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Sample records for camels camelus dromedarius

  1. Genome Sequences of Two Pathogenic Streptococcus agalactiae Isolates from the One-Humped Camel Camelus dromedarius

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    Zubair, Saima; de Villiers, Etienne P.; Younan, Mario; Andersson, Göran; Tettelin, Herve; Riley, David R; Jores, Joerg; Bongcam-Rudloff, Erik; Bishop, Richard P.

    2013-01-01

    Streptococcus agalactiae causes a range of clinical syndromes in camels (Camelus dromedarius). We report the genome sequences of two S. agalactiae isolates that induce abscesses in Kenyan camels. These genomes provide novel data on the composition of the S. agalactiae “pan genome” and reveal the presence of multiple genomic islands.

  2. Purification and functional characterization of pancreatic insulin from camel (Camelus dromedarius)

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    Elamin, Babiker A.; Al-Maleki, Abdulmajeed; Ismael, Mohammad A.; Ayoub, Mohammed Akli

    2014-01-01

    Large-scale production of insulin still represents the key step in helping diabetic patients throughout the world. Many species and approaches have been used for the production of insulin. In this study, we purified and characterized for the first time pancreatic insulin from the Arabian camel (Camelus dromedarius) using a modified acid-alcohol extraction method. After extraction insulin was purified using a one-step gel filtration on a Sephadex G-50 column leading to a purification yield of ...

  3. Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis Infection (Caseous Lymphadenitis in Camels (Camelus dromedarius in Jordan

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    Azmi D. Hawari

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: This study was conducted to describe & report for the first time outbreaks of natural C.pseudotuberculosis infection in adult camel herds (Camelus dromedarius in Jordan. An infectious disease syndrome was reported in three camel herds (Camelus dromedarius intensively raised at south province in Jordan. Approach: The herds included over 160 adult camels out of which about 8% were affected with multiple muscle and subcutaneous abscesses at various sites of the body. The camels were also heavily infested with ticks. Results: The infected camels did not respond favorably to several broad spectrum antibiotics. Post-mortem examination of 5 carcasses revealed emaciation and presence of external and internal multiple abscesses particularly in the lungs. The abscesses were encapsulated by fibrous tissue and contained creamy yellowish white pus. The lymph nodes were slightly congested and swollen. Conclusion: Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis type I strain or biovar ovis (the known cause of caseous lymphadenitis in sheep was isolated from pus, lymph nodes, ticks, milk, blood and liver samples. The clinical symptoms, nature and distribution of lesions of caseous lymphadenitis in camels are not as typical as in sheep. Recommendations for pseudotuberculosis control were given.

  4. Minerals and nutritional composition of camel (camelus dromedarius) meat in Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The quality of camel meat has received little attention so far in Pakistan. It is nutritionally as good as that of the major sources of red or white meat. Camel is a desert animal but is not less than other red meat animals (beef, lamb and goat) in its composition. The proximate composition, fatty acid profile and mineral contents of the local camel (Camelus dromedarius) meat have been investigated. It contained 72.03 +- 0.014% water, 4.45 +- 0.011% ash, 5.79 +- 0.012% fat and 66.42 +- 0.534% protein. It has been found that camel meat has relatively more moisture, less fat, less ash and similar protein content than that of beef, lamb and goat [1]. It has similar mineral composition (Na, K, Ca, Fe, Zn, P, Mg, Cd, Cr, Co, Mo, Ni, and Pb) to beef except for sodium. Fatty acid profile for camel meat oil showed high content of palmitic acid and oleic acid. These two fatty acids are essential in human nutrition. In view of the above, it is possible that camel meat could make a greater contribution to the growing need for meat in developing countries like Pakistan. (author)

  5. Biometric and Ultrasonographic Evaluation of the Testis of One-humped Camel (Camelus dromedarius

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    Riaz Hussain Pasha, Anas Sarwar Qureshi*, Laeeq Akbar Lodhi1 and Huma Jamil1

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Twenty four adult clinically healthy one-humped male camels (Camelus dromedarius were examined three times (beginning, mid and end in each season (winter, spring, summer and autumn for establishing the normal ultrasonic appearance and seasonal changes in the testicular parenchyma in the natural ecology of Punjab, Pakistan. The testes of each camel were scanned by using a B-mode real time ultrasound scanner fitted with a 7.5-MHz linear-array transducer. Scrotal biometry was done with the measuring tape during all the seasons of year. The tunics of the testes appeared as hyperechoic lines surrounding the homogenous, moderately echogenic parenchyma of the testis. The mediastinum testis was visualized as hyperechoic central line and a spot, in longitudinal and transverse sections, respectively. During winter season, the parenchyma was hyperechoic and mediastinum testis was seen as thin hyperechoic line. In spring, the echogenicity of parenchyma was moderate and mediastinum appeared relatively thick central hyperechoic line. In summer and autumn, less echoic parenchyma and thick band of mediastinum was recorded. Biometric studies showed significantly (P<0.01 higher scrotal length and width of the testis during winter and spring season as compared to summer and autumn. Present study revealed that the ultrasonic structure of camel testis resembles other mammals and season has an apparent effect on the testicular size and echogenicity of the testicular parenchyma in the one-humped camel.

  6. ACUTE CLINICAL LEPTOSPIROSIS (GRIPPOTYPHOSA SEROVAR) IN AN ADULT DROMEDARY CAMEL (CAMELUS DROMEDARIUS).

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    Gyimesi, Zoltan S; Burns, Roy B; Erol, Erdal; Bolin, Steven R

    2015-09-01

    A 9-yr-old castrated male dromedary camel (Camelus dromedarius) presented with lethargy and partial anorexia. A diagnostic examination revealed fever, and further workup revealed a neutrophilia, hyperfibrinogenemia, renal azotemia, and a rapid onset of a high Leptospira antibody titer during the acute clinical period (Grippotyphosa serovar). The camel responded clinically to antimicrobial treatment with ceftiofur crystalline free acid injections, but renal azotemia persisted, presumably secondary to chronic renal damage. Subsequent Leptospira polymerase chain reaction testing on urine samples obtained over the following 4 mo revealed no evidence of urinary shedding, so a persistent infection was unlikely. Although often mentioned as a potential cause of reproductive loss, well-documented case reports of clinical leptospirosis in camelids are very rare. In this case, native wildlife contamination of a small watering hole is suspected to have been the source of infection. In response to this experience, the camel and two conspecifics were prescribed a vaccination regimen using an inactivated pentavalent Leptospira vaccine licensed for cattle. PMID:26352970

  7. Trypanosomiasis of camels (Camelus dromedarius) in Algeria: First report.

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    Bennoune, Omar; Adili, Nezar; Amri, Khaled; Bennecib, Lakhdar; Ayachi, Ammar

    2013-01-01

    Camel trypanosomosis is a life-threatening disease in the camel species and responsible for severe economic losses either in milk or meat productions. This study was carried out on the south-east area of Algeria on 100 camels of various ages and either sex from two herds. Microscopic examination of blood smears revealed higher levels of trypanosomosis caused by Trypanosoma evansi, an elongated parasite with a kinetoplast and a single nucleus located in its half-length and one flagellum with great heterogeneity. This first investigation reveals higher infection rate than those observed in other countries using blood smears, the trypanosomosis attack has reached an alarming level and the occurrence of trypanosomosis at this high level on blood smears is like "the tree that hides the forest" and make up a serious and potential danger both on animal and public health. Therefore, radical preventive and offensive drastic measures must be taken against this menacing disease at the critical points to prevent the economic losses and to avoid possible human transmission. PMID:25568684

  8. Trypanosomiasis of camels (Camelus dromedarius in Algeria: First report

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    Omar Bennoune

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Camel trypanosomosis is a life-threatening disease in the camel species and responsible for severe economic losses either in milk or meat productions. This study was carried out on the south-east area of Algeria on 100 camels of various ages and either sex from two herds. Microscopic examination of blood smears revealed higher levels of trypanosomosis caused by Trypanosoma evansi, an elongated parasite with a kinetoplast and a single nucleus located in its half-length and one flagellum with great heterogeneity. This first investigation reveals higher infection rate than those observed in other countries using blood smears, the trypanosomosis attack has reached an alarming level and the occurrence of trypanosomosis at this high level on blood smears is like "the tree that hides the forest" and make up a serious and potential danger both on animal and public health. Therefore, radical preventive and offensive drastic measures must be taken against this menacing disease at the critical points to prevent the economic losses and to avoid possible human transmission.

  9. ACUTE PUERPERAL METRITIS IN A DROMEDARY CAMEL (CAMELUS DROMEDARIUS

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    Z.I. Qureshi, G. Muhammad, M. Athar and L.A. Lodhi

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available A case of acute puerperal metritis in a dromedary camel developing in the wake of dystokia corrected under unhygienic condition is described. The condition was associated with fever, foul-smelling purulent uterine discharge and pasty faeces. Pretreatment hematological examination indicated leukocytosis (22.05 x 103/mm3, owing to monocytosis (24 %. Microbiological examination of uterine discharge revealed a mixed bacterial infection with E. coli. Bacillus and streptococci which were all sensitive to nortloxacin, gentamicin, and amoxycillin, Faecal examination indicated a mixed infection with nematodes, Intrauterine administration of oxytetracycline with parenteral administration of amoxycillin, dipyrone and oral administration of oxfendazole successfully treated the case. The Principles of treatment of acute puerperal metritis have been discussed.

  10. GROSS AND MICROSCOPIC ANATOMY OF THYROID GLAND OF ONE-HUMPED CAMEL (CAMELUS DROMEDARIUS

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    R. KAUSAR AND R. U. SHAHID

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Tissue samples of thyroid glands of 16 healthy camels (Camelus dromedarius were investigated under two age groups i.e. group A (3-5 years and group B (6-10 years with equal number of animals, for their gross and microscopic anatomy. Gross studies revealed that thyroid glands were located near the first ring of trachea and had two lobes, connected by an isthmus. They were of reddish brown in colour. The values of weight, length and width of thyroid glands were 45.7 ± 0.35 and 50.65 ± 0.26 g, 36 ± 0.46 and 6.36 ± 0.33 cm, and 3.35 ± 0.29 and 3.53 ± 0.21 cm in groups A and B, respectively. The diameter of the glands averaged 0.97 ± 0.13 and 1.05 ± 0.14 cm in groups A and B, respectively. Histologically, thyroid gland consisted of a connective tissue capsule and trabeculae were found extending from the capsule into the substance of the gland, which divided it into lobules. Each lobule consisted of two sized follicles in variable numbers, the large and small. The large follicles were lined by low cuboidal epithelium, while the small follicles were lined by high cuboidal to columnar epithelium. The follicles had colloid material in their lumen, probably an apocrine secretion from the lining epithelial cells. The para follicular or C-cells were absent in thyroid glands of camel.

  11. Serological survey for Brucella antibodies in one-humped camel (Camelus dromedarius herds in North-Eastern Nigeria

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    Shuaibu Gidado Adamu

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To determine the Brucella antibodies in one-humped camel (Camelus dromedarius herds in Yobe State, North-eastern Nigeria. Materials and Methods: Blood samples were aseptically collected from four hundred (400 camels comprising 168 males and 232 females from the five agricultural zones of Yobe State. The sera obtained from the blood samples were screened by C-ELISA. In addition, a structured questionnaire was administered to the herdsmen to obtained information on pastoralist personal data such as age, educational background, family size, and type of labour employed. Other information includes herd size, herd medical history, and patronage of veterinary services. Results: 66 (16.5% of the 400 screened camels were found seropositive for Brucella. This was comprised of 26 (6.5% male and 40 (10.0% female camels. Out of the 66 seropositive camels, 2(0.5% and 64 (16.0% were young and adult camels, respectively. Geidam agricultural zone of the state had the highest specific sero-prevalence of 24 (6.0%, followed by Gashua 19 (4.75%, Nguru 11 (2.75%, Potiskum 8 (2.0%, and Damaturu 4 (1.0%. There was a significant statistical association between the age of camel and serological reaction to C-ELISA (P>0.05, with the adult camels more significantly associated with Brucella infection OR = 7.881 (1.880 – 33.039; P>0.05 than the young camels. There was no significant statistical association (P>0.05 between sexes of camels and positive serological reaction to C-ELISA. Low level of education, low patronage of veterinary services, and lack of vaccination against brucellosis were observed among the herdsmen. Conclusion: A high seroprevalence of brucellosis among the camels of all the agricultural zones of the state indicates that the disease is endemic and camel is one of the animals that perpetuate and sustain the disease.

  12. Gross Morphology and Localization of Adenohypophyseal Cells in Camel (Camelus dromedarius Using A New Combination of Stains

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    S. A. S. Jaspal, Z. U. Rahman* and A. M. Cheema

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Thirty normal camels (Camelus dromedarius were selected for gross morphological and modified staining of anterior pituitary. Camels were divided in three age groups viz 2-4, 5-10 and above 10 years. Pituitary weight, length, width and circumference were recorded before preservation and at midsegittal cutting. Pituitary weight increased significantly as these animals grew older. Male had heavier pituitary as compared to female. Higher pituitary weight was observed in old as compared to young camel. Sections (4m of camel pituitary gland were stained with “Phosphotungstic acid haematoxylin-Orange G-Acid fuchsin-Light green” combination of dyes. This combination of acidic and basic dyes showed affinity to their respective adenohypophyseal cells and proved a suitable combination for differentiation of adenohypophyseal cells and architectural pattern of pituitary gland. Use of Lugol’s Iodine and sodium thiosulphate solution caused mercury fixation which ultimately enhanced the staining of camel adenohypophysis. The whole pituitary presented a brilliant appearance of clarity, enabling cell counts to be performed easily, purely with reference to the colors of adenohypophyseal cell types. This method can be applied for differential staining of adenohypophysis and with good cytology results to the hypophysis of many mammals. The method also provides a sharp contrast between cellular and connective tissue components. With this staining technique, the quantitative and qualitative characteristics of different adenohypophyseal cell types at various functional and hormonal stages, under certain physiological and pathological conditions can also be studied.

  13. A new anaerobic fungus (Oontomyces anksri gen. nov., sp. nov.) from the digestive tract of the Indian camel (Camelus dromedarius).

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    Dagar, Sumit S; Kumar, Sanjay; Griffith, Gareth W; Edwards, Joan E; Callaghan, Tony M; Singh, Rameshwar; Nagpal, Ashok K; Puniya, Anil K

    2015-08-01

    Two cultures of anaerobic fungi were isolated from the forestomach of an Indian camel (Camelus dromedarius). Phylogenetic analysis using both the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) and large-subunit (LSU) regions of the rRNA locus demonstrated that these isolates were identical and formed a distinct clade within the anaerobic fungi (phylum Neocallimastigomycota). Morphological examination showed that these fungi formed monocentric thalli with filamentous rhizoids and uniflagellate zoospores, broadly similar to members of the genus Piromyces. However, distinctive morphological features were observed, notably the pinching of the cytoplasm in the sporangiophore and the formation of intercalary rhizoidal swellings. Since genetic analyses demonstrated this fungus was only distantly related to Piromyces spp. and closer to the polycentric Anaeromyces clade, we have assigned it to a new genus and species Oontomyces anksri gen. nov., sp. nov. Interrogation of the GenBank database identified several closely related ITS sequences, which were all environmental sequences obtained from camels, raising the possibility that this fungus may be specific to camelids. PMID:26228561

  14. Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever in the One-Humped Camel (Camelus dromedarius in East and Northeast of Iran

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    Mohsen Champour

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: This comprehensive study was conducted on multi-purpose one-humped camel (Camelus dromedarius sera and ticks to assess the epidemiological aspects of the Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV in northeast Iran.Methods: From May 2012 to January 2013, eleven cities were randomly selected in the Khorasan Provinces of Iran as “clusters,” and at least 14 one-humped camels were sampled from each area. Reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction was used for the detection of the CCHFV genome in ticks. Sera were analyzed using specific enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay tests.Results: Four hundred and eighty ixodid ticks were collected, and the genome of the CCHFV was detected in 49 (10.2% out of 480 ticks. The CCHFV genome was detected in two out of four tick species, and in tick samples from three cities in Khorassan-e-Jonoobi. All three provinces, and six out of eleven cities, were CCHFV-specific IgG-positive. In total, nine (5.3% out of 170 one-humped camels were IgG-positive. The highest rate of IgG-positive samples was found in Nehbandan (16.67%.Conclusion: Continued surveillance and strictly enforced importation and quarantine practices should be imple­mented to prevent human exposure and the on-going dispersal of infected ticks and livestock in these regions. It is recommended that acaricides be used to prevent CCHF transmission to humans, and to reduce the tick population. In addition, care should be taken by abattoirs workers and people who work with one-humped camels.

  15. Alpha S1-casein polymorphisms in camel (Camelus dromedarius) and descriptions of biological active peptides and allergenic epitopes.

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    Erhardt, Georg; Shuiep, El Tahir Salih; Lisson, Maria; Weimann, Christina; Wang, Zhaoxin; El Zubeir, Ibtisam El Yas Mohamed; Pauciullo, Alfredo

    2016-06-01

    Milk samples of 193 camels (Camelus dromedarius) from different regions of Sudan were screened for casein variability by isoelectric focusing. Kappa-casein and beta-casein were monomorphic, whereas three protein patterns named αs1-casein A, C, and D were identified. The major allele A revealed frequencies of 0.79 (Lahaoi), 0.75 (Shanbali), 0.90 (Arabi Khali), and 0.88 (Arabi Gharbawi) in the different ecotypes. CSN1S1*C shows a single G > T nucleotide substitution in the exon 5, leading to a non-synonymous amino acid exchange (p.Glu30 > Asp30) in comparison to CSN1S1*A and D. At cDNA level, no further single nucleotide polymorphisms could be identified in CSN1S1* A, C, and D, whereas the variants CSN1S1*A and CSN1S1*C are characterized by missing of exon 18 compared to the already described CSN1S1*B, as consequence of DNA insertion of 11 bp at intron 17 which alter the pre-mRNA spliceosome machinery. A polymerase chain-restriction fragment length polymorphism method (PCR-RFLP) was established to type for G > T nucleotide substitution at genomic DNA level. The occurrence and differences of IgE-binding epitopes and bioactive peptides between αs1-casein A, C, and D after digestion were analyzed in silico. The amino acid substitutions and deletion affected the arising peptide pattern and thus modifications between IgE-binding epitopes and bioactive peptides of the variants were found. The allergenic potential of these different peptides will be investigated by microarray immunoassay using sera from milk-sensitized individuals, as it was already demonstrated for bovine αs1-casein variants. PMID:26922739

  16. Genotyping of Brucella melitensis strains from dromedary camels (Camelus dromedarius) from the United Arab Emirates with multiple-locus variable-number tandem repeat analysis.

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    Gyuranecz, Miklós; Wernery, Ulli; Kreizinger, Zsuzsa; Juhász, Judit; Felde, Orsolya; Nagy, Péter

    2016-04-15

    Camel brucellosis is a widespread zoonotic disease in camel-rearing countries caused by Brucella melitensis and Brucella abortus. The aim of this study was the first genetic analysis of B. melitensis strains isolated from dromedary camels (Camelus dromedarius) using multiple-locus variable-number tandem repeat analysis (MLVA). MLVA 16 and its MLVA 8 and MLVA11 subsets were used to determine the genotypes of 15 B. melitensis isolates from dromedary camels (11 strains) and other host species (4 strains) from the United Arab Emirates and the results were then compared to B. melitensis MLVA genotypes from other parts of the world. Five, including two novel genotypes were identified with MLVA 8. MLVA 16 further discriminated these five genotypes to ten variants. The eleven camel isolates clustered into four main genetic groups within the East-Mediterranean and African clades and this clustering correlated with the geographic origin of the hosts (United Arab Emirates, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia and Sudan) and the date of their isolation. The camel strains were also genetically related to strains isolated from wild and domestic ruminants from their close habitat or from other parts of the world. Although limited number of strains were analysed, based on our data imported animals from foreign countries, local small ruminants and wildlife species are hypothesized to be the main sources of camel brucellosis in the United Arab Emirates. MLVA was successfully applied to determine the epidemiological links between the different camel B. melitensis infections in the United Arab Emirates and it can be a beneficial tool in future disease control programs. PMID:27016751

  17. Some immuno-suppressive trends: Effects Of Endotoxin on Camels (Camelus dromedarius)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Intravenous administration of a bolus of 0.05 micron g/kg body weight endotoxin lipopolysaccharide (LPS) to camels has resulted in leukopenia, lymphopenia, neutropenia, proteinaemia, albunaemia , globulinaemia and reduced lysozomal enzyme activity. It is suggested that endotoxin at the dose of 0.05micron g/kg body weight may produce immunosuppressive effects in camels. (author)

  18. A review of sarcocystosis in camels and redescription of Sarcocystis cameli and Sarcocystis ippeni sarcocysts from the one-humped camel (Camelus dromedarius).

