse tube, even though the oscillations are turbulent and even when the tube is compactly coiled.

  20. Tubing For Sampling Hydrazine Vapor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Travis, Josh; Taffe, Patricia S.; Rose-Pehrsson, Susan L.; Wyatt, Jeffrey R.

    1993-01-01

    Report evaluates flexible tubing used for transporting such hypergolic vapors as those of hydrazines for quantitative analysis. Describes experiments in which variety of tubing materials, chosen for their known compatibility with hydrazine, flexibility, and resistance to heat.

  1. Development of the LBNL positron emission mammography camera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present the construction status of the LBNL Positron Emission Mammography (PEM) camera, which utilizes a PET detector module with depth of interaction measurement consisting of 64 LSO crystals (3x3x30 mm3) coupled on one end to a single photomultiplier tube (PMT) and on the opposite end to a 64 pixel array of silicon photodiodes (PDs). The PMT provides an accurate timing pulse, the PDs identify the crystal of interaction, the sum provides a total energy signal, and the PD/(PD+PMT) ratio determines the depth of interaction. We have completed construction of all 42 PEM detector modules. All data acquisition electronics have been completed, fully tested and loaded onto the gantry. We have demonstrated that all functions of the custom IC work using the production rigid-flex boards and data acquisition system. Preliminary detector module characterization and coincidence data have been taken using the production system, including initial images

  2. True-color night vision cameras

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kriesel, Jason; Gat, Nahum

    2007-04-01

    This paper describes True-Color Night Vision cameras that are sensitive to the visible to near-infrared (V-NIR) portion of the spectrum allowing for the "true-color" of scenes and objects to be displayed and recorded under low-light-level conditions. As compared to traditional monochrome (gray or green) night vision imagery, color imagery has increased information content and has proven to enable better situational awareness, faster response time, and more accurate target identification. Urban combat environments, where rapid situational awareness is vital, and marine operations, where there is inherent information in the color of markings and lights, are example applications that can benefit from True-Color Night Vision technology. Two different prototype cameras, employing two different true-color night vision technological approaches, are described and compared in this paper. One camera uses a fast-switching liquid crystal filter in front of a custom Gen-III image intensified camera, and the second camera is based around an EMCCD sensor with a mosaic filter applied directly to the sensor. In addition to visible light, both cameras utilize NIR to (1) increase the signal and (2) enable the viewing of laser aiming devices. The performance of the true-color cameras, along with the performance of standard (monochrome) night vision cameras, are reported and compared under various operating conditions in the lab and the field. In addition to subjective criterion, figures of merit designed specifically for the objective assessment of such cameras are used in this analysis.

  3. Research of Camera Calibration Based on DSP

    OpenAIRE

    Zheng Zhang; Yukun Wan; Lixin Cai

    2013-01-01

    To take advantage of the high-efficiency and stability of DSP in the data processing and the functions of OpenCV library, this study brought forward a scheme that camera calibration in DSP embedded system calibration. An arithmetic of camera calibration based on OpenCV is designed by analyzing the camera model and lens distortion. The transplantation of EMCV to DSP is completed and the arithmetic of camera calibration is migrated and optimized based on the CCS development environment and the ...

  4. Omnidirectional Underwater Camera Design and Calibration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josep Bosch

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the development of an underwater omnidirectional multi-camera system (OMS based on a commercially available six-camera system, originally designed for land applications. A full calibration method is presented for the estimation of both the intrinsic and extrinsic parameters, which is able to cope with wide-angle lenses and non-overlapping cameras simultaneously. This method is valid for any OMS in both land or water applications. For underwater use, a customized housing is required, which often leads to strong image distortion due to refraction among the different media. This phenomena makes the basic pinhole camera model invalid for underwater cameras, especially when using wide-angle lenses, and requires the explicit modeling of the individual optical rays. To address this problem, a ray tracing approach has been adopted to create a field-of-view (FOV simulator for underwater cameras. The simulator allows for the testing of different housing geometries and optics for the cameras to ensure a complete hemisphere coverage in underwater operation. This paper describes the design and testing of a compact custom housing for a commercial off-the-shelf OMS camera (Ladybug 3 and presents the first results of its use. A proposed three-stage calibration process allows for the estimation of all of the relevant camera parameters. Experimental results are presented, which illustrate the performance of the calibration method and validate the approach.

  5. Framework for Evaluating Camera Opinions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.M. Subramanian

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Opinion mining plays a most important role in text mining applications in brand and product positioning, customer relationship management, consumer attitude detection and market research. The applications lead to new generation of companies/products meant for online market perception, online content monitoring and reputation management. Expansion of the web inspires users to contribute/express opinions via blogs, videos and social networking sites. Such platforms provide valuable information for analysis of sentiment pertaining a product or service. This study investigates the performance of various feature extraction methods and classification algorithm for opinion mining. Opinions expressed in Amazon website for cameras are collected and used for evaluation. Features are extracted from the opinions using Term Document Frequency and Inverse Document Frequency (TDFIDF. Feature transformation is achieved through Principal Component Analysis (PCA and kernel PCA. Naïve Bayes, K Nearest Neighbor and Classification and Regression Trees (CART classification algorithms classify the features extracted.

  6. Illumination box and camera system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haas, Jeffrey S.; Kelly, Fredrick R.; Bushman, John F.; Wiefel, Michael H.; Jensen, Wayne A.; Klunder, Gregory L.

    2002-01-01

    A hand portable, field-deployable thin-layer chromatography (TLC) unit and a hand portable, battery-operated unit for development, illumination, and data acquisition of the TLC plates contain many miniaturized features that permit a large number of samples to be processed efficiently. The TLC unit includes a solvent tank, a holder for TLC plates, and a variety of tool chambers for storing TLC plates, solvent, and pipettes. After processing in the TLC unit, a TLC plate is positioned in a collapsible illumination box, where the box and a CCD camera are optically aligned for optimal pixel resolution of the CCD images of the TLC plate. The TLC system includes an improved development chamber for chemical development of TLC plates that prevents solvent overflow.

  7. Ultrasonic nondestructive tubing inspection system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A system for measuring the extent of tube wall erosion in an inspection region of a heat exchanger tube of a nuclear steam generator, uses an ultrasonic means driven helically inside the eroded tube which may be filled with a fluid (e.g., water) to minimize ultrasonic wave attenuation. A control means cooperates with the ultrasonic means to produce a map of the tube wall thickness in an inspection region

  8. HRSC: High resolution stereo camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neukum, G.; Jaumann, R.; Basilevsky, A.T.; Dumke, A.; Van Gasselt, S.; Giese, B.; Hauber, E.; Head, J. W.; Heipke, C.; Hoekzema, N.; Hoffmann, H.; Greeley, R.; Gwinner, K.; Kirk, R.; Markiewicz, W.; McCord, T.B.; Michael, G.; Muller, Jan-Peter; Murray, J.B.; Oberst, J.; Pinet, P.; Pischel, R.; Roatsch, T.; Scholten, F.; Willner, K.

    2009-01-01

    The High Resolution Stereo Camera (HRSC) on Mars Express has delivered a wealth of image data, amounting to over 2.5 TB from the start of the mapping phase in January 2004 to September 2008. In that time, more than a third of Mars was covered at a resolution of 10-20 m/pixel in stereo and colour. After five years in orbit, HRSC is still in excellent shape, and it could continue to operate for many more years. HRSC has proven its ability to close the gap between the low-resolution Viking image data and the high-resolution Mars Orbiter Camera images, leading to a global picture of the geological evolution of Mars that is now much clearer than ever before. Derived highest-resolution terrain model data have closed major gaps and provided an unprecedented insight into the shape of the surface, which is paramount not only for surface analysis and geological interpretation, but also for combination with and analysis of data from other instruments, as well as in planning for future missions. This chapter presents the scientific output from data analysis and highlevel data processing, complemented by a summary of how the experiment is conducted by the HRSC team members working in geoscience, atmospheric science, photogrammetry and spectrophotometry. Many of these contributions have been or will be published in peer-reviewed journals and special issues. They form a cross-section of the scientific output, either by summarising the new geoscientific picture of Mars provided by HRSC or by detailing some of the topics of data analysis concerning photogrammetry, cartography and spectral data analysis.

  9. Sleeve puller salvages welded tubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, J. F.

    1980-01-01

    Tool removes sleeve remnants without distorting or damaging tubes, unlike pliers and other conventional handtools. Tubes can be reused, saving time, labor, and material in many applications. Sleeve-removal fixture consists of pressure screw, swing arm, locking screws, and base. It removes sleeve remnant from tubing after welded joint has been sawed through.

  10. Enteral Tube Feeding and Pneumonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, David Sheridan; Kimmel, David

    2006-01-01

    To determine the effects of enteral tube feeding on the incidence of pneumonia, we performed a retrospective review of all clients at our institution who had gastrostomy or jejunostomy tubes placed over a 10-year period. Ninety-three subjects had a history of pneumonia before feeding tube insertion. Eighty had gastrostomy and 13, jejunostomy…

  11. MISR FIRSTLOOK radiometric camera-by-camera Cloud Mask V001

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This file contains the FIRSTLOOK Radiometric camera-by-camera Cloud Mask (RCCM) dataset produced using ancillary inputs (RCCT) from the previous time period. It is...

  12. Neural tube defects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.E. Marshall

    1981-09-01

    Full Text Available Neural tube defects refer to any defect in the morphogenesis of the neural tube, the most common types being spina bifida and anencephaly. Spina bifida has been recognised in skeletons found in north-eastern Morocco and estimated to have an age of almost 12 000 years. It was also known to the ancient Greek and Arabian physicians who thought that the bony defect was due to the tumour. The term spina bifida was first used by Professor Nicolai Tulp of Amsterdam in 1652. Many other terms have been used to describe this defect, but spina bifida remains the most useful general term, as it describes the separation of the vertebral elements in the midline.

  13. Metrology Camera System of Prime Focus Spectrograph for Subaru Telescope

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Shiang-Yu; Huang, Pin-Jie; Ling, Hung-Hsu; Karr, Jennifer; Chang, Yin-Chang; Hu, Yen-Shan; Hsu, Shu-Fu; Chen, Hsin-Yo; Gunn, James E; Reiley, Dan J; Tamura, Naoyuki; Takato, Naruhisa; Shimono, Atsushi

    2016-01-01

    The Prime Focus Spectrograph (PFS) is a new optical/near-infrared multi-fiber spectrograph designed for the prime focus of the 8.2m Subaru telescope. PFS will cover a 1.3 degree diameter field with 2394 fibers to complement the imaging capabilities of Hyper SuprimeCam. To retain high throughput, the final positioning accuracy between the fibers and observing targets of PFS is required to be less than 10um. The metrology camera system (MCS) serves as the optical encoder of the fiber motors for the configuring of fibers. MCS provides the fiber positions within a 5um error over the 45 cm focal plane. The information from MCS will be fed into the fiber positioner control system for the closed loop control. MCS will be located at the Cassegrain focus of Subaru telescope in order to to cover the whole focal plane with one 50M pixel Canon CMOS camera. It is a 380mm Schmidt type telescope which generates a uniform spot size with a 10 micron FWHM across the field for reasonable sampling of PSF. Carbon fiber tubes are ...

  14. Fabrication of seamless calandria tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Calandria tube is a large diameter, thin walled zircaloy-4 tube and is an important structural component of PHWR type of reactors. These tubes are lifetime components and remain during the full life of the reactor. Calandria tubes are classified as extremely thin walled tubes with a diameter to wall thickness ratio of around 96. Such thin walled tubes are conventionally produced by seam welded route comprising of extrusion of slabs followed by a series of hot and rolling passes, shaping into O-shape and eventual welding. An alternative and superior method of fabricating the calandria tubes, the seamless route, has been developed, which involves hot extrusion of mother blanks followed by three successive cold pilger reductions. Eccentricity correction of the extruded blanks is carried out on a special purpose grinding equipment to bring the wall thickness variation within permissible limits. Predominant wall thickness reductions are given during cold pilgering to ensure high Q-factor values. The texture in the finished tubes could be closely, controlled with an average fr value of 0.65. Pilgering parameters and tube guiding system have been specially designed to facilities rolling of thin walled tubes. Seamless calandria tubes have distinct advantages over welded tubes. In addition to the absence of weld, they are dimensionally more stable, lighter in weight and possess uniform grains with superior grain size. The cycle time from billet to finished product is substantially reduced and the product is amenable to high level of quality assurance. The most significant feature of the seamless route is its material recovery over welded route. Residual stresses measured in the tubes indicate that these are negligible and uniform along the length of the tube. In view of their superior quality, the first charge of seamless calandria tubes will be rolled into the first 500 MWe Pressurised Heavy Water Reactor at Tarapur

  15. Primary fallopian tube carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mladenović-Segedi Ljiljana

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Primary fallopian tube carcinoma is extremely rare, making 0.3-1.6% of all female genital tract malignancies. Although the etymology of this tumor is unknown, it is suggested to be associated with chronic tubal inflammation, infertility, tuberculous salpingitis and tubal endometriosis. High parity is considered to be protective. Cytogenetic studies show the disease to be associated with over expression of p53, HER2/neu and c-myb. There is also some evidence that BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations have a role in umorogeneis. Clinical features. The most prevailing symptoms with fallopian tube carcinoma are abdominal pain, abnormal vaginal discharge/bleeding and the most common finding is an adnexal mass. In many patients, fallopian tube carcinoma is asymptomatic. Diagnosis. Due to its rarity, preoperative diagnosis of primary fallopian tube carcinoma is rarely made. It is usually misdiagnosed as ovarian carcinoma, tuboovarian abscess or ectopic pregnancy. Sonographic features of the tumor are non-specific and include the presence of a fluid-filled adnexal structure with a significant solid component, a sausage-shaped mass, a cystic mass with papillary projections within, a cystic mass with cog wheel appearance and an ovoid-shaped structure containing an incomplete separation and a highly vascular solid nodule. More than 80% of patients have elevated pretreatment serum CA-125 levels, which is useful in follow-up after the definite treatment. Treatment. The treatment approach is similar to that of ovarian carcinoma, and includes total abdominal hysterectomy and bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy. Staging is followed with chemotherapy.

  16. Automatic inference of geometric camera parameters and intercamera topology in uncalibrated disjoint surveillance cameras

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hollander, R.J.M. den; Bouma, H.; Baan, J.; Eendebak, P.T.; Rest, J.H.C. van

    2015-01-01

    Person tracking across non-overlapping cameras and other types of video analytics benefit from spatial calibration information that allows an estimation of the distance between cameras and a relation between pixel coordinates and world coordinates within a camera. In a large environment with many ca

  17. Improving Situational Awareness in camera surveillance by combining top-view maps with camera images

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kooi, F.L.; Zeeders, R.

    2009-01-01

    The goal of the experiment described is to improve today's camera surveillance in public spaces. Three designs with the camera images combined on a top-view map were compared to each other and to the current situation in camera surveillance. The goal was to test which design makes spatial relationsh

  18. Camera self-calibration from translation by referring to a known camera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Bin; Hu, Zhaozheng

    2015-09-01

    This paper presents a novel linear method for camera self-calibration by referring to a known (or calibrated) camera. The method requires at least three images, with two images generated by the uncalibrated camera from pure translation and one image generated by the known reference camera. We first propose a method to compute the infinite homography from scene depths. Based on this, we use two images generated by translating the uncalibrated camera to recover scene depths, which are further utilized to linearly compute the infinite homography between an arbitrary uncalibrated image, and the image from the known camera. With the known camera as reference, the computed infinite homography is readily decomposed for camera calibration. The proposed self-calibration method has been tested with simulation and real image data. Experimental results demonstrate that the method is practical and accurate. This paper proposes using a "known reference camera" for camera calibration. The pure translation, as required in the method, is much more maneuverable, compared with some strict motions in the literature, such as pure rotation. The proposed self-calibration method has good potential for solving online camera calibration problems, which has important applications, especially for multicamera and zooming camera systems.

  19. Clogging of feeding tubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcuard, S P; Perkins, A M

    1988-01-01

    This is a report of an in vitro study evaluating clotting ability of some formulas with intact protein and hydrolyzed protein sources in a series of buffers ranging from a pH of 1 thru 10. The following 10 products were tested: Ensure Plus, Ensure, Enrich, Osmolite, Pulmocare, Citrotein, Resource, Vivonex TEN, Vital, and Hepatic Acid II. Protein (10 and 20 g/liter) was added to Citrotein and Ensure Plus. All formulas were tested at full and some at half strength. Clotting occurred only in premixed intact protein formulas (Pulmocare, Ensure Plus, Osmolite, Enrich, Ensure) and in Resource. No clotting was observed for Citrotein (intact protein formula in powder form), Vital, Vivonex TEN, and Hepatic Aid II. Adding protein did not cause or increase clotting. In summary, clotting of some liquid formula diet appears to be an important factor causing possible gastric feeding tube occlusion. The following measures may help in preventing this problem: flushing before and after aspirating for gastric residuals to eliminate acid precipitation of formula in the feeding tube, advance the nasogastric feeding tube into the duodenum if possible, and avoid mixing these products with liquid medications having a pH value of 5.0 or less. PMID:3138452

  20. Traveling-Wave Tubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kory, Carol L.

    1998-01-01

    The traveling-wave tube (TWT) is a vacuum device invented in the early 1940's used for amplification at microwave frequencies. Amplification is attained by surrendering kinetic energy from an electron beam to a radio frequency (RF) electromagnetic wave. The demand for vacuum devices has been decreased largely by the advent of solid-state devices. However, although solid state devices have replaced vacuum devices in many areas, there are still many applications such as radar, electronic countermeasures and satellite communications, that require operating characteristics such as high power (Watts to Megawatts), high frequency (below 1 GHz to over 100 GHz) and large bandwidth that only vacuum devices can provide. Vacuum devices are also deemed irreplaceable in the music industry where musicians treasure their tube-based amplifiers claiming that the solid-state and digital counterparts could never provide the same "warmth" (3). The term traveling-wave tube includes both fast-wave and slow-wave devices. This article will concentrate on slow-wave devices as the vast majority of TWTs in operation fall into this category.

  1. CRL X-RAY TUBE

    OpenAIRE

    Kolchevsky, N. N.; Petrov, P. V.

    2015-01-01

    A novel types of X-ray tubes with refractive lenses are proposed. CRL-R X-ray tube consists of Compound Refractive Lens- CRL and Reflection X-ray tube. CRL acts as X-ray window. CRL-T X-ray consists of CRL and Transmission X-ray tube. CRL acts as target for electron beam. CRL refractive lens acts as filter, collimator, waveguide and focusing lens. Properties and construction of the CRL X-ray tube are discussed.

  2. Centering mount for a gamma camera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A device for centering a γ-camera detector in case of radionuclide diagnosis is described. It permits the use of available medical coaches instead of a table with a transparent top. The device can be used for centering a detector (when it is fixed at the low end of a γ-camera) on a required area of the patient's body

  3. A BASIC CAMERA UNIT FOR MEDICAL PHOTOGRAPHY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    SMIALOWSKI, A; CURRIE, D J

    1964-08-22

    A camera unit suitable for most medical photographic purposes is described. The unit comprises a single-lens reflex camera, an electronic flash unit and supplementary lenses. Simple instructions for use of th's basic unit are presented. The unit is entirely suitable for taking fine-quality photographs of most medical subjects by persons who have had little photographic training.

  4. Cameras Monitor Spacecraft Integrity to Prevent Failures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    The Jet Propulsion Laboratory contracted Malin Space Science Systems Inc. to outfit Curiosity with four of its cameras using the latest commercial imaging technology. The company parlayed the knowledge gained under working with NASA to develop an off-the-shelf line of cameras, along with a digital video recorder, designed to help troubleshoot problems that may arise on satellites in space.

  5. CCD Color Camera Characterization for Image Measurements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Withagen, P.J.; Groen, F.C.A.; Schutte, K.

    2007-01-01

    In this article, we will analyze a range of different types of cameras for its use in measurements. We verify a general model of a charged coupled device camera using experiments. This model includes gain and offset, additive and multiplicative noise, and gamma correction. It is shown that for sever

  6. Securing Embedded Smart Cameras with Trusted Computing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Winkler Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Camera systems are used in many applications including video surveillance for crime prevention and investigation, traffic monitoring on highways or building monitoring and automation. With the shift from analog towards digital systems, the capabilities of cameras are constantly increasing. Today's smart camera systems come with considerable computing power, large memory, and wired or wireless communication interfaces. With onboard image processing and analysis capabilities, cameras not only open new possibilities but also raise new challenges. Often overlooked are potential security issues of the camera system. The increasing amount of software running on the cameras turns them into attractive targets for attackers. Therefore, the protection of camera devices and delivered data is of critical importance. In this work we present an embedded camera prototype that uses Trusted Computing to provide security guarantees for streamed videos. With a hardware-based security solution, we ensure integrity, authenticity, and confidentiality of videos. Furthermore, we incorporate image timestamping, detection of platform reboots, and reporting of the system status. This work is not limited to theoretical considerations but also describes the implementation of a prototype system. Extensive evaluation results illustrate the practical feasibility of the approach.

  7. Depth Estimation Using a Sliding Camera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Kailin; Hu, Han; Feng, Jianjiang; Zhou, Jie

    2016-02-01

    Image-based 3D reconstruction technology is widely used in different fields. The conventional algorithms are mainly based on stereo matching between two or more fixed cameras, and high accuracy can only be achieved using a large camera array, which is very expensive and inconvenient in many applications. Another popular choice is utilizing structure-from-motion methods for arbitrarily placed camera(s). However, due to too many degrees of freedom, its computational cost is heavy and its accuracy is rather limited. In this paper, we propose a novel depth estimation algorithm using a sliding camera system. By analyzing the geometric properties of the camera system, we design a camera pose initialization algorithm that can work satisfyingly with only a small number of feature points and is robust to noise. For pixels corresponding to different depths, an adaptive iterative algorithm is proposed to choose optimal frames for stereo matching, which can take advantage of continuously pose-changing imaging and save the time consumption amazingly too. The proposed algorithm can also be easily extended to handle less constrained situations (such as using a camera mounted on a moving robot or vehicle). Experimental results on both synthetic and real-world data have illustrated the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm.

  8. Depth Estimation Using a Sliding Camera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Kailin; Hu, Han; Feng, Jianjiang; Zhou, Jie

    2016-02-01

    Image-based 3D reconstruction technology is widely used in different fields. The conventional algorithms are mainly based on stereo matching between two or more fixed cameras, and high accuracy can only be achieved using a large camera array, which is very expensive and inconvenient in many applications. Another popular choice is utilizing structure-from-motion methods for arbitrarily placed camera(s). However, due to too many degrees of freedom, its computational cost is heavy and its accuracy is rather limited. In this paper, we propose a novel depth estimation algorithm using a sliding camera system. By analyzing the geometric properties of the camera system, we design a camera pose initialization algorithm that can work satisfyingly with only a small number of feature points and is robust to noise. For pixels corresponding to different depths, an adaptive iterative algorithm is proposed to choose optimal frames for stereo matching, which can take advantage of continuously pose-changing imaging and save the time consumption amazingly too. The proposed algorithm can also be easily extended to handle less constrained situations (such as using a camera mounted on a moving robot or vehicle). Experimental results on both synthetic and real-world data have illustrated the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm. PMID:26685238

  9. Rosetta Star Tracker and Navigation Camera

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thuesen, Gøsta

    1998-01-01

    Proposal in response to the Invitation to Tender (ITT) issued by Matra Marconi Space (MSS) for the procurement of the ROSETTA Star Tracker and Navigation Camera.......Proposal in response to the Invitation to Tender (ITT) issued by Matra Marconi Space (MSS) for the procurement of the ROSETTA Star Tracker and Navigation Camera....

  10. Fazendo 3d com uma camera so

    CERN Document Server

    Lunazzi, J J

    2010-01-01

    A simple system to make stereo photography or videos based in just two mirrors was made in 1989 and recently adapted to a digital camera setup. Um sistema simples para fazer fotografia ou videos em estereo baseado em dois espelhos que dividem o campo da imagem foi criado no ano 1989, e recentemente adaptado para camera digital.

  11. Laser Dazzling of Focal Plane Array Cameras

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schleijpen, H.M.A.; Dimmeler, A.; Eberle, B; Heuvel, J.C. van den; Mieremet, A.L.; Bekman, H.H.P.T.; Mellier, B.

    2007-01-01

    Laser countermeasures against infrared focal plane array cameras aim to saturate the full camera image. In this paper we will discuss the results of dazzling experiments performed with MWIR lasers. In the “low energy” pulse regime we observe an increasing saturated area with increasing power. The si

  12. Laser Dazzling of Focal Plane Array Cameras

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schleijpen, H.M.A.; Heuvel, J.C. van den; Mieremet, A.J.; Mellier, B.; Putten, F.J.M. van

    2007-01-01

    Laser countermeasures against infrared focal plane array cameras aim to saturate the full camera image. In this paper we will discuss the results of three different dazzling experiments performed with MWIR lasers and show that the obtained results are independent of the read-out mechanism of the cam

  13. Creating and Using a Camera Obscura

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinnell, Justin

    2012-01-01

    The camera obscura (Latin for "darkened room") is the earliest optical device and goes back over 2500 years. The small pinhole or lens at the front of the room allows light to enter and this is then "projected" onto a screen inside the room. This differs from a camera, which projects its image onto light-sensitive material. Originally images were…

  14. Reliability of steam generator tubing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kadokami, E. [Mitsubishi Heavy Industries Ltd., Hyogo-ku (Japan)

    1997-02-01

    The author presents results on studies made of the reliability of steam generator (SG) tubing. The basis for this work is that in Japan the issue of defects in SG tubing is addressed by the approach that any detected defect should be repaired, either by plugging the tube or sleeving it. However, this leaves open the issue that there is a detection limit in practice, and what is the effect of nondetectable cracks on the performance of tubing. These studies were commissioned to look at the safety issues involved in degraded SG tubing. The program has looked at a number of different issues. First was an assessment of the penetration and opening behavior of tube flaws due to internal pressure in the tubing. They have studied: penetration behavior of the tube flaws; primary water leakage from through-wall flaws; opening behavior of through-wall flaws. In addition they have looked at the question of the reliability of tubing with flaws during normal plant operation. Also there have been studies done on the consequences of tube rupture accidents on the integrity of neighboring tubes.

  15. Microdischarges in DC accelerator tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voltage tests on the Daresbury ceramic/titanium accelerator tube have shown that microdischarges play an important role in the conditioning process. It has been found that the voltage onset for microdischarges in a tube is dependent on the surface contamination of the electrodes and the tube geometry (in particular the tube length). This geometrical effect can be related to the trajectories of secondary ions emitted from the electrode surfaces. Sensitive diagnostic techniques have been developed to study the mass and energy distribution of ions emitted along the axis of the tube during these predischarges. The energy distribution of protons (and H- ions) can be related to the origins of the discharges in the tube. Detailed results are presented for a particular tube geometry. (author)

  16. Real-time registration compensator for 1-inch Harpicon Hi-Vision camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mimura, Itaru; Tomura, Naoto; Murata, Nobuo; Ohoka, Masaharu

    1992-08-01

    We have developed a real-time registration compensator for 1" Harpicon the Hi-Vision camera. Harpicon has the advantages of higher sensitivity and higher resolution than Saticon or Hi-Vision CCD imagers. However a camera with image pick-up tubes such as Harpicon produces registration errors which causes lower resolution and false color on objective edges. To solve this problem we developed a new method of detecting registration errors which is suitable for digital Hi-Vision cameras. The detector finds registration errors in the picture during the camera operation. This frees the operator from initial registration tuning and enables real-time compensation. Recently we developed a detection large scale integrated (LSI) circuit with a 1. 3tm complemental metal-oxide semi-conductor (CMOS) gate array and implemented the system in hardware. The detection hardware consists of two gate arrays twenty-four 256k x 4-bit FIFO memories and a small amount of control logic. The experimental hardware detects registration errors at 30 points (5 points vertically and 6 horizontally) in both R-G and B-G channels within 700 msec. The camera has a high resolution (40

  17. An ISPA-camera for $\\beta$-radiography

    CERN Document Server

    Puertolas, D; Leutz, H; Gys, Thierry; D'Ambrosio, C

    1996-01-01

    We have developed a new type of beta-camera based on an Imaging Silicon Pixel Array (ISPA)-tube combined with planar plastic scintillators or with SiY2O5(Ce)-scintillating powder. The ISPA-tube consists of a photocathode viewed at 3 cm distance by a silicon anode divided into 1024 rectangular (75 microm x 500 microm) detector pixels, each bump-bonded to its equally-sized electronic pixel. Depending on the beta-detector thickness we achieved spatial resolutions (FWHM) between 105 microm (63Ni source and 30 microm thick plastic scintillator) and 240 microm (90Sr-90Y source and 120 microm thick plastic scintillator) by covering the detectors with brass templates. With their four 60 microm wide slits oriented parallel to the long pixel edges we simulated small sized beta-strips. The impact of detector thickness is explained by multiple scattering, angular aperture of the template slits and scintillating light distribution at the ISPA-photocathode. Beta detection sensitivities were measured with calibrated...

  18. Flow visualization by mobile phone cameras

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cierpka, Christian; Hain, Rainer; Buchmann, Nicolas A.

    2016-06-01

    Mobile smart phones were completely changing people's communication within the last ten years. However, these devices do not only offer communication through different channels but also devices and applications for fun and recreation. In this respect, mobile phone cameras include now relatively fast (up to 240 Hz) cameras to capture high-speed videos of sport events or other fast processes. The article therefore explores the possibility to make use of this development and the wide spread availability of these cameras in the terms of velocity measurements for industrial or technical applications and fluid dynamics education in high schools and at universities. The requirements for a simplistic PIV (particle image velocimetry) system are discussed. A model experiment of a free water jet was used to prove the concept and shed some light on the achievable quality and determine bottle necks by comparing the results obtained with a mobile phone camera with data taken by a high-speed camera suited for scientific experiments.

  19. Gamma camera performance: technical assessment protocol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bolster, A.A. [West Glasgow Hospitals NHS Trust, London (United Kingdom). Dept. of Clinical Physics; Waddington, W.A. [University College London Hospitals NHS Trust, London (United Kingdom). Inst. of Nuclear Medicine

    1996-12-31

    This protocol addresses the performance assessment of single and dual headed gamma cameras. No attempt is made to assess the performance of any associated computing systems. Evaluations are usually performed on a gamma camera commercially available within the United Kingdom and recently installed at a clinical site. In consultation with the manufacturer, GCAT selects the site and liaises with local staff to arrange a mutually convenient time for assessment. The manufacturer is encouraged to have a representative present during the evaluation. Three to four days are typically required for the evaluation team to perform the necessary measurements. When access time is limited, the team will modify the protocol to test the camera as thoroughly as possible. Data are acquired on the camera`s computer system and are subsequently transferred to the independent GCAT computer system for analysis. This transfer from site computer to the independent system is effected via a hardware interface and Interfile data transfer. (author).

  20. Adapting virtual camera behaviour through player modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burelli, Paolo; Yannakakis, Georgios N.

    2015-01-01

    the viewpoint movements to the player type and her game-play style. Ultimately, the methodology is applied to a 3D platform game and is evaluated through a controlled experiment; the results suggest that the resulting adaptive cinematographic experience is favoured by some player types and it can generate......Research in virtual camera control has focused primarily on finding methods to allow designers to place cameras effectively and efficiently in dynamic and unpredictable environments, and to generate complex and dynamic plans for cinematography in virtual environments. In this article, we propose...... a novel approach to virtual camera control, which builds upon camera control and player modelling to provide the user with an adaptive point-of-view. To achieve this goal, we propose a methodology to model the player’s preferences on virtual camera movements and we employ the resulting models to tailor...

  1. Modelling Virtual Camera Behaviour Through Player Gaze

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Picardi, Andrea; Burelli, Paolo; Yannakakis, Georgios N.

    2012-01-01

    In a three-dimensional virtual environment, aspects such as narrative and interaction largely depend on the placement and animation of the virtual camera. Therefore, virtual camera control plays a critical role in player experience and, thereby, in the overall quality of a computer game. Both game...... industry and game AI research focus on the devel- opment of increasingly sophisticated systems to automate the control of the virtual camera integrating artificial intel- ligence algorithms within physical simulations. However, in both industry and academia little research has been carried out...... on the relationship between virtual camera, game-play and player behaviour. We run a game user experiment to shed some light on this relationship and identify relevant dif- ferences between camera behaviours through different game sessions, playing behaviours and player gaze patterns. Re- sults show that users can...