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    Dubey, J P; Hilali, M; Van Wilpe, E; Calero-Bernal, R; Verma, S K; Abbas, I E

    2015-10-01

    There is considerable confusion concerning Sarcocystis species in camels. Five species: Sarcocystis cameli, Sarcocystis ippeni, Sarcocystis camelicanis, Sarcocystis camelocanis and Sarcocystis miescheri were named with inadequate descriptions and no type specimens. Here, we review literature on sarcocystosis in camels worldwide and redescribe structure of S. cameli and S. ippeni sarcocysts by light- and transmission electron microscopy (LM and TEM). Eight sarcocysts from the oesophagi of two camels (Camelus dromedarius) from Egypt were studied. By LM, all sarcocysts were thin-walled with barely visible projections on the cyst walls. By TEM, two structurally distinct sarcocysts were recognized by unique villar protrusions (vp) not found in sarcocysts from any other host. Sarcocysts of S. cameli had vp of type 9 j. The sarcocyst wall had upright slender vp, up to 3.0 µM long and 0.5 µM wide; the total thickness of the sarcocyst wall with ground substance (gs) layer was 3.5 µM. On each vp, there were rows of knob-like protrusions that appeared to be interconnected. The vp had microtubules that originated at midpoint of the gs and continued up to the tip; microtubules were smooth, without any granules or dense areas. Bradyzoites were approximately 14-15 × 3-4 µM in size with typical organelles. Sarcocystis ippeni sarcocysts had type 32 sarcocyst wall characterized by conical vp with an electron dense knob. The total thickness of the sarcocyst wall (from the base of gs to vp tip) was 2.3-3.0 µM. The vp were up to 1.2 µM wide at the base and 0.25 µM at the tip. Microtubules in vp originated at midpoint of gs and continued up to tip; microtubules were criss-crossed, smooth and without granules or dense areas. Bradyzoites were 12.0-13.5 × 2.0-3.0 µM in size. Sarcocystis camelicanis, S. camelocanis and S. miescheri are considered invalid. PMID:26416197

  19. Innocuity and immune response to Brucella melitensis Rev.1 vaccine in camels (Camelus dromedarius)

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    Benkirane, A.; Idrissi, A.H. El; Doumbia, A.; de Balogh, K.

    2014-01-01

    A field trial was conducted in a camel brucellosis-free herd to evaluate antibody response to the Brucella melitensis Rev.1 vaccine in camels and assess shedding of the vaccine strain in milk. Twenty eight camels were divided into four groups according to their age and vaccination route. Groups A (n=3) and B (n=3) consisted of non-pregnant lactating female camels, vaccinated through subcutaneous and conjunctival routes, respectively. Groups C (n=10) consisted of 8-11 months old calves vaccinated through conjunctival route. The rest of the herd (n=12) composed of female and young camels were not vaccinated and were considered as the control group. Each animal from groups A, B and C was given the recommended dose of 2 × 109 colony forming units of Rev.1 vaccine irrespective of age or route of vaccination. Blood samples were collected from all the animals at the time of vaccination and at weekly, bi-weekly and monthly interval until 32 weeks post vaccination and from controls at weeks 8 and 24. The serological tests used were modified Rose Bengal Test, sero-agglutination test, and an indirect Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay. Milk samples were collected from all vaccinated female camels and tested for the presence of Rev.1 vaccine strain. Most vaccinated animals started to show an antibody response at week 2 and remained positive until week 16. By week 20 post-vaccination all animals in the three groups were tested negative for Brucella antibodies. Bacteriological analysis of milk samples did not allow any isolation of Brucella melitensis. All samples were found Brucella negative in PCR analysis. The results of this study indicate that the Rev.1 vaccine induces seroconversion in camels. Rev.1 vaccine strain is not excreted in the milk of camels. These findings are promising as to the safe use of the Rev.1 vaccine in camels. PMID:26623347

  20. Ankyloglossia and its surgical correction by frenuloplasty in a she-camel calf (Camelus dromedarius)

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    Anwar, S.; Purohit, G.N.

    2012-01-01

    A rare case of ankyloglossia in a one-humped camel and its successful surgical correction by horizontal to vertical frenuloplasty is reported. Seven-month-old she-camel calf, with a history of excessive salivation and inability to chew and swallow hay, was referred to Al Qattara veterinary hospital. Solid food was regurgitated, whereas milkand water could be swallowed. On examination; the animal could not protrude its tongue which was attached by a thin tissue band between the ventral surfac...

  1. Survey of hydatidosis infection in slaughtered camel (Camelus dromedarius) in Tabriz area, Northwest Iran.

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    Mirzaei, Mohammad; Rezaei, Hadi; Nematollahi, Ahmad; Ashrafihelan, Javad

    2016-06-01

    Hydatid Disease is the name given to the condition caused by the zoonotic tapeworm Echinococcus granulosus. The tapeworm spends most of its adult life in the intestine of its definitive host, namely canids and in particular the dog. The tapeworm eggs become voided in the canids' faeces and as a result of ingesting the eggs, infection passes to the intermediate host, commonly herbivores while grazing. However, humans can become accidentally infected and hydatid cysts may develop throughout the body. During April 2010-February 2014, a total 198 camels, which had been sent to the abattoir, the daily number of hydatid infected livers and lungs of camels slaughtered at Tabriz abattoir were recorded. To be sure about the validity of recorded data, observed data were collected daily. Approximately 29 (14.64 %) of camels were infected according to this survey. Age wise, the prevalence of infection in young animals (under the age of 5 years) was 4 (2.02 %), whereas in animals between 5 and 10 years and over, the prevalence of infection was 11 (5.55 %) and 14 (7.07 %) respectively. Sex wise, female animals had a higher prevalence with 17 (19.76 %) cases in camels, whereas in the males, there were 12 (10.71 %) cases in camels. There was a notable difference found in our study between male and female animals (P < 0.05). Infections were recorded in two visceral organs with the Lungs having the highest prevalence in camels, and the liver had low infected in camels. The results of this study suggest that infection of camels with hydatid cyst is common in Tabriz, Iran and that this may constitute economic and health problems in the meat industry. PMID:27413318

  2. SEQUENCING AND SEQUENCE ANALYSIS OF MYOSTATIN GENE IN THE EXON 1 OF THE CAMEL (CAMELUS DROMEDARIUS

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    M. G. SHAH, A. S. QURESHI1, M. REISSMANN2 AND H. J. SCHWARTZ3

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Myostatin, also called growth differentiation factor-8 (GDF-8, is a member of the mammalian growth transforming family (TGF-beta superfamily, which is expressed specifically in developing an adult skeletal muscle. Muscular hypertrophy allele (mh allele in the double muscle breeds involved mutation within the myostatin gene. Genomic DNA was isolated from the camel hair using NucleoSpin Tissue kit. Two animals of each of the six breeds namely, Marecha, Dhatti, Larri, Kohi, Sakrai and Cambelpuri were used for sequencing. For PCR amplification of the gene, a primer pair was designed from homolog regions of already published sequences of farm animals from GenBank. Results showed that camel myostatin possessed more than 90% homology with that of cattle, sheep and pig. Camel formed separate cluster from the pig in spite of having high homology (98% and showed 94% homology with cattle and sheep as reported in literature. Sequence analysis of the PCR amplified part of exon 1 (256 bp of the camel myostatin was identical among six camel breeds.

  3. Milk production potential, quality of raw milk and reproductive efficiency of dromedary camels (Camelus Dromedarius)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Old world camelids (Dromedary and Bactrian camels) are important source of milk in rural areas of many arid countries. However, extensive production system cannot guarantee constant quality and quantity raw milk for the market. Development of the world first large scale-camel milking farm in Dubai draws attention to camels as potential source for high quality milk and meat in developing countries. This presentation summarizes the development and results of the project. Animals: Intensive management and production require concentration of camels. Camels arrived to the farm from different countries of the region with variable age, condition and lactation stage resulting in great range in individual milk production. In practice, history of the purchased animals (health status, previous production) is not available. Despite the negative preconception, camels can be trained successfully to adopt the machine milking technology. Training takes 1-4 weeks depending on the background of the animal. So far we have trained more than 1400 camels for machine milking. Infectious disease control, general and udder health: Due to lack of history, it is extremely important to establish and maintain strict quarantine. Infectious diseases (Brucellosis, Tuberculosis, Surra, FMD etc.) are monitored with serological tests. The main problem is that most of the tests are not validated for camels and kits from different manufacturers may give controversial results. The prevalence of Brucellosis exceeded 30% in purchased animals from certain regions. Udder health is also monitored carefully. In previously hand milked, multiparous camels, teats are frequently enlarged/deformed or the udder is infected with pathogen bacteria (Str. agalactiae, Str. bovis, Corynebacterium amycolatum, Staph. aureus, etc.). In a recent survey, 21.8% (54 camels) of 248 new lactating animals were infected. These camels should be either rejected or treated before starting machine milking. Adaptation of milking

  4. Caudal epidural analgesia using lidocaine alone or in combination with ketamine in dromedary camels (Camelus dromedarius

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omid Azari

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This study was performed to investigate the analgesic effect of lidocaine and a combination of lidocaine and ketamine following epidural administration in dromedary camels. Ten 12–18-month-old camels were randomly divided into two equal groups. In group L, the animals received 2% lidocaine (0.22 mg/kg and in group LK the animals received a mixture of 10% ketamine (1 mg/kg and 2% lidocaine (0.22 mg/kg administered into the first intercoccygeal (Co1–Co2 epidural space while standing. Onset time and duration of caudal analgesia, sedation level and ataxia were recorded after drug administration. Data were analysed by U Mann-Whitney tests and significance was taken as p < 0.05. The results showed that epidural lidocaine and co-administration of lidocaine and ketamine produced complete analgesia in the tail, anus and perineum. Epidural administration of the lidocaine-ketamine mixture resulted in mild to moderate sedation, whilst the animals that received epidural lidocaine alone were alert and nervous during the study. Ataxia was observed in all test subjects and was slightly more severe in camels that received the lidocaine-ketamine mixture. It was concluded that epidural administration of lidocaine plus ketamine resulted in longer caudal analgesia in standing conscious dromedary camels compared with the effect of administering lidocaine alone.

  5. One-Humped Camel (Camelus dromedarius Infestation withLinguatula serrata in Tabriz, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HR Haddadzadeh

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available "n "nBackground: Linguatula serrata is one of well known members of Pentastomida which infects both human and animals. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of L. serrata in mesenteric lymph nodes, livers and lungs of camels slaughtered in Tabriz area, Iran. "n "nMethods: Mesenteric lymph nodes (MLNs, livers and lungs of 140 one-humped camels slaughtered in Tabriz, north-west of Iran were investigated for nymphs of L. serrata from July 2007 to June 2008. The organs were examined macroscopically and then a tissue digestion method was also done for investigation of liver and lung of the camels that had infected MLN. The liver and lung samples were mostly taken from condemned and rejected part of organs. "n "nResults: The infection rate of L. serrata nymphs in MLNs, livers and lungs was 13.5%, 1.4% and 1.4% respectively. The number of isolated nymph in infected lymph nodes varied from 2 to 18 with a mean of 4.78. Only one nymph was isolated from each infected livers and lungs. The infection rate increased with age (p<0.05. No significant difference in different sex groups and seasons was observed (p>0.05. "n "nConclusion: Considering this fact that consumption of undercooked camel liver was not common in the studied area, the zoonotic importance of this infection should be concluded.

  6. A proposal of linear assessment scheme for the udder of dairy camels (Camelus dromedarius L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayadi, Moez; Aljumaah, Riyadh Saleh; Samara, Emad Mohammed; Faye, Bernard; Caja, Gerardo

    2016-06-01

    Digital images from the left side of the mammary gland of 146 multiparous lactating dromedary camels in mid lactation and managed under intensive conditions were obtained immediately before milking and used to build up a reference scheme for the morphological evaluation of camel mammary glands. A 5-point linear scoring scheme (with 0.5-point accuracy) was subsequently generated based on five mammary traits (udder, depth and floor inclination, teats, shape, length, and width). Results showed that Arabian dairy camels had voluminous udders with large-sized teats. Most common udder shape was globular (47.3 %), followed by the pear (34.3 %) and pendulous (18.4 %) shapes. Conical- or funnel-shaped teats (60.9 %) were the most frequent, followed by cylindrical- (29.5 %) and blew-up (9.6 %)-shaped teats. The observed variation in the udder and teat measurements, as well as in typology, attested that dromedary camels need especially large milking clusters to improve their machine milkability. Assessment of the previously indicated digital images according to the proposed linear scoring scheme, performed by 3 independent operators showed that the overall means were close to 3.00 points (values between 2.45 and 3.62), and the standard deviations were close to 0.76 points (values between 0.58 and 0.94). Moderate repeatability between operators (r > 0.69) was obtained for udder depth and floor inclination, indicating that training of operators, as well as improvements in the definition of traits should be considered in future studies. Further research is needed to validate the proposed linear scoring system in different stages of lactation and parities using a large number of camels. PMID:27038610

  7. Pharmacokinetics and intramuscular bioavailability of difloxacin in dromedary camels (Camelus dromedarius).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abo-El-Sooud, K; Goudah, A

    2009-02-01

    Single-dose disposition kinetics of difloxacin (5mg/kg bodyweight) were determined in clinically normal male dromedary camels (n=6) following intravenous (IV) and intramuscular (IM) administration. Difloxacin concentrations were determined by high performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection. The concentration-time data were analysed by compartmental and non-compartmental kinetic methods. Following a single IV injection, the plasma difloxacin concentration-time curve was best described by a two-compartment open model, with a distribution half-life (t(1/2alpha)) of 0.22+/-0.02h and an elimination half-life (t(1/2beta)) of 2.97+/-0.31h. Steady-state volume of distribution (V(dss)) and total body clearance (Cl(tot)) were 1.02+/-0.21L/kg and 0.24+/-0.07L/kg/h, respectively. Following IM administration, the absorption half-life (t(1)(/)(2ab)) and the mean absorption time (MAT) were 0.44+/-0.03h and 1.53+/-0.22h, respectively. The peak plasma concentration (C(max)) of 2.84+/-0.34microg/mL was achieved at 1.42+/-0.21h. The elimination half-life (t(1/2el)) and the mean residence time (MRT) was 3.46+/-0.42h and 5.61+/-0.23h, respectively. The in vitro plasma protein binding of difloxacin ranged from 28-43% and the absolute bioavailability following IM administration was 93.51+/-11.63%. Difloxacin could be useful for the treatment of bacterial infections in camels that are sensitive to this drug. PMID:18603456

  8. Isolation and characterization of serum albumin from Camelus dromedarius

    OpenAIRE

    Malik, Ajamaluddin; Al-Senaidy, Abdulrahman; SKRZYPCZAK-JANKUN, EWA; JANKUN, JERZY

    2013-01-01

    Serum albumin constitutes 35–50 mg/ml of plasma proteins and performs various physiological activities including the regulation of osmotic pressure on blood, maintaining buffering of the blood pH, carrying different fatty acids and other small molecules, such as bilirubin, hormones, drugs and metal ions, as well as participating in immunological responses. Serum albumin is an extensively used protein in biotechnological and pharmaceutical industries. The camel (Camelus dromedarius) is well ta...

  9. Protection of farmed camels (Camelus Dromedarius): Welfare problems and legislative perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Previti, Annalisa; Guercio, Bartolomeo; Passantino, Annamaria

    2016-02-01

    In the last years animal welfare has assumed an increasing interest in our society, influencing legislation to enact many provisions aimed at the protection of animals. Along with increased consumer awareness of the need to maintain ethically acceptable conditions of raised animals, scientists too have begun to investigate the conditions of animal welfare, the tools for its evaluation and for its improvement. Although there are many advances in knowledge, much remains to be investigated concerning many species considered "minor", that is, camels and dromedaries. Dromedaries, recently, have attracted the interest of some breeders following the results of studies concerning the nutritional and therapeutic properties of their products - milk in particular - that make them ideal for some particular categories of consumers, such as diabetics, obesity sufferers, lactose-intolerant subjects, menopausal women and so on. Considering their use in dairy husbandry, dromedaries are reared under intensive and/or semi-intensive systems with the resulting emergence of specific needs, which should be fulfilled in order to have appropriate welfare. This paper's purpose is to give practical elements in order to find out dromedary welfare standards, promoting a comprehensive set of regulations on welfare, care and protection of this animal. PMID:26260977

  10. A biometric study of the digestive tract of one-humped camel (camelus dromedarius fetuses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Bello

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available A Biometrical study was conducted on the digestive tract of 35 foetuses of the one-humped camel collected from the Sokoto metropolitan abattoir, over a period of five months at different gestational ages. The approximate age of the foetuses was estimated from the crown vertebral rump length (CVRL and samples were categorised into first, second and third trimester. The mean body weight of the foetus at first, second third trimester ranged from 1.40 ± 0.06 kg, 6.10 ± 0.05 kg and 17.87 ± 0.6 kg respectively. The mean weights of the entire digestive system at first, second and third trimester were 0.80 ± 0.07 kg, 2.13 ± 0.04 kg and 4.86 ± 0.08 kg respectively. The mean weights of the digestive tract at first, second and third trimester were 0.53 ± 0.07 kg, 1.03 ± 0.05 and 2.43 ± 0.07 kg respectively. The small intestine at first trimester were found not to have any clear demarcation to show duodenum, jejunum and ileum; the entire small intestine was found to be 76.00 ± 3.00 cm at first trimester and showed clear demarcation at second and third trimesters.. The mean volumes of the entire stomach (rumen, reticular and abomasum ranged from 136.67 ± 8.30 cm3 at first trimester to 353.33 ± 6.50 cm3 at third trimester. It was observed that there was increase in body weight, organ weight and individual segment of the digestive tract of the fetuses with advancement in gestation period. A geometrical increase in length and diameter of the various segments of the digestive tract showed a significant difference (P≤ 0.05 with advancement in gestational period.

  11. Lipid profile and thyroid hormone status in the last trimester of pregnancy in single-humped camels (Camelus dromedarius).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omidi, Arash; Sajedi, Zhila; Montazer Torbati, Mohammad Bagher; Ansari Nik, Hossein

    2014-04-01

    Changes in lipid metabolism have been shown to occur during pregnancy. The thyroid hormones affect lipid metabolism. The present study was carried out to find out whether the last trimester of pregnancy affects thyroid hormones, thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), lipid, and lipoprotein profile in healthy dromedary camels. Twenty clinical healthy dromedary camels aged between 4-5 years were divided into two equal groups: (1) pregnant camels in their last trimester of pregnancy and (2) non-pregnant age-matched controls. Thyroid function tests were carried out by measuring serum levels of TSH, free thyroxin (fT4), total thyroxin (T4), free triiodothyronine (fT3), and total triiodothyronine (T3) by commercially available radio immunoassay kits. Total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol were analyzed using enzymatic/spectrophotometric methods while low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL), and total lipid (TL) were calculated using Friedewald's and Raylander's formula, respectively. Serum levels of TSH and thyroid hormones except fT4 did not show any significant difference between pregnant and non-pregnant camels. fT4 level was lower in the pregnant camels (P lipid, LDL cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, and VLDL did not show significant difference between pregnant and non-pregnant camels. All of these variables in pregnant camels were higher than non-pregnant. Based on the results of this study, the fetus load may not alter the thyroid status of the camel and the concentrations of thyroid hormones were not correlated with TSH and lipid profile levels in the healthy pregnant camels. PMID:24429808

  12. Studies on Liquefaction Time and Proteins Involved in the Improvement of Seminal Characteristics in Dromedary Camels (Camelus dromedarius)

    OpenAIRE

    Gorakh Mal; Sumant Vyas; Alagiri Srinivasan; Nitin Vasant Rao Patil; Krishan Murari Lal Pathak

    2016-01-01

    Semen was collected from six dromedary camels using artificial vagina during rutting season. Liquefaction of the viscous semen occurred in 23.89 ± 1.49 h. During liquefaction, proteins with molecular masses of 24.55 kDa and 22.07 kDa appeared in conjunction with the disappearance of intact 26.00 kDa protein after 18–24 h. These proteins were identified as β-nerve growth factors (β-NGFs) in liquefied camel semen. Guanidine-HCL improves the rheological characteristics of dromedary camel semen a...

  13. Studies on Liquefaction Time and Proteins Involved in the Improvement of Seminal Characteristics in Dromedary Camels (Camelus dromedarius

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gorakh Mal

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Semen was collected from six dromedary camels using artificial vagina during rutting season. Liquefaction of the viscous semen occurred in 23.89±1.49 h. During liquefaction, proteins with molecular masses of 24.55 kDa and 22.07 kDa appeared in conjunction with the disappearance of intact 26.00 kDa protein after 18–24 h. These proteins were identified as β-nerve growth factors (β-NGFs in liquefied camel semen. Guanidine-HCL improves the rheological characteristics of dromedary camel semen along with significant (P<0.01 increase in sperm motility. No significant differences were found in viability of spermatozoa indicating no visible detrimental effects on spermatozoa. The cause of semen viscosity, as well as proteins that are present in liquefied dromedary camel seminal plasma, is described for the first time.

  14. Studies on Liquefaction Time and Proteins Involved in the Improvement of Seminal Characteristics in Dromedary Camels (Camelus dromedarius).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mal, Gorakh; Vyas, Sumant; Srinivasan, Alagiri; Patil, Nitin Vasant Rao; Pathak, Krishan Murari Lal

    2016-01-01

    Semen was collected from six dromedary camels using artificial vagina during rutting season. Liquefaction of the viscous semen occurred in 23.89 ± 1.49 h. During liquefaction, proteins with molecular masses of 24.55 kDa and 22.07 kDa appeared in conjunction with the disappearance of intact 26.00 kDa protein after 18-24 h. These proteins were identified as β-nerve growth factors (β-NGFs) in liquefied camel semen. Guanidine-HCL improves the rheological characteristics of dromedary camel semen along with significant (P semen viscosity, as well as proteins that are present in liquefied dromedary camel seminal plasma, is described for the first time. PMID:27022505

  15. Haematological and biochemical alterations caused by epidural and intramuscular administration of xylazine hydrochloride in dromedary camels (Camelus dromedarius)

    OpenAIRE

    Omid Azari; Mohammad Mahdi Molaei; Ladan Emadi; Ehsanollah Sakhaee; Hamid Sharifi; Sara Mehdizadeh

    2012-01-01

    This study was conducted in 16 healthy immature dromedary camels weighing 120-150 kg to evaluate and compare the effects of epidural and intramuscular injections of xylazine administered at 0.1 mg/kg and 0.2 mg/kg. Haematological parameters included haemoglobin, packed cell volume, total erythrocyte count and total leukocyte count. Biochemical parameters included alkaline phosphates, alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, blood urea nitrogen, creatinine and glucose. Parameters ...

  16. Relationship between udder morphology traits, alveolar and cisternal milk compartments and machine milking performances of dairy camels (Camelus dromedarius

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ayadi

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available A total of 22 dairy dromedary camels under intensive conditions in late lactation (275±24 days were used to study the relationship between external and internal udder morphology and machine milking performances. Measurements of udder and teat morphology were obtained immediately before milking and in duplicate. Individual milk yield, lag time and total milking time were recorded during milking, and milk samples were collected and analyzed for milk composition thereafter. Cisternal and alveolar milk volumes and composition were evaluated at 9 h milking interval. Results revealed that dairy camels had well developed udders and milk veins, with medium sized teats. On average, milk yield as well as milk fat and protein contents were 4.80±0.50 L d-1, 2.61±0.16% and 3.08±0.05%, respectively. The low fat values observed indicated incomplete milk letdown during machine milking. Lag time, and total milking time were 3.0±0.3, and 120.0±8.9s, on average, respectively. Positive correlations (p<0.05 were observed between milk yield and udder depth (r=0.37, distance between teats (r=0.57 and milk vein diameter (r=0.28, while a negative correlation was found with udder height (r=-0.25, p<0.05. Cisternal milk accounted for 11% of the total udder milk. Positive correlations were observed between total milk yield and volume of alveolar milk (r=0.98; p<0.001 as well as with volume of cisternal milk (r=0.63, p<0.05. Despite the low udder milk storage capacity observed in dairy camels, our study concluded that the evaluated dromedary sample had adequate udder morphology for machine milking. Finally, positive relationships were detected between milk yield and udder morphology traits of dairy camels.

  17. Morphological studies on the seasonal changes in the epididymal duct of the one-humped camel (camelus dromedarius

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed El-Zuhry Zayed

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The present work was carried out on 20 testes and epididymis of sexually mature camels to elucidate the gross anatomical, morphometerical, light microscopical and scanning electron microscopical features of the epididymis in different seasons. Anatomically, the epididymal duct of a camel consists of three parts head, body and tail. Histomorphologically, the epididymal duct is subdivided into initial, middle and terminal segments, of which the middle segment is further subdivided into proximal, intermediate and distal parts. There is a gradual decrease in the epithelial height of the epididymal duct from the initial to the terminal segments. This mechanically facilities passage of the sperms toward the terminal segment. High epithelium in the initial segment may indicate a more absorptive power of the epithelium in this segment. The seasonal reproductivety of the epididymal duct in the camel expressed by variations in the weight and volume of the epididymis, total diameter of the epididymal duct, epithelial height, length of the stereocilia, thickness of the muscular coat and cellular distributions in different segments. The spring months offer ideal circumstances for maximal reproductive activity in this species. The cellular components of the epididymal duct epithelium of the camel displays important morphological changes from season to another showing signs of increasing activity during spring in comparison to decreasing activity in other seasons. PAS positive granules are demonstrated in different segments of the epididymal duct and intraepithelial glands in different seasons. These granules are relatively more numerous in spring. The lamina propria surrounding the epididymal duct contains a layer of the elastic fibers which is very thick in winter, thick in spring and thin in other seasons. This increase in thickness of the elastic fibers predisposes for the increase in the total diameter of the epididymal duct in spring. It was conclude

  18. Changes in cumulus-oocyte complexes of pregnant and non-pregnant camels (Camelus dromedarius) during maturation in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torner, H; Heleil, B; Alm, H; Ghoneim, I M; Srsen, V; Kanitz, W; Tuchscherer, A; Fattouh, E M

    2003-09-15

    The aim of the present study was to examine the cumulus morphology and the oocyte chromatin quality of camel cumulus-oocyte complexes (COCs) at the time of recovery, and to monitor changes in oocyte chromatin configuration and apoptosis in cumulus cells from camel COCs during in vitro maturation (IVM) (0, 12, 24, 32, 36, 42, and 48 p.IVM) depending on pregnancy of donors. A total of 1023 COCs were isolated from sliced ovaries after slaughtering of 47 pregnant and 43 non-pregnant camels in an abattoir. The mean number of COCs per donor was 10.3 in pregnant and 12.5 in non-pregnant donors. The cumulus morphology of COCs was independent of the type of donor and was divided in COCs with compact (26.9 and 28%), dispersed (39.3 and 46%), corona radiata cumulus investment (27.9 and 21.7%) and without cumulus (6 and 4.2%), respectively for pregnant and non-pregnant donors. The highest proportion of COCs exhibited dispersed cumulus (P50% were found only in compact (55 and 56.5%) and in dispersed COCs (58.4 and 60%), respectively for pregnant and non-pregnant donors. During IVM (0-48h) the first significant onset of specific meiotic stages were different in oocytes from pregnant donors: metaphase 1 (24-32h), metaphase 2 (36-42h), versus oocytes from non-pregnant donors: metaphase 1 (24h), metaphase 2 (32-48h) (P50% metaphase 2 stage in comparison to oocytes from non-pregnant donors where 32h are sufficient. The earlier onset of apoptosis in the COCs derived from non-pregnant donors possibly determines the faster progression of the oocytes through the final stages of meiosis. PMID:12935874

  19. Feasibility of utilising an infrared-thermographic technique for early detection of subclinical mastitis in dairy camels (Camelus dromedarius).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samara, Emad M; Ayadi, Moez; Aljumaah, Riyadh S

    2014-02-01

    Despite the proven ability of infrared thermography (IRT) technology for early detection of subclinical mastitis in dairy cows/sheep/goats, studies on its diagnostic feasibility in dairy camels are lacking. Sixty-five lactating camels in mid lactation, machine milked twice-daily and managed under intensive conditions were screened to evaluate the feasibility of utilising IRT compared with other routine indicators in detecting subclinical mastitis. Immediately before the morning milking, a portable infrared camera was used to obtain thermograms in duplicate for the front and rear left quarters to determine the udder surface temperature (UST). Thereafter, milk samples from quarters were collected, and processed for California mastitis test (CMT) score and somatic cell count (SCC). In the present study, CMT score was used to define subclinical mastitis and the feasibility of IRT to detect subclinical mastitis was compared with CMT and SCC. According to CMT score, subclinical mastitic udders had an average UST of 1·42 °C greater (PCMT was found to be highly correlated (r=0·77; PCMT increased [UST (°C)=34·86+0·66×CMT score; R 2=0·65; Pmastitis was defined according to CMT score, and were 35·70 °C, 0·89, 0·96 and 0·94, respectively, when categorised according to the obtained SCC threshold (SCC=432 000 cells/ml). In conclusion, IRT, as an indirect non-invasive screening method, was highly feasible for distinguishing subclinical mastitic udders in dairy camels, which is crucial to treat mastitis early and efficiently. PMID:24331516

  20. Gross and microanatomical studies on the moderator bands (septomarginal trabecula in the heart of mature Dromedary camel (Camelus dromedarius

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wael Ghonimi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The current work was carried out to investigate the gross and microanatomical features of moderator bands (septomarginal trabecula in camel heart. Ten hearts were collected from healthy mature dromedary camels. Anatomically, the moderator bands were present in both right and left ventricles. In right ventricle, the walls had one muscular moderator band which was extended from the interventricular septum to the opposite ventricular wall especially to the papillary muscle. In left ventricle, there were two bands; one extended from the interventricular septum to the papillary muscles, and the other one was present in various places especially in the apex running as a thin thread-like band across the left ventricular wall. Histological examination revealed that the moderator band consisted of two major layers; the central (core myocardium and the peripheral endocardium, acting as band capsule. The myocardium had two bundles; the contractile cardiac muscle bundles and the Purkinje fiber bundles. The endocardium consisted of three layers; the endothelial layer of simple squamous epithelium, the subendothelial layer of loose connective tissue and the subendocardial layer, connecting the endocardium with the myocardium.

  1. Haematological and biochemical alterations caused by epidural and intramuscular administration of xylazine hydrochloride in dromedary camels (Camelus dromedarius

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omid Azari

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted in 16 healthy immature dromedary camels weighing 120-150 kg to evaluate and compare the effects of epidural and intramuscular injections of xylazine administered at 0.1 mg/kg and 0.2 mg/kg. Haematological parameters included haemoglobin, packed cell volume, total erythrocyte count and total leukocyte count. Biochemical parameters included alkaline phosphates, alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, blood urea nitrogen, creatinine and glucose. Parameters were measured at different intervals before (baseline and after the administration of drugs. Our study showed that the effect of xylazine on haematological and biochemical parameters is dose-dependant and is also related to the route of administration. The low dose of xylazine administered using both intramuscular and epidural methods showed minimal effects, whereas high doses of the drug, especially when injected intramuscularly, caused greater changes in haematological and biochemical parameters.

  2. Molecular cloning and phylogenetic analysis of integrins alpha v beta 1 and alpha v beta 6 of one-humped camel (Camelus dromedarius)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Du, Junzheng; Larska, Magdalena Larska; Chang, Huiyun;

    2010-01-01

    Bactrian camels can relatively easily be infected with FMDV, but dromedary camels remain resistant even to high doses of the virus. To understand the different susceptibility between the two camel species from the standpoint of viral receptors, this work reports the sequences of the dromedary camel...... into the Artiodactyla group, together with those of Bactrian camel, pig, sheep, and cattle that are susceptible to FMDV infection. Compared with the Bactrian camel integrins, 4, 10, and 8 amino acid changes were found in the dromedary camel alpha v, beta 1, and beta 6 subunits, respectively. This study...... will be of importance in understanding the differences of integrins as FMDV receptors among dromedary camel and other species. Crown...

  3. Molecular epidemiology of Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus detected from ticks of one humped camels (Camelus dromedarius) population in northeastern Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Champour, Mohsen; Chinikar, Sadegh; Mohammadi, Gholamreza; Razmi, Gholamreza; Shah-Hosseini, Nariman; Khakifirouz, Sahar; Mostafavi, Ehsan; Jalali, Tahmineh

    2016-03-01

    A comprehensive study was conducted on camel ticks to assess the epidemiological aspects of the infection in camels. From May 2012 to January 2013, 11 cities and towns from the Khorasan provinces, northeastern Iran, were randomly selected as a "cluster" and at least 14 camels were sampled from each cluster. A total of 200 camels were examined in this study, reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction was used for the detection of the Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV) genome. Tick infestation was observed in 171 of the 200 camels, 480 ixodid ticks were collected, and one genus was identified as Hyalomma. Four species were reported to be the major tick species infesting camels. Among these, Hyalomma dromedarii was the most predominant tick species (90.7 %), followed by H. anatolicum (6 %), H. marginatum (2.9 %), and H. asiaticum (0.4 %). The genome of the CCHFV was detected in 49 (10.2 %) of the 480 ticks. The CCHFV RNA was detected in two of the four tick species, and the viral genome was detected from tick samples in three South Khorasan cities. The positivity rate of ticks was as follows: Boshroyeh, 25 out of 480 (5.2 %); Birjand, 17 out of 480 (3.5 %); and Nehbandan, 7 out of 480 (1.5 %). We recommend the use of acaricides to prevent disease transmission to humans and to reduce the tick population in camels. Care should be taken by abattoir workers and by those who work closely with camels. PMID:27065608

  4. The prevalence of Linguatula serrata nymphs in mesenteric and mediastinal lymph nodes in one-humped camels (Camelus dromedarius) slaughtered in Rafsanjan slaughterhouse, Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Bamorovat, Mehdi; Zarandi, Mehdi Borhani; Mostafavi, Mahshid; Kheirandish, Reza; Sharifi, Iraj; Radfar, Mohammad Hossein

    2013-01-01

    Linguatula serrata is a well-known zoonotic parasite belonging to the order of Pentastomida which infects both human and animals. Human can be infected by both the nymph stage, causing a disease condition called nasopharyngeal linguatulosis or halzoun syndrome and the egg, a condition called visceral linguatulosis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of nymphal stages of L. serrata in mesenteric and mediastinal lymph nodes of one-humped camels slaughtered in Rafsanjan slaught...

  5. One-Humped Camels (Camelus dromedaries Hard Ticks Infestation in Qeshm Island, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeed Nazifi

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The economic importance of tick infestation on camels are important as they are important meat and milk producer animals in the less vegetation area of Iran and their health and production are greatly affected by the high tick infestation. In this investigation, tick infestations on camels (Camelus dromedarius were determined in Qeshm Island, Iran. A total number of 912 adult ticks (472 males and 440 females were collected and identified. Hyalomma dromedarii was the predominant tick specie and accounted for 61.9% of the adult ticks. Other hard ticks were H. anatolicum excavatum (22 %, H. asiaticum asiaticum (14.2 %, H. marginatum (1.9 %, H. impeltatum (0.4 % and Ripicephalus bursa (0.4 %. In conclusion, The provision of tick control programs in the Qeshm Island would seem a prerequisite for improving camel meat and milk production.

  6. Histomorphometric study of the prenatal development of the kidney of one-humped camel (camelus dromedarius in north-westhern Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Bello

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed at investigating the prenatal development of the kidney of the camel using standard histomorphometric methods. In the experiment, fifteen foetuses obtained from Sokoto metropolitan abattoir at different gestational ages were used for the study. The fetuses were weighed and grouped and aged. In all the foetuses the kidneys were bean-shaped with smooth external surface and thick fibrous capsule which becomes thicker with advancement of gestational age. Well developed ureters and distinct renal pelvis were evident at all stages of development. In each gestational age, values of the weight, length, width and volume of the kidney were determined. In addition the periodic differentiation of the cortex and medulla; their significance in relation to the renal histodiffrentiation was discussed. Histological sections showed evidence of collecting duct system that are numerous and extensively coiled in the cortex and medulla of the third trimester kidneys. This is an indication of the ability of the kidney to concentrate urine, in accordance with the counter-current mechanism of the kidney collecting system. It was suggested that the kidney’s of the camel possesses the anatomical features for the production of hypertonic urine owing with the adaptive behavior of desert animals. Thick capsule that increases in thickness was also noticed in the kidneys.

  7. Microbiological quality and somatic cell count in bulk milk of dromedary camels (Camelus dromedarius): descriptive statistics, correlations, and factors of variation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagy, P; Faye, B; Marko, O; Thomas, S; Wernery, U; Juhasz, J

    2013-09-01

    The objectives of the present study were to monitor the microbiological quality and somatic cell count (SCC) of bulk tank milk at the world's first large-scale camel dairy farm for a 2-yr period, to compare the results of 2 methods for the enumeration of SCC, to evaluate correlation among milk quality indicators, and to determine the effect of specific factors (year, season, stage of lactation, and level of production) on milk quality indicators. The study was conducted from January 2008 to January 2010. Total viable count (TVC), coliform count (CC), California Mastitis Test (CMT) score, and SCC were determined from daily bulk milk samples. Somatic cell count was measured by using a direct microscopic method and with an automatic cell counter. In addition, production parameters [total daily milk production (TDM, kg), number of milking camels (NMC), average milk per camel (AMC, kg)] and stage of lactation (average postpartum days, PPD) were recorded for each test day. A strong correlation (r=0.33) was found between the 2 methods for SCC enumeration; however, values derived using the microscopic method were higher. The geometric means of SCC and TVC were 394×10(3) cells/mL and 5,157 cfu/mL during the observation period, respectively. Somatic cell count was >500×10(3) cells/mL on 14.6% (106/725) and TVC was >10×10(3) cfu/mL on 4.0% (30/742) of the test days. Both milk quality indicators had a distinct seasonal pattern. For log SCC, the mean was lowest in summer and highest in autumn. The seasonal pattern of log TVC was slightly different, with the lowest values being recorded during the spring. The monthly mean TVC pattern showed a clear difference between years. Coliform count was CMT score (r=0.26), and between log TVC and CC in yr 1 (r=0.30). All production parameters and stage of lactation showed strong seasonal variation. Log SCC was negatively correlated with TDM (r=-0.35), AMC (r=-0.37), and NMC (r=-0.15) and positively correlated with PPD (r=0.40). Log TVC

  8. Comparison of California Mastitis Test (CMT), Somatic Cell Counts (SCC) and bacteriological examinations for detection of camel (Camelus dromedarius) mastitis in Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel Gadir Atif, E; Hildebrandt, Goetz; Kleer, Josef N; Molla, Bayleyegn; Kyule, Moses N; Baumann, Maximilian P O

    2006-01-01

    A total of 956 quarter milk samples from 253 traditionally managed lactating camels were collected aseptically from Negele (Borena Region), Dire Dawa, and Gewane (Afar Region), Ethiopia, according to multi-stage sampling. The quarter milk samples were subjected to California Mastitis Test (CMT), Somatic Cell Counts (SCC) and bacteriological examinations. Five hundred and seventy one (59.7%) quarter milk samples had microorganisms. Of these, 428 (75.0%) had isolates that were identified as major pathogens (MAP) and 143 (25.0%) as minor pathogens (MIP). A positive correlation was found between CMT scores and bacteriological classes (MAP, MIP) (p-value = 0.00). Strong correlation (p-value = 0.00) between CMT scores and SCC was recorded. The differences among the median log SCC of bacteriological classes (MAP, MIP) were not significant (p-value = 0.24). Similarly, the application of the cut-off level of 2.5 x 10(5) ml(-1) indicated less agreement (p-value = 0.32) for bacteriological classes MAP and MIP. PMID:16450708

  9. Structural and thermodynamic properties of kappa class glutathione transferase from Camelus dromedarius.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malik, Ajamaluddin; Fouad, Dalia; Labrou, Nikolaos E; Al-Senaidy, Abdulrahman M; Ismael, Mohamed A; Saeed, Hesham M; Ataya, Farid S

    2016-07-01

    The Arabian camel, Camelus dromedarius is naturally adapted to extreme desert climate and has evolved protective mechanisms to limit oxidative stress. The mitochondrial kappa class glutathione transferase enzyme is a member of GST supergene family that represents an important enzyme group in cellular Phase II detoxification machinery and is involved in the protection against oxidative stress and xenobiotics. In the present study, C. dromedarius kappa class glutathione transferase (CdGSTK1-1) was cloned, expressed in E. coli BL21, purified and its structural, thermodynamic and unfolding pathway was investigated. The results showed that CdGSTK1-1 has unique trimeric structure, exhibits low thermostability and a complex equilibrium unfolding profile. It unfolds through three folding states with formation of thinly populated intermediate species. The melting points (Tm) of the first unfolding transition was 40.3±0.2°C and Tm of the second unfolding transition was 49.1±0.1°C. The van't Hoff enthalpy of the first and second transition were 298.7±13.2 and 616.5±2.4kJ/mol, respectively. Moreover, intrinsic fluorescence and near-UV CD studies indicates that substrate binding does not leads to major conformational changes in CdGSTK1-1. PMID:27044344

  10. Molecular cloning, sequence analysis and expression in Escherichia coli of Camelus dromedarius glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase cDNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saeed, Hesham Mahmoud; Alanazi, Mohammad Saud; Abduljaleel, Zainularifeen; Al-Amri, Abdullah; Khan, Zahid

    2012-06-01

    This study determined the full length sequence of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase cDNA (G6PD) from the Arabian camel Camelus dromedarius using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. The C. dromedarius G6PD has an open reading frame of 1545 bp, and the cDNA encodes a protein of 515 amino acid residues with a molecular weight of 59.0 KDa. The amino acid sequence showed the highest identity with Equus caballus (92%) and Homo sapiens (92%). The G6PD cDNA was cloned and expressed into Escherichia coli as a fusion protein and was purified in a single chromatographic step using nickel affinity gel column. The purity and the molecular weight of the enzyme were checked on SDS-PAGE and the purified enzyme showed a single band on the gel with a molecular weight of 63.0 KDa. The specific activity of G6PD was determined to be 289.6 EU/mg protein with a fold purification of 95.45 and yield of 56.8%. PMID:22538316

  11. TOPOGRAPHIC CHARACTERISTICS OF THE LYMPH NODES OF THE DROMEDARY (Camelus dromedarius)

    OpenAIRE

    P GAVRYLIN; D.E. Rahmoun; M LIESHCHOVA

    2016-01-01

    The architecture of the lymph node dromedary (Camelus dromedarius) differs from that shown in the conventional patterns of other mammalian animals, generally formed of a plurality of aggregates, the latter are surrounded by a connective tissue which extends over the whole area surface lymph node and each cluster is a node itself. Vascular distribution in these lymphoid aggregates is relatively abundant and each node receives one or two afferent lymphatic’s and is drained by four or five effer...