  2. Ultrasonic inspection of tube to tube plate welds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To monitor the deterioration of a weld between a tube and tube plate which has been repaired by a repair sleeve inside the tube and brazed at one end to the tube, ultrasound from a crystal at the end of a rod is launched, in the form of Lamb-type waves, into the tube through the braze and allowed to travel along the tube to the weld and be reflected back along the tube. The technique may also be used for the type of heat exchanger in which, during construction, the tubes are welded to the tube plate via external sleeves in which case the ultrasound is used in a similar manner to inspect the sleeve/tube plate weld. an electromagnetic transducer may be used to generate the ultrasound. The ultrasonic head comprising the crystal and an acoustic baffle is mounted on a Perspex (RTM) rod which may be rotated by a stepping motor. Echo signals from the region of deterioration may be isolated by use of a time gate in the receiver. The device primarily detects circumferentially orientated cracks, and may be used in heat exchangers in nuclear power plants. (author)

  3. Airborne Digital Camera. A digital view from above; Airborne Digital Camera. Der digitale Blick von oben

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roeser, H.P. [DLR Deutsches Zentrum fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt e.V., Berlin (Germany). Inst. fuer Weltraumsensorik und Planetenerkundung

    1999-09-01

    The Airborne Digital Camera is based on the WAOSS camera of the MARS-96 mission. The camera will provide a new basis for airborne photogrammetry and remote exploration. The ADC project aims at the development of the first commercial digital airborne camera. [German] Die Wurzeln des Projektes Airborne Digital Camera (ADC) liegen in der Mission MARS-96. Die hierfuer konzipierte Marskamera WAOSS lieferte die Grundlage fuer das innovative Konzept einer digitalen Flugzeugkamera. Diese ist auf dem Weg, die flugzeuggestuetzte Photogrammetrie und Fernerkundung auf eine technologisch voellig neue Basis zu stellen. Ziel des Projektes ADC ist die Entwicklung der ersten kommerziellen digitalen Luftbildkamera. (orig.)

  4. NIR Camera/spectrograph: TEQUILA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, E.; Sohn, E.; Cruz-Gonzalez, I.; Salas, L.; Parraga, A.; Torres, R.; Perez, M.; Cobos, F.; Tejada, C.; Iriarte, A.

    1998-11-01

    We describe the configuration and operation modes of the IR camera/spectrograph called TEQUILA, based on a 1024X1024 HgCdTe FPA (HAWAII). The optical system will allow three possible modes of operation: direct imaging, low and medium resolution spectroscopy and polarimetry. The basic system is being designed to consist of the following: 1) A LN$_2$ dewar that allocates the FPA together with the preamplifiers and a 24 filter position cylinder. 2) Control and readout electronics based on DSP modules linked to a workstation through fiber optics. 3) An optomechanical assembly cooled to -30oC that provides an efficient operation of the instrument in its various modes. 4) A control module for the moving parts of the instrument. The opto-mechanical assembly will have the necessary provisions to install a scanning Fabry-Perot interferometer and an adaptive optics correction system. The final image acquisition and control of the whole instrument is carried out in a workstation to provide the observer with a friendly environment. The system will operate at the 2.1 m telescope at the Observatorio Astronomico Nacional in San Pedro Martir, B.C. (Mexico), and is intended to be a first-light instrument for the new 7.8 m Mexican Infrared-Optical Telescope (TIM).

  5. Cloud Computing with Context Cameras

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickles, A. J.; Rosing, W. E.

    2016-05-01

    We summarize methods and plans to monitor and calibrate photometric observations with our autonomous, robotic network of 2m, 1m and 40cm telescopes. These are sited globally to optimize our ability to observe time-variable sources. Wide field "context" cameras are aligned with our network telescopes and cycle every ˜2 minutes through BVr'i'z' filters, spanning our optical range. We measure instantaneous zero-point offsets and transparency (throughput) against calibrators in the 5-12m range from the all-sky Tycho2 catalog, and periodically against primary standards. Similar measurements are made for all our science images, with typical fields of view of ˜0.5 degrees. These are matched against Landolt, Stetson and Sloan standards, and against calibrators in the 10-17m range from the all-sky APASS catalog. Such measurements provide pretty good instantaneous flux calibration, often to better than 5%, even in cloudy conditions. Zero-point and transparency measurements can be used to characterize, monitor and inter-compare sites and equipment. When accurate calibrations of Target against Standard fields are required, monitoring measurements can be used to select truly photometric periods when accurate calibrations can be automatically scheduled and performed.

  6. Cloud Computing with Context Cameras

    CERN Document Server

    Pickles, A J

    2013-01-01

    We summarize methods and plans to monitor and calibrate photometric observations with our autonomous, robotic network of 2m, 1m and 40cm telescopes. These are sited globally to optimize our ability to observe time-variable sources. Wide field "context" cameras are aligned with our network telescopes and cycle every 2 minutes through BVriz filters, spanning our optical range. We measure instantaneous zero-point offsets and transparency (throughput) against calibrators in the 5-12m range from the all-sky Tycho2 catalog, and periodically against primary standards. Similar measurements are made for all our science images, with typical fields of view of 0.5 degrees. These are matched against Landolt, Stetson and Sloan standards, and against calibrators in the 10-17m range from the all-sky APASS catalog. Such measurements provide pretty good instantaneous flux calibration, often to better than 5%, even in cloudy conditions. Zero-point and transparency measurements can be used to characterize, monitor and inter-comp...

  7. Smart Camera Technology Increases Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    When it comes to real-time image processing, everyone is an expert. People begin processing images at birth and rapidly learn to control their responses through the real-time processing of the human visual system. The human eye captures an enormous amount of information in the form of light images. In order to keep the brain from becoming overloaded with all the data, portions of an image are processed at a higher resolution than others, such as a traffic light changing colors. changing colors. In the same manner, image processing products strive to extract the information stored in light in the most efficient way possible. Digital cameras available today capture millions of pixels worth of information from incident light. However, at frame rates more than a few per second, existing digital interfaces are overwhelmed. All the user can do is store several frames to memory until that memory is full and then subsequent information is lost. New technology pairs existing digital interface technology with an off-the-shelf complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) imager to provide more than 500 frames per second of specialty image processing. The result is a cost-effective detection system unlike any other.

  8. True three-dimensional camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kornreich, Philipp; Farell, Bart

    2013-01-01

    An imager that can measure the distance from each pixel to the point on the object that is in focus at the pixel is described. This is accomplished by short photo-conducting lightguides at each pixel. In the eye the rods and cones are the fiber-like lightguides. The device uses ambient light that is only coherent in spherical shell-shaped light packets of thickness of one coherence length. Modern semiconductor technology permits the construction of lightguides shorter than a coherence length of ambient light. Each of the frequency components of the broad band light arriving at a pixel has a phase proportional to the distance from an object point to its image pixel. Light frequency components in the packet arriving at a pixel through a convex lens add constructively only if the light comes from the object point in focus at this pixel. The light in packets from all other object points cancels. Thus the pixel receives light from one object point only. The lightguide has contacts along its length. The lightguide charge carriers are generated by the light patterns. These light patterns, and thus the photocurrent, shift in response to the phase of the input signal. Thus, the photocurrent is a function of the distance from the pixel to its object point. Applications include autonomous vehicle navigation and robotic vision. Another application is a crude teleportation system consisting of a camera and a three-dimensional printer at a remote location.

  9. Electronic Image Readout Devices Used In Conjunction With Picosecond Streak Cameras

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavailler, C.; Genoud, M.; Fleurot, N.; Launspach, J.; Mazataud, D.; Mens, A.

    1985-02-01

    Understanding the laser-matter interaction experiments require a dynamic recording of the phenomena as well as a good knowledge of the laser pulse occuring during the irradiation of the target ; those measurements are made with streak cameras the increasing number of which leads to processing problems when the results are recorded on films. Furthermore, since physicists wish to have those temporal information immediatly, we unfolded automatic image readout devices fitted specially to streak cameras. The first one used an ISOCON tube operating with a slow sweep (0.5 s frame)1-2. The sensitivity of the tube was very good but its dynamic range was too limited when seeing pulsed images at low light level. So we developped two electronic readout chains with solid state devices which behave better for that kind of light. The first one was designed to get the most information along the temporal axis of the camera sweep (1024 points) in one or two spatial channels ; this device operates a linear 1024 photodiodes array the signal of which is digitized on 12 bits. We have obtained a temporal resolution better than 15 ps and a dynamic range over 500 ; this system is mainly useful to study laser pulses (rise time, temporal profile...)3. For applications requiring two dimension images, we studied and realized a device operating a CCD array and a fiber optics reducer (40-18 mm) adapting the image of the streak camera screen to the dimensions of the input fiber optics of the CCD. A comparison has been made on different CCD cameras on a test setup which simulates the experimental conditions, in order to choose the CCD which would fit the best for that purpose ; we present these results here, as well as those of the associated readout chains.

  10. Automatic camera tracking for remote manipulators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The problem of automatic camera tracking of mobile objects is addressed with specific reference to remote manipulators and using either fixed or mobile cameras. The technique uses a kinematic approach employing 4 x 4 coordinate transformation matrices to solve for the needed camera PAN and TILT angles. No vision feedback systems are used, as the required input data are obtained entirely from position sensors from the manipulator and the camera-positioning system. All hardware requirements are generally satisfied by currently available remote manipulator systems with a supervisory computer. The system discussed here implements linear plus on/off (bang-bang) closed-loop control with a +-20 deadband. The deadband area is desirable to avoid operator seasickness caused by continuous camera movement. Programming considerations for camera control, including operator interface options, are discussed. The example problem presented is based on an actual implementation using a PDP 11/34 computer, a TeleOperator Systems SM-229 manipulator, and an Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) camera-positioning system. 3 references, 6 figures, 2 tables

  11. Sky camera geometric calibration using solar observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urquhart, Bryan; Kurtz, Ben; Kleissl, Jan

    2016-09-01

    A camera model and associated automated calibration procedure for stationary daytime sky imaging cameras is presented. The specific modeling and calibration needs are motivated by remotely deployed cameras used to forecast solar power production where cameras point skyward and use 180° fisheye lenses. Sun position in the sky and on the image plane provides a simple and automated approach to calibration; special equipment or calibration patterns are not required. Sun position in the sky is modeled using a solar position algorithm (requiring latitude, longitude, altitude and time as inputs). Sun position on the image plane is detected using a simple image processing algorithm. The performance evaluation focuses on the calibration of a camera employing a fisheye lens with an equisolid angle projection, but the camera model is general enough to treat most fixed focal length, central, dioptric camera systems with a photo objective lens. Calibration errors scale with the noise level of the sun position measurement in the image plane, but the calibration is robust across a large range of noise in the sun position. Calibration performance on clear days ranged from 0.94 to 1.24 pixels root mean square error.

  12. Thermal characterization of a NIR hyperspectral camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parra, Francisca; Meza, Pablo; Pezoa, Jorge E.; Torres, Sergio N.

    2011-11-01

    The accuracy achieved by applications employing hyperspectral data collected by hyperspectral cameras depends heavily on a proper estimation of the true spectral signal. Beyond question, a proper knowledge about the sensor response is key in this process. It is argued here that the common first order representation for hyperspectral NIR sensors does not represent accurately their thermal wavelength-dependent response, hence calling for more sophisticated and precise models. In this work, a wavelength-dependent, nonlinear model for a near infrared (NIR) hyperspectral camera is proposed based on its experimental characterization. Experiments have shown that when temperature is used as the input signal, the camera response is almost linear at low wavelengths, while as the wavelength increases the response becomes exponential. This wavelength-dependent behavior is attributed to the nonlinear responsivity of the sensors in the NIR spectrum. As a result, the proposed model considers different nonlinear input/output responses, at different wavelengths. To complete the representation, both the nonuniform response of neighboring detectors in the camera and the time varying behavior of the input temperature have also been modeled. The experimental characterization and the proposed model assessment have been conducted using a NIR hyperspectral camera in the range of 900 to 1700 [nm] and a black body radiator source. The proposed model was utilized to successfully compensate for both: (i) the nonuniformity noise inherent to the NIR camera, and (ii) the stripping noise induced by the nonuniformity and the scanning process of the camera while rendering hyperspectral images.

  13. Automatic camera tracking for remote manipulators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The problem of automatic camera tracking of mobile objects is addressed with specific reference to remote manipulators and using either fixed or mobile cameras. The technique uses a kinematic approach employing 4 x 4 coordinate transformation matrices to solve for the needed camera PAN and TILT angles. No vision feedback systems are used, as the required input data are obtained entirely from position sensors from the manipulator and the camera-positioning system. All hardware requirements are generally satisfied by currently available remote manipulator systems with a supervisory computer. The system discussed here implements linear plus on/off (bang-bang) closed-loop control with a +-2-deg deadband. The deadband area is desirable to avoid operator seasickness caused by continuous camera movement. Programming considerations for camera control, including operator interface options, are discussed. The example problem presented is based on an actual implementation using a PDP 11/34 computer, a TeleOperator Systems SM-229 manipulator, and an Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) camera-positioning system. 3 references, 6 figures, 2 tables

  14. Automatic camera tracking for remote manipulators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The problem of automatic camera tracking of mobile objects is addressed with specific reference to remote manipulators and using either fixed or mobile cameras. The technique uses a kinematic approach employing 4 x 4 coordinate transformation matrices to solve for the needed camera PAN and TILT angles. No vision feedback systems are used, as the required input data are obtained entirely from position sensors from the manipulator and the camera-positioning system. All hardware requirements are generally satisfied by currently available remote manipulator systems with a supervisory computer. The system discussed here implements linear plus on/off (''bang-bang'') closed-loop control with a +-2-deg deadband. The deadband area is desirable to avoid operator ''seasickness'' caused by continuous camera movement. Programming considerations for camera control, including operator interface options, are discussed. The example problem presented is based on an actual implementation using a PDP 11/34 computer, a TeleOperator System SM-229 manipulator, and an Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) camera-positioning system

  15. A solid state streak camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleinfelder, Stuart; Kwiatkowski, Kris; Shah, Ashish

    2005-03-01

    A monolithic solid-state streak camera has been designed and fabricated in a standard 0.35 μm, 3.3V, thin-oxide digital CMOS process. It consists of a 1-D linear array of 150 integrated photodiodes, followed by fast analog buffers and on-chip, 150-deep analog frame storage. Each pixel's front-end consists of an n-diffusion / p-well photodiode, with fast complementary reset transistors, and a source-follower buffer. Each buffer drives a line of 150 sample circuits per pixel, with each sample circuit consisting of an n-channel sample switch, a 0.1 pF double-polysilicon sample capacitor, a reset switch to definitively clear the capacitor, and a multiplexed source-follower readout buffer. Fast on-chip sample clock generation was designed using a self-timed break-before-make operation that insures the maximum time for sample settling. The electrical analog bandwidth of each channels buffer and sampling circuits was designed to exceed 1 GHz. Sampling speeds of 400 M-frames/s have been achieved using electrical input signals. Operation with optical input signals has been demonstrated at 100 MHz sample rates. Sample output multiplexing allows the readout of all 22,500 samples (150 pixels times 150 samples per pixel) in about 3 ms. The chip"s output range was a maximum of 1.48 V on a 3.3V supply voltage, corresponding to a maximum 2.55 V swing at the photodiode. Time-varying output noise was measured to be 0.51 mV, rms, at 100 MHz, for a dynamic range of ~11.5 bits, rms. Circuit design details are presented, along with the results of electrical measurements and optical experiments with fast pulsed laser light sources at several wavelengths.

  16. Determining camera parameters for round glassware measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldner, F. O.; Costa, P. B.; Gomes, J. F. S.; Filho, D. M. E. S.; Leta, F. R.

    2015-01-01

    Nowadays there are many types of accessible cameras, including digital single lens reflex ones. Although these cameras are not usually employed in machine vision applications, they can be an interesting choice. However, these cameras have many available parameters to be chosen by the user and it may be difficult to select the best of these in order to acquire images with the needed metrological quality. This paper proposes a methodology to select a set of parameters that will supply a machine vision system with the needed quality image, considering the measurement required of a laboratory glassware.

  17. Uncertainty of temperature measurement with thermal cameras

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chrzanowski, Krzysztof; Matyszkiel, Robert; Fischer, Joachim; Barela, Jaroslaw

    2001-06-01

    All main international metrological organizations are proposing a parameter called uncertainty as a measure of the accuracy of measurements. A mathematical model that enables the calculations of uncertainty of temperature measurement with thermal cameras is presented. The standard uncertainty or the expanded uncertainty of temperature measurement of the tested object can be calculated when the bounds within which the real object effective emissivity (epsilon) r, the real effective background temperature Tba(r), and the real effective atmospheric transmittance (tau) a(r) are located and can be estimated; and when the intrinsic uncertainty of the thermal camera and the relative spectral sensitivity of the thermal camera are known.

  18. Close-range photogrammetry with video cameras

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burner, A. W.; Snow, W. L.; Goad, W. K.

    1985-01-01

    Examples of photogrammetric measurements made with video cameras uncorrected for electronic and optical lens distortions are presented. The measurement and correction of electronic distortions of video cameras using both bilinear and polynomial interpolation are discussed. Examples showing the relative stability of electronic distortions over long periods of time are presented. Having corrected for electronic distortion, the data are further corrected for lens distortion using the plumb line method. Examples of close-range photogrammetric data taken with video cameras corrected for both electronic and optical lens distortion are presented.

  19. Screen-Camera Calibration Using Gray Codes

    OpenAIRE

    FRANCKEN, Yannick; Hermans, Chris; Bekaert, Philippe

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we present a method for efficient calibration of a screen-camera setup, in which the camera is not directly facing the screen. A spherical mirror is used to make the screen visible to the camera. Using Gray code illumination patterns, we can uniquely identify the reflection of each screen pixel on the imaged spherical mirror. This allows us to compute a large set of 2D-3D correspondences, using only two sphere locations. Compared to previous work, this means we require less manu...

  20. Fuzzy logic control for camera tracking system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lea, Robert N.; Fritz, R. H.; Giarratano, J.; Jani, Yashvant

    1992-01-01

    A concept utilizing fuzzy theory has been developed for a camera tracking system to provide support for proximity operations and traffic management around the Space Station Freedom. Fuzzy sets and fuzzy logic based reasoning are used in a control system which utilizes images from a camera and generates required pan and tilt commands to track and maintain a moving target in the camera's field of view. This control system can be implemented on a fuzzy chip to provide an intelligent sensor for autonomous operations. Capabilities of the control system can be expanded to include approach, handover to other sensors, caution and warning messages.

  1. Neural network method for characterizing video cameras

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Shuangquan; Zhao, Dazun

    1998-08-01

    This paper presents a neural network method for characterizing color video camera. A multilayer feedforward network with the error back-propagation learning rule for training, is used as a nonlinear transformer to model a camera, which realizes a mapping from the CIELAB color space to RGB color space. With SONY video camera, D65 illuminant, Pritchard Spectroradiometer, 410 JIS color charts as training data and 36 charts as testing data, results show that the mean error of training data is 2.9 and that of testing data is 4.0 in a 2563 RGB space.

  2. Task Panel Sensing with a Movable Camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfe, William J.; Mathis, Donald W.; Magee, Michael; Hoff, William A.

    1990-03-01

    This paper discusses the integration of model based computer vision with a robot planning system. The vision system deals with structured objects with several movable parts (the "Task Panel"). The robot planning system controls a T3-746 manipulator that has a gripper and a wrist mounted camera. There are two control functions: move the gripper into position for manipulating the panel fixtures (doors, latches, etc.), and move the camera into positions preferred by the vision system. This paper emphasizes the issues related to repositioning the camera for improved viewpoints.

  3. Sealed ion accelerator tubes (survey)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The first publications on developing commercial models of small-scale sealed accelerator tubes in which neutrons are generated appeared in the foreign press in 1954 to 1957; they were very brief and were advertising-oriented. The tubes were designed for neutron logging of oil wells instead of ampule neutron sources (Po + Be, Ra + Be). Later, instruments of this type began to be called neutron tubes from the resulting neutron radiation that they gave off. In Soviet Union a neutron tube was developed in 1958 in connection with the development of the pulsed neutron-neutron method of studying the geological profile of oil wells. At that time the tube developed was intended, in the view of its inventors, to replace standard isotope sources with constant neutron yield. A fairly detailed survey of neutron tubes was made in the studies. 8 refs., 8 figs

  4. Steam generator tube integrity program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dierks, D.R.; Shack, W.J. [Argonne National Laboratory, IL (United States); Muscara, J.

    1996-03-01

    A new research program on steam generator tubing degradation is being sponsored by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) at Argonne National Laboratory. This program is intended to support a performance-based steam generator tube integrity rule. Critical areas addressed by the program include evaluation of the processes used for the in-service inspection of steam generator tubes and recommendations for improving the reliability and accuracy of inspections; validation and improvement of correlations for evaluating integrity and leakage of degraded steam generator tubes, and validation and improvement of correlations and models for predicting degradation in steam generator tubes as aging occurs. The studies will focus on mill-annealed Alloy 600 tubing, however, tests will also be performed on replacement materials such as thermally-treated Alloy 600 or 690. An overview of the technical work planned for the program is given.

  5. The photothermal camera - a new non destructive inspection tool; La camera photothermique - une nouvelle methode de controle non destructif

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piriou, M. [AREVA NP Centre Technique SFE - Zone Industrielle et Portuaire Sud - BP13 - 71380 Saint Marcel (France)

    2007-07-01

    The Photothermal Camera, developed by the Non-Destructive Inspection Department at AREVA NP's Technical Center, is a device created to replace penetrant testing, a method whose drawbacks include environmental pollutants, industrial complexity and potential operator exposure. We have already seen how the Photothermal Camera can work alongside or instead of conventional surface inspection techniques such as penetrant, magnetic particle or eddy currents. With it, users can detect without any surface contact ligament defects or openings measuring just a few microns on rough oxidized, machined or welded metal parts. It also enables them to work on geometrically varied surfaces, hot parts or insulating (dielectric) materials without interference from the magnetic properties of the inspected part. The Photothermal Camera method has already been used for in situ inspections of tube/plate welds on an intermediate heat exchanger of the Phenix fast reactor. It also replaced the penetrant method for weld inspections on the ITER vacuum chamber, for weld crack detection on vessel head adapter J-welds, and for detecting cracks brought on by heat crazing. What sets this innovative method apart from others is its ability to operate at distances of up to two meters from the inspected part, as well as its remote control functionality at distances of up to 15 meters (or more via Ethernet), and its emissions-free environmental cleanliness. These make it a true alternative to penetrant testing, to the benefit of operator and environmental protection. (author) [French] La Camera Photothermique, developpee par le departement des Examens Non Destructifs du Centre Technique de AREVA NP, est un equipement destine a remplacer le ressuage, source de pollution pour l'environnement, de complexite pour l'industrialisation et eventuellement de dosimetrie pour les operateurs. Il a ete demontre que la Camera Photothermique peut etre utilisee en complement ou en remplacement des

  6. Alternate tube plugging criteria for steam generator tubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cueto-Felgueroso, C.; Aparicio, C.B. [Tecnatom, S.A., Madrid (Spain)

    1997-02-01

    The tubing of the Steam Generators constitutes more than half of the reactor coolant pressure boundary. Specific requirements governing the maintenance of steam generator tubes integrity are set in Plant Technical Specifications and in Section XI of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code. The operating experience of Steam Generator tubes of PWR plants has shown the existence of some types of degradatory processes. Every one of these has an specific cause and affects one or more zones of the tubes. In the case of Spanish Power Plants, and depending on the particular Plant considered, they should be mentioned the Primary Water Stress Corrosion Cracking (PWSCC) at the roll transition zone (RTZ), the Outside Diameter Stress Corrosion Cracking (ODSCC) at the Tube Support Plate (TSP) intersections and the fretting with the Anti-Vibration Bars (AVBs) or with the Support Plates in the preheater zone. The In-Service Inspections by Eddy Currents constitutes the standard method for assuring the SG tubes integrity and they permit the monitoring of the defects during the service life of the plant. When the degradation reaches a determined limit, called the plugging limit, the SG tube must be either repaired or retired from service by plugging. Customarily, the plugging limit is related to the depth of the defect. Such depth is typically 40% of the wall thickness of the tube and is applicable to any type of defect in the tube. In its origin, that limit was established for tubes thinned by wastage, which was the predominant degradation in the seventies. The application of this criterion for axial crack-like defects, as, for instance, those due to PWSCC in the roll transition zone, has lead to an excessive and unnecessary number of tubes being plugged. This has lead to the development of defect specific plugging criteria. Examples of the application of such criteria are discussed in the article.

  7. Dermatology on YouTube

    OpenAIRE

    Boyers, Lindsay N.; Quest, Tyler; Karimkhani, Chante; Connett, Jessica; Dellavalle, Robert P.

    2014-01-01

    YouTube, reaches upwards of six billion users on a monthly basis and is a unique source of information distribution and communication. Although the influence of YouTube on personal health decision-making is well established, this study assessed the type of content and viewership on a broad scope of dermatology related content on YouTube. Select terms (i.e. dermatology, sun protection, skin cancer, skin cancer awareness, and skin conditions) were searched on YouTube. Overall, the results inclu...

  8. YouTube and 'psychiatry'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Robert; Miller, John; Collins, Noel

    2015-12-01

    YouTube is a video-sharing website that is increasingly used to share and disseminate health-related information, particularly among younger people. There are reports that social media sites, such as YouTube, are being used to communicate an anti-psychiatry message but this has never been confirmed in any published analysis of YouTube clip content. This descriptive study revealed that the representation of 'psychiatry' during summer 2012 was predominantly negative. A subsequent smaller re-analysis suggests that the negative portrayal of 'psychiatry' on YouTube is a stable phenomenon. The significance of this and how it could be addressed are discussed.

  9. YouTube and 'psychiatry'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Robert; Miller, John; Collins, Noel

    2015-12-01

    YouTube is a video-sharing website that is increasingly used to share and disseminate health-related information, particularly among younger people. There are reports that social media sites, such as YouTube, are being used to communicate an anti-psychiatry message but this has never been confirmed in any published analysis of YouTube clip content. This descriptive study revealed that the representation of 'psychiatry' during summer 2012 was predominantly negative. A subsequent smaller re-analysis suggests that the negative portrayal of 'psychiatry' on YouTube is a stable phenomenon. The significance of this and how it could be addressed are discussed. PMID:26755987

  10. Learning from YouTube [Video Book

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juhasz, Alexandra

    2011-01-01

    YouTube is a mess. YouTube is for amateurs. YouTube dissolves the real. YouTube is host to inconceivable combos. YouTube is best for corporate-made community. YouTube is badly baked. These are a few of the things Media Studies professor Alexandra Juhasz (and her class) learned about YouTube when she set out to investigate what actually happens…

  11. Camera Based Navigation System with Augmented Reality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Marcu

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays smart mobile devices have enough processing power, memory, storage and always connected wireless communication bandwidth that makes them available for any type of application. Augmented reality (AR proposes a new type of applications that tries to enhance the real world by superimposing or combining virtual objects or computer generated information with it. In this paper we present a camera based navigation system with augmented reality integration. The proposed system aims to the following: the user points the camera of the smartphone towards a point of interest, like a building or any other place, and the application searches for relevant information about that specific place and superimposes the data over the video feed on the display. When the user moves the camera away, changing its orientation, the data changes as well, in real-time, with the proper information about the place that is now in the camera view.

  12. Action selection for single-camera SLAM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidal-Calleja, Teresa A; Sanfeliu, Alberto; Andrade-Cetto, Juan

    2010-12-01

    A method for evaluating, at video rate, the quality of actions for a single camera while mapping unknown indoor environments is presented. The strategy maximizes mutual information between measurements and states to help the camera avoid making ill-conditioned measurements that are appropriate to lack of depth in monocular vision systems. Our system prompts a user with the appropriate motion commands during 6-DOF visual simultaneous localization and mapping with a handheld camera. Additionally, the system has been ported to a mobile robotic platform, thus closing the control-estimation loop. To show the viability of the approach, simulations and experiments are presented for the unconstrained motion of a handheld camera and for the motion of a mobile robot with nonholonomic constraints. When combined with a path planner, the technique safely drives to a marked goal while, at the same time, producing an optimal estimated map. PMID:20350845

  13. Research of Camera Calibration Based on DSP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheng Zhang

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available To take advantage of the high-efficiency and stability of DSP in the data processing and the functions of OpenCV library, this study brought forward a scheme that camera calibration in DSP embedded system calibration. An arithmetic of camera calibration based on OpenCV is designed by analyzing the camera model and lens distortion. The transplantation of EMCV to DSP is completed and the arithmetic of camera calibration is migrated and optimized based on the CCS development environment and the DSP/BIOS system. On the premise of realizing calibration function, this arithmetic improves the efficiency of program execution and the precision of calibration and lays the foundation for further research of the visual location based on DSP embedded system.

  14. Calibration Procedures on Oblique Camera Setups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemper, G.; Melykuti, B.; Yu, C.

    2016-06-01

    Beside the creation of virtual animated 3D City models, analysis for homeland security and city planning, the accurately determination of geometric features out of oblique imagery is an important task today. Due to the huge number of single images the reduction of control points force to make use of direct referencing devices. This causes a precise camera-calibration and additional adjustment procedures. This paper aims to show the workflow of the various calibration steps and will present examples of the calibration flight with the final 3D City model. In difference to most other software, the oblique cameras are used not as co-registered sensors in relation to the nadir one, all camera images enter the AT process as single pre-oriented data. This enables a better post calibration in order to detect variations in the single camera calibration and other mechanical effects. The shown sensor (Oblique Imager) is based o 5 Phase One cameras were the nadir one has 80 MPIX equipped with a 50 mm lens while the oblique ones capture images with 50 MPix using 80 mm lenses. The cameras are mounted robust inside a housing to protect this against physical and thermal deformations. The sensor head hosts also an IMU which is connected to a POS AV GNSS Receiver. The sensor is stabilized by a gyro-mount which creates floating Antenna -IMU lever arms. They had to be registered together with the Raw GNSS-IMU Data. The camera calibration procedure was performed based on a special calibration flight with 351 shoots of all 5 cameras and registered the GPS/IMU data. This specific mission was designed in two different altitudes with additional cross lines on each flying heights. The five images from each exposure positions have no overlaps but in the block there are many overlaps resulting in up to 200 measurements per points. On each photo there were in average 110 well distributed measured points which is a satisfying number for the camera calibration. In a first step with the help of

  15. CALIBRATION PROCEDURES ON OBLIQUE CAMERA SETUPS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Kemper

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Beside the creation of virtual animated 3D City models, analysis for homeland security and city planning, the accurately determination of geometric features out of oblique imagery is an important task today. Due to the huge number of single images the reduction of control points force to make use of direct referencing devices. This causes a precise camera-calibration and additional adjustment procedures. This paper aims to show the workflow of the various calibration steps and will present examples of the calibration flight with the final 3D City model. In difference to most other software, the oblique cameras are used not as co-registered sensors in relation to the nadir one, all camera images enter the AT process as single pre-oriented data. This enables a better post calibration in order to detect variations in the single camera calibration and other mechanical effects. The shown sensor (Oblique Imager is based o 5 Phase One cameras were the nadir one has 80 MPIX equipped with a 50 mm lens while the oblique ones capture images with 50 MPix using 80 mm lenses. The cameras are mounted robust inside a housing to protect this against physical and thermal deformations. The sensor head hosts also an IMU which is connected to a POS AV GNSS Receiver. The sensor is stabilized by a gyro-mount which creates floating Antenna –IMU lever arms. They had to be registered together with the Raw GNSS-IMU Data. The camera calibration procedure was performed based on a special calibration flight with 351 shoots of all 5 cameras and registered the GPS/IMU data. This specific mission was designed in two different altitudes with additional cross lines on each flying heights. The five images from each exposure positions have no overlaps but in the block there are many overlaps resulting in up to 200 measurements per points. On each photo there were in average 110 well distributed measured points which is a satisfying number for the camera calibration. In a first

  16. Increase in the Array Television Camera Sensitivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakhrukhanov, O. S.

    A simple adder circuit for successive television frames that enables to considerably increase the sensitivity of such radiation detectors is suggested by the example of array television camera QN902K.

  17. Traffic Cameras, MDTA Cameras, Camera locations at MDTA, Camera location inside the tunnel (SENSITIVE), Published in 2010, 1:1200 (1in=100ft) scale, Maryland Transportation Authority.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Traffic Cameras dataset, published at 1:1200 (1in=100ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Field Survey/GPS information as of 2010. It is described as...

  18. Ge Quantum Dot Infrared Imaging Camera Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Luna Innovations Incorporated proposes to develop a high performance Ge quantum dots-based infrared (IR) imaging camera on Si substrate. The high sensitivity, large...

  19. A Survey of Catadioptric Omnidirectional Camera Calibration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Zhang

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available For dozen years, computer vision becomes more popular, in which omnidirectional camera has a larger field of view and widely been used in many fields, such as: robot navigation, visual surveillance, virtual reality, three-dimensional reconstruction, and so on. Camera calibration is an essential step to obtain three-dimensional geometric information from a two-dimensional image. Meanwhile, the omnidirectional camera image has catadioptric distortion, which need to be corrected in many applications, thus the study of such camera calibration method has important theoretical significance and practical applications. This paper firstly introduces the research status of catadioptric omnidirectional imaging system; then the image formation process of catadioptric omnidirectional imaging system has been given; finally a simple classification of omnidirectional imaging method is given, and we discussed the advantages and disadvantages of these methods.