  12. Phylogenetic and Structural Analysis of the Pluripotency Factor Sex-Determining Region Y box2 Gene of Camelus dromedarius (cSox2)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alawad, Abdullah; Alharbi, Sultan; Alhazzaa, Othman; Alagrafi, Faisal; Alkhrayef, Mohammed; Alhamdan, Ziyad; Alenazi, Abdullah; Al-Johi, Hasan; Alanazi, Ibrahim O.; Hammad, Mohamed

    2016-01-01

    Although the sequencing information of Sox2 cDNA for many mammalian is available, the Sox2 cDNA of Camelus dromedaries has not yet been characterized. The objective of this study was to sequence and characterize Sox2 cDNA from the brain of C. dromedarius (also known as Arabian camel). A full coding sequence of the Sox2 gene from the brain of C. dromedarius was amplified by reverse transcription PCRjmc and then sequenced using the 3730XL series platform Sequencer (Applied Biosystem) for the first time. The cDNA sequence displayed an open reading frame of 822 nucleotides, encoding a protein of 273 amino acids. The molecular weight and the isoelectric point of the translated protein were calculated as 29.825 kDa and 10.11, respectively, using bioinformatics analysis. The predicted cSox2 protein sequence exhibited high identity: 99% for Homo sapiens, Mus musculus, Bos taurus, and Vicugna pacos; 98% for Sus scrofa and 93% for Camelus ferus. A 3D structure was built based on the available crystal structure of the HMG-box domain of human stem cell transcription factor Sox2 (PDB: 2 LE4) with 81 residues and predicting bioinformatics software for 273 amino acid residues. The comparison confirms the presence of the HMG-box domain in the cSox2 protein. The orthologous phylogenetic analysis showed that the Sox2 isoform from C. dromedarius was grouped with humans, alpacas, cattle, and pigs. We believe that this genetic and structural information will be a helpful source for the annotation. Furthermore, Sox2 is one of the transcription factors that contributes to the generation-induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs), which in turn will probably help generate camel induced pluripotent stem cells (CiPSCs). PMID:27486314

  13. Taxonomy Icon Data: Arabian camel [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Camelus+dromedarius&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy..._icon/icon.cgi?i=Camelus+dromedarius&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_ic...on/icon.cgi?i=Camelus+dromedarius&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Camelus+dromedarius&t=NS ...

  14. Production and characterization of biodiesel from Camelus dromedarius (Hachi) fat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Transesterification reaction with methanol in the presence of NaOH as a catalyst. • Optimization of key reaction parameters were performed. • Some fuel properties of biodiesel were measured and compared with biodiesel standards. • Ten of the properties that were evaluated for the diesel conform to the ASTM and EN standards values. - Abstract: Recently, biodiesel has been gaining market share against fossil-origin diesel due to its ecological benefits and because it can be directly substituted for traditional diesel oils. However, the high cost of the raw materials required to produce biodiesel make it more expensive than fossil diesel. Therefore, low-priced raw materials, such as waste cooking oil and animal fats, are of interest because they can be used to drive down the cost of biodiesel. We have produced biodiesel from camel fat using a transesterification reaction with methanol in the presence of NaOH. The experimental variables investigated in this study were the temperature (30–75 °C), reaction time (20–160 min), catalyst concentration (0.25–1.5%), and methanol/fat molar ratio (4:1–9:1). A maximum biodiesel yield of 98.6% was obtained. The fuel properties of biodiesel, such as iodine value, saponification value, density, kinematic viscosity, cetane number, flash point, sulfur content, carbon residue, water and sediment, high heating value, refractive index, cloud point, pour point, and distillation characteristics, were measured. The properties were compared with EN 14214 and ASTM 6751 biodiesel standards, and an acceptable level of agreement was obtained

  15. Cytokine responses in camels (Camelus bactrianus) vaccinated with Brucella abortus strain 19 vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odbileg, Raadan; Purevtseren, Byambaa; Gantsetseg, Dorj; Boldbaatar, Bazartseren; Buyannemekh, Tumurjav; Galmandakh, Zagd; Erdenebaatar, Janchivdorj; Konnai, Satoru; Onuma, Misao; Ohashi, Kazuhiko

    2008-02-01

    In the present study, we determined the levels of cytokines produced by camel (Camelus bactrianus) peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) in response to live attenuated Brucella abortus (B. abortus) S19 vaccine. Seven camels were vaccinated with commercial B. abortus S19 vaccine, and their cytokine responses were determined using a real-time PCR assay. Cytokine responses to B. abortus S19 were examined at 6 hr, 48 hr and 1, 2 and 3 weeks post-vaccination. Serological tests were performed to further confirm these immune responses. The results revealed that IFN-gamma and IL-6 were upregulated during the first week post-vaccination. Low level expressions of IL-1alpha, IL-1beta, TNFalpha and IL-10 and no expression of IL-2 and IL-4 were observed compared with the control camels. The findings showed that B. abortus stimulates cell-mediated immunity by directly activating camel Th1 cells to secrete IFN-gamma. This quantification of cytokine expression in camels is essential for understanding of Camelidae disease development and protective immune responses. This is the first report of in vivo camel cytokine quantification after vaccination. PMID:18319583

  16. Vitamin C status in Sudanese camels

    OpenAIRE

    Elkhidir, Hassab Elrasoul Hussein Mohamed

    2002-01-01

    Vitamin C (ascorbic acid), which is a potent antioxidant, recently has received a great deal of attention because of its positive action on the immune response and disease resistance of animals. Brief reviews are presented on ascorbic acid metabolism in animals and its relation with stressful conditions. The original research in this thesis is concerned mainly with the identification of various factors that are related with vitamin C status in Sudanese camels (Camelus dromedarius) kept under ...

  17. Haemonchus longistipes Railliet & Henry, 1909 (Nematoda, Trichostrongylidae) from the Egyptian dromedary, Camelus dromedarius (Artiodactyla: Camelidae), first identification on the basis of light and ultrastructural data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morsy, Kareem; Bashtar, Abdel-Rahman; Fol, Mona; Yehia, Salma

    2014-12-01

    Haemonchus longistipes is a gastrointestinal abomasal nematode which is one of the most prevalent and pathogenic parasites infesting the stomach of ruminants. On the basis of light and ultrastructural data, the objective of the present study was to introduce a first identification of the cameline haemonchosis caused by H. longistipes. Abomasa of 42 Egyptian camels Camelus dromedarius (Artiodactyla: Camelidae) were collected monthly from September 2013 to April 2014 from the main slaughter house of Cairo, Egypt. Adult male and female nematode worms were recovered from 26 (62%) specimens of the examined abomasa. The parasites were of yellow color; the body was filiform (slender) tapered towards the anterior end in male and towards both ends in female. Buccal capsules absent, the buccal cavity was small with a conspicuous dorsal lancet extended from dorsal wall. The cervical papillae were prominent and spine-like. The body length of the female worm was 16.6-20.5 (18.5 ± 0.3) mm. The anterior end to the cervical papillae was 3.19-4.30 (4.12 ± 0.5) mm. The vulva of the female had a linguiform process or flap, the tail is without a spine, and the anal pore at the posterior end of the body had a simple dorsal rim. The body of male was 10.4-14.7 (13.9 ± 2.0) mm in length. The male bursa had elongated lobes supported by long, slender rays. The small dorsal lobe was asymmetrical with Y-shaped dorsal rays. The spicules were long with a length of 0.52-0.54 (0.53 ± 0.05) mm, each provided with a small barb and pore near its extremity. Synlophe was bilaterally and dorsoventrally symmetrical; it extended from cephalic expansion over anterior 50% of prebursal or prevulvar body and consisted of a maximum of 42 ridges. The described species herein was compared with the three morphologically similar species Haemonchus mitchelli, Haemonchus okapiae, and H. longistipes with their synlophes consist of 42 ridges distributed over the anterior half of the body. These

  18. Analyse moléculaire de la diversité génétique des dromadaires (Camelus dromedarius en Tunisie

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ould Ahmed, M.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Analysis of molecular genetic diversity of dromedaries (Camelus dromedarius in Tunisia. The objective of this study was to investigate the genetic diversity and relationships among Tunisian camel populations in three different geographical locations (Kebili, Medenine and Tataouine from Southern arid and semi-arid regions in Tunisia. Eight selected microsatellite markers were used for a sample of 90 dromedary genotypes. A total of 34 alleles were detected in the three populations. The number of alleles per locus varied from two to seven with an average of 4.25 alleles per locus. For each population the average of alleles per locus is 3.33, 3.71 and 3.87 for Kebili, Medenine and Tataouine, respectively. The mean of the observed heterozygosity (Ho were 0.43, 0.50, 0.57 and 0.52 for Kebili, Medenine, Tataouine and total populations, respectively. These values were lower than expected with heterozygosity (He values 0.50, 0.57, 0.62 and 0.61, respectively. The average inbreeding coefficient was 15.3% in Kebili, 11.4% in Medenine and 8.3% in Tataouine. The mean estimates of F-statistics were FIT = 0.15, FIS = 0.071 and FST = 0.083. These values were significantly different from zero (p < 0.05 and suggest a moderate differentiation. An inbreeding rate of 15% was found. Estimated genetic distances revealed by the loci varied from 0 to 0.9 between dromedary individuals. The estimated genetic distances pair-wise showed 0.104 among Medenine-Tataouine, 0.280 between Kebili-Medenine and 0.290 between Kebili-Tataouine. The distance matrix was able to distinguish between two separate genetic entities: Nefzawa (Kebili including Merzougui, G'oudi and M'hari ecotypes and the Aaradh group (Medenine and Tataouine that includes Maghribi and Khaouar ecotypes. The results of this study did not confirm the present classification established by dromedary herders who divide the population into five different ecotypes, apparently based on the sociogeographical criteria

  19. Production systems and reproductive performances of Camelus dromedarius in Somali regional state, eastern Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simenew Keskes

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Across-sectional questionnaire survey and focused group discussions were conducted to characterize camel production systems and to evaluate reproductive performances of camels at their natural pastoralist management systems of Somali region. A total of 100 households were included in the study during the period of October 2012 to March 2013. About 98% of Somali pastoralists preferred camels as their first choice over other livestock species and mainly kept in the society for milk and meat production. The camel management dominating in the study areas of Somali region is traditional nomadic. Camel is one of the most important livestock for Somali pastoralists’ livelihood as a source of milk, meat and draught power. Mature female camels were dominant (54.87% in the camel herd. The ratio of male to female camel was 1:13. Mean age at first calving and calving interval were 62.16±10.44 and 23.28±3.36 months respectively. Age at first calving and calving interval can be minimized to 57±5.52 and 21.84±4.8 months by proper husbandry and health care. The mean lactation length was 11.51±1.91 months. Diseases and predators were reported as the main causes of calf mortality. In the herd dynamic simulation calf mortality rate can be reduced at least to 7% only by preventing predators attack. Diseases (66%, lack of pasture (59% and security (47% were the main constraints in camel production of the study areas. For the better productivity of camels, the major constraints such as disease problems, lack of pasture and tribal conflicts should be mitigated. Proper husbandry and health services can play significant roles in the long term improvement of camel production and productivity of the region.  

  20. REPRODUCTIVE PERFORMANCE OF Camelus dromedarius IN THE EL-OUED REGION, ALGERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. MAYOUF

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available A questionnaire survey and group discussions were conducted to characterize the reproductive performances of camels at their natural pastoralist management systems in El Oued region, southern east of Algeria. A total of 60 breeders were included in the study. The results about the level of education among camel herders in El Oued region revealed that the majority of older herders were illiterate 80% while 15% had primary school education. The camel management dominating in the study areas is traditional nomadic. Mature female camels were dominant (64.68% in the camel herd. The ratio of male to female camel was 1:60.7. Mean age at first calving and calving interval were 4.66±0.07 years and 22.9±0.25 months, respectively. The mean lactation length was 11.4±0.08 months. Mean age at first mating of male and female was 4.82±0.12 years and 3.43±0.16, respectively. Reproductive performances of camels in the study area is low which could be attributed to the late age of puberty, long gestation period, poor management system, environmental factors and pathological reasons. Therefore, improvement of management systems and the use of controlled breeding techniques contribute to improve of camel.

  1. Serological and bacteriological study of brucellosis in camels in central Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radwan, A I; Bekairi, S I; Prasad, P V

    1992-09-01

    Sera from 2,630 apparently normal adult camels (Camelus dromedarius) raised in central Saudi Arabia (Riyadh and Al-Kharj cities) were examined serologically by the Rose Bengal and standard United States of America Brucella plate agglutination tests. The overall seroprevalence of brucellosis in the restricted populations of tested camels was 8%. The seroprevalence of brucellosis among camels raised in small numbers in the backyards of 24 houses in Riyadh and those intensively raised on one large camel farm near Al-Kharj were 4.3% and 8.6% respectively. Fresh milk samples from 100 brucellosis seropositive camels from Riyadh and Al-Kharj were cultured on Brucella-selective media. Brucella melitensis biovars 1 and 2 were isolated and identified from 26 camels. Epidemiologically, brucellosis in camels in central Saudi Arabia appeared to be connected with B. melitensis infection of sheep and goats, and also represents a serious public health risk. PMID:1472730

  2. Characteristics of the somatic hypermutation in the Camelus dromedarius T cell receptor gamma (TRG) and delta (TRD) variable domains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciccarese, Salvatrice; Vaccarelli, Giovanna; Lefranc, Marie-Paule; Tasco, Gianluca; Consiglio, Arianna; Casadio, Rita; Linguiti, Giovanna; Antonacci, Rachele

    2014-10-01

    In previous reports, we had shown in Camelus dromedarius that diversity in T cell receptor gamma (TRG) and delta (TRD) variable domains can be generated by somatic hypermutation (SHM). In the present paper, we further the previous finding by analyzing 85 unique spleen cDNA sequences encoding a total of 331 mutations from a single animal, and comparing the properties of the mutation profiles of dromedary TRG and TRD variable domains. The transition preference and the significant mutation frequency in the AID motifs (dgyw/wrch and wa/tw) demonstrate a strong dependence of the enzymes mediating SHM in TRG and TRD genes of dromedary similar to that of immunoglobulin genes in mammals. Overall, results reveal no asymmetry in the motifs targeting, i.e. mutations are equally distributed among g:c and a:t base pairs and replacement mutations are favored at the AID motifs, whereas neutral mutations appear to be more prone to accumulate in bases outside of the motifs. A detailed analysis of clonal lineages in TRG and TRD cDNA sequences also suggests that clonal expansion of mutated productive rearrangements may be crucial in shaping the somatic diversification in the dromedary. This is confirmed by the fact that our structural models, computed by adopting a comparative procedure, are consistent with the possibility that, irrespective of where (in the CDR-IMGT or in FR-IMGT) the diversity was generated by mutations, both clonal expansion and selection seem to be strictly related to an enhanced structural stability of the γδ subunits. PMID:24836674

  3. Proteomics of old world camelid (Camelus dromedarius: Better understanding the interplay between homeostasis and desert environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamad Warda

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Life is the interplay between structural–functional integrity of biological systems and the influence of the external environment. To understand this interplay, it is useful to examine an animal model that competes with harsh environment. The dromedary camel is the best model that thrives under severe environment with considerable durability. The current proteomic study on dromedary organs explains a number of cellular mysteries providing functional correlates to arid living. Proteome profiling of camel organs suggests a marked increased expression of various cytoskeleton proteins that promote intracellular trafficking and communication. The comparative overexpression of α-actinin of dromedary heart when compared with rat heart suggests an adaptive peculiarity to sustain hemoconcentration–hemodilution episodes associated with alternative drought-rehydration periods. Moreover, increased expression of the small heat shock protein, α B-crystallin facilitates protein folding and cellular regenerative capacity in dromedary heart. The observed unbalanced expression of different energy related dependent mitochondrial enzymes suggests the possibility of mitochondrial uncoupling in the heart in this species. The evidence of increased expression of H+-ATPase subunit in camel brain guarantees a rapidly usable energy supply. Interestingly, the guanidinoacetate methyltransferase in camel liver has a renovation effect on high energy phosphate with possible concomitant intercession of ion homeostasis. Surprisingly, both hump fat tissue and kidney proteomes share the altered physical distribution of proteins that favor cellular acidosis. Furthermore, the study suggests a vibrant nature for adipose tissue of camel hump by the up-regulation of vimentin in adipocytes, augmenting lipoprotein translocation, blood glucose trapping, and challenging external physical extra-stress. The results obtained provide new evidence of homeostasis in the arid habitat

  4. Brucellosis in Camels (Camelus dromedorius in the south province of Jordan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hawari A. Dawood

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available A study of the prevalence of camel brucellosis has been carried out in the south province of Jordan during the years 2006 and 2007. Six hundred forty camel sera from 44 herds were randomly collected and analyzed. Rose Bengal plate test was used to screen all serum samples. The positive samples were subjected to confirmation by complement fixation test. The true prevalence of Brucella seropositive was 15.8%. Brucella melitensis biotype 3 was isolated from 2 aborted fetuses and from 2 milk samples. 64.8% of the positive camels were adult > than 4 years old and the remaining 35.2% were young ranging from 6 months to 4 years old. Recommendations for brucellosis control were given.

  5. A complete mitochondrial genome sequence of the wild two-humped camel (Camelus bactrianus ferus: an evolutionary history of camelidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meng He

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The family Camelidae that evolved in North America during the Eocene survived with two distinct tribes, Camelini and Lamini. To investigate the evolutionary relationship between them and to further understand the evolutionary history of this family, we determined the complete mitochondrial genome sequence of the wild two-humped camel (Camelus bactrianus ferus, the only wild survivor of the Old World camel. Results The mitochondrial genome sequence (16,680 bp from C. bactrianus ferus contains 13 protein-coding, two rRNA, and 22 tRNA genes as well as a typical control region; this basic structure is shared by all metazoan mitochondrial genomes. Its protein-coding region exhibits codon usage common to all mammals and possesses the three cryptic stop codons shared by all vertebrates. C. bactrianus ferus together with the rest of mammalian species do not share a triplet nucleotide insertion (GCC that encodes a proline residue found only in the nd1 gene of the New World camelid Lama pacos. This lineage-specific insertion in the L. pacos mtDNA occurred after the split between the Old and New World camelids suggests that it may have functional implication since a proline insertion in a protein backbone usually alters protein conformation significantly, and nd1 gene has not been seen as polymorphic as the rest of ND family genes among camelids. Our phylogenetic study based on complete mitochondrial genomes excluding the control region suggested that the divergence of the two tribes may occur in the early Miocene; it is much earlier than what was deduced from the fossil record (11 million years. An evolutionary history reconstructed for the family Camelidae based on cytb sequences suggested that the split of bactrian camel and dromedary may have occurred in North America before the tribe Camelini migrated from North America to Asia. Conclusion Molecular clock analysis of complete mitochondrial genomes from C. bactrianus ferus and L

  6. Dromedaries (Camelus dromedarius) are of Low Susceptibility to Inoculation with Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus Serotype O

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alexandersen, Søren; Wernery, U.; Nagy, P.;

    2008-01-01

    Two sheep and five dromedaries were inoculated with a highdose of a cattle-passaged type O strain of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV). The sheep developed typical FMD. The inoculated camels, which were placed in contact with five further dromedaries and four sheep, showed no visible sign......,,; of illness or vesicular lesions. However, one of them had a raised body temperature at 3 days post-inoculation (pi) and a viraemia from days 2 to 10; probang samples from this animal were negative for infections virus, but a low level of FMDV RNA was detected in a sample taken on day 6 pi, five other samples...... taken front days 3 to 28 being negative. Examination of mouth swabs indicated a low level of FMDV RNA at days 1-5 pi in four of the five inoculated camels, but no infectious FMDN7 or FMDV RNA was detected in serum, probang or month swab samples front contact-exposed animals (camels and sheep). All...

  7. Perceptions and problems of disease in the one-humped camel in southern Africa in the late 19th and early 20th centuries : historical review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.T. Wilson

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available The one-humped camel (Camelus dromedarius was first introduced to German South West Africa (Namibia for military purposes in 1889. Introductions to the Cape of Good Hope (South Africa in 1897 and Rhodesia (Zimbabwe in 1903 were initially with a view to replacing oxen that died of rinderpest. Disease risks attendant on these introductions were recognised and to some extent guarded against. There were, however, relatively few problems. One camel was diagnosed as having foot-and-mouth disease. Mange in camels from India caused some concern as did trypanosomosis from Sudan. Trypanosomosis was introduced into both the Cape of Good Hope and Transvaal. Antibodies to some common livestock disease were found in later years.

  8. Effect of α-Amylase, Papain, and Spermfluid treatments on viscosity and semen parameters of dromedary camel ejaculates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monaco, Davide; Fatnassi, Meriem; Padalino, Barbara; Hammadi, Mohamed; Khorchani, Touhami; Lacalandra, Giovanni Michele

    2016-04-01

    Ejaculates from five clinically healthy dromedary camels (Camelus dromedarius) were used to evaluate the effects of different enzymatic treatments (Amylase, Papain, Spermfluid) on liquefaction and seminal parameters. After collection, ejaculates were divided into 5 aliquots: (1) kept undiluted (control); or diluted 1:1 with: (2) Tris-Citrate-Fructose (TCF), (3) TCF containing Amylase, (4) TCF containing Papain or (5) Spermfluid containing Bromelain. At 120 min after dilution, each aliquot was evaluated, at 20-min intervals, for viscosity, motility, viability and agglutination. Only the aliquots diluted with TCF containing Papain underwent complete liquefaction. Sperm motility decreased significantly during the observation times, except for the samples diluted with Spermfluid (P=0.005). Diluted samples showed different levels of agglutination, with the lowest being observed in the control and the highest in the Papain-treated samples. The viscosity of dromedary camel ejaculates could be effectively reduced by using the proteolytic enzyme Papain. PMID:27033899

  9. KEFIRS MANUFACTURED FROM CAMEL (CAMELUS DRAMEDARIUS MILK AND COW MILK: COMPARISON OF SOME CHEMICAL AND MICROBIAL PROPERTIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Kavas

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the production possibilities of kefir from fresh camel milk fermented with grain. The findings were then compared with kefir manufactured from cow’s milk. Cow’s milk was fermented with 2.5% grains. The 1% (v/w glucose enriched camel’s milk was fermented with 10% grains and left in an incubator at 25°C. Physical-chemical and sensorial analyses of the kefir sampleswere measured on day one (18 hours of storage and microbiological analyses were measured on days one, three and five. Some physical-chemical parameters were found to be higherin camel milk and its kefir than in cow milk and its kefir, some were found to be close and some were found to be lower. Addition of 1% glucose and 10% grains to the camel milk affected the titrationacidity and viscosity of kefir to significant levels. The kefir produced from camel milk was perceived as sourer, whereas its other properties were found to be close to those of cow milk. Thecholesterol levels of camel milk and its kefir were detected to be higher when compared to those of cow milk and its kefir, but the cholesterol level decreased in both examples after the productionof kefir. In terms of the composition of fatty acids, it was determined that SFA and the small, medium chain fatty acids ratio was low in camel milk and its kefir, but MUFA and the long chainfatty acids ratio was high. PUFA ratio was high in camel milk but low in its kefir. In microbiological analysis, yeast levels increased in kefir samples with the Lactobacillus ssp. strains, and theincrease in the number of yeasts was higher than in the cow milk kefir. In kefir samples, Lactobacillus ssp. strains increased on day one and three of storage, but diminished after day three.

  10. The One-humped Camel in the Canary Islands: History and Present Status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilson, RT.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The one-humped camel (Camelus dromedarius L. is not indigenous to the Canary Islands but based on historical references was introduced at the very beginning of the fifteenth century. The camel thrived in the subtropical dry environment. A long period of isolation from other animals of the same species meant that the animals were virtually disease free. This made the Islands an ideal base for exporting camels to new areas such that camels from the Canaries went to Peru in the sixteenth century, to Brazil in the eighteenth century, Venezuela and Bolivia in the early part of the nineteenth century and Australia in 1840. Camels went to several Caribbean islands in the middle of the nineteenth century. More recently (late twentieth and early twenty-first centuries some animals were exported from the islands to mainland Europe, notably France, Spain and the Netherlands, and to South America. Camels have been used in military operations, as transport and draught animals in support of agriculture and have found a role in the tourist industry. In early 2013 there were some 1,300 camels distributed over four of the larger islands of the archipelago in herds varying in size from a single animal to herds of as many as 150 head: a large group of about 400 heads kept in a Safari Park on the island of Fuerteventura is considered as the national conservation herd. The "Canary" camel has recently been shown to be genetically distinct from most other populations and it has been proposed that it should be designated as a distinct breed.

  11. Use of salivary cortisol to evaluate the influence of rides in dromedary camels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majchrzak, Yasmine N; Mastromonaco, Gabriela F; Korver, Wendy; Burness, Gary

    2015-01-15

    Animals in captivity and in the wild face numerous challenges, including the risk of enduring acute or chronic stress. In captivity, facilities attempt to alleviate the risk of chronic stress by providing environmental enrichment, shown to minimize behavioral disorders and stress in several species. One potential form of enrichment in zoos is training animals to provide rides for guests, however, the effect of this activity on the welfare of individual animals has never been examined. We validated the use of saliva for assessing stress in dromedary camels (Camelus dromedarius), an animal commonly used for rides. We then measured variation in salivary cortisol in four male camels while providing rides of differing frequency for guests at the Toronto Zoo. The camels were sampled during the ride season (June to September) using four treatments: (1) in their pasture, (2) at the ride area when not performing rides, (3) while providing a low number of rides (n=50/day) and (4) while providing a high number of rides (n=150/day). Furthermore, samples were taken before and after the ride season for comparison. There was a significant difference between the post-ride season treatment and the three treatments involving guest presence during the ride season (ride area, low rides, high rides). In general, cortisol concentrations were lower during the ride season and higher during the non-ride season. Based on the metrics we used, performing rides is not a stressful experience for these dromedary camels and suggests that rides may be a form of enrichment. PMID:25452030

  12. The antigenicity-allergenicity of camel milk proteins (camelus dromedarus) in BALB/c mice after oral sensitization

    OpenAIRE

    Dalal, R.; N. Youcef; Mezemaze, F; Saidi, D; KHEROUA, O.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: When the breastfeeding is not possible or not wished, it is usually replaced by cow's milk or by some conventional cow’s milk-based infant formulas. However these proteins can involve at certain subjects pathological manifestations like the cow's milk allergy (CMA). The substitution of cow's milk by other treated milk, called "hypoallergenic", is currently the only alternative. The using of the camel milk, species taxonomically far away from the cow can be considered...

  13. KEFIRS MANUFACTURED FROM CAMEL (CAMELUS DRAMEDARIUS) MILK AND COW MILK: COMPARISON OF SOME CHEMICAL AND MICROBIAL PROPERTIES

    OpenAIRE

    G. Kavas

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the production possibilities of kefir from fresh camel milk fermented with grain. The findings were then compared with kefir manufactured from cow’s milk. Cow’s milk was fermented with 2.5% grains. The 1% (v/w) glucose enriched camel’s milk was fermented with 10% grains and left in an incubator at 25°C. Physical-chemical and sensorial analyses of the kefir sampleswere measured on day one (18 hours) of storage and microbiological analyses were measured on days one, three an...

  14. An Investigation of Cellulose Digesting Bacteria in the Camel Feces Microbiome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Man, V.; Leung, F. C.

    2015-12-01

    Research Question: Is there a bacteria in camel feces that digests cellulose material and can be used for waste to energy projects? Fossil fuels are the current main resource of energy in the modern world. However, as the demand for fuel increases, biofuels have been proposed as an alternative energy source that is a more sustainable form of liquid fuel generation from living things or waste, commonly known as biofuels and ethanol. The Camelus dromedarius', also known as Arabian camel, diet consist of grass, grains, wheat and oats as well desert vegetation in their natural habitat. However, as the Arabian camel lacks the enzymes to degrade cellulose, it is hypothesized that cellulose digestion is performed by microbial symbionts in camel microbiota. Fecal samples were collected from the Camelus dromedarius in United Arab Emirates and diluted 10-7 times. The diluted sample was then streaked onto a Sodium Carboxymethyl Cellulose plate, and inoculated onto CMC and Azure-B plates. Afterwards, Congo Red was used for staining in order to identify clearance zones of single colonies that may potentially be used as a qualitative assays for cellulose digestion. Then the colonies undergo polymerase chain reaction amplification to produce amplified RNA fragments. The 16S ribosomal RNA gene is identified based on BLAST result using Sanger Sequencing. Amongst the three identified microbes: Bacillus, Staphylococcus and Escherichia coli, both Bacillus and Staphylococcus are cellulose-digesting microbes, and through the fermentation of lignocellulosic, biomasses can be converted into cellulosic ethanol (Biofuel). According to the Improvements in Life Cycle Energy Efficiency and Greenhouse Gas Emissions of Corn-Ethanol by Adam J. Liska, ""Ethanol reduces greenhouse gas emissions by 40-50% when compared directly to gasoline." The determination of bacterial communities that are capable of efficiently and effectively digesting cellulose materials requires that the bacteria be first

  15. Mycobacterium pinnipedii: Transmission from South American sea lion (Otaria byronia) to Bactrian camel (Camelus bactrianus bactrianus) and Malayan tapirs (Tapirus indicus)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moser, I.; Prodinger, W.M.; Hotzel, H.; Greenwald, R.; Lyashchenko, K.P.; Bakker, D.; Gomis, D.; Seidler, T.; Ellenberger, C.; Hetzel, U.; Wuennemann, K.; Moisson, P.

    2008-01-01

    Tuberculosis infections caused by Mycobacterium (M.) pinnipedii in a South American sea lion, Bactrian camel, and Malayan tapirs kept in two zoological gardens spanning a time period of 5 years are reported. The zoos were linked by the transfer of one tapir. Conventional bacteriological and molecula

  16. Seroprevalence of Chlamydia abortus in camel in the western region of Libya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rabia Elzlitne

    2016-06-01

    Conclusion: The present findings signify the C. abortus as a potential agent to cause abortion in Libyan camel (C. dromedarius. Besides, the persons who handle camels in Libya are at risk of infecting with C. abortus. [J Adv Vet Anim Res 2016; 3(2.000: 178-183

  17. Radiographic studies of developing calvaria at prenatal stages in one-humped camel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SA Hena

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Radiographic studies on the fetal heads of 32 one-humped camels (Camelus dromedarius with 11 fetuses at the first trimester, 12 at the second trimester and 9 at the third trimester levels were conducted in Sokoto Metropolis. The study involved the radiographic evaluation of calvaria of different fetuses at first, second and third trimester stages of the gestational ages. Radiographic observations made in this study revealed that the onset of mineralization was recognizable even at the first trimester stage through the radio-opaque appearances of the calvaria appearing whiter on radiographs. This tendency however increased with increase in gestational age of the fetuses showing that because of their highly calcified calvaria, the fetuses at the third trimester were more radio-opaque to X-ray energy thus appearing whiter on the radiographs. Sutural demarcations were not clear on the radiographs made in this study, but however, clear evidences of fontanels were seen as localised radio-lucent areas on the calvaria more especially at the first trimester stage. The findings in this research would help in understanding the radiographical anatomy of the developing calvaria in this animal species.

  18. Substantielle Qualitätsparameter bei Kamelfleisch (Camelus dromedarius)

    OpenAIRE

    Finke, Céline Patricia

    2005-01-01

    In the course of globalization in combination with long-haul tourism and the emergence of foreign products on the European market, the possibility of marketing dromedary meat in Germany is to be considered. In comparison with other domestic animals the literature data on qualitative properties of meat of this species is scarce. The object of this survey was to work out preliminary guidelines concerning the substantial meat quality parameters prior to the eventual introduction of dromedary mea...

  19. Reproductive status of Camelus bactrianus during early breeding season in India

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Vyas S; Sharma N; Sheikh FD; Singh S; Sena DS; Bissa UK

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To study the behaviour and reproductive status of the bactrian camel (Camelus bactrianus). Methods:This study was conducted at two places, Government Bactrian Camel Farm, Chusoot, Leh and Hundar village, Nubra valley, India, situated at higher than 10000 feet above sea level during the month of October, said to be initial period of breeding season. Results:The uterine horns were similar to that of dromedary i.e. between T and Y shaped. The ovaries were irregular but without follicle. The male camels were not showing any symptoms of rut or breeding season but were capable of mounting and copulating the sitting female. Conclusions:There is a need to carry out more research on reproduction in Indian Bactrian camel as they have become major attraction of tourists in Nubra valley and has become an important source of livelihood for the people who inhabit high altitude regions.

  20. Taxonomy Icon Data: wild Bactrian camel [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available odactyla Camelus_ferus_L.png Camelus_ferus_NL.png Camelus_ferus_S.png Camelus_ferus_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy..._icon/icon.cgi?i=Camelus+ferus&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Camelus+f...erus&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Camelus+ferus&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Camelus+ferus&t=NS ...

  1. Sarcoptic mange of camel in upper Egypt: Prevalence, risk assessment, and control measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saber Kotb

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed to reveal out the prevalence of Sarcoptic mite infestation and the risk factors associated with occurrence of mange in one-humped camels (Camulus dromedarius at smallholder farms in Upper Egypt, and to develop an applicable therapeutical protocol for the Sarcoptic mange infested camels. A total of 660 one-humped camels were randomly selected from different villages of Assiut, Upper Egypt. The animals were undergone clinical and parasitological examinations. Skin scrapings revealed that Sarcoptes scabiei var. cameli mite was present in 6.06% (n=40/660 camels of the area. Statistical analysis of some ecological parameters showed that there was significant relationship (P<0.05 between mite infestation in camels and season, housing management, and use of acaricides. On the other hand, age and sex did not significantly affect the prevalence of the disease. Topical application of moxidectin at 0.5 mg/kg bwt or subcutaneous administration of doramectin at 200 μg/kg bwt, along with treatment of animal environment was found to be the best protocol for the eradication and prevention of Sarcoptic mange in camel. The findings of this study indicate that Sarcoptes scabiei var cameli is the preeminent agent of mange infestation in one-humped camel in Upper Egypt. Use of acaricides for the treatment of affected camels, along with spraying the animal environment by insecticides is a effective protocol not only for controlling mange in camels but also for prevention of re-infestation from the animal environment.

  2. Camel Wrestling Culture in Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    Yilmaz, Orhan; Ertugrul, Mehmet

    2014-01-01

    In Turkish History which lasted several thousand years, camels were always important in their life. In the past camels were used as transport, pack, ride, war, food, and sport animal by Turks. After industrialization and modernization since 20th century, camel lost their importance and nowadays they are only a sport and tourism material in Turkey. Hence the camel population in Turkey decreased in number of about 1.000 recently. The camel population is mostly used for camel wrestling events in...

  3. Want a Camel, Yes?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2004-01-01

    "Want a Camel, Yes?" takes us to the pyramids in Giza, Egypt. We are shown the interaction between camel drivers and tourists. Through price negotiations, conversations and interviews, we get an insight into how they imagine and understand each other and what they think constitute a good trip to...... the pyramids....

  4. Camel and bovine chymosin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langholm Jensen, Jesper; Mølgaard, Anne; Navarro Poulsen, Jens Christian;

    2013-01-01

    Bovine and camel chymosin are aspartic peptidases that are used industrially in cheese production. They cleave the Phe105-Met106 bond of the milk protein κ-casein, releasing its predominantly negatively charged C-terminus, which leads to the separation of the milk into curds and whey. Despite...... having 85% sequence identity, camel chymosin shows a 70% higher milk-clotting activity than bovine chymosin towards bovine milk. The activities, structures, thermal stabilities and glycosylation patterns of bovine and camel chymosin obtained by fermentation in Aspergillus niger have been examined...... interactions arising from variation in the surface charges and the greater malleability both in domain movements and substrate binding contribute to the better milk-clotting activity of camel chymosin towards bovine milk....

  5. Camel enterprise integration cookbook

    CERN Document Server

    Cranton, Scott

    2013-01-01

    This book is written in a Cookbook style with short recipes showing developers how to effectively implement EIP without breaking everything in the process. It is concise and to the point, and it helps developers get their data flowing between different components without the need to read through page upon page of theory, while also enabling the reader to learn how to create exciting new projects.Camel Enterprise Integration Cookbook is intended for developers who have some familiarity with Apache Camel and who want a quick lookup reference to practical, proven tips on how to perform common tas

  6. Purification and Characterization of Cytosolic Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate Dehydrogenase from the Dromedary Camel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Latifa FOURRAT; Abdelghani IDDAR; Abdelaziz SOUKRI

    2007-01-01

    Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) (EC 1.2.1.12), a key enzyme of carbon metabolism, was purified and characterized to homogeneity from skeletal muscle of Camelus dromedarius. The protein was purified approximately 26.8 folds by conventional ammonium sulphate fractionation followed by Blue Sepharose CL-6B chromatography, and its physical and kinetic properties were investigated. The native protein is a homotetramer with an apparent molecular weight of approximately 146 kDa. Isoelectric focusing analysis showed the presence of only one GAPDH isoform with an isoelectric point of 7.2. The optimum pH of the purified enzyme was 7.8. Studies on the effect of temperature on enzyme activity revealed an optimal value of approximately 28-32 ℃ with activation energy of 4.9 kcal/mol.The apparent Km values for NAD+ and DL-glyceraldehyde-3-phophate were estimated to be 0.025±0.040 mM and 0.21±0.08 mM, respectively. The Vmax of the purified protein was estimated to be 52.7±5.9 U/mg.These kinetic parameter values were different from those described previously, reflecting protein differences between species.

  7. Structure of vomeronasal organ (Jacobson organ) in male Camelus Domesticus Var. dromedaris persica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimi, H; Mansoori Ale Hashem, R; Ardalani, G; Sadrkhanloo, R; Hayatgheibi, H

    2014-12-01

    The vomeronasal organ (VNO) is a tubular structure in the roof of nasal cavity. The important role of this organ is olfaction of sexual odour. In this study, position, anatomical structure and histology of VNO in Iranian camels (camelus domesticus var. dromedaris persica) were determined. Fourteen healthy male camel heads were collected from an industrial slaughterhouse in Tehran, Iran, for anatomical and histological studies (seven each). The length of VNO and width of dental pad and the number and width of palatine crests were measured. For anatomical studies, the mandible was removed, and maxilla and nasal cavity was cut longitudinally and transversely. For histological studies, the mandible was removed, and first 0.5 cm of initial part of VNO was cut. Then, nasal cavity was cut in some segments with 2 cm thickness. The width of VNO was 3.85 ± 0.31 cm and 1.57 ± 0.18 cm in front and distal parts, respectively. The length of VNO was 15.61 ± 0.59 cm. In histological examinations, VNO was surrounded by J-shape hyaline cartilage. The lining epithelium of lateral wall of VNO was originated from respiratory epithelium, while it had an olfactory epithelium origin in the medial wall. Lamina propria and tunica submucosa were a cavernous connective tissue with seromucous gland with abundant of serous secretory units. The lumen of VNO opens into nasal cavity. The presence of olfactory epithelium found in our study indicates an important role for VNO in pheromone perception and beginning of sexual behaviour. PMID:24611976

  8. Balantidiasis in a dromedarian camel

    OpenAIRE

    Tajik, Javad; Fard, Saeid R Nourollahi; paidar, Amin; Anousheh, Samaneh; Dehghani, Elahe

    2013-01-01

    A 3 years old male dromedarian camel was examined because of anorexia and diarrhea. The affected camel was depressed, tachycardic, eupnic, and had a body temperature of 38.8 °C. Mucous membranes were hyperemic and faeces was soft and mucous coated but of normal colour and odour. Faecal examination revealed a large number of Balantidium coli trophozoites and cysts (15 000/g) and no other parasite could be detected in faecal sample. Seven days after the onset of treatment using intramuscular an...

  9. Instant Apache Camel message routing

    CERN Document Server

    Ibryam, Bilgin

    2013-01-01

    Filled with practical, step-by-step instructions and clear explanations for the most important and useful tasks. This short, instruction-based guide shows you how to perform application integration using the industry standard Enterprise Integration Patterns.This book is intended for Java developers who are new to Apache Camel and message- oriented applications.

  10. Adaptation of Camelus dromedarius pars nervosa of the hypophysis to winter and summer living conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatma Zohra Djazouli Alim

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to study the characteristics of the dromedary nervous lobe and determine how the seasons condition its organization. To this end, electron microscopy was performed and examined quantitatively on animals from winter and summer periods. The results show a higher number of cells in the nervous lobe in summer than in winter. The most abundant glial elements in winter are light pituicytes engulfing neurosecretory nerve fibers making neuroglial contact, and dark pituicytes containing numerous heterogeneous light bodies. In summer, the most distinctive glial cells may be pituicytes in a phagocytic state making contact with characteristic large light bodies that could represent a degenerative process of large neuropeptide storage. Granular pituicytes were also observed in contact with glial and neuronal components. However, lipid droplets, described in pituicytes of other mammals, were not observed in our samples. Quantitative analysis of neurovascular contacts revealed that the number of nerve terminals contacting the basal lamina did not differ between summer
    and winter, but the mean number of glial processes increased in winter. Our data provides evidence that the storage of neuropeptides is very marked in summer and that, associated with an autophagic and phagocytic phenomenon, this suggests an adaptation to anticipate any situation that would cause dehydration of the dromedary. Thus, in its tough environment, the animal remains permanently prepared to avoid any large water loss.