  20. Compact stereo endoscopic camera using microprism arrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Sung-Pyo; Kim, Jae-Jun; Jang, Kyung-Won; Song, Weon-Kook; Jeong, Ki-Hun

    2016-03-15

    This work reports a microprism array (MPA) based compact stereo endoscopic camera with a single image sensor. The MPAs were monolithically fabricated by using two-step photolithography and geometry-guided resist reflow to form an appropriate prism angle for stereo image pair formation. The fabricated MPAs were transferred onto a glass substrate with a UV curable resin replica by using polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) replica molding and then successfully integrated in front of a single camera module. The stereo endoscopic camera with MPA splits an image into two stereo images and successfully demonstrates the binocular disparities between the stereo image pairs for objects with different distances. This stereo endoscopic camera can serve as a compact and 3D imaging platform for medical, industrial, or military uses.

  1. Selecting the Right Camera for Your Desktop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, John

    1997-01-01

    Provides an overview of camera options and selection criteria for desktop videoconferencing. Key factors in image quality are discussed, including lighting, resolution, and signal-to-noise ratio; and steps to improve image quality are suggested. (LRW)

  2. Vacuum compatible miniature CCD camera head

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conder, Alan D.

    2000-01-01

    A charge-coupled device (CCD) camera head which can replace film for digital imaging of visible light, ultraviolet radiation, and soft to penetrating x-rays, such as within a target chamber where laser produced plasmas are studied. The camera head is small, capable of operating both in and out of a vacuum environment, and is versatile. The CCD camera head uses PC boards with an internal heat sink connected to the chassis for heat dissipation, which allows for close(0.04" for example) stacking of the PC boards. Integration of this CCD camera head into existing instrumentation provides a substantial enhancement of diagnostic capabilities for studying high energy density plasmas, for a variety of military industrial, and medical imaging applications.

  3. Infrared imaging of LED lighting tubes and fluorescent tubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siikanen, Sami; Kivi, Sini; Kauppinen, Timo; Juuti, Mikko

    2011-05-01

    The low energy efficiency of conventional light sources is mainly caused by generation of waste heat. We used infrared (IR) imaging in order to monitor the heating of both LED tube luminaires and ordinary T8 fluorescent tubes. The IR images showed clearly how the surface temperatures of the fluorescent tube ends quickly rose up to about +50...+70°C, whereas the highest surface temperatures seen on the LED tubes were only about +30...+40°C. The IR images demonstrated how the heat produced by the individual LED chips can be efficiently guided to the supporting structure in order to keep the LED emitters cool and hence maintain efficient operation. The consumed electrical power and produced illuminance were also recorded during 24 hour measurements. In order to assess the total luminous efficacy of the luminaires, separate luminous flux measurements were made in a large integrating sphere. The currently available LED tubes showed efficacies of up to 88 lm/W, whereas a standard "cool white" T8 fluorescent tube produced ca. 75 lm/W. Both lamp types gave ca. 110 - 130 lx right below the ceiling-mounted luminaire, but the LED tubes consume only 40 - 55% of the electric power compared to fluorescent tubes.

  4. AUTOMATIC THEFT SECURITY SYSTEM (SMART SURVEILLANCE CAMERA)

    OpenAIRE

    Veena G.S; Chandrika Prasad; Khaleel K

    2013-01-01

    The proposed work aims to create a smart application camera, with the intention of eliminating the need for a human presence to detect any unwanted sinister activities, such as theft in this case. Spread among the campus, are certain valuable biometric identification systems at arbitrary locations. The application monitosr these systems (hereafter referred to as “object”) using our smart camera system based on an OpenCV platform. By using OpenCV Haar Training, employing the Vio...

  5. The Large APEX Bolometer Camera LABOCA

    CERN Document Server

    Siringo, G; Kovács, A; Schuller, F; Weiss, A; Esch, W; Gemuend, H P; Jethava, N; Lundershausen, G; Colin, A; Guesten, R; Menten, K M; Beelen, A; Bertoldi, F; Beeman, J W; Haller, E E

    2009-01-01

    The Large APEX Bolometer Camera, LABOCA, has been commissioned for operation as a new facility instrument t the Atacama Pathfinder Experiment 12m submillimeter telescope. This new 295-bolometer total power camera, operating in the 870 micron atmospheric window, combined with the high efficiency of APEX and the excellent atmospheric transmission at the site, offers unprecedented capability in mapping submillimeter continuum emission for a wide range of astronomical purposes.

  6. CMOS Camera Array With Onboard Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gat, Nahum

    2009-01-01

    A compact CMOS (complementary metal oxide semiconductor) camera system has been developed with high resolution (1.3 Megapixels), a USB (universal serial bus) 2.0 interface, and an onboard memory. Exposure times, and other operating parameters, are sent from a control PC via the USB port. Data from the camera can be received via the USB port and the interface allows for simple control and data capture through a laptop computer.

  7. Imaging camera with multiwire proportional chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The camera for imaging radioisotope dislocations for use in nuclear medicine or for other applications, claimed in the patent, is provided by two multiwire lattices for the x-coordinate connected to a first coincidence circuit, and by two multiwire lattices for the y-coordinate connected to a second coincidence circuit. This arrangement eliminates the need of using a collimator and increases camera sensitivity while reducing production cost. (Ha)

  8. An imaging system for a gamma camera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A detailed description is given of a novel gamma camera which is designed to produce superior images than conventional cameras used in nuclear medicine. The detector consists of a solid state detector (e.g. germanium) which is formed to have a plurality of discrete components to enable 2-dimensional position identification. Details of the electronic processing circuits are given and the problems and limitations introduced by noise are discussed in full. (U.K.)

  9. Image noise induced errors in camera positioning

    OpenAIRE

    G. Chesi; Hung, YS

    2007-01-01

    The problem of evaluating worst-case camera positioning error induced by unknown-but-bounded (UBB) image noise for a given object-camera configuration is considered. Specifically, it is shown that upper bounds to the rotation and translation worst-case error for a certain image noise intensity can be obtained through convex optimizations. These upper bounds, contrary to lower bounds provided by standard optimization tools, allow one to design robust visual servo systems. © 2007 IEEE.

  10. A stereoscopic lens for digital cinema cameras

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipton, Lenny; Rupkalvis, John

    2015-03-01

    Live-action stereoscopic feature films are, for the most part, produced using a costly post-production process to convert planar cinematography into stereo-pair images and are only occasionally shot stereoscopically using bulky dual-cameras that are adaptations of the Ramsdell rig. The stereoscopic lens design described here might very well encourage more live-action image capture because it uses standard digital cinema cameras and workflow to save time and money.

  11. Nasogastric tube syndrome induced by an indwelling long intestinal tube.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sano, Naoki; Yamamoto, Masayoshi; Nagai, Kentaro; Yamada, Keiichi; Ohkohchi, Nobuhiro

    2016-04-21

    The nasogastric tube (NGT) has become a frequently used device to alleviate gastrointestinal symptoms. Nasogastric tube syndrome (NTS) is an uncommon but potentially life-threatening complication of an indwelling NGT. NTS is characterized by acute upper airway obstruction due to bilateral vocal cord paralysis. We report a case of a 76-year-old man with NTS, induced by an indwelling long intestinal tube. He was admitted to our hospital for treatment of sigmoid colon cancer. He underwent sigmoidectomy to release a bowel obstruction, and had a long intestinal tube inserted to decompress the intestinal tract. He presented acute dyspnea following prolonged intestinal intubation, and bronchoscopy showed bilateral vocal cord paralysis. The NGT was removed immediately, and tracheotomy was performed. The patient was finally discharged in a fully recovered state. NTS be considered in patients complaining of acute upper airway obstruction, not only with a NGT inserted but also with a long intestinal tube. PMID:27099450

  12. Nasogastric tube syndrome induced by an indwelling long intestinal tube.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sano, Naoki; Yamamoto, Masayoshi; Nagai, Kentaro; Yamada, Keiichi; Ohkohchi, Nobuhiro

    2016-04-21

    The nasogastric tube (NGT) has become a frequently used device to alleviate gastrointestinal symptoms. Nasogastric tube syndrome (NTS) is an uncommon but potentially life-threatening complication of an indwelling NGT. NTS is characterized by acute upper airway obstruction due to bilateral vocal cord paralysis. We report a case of a 76-year-old man with NTS, induced by an indwelling long intestinal tube. He was admitted to our hospital for treatment of sigmoid colon cancer. He underwent sigmoidectomy to release a bowel obstruction, and had a long intestinal tube inserted to decompress the intestinal tract. He presented acute dyspnea following prolonged intestinal intubation, and bronchoscopy showed bilateral vocal cord paralysis. The NGT was removed immediately, and tracheotomy was performed. The patient was finally discharged in a fully recovered state. NTS be considered in patients complaining of acute upper airway obstruction, not only with a NGT inserted but also with a long intestinal tube.

  13. A comparison of colour micrographs obtained with a charged couple devise (CCD) camera and a 35-mm camera

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Mads Møller; Smedegaard, Jesper; Jensen, Peter Koch;

    2005-01-01

    ophthalmology, colour CCD camera, colour film, digital imaging, resolution, micrographs, histopathology, light microscopy......ophthalmology, colour CCD camera, colour film, digital imaging, resolution, micrographs, histopathology, light microscopy...

  14. Lag Camera: A Moving Multi-Camera Array for Scene-Acquisition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Xu

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Many applications, such as telepresence, virtual reality, and interactive walkthroughs, require a three-dimensional (3Dmodel of real-world environments. Methods, such as lightfields, geometric reconstruction and computer vision use cameras to acquire visual samples of the environment and construct a model. Unfortunately, obtaining models of real-world locations is a challenging task. In particular, important environments are often actively in use, containing moving objects, such as people entering and leaving the scene. The methods previously listed have difficulty in capturing the color and structure of the environment while in the presence of moving and temporary occluders. We describe a class of cameras called lag cameras. The main concept is to generalize a camera to take samples over space and time. Such a camera, can easily and interactively detect moving objects while continuously moving through the environment. Moreover, since both the lag camera and occluder are moving, the scene behind the occluder is captured by the lag camera even from viewpoints where the occluder lies in between the lag camera and the hidden scene. We demonstrate an implementation of a lag camera, complete with analysis and captured environments.

  15. The opto-cryo-mechanical design of the short wavelength camera for the CCAT Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parshley, Stephen C.; Adams, Joseph; Nikola, Thomas; Stacey, Gordon J.

    2014-07-01

    The CCAT observatory is a 25-m class Gregorian telescope designed for submillimeter observations that will be deployed at Cerro Chajnantor (~5600 m) in the high Atacama Desert region of Chile. The Short Wavelength Camera (SWCam) for CCAT is an integral part of the observatory, enabling the study of star formation at high and low redshifts. SWCam will be a facility instrument, available at first light and operating in the telluric windows at wavelengths of 350, 450, and 850 μm. In order to trace the large curvature of the CCAT focal plane, and to suit the available instrument space, SWCam is divided into seven sub-cameras, each configured to a particular telluric window. A fully refractive optical design in each sub-camera will produce diffraction-limited images. The material of choice for the optical elements is silicon, due to its excellent transmission in the submillimeter and its high index of refraction, enabling thin lenses of a given power. The cryostat's vacuum windows double as the sub-cameras' field lenses and are ~30 cm in diameter. The other lenses are mounted at 4 K. The sub-cameras will share a single cryostat providing thermal intercepts at 80, 15, 4, 1 and 0.1 K, with cooling provided by pulse tube cryocoolers and a dilution refrigerator. The use of the intermediate temperature stage at 15 K minimizes the load at 4 K and reduces operating costs. We discuss our design requirements, specifications, key elements and expected performance of the optical, thermal and mechanical design for the short wavelength camera for CCAT.

  16. Realization of an optical multi and mono-channel analyzer, associated to a streak camera. Application to metrology of picosecond low intensity luminous pulses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An electronic system including a low light level television tube (Nocticon) to digitize images from streak cameras is studied and realized. Performances (sensibility, signal-to-noise ratio) are studied and compared with a multi-channel analyzer using a linear network of photodiodes. It is applied to duration and amplitude measurement of short luminous pulses

  17. Forming tool improves quality of tubing flares

    Science.gov (United States)

    1966-01-01

    Punch and die set improves the quality of tubing flares for use with standard flared-tube fittings in high-pressure systems. It forges a dimensionally accurate flare in the tubing and forces more tubing material into the high-stress areas to improve the strength and tightness of the tubing connection.

  18. NEI You Tube Videos: Amblyopia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Vision Research & Ophthalmology (DIVRO) Student Training Programs NEI Home About NEI Health Information News and Events Grants ... Research at NEI Education Programs Training and Jobs Home > NEI YouTube Videos > NEI YouTube Videos: Amblyopia NEI ...

  19. Flaming on YouTube

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moor, Peter J.; Heuvelman, Ard; Verleur, Ria

    2010-01-01

    In this explorative study, flaming on YouTube was studied using surveys of YouTube users. Flaming is defined as displaying hostility by insulting, swearing or using otherwise offensive language. Three general conclusions were drawn. First, although many users said that they themselves do not flame,

  20. New developments to improve SO2 cameras

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luebcke, P.; Bobrowski, N.; Hoermann, C.; Kern, C.; Klein, A.; Kuhn, J.; Vogel, L.; Platt, U.

    2012-12-01

    The SO2 camera is a remote sensing instrument that measures the two-dimensional distribution of SO2 (column densities) in volcanic plumes using scattered solar radiation as a light source. From these data SO2-fluxes can be derived. The high time resolution of the order of 1 Hz allows correlating SO2 flux measurements with other traditional volcanological measurement techniques, i.e., seismology. In the last years the application of SO2 cameras has increased, however, there is still potential to improve the instrumentation. First of all, the influence of aerosols and ash in the volcanic plume can lead to large errors in the calculated SO2 flux, if not accounted for. We present two different concepts to deal with the influence of ash and aerosols. The first approach uses a co-axial DOAS system that was added to a two filter SO2 camera. The camera used Filter A (peak transmission centred around 315 nm) to measures the optical density of SO2 and Filter B (centred around 330 nm) to correct for the influence of ash and aerosol. The DOAS system simultaneously performs spectroscopic measurements in a small area of the camera's field of view and gives additional information to correct for these effects. Comparing the optical densities for the two filters with the SO2 column density from the DOAS allows not only a much more precise calibration, but also to draw conclusions about the influence from ash and aerosol scattering. Measurement examples from Popocatépetl, Mexico in 2011 are shown and interpreted. Another approach combines the SO2 camera measurement principle with the extremely narrow and periodic transmission of a Fabry-Pérot interferometer. The narrow transmission window allows to select individual SO2 absorption bands (or series of bands) as a substitute for Filter A. Measurements are therefore more selective to SO2. Instead of Filter B, as in classical SO2 cameras, the correction for aerosol can be performed by shifting the transmission window of the Fabry

  1. Gamma-ray spectral imaging using a single-shutter radiation camera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As part of a program to develop mobile robots for reactor environments, we are developing a radiation-imaging camera capable of operating in medium-intensity (<2R/h), medium-energy (<8 MeV) gamma-ray fields. A systematic study of available detectors indicated the advisiability of a high-Z scintillator. The raster-scanning camera uses a lead-shielded bismuth germanate (BGO) scintillator (1.25 cmx1.25 cm right-circular cylinder) coupled to a photomultiplier tube (PMT) operated in pulse mode. Measurements yielded an angular resolution of 2.5deg and energy resolution of 12.9% at 662 keV. The camera motion is totally automated and controlled by stepping motors connected to a remote computer. Several 2D images of radioactive sources have been acquired in fields of up to 400 mR/h and energies up to 2.75 MeV. Some of the images demonstrate the ability of the camera to image a polychromatic field. (orig.)

  2. A directional fast neutron detector using scintillating fibers and an intensified CCD camera system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have been developing and testing a scintillating fiber detector (SFD) for use as a fast neutron sensor which can discriminate against neutrons entering at angles non-parallel to the fiber axis (''directionality''). The detector/convertor component is a fiber bundle constructed of plastic scintillating fibers each measuring 10 cm long and either 0.3 mm or 0.5 mm in diameter. Extensive Monte Carlo simulations were made to optimize the bundle response to a range of fast neutron energies and to intense fluxes of high energy gamma-rays. The bundle is coupled to a set of gamma-ray insenitive electro-optic intensifiers whose output is viewed by a CCD camera directly coupled to the intensifiers. Two types of CCD cameras were utilized: 1) a standard, interline RS-170 camera with electronic shuttering and 2) a high-speed (up to 850 frame/s) field-transfer camera. Measurements of the neutron detection efficiency and directionality were made using 14 MeV neutrons, and the response to gamma-rays was performed using intense fluxes from radioisotopic sources (up to 20 R/h). Recently, the detector was constructed and tested using a large 10 cm by 10 cm square fiber bundle coupled to a 10 cm diameter GEN I intensifier tube. We present a description of the various detector systems and report the results of experimental tests. ((orig.))

  3. HF electronic tubes. Technologies, grid tubes and klystrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article gives an overview of the basic technologies of electronic tubes: cathodes, electronic optics, vacuum and high voltage. Then the grid tubes, klystrons and inductive output tubes (IOT) are introduced. Content: 1 - context and classification; 2 - electronic tube technologies: cathodes, electronic optics, magnetic confinement (linear tubes), periodic permanent magnet (PPM) focussing, collectors, depressed collectors; 3 - vacuum technologies: vacuum quality, surface effects and interaction with electrostatic and RF fields, secondary emission, multipactor effect, thermo-electronic emission; 4 - grid tubes: operation of a triode, tetrodes, dynamic operation and classes of use, 'common grid' and 'common cathode' operation, ranges of utilisation and limitations, operation of a tetrode on unadjusted load, lifetime of a tetrode, uses of grid tubes; 5 - klystrons: operation, impact of space charge, multi-cavity klystrons, interaction efficiency, extended interaction klystrons, relation between interaction efficiency, perveance and efficiency, ranges of utilization and power limitations, multi-beam klystrons and sheet beam klystrons, operation on unadjusted load, klystron band pass and lifetime, uses; 6 - IOT: principle of operation, ranges of utilisation and limitations, interaction efficiency and depressed collector IOT, IOT lifetime and uses. (J.S.)

  4. The electronics system for the LBNL positron emission mammography (PEM) camera

    CERN Document Server

    Moses, W W; Baker, K; Jones, W; Lenox, M; Ho, M H; Weng, M

    2001-01-01

    Describes the electronics for a high-performance positron emission mammography (PEM) camera. It is based on the electronics for a human brain positron emission tomography (PET) camera (the Siemens/CTI HRRT), modified to use a detector module that incorporates a photodiode (PD) array. An application-specified integrated circuit (ASIC) services the photodetector (PD) array, amplifying its signal and identifying the crystal of interaction. Another ASIC services the photomultiplier tube (PMT), measuring its output and providing a timing signal. Field-programmable gate arrays (FPGAs) and lookup RAMs are used to apply crystal-by-crystal correction factors and measure the energy deposit and the interaction depth (based on the PD/PMT ratio). Additional FPGAs provide event multiplexing, derandomization, coincidence detection, and real-time rebinning. Embedded PC/104 microprocessors provide communication, real-time control, and configure the system. Extensive use of FPGAs make the overall design extremely flexible, all...

  5. Impact of laser phase and amplitude noises on streak camera temporal resolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wlotzko, V., E-mail: wlotzko@optronis.com [ICube, UMR 7357, University of Strasbourg and CNRS, 23 rue du Loess, 67037 Strasbourg (France); Optronis GmbH, Ludwigstrasse 2, 77694 Kehl (Germany); Uhring, W. [ICube, UMR 7357, University of Strasbourg and CNRS, 23 rue du Loess, 67037 Strasbourg (France); Summ, P. [Optronis GmbH, Ludwigstrasse 2, 77694 Kehl (Germany)

    2015-09-15

    Streak cameras are now reaching sub-picosecond temporal resolution. In cumulative acquisition mode, this resolution does not entirely rely on the electronic or the vacuum tube performances but also on the light source characteristics. The light source, usually an actively mode-locked laser, is affected by phase and amplitude noises. In this paper, the theoretical effects of such noises on the synchronization of the streak system are studied in synchroscan and triggered modes. More precisely, the contribution of band-pass filters, delays, and time walk is ascertained. Methods to compute the resulting synchronization jitter are depicted. The results are verified by measurement with a streak camera combined with a Ti:Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} solid state laser oscillator and also a fiber oscillator.

  6. Unsteady pressure-sensitive paint measurement based on the heterodyne method using low frame rate camera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuda, Yu; Yorita, Daisuke; Egami, Yasuhiro; Kameya, Tomohiro; Kakihara, Noriaki; Yamaguchi, Hiroki; Asai, Keisuke; Niimi, Tomohide

    2013-10-01

    The pressure-sensitive paint technique based on the heterodyne method was proposed for the precise pressure measurement of unsteady flow fields. This measurement is realized by detecting the beat signal that results from interference between a modulating illumination light source and a pressure fluctuation. The beat signal is captured by a camera with a considerably lower frame rate than the frequency of the pressure fluctuation. By carefully adjusting the frequency of the light and the camera frame rate, the signal at the frequency of interest is detected, while the noise signals at other frequencies are eliminated. To demonstrate the proposed method, we measured the pressure fluctuations in a resonance tube at the fundamental, second, and third harmonics. The pressure fluctuation distributions were successfully obtained and were consistent with measurements from a pressure transducer. The proposed method is a useful technique for measuring unsteady phenomena.

  7. Status of MUSIC, the MUltiwavelength Sub/millimeter Inductance Camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golwala, Sunil R.; Bockstiegel, Clint; Brugger, Spencer; Czakon, Nicole G.; Day, Peter K.; Downes, Thomas P.; Duan, Ran; Gao, Jiansong; Gill, Amandeep K.; Glenn, Jason; Hollister, Matthew I.; LeDuc, Henry G.; Maloney, Philip R.; Mazin, Benjamin A.; McHugh, Sean G.; Miller, David; Noroozian, Omid; Nguyen, Hien T.; Sayers, Jack; Schlaerth, James A.; Siegel, Seth; Vayonakis, Anastasios K.; Wilson, Philip R.; Zmuidzinas, Jonas

    2012-09-01

    We present the status of MUSIC, the MUltiwavelength Sub/millimeter Inductance Camera, a new instrument for the Caltech Submillimeter Observatory. MUSIC is designed to have a 14', diffraction-limited field-of-view instrumented with 2304 detectors in 576 spatial pixels and four spectral bands at 0.87, 1.04, 1.33, and 1.98 mm. MUSIC will be used to study dusty star-forming galaxies, galaxy clusters via the Sunyaev-Zeldovich effect, and star formation in our own and nearby galaxies. MUSIC uses broadband superconducting phased-array slot-dipole antennas to form beams, lumpedelement on-chip bandpass filters to define spectral bands, and microwave kinetic inductance detectors to sense incoming light. The focal plane is fabricated in 8 tiles consisting of 72 spatial pixels each. It is coupled to the telescope via an ambient-temperature ellipsoidal mirror and a cold reimaging lens. A cold Lyot stop sits at the image of the primary mirror formed by the ellipsoidal mirror. Dielectric and metal-mesh filters are used to block thermal infrared and out-ofband radiation. The instrument uses a pulse tube cooler and 3He/ 3He/4He closed-cycle cooler to cool the focal plane to below 250 mK. A multilayer shield attenuates Earth's magnetic field. Each focal plane tile is read out by a single pair of coaxes and a HEMT amplifier. The readout system consists of 16 copies of custom-designed ADC/DAC and IF boards coupled to the CASPER ROACH platform. We focus on recent updates on the instrument design and results from the commissioning of the full camera in 2012.

  8. How to Build Your Own Document Camera for around $100

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Orden, Stephen

    2010-01-01

    Document cameras can have great utility in second language classrooms. However, entry-level consumer document cameras start at around $350. This article describes how the author built three document cameras and offers suggestions for how teachers can successfully build their own quality document camera using a webcam for around $100.

  9. 16 CFR 1025.45 - In camera materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false In camera materials. 1025.45 Section 1025.45... PROCEEDINGS Hearings § 1025.45 In camera materials. (a) Definition. In camera materials are documents... excluded from the public record. (b) In camera treatment of documents and testimony. The Presiding...

  10. Conditioning and breakdown phenomena in accelerator tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Important breakdown mechanisms in accelerator tubes are reviewed, and discharge phenomena in NEC tubes are deduced from the surface appearance of the electrodes and insulators of a used tube. Microphotos of these surfaces are shown

  11. Vidicon storage tube electrical input/output

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipoma, P.

    1972-01-01

    Electrical data storage tube is assembled from standard vidicon tube using conventional amplification and control circuits. Vidicon storage tube is simple, inexpensive and has an erase and preparation time of less than 5 microseconds.

  12. SU-E-E-06: Teaching About the Gamma Camera and Ultrasound Imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lowe, M; Spiro, A [Loyola University Maryland, Baltimore, Maryland (United States); Vogel, R [Iowa Doppler Products, Iowa City, Iowa (United States); Donaldson, N; Gosselin, C [Rockhurst University, Kansas City, MO (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: Instructional modules on applications of physics in medicine are being developed. The target audience consists of students who have had an introductory undergraduate physics course. This presentation will concentrate on an active learning approach to teach the principles of the gamma camera. There will also be a description of an apparatus to teach ultrasound imaging. Methods: Since a real gamma camera is not feasible in the undergraduate classroom, we have developed two types of optical apparatus that teach the main principles. To understand the collimator, LEDS mimic gamma emitters in the body, and the photons pass through an array of tubes. The distance, spacing, diameter, and length of the tubes can be varied to understand the effect upon the resolution of the image. To determine the positions of the gamma emitters, a second apparatus uses a movable green laser, fluorescent plastic in lieu of the scintillation crystal, acrylic rods that mimic the PMTs, and a photodetector to measure the intensity. The position of the laser is calculated with a centroid algorithm.To teach the principles of ultrasound imaging, we are using the sound head and pulser box of an educational product, variable gain amplifier, rotation table, digital oscilloscope, Matlab software, and phantoms. Results: Gamma camera curriculum materials have been implemented in the classroom at Loyola in 2014 and 2015. Written work shows good knowledge retention and a more complete understanding of the material. Preliminary ultrasound imaging materials were run in 2015. Conclusion: Active learning methods add another dimension to descriptions in textbooks and are effective in keeping the students engaged during class time. The teaching apparatus for the gamma camera and ultrasound imaging can be expanded to include more cases, and could potentially improve students’ understanding of artifacts and distortions in the images.

  13. Design of Endoscopic Capsule With Multiple Cameras.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Yingke; Xie, Xiang; Li, Guolin; Sun, Tianjia; Wang, Dan; Yin, Zheng; Zhang, Pengfei; Wang, Zhihua

    2015-08-01

    In order to reduce the miss rate of the wireless capsule endoscopy, in this paper, we propose a new system of the endoscopic capsule with multiple cameras. A master-slave architecture, including an efficient bus architecture and a four level clock management architecture, is applied for the Multiple Cameras Endoscopic Capsule (MCEC). For covering more area of the gastrointestinal tract wall with low power, multiple cameras with a smart image capture strategy, including movement sensitive control and camera selection, are used in the MCEC. To reduce the data transfer bandwidth and power consumption to prolong the MCEC's working life, a low complexity image compressor with PSNR 40.7 dB and compression rate 86% is implemented. A chipset is designed and implemented for the MCEC and a six cameras endoscopic capsule prototype is implemented by using the chipset. With the smart image capture strategy, the coverage rate of the MCEC prototype can achieve 98% and its power consumption is only about 7.1 mW. PMID:25376042

  14. Calibration of action cameras for photogrammetric purposes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balletti, Caterina; Guerra, Francesco; Tsioukas, Vassilios; Vernier, Paolo

    2014-09-18

    The use of action cameras for photogrammetry purposes is not widespread due to the fact that until recently the images provided by the sensors, using either still or video capture mode, were not big enough to perform and provide the appropriate analysis with the necessary photogrammetric accuracy. However, several manufacturers have recently produced and released new lightweight devices which are: (a) easy to handle, (b) capable of performing under extreme conditions and more importantly (c) able to provide both still images and video sequences of high resolution. In order to be able to use the sensor of action cameras we must apply a careful and reliable self-calibration prior to the use of any photogrammetric procedure, a relatively difficult scenario because of the short focal length of the camera and its wide angle lens that is used to obtain the maximum possible resolution of images. Special software, using functions of the OpenCV library, has been created to perform both the calibration and the production of undistorted scenes for each one of the still and video image capturing mode of a novel action camera, the GoPro Hero 3 camera that can provide still images up to 12 Mp and video up 8 Mp resolution.

  15. Calibration of Action Cameras for Photogrammetric Purposes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caterina Balletti

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The use of action cameras for photogrammetry purposes is not widespread due to the fact that until recently the images provided by the sensors, using either still or video capture mode, were not big enough to perform and provide the appropriate analysis with the necessary photogrammetric accuracy. However, several manufacturers have recently produced and released new lightweight devices which are: (a easy to handle, (b capable of performing under extreme conditions and more importantly (c able to provide both still images and video sequences of high resolution. In order to be able to use the sensor of action cameras we must apply a careful and reliable self-calibration prior to the use of any photogrammetric procedure, a relatively difficult scenario because of the short focal length of the camera and its wide angle lens that is used to obtain the maximum possible resolution of images. Special software, using functions of the OpenCV library, has been created to perform both the calibration and the production of undistorted scenes for each one of the still and video image capturing mode of a novel action camera, the GoPro Hero 3 camera that can provide still images up to 12 Mp and video up 8 Mp resolution.

  16. Modulated CMOS camera for fluorescence lifetime microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hongtao; Holst, Gerhard; Gratton, Enrico

    2015-12-01

    Widefield frequency-domain fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy (FD-FLIM) is a fast and accurate method to measure the fluorescence lifetime of entire images. However, the complexity and high costs involved in construction of such a system limit the extensive use of this technique. PCO AG recently released the first luminescence lifetime imaging camera based on a high frequency modulated CMOS image sensor, QMFLIM2. Here we tested and provide operational procedures to calibrate the camera and to improve the accuracy using corrections necessary for image analysis. With its flexible input/output options, we are able to use a modulated laser diode or a 20 MHz pulsed white supercontinuum laser as the light source. The output of the camera consists of a stack of modulated images that can be analyzed by the SimFCS software using the phasor approach. The nonuniform system response across the image sensor must be calibrated at the pixel level. This pixel calibration is crucial and needed for every camera settings, e.g. modulation frequency and exposure time. A significant dependency of the modulation signal on the intensity was also observed and hence an additional calibration is needed for each pixel depending on the pixel intensity level. These corrections are important not only for the fundamental frequency, but also for the higher harmonics when using the pulsed supercontinuum laser. With these post data acquisition corrections, the PCO CMOS-FLIM camera can be used for various biomedical applications requiring a large frame and high speed acquisition. PMID:26500051

  17. Modulated CMOS camera for fluorescence lifetime microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hongtao; Holst, Gerhard; Gratton, Enrico

    2015-12-01

    Widefield frequency-domain fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy (FD-FLIM) is a fast and accurate method to measure the fluorescence lifetime of entire images. However, the complexity and high costs involved in construction of such a system limit the extensive use of this technique. PCO AG recently released the first luminescence lifetime imaging camera based on a high frequency modulated CMOS image sensor, QMFLIM2. Here we tested and provide operational procedures to calibrate the camera and to improve the accuracy using corrections necessary for image analysis. With its flexible input/output options, we are able to use a modulated laser diode or a 20 MHz pulsed white supercontinuum laser as the light source. The output of the camera consists of a stack of modulated images that can be analyzed by the SimFCS software using the phasor approach. The nonuniform system response across the image sensor must be calibrated at the pixel level. This pixel calibration is crucial and needed for every camera settings, e.g. modulation frequency and exposure time. A significant dependency of the modulation signal on the intensity was also observed and hence an additional calibration is needed for each pixel depending on the pixel intensity level. These corrections are important not only for the fundamental frequency, but also for the higher harmonics when using the pulsed supercontinuum laser. With these post data acquisition corrections, the PCO CMOS-FLIM camera can be used for various biomedical applications requiring a large frame and high speed acquisition.

  18. Designing Camera Networks by Convex Quadratic Programming

    KAUST Repository

    Ghanem, Bernard

    2015-05-04

    ​In this paper, we study the problem of automatic camera placement for computer graphics and computer vision applications. We extend the problem formulations of previous work by proposing a novel way to incorporate visibility constraints and camera-to-camera relationships. For example, the placement solution can be encouraged to have cameras that image the same important locations from different viewing directions, which can enable reconstruction and surveillance tasks to perform better. We show that the general camera placement problem can be formulated mathematically as a convex binary quadratic program (BQP) under linear constraints. Moreover, we propose an optimization strategy with a favorable trade-off between speed and solution quality. Our solution is almost as fast as a greedy treatment of the problem, but the quality is significantly higher, so much so that it is comparable to exact solutions that take orders of magnitude more computation time. Because it is computationally attractive, our method also allows users to explore the space of solutions for variations in input parameters. To evaluate its effectiveness, we show a range of 3D results on real-world floorplans (garage, hotel, mall, and airport). ​

  19. Calibration of action cameras for photogrammetric purposes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balletti, Caterina; Guerra, Francesco; Tsioukas, Vassilios; Vernier, Paolo

    2014-01-01

    The use of action cameras for photogrammetry purposes is not widespread due to the fact that until recently the images provided by the sensors, using either still or video capture mode, were not big enough to perform and provide the appropriate analysis with the necessary photogrammetric accuracy. However, several manufacturers have recently produced and released new lightweight devices which are: (a) easy to handle, (b) capable of performing under extreme conditions and more importantly (c) able to provide both still images and video sequences of high resolution. In order to be able to use the sensor of action cameras we must apply a careful and reliable self-calibration prior to the use of any photogrammetric procedure, a relatively difficult scenario because of the short focal length of the camera and its wide angle lens that is used to obtain the maximum possible resolution of images. Special software, using functions of the OpenCV library, has been created to perform both the calibration and the production of undistorted scenes for each one of the still and video image capturing mode of a novel action camera, the GoPro Hero 3 camera that can provide still images up to 12 Mp and video up 8 Mp resolution. PMID:25237898

  20. Camera Calibration with Radial Variance Component Estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mélykuti, B.; Kruck, E. J.