  11. Thin layer chromatography of camel urine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarig Hab,

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available General screening of 10 camel urine samples was carried out to determine the most common constituent of camel urine. Samples used were crude, ethanolic and chlorofermic extracts and compared with their lyophilysed urine. The study revealed the presence of alkaloids and triterpene. The objectives of this investigation are to verify camel urine major chemical constituents which are extremely valuable information for detecting new drugs of natural origin.

  12. Thin layer chromatography of camel urine

    OpenAIRE

    Tarig Hab,; Samia H. A,; Baragob A. E. A; Khojali S. M. E

    2011-01-01

    General screening of 10 camel urine samples was carried out to determine the most common constituent of camel urine. Samples used were crude, ethanolic and chlorofermic extracts and compared with their lyophilysed urine. The study revealed the presence of alkaloids and triterpene. The objectives of this investigation are to verify camel urine major chemical constituents which are extremely valuable information for detecting new drugs of natural origin.

  13. Effect of diet supplementation on growth and reproduction in camels under arid range conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdouli H.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Eighteen pregnant dromedary females (Camelus dromedarius were used to determine the effect of concentrate supplement on growth and reproductive performances in peri-partum period. The females were divided into supplemented (n = 9; S and unsupplemented (n = 9; C experimental groups. All animals grazed, with one mature male, 7 to 8 hours per day on salty pasture rangelands. During night, they were kept in pen, where each female of group S received 4 kg per day of concentrate supplement during the last 3 months of gestation and 5 kg per day during the first 3 months post-partum. During the last 90 days of gestation daily body weight gain (DBG was at least tenfold more important in group S than in group C (775 g vs. 72 g respectively. Supplementation affected birth weight of offspring (30.3 kg vs. 23.4 kg and its DBG (806 g vs. 430 g in group S and group C respectively. During the post-partum period, females in group S gained in weight (116 g per day whereas females in group C lost more than 200 g per day. The mean post-partum interval to the first heat and the percentage of females in heat were 29.5 day and 44.4/ vs. 41.2 day and 71.4/ for the C and S groups, respectively. We conclude that under range conditions, dietary supplementation of dromedary during late pregnancy stage and post-partum period improves productive and reproductive parameters.

  14. Instant Apache Camel messaging system

    CERN Document Server

    Sharapov, Evgeniy

    2013-01-01

    Get to grips with a new technology, understand what it is and what it can do for you, and then get to work with the most important features and tasks. A beginner's guide to Apache Camel that walks you through basic operations like installation and setup right through to developing simple applications.This book is a good starting point for Java developers who have to work on an application dealing with various systems and interfaces but who haven't yet started using Enterprise System Buses or Java Business Integration frameworks.

  15. Gastrointestinal helminths in migratory Camel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S G Rewatkar

    Full Text Available Survey of gastrointestinal helminth parasites in camel migrated from U.P., M.P., and Rajasthan at Nagpur region was carried out in early summer, 2008. Total 28 samples (12 males and 16 females were collected from different places of Nagpur region. They revealed parasites as Trichuris sp.(50%, Strongyloides sp.(32.14%, Trichostrongylus sp.(10.71%, Nematodirus sp.(10.71%, Haemonchus sp.(14.28%, Eurytrema sp.(21.42% ,Eimeria sp.(25%, Entamoeba sp.(17.85% and Balantidium sp.(7.14%.All were found positive for mixed helminthic infection. [Vet World 2009; 2(7.000: 258-258

  16. Epidemiology of Camel Calf Diarrhoea in Sudan: Seroprevalence of Camel Rotavirus Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. El Amin

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The epidemiology of camel calf diarrhoea in four different areas in Sudan; River Nile (North, Gedarif (East, Sennar and Blue Nile (Central to South and Kordofan (West was studied. Data about the epidemiology of camel calf diarrhoea, its treatment regimen adopted by the owners was collected and analyzed. A total of 383 camel herds were investigated about the incidence of camel calf diarrhoea during wet and dry seasons over three years (2000-2002 in the focused areas. The overall morbidity rate of camel calf diarrhoea in the four areas of study was 83% while mortality and case fatality rates were 39.9% and 43.3%, respectively. The morbidity, mortality and case fatality rates of camel calf diarrhoea were found to be almost the same in the four areas focused during wet and dry seasons with slight increase during wet season. With regards to different treatment regimens adopted to diarrhoeic camel calves by the owners, 38.2% of cases were left without treatment, 58.51% received antibiotics while other drugs (symptomatic treatments, traditional medicines constituted a very minor percentages. A serological survey was conducted using group A rotavirus antibody detection ELISA on 530 camel sera. The overall percentage of positive samples was 48.1%. Seropositivity was detected in all areas of study with slightly higher percentage in Sennar and Blue Nile States. The overall percentage of high antibody titer (4+ was 31.4% and 3+ was 22%. Most of the seropositive samples were collected from camels of 18-36 month of age and adult camels with slightly higher percentage in males than females (56.5% males and 43.5% females. A correlation was found between the seropositivity and the clinical status of diarrhoea. The highest percentage of seropositivity was found in clinically healthy camel calves (69.7%. The results showed the high prevalence of camel calf diarrhoea and the major role of rotavirus in the disease in Sudan.

  17. Methane emission by adult ostriches (Struthio camelus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frei, Samuel; Dittmann, Marie T; Reutlinger, Christoph; Ortmann, Sylvia; Hatt, Jean-Michel; Kreuzer, Michael; Clauss, Marcus

    2015-02-01

    Ostriches (Struthio camelus) are herbivorous birds with a digestive physiology that shares several similarities with that of herbivorous mammals. Previous reports, however, claimed a very low methane emission from ostriches, which would be clearly different from mammals. If this could be confirmed, ostrich meat would represent a very attractive alternative to ruminant-and generally mammalian-meat by representing a particularly low-emission agricultural form of production. We individually measured, by chamber respirometry, the amount of oxygen consumed as well as carbon dioxide and methane emitted from six adult ostriches (body mass 108.3±8.3 kg) during a 24-hour period when fed a pelleted lucerne diet. While oxygen consumption was in the range of values previously reported for ostriches, supporting the validity of our experimental setup, methane production was, at 17.5±3.2 L d(-1), much higher than previously reported for this species, and was of the magnitude expected for similar-sized, nonruminant mammalian herbivores. These results suggest that methane emission is similar between ostriches and nonruminant mammalian herbivores and that the environmental burden of these animals is comparable. The findings furthermore indicate that it appears justified to use currently available scaling equations for methane production of nonruminant mammals in paleo-reconstructions of methane production of herbivorous dinosaurs. PMID:25446146

  18. Digital angiography of camel foot

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study, angiography of normal digits of camel has been accomplished, and the vessels of digits and its distribution have been evaluated to be compared with abnormal digits in the future studies. The thoracic and pelvic limb of 16 camels were collected immediately following slaughter. The palmar and plantar arteries were isolated and catheterised by 18-gauge angiocatheter needle; perfused by 40Ð’–50 ml of iodinated compound injected into each vessel. Angiograms were obtained using dorsopalmer, dorsoplanter and latero-medial projections. In the pelvic limb, above the fetlock joint, the deep palmar arch communicates with the median artery via the anastomotic branch, forming the superfcial palmar arch, from which two branches were clear, 1-palmar common digital artery IV that divides into palmar proper digital arteries IV and V, close to the lateral accessory (ffth) digit. 2-Palmar common digital artery III, produces the first branch and continues distally near the middle of the proximal phalanx, it gives off two palmar branches of the proximal phalanx. Vascular distribution of the pelvic limb was similar to thoracic limb, carrying the name of plantar instead of palmar

  19. CAMEL REARING IN CHOLISTAN DESERT OF PAKISTAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. ALI, M. SHAFIQ CHAUDHRY1 AND U. FAROOQ

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available The camel is one of the typical and the best adopted animals of the desert, capable of enduring thirst and hunger for days and is the most patient of land animals. For desert nomads of Pakistani Cholistan, it is a beloved companion, a source of milk and meat, transport facility provider and a racing/dancing animal, thus, playing an important role in the socioeconomic uplift of the local community. Camels of Marrecha or Mahra breed are mainly used for riding and load carrying but may be trained for dancing or racing. Berella is another heavy and milch breed of camel famous for milk production and can produce upto 10-15 liters of milk per day. This breed is also suitable for draught purpose, though comparatively slow due to heavy body. The present paper also describes the traditional camel rearing system used by nomads of Cholistan desert. Some aspects of camel health, production, feeding, socio-economic values, marketing and some constraints and suggestions are also given so that the policy makers may consider them for the welfare of this animal.

  20. Unique strategies to control reproduction in camels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skidmore, J A; Morton, K M; Billah, M

    2010-01-01

    The reproductive efficiency of camels is low under natural pastural conditions and so the use of artifical insemination and embryo transfer are becoming increasingly important to improve their breeding potential. Methods to control their reproductive cycle are therefore essential. This review describes characteristics of the ovarian follicular wave pattern in camels and exogenous hormonal control of ovulation. It also summarizes the difficulties involved with artifical insemination and analyzing the highly gelatinous semen, and reports on the latest methods used to try and reduce the viscosity and liquefy camel semen. In addition an account is given of different hormonal and physical methods used to synchronise follicular waves, and various hormone treatments used to broaden the availability of ovulated, asynchronous and non-ovulated recipients are discussed. PMID:21755692

  1. Factors influencing the gelation and rennetability of camel milk using camel chymosin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hailu, Yonas; Hansen, Egon Bech; Seifu, Eyassu; Eshetu, Mitiku; Ipsen, Richard

    2016-01-01

    The effects of temperature, pH, concentration of camel chymosin and addition of CaCl2 on the hydrolysis of κ-casein (κ-CN) and the coagulation kinetics of camel milk were investigated. The rate of κ-CN hydrolysis was higher at 40 °C than at 30 °C and with increasing addition of chymosin and decre...

  2. Circulating oxidative stress status in dromedary camels infested with sarcoptic mange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleh, Mostafa A; Mahran, Osman M; Bassam Al-Salahy, M

    2011-01-01

    Oxidative stress is an imbalance between radical-generating and radical-scavenging activity, resulting in oxidation products and tissue damage. This study was aimed to evaluate the status of oxidative stress indices in blood of camels naturally infested with S. scabiei. Forty-seven male camels (Camelus dromedaries) were divided according to the extent of the infested area with Sarcoptes scabiei into four groups, mild (MID, n = 12), moderate (MOD, n = 10), severely infested (SEV, n = 10) and healthy control group (n = 15). Blood was used for determination of red cell count (RBC), hemoglobin (Hb), packed cell volume (PCV), serum nitric oxide (NO(•), a free radical), ascorbate and albumin concentrations, and erythrocytic values of malondialdehyde (MDA, a marker of lipid peroxidation), protein carbonyls (PC, an indicator of protein oxidation), glutathione (GSH) superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT). Decreased levels (P < 0.05) of RBC, Hb, PCV, albumin and ascorbate were noticed in MOD and SEV compared to controls with the lowest values (P < 0.05) in SEV except for ascorbate, where MOD did not differ from SEV. Compared to controls, NO(•) gradually increased (P < 0.05) in MID followed by MOD and SEV, whereas MDA and PC were higher (P < 0.05) in MOD and SEV. PC was higher (P < 0.05) in MOD than SEV. In addition, the antioxidants GSH, SOD and CAT were higher (P < 0.05) in MID and lower (P < 0.05) in MOD and SEV compared to controls. GSH was lower (P < 0.05) in SEV compared to MOD. Besides, Hb was negatively correlated with NO(•) (r = -0.68, P < 0.001), MDA (r = -0.53, P < 0.001) and PC (r = -0.73, P < 0.001). In conclusion, dromedary sarcoptosis is accompanied by a state of oxidative stress process, which increased by increasing the area of infestation, and may contribute to the pathogenesis of the disease. PMID:21082344

  3. EFFECT OF CAMEL MILK ON ALLOXAN-INDUCED DIABETIC RATS

    OpenAIRE

    Eman G. E. Helal*, Samia M. Abd-Elwahab **, Tarek A. Atia*** and Anwaar Alkamel Mohammad

    2012-01-01

    Back ground: Diabetes is a chronic metabolic disease which affects large number of population all over the world. Such disease is associated with many complications which may leads finally to patient's mortality. Camel milk supplementation reduces the insulin requirement in Type I diabetic patients. So this study was planned to evaluate the effect of camel milk as hypoglycemic agent.Material and method: Thirty male adult albino rats were used to investigate the effect of camel milk (CM) treat...

  4. [General overview of camel parasites and the situation in Turkey].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azrug, Abdalla Fadlalla; Burgu, Ayşe

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this review is overview the main protozoan, arthropoda and helminthic parasites seen in camels and to evaluate the publications related to camel parasites in Turkey. In different parts of the world, trichostrongylose, mange, nasal myiasis and trypanosomiasis are the most common parasitic diseases found in camels. Hydatic cyst larval stage of E. granulosus is important both economically and in terms of public health. It is also emphasized that the records concerning parasites of the Turkish camel population, which is decreasing significantly, are extremely limited. PMID:21618196

  5. Fermilab site-fillers as CAMEL prototypes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At Snowmass, beam energies greater than about 10 TeV dominated the intellectual efforts related to hadron-hadron colliders. The anticipated cost and scope of these machines spurred the search for cost-cutting innovations and for a suitable site, perhaps in the southwestern desert. (Given its probable location and method of design, CAMEL seems an appropriate acronym for such a facility.) A prototype of more modest time-scale, cost, and energy is needed to bridge the physics gap until completion of CAMEL and to establish the feasibility of various proposed technologies. Building a prototype at Fermilab would reduce its cost, speed its completion, and improve its performance by taking advantage of existing real estate and expertise and by exploiting fully the potential capabilities of existing facilities (injectors, antiproton accumulator, etc.). The design and expected performance of various Fermilab site-filling (R = 2.4 km) antiproton-proton colliders are discussed. Other options are also described

  6. Agnostic cosmology in the CAMEL framework

    CERN Document Server

    Henrot-Versillé, S; Plaszczynski, S; d'Orfeuil, B Rouillé; Spinelli, M; Tristram, M

    2016-01-01

    Cosmological parameter estimation is traditionally performed in the Bayesian context. By adopting an "agnostic" statistical point of view, we show the interest of confronting the Bayesian results to a frequentist approach based on profile-likelihoods. To this purpose, we have developed the Cosmological Analysis with a Minuit Exploration of the Likelihood ("CAMEL") software. Written from scratch in pure C++, emphasis was put in building a clean and carefully-designed project where new data and/or cosmological computations can be easily included. CAMEL incorporates the latest cosmological likelihoods and gives access from the very same input file to several estimation methods: (i) A high quality Maximum Likelihood Estimate (a.k.a "best fit") using MINUIT ; (ii) profile likelihoods, (iii) a new implementation of an Adaptive Metropolis MCMC algorithm that relieves the burden of reconstructing the proposal distribution. We present here those various statistical techniques and roll out a full use-case that can then...

  7. ANALISIS KINERJA DENGAN MENGGUNAKAN PENDEKATAN RASIO CAMEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Murdiati

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk menganalisis tingkat kesehatan bank dilihat dari kategori CAMEL. Metode penelitian yang digunakan adalah studi kasus di PD BPR BKK Banjarharjo.Dalam menguji hipotesis digunakan alat analisis CAMEL. Hasil penelitian ini yaitu modal pada 2008 sampai 2010 termasuk dalam kriteria sehat. ROA meningkat 2008 sampai 2010 dengan kriteria sehat bagi biaya operasional yang dikeluarkan oleh pendapatan operasional yang seimbang. Rasio Kas tahun 2008 sampai 2010 termasuk dalam kriteria sehat berarti bank memiliki kemampuan untuk mengelola asset yang digunakan untuk membayar kewajiban. LDR mengalami tren yang signifikan selama tahun 2008 sampai 2010 sehingga dana yang diterima bank untuk meningkatkan baik tabungan, deposito berjangka, modal inti, yang berarti kemampuan bank untuk meningkatkan penyaluran kredit, IRR menunjukan nilai positif dalam menghadapi resiko pasar.Pengembangan tingkat kesehatan pada tahun 2008 sampai 2010 untuk komponen Capital, Assets, Laba dan Likuiditas meningkat. The goal of this research is to analyze the healtiness of banks seen from CAMEL category. The research applied a case study in PD BPR BKK Banjarharjo. The hypotheses tested using CAMEL analysis tools. The result of the study is that the modal used 2008 until 2010 is consideredin a healthy criteria. The increasing ROA in 2008 until 2010 is considered healthy criteria for operational expenses incurred by the operating income. Such condition meant that the banks are able to manage the assets which are used to pay the obligations. The significant increasing of LDR over the years 2008 until 2010 makes the received funds by the bank to increase the savings deposits, time deposits and the core capital. As the recunts, the banks are able to increase credit disstribution. More over, the IRR showed a positive values in the face of market risks and the development of healthy levels in 2008 until 2010 for the components of Capital, Assets, Earnings and

  8. The CAMbridge Emission Line Surveyor (CAMELS)

    CERN Document Server

    Thomas, C N; Maiolino, R; Goldie, D J; Acedo, E de Lera; Wagg, J; Blundell, R; Paine, S; Zeng, L

    2014-01-01

    The CAMbridge Emission Line Surveyor (CAMELS) is a pathfinder program to demonstrate on-chip spectrometry at millimetre wavelengths. CAMELS will observe at frequencies from 103-114.7 GHz, providing 512 channels with a spectral resolution of R = 3000. In this paper we describe the science goals of CAMELS, the current system level design for the instrument and the work we are doing on the detailed designs of the individual components. In addition, we will discuss our efforts to understand the impact that the design and calibration of the filter bank on astronomical performance. The shape of the filter channels, the degree of overlap and the nature of the noise all effect how well the parameters of a spectral line can be recovered. We have developed a new and rigorous method for analysing performance, based on the concept of Fisher information. This can in be turn coupled to a detailed model of the science case, allowing design trade-offs to be properly investigated.

  9. Radionuclide transfer from feed to camel milk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The transfer of 137Cs, 85Sr, 131I, 210Po, 210Pb and 238U from feed to camel's milk was investigated in a pilot experiment with three lactating camels. For a period of 60 days, the animals were fed on spiked feed containing the studied radionuclides. They were subsequently returned to a contamination-free diet and monitored for another 90 days. The activity concentrations of 137Cs, 85Sr and 131I in milk decreased with time and reached background levels after 20 days. Equilibrium transfer coefficients and biological half-lives were estimated and transfer coefficients were calculated as (8.1 ± 3.6) × 10−4, (4.4 ± 1.6) × 10−2, (7.8 ± 3.9) × 10−4, (2.7 ± 3.5) × 10−4, (1.8 ± 1.5) × 10−4 and (7.0 ± 3.6) × 10−3 d L−1 for 85Sr, 131I, 137Cs, 210Po, 210Pb and 238U, respectively. The biological half-lives were estimated to be 6.4, 4.2, 8.9, and 53.3 days for 85Sr, 131I, 137Cs, and 238U, respectively. Estimates of the half-lives were based on a one component model: it was found that the half-life values measured for artificial radionuclides were slightly shorter than those for natural radionuclides. The data obtained in the study are the first published experimental data on radionuclide transfer to camel milk. - Highlights: • Estimated Fm values for Sr, Cs, Pb, Po tend to be lower compared to other milk producing domestic animals. • The Fm values would help to predict ingestion dose to the general public due to intake of radionuclides through camel. • Estimated half-lives for artificial radionuclides were shorter than those for natural radionuclides. • The data obtained in the study can be considered as the first published data on radionuclide transfer to camel milk

  10. A Real-Time PCR Method Targeting Camel Ingredient for Food Authentication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yajun; Yang, Yange; Wang, Bin; Liu, Mingchang; Han, Jianxun; Chen, Ying

    2015-01-01

    The special nutritious value of camel showed high potential for market exploitation. In this paper, a real-time PCR method targeting camel ingredient in camel meat and milk is reported as an approach to fight against adulteration. To understand the impact of processing procedures on the amplifiability of cytb gene, four kinds of processed camel meat were investigated, and the rate of DNA breakage was explored. The method was able to detect 5 fg/μL camel DNA and highly processed food containing 0.01% camel meat with a high confidence level. PMID:26651577

  11. Characterisation of camel breeding practices in the Ansongo Region, Mali.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traoré, Bakary; Moula, Nassim; Toure, Abdoulaye; Ouologuem, Bara; Leroy, Pascal; Antoine-Moussiaux, Nicolas

    2014-10-01

    Despite its importance in Mali's economy, camel breeding in the country remains poorly documented, impeding effective policy-making in this regard. This study consisted in a 3-month survey and aimed at characterising camel breeding systems in Ansongo, in the region of Gao, Mali. It highlights the diversity of strategies adopted by breeders and their evolutions. Supplementary feeding and veterinary care were seldom practised. In zones close to the Niger River, cattle were substituted to camels. Transhumance routes also are modified but mobility keeps its vital role in the breeding system. Important differences within the study region in the classification of camel breeds have been reported that will influence the implementation of a collective action for animal genetic improvement. The improvement goals should take the actual management, including mobility and the mixed nature of the herds into account. PMID:25063387

  12. Constraints of camel pastoralists in Gedarif state, eastern Sudan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. M. Abdalatif,

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available This field study was conducted between Oct 2005 and Aug 2008 in Gedarif state, eastern Sudan. The objective was to provide knowledge on constraints faced by camel herders, and to identify the solutions as an essential step towards the development of camel herding in this state. A set of detailed structured questionnaires were used to collect information from camel herders. The results showed that, nomadic tribes in the study area (58.8% represented by Lahaween and Rofaah tribes and their dwelling type is tents made from (Hair & wool. Semi nomadic tribes (30.9% represented by Kenana and Rashaida tribes and their dwelling type is cottage made from branches of trees and sorghum stalk and the sedentary tribe (10.3% represented by Shokria tribes and their dwelling type are buildings made from either mud or bricks with cement. There was a high percent of family members who are illiterate. It was clear that the level of provision of most services needed by the herders and owners is relatively very low. The camel owners annually need to sell 5 to 6 camels to feed 100 camels on sorghum stalks in the dry season. The serious livelihood constraints were education, electricity, water supply and veterinary services. More care from the government and non government organizations is recommended.

  13. COMPARATIVE PHARMACOKINETIC STUDIES ON OXYTETRACYCLINE IN CAMELS, SHEEP AND GOATS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed H. Al-Nazawi

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Kinetics of long-acting oxytetracycline (OTC injected intravenously (IV at a dose of 5 mg/kg was determined in each of eight camels, sheep and goats. The disposition of OTC was described by two-compartment open model. Two elimination half-lives were recorded for the camel (81 min and 46.1 h, whereas in sheep and goats these were 3.2 and 3.4 h, respectively. The peak plasma concentration was 10.2, 850 and 780 g/ml at 5 minutes in camel, sheep and goats, respectively. The values of volume of distribution were 1.4, 13.4 and 12.1 litre/kg for the camels, sheep and goats, respectively. In sheep and goats, values of t1/2, Vd and clearance were found similar but different from camel, indicating exclusive distribution and substantial storage which were consistent with oxytetracycline lipophilicity and the large fat content of camel body.

  14. Moult of wing and tail-feathers in the Ostrich, Struthio camelus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brom, Tim G.; Dekker, René W.R.J.

    1990-01-01

    Structure and moult of wing and tail of a full-grown Ostrich, Struthio camelus, are described. In the wing, at least three feather generations could be recognized. The pattern of moult is more or less symmetrical in both wings and the sequence of feather replacement is not random. The tail consisted

  15. Arteries of the adrenal glands in ostriches (Struthio camelus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelita das Graças de Oliveira Honorato

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The growth of rational ostrich breeding and their byproducts has attracted interest from researchers to increase the studies in this animal. Thus, basic research areas, such as morphology, become necessary to provide the applied areas with knowledge. Aiming to contribute to the knowledge on the vascular arrangements of the adrenal glands, 30 ostriches (Struthio camelus were used, four days old, who had their arterial components marked with a 50% stained aqueous solution of Neoprene Latex ¨ 450 ¨ and fixed in a 10% diluted solution of formaldehyde. The coelomic cavity was exposed for identifying these glands, which are paired organs that are covered by loose connective tissue, symmetrically arranged in the two antimeres, laterally to the descending aorta, caudally to the lungs, and cranio-medially to the cranial lobes of the kidneys. The arterial blood supply, in both antimeres, is derived from the right and left adrenal arteries, the right and left cranial renal artery branches, and the right branches of the descending aorta. Regardless of the origin, the number of branches going to the adrenal glands ranged from one to two and one to three respectively, in the left and right antimeres.

  16. ISOLATION AND IDENTIFICATION OF LACTIC ACID PRODUCING BACTERIA FROM CAMEL MILK

    OpenAIRE

    Toqeer Ahmad, Rashida Kanwal, Izhar Hussain Athar1, Najam Ayub

    2002-01-01

    Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) were isolated from camel milk by culturing the camel milk on specific media and pure culture was obtained by sub culturing. Purification of culture was confirmed by Gram's staining and identified by different bio-chemical tests. Camel milk contains lactic acid producing bacteria including Strpptococci such as S. cremoris and S. lactis and Lactobacilli such as L. acidophilus L. acidophilus grows more rapidly in camel milk than others as its growth is supported by cam...

  17. Nutritional and Therapeutic Characteristics of Camel Milk in Children: A Systematic Review

    OpenAIRE

    Zibaee, Said; Hosseini, Syed Musa al-reza; Yousefi, Mahdi; Taghipour, Ali; Kiani, Mohammad Ali; Noras, Mohammad Reza

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Camel milk is the closest to a human mother’s milk. Camel milk is different from other milks, however, having low sugar and cholesterol, high minerals (sodium, potassium, iron, copper, zinc and magnesium, and vitamin C). The milk is considered have medicinal characteristics as well. This systematic review is aimed at determining and reporting nutritional values and medicinal characteristics of camel milk in children. Methods The search strategy of the current review is “(camel AN...

  18. Measurement of purine derivatives in the urine of some ruminant species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The application of published high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) methods for the determination of PD in urine of cattle, sheep, buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) and arabian camels (Camelus dromedarius) was investigated. Urine was taken from two water buffaloes, two camels, three cows and four sheep, all fed at maintenance level. Total nitrogen content in urine was determined using a micro-Kjeldahl procedure. Allantoin, uric acid and creatinine levels were determined colorimetrically while xanthine and hypoxanthine concentrations were determined by HPLC. Relative proportion of allantoin ranged from 74 ± 7 to 91 ± 1% in camels and cattle, respectively. Uric acid proportion was very low in camel urine (1.7 ± 1) but ranged from 3.7 ± 3 to 9.2 ± 1% in sheep and cows, respectively. Xanthine + hypoxanthine ranged from 11 ± 3 to 25 ± 7% in buffalo and camels, respectively. Total PD:Creatinine ratio (mol/mol W0.75) was 118 ± 15, 46 ± 17, 37 ± 9 and 33 ± 5 for cattle, camels, buffaloes and sheep respectively. The adoption of a single method for the simultaneous detection of all derivatives proved difficult due to elution of polar coextractives at the same retention times as the peaks of allantoin, uric acid and creatinine. (author)

  19. Efficacy of closantel plus albendazole liquid suspension against natural infection of gastrointestinal parasites in camels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Qudah, K M; Sharif, L A; Al-Rawashdeh, O F; Al-Ani, F K

    1999-03-31

    Oral administration of closantel in a dose of 10 mg/kg plus albendazole in a dose of 5 mg/kg liquid suspension was studied in 75 camels naturally infected with various types of gastrointestinal parasites. The camels involved were 15 pregnant she-camels, 20 non-pregnant she-camels and 40 male camels of various ages. Each camel received a single oral dose of closantel (10 mg/kg) plus albendazole (5 mg/kg) orally. Two weeks later, 20 camels of this group were re-dosed again with the same dose of the anthelmintic. Fecal samples were collected per rectum from all camels at the time of treatment and again 14 and 42 days post treatment. Fecal egg counts and generic determination of third stage larvae was performed. Results indicated that six different species of gastrointestinal tract parasites were identified in camels. Single treatment of closantel plus albendazole mixture reduced egg counts in camels by 100%, 100%, 98% and 77% for Haemonchus longistipes, Ascaris spp., Monezia expansa and Fasciola hepatica, respectively. However, administration of the drug twice on the base of 2 weeks apart significantly raised the efficacy of the drug for clearance of the parasites from 92.5% to 100% in camels infected with various parasites. Camels were not adversely affected by treatment. PMID:10321589

  20. Camel Owners And Perception Towards Management Practices At Butanaarea Gaderif State Sudan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir .M. Osman

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The current study was conducted at different locations in Butanaarea Gaderif state Sudan.60 questionnaires were used to collect information from camel owners .The study aims to assess perception of camel owners towards rangelands management practices .65 of camel owners rearing camels as life manner.The results revealed about 66 of the respondents are profession in camels rearing. On the other hand about 46 of camel owners adopted the nomadic system.Moreover 63 bred camel for milk and meat. The majority of camel owners kept breeding male camels from the same herd 90. the improvement methods of herd are based on three ways one of them is selection according to breeding history which practiced by 66.7 followed by productivity 25 and morphological features 8.3 . The improvement purposes focused on both milk meat about 78.3 .The concluded that most of the camels owner kept breeding male camels from the same herd. The priority of camel owners for improvement was a dual purpose meat and milk production.

  1. Effect of weaning stress, housing system and probiotics supplementation on cortisol, thyroid activity and productive performance of sucker camel calves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The weaning process has been identified as associated with potential psychological, nutritional and physiological stressors on both dam and her young. These stressors are often stressful for the young. Ten sucker camel calves were weaned using calf-dam on and suckling off weaning system (calves were kept with their dams at all times during weaning process and prevented from suckling) under two housing systems, 6 calves in group housing system (G) and 4 calves in individually housing system (I). Half of calves in each housing system were supplemented with probiotics (treated, P), while the other was not-supplemented with probiotics (control, C). This study was carried out at Maryout Research Station of the Desert Research Center, 35 km to southwest of Alexandria, Egypt. Calves were weaned at 280 days of age with initial live body weight (LBW) of 236.76±0.224 kg. The duration of the study was 35 days and divided into five weeks; one week served as pre-weaning followed by four weeks served as post-weaning period (calves were in treatments). Calves and their dams were used to estimate the effects of weaning stress, housing systems (group, G vs. individually, I) and probiotics supplementation on the productive performance, cortisol (COR) and thyroid hormones (T3 and T4) concentrations of camel calves (Camelus dromedaries). No measurements were done on the dams. The results indicated that, regardless the effect of housing system and Abdel-Fattah et al., J. Rad. Res. Appl. Sci., Vol. 4, No. 4(B) (2011) 1292 probiotics supplementation, weaning stress declined LBW -0.89% at d7 post weaning. Concerned housing system effect, group-housed calves and individually-housed calves lost -0.36 and -1.43% of their body weights, respectively on d7 post-weaning and they recovered their weaning weight (d0) on d14 post-weaning period (2.45 and 0.57%). Neither group housing system nor probiotics supplementation prevented the weight lost resulted by weaning stress during the first week

  2. Histologische, histochemische und ultrastrukturelle Untersuchungen am Eileiter des Straußes (Struthio camelus)

    OpenAIRE

    Freudenstein, Gertrud Maria

    2014-01-01

    Meine Arbeit befasst sich mit der histologischen, histochemischen und elektronenmikroskopischen Analyse des Eileiters des Straußes (Struthio camelus). Als Untersuchungsmaterial dienten die Eileiter von acht geschlechtsreifen und zwei nicht geschlechtsreifen Blauhals-Schwarzhals-Hybriden aus der Straußenfarm Donaumoos in Leipheim. Die Histomorphologie wurde mittels konventioneller Färbungen (H.E.-Färbung, van Gieson-Resorcinfuchsin-Färbung, Trichromfärbung nach Masson und Goldner, Alcianbla...

  3. The use of microsatellite polymorphism in genetic mapping of the ostrich (Struthio camelus)

    OpenAIRE

    Kawka, M; Parada, R.; Jaszczak, K.; J. O. Horbańczuk

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine microsatellite polymorphism in ostriches and using it in creation the genetic map of the ostrich. The polymorphism analysis covered 30 microsatellite markers characteristic of ostrich, for the CAU (China Agricultural University) group. The material consisted of 150 ostriches (Struthio camelus). The 30 microsatellite loci was examined and a total of 343 alleles was identified. The number of alleles at a single locus ranged from 5 at locus CAU78 to 34 at l...

  4. Anovel defensin from the mucus of the wood wasp Xiphydria camelus

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Monincová, Lenka; Fučík, Vladimír; Voburka, Zdeněk; Cvačka, Josef; Čeřovský, Václav; Šrůtka, P.

    Praha : Institute of Organic Chemistry and Biochemistry AS CR, v. v. i, 2011 - (Slaninová, J.), s. 86-89 ISBN 978-80-86241-44-9. - (Collection Symposium Series. 13). [Biologically Active Peptides /12./. Praha (CZ), 27.04.2011-29.04.2011] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA203/08/0536 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : insect defensin * Xiphydria camelus * antimicrobial activity * mass spectrometry * sequencing Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry

  5. Moult of wing and tail-feathers in the Ostrich, Struthio camelus

    OpenAIRE

    Brom, Tim G.; Dekker, René W. R. J.

    1990-01-01

    Structure and moult of wing and tail of a full-grown Ostrich, Struthio camelus, are described. In the wing, at least three feather generations could be recognized. The pattern of moult is more or less symmetrical in both wings and the sequence of feather replacement is not random. The tail consisted of 93 feathers of two different generations. Moult in the tail proceeds asymmetrically and seems to be fully irregular. The phylogenetic significance of these findings is discussed.

  6. New Hepatitis E Virus Genotype in Camels, the Middle East

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Susanna K.P.; Teng, Jade L.L.; Tsang, Alan K. L.; Joseph, Marina; Wong, Emily Y.M.; Tang, Ying; Sivakumar, Saritha; Xie, Jun; Bai, Ru; Wernery, Renate; Wernery, Ulrich; Yuen, Kwok-Yung

    2014-01-01

    In a molecular epidemiology study of hepatitis E virus (HEV) in dromedaries in Dubai, United Arab Emirates, HEV was detected in fecal samples from 3 camels. Complete genome sequencing of 2 strains showed >20% overall nucleotide difference to known HEVs. Comparative genomic and phylogenetic analyses revealed a previously unrecognized HEV genotype. PMID:24856611

  7. New Hepatitis E Virus Genotype in Camels, the Middle East

    OpenAIRE

    Woo, Patrick C. Y.; Lau, Susanna K. P.; Teng, Jade L. L.; Tsang, Alan K. L.; Joseph, Marina; Wong, Emily Y.M.; Tang, Ying; Sivakumar, Saritha; Xie, Jun; Bai, Ru; Wernery, Renate; Wernery, Ulrich; Yuen, Kwok-Yung

    2014-01-01

    In a molecular epidemiology study of hepatitis E virus (HEV) in dromedaries in Dubai, United Arab Emirates, HEV was detected in fecal samples from 3 camels. Complete genome sequencing of 2 strains showed >20% overall nucleotide difference to known HEVs. Comparative genomic and phylogenetic analyses revealed a previously unrecognized HEV genotype.

  8. Multiple ovulation and embryo transfer (MOET in camels: An overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Binoy S. Vettical

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Unlike in other domestic animal species like cattle, reproductive biotechnologies like Artificial Insemination (AI and Embryo Transfer (ET are not well developed and thus are not being used as routine breeding procedures in camels. One of the important objectives of this manuscript is to focus on analyzing the present status of Multiple Ovulation and Embryo Transfer (MOET in camels and its future perspectives. Camels are induced ovulators, thus require hormonal treatment to induce ovulation and control the follicular cycles, which is the main reason why protocols used in other domestic animal species cannot be directly used in this species. The review suggests that the best method for super stimulation of ovaries in camels is use of a combination of Equine Chorionic Gonadotropin (eCG and Follicle Stimulating Hormone (FSH at any stage after elimination of dominant follicle if any or at the early stage of the follicular wave and ovulation of the developed multiple follicles can be achieved by mating donors. The review highlights that a better pregnancy rate is achieved with recipients who ovulate 24 h after the donor.

  9. GaInAs CAMEL DIODES GROWN BY MBE

    OpenAIRE

    Marso, M.; Chin, A.; Bhattacharya, P.; Beneking, H.

    1988-01-01

    In this paper we present a camel diode in GaInAs on a InP-substrate with an ideality factor of 1.6 - 1.7. The barrier height is 0.44 eV. Switching measurements show no storage time and a fall time of 660 - 740 ps for a 50 µm * 50 µm device.

  10. Characterization of Camel Production System in Afar Pastoralists, North East Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Simenew

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available A cross sectional questionnaire survey was conducted to characterize camel production system in Afar Region. From the 110 responses of the camel owners interviewed 68.2% of them prefer camels as their first choice over other livestock species and mainly kept in the society for milk production. Disease accounted 40.9% of the main problems of camel rearing society of the Afar pastoralist and about 35.8% of the camel culling reasons were attributed to camel diseases. External parasite infestation and pneumonia were the most common health problems with 51% and 31.8% respectively. More than 80% of breeding male camels were selected from the own herd and rarely acquired from other sources. The (Mean±S.D. age at first calving was 5.36±0.74 years in afar female camels and the life span ranges from 14-29 years. Daily milk yield of Afar camels ranges from 2.01-12.0 liters per day in 2-3 milking times. The average age to select breeding male is 2.75±1.50 years. The production system of the Afar society has never got enough support from the respected bodies. Policy makers, researchers and funding agencies should give attentions to camels in combating food security in the ever widening desertification in areas like Afar.

  11. ISOLATION AND IDENTIFICATION OF LACTIC ACID PRODUCING BACTERIA FROM CAMEL MILK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toqeer Ahmad, Rashida Kanwal, Izhar Hussain Athar1, Najam Ayub

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available Lactic acid bacteria (LAB were isolated from camel milk by culturing the camel milk on specific media and pure culture was obtained by sub culturing. Purification of culture was confirmed by Gram's staining and identified by different bio-chemical tests. Camel milk contains lactic acid producing bacteria including Strpptococci such as S. cremoris and S. lactis and Lactobacilli such as L. acidophilus L. acidophilus grows more rapidly in camel milk than others as its growth is supported by camel milk. A variety of food can be preserved by lactic acid fermentation, so starter culture was prepared from strains which were isolated from camel milk. Camel and buffalo's milk cheese was prepared by using starter culture. The strains isolated from camel milk were best for acid production and can coagulate the milk in less lime. Camel milk cheese was prepared and compared with buffalo's milk cheese. It is concluded that cheese can be prepared successfully from camel milk and better results can be obtained by coagulating milk with starter culture.

  12. Effect of gamma irradiation on microbial load and quality characteristics of minced camel meat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of gamma irradiation on microbial load, chemical and sensory characteristics of camel meat has been evaluated. Camel meat were irradiated at doses of 0, 2, 4 and 6 kGy of gamma irradiation. Irradiated and unirradiated meat were kept in a refrigerator (1-4 Centigrade). Immediately after irradiation, general composition and sensory evaluation of camel meat were done. Microbiological and chemical analyses of camel meat were evaluated at 0, 2, 4 and 6 weeks of storage. The results indicated that all doses of gamma irradiation reduced the total counts of mesophilic aerobic bacteria and total coli form of camel meat. Thus the microbiological shelf-life of camel meat was significantly extended from less than 2 weeks (control) to more than 6 weeks (samples irradiated with 2, 4 or 6 kGy). No significant differences in moisture, protein, fat, Thiobarbituric acid (TBA) value, total acidity, pH vale and fatty acids (C14: 0; C16: 0; C18:0) of camel meat were observed due to irradiation. Both total volatile basic nitrogen (VBN) and lipid oxidation value in camel meat were effected by gamma irradiation. Immediately after treatment, VBN of irradiated camel meat increased and lipid oxidation values decreased. Sensory evaluation showed no significant differences between irradiated and unirradiated camel meats. (author)

  13. MERS and the dromedary camel trade between Africa and the Middle East.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Younan, M; Bornstein, S; Gluecks, I V

    2016-08-01

    Dromedary camels are the most likely source for the coronavirus that sporadically causes Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) in humans. Serological results from archived camel sera provide evidence for circulation of MERS coronavirus (MERS-CoV) among dromedary camels in the Greater Horn of Africa as far back as 1983 and in Saudi Arabia as far back as 1992. High seroprevalences of MERS-CoV antibodies and the high virus prevalence in Saudi Arabian dromedary camels indicate an endemicity of the virus in the Arabian Peninsula, which predates the 2012 human MERS index case. Saudi Arabian dromedary camels show significantly higher MERS-CoV carrier rates than dromedary camels imported from Africa. Two MERS-CoV lineages identified in Nigerian camels were found to be genetically distinct from those found in camels and humans in the Middle East. This supports the hypothesis that camel imports from Africa are not of significance for circulation of the virus in camel populations of the Arabian Peninsula. PMID:27324244

  14. Analysis on the contributions of and constraints to camel production in Shinile and Jijiga zones, eastern Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eyassu Seifu

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Contributions of the dromedary camel and constraints to camel production in Jijiga and Shinile zones of eastern Ethiopia were assessed. A total of 73 households were interviewed on the significance of the dromedary camel and constraints associated to camel production in the area using a single-visit-multiple-subject diagnostic survey. All the households interviewed owned camels and milk production was the primary reason for keeping camels in the area. The major contributions rendered by dromedary camels in the study area were milk production and transportation, while the major constraints associated with camel production in the area were feed shortage and prevalence of disease. Camels in these areas feed mainly on poor-quality natural vegetation. Cactus and acacia were the dominant plant species consumed by camels in the area. Camels were not given supplementary feed except salt and/or mineral soil. Dromedary camels play an important role to the livelihood and survival of nomadic pastoralists in the study areas. Thus, development interventions aimed at improving the productivity of camels in the study areas should take into account the major socio-economic contributions of camels and the prevailing problems in the area.