    2014-11-01

    Camera calibration plays a more and more important role in recent times. Beside real digital aerial survey cameras the photogrammetric market is dominated by a big number of non-metric digital cameras mounted on UAVs or other low-weight flying platforms. The in-flight calibration of those systems has a significant role to enhance the geometric accuracy of survey photos considerably. It is expected to have a better precision of photo measurements in the center of images then along the edges or in the corners. With statistical methods the accuracy of photo measurements in dependency of the distance of points from image center has been analyzed. This test provides a curve for the measurement precision as function of the photo radius. A high number of camera types have been tested with well penetrated point measurements in image space. The result of the tests led to a general consequence to show a functional connection between accuracy and radial distance and to give a method how to check and enhance the geometrical capability of the cameras in respect to these results.

  1. Managing a large database of camera fingerprints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goljan, Miroslav; Fridrich, Jessica; Filler, Tomáš

    2010-01-01

    Sensor fingerprint is a unique noise-like pattern caused by slightly varying pixel dimensions and inhomogeneity of the silicon wafer from which the sensor is made. The fingerprint can be used to prove that an image came from a specific digital camera. The presence of a camera fingerprint in an image is usually established using a detector that evaluates cross-correlation between the fingerprint and image noise. The complexity of the detector is thus proportional to the number of pixels in the image. Although computing the detector statistic for a few megapixel image takes several seconds on a single-processor PC, the processing time becomes impractically large if a sizeable database of camera fingerprints needs to be searched through. In this paper, we present a fast searching algorithm that utilizes special "fingerprint digests" and sparse data structures to address several tasks that forensic analysts will find useful when deploying camera identification from fingerprints in practice. In particular, we develop fast algorithms for finding if a given fingerprint already resides in the database and for determining whether a given image was taken by a camera whose fingerprint is in the database.

  2. Phase camera experiment for Advanced Virgo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agatsuma, Kazuhiro; van Beuzekom, Martin; van der Schaaf, Laura; van den Brand, Jo

    2016-07-01

    We report on a study of the phase camera, which is a frequency selective wave-front sensor of a laser beam. This sensor is utilized for monitoring sidebands produced by phase modulations in a gravitational wave (GW) detector. Regarding the operation of the GW detectors, the laser modulation/demodulation method is used to measure mirror displacements and used for the position controls. This plays a significant role because the quality of controls affect the noise level of the GW detector. The phase camera is able to monitor each sideband separately, which has a great benefit for the manipulation of the delicate controls. Also, overcoming mirror aberrations will be an essential part of Advanced Virgo (AdV), which is a GW detector close to Pisa. Especially low-frequency sidebands can be affected greatly by aberrations in one of the interferometer cavities. The phase cameras allow tracking such changes because the state of the sidebands gives information on mirror aberrations. A prototype of the phase camera has been developed and is currently tested. The performance checks are almost completed and the installation of the optics at the AdV site has started. After the installation and commissioning, the phase camera will be combined to a thermal compensation system that consists of CO2 lasers and compensation plates. In this paper, we focus on the prototype and show some limitations from the scanner performance.

  3. Hidden cameras everything you need to know about covert recording, undercover cameras and secret filming

    CERN Document Server

    Plomin, Joe

    2016-01-01

    Providing authoritative information on the practicalities of using hidden cameras to expose abuse or wrongdoing, this book is vital reading for anyone who may use or encounter secret filming. It gives specific advice on using phones or covert cameras and unravels the complex legal and ethical issues that need to be considered.

  4. Mobile phone camera benchmarking: combination of camera speed and image quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peltoketo, Veli-Tapani

    2014-01-01

    When a mobile phone camera is tested and benchmarked, the significance of quality metrics is widely acknowledged. There are also existing methods to evaluate the camera speed. For example, ISO 15781 defines several measurements to evaluate various camera system delays. However, the speed or rapidity metrics of the mobile phone's camera system have not been used with the quality metrics even if the camera speed has become more and more important camera performance feature. There are several tasks in this work. Firstly, the most important image quality metrics are collected from the standards and papers. Secondly, the speed related metrics of a mobile phone's camera system are collected from the standards and papers and also novel speed metrics are identified. Thirdly, combinations of the quality and speed metrics are validated using mobile phones in the market. The measurements are done towards application programming interface of different operating system. Finally, the results are evaluated and conclusions are made. The result of this work gives detailed benchmarking results of mobile phone camera systems in the market. The paper defines also a proposal of combined benchmarking metrics, which includes both quality and speed parameters.

  5. Calibration method for a central catadioptric-perspective camera system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Bingwei; Chen, Zhipeng; Li, Youfu

    2012-11-01

    A central catadioptric-perspective camera system is widely used nowadays. A critical problem is that current calibration methods cannot determine the extrinsic parameters between the central catadioptric camera and a perspective camera effectively. We present a novel calibration method for a central catadioptric-perspective camera system, in which the central catadioptric camera has a hyperbolic mirror. Two cameras are used to capture images of one calibration pattern at different spatial positions. A virtual camera is constructed at the origin of the central catadioptric camera and faced toward the calibration pattern. The transformation between the virtual camera and the calibration pattern could be computed first and the extrinsic parameters between the central catadioptric camera and the calibration pattern could be obtained. Three-dimensional reconstruction results of the calibration pattern show a high accuracy and validate the feasibility of our method.

  6. A 3D high-resolution gamma camera for radiopharmaceutical studies with small animals

    CERN Document Server

    Loudos, G K; Giokaris, N D; Styliaris, E; Archimandritis, S C; Varvarigou, A D; Papanicolas, C N; Majewski, S; Weisenberger, D; Pani, R; Scopinaro, F; Uzunoglu, N K; Maintas, D; Stefanis, K

    2003-01-01

    The results of studies conducted with a small field of view tomographic gamma camera based on a Position Sensitive Photomultiplier Tube are reported. The system has been used for the evaluation of radiopharmaceuticals in small animals. Phantom studies have shown a spatial resolution of 2 mm in planar and 2-3 mm in tomographic imaging. Imaging studies in mice have been carried out both in 2D and 3D. Conventional radiopharmaceuticals have been used and the results have been compared with images from a clinically used system.

  7. High speed (<= 250 ps) high gain X-ray shutter camera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A high speed X-ray shutter tube has been developed for laser induced plasma imaging. The limiting exposure time is in the 250 ps range and 5 images can be recorded on the same, laser shot, in order to provide a 5 spectral channel analysis of the plasma. A high light gain is obtained from a microchannel plate inserted in the 50Ω transmission line, which provide the adapted structure to reach such a time exposure. We present the main performances of this camera

  8. High count rate gamma camera with independent modules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massari, R.; Ucci, A.; Campisi, C.; Scopinaro, F.; Soluri, A.

    2015-11-01

    Advances in nuclear medical imaging are based on the improvements of the detector's performance. Generally the research is focussed on the spatial resolution improvement. However, another important parameter is the acquisition time that can significantly affect performance in some clinical investigation (e.g. first-pass cardiac studies). At present, there are several clinical imaging systems which are able to solve these diagnostic requirements, such as the D-SPECT Cardiac Imaging System (Spectrum Dynamics) or the Nucline Cardiodesk Medical Imaging System (Mediso). Actually, these solutions are organ-specific dedicated systems, while it would be preferable having general purpose planar detectors with high counting rate. Our group has recently introduced the use of scintillation matrices whose size is equal to the overall area of a position sensitive photomultiplier tube (PSPMT) in order to design a modular gamma camera. This study allowed optimising the overall pixel identification by improving and controlling the light collection efficiency of each PSPMT. Although we achieved a solution for the problems about the dead area at the junction of the PSPMTs when they are set side by side. In this paper, we propose a modular gamma camera design as the basis to build large area detectors. The modular detector design allows us to achieve better counting performance. In this approach, each module that is made of one or more PSPMTs, can actually acquire data independently and simultaneously, increasing the overall detection efficiency. To verify the improvement in count rate capability we have built two detectors with a field of view of ~ 5 × 5cm2, by using four R8900-C12 PSPMTs (Hamamatsu Photonics K.K.). Each PSPMT was coupled to a dedicated discrete scintillation structure designed to obtain a good homogeneity, high imaging performance and high efficiency. One of the detectors was designed as a standard gamma camera, while the other was composed by four independent

  9. The development of large-aperture test system of infrared camera and visible CCD camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yingwen; Geng, Anbing; Wang, Bo; Wang, Haitao; Wu, Yanying

    2015-10-01

    Infrared camera and CCD camera dual-band imaging system is used in many equipment and application widely. If it is tested using the traditional infrared camera test system and visible CCD test system, 2 times of installation and alignment are needed in the test procedure. The large-aperture test system of infrared camera and visible CCD camera uses the common large-aperture reflection collimator, target wheel, frame-grabber, computer which reduces the cost and the time of installation and alignment. Multiple-frame averaging algorithm is used to reduce the influence of random noise. Athermal optical design is adopted to reduce the change of focal length location change of collimator when the environmental temperature is changing, and the image quality of the collimator of large field of view and test accuracy are also improved. Its performance is the same as that of the exotic congener and is much cheaper. It will have a good market.

  10. Sausage Instabilities on top of Kinking Lengthening Current-Carrying Magnetic Flux Tubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    von der Linden, Jens; You, Setthivoine

    2015-11-01

    Observations indicate that the dynamics of magnetic flux tubes in our cosmos and terrestrial experiments involve fast topological change beyond MHD reconnection. Recent experiments suggest that hierarchies of instabilities coupling disparate plasma scales could be responsible for this fast topological change by accessing two-fluid and kinetic scales. This study will explore the possibility of sausage instabilities developing on top of a kink instability in lengthening current-carrying magnetic flux tubes. Current driven flux tubes evolve over a wide range of aspect ratios k and current to magnetic flux ratios λ . An analytical stability criterion and numerical investigations, based on applying Newcomb's variational approach to idealized magnetic flux tubes with core and skin currents, indicate a dependence of the stability boundaries on current profiles and overlapping kink and sausage unstable regions in the k - λ trajectory of the flux tubes. A triple electrode planar plasma gun (Mochi.LabJet) is designed to generate flux tubes with discrete core and skin currents. Measurements from a fast-framing camera and a high resolution magnetic probe are being assembled into stability maps of the k - λ space of flux tubes. This work was sponsored in part by the US DOE Grant DE-SC0010340.

  11. Electronic components, tubes and transistors

    CERN Document Server

    Dummer, G W A

    1965-01-01

    Electronic Components, Tubes and Transistors aims to bridge the gap between the basic measurement theory of resistance, capacitance, and inductance and the practical application of electronic components in equipments. The more practical or usage aspect of electron tubes and semiconductors is given emphasis over theory. The essential characteristics of each main type of component, tube, and transistor are summarized. This book is comprised of six chapters and begins with a discussion on the essential characteristics in terms of the parameters usually required in choosing a resistor, including s

  12. PEG tubes: dealing with complications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malhi, Hardip; Thompson, Rosie

    A percutaneous endoscopic gastronomy tube can be used to deliver nutrition, hydration and medicines directly into the patient's stomach. Patients will require a tube if they are unable to swallow safely, putting them at risk of aspiration of food, drink and medicines into their lungs. It is vital that nurses are aware of the complications that may arise when caring for a patient with a PEG tube. It is equally important that nurses know how to deal with these complications or from where tc seek advice. This article provides a quick troubleshooting guide to help nurses deal with complications that can arise with PEG feeding.

  13. PEG tubes: dealing with complications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malhi, Hardip; Thompson, Rosie

    A percutaneous endoscopic gastronomy tube can be used to deliver nutrition, hydration and medicines directly into the patient's stomach. Patients will require a tube if they are unable to swallow safely, putting them at risk of aspiration of food, drink and medicines into their lungs. It is vital that nurses are aware of the complications that may arise when caring for a patient with a PEG tube. It is equally important that nurses know how to deal with these complications or from where tc seek advice. This article provides a quick troubleshooting guide to help nurses deal with complications that can arise with PEG feeding. PMID:26016095

  14. Progress in gamma-camera quality control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The latest developments in the art of quality control of gamma cameras are emphasized in a simple historical manner. The exhibit describes methods developed by the Bureau of Radiological Health (BRH) in comparison with previously accepted techniques for routine evaluation of gamma-camera performance. Gamma cameras require periodic testing of their performance parameters to ensure that their optimum imaging capability is maintained. Quality control parameters reviewed are field uniformity, spatial distortion, intrinsic and spatial resolution, and temporal resolution. The methods developed for the measurement of these parameters are simple, not requiring additional electronic equipment or computers. The data has been arranged in six panels as follows: schematic diagrams of the most important test patterns used in nuclear medicine; field uniformity; regional displacements in transmission pattern image; spatial resolution using the BRH line-source phantom; instrinsic resolution using the BRH Test Pattern; and Temporal resolution and count losses at high counting rates

  15. Camera placement in integer lattices (extended abstract)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pocchiola, Michel; Kranakis, Evangelos

    1990-09-01

    Techniques for studying an art gallery problem (the camera placement problem) in the infinite lattice (L sup d) of d tuples of integers are considered. A lattice point A is visible from a camera C positioned at a vertex of (L sup d) if A does not equal C and if the line segment joining A and C crosses no other lattice vertex. By using a combination of probabilistic, combinatorial optimization and algorithmic techniques the position they must occupy in the lattice (L sup d) in the order to maximize their visibility can be determined in polynomial time, for any given number s less than or equal to (5 sup d) of cameras. This improves previous results for s less than or equal to (3 sup d).

  16. PEOPLE REIDENTIFCATION IN A DISTRIBUTED CAMERA NETWORK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Icaro Oliveira de Oliveira

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an approach to the object reidentification problem in a distributed camera network system. The reidentification or reacquisition problem consists essentially on the matching process of images acquired from different cameras. This work is applied in a monitored environment by cameras. This application is important to modern security systems, in which the targets presence identification in the environment expands the capacity of action by security agents in real time and provides important parameters like localization for each target. We used target’s interest points and target’s color with features for reidentification. The satisfactory results were obtained from real experiments in public video datasets and synthetic images with noise.

  17. Mechanical Design of the LSST Camera

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nordby, Martin; Bowden, Gordon; Foss, Mike; Guiffre, Gary; /SLAC; Ku, John; /Unlisted; Schindler, Rafe; /SLAC

    2008-06-13

    The LSST camera is a tightly packaged, hermetically-sealed system that is cantilevered into the main beam of the LSST telescope. It is comprised of three refractive lenses, on-board storage for five large filters, a high-precision shutter, and a cryostat that houses the 3.2 giga-pixel CCD focal plane along with its support electronics. The physically large optics and focal plane demand large structural elements to support them, but the overall size of the camera and its components must be minimized to reduce impact on the image stability. Also, focal plane and optics motions must be minimized to reduce systematic errors in image reconstruction. Design and analysis for the camera body and cryostat will be detailed.

  18. Collimated trans-axial tomographic scintillation camera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objects of this invention are first to reduce the time required to obtain statistically significant data in trans-axial tomographic radioisotope scanning using a scintillation camera. Secondly, to provide a scintillation camera system to increase the rate of acceptance of radioactive events to contribute to the positional information obtainable from a known radiation source without sacrificing spatial resolution. Thirdly to reduce the scanning time without loss of image clarity. The system described comprises a scintillation camera detector, means for moving this in orbit about a cranial-caudal axis relative to a patient and a collimator having septa defining apertures such that gamma rays perpendicular to the axis are admitted with high spatial resolution, parallel to the axis with low resolution. The septa may be made of strips of lead. Detailed descriptions are given. (U.K.)

  19. HIGH SPEED KERR CELL FRAMING CAMERA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goss, W.C.; Gilley, L.F.

    1964-01-01

    The present invention relates to a high speed camera utilizing a Kerr cell shutter and a novel optical delay system having no moving parts. The camera can selectively photograph at least 6 frames within 9 x 10/sup -8/ seconds during any such time interval of an occurring event. The invention utilizes particularly an optical system which views and transmits 6 images of an event to a multi-channeled optical delay relay system. The delay relay system has optical paths of successively increased length in whole multiples of the first channel optical path length, into which optical paths the 6 images are transmitted. The successively delayed images are accepted from the exit of the delay relay system by an optical image focusing means, which in turn directs the images into a Kerr cell shutter disposed to intercept the image paths. A camera is disposed to simultaneously view and record the 6 images during a single exposure of the Kerr cell shutter. (AEC)

  20. Small Orbital Stereo Tracking Camera Technology Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryan, Tom; MacLeod, Todd; Gagliano, Larry

    2016-01-01

    On-Orbit Small Debris Tracking and Characterization is a technical gap in the current National Space Situational Awareness necessary to safeguard orbital assets and crew. This poses a major risk of MOD damage to ISS and Exploration vehicles. In 2015 this technology was added to NASA's Office of Chief Technologist roadmap. For missions flying in or assembled in or staging from LEO, the physical threat to vehicle and crew is needed in order to properly design the proper level of MOD impact shielding and proper mission design restrictions. Need to verify debris flux and size population versus ground RADAR tracking. Use of ISS for In-Situ Orbital Debris Tracking development provides attitude, power, data and orbital access without a dedicated spacecraft or restricted operations on-board a host vehicle as a secondary payload. Sensor Applicable to in-situ measuring orbital debris in flux and population in other orbits or on other vehicles. Could enhance safety on and around ISS. Some technologies extensible to monitoring of extraterrestrial debris as well To help accomplish this, new technologies must be developed quickly. The Small Orbital Stereo Tracking Camera is one such up and coming technology. It consists of flying a pair of intensified megapixel telephoto cameras to evaluate Orbital Debris (OD) monitoring in proximity of International Space Station. It will demonstrate on-orbit optical tracking (in situ) of various sized objects versus ground RADAR tracking and small OD models. The cameras are based on Flight Proven Advanced Video Guidance Sensor pixel to spot algorithms (Orbital Express) and military targeting cameras. And by using twin cameras we can provide Stereo images for ranging & mission redundancy. When pointed into the orbital velocity vector (RAM), objects approaching or near the stereo camera set can be differentiated from the stars moving upward in background.

  1. Analysis of Brown camera distortion model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowakowski, Artur; Skarbek, Władysław

    2013-10-01

    Contemporary image acquisition devices introduce optical distortion into image. It results in pixel displacement and therefore needs to be compensated for many computer vision applications. The distortion is usually modeled by the Brown distortion model, which parameters can be included in camera calibration task. In this paper we describe original model, its dependencies and analyze orthogonality with regard to radius for its decentering distortion component. We also report experiments with camera calibration algorithm included in OpenCV library, especially a stability of distortion parameters estimation is evaluated.

  2. Camera-enabled techniques for organic synthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven V. Ley

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available A great deal of time is spent within synthetic chemistry laboratories on non-value-adding activities such as sample preparation and work-up operations, and labour intensive activities such as extended periods of continued data collection. Using digital cameras connected to computer vision algorithms, camera-enabled apparatus can perform some of these processes in an automated fashion, allowing skilled chemists to spend their time more productively. In this review we describe recent advances in this field of chemical synthesis and discuss how they will lead to advanced synthesis laboratories of the future.

  3. Camera-enabled techniques for organic synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingham, Richard J; O’Brien, Matthew; Browne, Duncan L

    2013-01-01

    Summary A great deal of time is spent within synthetic chemistry laboratories on non-value-adding activities such as sample preparation and work-up operations, and labour intensive activities such as extended periods of continued data collection. Using digital cameras connected to computer vision algorithms, camera-enabled apparatus can perform some of these processes in an automated fashion, allowing skilled chemists to spend their time more productively. In this review we describe recent advances in this field of chemical synthesis and discuss how they will lead to advanced synthesis laboratories of the future. PMID:23766820

  4. A multidetector scintillation camera with 254 channels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sveinsdottir, E; Larsen, B; Rommer, P;

    1977-01-01

    A computer-based scintillation camera has been designed for both dynamic and static radionuclide studies. The detecting head has 254 independent sodium iodide crystals, each with a photomultiplier and amplifier. In dynamic measurements simultaneous events can be recorded, and 1 million total counts...... per second can be accommodated with less than 0.5% loss in any one channel. This corresponds to a calculated deadtime of 5 nsec. The multidetector camera is being used for 133Xe dynamic studies of regional cerebral blood flow in man and for 99mTc and 197 Hg static imaging of the brain....

  5. Improved Continuous Tube Welding Due to Unique Process Sensor System and Process Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorsch, F.; Pfitzner, D.; Braun, H.

    A unique camera-based triple sensor system increases productivity, yield and quality of continuous welding of tubes and profiles. It combines high-precision seam tracking and beam positioning with weld spot visualization and characterization, and seam geometry measurement. The higher overall precision allows operating the process closer to its limits, online quality monitoring detects faults immediately. The process setup time is greatly reduced, and also the waste during startup is reduced. Finally, full documentation sets the basis for data traceability.

  6. Photosensor Characterization for the Cherenkov Telescope Array: Silicon Photomultiplier versus Multi-Anode Photomultiplier Tube

    OpenAIRE

    Bouvier, Aurelien; Gebremedhin, Lloyd; Johnson, Caitlin; Kuznetsov, Andrey; Williams, David; Otte, Nepomuk; Strausbaugh, Robert; Hidaka, Naoya; Tajima, Hiroyasu; Hinton, Jim; White, Richard; Errando, Manel; Mukherjee, Reshmi

    2013-01-01

    Photomultiplier tube technology has been the photodetector of choice for the technique of imaging atmospheric Cherenkov telescopes since its birth more than 50 years ago. Recently, new types of photosensors are being contemplated for the next generation Cherenkov Telescope Array. It is envisioned that the array will be partly composed of telescopes using a Schwarzschild-Couder two mirror design never built before which has significantly improved optics. The camera of this novel optical design...

  7. NEI You Tube Videos: Amblyopia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Funding Division of Extramural Activities Division of Extramural Science Programs Funding Opportunity Announcements Funding Mechanisms Supported by ... Amaurosis Low Vision Refractive Errors Retinopathy of Prematurity Science Spanish Videos Webinars NEI YouTube Videos: Amblyopia NEI ...

  8. Lunar Core Drive Tubes Summary

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Contains a brief summary and high resolution imagery from various lunar rock and core drive tubes collected from the Apollo and Luna missions to the moon.

  9. NEI You Tube Videos: Amblyopia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Eye Disease Dilated Eye Exam Dry Eye For Kids Glaucoma Healthy Vision Tips Leber Congenital Amaurosis Low Vision Refractive Errors Retinopathy of Prematurity Science Spanish Videos Webinars NEI YouTube Videos: Amblyopia NEI ...

  10. drift tube for linear accelerator

    CERN Multimedia

    A drift tube from the Linac 1. This was the first tank of the linear accelerator Linac1, the injection system for the Proton Synchrotron, It ran for 34 years (1958 - 1992). Protons entered at the far end and were accelerated between the copper drift tubes by an oscillating electromagnetic field. The field flipped 200 million times a second (200 MHz) so the protons spent 5 nanoseconds crossing a drift tube and a gap. Moving down the tank, the tubes and gaps had to get longer as the protons gained speed. The tank accelerated protons from 500 KeV to 10 MeV. Linac1 was also used to accelerate deutrons and alpha particles for the Intersecting Storage Rings and oxygen and sulpher ions for the Super Proton Synchrotron heavy ion programme.

  11. NEI You Tube Videos: Amblyopia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Funding Division of Extramural Affairs Division of Extramural Science Programs Funding Opportunity Announcements Funding Mechanisms Supported by ... Amaurosis Low Vision Refractive Errors Retinopathy of Prematurity Science Spanish Videos Webinars NEI YouTube Videos: Amblyopia NEI ...

  12. Camera Trajectory fromWide Baseline Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havlena, M.; Torii, A.; Pajdla, T.

    2008-09-01

    Camera trajectory estimation, which is closely related to the structure from motion computation, is one of the fundamental tasks in computer vision. Reliable camera trajectory estimation plays an important role in 3D reconstruction, self localization, and object recognition. There are essential issues for a reliable camera trajectory estimation, for instance, choice of the camera and its geometric projection model, camera calibration, image feature detection and description, and robust 3D structure computation. Most of approaches rely on classical perspective cameras because of the simplicity of their projection models and ease of their calibration. However, classical perspective cameras offer only a limited field of view, and thus occlusions and sharp camera turns may cause that consecutive frames look completely different when the baseline becomes longer. This makes the image feature matching very difficult (or impossible) and the camera trajectory estimation fails under such conditions. These problems can be avoided if omnidirectional cameras, e.g. a fish-eye lens convertor, are used. The hardware which we are using in practice is a combination of Nikon FC-E9 mounted via a mechanical adaptor onto a Kyocera Finecam M410R digital camera. Nikon FC-E9 is a megapixel omnidirectional addon convertor with 180° view angle which provides images of photographic quality. Kyocera Finecam M410R delivers 2272×1704 images at 3 frames per second. The resulting combination yields a circular view of diameter 1600 pixels in the image. Since consecutive frames of the omnidirectional camera often share a common region in 3D space, the image feature matching is often feasible. On the other hand, the calibration of these cameras is non-trivial and is crucial for the accuracy of the resulting 3D reconstruction. We calibrate omnidirectional cameras off-line using the state-of-the-art technique and Mičušík's two-parameter model, that links the radius of the image point r to the

  13. The YouTube reader

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    YouTube has come to epitomize the possibilities of digital culture. With more than seventy million unique users a month and approximately eighty million videos online, this brand-name video distribution platform holds the richest repository of popular culture on the Internet. As the fastest growing site in the history of the Web, YouTube promises endless new opportunities for amateur video, political campaigning, entertainment formats, and viral marketing—a clip culture that has seemed to out...

  14. Duplication of the fallopian tube

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Narayanan

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Hysterosalpingography accurately delineates the uterine and tubal lumen, and hence is routinely performed for the evaluation of infertility.We observed a case of infertility where uterine cavity was normal but fallopian tubes were bifurcated at the ampullary region. Mullerian duct anomalies are reported in literature, but maldevelopment of fallopian tube in isolation is rare. This abnormality can present as infertility, ectopic pregnancy, in association with urinary tract anomalies or as failure of sterilisation method.

  15. Eddy current tube testing unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The unit described can check a wide variety of tubes in quick succession and its modular design gives it a high degree of versability. Suitably defined working conditions and specific fittings enable most of the faults encountered in the manufacture of a tube to be detected. By appropriate means of selection based on signal amplitude, phase and frequency analyses it is possible to adapt selection criteria to the seriousness of the different categories of defect

  16. Test-tube Baby Option

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    As China’s first test tube baby celebrates her 20th birthday,the country is moving to improve IVF procedures I feel just like a normal person,despite being a little bit hi-tech,"said China’s first test-tube baby Zheng Mengzhu at her birthday party in Beijing. Zheng,born on March 10,1988 in the No.3 Hospital affiliated to the Peking University of Medical Sciences,made a trip

  17. Evaluation of mobile phone camera benchmarking using objective camera speed and image quality metrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peltoketo, Veli-Tapani

    2014-11-01

    When a mobile phone camera is tested and benchmarked, the significance of image quality metrics is widely acknowledged. There are also existing methods to evaluate the camera speed. However, the speed or rapidity metrics of the mobile phone's camera system has not been used with the quality metrics even if the camera speed has become a more and more important camera performance feature. There are several tasks in this work. First, the most important image quality and speed-related metrics of a mobile phone's camera system are collected from the standards and papers and, also, novel speed metrics are identified. Second, combinations of the quality and speed metrics are validated using mobile phones on the market. The measurements are done toward application programming interface of different operating systems. Finally, the results are evaluated and conclusions are made. The paper defines a solution to combine different image quality and speed metrics to a single benchmarking score. A proposal of the combined benchmarking metric is evaluated using measurements of 25 mobile phone cameras on the market. The paper is a continuation of a previous benchmarking work expanded with visual noise measurement and updates of the latest mobile phone versions.

  18. Dermatology on YouTube.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyers, Lindsay N; Quest, Tyler; Karimkhani, Chante; Connett, Jessica; Dellavalle, Robert P

    2014-06-15

    YouTube, reaches upwards of six billion users on a monthly basis and is a unique source of information distribution and communication. Although the influence of YouTube on personal health decision-making is well established, this study assessed the type of content and viewership on a broad scope of dermatology related content on YouTube. Select terms (i.e. dermatology, sun protection, skin cancer, skin cancer awareness, and skin conditions) were searched on YouTube. Overall, the results included 100 videos with over 47 million viewers. Advocacy was the most prevalent content type at 24% of the total search results. These 100 videos were "shared" a total of 101,173 times and have driven 6,325 subscriptions to distinct YouTube user pages. Of the total videos, 35% were uploaded by or featured an MD/DO/PhD in dermatology or other specialty/field, 2% FNP/PA, 1% RN, and 62% other. As one of the most trafficked global sites on the Internet, YouTube is a valuable resource for dermatologists, physicians in other specialties, and the general public to share their dermatology-related content and gain subscribers. However, challenges of accessing and determining evidence-based data remain an issue.

  19. A laser tube position regulator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sinyitiro, A.; Norio, K.

    1984-03-26

    An improved design is patented for a mechanism and method of regulating, with a high degree of accuracy, the position of a laser tube in a gas laser inside the optical resonator formed by external mirrors. The laser tube is held in two holders. Each holder contains an L shaped bracket which supports a semitransparent plate. The plate is positioned so that its center is over the center of the end of the tube which is in the form of a Brewster window. A narrow parallel beam is directed along the tube axis from an external auxiliary laser. The beam passes through the semitransparent mirror of the optical resonator in the adjusted laser, through the first Brewster window, the tube itself, and the second Brewster window and is reflected back in the reverse direction from a fully reflecting mirror in the optical resonator. This provides partial reflection of the beam from the external Brewster mirror surface. The tube position in the holders is regulated continuously so that the luminous spots from the beams reflected off the Brewster windows fall on the semitransparent plates in the center of the latter which is designated as the point of intersection.

  20. Graphics and control of the guide tube assembly reinforcement manipulators at Sizewell 'A'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A method was devised to reinforce the lower lug welds of the Guide Tube Assemblies (GTA's) at Sizewell 'A'. A six degree of freedom manipulator was designed to place a clamp around the lugs and tighten it. The manipulator was fitted with the three fixed cameras but required another surveillance manipulator positioned in an adjacent standpipe to provide additional views. The need to prepare two standpipes limited the rate at which reinforcements could be made. Therefore an articulated two arm camera manipulator, which could be used on the existing manipulator mast was designed and built. The two manipulators were driven from separate desks and were controlled by the same supervisory computer linked to online graphics. The camera arm joints were driven on preplanned routes using a single joystick because of the complex moves and tight spaces involved. A large number of GTA sites have now been reinforced including a dropped GTA which had to be raised to carry out clamping. (Author)

  1. Graphics and control of the guide tube assembly reinforcement manipulators at Sizewll 'A'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A method was devised to reinforce the lower lug welds of the Guide Tube Assemblies (GTAs) at Sizewell ''A''. A six degree of freedom manipulator was designed to place a clamp around the lugs and tighten it. The manipulator was fitted with three fixed cameras but required another surveillance manipulator positioned in an adjacent standpipe to provide additional views. The need to prepare two standpipes limited the rate at which reinforcements could be made. Therefore an articulated two arm camera manipulator, which could be used on the existing manipulator mast was designed and built. The two manipulators were driven from separate desks and were controlled by the same supervisory computer linked to on-line graphics. The camera arm joints were driven on preplanned routes using a single joystick because of the complex moves and tight spaces involved. A large number of GTA sites have now been reinforced including a dropped GTA which had to be raised to carry out clamping. (UK)

  2. Photo multiplier tubes candidates for the Cherenkov telescope array project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Photo Multiplier Tubes (PMTs) are the most wide spread detectors for fast low-level light signals. They are commonly used as standard light sensors for camera systems in imaging atmospheric Cherenkov telescopes. Years ago, an improvement program for the PMT candidates for the Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA) project was initialized with the companies Hamamatsu Photonics K.K. (Japan) and Electron Tubes Enterprises Ltd. (England). CTA is the next generation of imaging atmospheric Cherenkov telescopes for high energy gamma ray astrophysics. Therefore, we need PMTs with outstanding good parameters concerning quantum efficiency, pulse width, after-pulsing and transit time spread. The currently available ''super-bialkali'' PMTs show a peak Quantum Efficiency of 40% and have an enhanced collection efficiency of up to 95-98% for wavelengths≥400 nm. The pulse width averages around 3ns at a gain of 40000. Also, the after-pulsing for a set threshold level of ≥4 photo electrons is reduced down to 0,02%. We report on the measurement results of PMT R-12292-100 from Hamamatsu as the final version and the intermediate version PMT D569/3SA from Electron Tubes Enterprises as candidate PMTs for the CTA project.

  3. Towards Adaptive Virtual Camera Control In Computer Games

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burelli, Paolo; Yannakakis, Georgios N.

    2011-01-01

    model of the camera behaviour that can be used to control camera movements based on player preferences. For this purpose, we collect eye gaze, camera and game-play data from subjects playing a 3D platform game, we cluster gaze and camera information to identify camera behaviour profiles and we employ......Automatic camera control aims to define a framework to control virtual camera movements in dynamic and unpredictable virtual environments while ensuring a set of desired visual properties. We inves- tigate the relationship between camera placement and playing behaviour in games and build a user...... machine learning to build predictive models of the virtual camera behaviour. The perfor- mance of the models on unseen data reveals accuracies above 70% for all the player behaviour types identified. The characteristics of the gener- ated models, their limits and their use for creating adaptive automatic...

  4. Lights, Camera, Read! Arizona Reading Program Manual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arizona State Dept. of Library, Archives and Public Records, Phoenix.

    This document is the manual for the Arizona Reading Program (ARP) 2003 entitled "Lights, Camera, Read!" This theme spotlights books that were made into movies, and allows readers to appreciate favorite novels and stories that have progressed to the movie screen. The manual consists of eight sections. The Introduction includes welcome letters from…

  5. FPS camera sync and reset chassis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The sync and reset chassis provides all the circuitry required to synchronize an event to be studied, a remote free-running focus projection and scanning (FPS) data-acquisition TV camera, and a video signal recording system. The functions, design, and operation of this chassis are described in detail

  6. Increased Automation in Stereo Camera Calibration Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brandi House

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Robotic vision has become a very popular field in recent years due to the numerous promising applications it may enhance. However, errors within the cameras and in their perception of their environment can cause applications in robotics to fail. To help correct these internal and external imperfections, stereo camera calibrations are performed. There are currently many accurate methods of camera calibration available; however, most or all of them are time consuming and labor intensive. This research seeks to automate the most labor intensive aspects of a popular calibration technique developed by Jean-Yves Bouguet. His process requires manual selection of the extreme corners of a checkerboard pattern. The modified process uses embedded LEDs in the checkerboard pattern to act as active fiducials. Images are captured of the checkerboard with the LEDs on and off in rapid succession. The difference of the two images automatically highlights the location of the four extreme corners, and these corner locations take the place of the manual selections. With this modification to the calibration routine, upwards of eighty mouse clicks are eliminated per stereo calibration. Preliminary test results indicate that accuracy is not substantially affected by the modified procedure. Improved automation to camera calibration procedures may finally penetrate the barriers to the use of calibration in practice.

  7. GAMPIX: A new generation of gamma camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gmar, M.; Agelou, M.; Carrel, F.; Schoepff, V.

    2011-10-01

    Gamma imaging is a technique of great interest in several fields such as homeland security or decommissioning/dismantling of nuclear facilities in order to localize hot spots of radioactivity. In the nineties, previous works led by CEA LIST resulted in the development of a first generation of gamma camera called CARTOGAM, now commercialized by AREVA CANBERRA. Even if its performances can be adapted to many applications, its weight of 15 kg can be an issue. For several years, CEA LIST has been developing a new generation of gamma camera, called GAMPIX. This system is mainly based on the Medipix2 chip, hybridized to a 1 mm thick CdTe substrate. A coded mask replaces the pinhole collimator in order to increase the sensitivity of the gamma camera. Hence, we obtained a very compact device (global weight less than 1 kg without any shielding), which is easy to handle and to use. In this article, we present the main characteristics of GAMPIX and we expose the first experimental results illustrating the performances of this new generation of gamma camera.

  8. Parametrizable cameras for 3D computational steering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulder, J.D.; Wijk, J.J. van

    1997-01-01

    We present a method for the definition of multiple views in 3D interfaces for computational steering. The method uses the concept of a point-based parametrizable camera object. This concept enables a user to create and configure multiple views on his custom 3D interface in an intuitive graphical man

  9. Camera! Action! Collaborate with Digital Moviemaking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swan, Kathleen Owings; Hofer, Mark; Levstik, Linda S.

    2007-01-01

    Broadly defined, digital moviemaking integrates a variety of media (images, sound, text, video, narration) to communicate with an audience. There is near-ubiquitous access to the necessary software (MovieMaker and iMovie are bundled free with their respective operating systems) and hardware (computers with Internet access, digital cameras, etc.).…

  10. Camera Systems Rapidly Scan Large Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Needing a method to quickly scan large structures like an aircraft wing, Langley Research Center developed the line scanning thermography (LST) system. LST works in tandem with a moving infrared camera to capture how a material responds to changes in temperature. Princeton Junction, New Jersey-based MISTRAS Group Inc. now licenses the technology and uses it in power stations and industrial plants.

  11. Face identification in videos from mobile cameras

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mu, Meiru; Spreeuwers, Luuk; Veldhuis, Raymond

    2014-01-01

    It is still challenging to recognize faces reliably in videos from mobile camera, although mature automatic face recognition technology for still images has been available for quite some time. Suppose we want to be alerted when suspects appear in the recording of a police Body-Cam, even a good face

  12. Digital Camera Project Fosters Communication Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Ashley; Lazaros, Edward J.

    2009-01-01

    This article details the many benefits of educators' use of digital camera technology and provides an activity in which students practice taking portrait shots of classmates, manipulate the resulting images, and add language arts practice by interviewing their subjects to produce a photo-illustrated Word document. This activity gives…

  13. Case on Camera--An Audience Verdict.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wober, J. M.

    In July 1984, British Channel 4 began televising Case on Camera, a series based on genuine arbitration of civil cases carried out by a retired judge, recorded as it happened, and edited into half hour programs. Because of the Independent Broadcasting Authority's concern for the rights to privacy, a systematic study of public reaction to the series…

  14. Development of a multispectral camera system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugiura, Hiroaki; Kuno, Tetsuya; Watanabe, Norihiro; Matoba, Narihiro; Hayashi, Junichiro; Miyake, Yoichi

    2000-05-01

    A highly accurate multispectral camera and the application software have been developed as a practical system to capture digital images of the artworks stored in galleries and museums. Instead of recording color data in the conventional three RGB primary colors, the newly developed camera and the software carry out a pixel-wise estimation of spectral reflectance, the color data specific to the object, to enable the practical multispectral imaging. In order to realize the accurate multispectral imaging, the dynamic range of the camera is set to 14 bits or over and the output bits to 14 bits so as to allow capturing even when the difference in light quantity between the each channel is large. Further, a small-size rotary color filter was simultaneously developed to keep the camera to a practical size. We have developed software capable of selecting the optimum combination of color filters available in the market. Using this software, n types of color filter can be selected from m types of color filter giving a minimum Euclidean distance or minimum color difference in CIELAB color space between actual and estimated spectral reflectance as to 147 types of oil paint samples.

  15. Teaching Camera Calibration by a Constructivist Methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samper, D.; Santolaria, J.; Pastor, J. J.; Aguilar, J. J.

    2010-01-01

    This article describes the Metrovisionlab simulation software and practical sessions designed to teach the most important machine vision camera calibration aspects in courses for senior undergraduate students. By following a constructivist methodology, having received introductory theoretical classes, students use the Metrovisionlab application to…

  16. Video Analysis with a Web Camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyrembeck, Edward P.

    2009-01-01

    Recent advances in technology have made video capture and analysis in the introductory physics lab even more affordable and accessible. The purchase of a relatively inexpensive web camera is all you need if you already have a newer computer and Vernier's Logger Pro 3 software. In addition to Logger Pro 3, other video analysis tools such as…

  17. Osmotic regulation of seamless tube growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schottenfeld-Roames, Jodi; Ghabrial, Amin S

    2013-02-01

    Most organs are composed of tubes of differing cellular architectures, including intracellular 'seamless' tubes. Two studies examining the morphogenesis of the seamless tubes formed by the excretory canal cell in Caenorhabditis elegans reveal a previously unappreciated role for osmoregulation of tubulogenesis: hyperosmotic shock recruits canalicular vesicles to the lumenal membrane to promote seamless tube growth. PMID:23377027

  18. Osmotic regulation of seamless tube growth

    OpenAIRE

    Schottenfeld-Roames, Jodi; Ghabrial, Amin S.

    2013-01-01

    Most organs are composed of tubes of differing cellular architectures, including intracellular, “seamless” tubes. Two studies examining the morphogenesis of the C. elegans excretory canal cell seamless tubes reveal a previously unappreciated role for osmoregulation of tubulogenesis: hyperosmotic shock recruits canalicular vesicles to the lumenal membrane to promote seamless tube growth.

  19. A novel fully integrated handheld gamma camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massari, R.; Ucci, A.; Campisi, C.; Scopinaro, F.; Soluri, A.

    2016-10-01

    In this paper, we present an innovative, fully integrated handheld gamma camera, namely designed to gather in the same device the gamma ray detector with the display and the embedded computing system. The low power consumption allows the prototype to be battery operated. To be useful in radioguided surgery, an intraoperative gamma camera must be very easy to handle since it must be moved to find a suitable view. Consequently, we have developed the first prototype of a fully integrated, compact and lightweight gamma camera for radiopharmaceuticals fast imaging. The device can operate without cables across the sterile field, so it may be easily used in the operating theater for radioguided surgery. The prototype proposed consists of a Silicon Photomultiplier (SiPM) array coupled with a proprietary scintillation structure based on CsI(Tl) crystals. To read the SiPM output signals, we have developed a very low power readout electronics and a dedicated analog to digital conversion system. One of the most critical aspects we faced designing the prototype was the low power consumption, which is mandatory to develop a battery operated device. We have applied this detection device in the lymphoscintigraphy technique (sentinel lymph node mapping) comparing the results obtained with those of a commercial gamma camera (Philips SKYLight). The results obtained confirm a rapid response of the device and an adequate spatial resolution for the use in the scintigraphic imaging. This work confirms the feasibility of a small gamma camera with an integrated display. This device is designed for radioguided surgery and small organ imaging, but it could be easily combined into surgical navigation systems.

  20. Measuring rainfall with low-cost cameras

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allamano, Paola; Cavagnero, Paolo; Croci, Alberto; Laio, Francesco

    2016-04-01

    In Allamano et al. (2015), we propose to retrieve quantitative measures of rainfall intensity by relying on the acquisition and analysis of images captured from professional cameras (SmartRAIN technique in the following). SmartRAIN is based on the fundamentals of camera optics and exploits the intensity changes due to drop passages in a picture. The main steps of the method include: i) drop detection, ii) blur effect removal, iii) estimation of drop velocities, iv) drop positioning in the control volume, and v) rain rate estimation. The method has been applied to real rain events with errors of the order of ±20%. This work aims to bridge the gap between the need of acquiring images via professional cameras and the possibility of exporting the technique to low-cost webcams. We apply the image processing algorithm to frames registered with low-cost cameras both in the lab (i.e., controlled rain intensity) and field conditions. The resulting images are characterized by lower resolutions and significant distortions with respect to professional camera pictures, and are acquired with fixed aperture and a rolling shutter. All these hardware limitations indeed exert relevant effects on the readability of the resulting images, and may affect the quality of the rainfall estimate. We demonstrate that a proper knowledge of the image acquisition hardware allows one to fully explain the artefacts and distortions due to the hardware. We demonstrate that, by correcting these effects before applying the image processing algorithm, quantitative rain intensity measures are obtainable with a good accuracy also with low-cost modules.

  1. X-ray imaging using digital cameras

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winch, Nicola M.; Edgar, Andrew

    2012-03-01

    The possibility of using the combination of a computed radiography (storage phosphor) cassette and a semiprofessional grade digital camera for medical or dental radiography is investigated. We compare the performance of (i) a Canon 5D Mk II single lens reflex camera with f1.4 lens and full-frame CMOS array sensor and (ii) a cooled CCD-based camera with a 1/3 frame sensor and the same lens system. Both systems are tested with 240 x 180 mm cassettes which are based on either powdered europium-doped barium fluoride bromide or needle structure europium-doped cesium bromide. The modulation transfer function for both systems has been determined and falls to a value of 0.2 at around 2 lp/mm, and is limited by light scattering of the emitted light from the storage phosphor rather than the optics or sensor pixelation. The modulation transfer function for the CsBr:Eu2+ plate is bimodal, with a high frequency wing which is attributed to the light-guiding behaviour of the needle structure. The detective quantum efficiency has been determined using a radioisotope source and is comparatively low at 0.017 for the CMOS camera and 0.006 for the CCD camera, attributed to the poor light harvesting by the lens. The primary advantages of the method are portability, robustness, digital imaging and low cost; the limitations are the low detective quantum efficiency and hence signal-to-noise ratio for medical doses, and restricted range of plate sizes. Representative images taken with medical doses are shown and illustrate the potential use for portable basic radiography.

  2. NEW VERSATILE CAMERA CALIBRATION TECHNIQUE BASED ON LINEAR RECTIFICATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pan Feng; Wang Xuanyin

    2004-01-01

    A new versatile camera calibration technique for machine vision using off-the-shelf cameras is described. Aimed at the large distortion of the off-the-shelf cameras, a new camera distortion rectification technology based on line-rectification is proposed. A full-camera-distortion model is introduced and a linear algorithm is provided to obtain the solution. After the camera rectification intrinsic and extrinsic parameters are obtained based on the relationship between the homograph and absolute conic. This technology needs neither a high-accuracy three-dimensional calibration block, nor a complicated translation or rotation platform. Both simulations and experiments show that this method is effective and robust.

  3. Analysis of RED ONE Digital Cinema Camera and RED Workflow

    OpenAIRE

    Foroughi Mobarakeh, Taraneh

    2009-01-01

    RED Digital Cinema is a rather new company that has developed a camera that has shaken the world of the film industry, the RED One camera. RED One is a digital cinema camera with the characteristics of a 35mm film camera. With a custom made 12 megapixel CMOS sensor it offers images with a filmic look that cannot be achieved with many other digital cinema cameras. With a new camera comes a new set of media files to work with, which brings new software applications supporting them. RED Digital ...

  4. Pump element for a tube pump

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2011-01-01

    relative to the rod element so as to allow for a fluid flow in the tube through the first valve member, along the rod element, and through the second valve member. The tube comprises an at least partly flexible tube portion between the valve members such that a repeated deformation of the flexible tube...... pump as mentioned above, thereby acting to generate a fluid flow through the tube upon repeated deformation of the tube between the two valve members. The pump element may comprise a connecting part for coupling to another tube and may comprise a sealing part establishing a fluid tight connection...

  5. Current practices for ultrasonic and radiographic examination of tubes, tube plates and tube-plate welds of tube bundles in heat exchangers. Chapter 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The chapter describes the ultrasonic and radiographic inspection procedures that are applied to heat exchanger tube bundles. The inspection process starts with the ultrasonic examination of the tubes and tube plates during manufacture, followed by radiography of the tube-to-tube-plate welds during fabrication of the tube bundle. Ultrasonic methods are explained for welds which are amenable to this type of inspection. For the in-service inspection of tube bundles the chapter relates the authors' experiences on the ultrasonic inspection of tubes and tube plates in the Prototype Fast Breeder Reactor at Dounreay. At the end of the chapter some comments are made about future ultrasonic and radiographic developments for tube bundles. (author)

  6. Control of the movement of a ROV camera; Controle de posicionamento da camera de um ROV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lima, Alexandre S. de; Dutra, Max Suell [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graduacao de Engenharia (COPPE); Reis, Ney Robinson S. dos [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas; Santos, Auderi V. dos [Pontificia Univ. Catolica do Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2004-07-01

    The ROV's (Remotely Operated Vehicles) are used for installation and maintenance of underwater exploration systems in the oil industry. These systems are operated in distant areas thus being of essential importance the use of a cameras for the visualization of the work area. The synchronization necessary in the accomplishment of the tasks when operating the manipulator and the movement of the camera for the operator is a complex task. For the accomplishment of this synchronization is presented in this work the analysis of the interconnection of the systems. The concatenation of the systems is made through the interconnection of the electric signals of the proportional valves of the actuators of the manipulator with the signals of the proportional valves of the actuators of the camera. With this interconnection the approach accompaniment of the movement of the manipulator for the camera, keeping the object of the visualization of the field of vision of the operator is obtained. (author)

  7. 49 CFR 230.61 - Arch tubes, water bar tubes, circulators and thermic siphons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... MAINTENANCE STANDARDS Boilers and Appurtenances Washing Boilers § 230.61 Arch tubes, water bar tubes, circulators and thermic siphons. (a) Frequency of cleaning. Each time the boiler is washed, arch tubes and... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Arch tubes, water bar tubes, circulators...

  8. Laser initiated endotracheal tube explosion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Vane, G G

    1990-06-01

    A 62-year-old male with a diagnosis of subglottic and tracheal stenosis resulting from a prolonged intubation was scheduled for a laser bronchoscopy and placement of a silicon T-shaped tube. His history was significant for two myocardial infarctions, an episode of congestive heart failure and exertional angina. A 6 mm polyvinyl chloride endotracheal tube, wrapped with aluminum tape, was placed in an existing tracheostomy stoma. During the course of the procedure, a sudden bright flash occurred followed by an explosive noise and black smoke rising in the anesthesia circuit and from the patient's mouth. The endotracheal tube was removed and the patient was treated for first and second degree burns in the supraglottic area and base of the tongue. In laser surgery of the airway, special care should be given to reducing the flammability of the inspired gases which can be best accomplished by the mixture of helium with oxygen. Helium acts to retard ignition of polyvinyl chloride tubes in concentrations of 60% or greater. The external surface of the tube can also be protected with the application of a metallic tape affixed in a spiral fashion. Finally, a protocol for the management and treatment of this emergency should be adopted and rehearsed. PMID:2378234

  9. Physics of magnetic flux tubes

    CERN Document Server

    Ryutova, Margarita

    2015-01-01

    This book is the first account of the physics of magnetic flux tubes from their fundamental properties to collective phenomena in an ensembles of flux tubes. The physics of magnetic flux tubes is absolutely vital for understanding fundamental physical processes in the solar atmosphere shaped and governed by magnetic fields. High-resolution and high cadence observations from recent space and  ground-based instruments taken simultaneously at different heights and temperatures not only show the ubiquity of filamentary structure formation but also allow to study how various events are interconnected by system of magnetic flux tubes. The book covers both theory and observations. Theoretical models presented in analytical and phenomenological forms are tailored for practical applications. These are welded with state-of-the-art observations from early decisive ones to the most recent data that open a new phase-space for exploring the Sun and sun-like stars. Concept of magnetic flux tubes is central to various magn...

  10. Analysis of autofrettaged metal tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thick-walled cylinders are widely used as compressor cylinders, pump cylinders, high pressure tubing, process reactors and vessels, nuclear reactors, isostatic vessels and gun barrels. In practice, cylinders are generally subjected to sudden and frequently drastic pressure fluctuations, such as the pressure generated in a gun barrel upon the firing of the weapon, pressure reversals in pump cylinders or in process reactors employing high-pressure piping, necessitating enhanced strength of such cylinders. A process for enhancing the strength of thick-walled cylinders has been in service, and is referred to as 'autofrettage'. It extends the service life of the cylinder. The autofrettage is achieved by increasing elastic strength of a cylinder with various methods such as hydraulic pressurization, mechanical swaging, or by utilizing the pressure of a powder gas. This research work deals with the hydraulic and mechanical autofrettage of metal tubes with the objective to attain enhanced strength. Five metal tubes are taken randomly for analysis purpose. The experimental data for five metal tubes is obtained to analyze the behavior of different parameters used during, before, and after autofrettage process. For this research, two-stage autofrettage is taken into consideration. The modeling of the metal tube is carried out in WildFire-ProEngineering, and for analysis purpose, finite element software ANSYS7 and COSMOS are used. The graphical analysis of swage autofrettage is carried out using MATLAB7. The results are validated using available experimental and numerical data. (author)

  11. Experimental and numerical study on the growth and collapse of a bubble in a narrow tube

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bao-Yu Ni; A-Man Zhang; Qian-Xi Wang; Bin Wang

    2012-01-01

    The growth,expansion and collapse of a bubble in a narrow tube are studied using both experiments and numerical simulations.In experiment,the bubble is generatedby an electric spark in a water tank and recorded by a highspeed camera system.In numerical simulation,the evolution of the bubble is solved by adopting axisymmetric boundary integral equation,considering the surface tension effect.The results of experiments and numerical simulations are compared and good agreements are achieved.Both of them show that a counter-jet forms and penetrates the bubble at the end of the collapse stage,before a ring type bubble forms.Under the attraction of the tube wall due to Bjerknes force,a ring jet is generated,pointing towards the tube.On the basis of this,some physical quantities like the pressure on the tube wall and kinetic energy are calculated in a case study.The effects of tube diameters and tube lengths on the bubble's behaviors are also investigated.

  12. National Guidelines for Digital Camera Systems Certification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaron, Yaron; Keinan, Eran; Benhamu, Moshe; Regev, Ronen; Zalmanzon, Garry

    2016-06-01

    Digital camera systems are a key component in the production of reliable, geometrically accurate, high-resolution geospatial products. These systems have replaced film imaging in photogrammetric data capturing. Today, we see a proliferation of imaging sensors collecting photographs in different ground resolutions, spectral bands, swath sizes, radiometric characteristics, accuracies and carried on different mobile platforms. In addition, these imaging sensors are combined with navigational tools (such as GPS and IMU), active sensors such as laser scanning and powerful processing tools to obtain high quality geospatial products. The quality (accuracy, completeness, consistency, etc.) of these geospatial products is based on the use of calibrated, high-quality digital camera systems. The new survey regulations of the state of Israel specify the quality requirements for each geospatial product including: maps at different scales and for different purposes, elevation models, orthophotographs, three-dimensional models at different levels of details (LOD) and more. In addition, the regulations require that digital camera systems used for mapping purposes should be certified using a rigorous mapping systems certification and validation process which is specified in the Director General Instructions. The Director General Instructions for digital camera systems certification specify a two-step process as follows: 1. Theoretical analysis of system components that includes: study of the accuracy of each component and an integrative error propagation evaluation, examination of the radiometric and spectral response curves for the imaging sensors, the calibration requirements, and the working procedures. 2. Empirical study of the digital mapping system that examines a typical project (product scale, flight height, number and configuration of ground control points and process). The study examine all the aspects of the final product including; its accuracy, the product pixels size

  13. Coalescence phenomena of droplets with suspended particles in a tube flow at low Reynolds number

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muraoka, Masahiro; Ueno, Ichiro; Mizoguchi, Hiroshi; Kamiyama, Toshihiko; Wada, Takuma

    Coalescence phenomena of droplets in a tube flow at low Reynolds number are expected to be useful for fluid handling technique, controlling chemical reaction and so on. In the case of motion of droplets with suspended particles, Drug delivery system can be cited as one of applications. The coalescence phenomena are also underlying basis on analyzing the flow of multiphase fluids through porous media. Such phenomena can be seen, for instance, in enhanced oil recovery, breaking of emulsions in porous coalescers and so on. In this experiment, a glass tube of 2.0 mm in inner diameter, 7.0 mm in outer diameter, and 1500 mm in length is used as a test tube. Silicones oil is employed as the test fluid for the droplet. Mixture fluid of glycerol and pure water is used for a surrounding fluid in the tube flow. The density of the droplets is matched to that of the surrounding fluid by adding carbon tetrachloride. An over flow tank is used to keep the flow in the tube steady at a designated averaged velocity. The test tube is surrounded by a tank filled with a temperature-controlled water to keep the temperature of the system constant. Droplets are injected into the test tube using micro-syringes in front of inlet of the test tube. Behaviors of droplets and suspended particles are monitored by a digital video camera and high speed cameras placed on a sliding stage. The motion of the stage is electrically controlled to follow the travelling droplets in the test tube. Coalescence time of two droplets is measured. The coalescence time indicates a period between the instant when relative velocity of two droplets becomes zero after their apparent contact and the instant when the coalescence takes place. The coalescence time is compared with semi-theoretical formulas obtained using resistance exerted on liquid droplet in a tube creeping flow. When relative velocity of two droplets becomes zero after their apparent contact, clearance diameter of clearance area between droplets is

  14. Method for out-of-focus camera calibration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Tyler; Xu, Jing; Zhang, Song

    2016-03-20

    State-of-the-art camera calibration methods assume that the camera is at least nearly in focus and thus fail if the camera is substantially defocused. This paper presents a method which enables the accurate calibration of an out-of-focus camera. Specifically, the proposed method uses a digital display (e.g., liquid crystal display monitor) to generate fringe patterns that encode feature points into the carrier phase; these feature points can be accurately recovered, even if the fringe patterns are substantially blurred (i.e., the camera is substantially defocused). Experiments demonstrated that the proposed method can accurately calibrate a camera regardless of the amount of defocusing: the focal length difference is approximately 0.2% when the camera is focused compared to when the camera is substantially defocused.

  15. Improved scintimammography using a high-resolution camera mounted on an upright mammography gantry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Itti, Emmanuel; Patt, Bradley E.; Diggles, Linda E.; MacDonald, Lawrence; Iwanczyk, Jan S.; Mishkin, Fred S.; Khalkhali, Iraj E-mail: nephrad@aol.com

    2003-01-21

    {sup 99m}Tc-sestamibi scintimammography (SMM) is a useful adjunct to conventional X-ray mammography (XMM) for the assessment of breast cancer. An increasing number of studies has emphasized fair sensitivity values for the detection of tumors >1 cm, compared to XMM, particularly in situations where high glandular breast densities make mammographic interpretation difficult. In addition, SMM has demonstrated high specificity for cancer, compared to various functional and anatomic imaging modalities. However, large field-of-view (FOV) gamma cameras are difficult to position close to the breasts, which decreases spatial resolution and subsequently, the sensitivity of detection for tumors <1 cm. New dedicated detectors featuring small FOV and increased spatial resolution have recently been developed. In this setting, improvement in tumor detection sensitivity, particularly with regard to small cancers is expected. At Division of Nuclear Medicine, Harbor-UCLA Medical Center, we have performed over 2000 SMM within the last 9 years. We have recently used a dedicated breast camera (LumaGEM) featuring a 12.8x12.8 cm{sup 2} FOV and an array of 2x2x6 mm{sup 3} discrete crystals coupled to a photon-sensitive photomultiplier tube readout. This camera is mounted on a mammography gantry allowing upright imaging, medial positioning and use of breast compression. Preliminary data indicates significant enhancement of spatial resolution by comparison with standard imaging in the first 10 patients. Larger series will be needed to conclude on sensitivity/specificity issues.

  16. Improved scintimammography using a high-resolution camera mounted on an upright mammography gantry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itti, Emmanuel; Patt, Bradley E.; Diggles, Linda E.; MacDonald, Lawrence; Iwanczyk, Jan S.; Mishkin, Fred S.; Khalkhali, Iraj

    2003-01-01

    99mTc-sestamibi scintimammography (SMM) is a useful adjunct to conventional X-ray mammography (XMM) for the assessment of breast cancer. An increasing number of studies has emphasized fair sensitivity values for the detection of tumors >1 cm, compared to XMM, particularly in situations where high glandular breast densities make mammographic interpretation difficult. In addition, SMM has demonstrated high specificity for cancer, compared to various functional and anatomic imaging modalities. However, large field-of-view (FOV) gamma cameras are difficult to position close to the breasts, which decreases spatial resolution and subsequently, the sensitivity of detection for tumors <1 cm. New dedicated detectors featuring small FOV and increased spatial resolution have recently been developed. In this setting, improvement in tumor detection sensitivity, particularly with regard to small cancers is expected. At Division of Nuclear Medicine, Harbor-UCLA Medical Center, we have performed over 2000 SMM within the last 9 years. We have recently used a dedicated breast camera (LumaGEM™) featuring a 12.8×12.8 cm 2 FOV and an array of 2×2×6 mm 3 discrete crystals coupled to a photon-sensitive photomultiplier tube readout. This camera is mounted on a mammography gantry allowing upright imaging, medial positioning and use of breast compression. Preliminary data indicates significant enhancement of spatial resolution by comparison with standard imaging in the first 10 patients. Larger series will be needed to conclude on sensitivity/specificity issues.

  17. Energy dissipation in circular tube

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.D. Girgidov

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Energy dissipation distribution along the circular tube radius is important in solving such problems as calculation of heat transfer by the air flow through building envelope; calculation of pressure loss in spiral flows; calculation of cyclones with axial and tangential supply of dust-containing gas.Two types of one-dimensional radially axisymmetric flows in circular tube were considered: axial flow and rotation about the axis (Rankine vortex. Relying on two- and four-layer description of axial turbulent flow energy dissipation was calculated in each layer.Similar calculation for Rankine vortex with viscous sublayer at the tube surface was provided. By employing the dissipation minimum principle the boundary radius between rigid rotation and free vortex is calculated. Approximation of the velocity distribution in Rankine vortex is proposed.

  18. Failure analysis of brass tubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lawrence, S.J.; Bodnar, R.L. [Bethlehem Steel Corp., PA (United States)

    1997-02-01

    The 1996 Jacquet Lucas Award for Excellence in Metallography was won by Samuel J. Lawrence and Richard L. Bodnar for their analysis of cracks in Admiralty brass cooling tubes, which are part of a heat exchanger in a turbogenerator that provides electricity to a manufacturing plant. A mixture of non-recirculating city and spring pit water flows through bundles of tubes to cool the oil in which they are immersed. However, a problem developed when several of the brass tubes cracked transversely, allowing cooling water to mix with the oil. This award-winning entry in the ASM/IMS competition shows how the metallographers analyzed the cracks, and what the results were.

  19. Drift tubes of Linac 2

    CERN Multimedia

    1977-01-01

    With the advent of the 800 MeV PS Booster in 1972, the original injector of the PS, a 50 MeV Alvarez-type proton linac, had reached its limits, in terms of intensity and stability. In 1973 one therefore decided to build a new linac (Linac 2), also with a drift-tube Alvarez structure and an energy of 50 MeV. It had a new Cockcroft-Walton preinjector with 750 keV, instead of the previous one with 500 keV. Linac 2 was put into service in 1980. The old Linac 1 was then used for the study of, and later operation with, various types of ions. This picture shows Linac 2 drift-tubes, suspended on stems coming from the top, in contrast to Linac 1, where the drift-tubes stood on stems coming from the bottom.

  20. Depth estimation and camera calibration of a focused plenoptic camera for visual odometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeller, Niclas; Quint, Franz; Stilla, Uwe

    2016-08-01

    This paper presents new and improved methods of depth estimation and camera calibration for visual odometry with a focused plenoptic camera. For depth estimation we adapt an algorithm previously used in structure-from-motion approaches to work with images of a focused plenoptic camera. In the raw image of a plenoptic camera, scene patches are recorded in several micro-images under slightly different angles. This leads to a multi-view stereo-problem. To reduce the complexity, we divide this into multiple binocular stereo problems. For each pixel with sufficient gradient we estimate a virtual (uncalibrated) depth based on local intensity error minimization. The estimated depth is characterized by the variance of the estimate and is subsequently updated with the estimates from other micro-images. Updating is performed in a Kalman-like fashion. The result of depth estimation in a single image of the plenoptic camera is a probabilistic depth map, where each depth pixel consists of an estimated virtual depth and a corresponding variance. Since the resulting image of the plenoptic camera contains two plains: the optical image and the depth map, camera calibration is divided into two separate sub-problems. The optical path is calibrated based on a traditional calibration method. For calibrating the depth map we introduce two novel model based methods, which define the relation of the virtual depth, which has been estimated based on the light-field image, and the metric object distance. These two methods are compared to a well known curve fitting approach. Both model based methods show significant advantages compared to the curve fitting method. For visual odometry we fuse the probabilistic depth map gained from one shot of the plenoptic camera with the depth data gained by finding stereo correspondences between subsequent synthesized intensity images of the plenoptic camera. These images can be synthesized totally focused and thus finding stereo correspondences is enhanced

  1. Calibrating a depth camera but ignoring it for SLAM

    OpenAIRE

    Castro, Daniel Herrera

    2014-01-01

    Recent improvements in resolution, accuracy, and cost have made depth cameras a very popular alternative for 3D reconstruction and navigation. Thus, accurate depth camera calibration a very relevant aspect of many 3D pipelines. We explore what are the limits of a practical depth camera calibration algorithm: how to accurately calibrate a noisy depth camera without a precise calibration object and without using brightness or depth discontinuities. We present an algorithm that uses an external ...

  2. Calibration of omnidirectional cameras in practice: A comparison of methods

    OpenAIRE

    Puig, Luis; Bermúdez, Jesús; Sturm, Peter; Guerrero, Josechu

    2012-01-01

    International audience Omnidirectional cameras are becoming increasingly popular in computer vision and robotics. Camera calibration is a step before performing any task involving metric scene measurement, required in nearly all robotics tasks. In recent years many different methods to calibrate central omnidirectional cameras have been developed, based on different camera models and often limited to a specific mirror shape. In this paper we review the existing methods designed to calibrat...

  3. Dynamic Vision Sensor Camera Based Bare Hand Gesture Recognition

    OpenAIRE

    kashmera ashish khedkkar safaya; Rekha Lathi

    2012-01-01

    This Paper proposes a method to recognize bare hand gestures using dynamic vision sensor (DVS) camera. DVS camera only responds asynchronously to pixels that have temporal changes in intensity which different from conventional camera. This paper attempts to recognize three different hand gestures rock, paper and scissors and using those hand gestures design mouse free interface.   Keywords: Dynamic vision sensor camera, Hand gesture recognition

  4. Dynamic Vision Sensor Camera Based Bare Hand Gesture Recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    kashmera ashish khedkkar safaya

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available This Paper proposes a method to recognize bare hand gestures using dynamic vision sensor (DVS camera. DVS camera only responds asynchronously to pixels that have temporal changes in intensity which different from conventional camera. This paper attempts to recognize three different hand gestures rock, paper and scissors and using those hand gestures design mouse free interface.   Keywords: Dynamic vision sensor camera, Hand gesture recognition

  5. Situational Awareness from a Low-Cost Camera System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freudinger, Lawrence C.; Ward, David; Lesage, John

    2010-01-01

    A method gathers scene information from a low-cost camera system. Existing surveillance systems using sufficient cameras for continuous coverage of a large field necessarily generate enormous amounts of raw data. Digitizing and channeling that data to a central computer and processing it in real time is difficult when using low-cost, commercially available components. A newly developed system is located on a combined power and data wire to form a string-of-lights camera system. Each camera is accessible through this network interface using standard TCP/IP networking protocols. The cameras more closely resemble cell-phone cameras than traditional security camera systems. Processing capabilities are built directly onto the camera backplane, which helps maintain a low cost. The low power requirements of each camera allow the creation of a single imaging system comprising over 100 cameras. Each camera has built-in processing capabilities to detect events and cooperatively share this information with neighboring cameras. The location of the event is reported to the host computer in Cartesian coordinates computed from data correlation across multiple cameras. In this way, events in the field of view can present low-bandwidth information to the host rather than high-bandwidth bitmap data constantly being generated by the cameras. This approach offers greater flexibility than conventional systems, without compromising performance through using many small, low-cost cameras with overlapping fields of view. This means significant increased viewing without ignoring surveillance areas, which can occur when pan, tilt, and zoom cameras look away. Additionally, due to the sharing of a single cable for power and data, the installation costs are lower. The technology is targeted toward 3D scene extraction and automatic target tracking for military and commercial applications. Security systems and environmental/ vehicular monitoring systems are also potential applications.

  6. ASSESSING THE PHOTOGRAMMETRIC POTENTIAL OF CAMERAS IN PORTABLE DEVICES

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, M J; Kokkas, N.

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, there have been an increasing number of portable devices, tablets and Smartphone’s employing high-resolution digital cameras to satisfy consumer demand. In most cases, these cameras are designed primarily for capturing visually pleasing images and the potential of using Smartphone and tablet cameras for metric applications remains uncertain. The compact nature of the host’s devices leads to very small cameras and therefore smaller geometric characteristics. This also makes th...

  7. Declarative camera control for automatic cinematography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christianson, D.B.; Anderson, S.E.; Li-wei He [Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States)] [and others

    1996-12-31

    Animations generated by interactive 3D computer graphics applications are typically portrayed either from a particular character`s point of view or from a small set of strategically-placed viewpoints. By ignoring camera placement, such applications fail to realize important storytelling capabilities that have been explored by cinematographers for many years. In this paper, we describe several of the principles of cinematography and show how they can be formalized into a declarative language, called the Declarative Camera Control Language (DCCL). We describe the application of DCCL within the context of a simple interactive video game and argue that DCCL represents cinematic knowledge at the same level of abstraction as expert directors by encoding 16 idioms from a film textbook. These idioms produce compelling animations, as demonstrated on the accompanying videotape.

  8. SLAM using camera and IMU sensors.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rothganger, Fredrick H.; Muguira, Maritza M.

    2007-01-01

    Visual simultaneous localization and mapping (VSLAM) is the problem of using video input to reconstruct the 3D world and the path of the camera in an 'on-line' manner. Since the data is processed in real time, one does not have access to all of the data at once. (Contrast this with structure from motion (SFM), which is usually formulated as an 'off-line' process on all the data seen, and is not time dependent.) A VSLAM solution is useful for mobile robot navigation or as an assistant for humans exploring an unknown environment. This report documents the design and implementation of a VSLAM system that consists of a small inertial measurement unit (IMU) and camera. The approach is based on a modified Extended Kalman Filter. This research was performed under a Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) effort.

  9. Blind identification of cellular phone cameras

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çeliktutan, Oya; Avcibas, Ismail; Sankur, Bülent

    2007-02-01

    In this paper, we focus on blind source cell-phone identification problem. It is known various artifacts in the image processing pipeline, such as pixel defects or unevenness of the responses in the CCD sensor, black current noise, proprietary interpolation algorithms involved in color filter array [CFA] leave telltale footprints. These artifacts, although often imperceptible, are statistically stable and can be considered as a signature of the camera type or even of the individual device. For this purpose, we explore a set of forensic features, such as binary similarity measures, image quality measures and higher order wavelet statistics in conjunction SVM classifier to identify the originating cell-phone type. We provide identification results among 9 different brand cell-phone cameras. In addition to our initial results, we applied a set of geometrical operations to original images in order to investigate how much our proposed method is robust under these manipulations.

  10. Camera Augmented Mobile C-arm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lejing; Weidert, Simon; Traub, Joerg; Heining, Sandro Michael; Riquarts, Christian; Euler, Ekkehard; Navab, Nassir

    The Camera Augmented Mobile C-arm (CamC) system that extends a regular mobile C-arm by a video camera provides an X-ray and video image overlay. Thanks to the mirror construction and one time calibration of the device, the acquired X-ray images are co-registered with the video images without any calibration or registration during the intervention. It is very important to quantify and qualify the system before its introduction into the OR. In this communication, we extended the previously performed overlay accuracy analysis of the CamC system by another clinically important parameter, the applied radiation dose for the patient. Since the mirror of the CamC system will absorb and scatter radiation, we introduce a method for estimating the correct applied dose by using an independent dose measurement device. The results show that the mirror absorbs and scatters 39% of X-ray radiation.

  11. Cervical SPECT Camera for Parathyroid Imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2012-08-31

    Primary hyperparathyroidism characterized by one or more enlarged parathyroid glands has become one of the most common endocrine diseases in the world affecting about 1 per 1000 in the United States. Standard treatment is highly invasive exploratory neck surgery called Parathyroidectomy. The surgery has a notable mortality rate because of the close proximity to vital structures. The move to minimally invasive parathyroidectomy is hampered by the lack of high resolution pre-surgical imaging techniques that can accurately localize the parathyroid with respect to surrounding structures. We propose to develop a dedicated ultra-high resolution (~ 1 mm) and high sensitivity (10x conventional camera) cervical scintigraphic imaging device. It will be based on a multiple pinhole-camera SPECT system comprising a novel solid state CZT detector that offers the required performance. The overall system will be configured to fit around the neck and comfortably image a patient.

  12. First polarised light with the NIKA camera

    CERN Document Server

    Ritacco, A; Adane, A; Ade, P; André, P; Beelen, A; Belier, B; Benoît, A; Bideaud, A; Billot, N; Bourrion, O; Calvo, M; Catalano, A; Coiffard, G; Comis, B; D'Addabbo, A; Désert, F -X; Doyle, S; Goupy, J; Kramer, C; Leclercq, S; Macías-Pérez, J F; Martino, J; Mauskopf, P; Maury, A; Mayet, F; Monfardini, A; Pajot, F; Pascale, E; Perotto, L; Pisano, G; Ponthieu, N; Rebolo-Iglesias, M; Réveret, V; Rodriguez, L; Savini, G; Schuster, K; Sievers, A; Thum, C; Triqueneaux, S; Tucker, C; Zylka, R

    2015-01-01

    NIKA is a dual-band camera operating with 315 frequency multiplexed LEKIDs cooled at 100 mK. NIKA is designed to observe the sky in intensity and polarisation at 150 and 260 GHz from the IRAM 30-m telescope. It is a test-bench for the final NIKA2 camera. The incoming linear polarisation is modulated at four times the mechanical rotation frequency by a warm rotating multi-layer Half Wave Plate. Then, the signal is analysed by a wire grid and finally absorbed by the LEKIDs. The small time constant (< 1ms ) of the LEKID detectors combined with the modulation of the HWP enables the quasi-simultaneous measurement of the three Stokes parameters I, Q, U, representing linear polarisation. In this pa- per we present results of recent observational campaigns demonstrating the good performance of NIKA in detecting polarisation at mm wavelength.

  13. Camera Raw解读(1)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张恣宽

    2010-01-01

    Camera Raw是Adobe公司研发的,它是Photoshop软件中的一个RAW格式文件的转换插件。虽然一些大的相机生产商,如尼康、佳能公司各自都有自主开发的RAW格式转换软件,性能也很好,但Adobe以其Photoshop软件开发的优势,将RAW格式转换融合在Photoshop软件中,使RAW格式转换优势更加突出,功能十分强大。特别是PhotoshopCS4中的Camera Raw5,功能更加强大。

  14. AUTOMATIC THEFT SECURITY SYSTEM (SMART SURVEILLANCE CAMERA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veena G.S

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The proposed work aims to create a smart application camera, with the intention of eliminating the need for a human presence to detect any unwanted sinister activities, such as theft in this case. Spread among the campus, are certain valuable biometric identification systems at arbitrary locations. The application monitosr these systems (hereafter referred to as “object” using our smart camera system based on an OpenCV platform. By using OpenCV Haar Training, employing the Viola-Jones algorithm implementation in OpenCV, we teach the machine to identify the object in environmental conditions. An added feature of face recognition is based on Principal Component Analysis (PCA to generate Eigen Faces and the test images are verified by using distance based algorithm against the eigenfaces, like Euclidean distance algorithm or Mahalanobis Algorithm. If the object is misplaced, or an unauthorized user is in the extreme vicinity of the object, an alarm signal is raised.

  15. Advanced EVA Suit Camera System Development Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mock, Kyla

    2016-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) at the Johnson Space Center (JSC) is developing a new extra-vehicular activity (EVA) suit known as the Advanced EVA Z2 Suit. All of the improvements to the EVA Suit provide the opportunity to update the technology of the video imagery. My summer internship project involved improving the video streaming capabilities of the cameras that will be used on the Z2 Suit for data acquisition. To accomplish this, I familiarized myself with the architecture of the camera that is currently being tested to be able to make improvements on the design. Because there is a lot of benefit to saving space, power, and weight on the EVA suit, my job was to use Altium Design to start designing a much smaller and simplified interface board for the camera's microprocessor and external components. This involved checking datasheets of various components and checking signal connections to ensure that this architecture could be used for both the Z2 suit and potentially other future projects. The Orion spacecraft is a specific project that may benefit from this condensed camera interface design. The camera's physical placement on the suit also needed to be determined and tested so that image resolution can be maximized. Many of the options of the camera placement may be tested along with other future suit testing. There are multiple teams that work on different parts of the suit, so the camera's placement could directly affect their research or design. For this reason, a big part of my project was initiating contact with other branches and setting up multiple meetings to learn more about the pros and cons of the potential camera placements we are analyzing. Collaboration with the multiple teams working on the Advanced EVA Z2 Suit is absolutely necessary and these comparisons will be used as further progress is made for the overall suit design. This prototype will not be finished in time for the scheduled Z2 Suit testing, so my time was

  16. Slit-Drum Camera For Projectile Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liangyi, Chen; Shaoxiang, Zhou; Guanhua, Cha; Yuxi, Hu

    1983-03-01

    The' model XF-70 slit-drum camera has been developed to record projectile in flight for observation and acquisition. It has two operation modes: (1) synchro-ballistic photography, (2) streak record. The film is located on the inner surface of rotating drum to make it travel. The folding mirror is arranged to reflect light beam 90 degree on to film. The assembly of folding mirror and slit aperture can be together rotated about the optical axis of objective so that the camera makes a feature of recording projectile having any launching angle either in synchro-ballistic photography or in streak record through prerotating the folding mirror assembly by an appropriate angle. The mechanical-electric shutter preventing film from reexposing is close to the slit aperture. The loading mechanism is designed for use in daylight. LED fiducial mark and timing mark are printed at the edges of the frame for accurate measurements.

  17. [The Use of a Tracheal Tube for Guiding Nasogastric Tube Insertion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saima, Shunsuke; Asai, Takashi; Okuda, Yasuhisa

    2016-04-01

    An obese patient was scheduled for shoulder joint surgery under general anesthesia. After induction of anesthesia and tracheal intubation, insertion of a gastric tube was difficult. A new tracheal tube was prepared, the connecter was removed, and the tube was cut longitudinally. The tube was inserted orally into the esophagus. A gastric tube was passed through the nose, and its tip was taken out of the mouth. The tip of the gastric tube was passed through the tracheal tube, and its correct position in the stomach was confirmed by auscultation of the epigastrium. The tracheal tube was carefully taken out from the esophagus leaving the gastric tube in the stomach. The cut tracheal tube was peeled off from the gastric tube. Correct positioning of the gastric tube was re-confirmed.

  18. Using a portable holographic camera in cosmetology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakanas, R.; Gudaitis, G. A.; Zacharovas, S. J.; Ratcliffe, D. B.; Hirsch, S.; Frey, S.; Thelen, A.; Ladrière, N.; Hering, P.

    2006-07-01

    The HSF-MINI portable holographic camera is used to record holograms of the human face. The recorded holograms are analyzed using a unique three-dimensional measurement system that provides topometric data of the face with resolution less than or equal to 0.5 mm. The main advantages of this method over other, more traditional methods (such as laser triangulation and phase-measurement triangulation) are discussed.

  19. Delay in camera-to-display systems

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Today we see an increasing number of time dependent visual computer systems, ranging from interactive video installations, via high definition teleconferencing to the high performance computer vision disciplines for example in industry and robotics. Common for all of these are the requirement for low and predictable delays from the system itself and its components. In this thesis, we look into the delay of camera-to-display computer systems to understand the properties of their delay com...

  20. Fundus camera systems: a comparative analysis

    OpenAIRE

    DeHoog, Edward; Schwiegerling, James

    2009-01-01

    Retinal photography requires the use of a complex optical system, called a fundus camera, capable of illuminating and imaging the retina simultaneously. The patent literature shows two design forms but does not provide the specifics necessary for a thorough analysis of the designs to be performed. We have constructed our own designs based on the patent literature in optical design software and compared them for illumination efficiency, image quality, ability to accommodate for patient refract...

  1. Rank-based camera spectral sensitivity estimation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finlayson, Graham; Darrodi, Maryam Mohammadzadeh; Mackiewicz, Michal

    2016-04-01

    In order to accurately predict a digital camera response to spectral stimuli, the spectral sensitivity functions of its sensor need to be known. These functions can be determined by direct measurement in the lab-a difficult and lengthy procedure-or through simple statistical inference. Statistical inference methods are based on the observation that when a camera responds linearly to spectral stimuli, the device spectral sensitivities are linearly related to the camera rgb response values, and so can be found through regression. However, for rendered images, such as the JPEG images taken by a mobile phone, this assumption of linearity is violated. Even small departures from linearity can negatively impact the accuracy of the recovered spectral sensitivities, when a regression method is used. In our work, we develop a novel camera spectral sensitivity estimation technique that can recover the linear device spectral sensitivities from linear images and the effective linear sensitivities from rendered images. According to our method, the rank order of a pair of responses imposes a constraint on the shape of the underlying spectral sensitivity curve (of the sensor). Technically, each rank-pair splits the space where the underlying sensor might lie in two parts (a feasible region and an infeasible region). By intersecting the feasible regions from all the ranked-pairs, we can find a feasible region of sensor space. Experiments demonstrate that using rank orders delivers equal estimation to the prior art. However, the Rank-based method delivers a step-change in estimation performance when the data is not linear and, for the first time, allows for the estimation of the effective sensitivities of devices that may not even have "raw mode." Experiments validate our method. PMID:27140768

  2. Rank-based camera spectral sensitivity estimation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finlayson, Graham; Darrodi, Maryam Mohammadzadeh; Mackiewicz, Michal

    2016-04-01

    In order to accurately predict a digital camera response to spectral stimuli, the spectral sensitivity functions of its sensor need to be known. These functions can be determined by direct measurement in the lab-a difficult and lengthy procedure-or through simple statistical inference. Statistical inference methods are based on the observation that when a camera responds linearly to spectral stimuli, the device spectral sensitivities are linearly related to the camera rgb response values, and so can be found through regression. However, for rendered images, such as the JPEG images taken by a mobile phone, this assumption of linearity is violated. Even small departures from linearity can negatively impact the accuracy of the recovered spectral sensitivities, when a regression method is used. In our work, we develop a novel camera spectral sensitivity estimation technique that can recover the linear device spectral sensitivities from linear images and the effective linear sensitivities from rendered images. According to our method, the rank order of a pair of responses imposes a constraint on the shape of the underlying spectral sensitivity curve (of the sensor). Technically, each rank-pair splits the space where the underlying sensor might lie in two parts (a feasible region and an infeasible region). By intersecting the feasible regions from all the ranked-pairs, we can find a feasible region of sensor space. Experiments demonstrate that using rank orders delivers equal estimation to the prior art. However, the Rank-based method delivers a step-change in estimation performance when the data is not linear and, for the first time, allows for the estimation of the effective sensitivities of devices that may not even have "raw mode." Experiments validate our method.

  3. On the welded Tube map

    OpenAIRE

    Audoux, Benjamin

    2014-01-01

    This note investigates the so-called Tube map which connects welded knots, that is a quotient of the virtual knot theory, to ribbon torus-knots, that is a restricted notion of fillable knotted tori in the 4-sphere. It emphasizes the fact that ribbon torus-knots with a given filling are in one-to-one correspondence with welded knots before quotient under classical Reidemeister moves and reformulates these moves and the known sources of non-injectivity of the Tube map in terms of filling changes.

  4. Working session 3: Tubing integrity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cueto-Felgueroso, C. [Tecnatom, S.A., San Sebastian de los Reyes, Madrid (Spain); Strosnider, J. [NRC, Washington, DC (United States)

    1997-02-01

    Twenty-three individuals representing nine countries (Belgium, Canada, the Czech Republic, France, Japan, the Slovak Republic, Spain, the UK, and the US) participated in the session on tube integrity. These individuals represented utilities, vendors, consultants and regulatory authorities. The major subjects discussed by the group included overall objectives of managing steam generator tube degradation, necessary elements of a steam generator degradation management program, the concept of degradation specific management, structural integrity evaluations, leakage evaluations, and specific degradation mechanisms. The group`s discussions on these subjects, including conclusions and recommendations, are summarized in this article.

  5. Working session 3: Tubing integrity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Twenty-three individuals representing nine countries (Belgium, Canada, the Czech Republic, France, Japan, the Slovak Republic, Spain, the UK, and the US) participated in the session on tube integrity. These individuals represented utilities, vendors, consultants and regulatory authorities. The major subjects discussed by the group included overall objectives of managing steam generator tube degradation, necessary elements of a steam generator degradation management program, the concept of degradation specific management, structural integrity evaluations, leakage evaluations, and specific degradation mechanisms. The group's discussions on these subjects, including conclusions and recommendations, are summarized in this article

  6. Orifice plates and venturi tubes

    CERN Document Server

    Reader-Harris, Michael

    2015-01-01

    This book gives the background to differential-pressure flow measurement and goes through the requirements explaining the reason for them. For those who want to use an orifice plate or a Venturi tube the standard ISO 5167 and its associated Technical Reports give the instructions required.  However, they rarely tell the users why they should follow certain instructions.  This book helps users of the ISO standards for orifice plates and Venturi tubes to understand the reasons why the standards are as they are, to apply them effectively, and to understand the consequences of deviations from the standards.

  7. Flow Deflection in Intersected Tubes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    In order to verify the flow interference at the fracture intersections, a group of hydraulic simulations of crossing flow was carried out. The manifold interference effects at the intersection of fractures on water flow has been confirmed extensively either in the normal or in the oblique intersected tubes as well as in the intersected tubes of either equal or variant diameters. Consequently, suggest that the fissure network can no longer be taken as a set of solitary fractures, but as a set of elementary intersected ractures. The deflection effect at fracture intersections on the water flow should be taken into considwhen is dealt with any theory related to the water migration in fractures.

  8. Worldview and route planning using live public cameras

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaseb, Ahmed S.; Chen, Wenyi; Gingade, Ganesh; Lu, Yung-Hsiang

    2015-03-01

    Planning a trip needs to consider many unpredictable factors along the route such as traffic, weather, accidents, etc. People are interested viewing the places they plan to visit and the routes they plan to take. This paper presents a system with an Android mobile application that allows users to: (i) Watch the live feeds (videos or snapshots) from more than 65,000 geotagged public cameras around the world. The user can select the cameras using an interactive world map. (ii) Search for and watch the live feeds from the cameras along the route between a starting point and a destination. The system consists of a server which maintains a database with the cameras' information, and a mobile application that shows the camera map and communicates with the cameras. In order to evaluate the system, we compare it with existing systems in terms of the total number of cameras, the cameras' coverage, and the number of cameras on various routes. We also discuss the response time of loading the camera map, finding the cameras on a route, and communicating with the cameras.

  9. CCD characterization for a range of color cameras

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Withagen, P.J.; Groen, F.C.A.; Schutte, K.

    2005-01-01

    CCD cameras are widely used for remote sensing and image processing applications. However, most cameras are produced to create nice images, not to do accurate measurements. Post processing operations such as gamma adjustment and automatic gain control are incorporated in the camera. When a (CCD) cam

  10. Camera Network Coverage Improving by Particle Swarm Optimization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xu, Y.-C.; Lei, B.; Hendriks, E.A.

    2011-01-01

    This paper studies how to improve the field of view (FOV) coverage of a camera network. We focus on a special but practical scenario where the cameras are randomly scattered in a wide area and each camera may adjust its orientation but cannot move in any direction. We propose a particle swarm optimi

  11. Speed cameras : how they work and what effect they have.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2011-01-01

    Much research has been carried out into the effects of speed cameras, and the research shows consistently positive results. International review studies report that speed cameras produce a reduction of approximately 20% in personal injury crashes on road sections where cameras are used. In the Nethe

  12. 16 CFR 3.45 - In camera orders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false In camera orders. 3.45 Section 3.45... PRACTICE FOR ADJUDICATIVE PROCEEDINGS Hearings § 3.45 In camera orders. (a) Definition. Except as hereinafter provided, material made subject to an in camera order will be kept confidential and not placed...

  13. 39 CFR 3001.31a - In camera orders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false In camera orders. 3001.31a Section 3001.31a Postal... Applicability § 3001.31a In camera orders. (a) Definition. Except as hereinafter provided, documents and testimony made subject to in camera orders are not made a part of the public record, but are...

  14. 15 CFR 743.3 - Thermal imaging camera reporting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Thermal imaging camera reporting. 743... REPORTING § 743.3 Thermal imaging camera reporting. (a) General requirement. Exports of thermal imaging cameras must be reported to BIS as provided in this section. (b) Transactions to be reported. Exports...

  15. 21 CFR 892.1100 - Scintillation (gamma) camera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Scintillation (gamma) camera. 892.1100 Section 892...) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1100 Scintillation (gamma) camera. (a) Identification. A scintillation (gamma) camera is a device intended to image the distribution of radionuclides...

  16. 21 CFR 878.4160 - Surgical camera and accessories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Surgical camera and accessories. 878.4160 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 878.4160 Surgical camera and accessories. (a) Identification. A surgical camera and accessories is a device intended to be...

  17. Refocusing distance of a standard plenoptic camera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahne, Christopher; Aggoun, Amar; Velisavljevic, Vladan; Fiebig, Susanne; Pesch, Matthias

    2016-09-19

    Recent developments in computational photography enabled variation of the optical focus of a plenoptic camera after image exposure, also known as refocusing. Existing ray models in the field simplify the camera's complexity for the purpose of image and depth map enhancement, but fail to satisfyingly predict the distance to which a photograph is refocused. By treating a pair of light rays as a system of linear functions, it will be shown in this paper that its solution yields an intersection indicating the distance to a refocused object plane. Experimental work is conducted with different lenses and focus settings while comparing distance estimates with a stack of refocused photographs for which a blur metric has been devised. Quantitative assessments over a 24 m distance range suggest that predictions deviate by less than 0.35 % in comparison to an optical design software. The proposed refocusing estimator assists in predicting object distances just as in the prototyping stage of plenoptic cameras and will be an essential feature in applications demanding high precision in synthetic focus or where depth map recovery is done by analyzing a stack of refocused photographs. PMID:27661891

  18. Terrain mapping camera for Chandrayaan-1

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A S Kiran Kumar; A Roy Chowdhury

    2005-12-01

    The Terrain Mapping Camera (TMC)on India ’s first satellite for lunar exploration,Chandrayaan-1, is for generating high-resolution 3-dimensional maps of the Moon.With this instrument,a complete topographic map of the Moon with 5 m spatial resolution and 10-bit quantization will be available for scienti fic studies.The TMC will image within the panchromatic spectral band of 0.4 to 0.9 m with a stereo view in the fore,nadir and aft directions of the spacecraft movement and have a B/H ratio of 1.The swath coverage will be 20 km.The camera is configured for imaging in the push broom-mode with three linear detectors in the image plane.The camera will have four gain settings to cover the varying illumination conditions of the Moon.Additionally,a provision of imaging with reduced resolution,for improving Signal-to-Noise Ratio (SNR)in polar regions,which have poor illumination conditions throughout,has been made.SNR of better than 100 is expected in the ± 60° latitude region for mature mare soil,which is one of the darkest regions on the lunar surface. This paper presents a brief description of the TMC instrument.

  19. Infrared stereo camera for human machine interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edmondson, Richard; Vaden, Justin; Chenault, David

    2012-06-01

    Improved situational awareness results not only from improved performance of imaging hardware, but also when the operator and human factors are considered. Situational awareness for IR imaging systems frequently depends on the contrast available. A significant improvement in effective contrast for the operator can result when depth perception is added to the display of IR scenes. Depth perception through flat panel 3D displays are now possible due to the number of 3D displays entering the consumer market. Such displays require appropriate and human friendly stereo IR video input in order to be effective in the dynamic military environment. We report on a stereo IR camera that has been developed for integration on to an unmanned ground vehicle (UGV). The camera has auto-convergence capability that significantly reduces ill effects due to image doubling, minimizes focus-convergence mismatch, and eliminates the need for the operator to manually adjust camera properties. Discussion of the size, weight, and power requirements as well as integration onto the robot platform will be given along with description of the stand alone operation.

  20. Improvement of passive THz camera images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowalski, Marcin; Piszczek, Marek; Palka, Norbert; Szustakowski, Mieczyslaw

    2012-10-01

    Terahertz technology is one of emerging technologies that has a potential to change our life. There are a lot of attractive applications in fields like security, astronomy, biology and medicine. Until recent years, terahertz (THz) waves were an undiscovered, or most importantly, an unexploited area of electromagnetic spectrum. The reasons of this fact were difficulties in generation and detection of THz waves. Recent advances in hardware technology have started to open up the field to new applications such as THz imaging. The THz waves can penetrate through various materials. However, automated processing of THz images can be challenging. The THz frequency band is specially suited for clothes penetration because this radiation does not point any harmful ionizing effects thus it is safe for human beings. Strong technology development in this band have sparked with few interesting devices. Even if the development of THz cameras is an emerging topic, commercially available passive cameras still offer images of poor quality mainly because of its low resolution and low detectors sensitivity. Therefore, THz image processing is very challenging and urgent topic. Digital THz image processing is a really promising and cost-effective way for demanding security and defense applications. In the article we demonstrate the results of image quality enhancement and image fusion of images captured by a commercially available passive THz camera by means of various combined methods. Our research is focused on dangerous objects detection - guns, knives and bombs hidden under some popular types of clothing.

  1. Single eye or camera with depth perception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kornreich, Philipp; Farell, Bart

    2012-10-01

    An imager that can measure the distance from each pixel to the point on the object that is in focus at the pixel is described. This is accomplished by a short photoconducting lossi lightguide section at each pixel. The eye or camera lens selects the object point who's range is to be determined at the pixel. Light arriving at an image point trough a convex lens adds constructively only if it comes from the object point that is in focus at this pixel.. Light waves from all other object points cancel. Thus the lightguide at this pixel receives light from one object point only. This light signal has a phase component proportional to the range. The light intensity modes and thus the photocurrent in the lightguides shift in response to the phase of the incoming light. Contacts along the length of the lightguide collect the photocurrent signal containing the range information. Applications of this camera include autonomous vehicle navigation and robotic vision. An interesting application is as part of a crude teleportation system consisting of this camera and a three dimensional printer at a remote location.

  2. Theory and applications of smart cameras

    CERN Document Server

    2016-01-01

    This book presents an overview of smart camera systems, considering practical applications but also reviewing fundamental aspects of the underlying technology.  It introduces in a tutorial style the principles of sensing and signal processing, and also describes topics such as wireless connection to the Internet of Things (IoT) which is expected to be the biggest market for smart cameras. It is an excellent guide to the fundamental of smart camera technology, and the chapters complement each other well as the authors have worked as a team under the auspice of GFP(Global Frontier Project), the largest-scale funded research in Korea.  This is the third of three books based on the Integrated Smart Sensors research project, which describe the development of innovative devices, circuits, and system-level enabling technologies.  The aim of the project was to develop common platforms on which various devices and sensors can be loaded, and to create systems offering significant improvements in information processi...

  3. Stereo cameras on the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabbatini, Massimo; Visentin, Gianfranco; Collon, Max; Ranebo, Hans; Sunderland, David; Fortezza, Raimondo

    2007-02-01

    Three-dimensional media is a unique and efficient means to virtually visit/observe objects that cannot be easily reached otherwise, like the International Space Station. The advent of auto-stereoscopic displays and stereo projection system is making the stereo media available to larger audiences than the traditional scientists and design engineers communities. It is foreseen that a major demand for 3D content shall come from the entertainment area. Taking advantage of the 6 months long permanence on the International Space Station of a colleague European Astronaut, Thomas Reiter, the Erasmus Centre uploaded to the ISS a newly developed, fully digital stereo camera, the Erasmus Recording Binocular. Testing the camera and its human interfaces in weightlessness, as well as accurately mapping the interior of the ISS are the main objectives of the experiment that has just been completed at the time of writing. The intent of this paper is to share with the readers the design challenges tackled in the development and operation of the ERB camera and highlight some of the future plans the Erasmus Centre team has in the pipeline.

  4. Modeling and simulation of gamma camera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simulation techniques play a vital role in designing of sophisticated instruments and also for the training of operating and maintenance staff. Gamma camera systems have been used for functional imaging in nuclear medicine. Functional images are derived from the external counting of the gamma emitting radioactive tracer that after introduction in to the body mimics the behavior of native biochemical compound. The position sensitive detector yield the coordinates of the gamma ray interaction with the detector and are used to estimate the point of gamma ray emission within the tracer distribution space. This advanced imaging device is thus dependent on the performance of algorithm for coordinate computing, estimation of point of emission, generation of image and display of the image data. Contemporary systems also have protocols for quality control and clinical evaluation of imaging studies. Simulation of this processing leads to understanding of the basic camera design problems. This report describes a PC based package for design and simulation of gamma camera along with the options of simulating data acquisition and quality control of imaging studies. Image display and data processing the other options implemented in SIMCAM will be described in separate reports (under preparation). Gamma camera modeling and simulation in SIMCAM has preset configuration of the design parameters for various sizes of crystal detector with the option to pack the PMT on hexagon or square lattice. Different algorithm for computation of coordinates and spatial distortion removal are allowed in addition to the simulation of energy correction circuit. The user can simulate different static, dynamic, MUGA and SPECT studies. The acquired/ simulated data is processed for quality control and clinical evaluation of the imaging studies. Results show that the program can be used to assess these performances. Also the variations in performance parameters can be assessed due to the induced

  5. 21 CFR 876.5980 - Gastrointestinal tube and accessories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... intubation, feeding tube, gastroenterostomy tube, Levine tube, nasogastric tube, single lumen tube with... § 876.9. (2) Class I (general controls) for the dissolvable nasogastric feed tube guide for the nasogastric tube. The class I device is exempt from the premarket notification procedures in subpart E of...

  6. Welding the CNGS decay tube

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2004-01-01

    3.6 km of welds were required for the 1 km long CERN Neutrinos to Gran Sasso (CNGS) decay tube, in which particles produced in the collision with a proton and a graphite target will decay into muons and muon neutrinos. Four highly skilled welders performed this delicate task.

  7. Fin-tube solar collectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-01

    Report presents test procedures and results of thermal-performance evaluation of seven commercial fin tube (liquid) solar collector-absorber plates. Tests were conducted indoors at Marshall Space Flight Center Solar simulator. Results are graphically shown along with supporting test data and summary, indicating efficiency as function of collector inlet temperature.

  8. Working session 1: Tubing degradation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kharshafdjian, G. [Atomic Energy of Canada, Mississauga, Ontario (Canada); Turluer, G. [IPSN, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France)

    1997-02-01

    A general introductory overview of the purpose of the group and the general subject area of SG tubing degradation was given by the facilitator. The purpose of the session was described as to {open_quotes}develop conclusions and proposals on regulatory and technical needs required to deal with the issues of SG tubing degradation.{close_quotes} Types, locations and characteristics of tubing degradation in steam generators were briefly reviewed. The well-known synergistic effects of materials, environment, and stress and strain/strain rate, subsequently referred to by the acronym {open_quotes}MESS{close_quotes} by some of the group members, were noted. The element of time (i.e., evolution of these variables with time) was emphasized. It was also suggested that the group might want to consider the related topics of inspection capabilities, operational variables, degradation remedies, and validity of test data, and some background information in these areas was provided. The presentation given by Peter Millet during the Plenary Session was reviewed; Specifically, the chemical aspects and the degradation from the secondary side of the steam generator were noted. The main issues discussed during the October 1995 EPRI meeting on secondary side corrosion were reported, and a listing of the potential SG tube degradations was provided and discussed.

  9. Oscillatory flow in bifurcating tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Respiratory fluid mechanics is characterized by flow through bifurcating, Y-shaped, tubes. Steady flow through such geometries has been studied in detail by several authors. However, the recent widespread use of high frequency mechanical assistance of ventilation has generated interest in unsteady flows. A symmetric, singly branching pipe has been constructed, with its bifurcation shaped to model pulmonary conditions. The form of the bifurcation is based on CAT scans of human tracheal carinas. Its features include an area change of the parent tube from circular to roughly elliptical near the junction, a pinch-off effect on the parent tube, smoothly curved outer walls at the junction, and a sharp flow divider. Parent and daughter tubes have an l/d ratio of > 50, so that entrance effects are avoided. In order to better understand the effects of unsteadiness, piston driven, laminar, purely oscillatory flow has been established in the pipe for a variety of Womersley numbers. By appropriate choices of flow frequency and amplitude, fluid viscosity, and pipe diameter, tracheal Reynolds and Womersley numbers have been matched for resting breathing (tidal volume of 600 ml to 0.25 Hz), high frequency breathing (50 ml at 5 Hz), and intermediate breathing levels

  10. OurTube / David Talbot

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Talbot, David

    2009-01-01

    USA California Ülikooli töötajate Abram Stern'i ja Michael Dale'i poolt 2005. a. algatatud USA kongressis peetud kõnede videoremiksidest ja nende poolt loodud veebisaidist Metavid.org. Ka YouTube keskkonnast ja wikipedia katsetustest muuta oma keskkond multimeedialisemaks

  11. NEI You Tube Videos: Amblyopia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Supported by the NEI Research at NEI All Research at NEI Office of the Scientific Director Office of the Clinical Director Education Programs ... Health Information News and Events Grants and Funding Research at NEI Education ... NEI YouTube Videos: Amblyopia NEI ...

  12. X-ray tube arrangement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An x-ray tube is described incorporating an elongated target/ anode over which the electron beam is deflected and from which x-rays are emitted. Improved methods of monitoring and controlling the amplitude of the beam deflection are presented. (U.K.)

  13. NEI You Tube Videos: Amblyopia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Macular Degeneration Amblyopia Animations Blindness Cataract Convergence Insufficiency Diabetic Eye Disease Dilated Eye Exam Dry Eye For Kids Glaucoma Healthy Vision Tips Leber Congenital Amaurosis Low Vision Refractive Errors Retinopathy of Prematurity Science Spanish Videos Webinars NEI YouTube ...

  14. Cryogenic system for the ArTeMiS large sub millimeter camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ercolani, E.; Relland, J.; Clerc, L.; Duband, L.; Jourdan, T.; Talvard, M.; Le Pennec, J.; Martignac, J.; Visticot, F.

    2014-07-01

    A new photonic camera has been developed in the framework of the ArTéMis project (Bolometers architecture for large field of view ground based telescopes in the sub-millimeter). This camera scans the sky in the sub-millimeter range at simultaneously three different wavelengths, namely 200 μm, 350 μm, 450 μm, and is installed inside the APEX telescope located at 5100m above sea level in Chile. Bolometric detectors cooled to 300 mK are used in the camera, which is integrated in an original cryostat developed at the low temperature laboratory (SBT) of the INAC institut. This cryostat contains filters, optics, mirrors and detectors which have to be implemented according to mass, size and stiffness requirements. As a result the cryostat exhibits an unusual geometry. The inner structure of the cryostat is a 40 K plate which acts as an optical bench and is bound to the external vessel through two hexapods, one fixed and the other one mobile thanks to a ball bearing. Once the cryostat is cold, this characteristic enabled all the different elements to be aligned with the optical axis. The cryogenic chain is built around a pulse tube cooler (40 K and 4 K) coupled to a double stage helium sorption cooler (300 mK). The cryogenic and vacuum processes are managed by a Siemens PLC and all the data are showed and stored on a CEA SCADA system. This paper describes the mechanical and thermal design of the cryostat, its command control, and the first thermal laboratory tests. This work was carried out in collaboration with the Astrophysics laboratory SAp of the IRFU institut. SAp and SBT have installed the camera in July 2013 inside the Cassegrain cabin of APEX.

  15. Presence capture cameras - a new challenge to the image quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peltoketo, Veli-Tapani

    2016-04-01

    Commercial presence capture cameras are coming to the markets and a new era of visual entertainment starts to get its shape. Since the true presence capturing is still a very new technology, the real technical solutions are just passed a prototyping phase and they vary a lot. Presence capture cameras have still the same quality issues to tackle as previous phases of digital imaging but also numerous new ones. This work concentrates to the quality challenges of presence capture cameras. A camera system which can record 3D audio-visual reality as it is has to have several camera modules, several microphones and especially technology which can synchronize output of several sources to a seamless and smooth virtual reality experience. Several traditional quality features are still valid in presence capture cameras. Features like color fidelity, noise removal, resolution and dynamic range create the base of virtual reality stream quality. However, co-operation of several cameras brings a new dimension for these quality factors. Also new quality features can be validated. For example, how the camera streams should be stitched together with 3D experience without noticeable errors and how to validate the stitching? The work describes quality factors which are still valid in the presence capture cameras and defines the importance of those. Moreover, new challenges of presence capture cameras are investigated in image and video quality point of view. The work contains considerations how well current measurement methods can be used in presence capture cameras.

  16. High-dimensional camera shake removal with given depth map.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Tao; Suo, Jinli; Dai, Qionghai

    2014-06-01

    Camera motion blur is drastically nonuniform for large depth-range scenes, and the nonuniformity caused by camera translation is depth dependent but not the case for camera rotations. To restore the blurry images of large-depth-range scenes deteriorated by arbitrary camera motion, we build an image blur model considering 6-degrees of freedom (DoF) of camera motion with a given scene depth map. To make this 6D depth-aware model tractable, we propose a novel parametrization strategy to reduce the number of variables and an effective method to estimate high-dimensional camera motion as well. The number of variables is reduced by temporal sampling motion function, which describes the 6-DoF camera motion by sampling the camera trajectory uniformly in time domain. To effectively estimate the high-dimensional camera motion parameters, we construct the probabilistic motion density function (PMDF) to describe the probability distribution of camera poses during exposure, and apply it as a unified constraint to guide the convergence of the iterative deblurring algorithm. Specifically, PMDF is computed through a back projection from 2D local blur kernels to 6D camera motion parameter space and robust voting. We conduct a series of experiments on both synthetic and real captured data, and validate that our method achieves better performance than existing uniform methods and nonuniform methods on large-depth-range scenes.

  17. Qualification Tests of Micro-camera Modules for Space Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, Shinichi; Miyasaka, Akira

    Visual capability is very important for space-based activities, for which small, low-cost space cameras are desired. Although cameras for terrestrial applications are continually being improved, little progress has been made on cameras used in space, which must be extremely robust to withstand harsh environments. This study focuses on commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) CMOS digital cameras because they are very small and are based on an established mass-market technology. Radiation and ultrahigh-vacuum tests were conducted on a small COTS camera that weighs less than 100 mg (including optics). This paper presents the results of the qualification tests for COTS cameras and for a small, low-cost COTS-based space camera.

  18. Determining Vision Graphs for Distributed Camera Networks Using Feature Digests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng Zhaolin

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available We propose a decentralized method for obtaining the vision graph for a distributed, ad-hoc camera network, in which each edge of the graph represents two cameras that image a sufficiently large part of the same environment. Each camera encodes a spatially well-distributed set of distinctive, approximately viewpoint-invariant feature points into a fixed-length "feature digest" that is broadcast throughout the network. Each receiver camera robustly matches its own features with the decompressed digest and decides whether sufficient evidence exists to form a vision graph edge. We also show how a camera calibration algorithm that passes messages only along vision graph edges can recover accurate 3D structure and camera positions in a distributed manner. We analyze the performance of different message formation schemes, and show that high detection rates ( can be achieved while maintaining low false alarm rates ( using a simulated 60-node outdoor camera network.

  19. The GCT camera for the Cherenkov Telescope Array

    CERN Document Server

    Brown, Anthony M; Allan, D; Amans, J P; Armstrong, T P; Balzer, A; Berge, D; Boisson, C; Bousquet, J -J; Bryan, M; Buchholtz, G; Chadwick, P M; Costantini, H; Cotter, G; Daniel, M K; De Franco, A; De Frondat, F; Dournaux, J -L; Dumas, D; Fasola, G; Funk, S; Gironnet, J; Graham, J A; Greenshaw, T; Hervet, O; Hidaka, N; Hinton, J A; Huet, J -M; Jegouzo, I; Jogler, T; Kraus, M; Lapington, J S; Laporte, P; Lefaucheur, J; Markoff, S; Melse, T; Mohrmann, L; Molyneux, P; Nolan, S J; Okumura, A; Osborne, J P; Parsons, R D; Rosen, S; Ross, D; Rowell, G; Sato, Y; Sayede, F; Schmoll, J; Schoorlemmer, H; Servillat, M; Sol, H; Stamatescu, V; Stephan, M; Stuik, R; Sykes, J; Tajima, H; Thornhill, J; Tibaldo, L; Trichard, C; Vink, J; Watson, J J; White, R; Yamane, N; Zech, A; Zink, A; Zorn, J

    2016-01-01

    The Gamma-ray Cherenkov Telescope (GCT) is proposed for the Small-Sized Telescope component of the Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA). GCT's dual-mirror Schwarzschild-Couder (SC) optical system allows the use of a compact camera with small form-factor photosensors. The GCT camera is ~0.4 m in diameter and has 2048 pixels; each pixel has a ~0.2 degree angular size, resulting in a wide field-of-view. The design of the GCT camera is high performance at low cost, with the camera housing 32 front-end electronics modules providing full waveform information for all of the camera's 2048 pixels. The first GCT camera prototype, CHEC-M, was commissioned during 2015, culminating in the first Cherenkov images recorded by a SC telescope and the first light of a CTA prototype. In this contribution we give a detailed description of the GCT camera and present preliminary results from CHEC-M's commissioning.

  20. Simple method for calibrating omnidirectional stereo with multiple cameras

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Jong-Eun; Choi, I.-Sak

    2011-04-01

    Cameras can give useful information for the autonomous navigation of a mobile robot. Typically, one or two cameras are used for this task. Recently, an omnidirectional stereo vision system that can cover the whole surrounding environment of a mobile robot is adopted. They usually adopt a mirror that cannot offer uniform spatial resolution. In this paper, we deal with an omnidirectional stereo system which consists of eight cameras where each two vertical cameras constitute one stereo system. Camera calibration is the first necessary step to obtain 3D information. Calibration using a planar pattern requires many images acquired under different poses so it is a tedious step to calibrate all eight cameras. In this paper, we present a simple calibration procedure using a cubic-type calibration structure that surrounds the omnidirectional stereo system. We can calibrate all the cameras on an omnidirectional stereo system in just one shot.

  1. Calibration of asynchronous smart phone cameras from moving objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagen, Oksana; Istenič, Klemen; Bharti, Vibhav; Dhali, Maruf Ahmed; Barmaimon, Daniel; Houssineau, Jérémie; Clark, Daniel

    2015-04-01

    Calibrating multiple cameras is a fundamental prerequisite for many Computer Vision applications. Typically this involves using a pair of identical synchronized industrial or high-end consumer cameras. This paper considers an application on a pair of low-cost portable cameras with different parameters that are found in smart phones. This paper addresses the issues of acquisition, detection of moving objects, dynamic camera registration and tracking of arbitrary number of targets. The acquisition of data is performed using two standard smart phone cameras and later processed using detections of moving objects in the scene. The registration of cameras onto the same world reference frame is performed using a recently developed method for camera calibration using a disparity space parameterisation and the single-cluster PHD filter.

  2. Structure and growth thermodynamics of carbon tubes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李文治; 钱露茜; 钱生法; 周维亚; 王刚; 付春生; 赵日安; 解思深

    1996-01-01

    Carbon tubes were prepared by Ni (or Ti) catalytic pyrolysis of acetylene. The catalytic effect of nanometer nickel powders is related to the reduction temperature in H2 atmosphere. Nanometer nickel powders reduced at high temperature have a distinguished catalytic effect, and the yield of the carbon tubes is relatively high; but for the nickel powders reduced at low temperature, the yield of carbon tubes is low, and no tube can be formed. Carbon tubes can only be grown along the edges or on the tips of the Ni (or Ti) sheets reduced at about 770C. But if Ni (or Ti) sheets are etched in acid, at lot of carbon tubes with various forms can be formed on their surface. The structure and morphology of the carbon tubes is studied, and the growth thermodynamics for the straight, curved and helical carbon tubes are systematically investigated for the first time.

  3. Ultrasonic testing of steam generator tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A system is developed for inspection of steam generator tube, especially near the tube plate. Imaging, thickness measurement, radial profilometry, longitudinal and circonferential crack detection and welded joints testing are reviewed

  4. Chemical cleaning specification: few tube test model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The specification is for the waterside chemical cleaning of the 2 1/4 Cr - 1 Mo steel steam generator tubes. It describes the reagents and conditions for post-chemical cleaning passivation of the evaporator tubes

  5. The accessory fallopian tube: A rare anomaly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kusum R Gandhi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a rare anatomical variation in the form of accessory fallopian tube on right side. The duplication of fallopian tube was observed in a 34-year-old female during routine undergraduate dissection in our department. Fallopian tube is the part of uterus that carries the ovum from the ovary to the uterus. Accessory fallopian tube is the congenital anomaly attached to the ampullary part of main tube. This accessory tube is common site of pyosalpinx, hydrosalpinx, cystic swelling and torsion. The ovum released by the ovary may also be captured by the blind accessory tube leading to infertility or ectopic pregnancy. Hence, all patients of infertility or pelvic inflammatory disease should be screened to rule out the presence of accessory fallopian tube and if encountered should be removed.

  6. Dynamics Calculation of Travel Wave Tube

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    During the dynamics calculating of the travel tube, we must obtain the field map in the tube. The field map can be affected by not only the beam loading, but also the attenuation coefficient. The calculation of the attenuation coefficient

  7. Tube morphogenesis: closure, but many openings remain

    OpenAIRE

    Nelson, W. James

    2003-01-01

    Epithelial and endothelial tubes form the basic structure of many organs and tissues in the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster, the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, zebrafish and mammals. Comparison of how tubes form during development defines several pathways that generate a single unbranched tube or dichotomously branching tubular networks. The formation of tubes can be induced directly by intrinsic signals within epithelial primordia or by inductive signaling between adjacent epithelia and ...

  8. Tube Thoracostomy: Complications and Its Management

    OpenAIRE

    Chinenye Kesieme; Eshiobo Irekpita; Nze Jebbin; Ndubueze Ezemba; Andrew Dongo; Kesieme, Emeka B.

    2011-01-01

    Background. Tube thoracostomy is widely used throughout the medical, surgical, and critical care specialities. It is generally used to drain pleural collections either as elective or emergency. Complications resulting from tube thoracostomy can occasionally be life threatening. Aim. To present an update on the complications and management of complications of tube thoracostomy. Methods. A review of the publications obtained from Medline search, medical libraries, and Google on tube thoracostom...

  9. [A tube retractor for cardiac surgery].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohkado, A; Shiikawa, A; Ishitoya, H; Murata, A

    2001-03-01

    A retractor exclusively used to retract the tubes in cardiac surgery which needs cardiopulmonary bypass was developed. The half-cylinder-shaped end, the lightly curved handle and the flat and triangular grip enable easy and effective grasp of the tubes. This new instrument facilitates operative procedures by effectively retracting the tubes which persistently obstruct the operative field, in such a case of placement of a retrograde cardioplegia tube via the right atrium.

  10. Markerless Camera Pose Estimation - An Overview

    OpenAIRE

    Nöll, Tobias; Pagani, Alain; Stricker, Didier

    2011-01-01

    As shown by the human perception, a correct interpretation of a 3D scene on the basis of a 2D image is possible without markers. Solely by identifying natural features of different objects, their locations and orientations on the image can be identified. This allows a three dimensional interpretation of a two dimensional pictured scene. The key aspect for this interpretation is the correct estimation of the camera pose, i.e. the knowledge of the orientation and location a picture was recorded...

  11. A positron camera for industrial application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A positron camera for application to flow tracing and measurement in mechanical subjects is described. It is based on two 300 x 600 mm2 hybrid multiwire detectors; the cathodes are in the form of lead strips planted onto printed-circuit board, and delay lines are used to determine the location of photon interactions. Measurements of the positron detection efficiency (30 Hz μCi-1 for a centred unshielded source), the maximum data logging rate (3 kHz) and the spatial resolving power (point source response = 5.7 mm fwhm) are presented and discussed, and results from initial demonstration experiments are shown. (orig.)

  12. Calibrating Images from the MINERVA Cameras

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercedes Colón, Ana

    2016-01-01

    The MINiature Exoplanet Radial Velocity Array (MINERVA) consists of an array of robotic telescopes located on Mount Hopkins, Arizona with the purpose of performing transit photometry and spectroscopy to find Earth-like planets around Sun-like stars. In order to make photometric observations, it is necessary to perform calibrations on the CCD cameras of the telescopes to take into account possible instrument error on the data. In this project, we developed a pipeline that takes optical images, calibrates them using sky flats, darks, and biases to generate a transit light curve.

  13. Development of a micro-PIXE camera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We developed a system of μ-PIXE analysis at the division of Takasaki ion accelerator for advanced radiation application (TIARA) in Japan Atomic Energy Research institute (JAERI), which consists of a microbeam apparatus, a multi-parameter data acquisition system and a personal computer. Elemental analysis in the region of 500 μm x 500 μm can be performed with a spatial resolution of < 0.3 μm and multi-elemental distributions are presented as images on a computer display even during measurement. We call this system a micro-PIXE camera. (author)

  14. Computational cameras for moving iris recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCloskey, Scott; Venkatesha, Sharath

    2015-05-01

    Iris-based biometric identification is increasingly used for facility access and other security applications. Like all methods that exploit visual information, however, iris systems are limited by the quality of captured images. Optical defocus due to a small depth of field (DOF) is one such challenge, as is the acquisition of sharply-focused iris images from subjects in motion. This manuscript describes the application of computational motion-deblurring cameras to the problem of moving iris capture, from the underlying theory to system considerations and performance data.

  15. Kundt's Tube: An Acoustic Gas Analyzer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aristov, Natasha; Habekost, Gehsa; Habekost, Achim

    2011-01-01

    A Kundt tube is normally used to measure the speed of sound in gases. Therefore, from known speeds of sound, a Kundt tube can be used to identify gases and their fractions in mixtures. In these experiments, the speed of sound is determined by measuring the frequency of a standing sound wave at a fixed tube length, temperature, and pressure. This…

  16. Feasibility of Upper Port Plug tube handling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koning, J. F.; Elzendorn, B. S.; Ronden, D. M. S.; Klinkhamer, J. F. F.; Biel, W.; Krasikov, Y.; Walker, C. I.

    2011-01-01

    Central, retractable tubes are proposed in several Upper Port Plugs (UPPs) designs for ITER, to enable fast exchange of specific components of diagnostics housed in these UPPs. This paper investigates into possible designs to enable the efficient handling of tubes. The feasibility of tube handling i

  17. Welding device inside a small diameter tube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The orbital welding tool is supported in a socket at the end of a flexible tube. A motor rotating the head is placed in a casing fixed to the other end of the flexible tube and rotates the welding tool by the intermediary of a flexible transmission. A second flexible tube fixed to the casing permits the translation of the welding tool

  18. Small Field of View Scintimammography Gamma Camera Integrated to a Stereotactic Core Biopsy Digital X-ray System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrew Weisenberger; Fernando Barbosa; T. D. Green; R. Hoefer; Cynthia Keppel; Brian Kross; Stanislaw Majewski; Vladimir Popov; Randolph Wojcik

    2002-10-01

    A small field of view gamma camera has been developed for integration with a commercial stereotactic core biopsy system. The goal is to develop and implement a dual-modality imaging system utilizing scintimammography and digital radiography to evaluate the reliability of scintimammography in predicting the malignancy of suspected breast lesions from conventional X-ray mammography. The scintimammography gamma camera is a custom-built mini gamma camera with an active area of 5.3 cm /spl times/ 5.3 cm and is based on a 2 /spl times/ 2 array of Hamamatsu R7600-C8 position-sensitive photomultiplier tubes. The spatial resolution of the gamma camera at the collimator surface is < 4 mm full-width at half-maximum and a sensitivity of /spl sim/ 4000 Hz/mCi. The system is also capable of acquiring dynamic scintimammographic data to allow for dynamic uptake studies. Sample images of preliminary clinical results are presented to demonstrate the performance of the system.

  19. GTSP, automatic ultrasonic inspection of Guide Tube Support Pin in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1 - Description of program or function: GTSP Visitor is a program for automatic detection of known object's position in video frames. It is especially designed for automatic ultrasonic inspection of guide tube support pin (GTSP) in nuclear power plant. 2 - Methods: A GTSP and its position are detected by two-step matched filter algorithm. In first step, a video frame including GTSPs are transformed by DFT. DFTed image is multiplied by matched filter, made from a guide tube image, in frequency domain for estimate Guide Tube center position. Guide Tube areas around estimated center position are erased (pixel values of image are filled with zeros). In next step, image whose guide tube areas were erased is processed as described above but using a different matched filter made from a support pin?s image. Then the positions of two GTSPs are estimated and their orientation is estimated too. Finally its position and orientations are used for control the robot toward the desired position. 3 - Restrictions on the complexity of the problem: Robot control is out of the scope of this program. OpenCV and compatible camera are necessary

  20. Analysis of Camera Parameters Value in Various Object Distances Calibration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In photogrammetric applications, good camera parameters are needed for mapping purpose such as an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) that encompassed with non-metric camera devices. Simple camera calibration was being a common application in many laboratory works in order to get the camera parameter's value. In aerial mapping, interior camera parameters' value from close-range camera calibration is used to correct the image error. However, the causes and effects of the calibration steps used to get accurate mapping need to be analyze. Therefore, this research aims to contribute an analysis of camera parameters from portable calibration frame of 1.5 × 1 meter dimension size. Object distances of two, three, four, five, and six meters are the research focus. Results are analyzed to find out the changes in image and camera parameters' value. Hence, camera calibration parameter's of a camera is consider different depend on type of calibration parameters and object distances

  1. Online camera-gyroscope autocalibration for cell phones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Chao; Evans, Brian L

    2014-12-01

    The gyroscope is playing a key role in helping estimate 3D camera rotation for various vision applications on cell phones, including video stabilization and feature tracking. Successful fusion of gyroscope and camera data requires that the camera, gyroscope, and their relative pose to be calibrated. In addition, the timestamps of gyroscope readings and video frames are usually not well synchronized. Previous paper performed camera-gyroscope calibration and synchronization offline after the entire video sequence has been captured with restrictions on the camera motion, which is unnecessarily restrictive for everyday users to run apps that directly use the gyroscope. In this paper, we propose an online method that estimates all the necessary parameters, whereas a user is capturing video. Our contributions are: 1) simultaneous online camera self-calibration and camera-gyroscope calibration based on an implicit extended Kalman filter and 2) generalization of the multiple-view coplanarity constraint on camera rotation in a rolling shutter camera model for cell phones. The proposed method is able to estimate the needed calibration and synchronization parameters online with all kinds of camera motion and can be embedded in gyro-aided applications, such as video stabilization and feature tracking. Both Monte Carlo simulation and cell phone experiments show that the proposed online calibration and synchronization method converge fast to the ground truth values.

  2. The comparison of corrosion resistance between Baosteel's alloy 690 tube and foreign alloy 690 tube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alloy 690 having excellent corrosion resistance is widely used for SG tubes. The intergranular corrosion and pitting corrosion resistance of Baosteel's alloy 690 tube, Country A alloy 690 tube and Country B alloy 690 tube have been analysed by comparison. It shows that: The intergranular corrosion of Baosteel's alloy 690 tube tested complied with ASTM G28 Standard could satisfy the technical requirement. However.some of Baosteel's alloy 690 tube in intergranular corrosion resistance had less performance than Country A. In addition, pitting corrosion tested with ASTM G48 Standard shown the Baosteel's alloy 690 tube better than Country B. (authors)

  3. Mechanical Instabilities of Biological Tubes

    CERN Document Server

    Hannezo, Edouard; Prost, Jacques; 10.1103/PhysRevLett.109.018101

    2012-01-01

    We study theoretically the shapes of biological tubes affected by various pathologies. When epithelial cells grow at an uncontrolled rate, the negative tension produced by their division provokes a buckling instability. Several shapes are investigated : varicose, enlarged, sinusoidal or sausage-like, all of which are found in pathologies of tracheal, renal tubes or arteries. The final shape depends crucially on the mechanical parameters of the tissues : Young modulus, wall-to-lumen ratio, homeostatic pressure. We argue that since tissues must be in quasistatic mechanical equilibrium, abnormal shapes convey information as to what causes the pathology. We calculate a phase diagram of tubular instabilities which could be a helpful guide for investigating the underlying genetic regulation.

  4. HIGH CURRENT COAXIAL PHOTOMULTIPLIER TUBE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glass, N.W.

    1960-01-19

    A medium-gain photomultiplier tube having high current output, fast rise- time, and matched output impedance was developed. The photomultiplier tube comprises an elongated cylindrical envelope, a cylindrical anode supported at the axis of the envelope, a plurality of elongated spaced opaque areas on the envelope, and a plurality of light admitting windows. A photo-cathode is supported adjacent to each of the windows, and a plurality of secondary emissive dynodes are arranged in two types of radial arrays which are alternately positioned to fill the annular space between the anode and the envelope. The dynodes are in an array being radially staggered with respect to the dynodes in the adjacent array, the dynodes each having a portion arranged at an angle with respect to the electron path, such that electrons emitted by each cathode undergo multiplication upon impingement on a dynode and redirected flight to the next adjacent dynode.

  5. Scintillation counter: photomultiplier tube alignment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A scintillation counter, particularly for counting gamma ray photons, includes a massive lead radiation shield surrounding a sample-receiving zone. The shield is disassembleable into a plurality of segments to allow facile installation and removal of a photomultiplier tube assembly, the segments being so constructed as to prevent straight-line access of external radiation through the shield into the sample receiving zone. Provisions are made for accurately aligning the photomultiplier tube with respect to one or more sample-transmitting bores extending through the shield to the sample receiving zone. A sample elevator, used in transporting samples into the zone, is designed to provide a maximum gamma-receiving aspect to maximize the gamma detecting efficiency. (auth)

  6. Ionization tube simmer current circuit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinkraus, Jr., Robert F.

    1994-01-01

    A highly efficient flash lamp simmer current circuit utilizes a fifty percent duty cycle square wave pulse generator to pass a current over a current limiting inductor to a full wave rectifier. The DC output of the rectifier is then passed over a voltage smoothing capacitor through a reverse current blocking diode to a flash lamp tube to sustain ionization in the tube between discharges via a small simmer current. An alternate embodiment of the circuit combines the pulse generator and inductor in the form of an FET off line square wave generator with an impedance limited step up output transformer which is then applied to the full wave rectifier as before to yield a similar simmer current.

  7. Microstructural degradation in compound tubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salonen, J.; Auerkari, P. [VTT Manufacturing Technology, Espoo (Finland)

    1996-12-31

    In order to quantify microstructural degradation at high temperatures, samples of SA 210 / AISI 304 L compound tube material were annealed in the temperature range 540-720 deg C for 1 to 1 000 hours. The hardness of the annealed material was measured and the micro structure of the samples was investigated with optical and scanning electron microscopy. Microstructural degradation was characterised by the carbide structure in the ferritic-pearlitic base material and by the depth of decarburised and carburised zones of the compound tube interface. The observed changes were quantified in terms of their time and temperature dependence and diffusion coefficients of the process. The results can be used in estimating the extent of thermal exposure of high-temperature components after long-term service or after incidences of overheating. (orig.) (4 refs.)

  8. Development of pressure tube inspection equipment for the Fugen (ATR)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A remote-controlled in-service inspection device has been developed for inspecting the pressure tubes of the Fugen, which is a heavy-water-moderated, boiling light-water-cooled pressure-tube-type reactor. The equipment is capable of performing three kinds of inspection: ultrasonic flaw detection, measurement of inside diameter and visual inspection of the internal surface. To reduce the radiation exposure of inspectors, the three kinds of detectors, with their associated electronics and drive mechanisms for vertical and rotating movements, are housed in the inspection tool assembly, which can be mounted on or removed from the pressure tubes by remote control using a refuelling machine. The ultrasonic technique has been adopted for measurement of the internal diameter in order to shorten the inspection time. The detectors, TV camera and electronic components used in the inspection tool assembly were selected on the basis of irradiation test results. Before inspection of the Fugen reactor, the total system was tested on a mock-up pressure tube to confirm its functions, performance, durability and reliability. The test results were: (1) the ultrasonic flaw detector can detect an artificial flaw of 2.0 mm in length, 0.1 mm in width and 0.1 mm in depth with S/N=7 dB; (2) the inside diameter measurement system can measure the inside diameter, ranging from 117.5 to 119.5 mm, with an accuracy of +-20 μm; (3) an artificial flaw of 2.0 mm in length, 0.1 mm in width and 0.1 mm in depth can be observed by the internal surface observation system. The equipment was used for the inspection of ten pressure tubes of the Fugen reactor during the May 1984 annual inspection. No degradation of the performance of the equipment was observed even after 55 hours of inspection under a maximum dose rate of 2.5x105 R/h. Based on these results, the functions and performance of the equipment in practical use were fully confirmed. (author)

  9. Time-of-Flight Microwave Camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charvat, Gregory; Temme, Andrew; Feigin, Micha; Raskar, Ramesh

    2015-10-01

    Microwaves can penetrate many obstructions that are opaque at visible wavelengths, however microwave imaging is challenging due to resolution limits associated with relatively small apertures and unrecoverable “stealth” regions due to the specularity of most objects at microwave frequencies. We demonstrate a multispectral time-of-flight microwave imaging system which overcomes these challenges with a large passive aperture to improve lateral resolution, multiple illumination points with a data fusion method to reduce stealth regions, and a frequency modulated continuous wave (FMCW) receiver to achieve depth resolution. The camera captures images with a resolution of 1.5 degrees, multispectral images across the X frequency band (8 GHz-12 GHz), and a time resolution of 200 ps (6 cm optical path in free space). Images are taken of objects in free space as well as behind drywall and plywood. This architecture allows “camera-like” behavior from a microwave imaging system and is practical for imaging everyday objects in the microwave spectrum.

  10. Women's Creation of Camera Phone Culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong-Hoo Lee

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available A major aspect of the relationship between women and the media is the extent to which the new media environment is shaping how women live and perceive the world. It is necessary to understand, in a concrete way, how the new media environment is articulated to our gendered culture, how the symbolic or physical forms of the new media condition women’s experiences, and the degree to which a ‘post-gendered re-codification’ can be realized within a new media environment. This paper intends to provide an ethnographic case study of women’s experiences with camera phones, examining the extent to which these experiences recreate or reconstruct women’s subjectivity or identity. By taking a close look at the ways in which women utilize and appropriate the camera phone in their daily lives, it focuses not only on women’s cultural practices in making meanings but also on their possible effect in the deconstruction of gendered techno-culture.

  11. Scalable IC Platform for Smart Cameras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harry Broers

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Smart cameras are among the emerging new fields of electronics. The points of interest are in the application areas, software and IC development. In order to reduce cost, it is worthwhile to invest in a single architecture that can be scaled for the various application areas in performance (and resulting power consumption. In this paper, we show that the combination of an SIMD (single-instruction multiple-data processor and a general-purpose DSP is very advantageous for the image processing tasks encountered in smart cameras. While the SIMD processor gives the very high performance necessary by exploiting the inherent data parallelism found in the pixel crunching part of the algorithms, the DSP offers a friendly approach to the more complex tasks. The paper continues to motivate that SIMD processors have very convenient scaling properties in silicon, making the complete, SIMD-DSP architecture suitable for different application areas without changing the software suite. Analysis of the changes in power consumption due to scaling shows that for typical image processing tasks, it is beneficial to scale the SIMD processor to use the maximum level of parallelism available in the algorithm if the IC supply voltage can be lowered. If silicon cost is of importance, the parallelism of the processor should be scaled to just reach the desired performance given the speed of the silicon.

  12. Infrared Camera Analysis of Laser Hardening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Tesar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The improvement of surface properties such as laser hardening becomes very important in present manufacturing. Resulting laser hardening depth and surface hardness can be affected by changes in optical properties of material surface, that is, by absorptivity that gives the ratio between absorbed energy and incident laser energy. The surface changes on tested sample of steel block were made by engraving laser with different scanning velocity and repetition frequency. During the laser hardening the process was observed by infrared (IR camera system that measures infrared radiation from the heated sample and depicts it in a form of temperature field. The images from the IR camera of the sample are shown, and maximal temperatures of all engraved areas are evaluated and compared. The surface hardness was measured, and the hardening depth was estimated from the measured hardness profile in the sample cross-section. The correlation between reached temperature, surface hardness, and hardening depth is shown. The highest and the lowest temperatures correspond to the lowest/highest hardness and the highest/lowest hardening depth.

  13. Multi-band infrared camera systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Tim; Lang, Frank; Sinneger, Joe; Stabile, Paul; Tower, John

    1994-12-01

    The program resulted in an IR camera system that utilizes a unique MOS addressable focal plane array (FPA) with full TV resolution, electronic control capability, and windowing capability. Two systems were delivered, each with two different camera heads: a Stirling-cooled 3-5 micron band head and a liquid nitrogen-cooled, filter-wheel-based, 1.5-5 micron band head. Signal processing features include averaging up to 16 frames, flexible compensation modes, gain and offset control, and real-time dither. The primary digital interface is a Hewlett-Packard standard GPID (IEEE-488) port that is used to upload and download data. The FPA employs an X-Y addressed PtSi photodiode array, CMOS horizontal and vertical scan registers, horizontal signal line (HSL) buffers followed by a high-gain preamplifier and a depletion NMOS output amplifier. The 640 x 480 MOS X-Y addressed FPA has a high degree of flexibility in operational modes. By changing the digital data pattern applied to the vertical scan register, the FPA can be operated in either an interlaced or noninterlaced format. The thermal sensitivity performance of the second system's Stirling-cooled head was the best of the systems produced.

  14. The design of aerial camera focusing mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Changchang; Yang, Hongtao; Niu, Haijun

    2015-10-01

    In order to ensure the imaging resolution of aerial camera and compensating defocusing caused by the changing of atmospheric temperature, pressure, oblique photographing distance and other environmental factor [1,2], and to meeting the overall design requirements of the camera for the lower mass and smaller size , the linear focusing mechanism is designed. Through the target surface support, the target surface component is connected with focusing driving mechanism. Make use of precision ball screws, focusing mechanism transforms the input rotary motion of motor into linear motion of the focal plane assembly. Then combined with the form of linear guide restraint movement, the magnetic encoder is adopted to detect the response of displacement. And the closed loop control is adopted to realize accurate focusing. This paper illustrated the design scheme for a focusing mechanism and analyzed its error sources. It has the advantages of light friction and simple transmission chain and reducing the transmission error effectively. And this paper also analyses the target surface by finite element analysis and lightweight design. Proving that the precision of focusing mechanism can achieve higher than 3um, and the focusing range is +/-2mm.

  15. Far-infrared cameras for automotive safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lonnoy, Jacques; Le Guilloux, Yann; Moreira, Raphael

    2005-02-01

    Far Infrared cameras used initially for the driving of military vehicles are slowly coming into the area of commercial (luxury) cars while providing with the FIR imagery a useful assistance for driving at night or in adverse conditions (fog, smoke, ...). However this imagery needs a minimum driver effort as the image understanding is not so natural as the visible or near IR one. A developing field of FIR cameras is ADAS (Advanced Driver Assistance Systems) where FIR processed imagery fused with other sensors data (radar, ...) is providing a driver warning when dangerous situations are occurring. The communication will concentrate on FIR processed imagery for object or obstacles detection on the road or near the road. FIR imagery highlighting hot spots is a powerful detection tool as it provides a good contrast on some of the most common elements of the road scenery (engines, wheels, gas exhaust pipes, pedestrians, 2 wheelers, animals,...). Moreover FIR algorithms are much more robust than visible ones as there is less variability in image contrast with time (day/night, shadows, ...). We based our detection algorithm on one side on the peculiar aspect of vehicles, pedestrians in FIR images and on the other side on the analysis of motion along time, that allows anticipation of future motion. We will show results obtained with FIR processed imagery within the PAROTO project, supported by the French Ministry of Research, that ended in spring 04.

  16. FIDO Rover Retracted Arm and Camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    The Field Integrated Design and Operations (FIDO) rover extends the large mast that carries its panoramic camera. The FIDO is being used in ongoing NASA field tests to simulate driving conditions on Mars. FIDO is controlled from the mission control room at JPL's Planetary Robotics Laboratory in Pasadena. FIDO uses a robot arm to manipulate science instruments and it has a new mini-corer or drill to extract and cache rock samples. Several camera systems onboard allow the rover to collect science and navigation images by remote-control. The rover is about the size of a coffee table and weighs as much as a St. Bernard, about 70 kilograms (150 pounds). It is approximately 85 centimeters (about 33 inches) wide, 105 centimeters (41 inches) long, and 55 centimeters (22 inches) high. The rover moves up to 300 meters an hour (less than a mile per hour) over smooth terrain, using its onboard stereo vision systems to detect and avoid obstacles as it travels 'on-the-fly.' During these tests, FIDO is powered by both solar panels that cover the top of the rover and by replaceable, rechargeable batteries.

  17. Gamma camera based FDG PET in oncology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Positron Emission Tomography(PET) was introduced as a research tool in the 1970s and it took about 20 years before PET became an useful clinical imaging modality. In the USA, insurance coverage for PET procedures in the 1990s was the turning point, I believe, for this progress. Initially PET was used in neurology but recently more than 80% of PET procedures are in oncological applications. I firmly believe, in the 21st century, one can not manage cancer patients properly without PET and PET is very important medical imaging modality in basic and clinical sciences. PET is grouped into 2 categories; conventional (c) and gamma camera based (CB) PET. CBPET is more readily available utilizing dual-head gamma cameras and commercially available FDG to many medical centers at low cost to patients. In fact there are more CBPET in operation than cPET in the USA. CBPET is inferior to cPET in its performance but clinical studies in oncology is feasible without expensive infrastructures such as staffing, rooms and equipments. At Ajou university Hospital, CBPET was installed in late 1997 for the first time in Korea as well as in Asia and the system has been used successfully and effectively in oncological applications. Our was the fourth PET operation in Korea and I believe this may have been instrumental for other institutions got interested in clinical PET. The following is a brief description of our clinical experience of FDG CBPET in oncology

  18. The Mars NetLander panoramic camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaumann, Ralf; Langevin, Yves; Hauber, Ernst; Oberst, Jürgen; Grothues, Hans-Georg; Hoffmann, Harald; Soufflot, Alain; Bertaux, Jean-Loup; Dimarellis, Emmanuel; Mottola, Stefano; Bibring, Jean-Pierre; Neukum, Gerhard; Albertz, Jörg; Masson, Philippe; Pinet, Patrick; Lamy, Philippe; Formisano, Vittorio

    2000-10-01

    The panoramic camera (PanCam) imaging experiment is designed to obtain high-resolution multispectral stereoscopic panoramic images from each of the four Mars NetLander 2005 sites. The main scientific objectives to be addressed by the PanCam experiment are (1) to locate the landing sites and support the NetLander network sciences, (2) to geologically investigate and map the landing sites, and (3) to study the properties of the atmosphere and of variable phenomena. To place in situ measurements at a landing site into a proper regional context, it is necessary to determine the lander orientation on ground and to exactly locate the position of the landing site with respect to the available cartographic database. This is not possible by tracking alone due to the lack of on-ground orientation and the so-called map-tie problem. Images as provided by the PanCam allow to determine accurate tilt and north directions for each lander and to identify the lander locations based on landmarks, which can also be recognized in appropriate orbiter imagery. With this information, it will be further possible to improve the Mars-wide geodetic control point network and the resulting geometric precision of global map products. The major geoscientific objectives of the PanCam lander images are the recognition of surface features like ripples, ridges and troughs, and the identification and characterization of different rock and surface units based on their morphology, distribution, spectral characteristics, and physical properties. The analysis of the PanCam imagery will finally result in the generation of precise map products for each of the landing sites. So far comparative geologic studies of the Martian surface are restricted to the timely separated Mars Pathfinder and the two Viking Lander Missions. Further lander missions are in preparation (Beagle-2, Mars Surveyor 03). NetLander provides the unique opportunity to nearly double the number of accessible landing site data by providing

  19. Mars Cameras Make Panoramic Photography a Snap

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    If you wish to explore a Martian landscape without leaving your armchair, a few simple clicks around the NASA Web site will lead you to panoramic photographs taken from the Mars Exploration Rovers, Spirit and Opportunity. Many of the technologies that enable this spectacular Mars photography have also inspired advancements in photography here on Earth, including the panoramic camera (Pancam) and its housing assembly, designed by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory and Cornell University for the Mars missions. Mounted atop each rover, the Pancam mast assembly (PMA) can tilt a full 180 degrees and swivel 360 degrees, allowing for a complete, highly detailed view of the Martian landscape. The rover Pancams take small, 1 megapixel (1 million pixel) digital photographs, which are stitched together into large panoramas that sometimes measure 4 by 24 megapixels. The Pancam software performs some image correction and stitching after the photographs are transmitted back to Earth. Different lens filters and a spectrometer also assist scientists in their analyses of infrared radiation from the objects in the photographs. These photographs from Mars spurred developers to begin thinking in terms of larger and higher quality images: super-sized digital pictures, or gigapixels, which are images composed of 1 billion or more pixels. Gigapixel images are more than 200 times the size captured by today s standard 4 megapixel digital camera. Although originally created for the Mars missions, the detail provided by these large photographs allows for many purposes, not all of which are limited to extraterrestrial photography.

  20. The NectarCAM camera project

    CERN Document Server

    Glicenstein, J-F; Barrio, J-A; Blanch, O; Boix, J; Bolmont, J; Boutonnet, C; Cazaux, S; Chabanne, E; Champion, C; Chateau, F; Colonges, S; Corona, P; Couturier, S; Courty, B; Delagnes, E; Delgado, C; Ernenwein, J-P; Fegan, S; Ferreira, O; Fesquet, M; Fontaine, G; Fouque, N; Henault, F; Gascón, D; Herranz, D; Hermel, R; Hoffmann, D; Houles, J; Karkar, S; Khelifi, B; Knödlseder, J; Martinez, G; Lacombe, K; Lamanna, G; LeFlour, T; Lopez-Coto, R; Louis, F; Mathieu, A; Moulin, E; Nayman, P; Nunio, F; Olive, J-F; Panazol, J-L; Petrucci, P-O; Punch, M; Prast, J; Ramon, P; Riallot, M; Ribó, M; Rosier-Lees, S; Sanuy, A; Siero, J; Tavernet, J-P; Tejedor, L A; Toussenel, F; Vasileiadis, G; Voisin, V; Waegebert, V; Zurbach, C

    2013-01-01

    In the framework of the next generation of Cherenkov telescopes, the Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA), NectarCAM is a camera designed for the medium size telescopes covering the central energy range of 100 GeV to 30 TeV. NectarCAM will be finely pixelated (~ 1800 pixels for a 8 degree field of view, FoV) in order to image atmospheric Cherenkov showers by measuring the charge deposited within a few nanoseconds time-window. It will have additional features like the capacity to record the full waveform with GHz sampling for every pixel and to measure event times with nanosecond accuracy. An array of a few tens of medium size telescopes, equipped with NectarCAMs, will achieve up to a factor of ten improvement in sensitivity over existing instruments in the energy range of 100 GeV to 10 TeV. The camera is made of roughly 250 independent read-out modules, each composed of seven photo-multipliers, with their associated high voltage base and control, a read-out board and a multi-service backplane board. The read-out b...

  1. Focal Plane Metrology for the LSST Camera

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    A Rasmussen, Andrew P.; Hale, Layton; Kim, Peter; Lee, Eric; Perl, Martin; Schindler, Rafe; Takacs, Peter; Thurston, Timothy; /SLAC

    2007-01-10

    Meeting the science goals for the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST) translates into a demanding set of imaging performance requirements for the optical system over a wide (3.5{sup o}) field of view. In turn, meeting those imaging requirements necessitates maintaining precise control of the focal plane surface (10 {micro}m P-V) over the entire field of view (640 mm diameter) at the operating temperature (T {approx} -100 C) and over the operational elevation angle range. We briefly describe the hierarchical design approach for the LSST Camera focal plane and the baseline design for assembling the flat focal plane at room temperature. Preliminary results of gravity load and thermal distortion calculations are provided, and early metrological verification of candidate materials under cold thermal conditions are presented. A detailed, generalized method for stitching together sparse metrology data originating from differential, non-contact metrological data acquisition spanning multiple (non-continuous) sensor surfaces making up the focal plane, is described and demonstrated. Finally, we describe some in situ alignment verification alternatives, some of which may be integrated into the camera's focal plane.

  2. Eddy Currents Inspection of CANDU Steam Generators' Tubes using Zetec's ZR-1 Robot. Experience in Romania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ; - Camera built into wrist assembly eliminates additional cameras in each tool head; - Maintains system calibration even when changing tool heads; - Handles eddy current and ultrasonic testing as well as maintenance and repair with one manipulator; - Three axis motion of arm enables 100% coverage of tube sheet; - Automated, repeatable, and precise positioning of tool-heads, ensuring accurate delivery and reducing costly rework; - Reduce installation/removal time by 30 %; - Single-tube touch calibration reduces calibration time by 60%; - Reduces inspection time by 30%; - Modular design simplifies handling and setup through small S/G man way openings; - Maintains ALARA to reduce personnel exposure to radiation and radioactive contamination; - Positions tool head in the man way opening for easier and faster change-out; - Platform worker does not need to exceed an arm's reach past the plane of the man way; - Avoid straining injuries when installing or moving with lightweight components. In the end the following results of the eddy current inspection of SGs tubes at Cernavoda NPP Unit 1 are mentioned: - Inspections results indicate that the steam generator tubes are in relatively good condition with no indications of service related degradation identified; - In the tubes and steam generator channel head exists a light to moderate amount of ID magnetite. The presence of ID magnetite moderate amount of ID magnetite. creates difficulty in driving the inspection probe through the tubes; - The ID magnetite has also been attributed to shorter probe life due to the increase friction between the probe and tube wall; - The analysis of data did not indicate any foreign objects, loose parts on the secondary side, nor was there any presence of wear associated with loose parts; - Some tubes were identified as having dent indications DNT. These should be monitored in future inspections to determine whether growth is occurring during plant operation; - The entire data base containing the

  3. Flux tubes at Finite Temperature

    CERN Document Server

    Bicudo, Pedro; Cardoso, Marco

    2016-01-01

    We show the flux tubes produced by static quark-antiquark, quark-quark and quark-gluon charges at finite temperature. The sources are placed in the lattice with fundamental and adjoint Polyakov loops. We compute the square densities of the chromomagnetic and chromoelectric fields above and below the phase transition. Our results are gauge invariant and produced in pure gauge SU(3). The codes are written in CUDA and the computations are performed with GPUs.

  4. Motorcycle detection and counting using stereo camera, IR camera, and microphone array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, Bo; Gibson, David R. P.; Middleton, Dan

    2013-03-01

    Detection, classification, and characterization are the key to enhancing motorcycle safety, motorcycle operations and motorcycle travel estimation. Average motorcycle fatalities per Vehicle Mile Traveled (VMT) are currently estimated at 30 times those of auto fatalities. Although it has been an active research area for many years, motorcycle detection still remains a challenging task. Working with FHWA, we have developed a hybrid motorcycle detection and counting system using a suite of sensors including stereo camera, thermal IR camera and unidirectional microphone array. The IR thermal camera can capture the unique thermal signatures associated with the motorcycle's exhaust pipes that often show bright elongated blobs in IR images. The stereo camera in the system is used to detect the motorcyclist who can be easily windowed out in the stereo disparity map. If the motorcyclist is detected through his or her 3D body recognition, motorcycle is detected. Microphones are used to detect motorcycles that often produce low frequency acoustic signals. All three microphones in the microphone array are placed in strategic locations on the sensor platform to minimize the interferences of background noises from sources such as rain and wind. Field test results show that this hybrid motorcycle detection and counting system has an excellent performance.

  5. Lights, Camera, AG-Tion: Promoting Agricultural and Environmental Education on Camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuhrman, Nicholas E.

    2016-01-01

    Viewing of online videos and television segments has become a popular and efficient way for Extension audiences to acquire information. This article describes a unique approach to teaching on camera that may help Extension educators communicate their messages with comfort and personality. The S.A.L.A.D. approach emphasizes using relevant teaching…

  6. Calibration of the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tschimmel, M.; Robinson, M. S.; Humm, D. C.; Denevi, B. W.; Lawrence, S. J.; Brylow, S.; Ravine, M.; Ghaemi, T.

    2008-12-01

    The Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Camera (LROC) onboard the NASA Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) spacecraft consists of three cameras: the Wide-Angle Camera (WAC) and two identical Narrow Angle Cameras (NAC-L, NAC-R). The WAC is push-frame imager with 5 visible wavelength filters (415 to 680 nm) at a spatial resolution of 100 m/pixel and 2 UV filters (315 and 360 nm) with a resolution of 400 m/pixel. In addition to the multicolor imaging the WAC can operate in monochrome mode to provide a global large- incidence angle basemap and a time-lapse movie of the illumination conditions at both poles. The WAC has a highly linear response, a read noise of 72 e- and a full well capacity of 47,200 e-. The signal-to-noise ratio in each band is 140 in the worst case. There are no out-of-band leaks and the spectral response of each filter is well characterized. Each NAC is a monochrome pushbroom scanner, providing images with a resolution of 50 cm/pixel from a 50-km orbit. A single NAC image has a swath width of 2.5 km and a length of up to 26 km. The NACs are mounted to acquire side-by-side imaging for a combined swath width of 5 km. The NAC is designed to fully characterize future human and robotic landing sites in terms of topography and hazard risks. The North and South poles will be mapped on a 1-meter-scale poleward of 85.5° latitude. Stereo coverage can be provided by pointing the NACs off-nadir. The NACs are also highly linear. Read noise is 71 e- for NAC-L and 74 e- for NAC-R and the full well capacity is 248,500 e- for NAC-L and 262,500 e- for NAC- R. The focal lengths are 699.6 mm for NAC-L and 701.6 mm for NAC-R; the system MTF is 28% for NAC-L and 26% for NAC-R. The signal-to-noise ratio is at least 46 (terminator scene) and can be higher than 200 (high sun scene). Both NACs exhibit a straylight feature, which is caused by out-of-field sources and is of a magnitude of 1-3%. However, as this feature is well understood it can be greatly reduced during ground

  7. Photometric Calibration of Consumer Video Cameras

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suggs, Robert; Swift, Wesley, Jr.

    2007-01-01

    Equipment and techniques have been developed to implement a method of photometric calibration of consumer video cameras for imaging of objects that are sufficiently narrow or sufficiently distant to be optically equivalent to point or line sources. Heretofore, it has been difficult to calibrate consumer video cameras, especially in cases of image saturation, because they exhibit nonlinear responses with dynamic ranges much smaller than those of scientific-grade video cameras. The present method not only takes this difficulty in stride but also makes it possible to extend effective dynamic ranges to several powers of ten beyond saturation levels. The method will likely be primarily useful in astronomical photometry. There are also potential commercial applications in medical and industrial imaging of point or line sources in the presence of saturation.This development was prompted by the need to measure brightnesses of debris in amateur video images of the breakup of the Space Shuttle Columbia. The purpose of these measurements is to use the brightness values to estimate relative masses of debris objects. In most of the images, the brightness of the main body of Columbia was found to exceed the dynamic ranges of the cameras. A similar problem arose a few years ago in the analysis of video images of Leonid meteors. The present method is a refined version of the calibration method developed to solve the Leonid calibration problem. In this method, one performs an endto- end calibration of the entire imaging system, including not only the imaging optics and imaging photodetector array but also analog tape recording and playback equipment (if used) and any frame grabber or other analog-to-digital converter (if used). To automatically incorporate the effects of nonlinearity and any other distortions into the calibration, the calibration images are processed in precisely the same manner as are the images of meteors, space-shuttle debris, or other objects that one seeks to

  8. Ultrasonic inspection of inpile tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The in-service inspection (ISI) of inpile tubes can be performed accurately and safely with a semiautomatic ultrasonic inspection system. The ultrasonic technique uses a set of multiple transducers to detect and size cracks, voids, and laminations radially and circumferentially. Welds are also inspected for defects. The system is designed to inspect stainless steel and Inconel tubes ranging from 53.8 mm (2.12 in.) to 101.6 mm (4 in.) inner diameter with wall thickness on the order of 5 mm. The inspection head contains seven transducers mounted in a surface-following device. Six angle-beam transducers generate shear waves in the tubes. Two of the six are oriented to detect circumferential cracks, and two detect axial cracks. Although each of these four transducers is used in the pulse-echo mode, they are oriented in aligned sets so pitch-catch operation is possible if desired. The remaining angle-beam transducers are angulated to detect flaws that are off axial or circumferential orientation. The seventh transducer is used for longitudinal inspection and detects and sizes laminar-type defects

  9. On-line measurement of diameter of hot-rolled steel tube

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xueliang; Zhao, Huiying; Tian, Ailing; Li, Bin

    2015-02-01

    In order to design a online diameter measurement system for Hot-rolled seamless steel tube production line. On one hand, it can play a stimulate part in the domestic pipe measuring technique. On the other hand, it can also make our domestic hot rolled seamless steel tube enterprises gain a strong product competitiveness with low input. Through the analysis of various detection methods and techniques contrast, this paper choose a CCD camera-based online caliper system design. The system mainly includes the hardware measurement portion and the image processing section, combining with software control technology and image processing technology, which can complete online measurement of heat tube diameter. Taking into account the complexity of the actual job site situation, it can choose a relatively simple and reasonable layout. The image processing section mainly to solve the camera calibration and the application of a function in Matlab, to achieve the diameter size display directly through the algorithm to calculate the image. I build a simulation platform in the design last phase, successfully, collect images for processing, to prove the feasibility and rationality of the design and make error in less than 2%. The design successfully using photoelectric detection technology to solve real work problems

  10. Preparation of chitosan nanofiber tube by electrospinning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuda, Atsushi; Kagata, Go; Kino, Rikako; Tanaka, Junzo

    2007-03-01

    Water-insoluble chitosan nanofiber sheets and tubes coated with chitosan-cast film were prepared by electrospinning. When as-spun chitosan nanofiber sheets and tubes were immersed in 28% ammonium aqueous solution, they became insoluble in water and showed nanofiber structures confirmed by SEM micrography. Mechanical properties of chitosan nanofiber sheets and tubes were improved by coating with chitosan-cast film, which gave them a compressive strength higher than that of crab-tendon chitosan, demonstrating that chitosan nanofiber tubes coated with chitosan-cast film are usable as nerve-regenerative guide tubes.

  11. Turbine nozzle stage having thermocouple guide tube

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schotsch, Margaret Jones; Kirkpatrick, Francis Lawrence; Lapine, Eric Michael

    2002-01-01

    A guide tube is fixed adjacent opposite ends in outer and inner covers of a nozzle stage segment. The guide tube is serpentine in shape between the outer and inner covers and extends through a nozzle vane. An insert is disposed in the nozzle vane and has apertures to accommodate serpentine portions of the guide tube. Cooling steam is also supplied through chambers of the insert on opposite sides of a central insert chamber containing the guide tube. The opposite ends of the guide tube are fixed to sleeves, in turn fixed to the outer and inner covers.

  12. Development of event reconstruction algorithm for full-body gamma-camera based on SiPMs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philippov, D. E.; Belyaev, V. N.; Buzhan, P. Zh; Ilyin, A. L.; Popova, E. V.; Stifutkin, A. A.

    2016-02-01

    The gamma-camera is the detector for nuclear medical imaging where the photomultiplier tubes (PMTs) could be replaced by the silicon photomultipliers (SiPMs). Common systems have the energy resolution about 10% and intrinsic spatial resolution about 3 mm (FWHM). In order to achieve the requirement energy and spatial resolution the classical Anger's logic should be modified. In case of a standard monolithic thallium activated sodium iodide scintillator (500x400x10 mm3) and SiPM readout it could be done with identification of the clusters. We show that this approach has a good results with the simulated data.

  13. Development boiling to sprinkled tube bundle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kracík, Petr; Pospíšil, Jiří

    2016-03-01

    This paper presents results of a studied heat transfer coefficient at the surface of a sprinkled tube bundle where boiling occurs. Research in the area of sprinkled exchangers can be divided into two major parts. The first part is research on heat transfer and determination of the heat transfer coefficient at sprinkled tube bundles for various liquids, whether boiling or not. The second part is testing of sprinkle modes for various tube diameters, tube pitches and tube materials and determination of individual modes' interface. All results published so far for water as the falling film liquid apply to one to three tubes for which the mentioned relations studied are determined in rigid laboratory conditions defined strictly in advance. The sprinkled tubes were not viewed from the operational perspective where there are more tubes and various modes may occur in different parts with various heat transfer values. The article focuses on these processes. The tube is located in a low-pressure chamber where vacuum is generated using an exhauster via ejector. The tube consists of smooth copper tubes of 12 mm diameter placed horizontally one above another.

  14. Gastroenteric tube feeding: Techniques, problems and solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blumenstein, Irina; Shastri, Yogesh M; Stein, Jürgen

    2014-01-01

    Gastroenteric tube feeding plays a major role in the management of patients with poor voluntary intake, chronic neurological or mechanical dysphagia or gut dysfunction, and patients who are critically ill. However, despite the benefits and widespread use of enteral tube feeding, some patients experience complications. This review aims to discuss and compare current knowledge regarding the clinical application of enteral tube feeding, together with associated complications and special aspects. We conducted an extensive literature search on PubMed, Embase and Medline using index terms relating to enteral access, enteral feeding/nutrition, tube feeding, percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy/jejunostomy, endoscopic nasoenteric tube, nasogastric tube, and refeeding syndrome. The literature showed common routes of enteral access to include nasoenteral tube, gastrostomy and jejunostomy, while complications fall into four major categories: mechanical, e.g., tube blockage or removal; gastrointestinal, e.g., diarrhea; infectious e.g., aspiration pneumonia, tube site infection; and metabolic, e.g., refeeding syndrome, hyperglycemia. Although the type and frequency of complications arising from tube feeding vary considerably according to the chosen access route, gastrointestinal complications are without doubt the most common. Complications associated with enteral tube feeding can be reduced by careful observance of guidelines, including those related to food composition, administration rate, portion size, food temperature and patient supervision. PMID:25024606

  15. Gastroenteric tube feeding: techniques, problems and solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blumenstein, Irina; Shastri, Yogesh M; Stein, Jürgen

    2014-07-14

    Gastroenteric tube feeding plays a major role in the management of patients with poor voluntary intake, chronic neurological or mechanical dysphagia or gut dysfunction, and patients who are critically ill. However, despite the benefits and widespread use of enteral tube feeding, some patients experience complications. This review aims to discuss and compare current knowledge regarding the clinical application of enteral tube feeding, together with associated complications and special aspects. We conducted an extensive literature search on PubMed, Embase and Medline using index terms relating to enteral access, enteral feeding/nutrition, tube feeding, percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy/jejunostomy, endoscopic nasoenteric tube, nasogastric tube, and refeeding syndrome. The literature showed common routes of enteral access to include nasoenteral tube, gastrostomy and jejunostomy, while complications fall into four major categories: mechanical, e.g., tube blockage or removal; gastrointestinal, e.g., diarrhea; infectious e.g., aspiration pneumonia, tube site infection; and metabolic, e.g., refeeding syndrome, hyperglycemia. Although the type and frequency of complications arising from tube feeding vary considerably according to the chosen access route, gastrointestinal complications are without doubt the most common. Complications associated with enteral tube feeding can be reduced by careful observance of guidelines, including those related to food composition, administration rate, portion size, food temperature and patient supervision.

  16. Capillary Hemangioma of the Fallopian Tube.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katiyar, Richa; Patne, Shashikant C U; Bharti, Shreekant; Jain, Madhu

    2016-04-01

    Neoplastic lesions of the fallopian tube are rarely seen by surgical pathologists. Haemangioma of the fallopian tube is an extremely rare benign neoplasm. A 30-year-old lady with polymenorrhea and dysmenorrhea underwent hysterectomy and bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy. Her left fallopian tube showed a 2mm sized solid nodule in the wall. Histopathological examination revealed a well-defined vascular lesion in the left fallopian tube, consistent with capillary haemangioma. The vascular endothelium was highlighted by CD34 immunostaining. Our literature review has identified 10 cases of cavernous haemangioma of the fallopian tube. To the best of our knowledge, we report the first ever case of capillary haemangioma of the fallopian tube. This is also the smallest detected haemangioma in the fallopian tube. PMID:27190899

  17. Tube erosion in bubbling fluidized beds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levy, E.K. [Lehigh Univ., Bethlehem, PA (United States). Energy Research Center; Stallings, J.W. [Electric Power Research Inst., Palo Alto, CA (United States)

    1991-12-31

    This paper reports on experimental and theoretical studies that were preformed of the interaction between bubbles and tubes and tube erosion in fluidized beds. The results are applicable to the erosion of horizontal tubes in the bottom row of a tube bundle in a bubbling bed. Cold model experimental data show that erosion is caused by the impact of bubble wakes on the tubes, with the rate of erosion increasing with the velocity of wake impact with the particle size. Wake impacts resulting from the vertical coalescence of pairs of bubbles directly beneath the tube result in particularly high rates of erosion damage. Theoretical results from a computer simulation of bubbling and erosion show very strong effects of the bed geometry and bubbling conditions on computed rates of erosion. These results show, for example, that the rate of erosion can be very sensitive to the vertical location of the bottom row of tubes with respect to the distributor.

  18. Flow Vaporization of CO{sub 2} in Microchannel Tubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pettersen, Jostein

    2002-07-01

    transfer coefficient. A data reduction scheme was developed to find the mean vaporization heat transfer coefficient h as well as the mean vapour fraction x in each test. Measured pressure drop between the inlet and outlet manifolds of the test section was corrected to find the net frictional pressure drop in the heated part of the tube. A special rig was built in order to observe two-phase flow patterns. A horizontal quartz glass tube with ID 0.98 mm was coated by transparent resistive coating of indium tin oxide (ITO), and connected to an open fluid circuit where liquid CO{sub 2} was taken from a heated storage cylinder, its pressure reduced and mass flow adjusted by valves before a preheater section that gave the desired x into the observation tube. Heat flux was obtained by applying DC power to the ITO film, and flow patterns were recorded at 4000-8000 frames per second by a digital video camera. Compared to ''standard'' test arrangements, this enabled recordings in the heated zone, and not in an adiabatic observation tube installed after or between heated tubes. In heat transfer dominated by nucleate boiling this makes quite a difference.

  19. Camera systems in human motion analysis for biomedical applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, Lim Chee; Basah, Shafriza Nisha; Yaacob, Sazali; Juan, Yeap Ewe; Kadir, Aida Khairunnisaa Ab.

    2015-05-01

    Human Motion Analysis (HMA) system has been one of the major interests among researchers in the field of computer vision, artificial intelligence and biomedical engineering and sciences. This is due to its wide and promising biomedical applications, namely, bio-instrumentation for human computer interfacing and surveillance system for monitoring human behaviour as well as analysis of biomedical signal and image processing for diagnosis and rehabilitation applications. This paper provides an extensive review of the camera system of HMA, its taxonomy, including camera types, camera calibration and camera configuration. The review focused on evaluating the camera system consideration of the HMA system specifically for biomedical applications. This review is important as it provides guidelines and recommendation for researchers and practitioners in selecting a camera system of the HMA system for biomedical applications.

  20. A wide-angle camera module for disposable endoscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shim, Dongha; Yeon, Jesun; Yi, Jason; Park, Jongwon; Park, Soo Nam; Lee, Nanhee

    2016-06-01

    A wide-angle miniaturized camera module for disposable endoscope is demonstrated in this paper. A lens module with 150° angle of view (AOV) is designed and manufactured. All plastic injection-molded lenses and a commercial CMOS image sensor are employed to reduce the manufacturing cost. The image sensor and LED illumination unit are assembled with a lens module. The camera module does not include a camera processor to further reduce its size and cost. The size of the camera module is 5.5 × 5.5 × 22.3 mm3. The diagonal field of view (FOV) of the camera module is measured to be 110°. A prototype of a disposable endoscope is implemented to perform a pre-clinical animal testing. The esophagus of an adult beagle dog is observed. These results demonstrate the feasibility of a cost-effective and high-performance camera module for disposable endoscopy.