  15. Improvement of the antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of camel and bovine whey proteins by limited proteolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salami, Maryam; Moosavi-Movahedi, Ali Akbar; Ehsani, Mohammad Reza; Yousefi, Reza; Haertlé, Thomas; Chobert, Jean-Marc; Razavi, Seyed Hadi; Henrich, Robert; Balalaie, Saeed; Ebadi, Seyed Ahmad; Pourtakdoost, Samineh; Niasari-Naslaji, Amir

    2010-03-24

    The compositions and structures of bovine and camel milk proteins are different, which define their functional and biological properties. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of enzymatic hydrolysis of camel and bovine whey proteins (WPs) on their antioxidant and antimicrobial properties. After enzymatic treatment, both the antioxidant and the antimicrobial activities of bovine and camel WPs were improved. The significantly higher antioxidant activity of camel WPs and their hydrolysates as compared with that of bovine WPs and their hydrolysates may result from the differences in amounts and/or in accessibilities of antioxidant amino acid residues present in their primary structures and from the prevalence of alpha-lactalbumin and beta-lactoglobulin as proteolytic substrates in camel and bovine whey, respectively. The results of this study reveal differences in antimicrobial and antioxidant activities between WP hydrolysates of bovine and camel milk and the effects of limited proteolysis on these activities. PMID:20175528

  16. Determination of essential elements in milk and urine of camel and in nigella sativa Seeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Studies on milk and urine of camel and Nigella sativa seeds, either with respect to concentration or bioavailability of major and trace essential elements of these materials are limited and warrant further investigation. The objective of this study was to analyze urine, milk of camel and Nigella sativa for some element using neutron activation analysis. Camel milk and urine have higher concentration of Na than Nigella sativa seeds but K concentration in camel urine and Nigella sativa is higher than that of milk. The Ca and Mg concentration in Nigella sativa seeds are higher than that in milk and urine. The concentration of iron and Zn in Nigella sativa is high. The concentration of Co and Cr in urine is higher than in Nigella sativa and camel milk Se is detected only in urine's camel. Nigella sativa seeds contain more trace elements as Sr, Al, Rb, Ba and La.

  17. Differences in the susceptibility of dromedary and Bactrian camels to foot-and-mouth disease virus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larska, M.; Wernery, U.; Kinne, J.;

    2009-01-01

    In this study, two sheep, eight dromedary camels and two Bactrian camels were inoculated with foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) type A SAU 22/92. Five naive dromedary camels and four sheep were kept in direct or indirect contact with the inoculated camels. The inoculated sheep, which served...... as positive controls, displayed typical moderate clinical signs of FMD and developed viraemia and high antibody titres. The presence of the virus was also detected in probang and mouth-swab samples for several days after inoculation. In contrast, the inoculated dromedary camels were not susceptible to FMDV...... type A infection. None of them showed clinical signs of FMD or developed viraemia or specific anti-FMDV antibodies despite the high dose of virus inoculated. All the contact sheep and contact dromedaries that were kept together with the inoculated camels remained virus-negative and did not seroconvert...

  18. Study on mange mite of camel in Raya-Azebo district, northern Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awol, Nesibu; Kiros, Semere; Tsegaye, Yisehak; Ali, Mohammed; Hadush, Birhanu

    2014-01-01

    A cross-sectional study was carried out to determine the prevalence and species of camel mange mite infestation in Raya-Azebo district, Northern part of Ethiopia. Accordingly, Three hundred and eighty-four camels were examined and mange mite infestation was detected on 64 of camels. Only Sarcoptes scabiei var. cameli was identified as the only mite species in all skin scraping samples collected from the suspected mange mite lesions. There was significant difference in the prevalence of mange mite infestation between male and female camels (p 0.05). The result indicated that camel mange mite infestation was a problem in northern part of Ethiopia, hence, further studies and strategic control measures are recommended to reduce the effect of mange mite infestation on camel husbandry. PMID:25568694

  19. Antioxidant activity of camel milk casein before and after in vitro simulated enzymatic digestion

    OpenAIRE

    Zeineb Jrad; Jean-Michel Girardet; Isabelle Adt; Nadia Oulahal; Pascal Degraeve; Touhami Khorchani

    2014-01-01

    The effect of a successive in vitro hydrolysis by pepsin and pancreatin on the free radical scavenging activity of camel milk casein was investigated in order to assess the effect of gastro-intestinal digestion. Hydrolysis of camel casein was controlled by reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography. Anti-oxidant activity was measured by the 2,2’-azino-bis-(3-ethylbensothiazoline-6- sulfonic acid) (ABTS) method. The Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) values of camel casei...

  20. Evaluation of CAMEL - comprehensive areal model of earthquake-induced landslides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miles, S.B.; Keefer, D.K.

    2009-01-01

    A new comprehensive areal model of earthquake-induced landslides (CAMEL) has been developed to assist in planning decisions related to disaster risk reduction. CAMEL provides an integrated framework for modeling all types of earthquake-induced landslides using fuzzy logic systems and geographic information systems. CAMEL is designed to facilitate quantitative and qualitative representation of terrain conditions and knowledge about these conditions on the likely areal concentration of each landslide type. CAMEL has been empirically evaluated with respect to disrupted landslides (Category I) using a case study of the 1989 M = 6.9 Loma Prieta, CA earthquake. In this case, CAMEL performs best in comparison to disrupted slides and falls in soil. For disrupted rock fall and slides, CAMEL's performance was slightly poorer. The model predicted a low occurrence of rock avalanches, when none in fact occurred. A similar comparison with the Loma Prieta case study was also conducted using a simplified Newmark displacement model. The area under the curve method of evaluation was used in order to draw comparisons between both models, revealing improved performance with CAMEL. CAMEL should not however be viewed as a strict alternative to Newmark displacement models. CAMEL can be used to integrate Newmark displacements with other, previously incompatible, types of knowledge. ?? 2008 Elsevier B.V.

  1. Prevalence of trypanosomiasis in pastoral camels in the Butana plains, mid-eastern Sudan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A total of 1758 camels were examined for the presence of trypanosomal infections using conventional parasitological diagnostic techniques and an Ag-ELISA for the detection of circulating trypanosomal antigens. The survey was conducted mostly during the dry season from July 1989 to June 1990. Experimental studies using camels and goats indicated that trypanosomal antigens were present in the serum of infected animals 2 to 4 days after infection in camels and 2 to 7 days in goats. Following treatment, antigen disappeared within 7-14 days. In pastoral camels, patent parasitaemias were detected in 106 (6%) camels, with most of the infections occurring during the latter part of the dry season. Circulating trypanosomal antigens were present in 79 of the camels with active infections, hence the sensitivity based on the presence of a patent parasitaemia was 74.5%. In the 1652 camels in which there was no evidence of patent infection, circulating trypanosomal antigen was present in 679. The overall prevalence rate in all camels sampled was 43%. Over the period September to May there was an increase in the proportion of camels with demonstrable parasitaemia but during the same period the proportion of animals with circulating trypanosomal antigen remained at approximately 35%. (author). 16 refs, 6 figs 1 tab

  2. A serological study of brucellosis in camels south of Kirkuk, Iraq

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Yawoz

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A study of the prevalence of antibodies to camel brucellosis has been carried out in the south of Kirkuk city during March 2011. A total of 66 camels (6 male, 60 female involved in this study with age between 6 months to 22 years. Blood samples were collected from jugular vein and the sera samples were screened by using Rose Bengal Plate Test (RBPT. The sera that were positive by using RBPT have been tested again by using the 2-Mercaptoethanol (2ME test. The results of this study revealed that two camels from 66 camels (3.03% were seropositive for brucella antibodies in South of Kirkuk city.

  3. BIOCHEMICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF LACTIC ACID PRODUCING BACTERIA AND PREPARATION OF CAMEL MILK CHEESE BY USING STARTER CULTURE

    OpenAIRE

    T. Ahmed and R. Kanwal

    2004-01-01

    Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) were isolated from camel milk by culturing the milk on specific media and pure culture was obtained by sub-culturing. Purification of culture was confirmed by Gram’s staining and identified by different biochemical tests. Camel milk contained lactic acid producing bacteria like Streptococci such as S. cremoris and S. lactis and Lactobacilli such as L. acidophilus. L. acidophilus grew more rapidly in camel milk than others as its growth was supported by camel milk...

  4. Study of Lactic Acid Bacteria Community From Raw Milk of Iranian One Humped Camel and Evaluation of Their Probiotic Properties

    OpenAIRE

    Davati, Nafiseh; Tabatabaee Yazdi, Farideh; Zibaee, Saeed; Shahidi, Fakhri; Edalatian, Mohammad Reza

    2015-01-01

    Background: Camel milk is amongst valuable food sources in Iran. On the other hand, due to the presence of probiotic bacteria and bacteriocin producers in camel milk, probiotic bacteria can be isolated and identified from this food product. Objectives: The objectives of the present research were the isolation and molecular identification of lactic acid bacteria from camel milk and evaluation of their probiotic properties. Materials and Methods: A total of ten samples of camel milk were collec...

  5. The Size Distribution of Casein Micelles in Camel Milk

    OpenAIRE

    Farah, Z.; Ruegg, M. W.

    1989-01-01

    The size distribution of casein micelles in camel milk has been determined by electron microscopy. Individual and pooled samples were cryo-fixed by rapid freezing and freeze-fractured. Electron micrographs of the freeze-fracture replica revealed a relatively broad size distribution, with an average micelle dimeter around 280 nm in the volume distribution curve. The distribution was significantly broader than that of the particles of cow's or human milk and showed a greater number of large ...

  6. New Conception of Waving Machine CamEl Drive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bílkovský, A.; Marek, O.; Jirásko, P.; Volanský, Z.

    New mechatronic conception of waving machine CamEl drive is realized by two electronic cams Yaskawa and planetary gears. The first servo motor is used to slay and shedding motion in position mode and the second servo motor is used in automatic weaving mode. Moment of inertia of kinematic chain was reduced that it was possible used a smaller servo motor of electronic cam Yaskawa.

  7. The eLIDA CAMEL: designed for learning by community

    OpenAIRE

    Jameson, Jill

    2008-01-01

    This article, invited by the ALT Editor for the international ALT-N newsletter, reports on the work of the eLIDA CAMEL JISC-funded Design for Learning (D4L) competitively selected e-learning project. A Design for Learning project that grows an intentional e-learning community of practice (CoP) in Higher and Further Education (HE and FE) can stimulate challenging, illuminative processes to foster shared understandings about learning technology innovations, promoting authentic dialogue betwe...

  8. Frequency and type of toenail tumors in the dromedary camel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.I. Siddiqui

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available A total of 275 dromedary camels (16 males and 259 females of local “Arabiyat” breed suffering from different types and degrees of severity of toenail tumors were surgically treated. Histopathological examination of the tissue samples removed from 50 tumor-like growths (2 males and 48 females revealed three types of tumors; squamous cell carcinoma (70%, spiny keratoderma (22% and fibroma (8%. An increased incidence of tumors was recorded in the medial when compared to the lateral toenails in both sexes. In females, the incidence in the medial toenails was 90/259 (34.75% and 71/259 (27.41% in the right and left forelimbs respectively when compared to the lateral toenails which was 25/259 (9.65% and 5/259 (1.93% for the respective right and left forelimbs. In the hind limbs, this ratio was 29/259 (11.20% and 20/259 (7.72% for right and left medial toenails respectively, whereas it was 17/259 (6.56% and 2/259 (0.77% for the right and left lateral toenails respectively. Similar to the observations in female camels, male camels also showed a higher incidence of these tumors in the medial when compared to the lateral toenails in both fore and hind limbs. Based on these findings, we conclude that in the dromedary camels, the medial toenails of the fore limbs are most commonly affected with tumors; with the most common tumor being the squamous cell carcinoma.

  9. Effect of Contagious Skin Necrosis and Trypanosomosis on Health Status of Camels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud R. Abd Ellah

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was undertaken to evaluate the effect of Contagious Skin Necrosis (CSN with or without trypanosomosis on blood oxidative status in camels. A total of 15 camels were subjected to the study. Out of them, 10 camels were suffered from CSN. Sterile bacteriological swabs from skin necrosed area whole blood samples for hematological analysis and for diagnosis of trypanosomosis and serum samples for measuring lipid peroxidation product (Malondialdehyde were collected. The bacteriological examination revealed that Staphylococcus aureus was the predominant bacterial isolate alone in 6 cases and coupled with other bacteria in the remained 4 cases, the latter was coupled with coagulase negative staphylococci in 3 cases and coupled with Streptococcus agalactiae in one case. Trypanosoma evansi infection was identified using polymerase chain reaction in 5 camels that had CSN. Malondialdehyde showed significant increase in camels affected with CSN that associated with trypanosomosis. The current study revealed that Staphylococcus aureus was the predominant bacterial isolate in camels with CSN. Lipid peroxidation products increased in the blood of camels with CSN that associated with trypanosomosis, It is recommended to supply camels suffering from CSN with antioxidants to overcome the deterioration of blood oxidative status.

  10. First field investigation report on the prevalence of trypanosomosis in camels in northern Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. S. Swai,

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Parasitological evaluation of equine trypanosomosis in 193 camels (49 male and 144 female from 8 geographical localities of northern, Tanzania were carried out during the period of June-August 2010. The evaluation was carried out using Giemsa stained microscopy examination of blood smear. The overall detected prevalence of camel trypanosomosis was 8.2% with highest prevalence in Kilindi district (100% and with most of the positive slides showing 2+ and 3+. A higher infection was found in brought-in as compared to homebred camels (18.1% vs. 0.9%; P<0.05. When body score condition was considered, infection rate was 100, 6.8 and 3.5% in camels recorded to have poor, fair and good body score, respectively. It was concluded that camel trypanosomosis is prevalent in camel herds and administrative localities, source, and body condition score were identified as important risk factors for the distribution of camel trypanosomosis in the area under study. To our knowledge, this is the first report for the detection of trypanosome pathogen in camels in Tanzania.

  11. Effect of gamma irradiation on microbial load and quality characteristics of minced camel meat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of gamma irradiation on microbial load, chemical and sensory characteristics of camel meat has been evaluated. Camel meat was irradiated at doses of 0, 2, 4 and 6 kGy of gamma irradiation. Irradiated and non-irradiated meat was kept in a refrigerator (1-4 C). General composition and sensory evaluation of camel meat was done two days after irradiation, whereas, microbiological and chemical analysis was done immediately after irradiation and throughout the storage periods. The results indicated that all doses of gamma irradiation reduced the total mesophilic aerobic plate counts (TPCs) and total coliforms of camel meat. Thus, the microbiological shelf-life of camel meat was significantly extended from less than 2 weeks (control) to more than 6 weeks (samples irradiated with 2, 4 or 6 kGy). No significant differences in moisture, protein, fat, thiobarbituric acid (TBA) values, total acidity and fatty acids of camel meat were observed due to irradiation. There were slight effects of gamma irradiation in both total volatile basic nitrogen (VBN) and lipid oxidation values in camel meat. Sensory evaluation showed no significant differences between irradiated and non-irradiated camel meats. (author)

  12. Camel and bovine chymosin: the relationship between their structures and cheese-making properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Analysis of the crystal structures of the two milk-clotting enzymes bovine and camel chymosin has revealed that the better milk-clotting activity towards bovine milk of camel chymosin compared with bovine chymosin is related to variations in their surface charges and their substrate-binding clefts. Bovine and camel chymosin are aspartic peptidases that are used industrially in cheese production. They cleave the Phe105-Met106 bond of the milk protein κ-casein, releasing its predominantly negatively charged C-terminus, which leads to the separation of the milk into curds and whey. Despite having 85% sequence identity, camel chymosin shows a 70% higher milk-clotting activity than bovine chymosin towards bovine milk. The activities, structures, thermal stabilities and glycosylation patterns of bovine and camel chymosin obtained by fermentation in Aspergillus niger have been examined. Different variants of the enzymes were isolated by hydrophobic interaction chromatography and showed variations in their glycosylation, N-terminal sequences and activities. Glycosylation at Asn291 and the loss of the first three residues of camel chymosin significantly decreased its activity. Thermal differential scanning calorimetry revealed a slightly higher thermal stability of camel chymosin compared with bovine chymosin. The crystal structure of a doubly glycosylated variant of camel chymosin was determined at a resolution of 1.6 Å and the crystal structure of unglycosylated bovine chymosin was redetermined at a slightly higher resolution (1.8 Å) than previously determined structures. Camel and bovine chymosin share the same overall fold, except for the antiparallel central β-sheet that connects the N-terminal and C-terminal domains. In bovine chymosin the N-terminus forms one of the strands which is lacking in camel chymosin. This difference leads to an increase in the flexibility of the relative orientation of the two domains in the camel enzyme. Variations in the amino acids

  13. Camel and bovine chymosin: the relationship between their structures and cheese-making properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Langholm Jensen, Jesper [University of Copenhagen, (Denmark); Chr. Hansen A/S, Bøge Allé 10-12, DK-2970 Hørsholm (Denmark); Mølgaard, Anne; Navarro Poulsen, Jens-Christian [University of Copenhagen, (Denmark); Harboe, Marianne Kirsten [Chr. Hansen A/S, Bøge Allé 10-12, DK-2970 Hørsholm (Denmark); Simonsen, Jens Bæk [University of Copenhagen, (Denmark); Lorentzen, Andrea Maria; Hjernø, Karin [University of Southern Denmark, (Denmark); Brink, Johannes M. van den; Qvist, Karsten Bruun [Chr. Hansen A/S, Bøge Allé 10-12, DK-2970 Hørsholm (Denmark); Larsen, Sine, E-mail: sine@chem.ku.dk [University of Copenhagen, (Denmark)

    2013-05-01

    Analysis of the crystal structures of the two milk-clotting enzymes bovine and camel chymosin has revealed that the better milk-clotting activity towards bovine milk of camel chymosin compared with bovine chymosin is related to variations in their surface charges and their substrate-binding clefts. Bovine and camel chymosin are aspartic peptidases that are used industrially in cheese production. They cleave the Phe105-Met106 bond of the milk protein κ-casein, releasing its predominantly negatively charged C-terminus, which leads to the separation of the milk into curds and whey. Despite having 85% sequence identity, camel chymosin shows a 70% higher milk-clotting activity than bovine chymosin towards bovine milk. The activities, structures, thermal stabilities and glycosylation patterns of bovine and camel chymosin obtained by fermentation in Aspergillus niger have been examined. Different variants of the enzymes were isolated by hydrophobic interaction chromatography and showed variations in their glycosylation, N-terminal sequences and activities. Glycosylation at Asn291 and the loss of the first three residues of camel chymosin significantly decreased its activity. Thermal differential scanning calorimetry revealed a slightly higher thermal stability of camel chymosin compared with bovine chymosin. The crystal structure of a doubly glycosylated variant of camel chymosin was determined at a resolution of 1.6 Å and the crystal structure of unglycosylated bovine chymosin was redetermined at a slightly higher resolution (1.8 Å) than previously determined structures. Camel and bovine chymosin share the same overall fold, except for the antiparallel central β-sheet that connects the N-terminal and C-terminal domains. In bovine chymosin the N-terminus forms one of the strands which is lacking in camel chymosin. This difference leads to an increase in the flexibility of the relative orientation of the two domains in the camel enzyme. Variations in the amino acids

  14. Camel Diseases and Conditions in a Non-traditional Camel Keeping Area: A case study of Kajiado District With Special Emphasis on Trypanosomiasis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Camels in Kenya are raised in the lowlands of Semi-arid to arid areas of Northern Kenya. Some NGO's (PHI and Farm Africa) introduced some camels into the wetter Southern rangelands of Kenya, specifically in Kajiado in 1989. There is no information so far on the productivity of these animals in this new environment. The objective of this study was to collect data on disease and conditions in Kajiado district with special emphasis on trypanosomosis. Twenty-four herds of camels in three divisions of Kajiado, comprising of 324 animals, were clinically examined and blood as well as faecal samples collected for laboratory examination for haemoparasites, anaemia and helminths as well as other infections and ectoparasites. The mean trypanosome point prevalence was 7.2% although Magadi had the biggest prevalence of 26.4%, while the central division had the least, 1.3% PCV values were proportion to magnitude of infection. T. brucei/T. evansi were shown to be present in varying degrees. Tick infestation comprised of Boophilus, Rhipicephalus and Hyalomma in about 53% of the camels. Helminth infection was observed in about 51% of the camels comprising mainly Haemonchus, Trichosrongylus, Strongyloides and Oesophagostomum. There were also cases of Abscesses, diarrhoea, mange eye infections, wounds and mastitis. It was concluded that new management strategies for the camel in southern rangelands is desirable to counter possible new diseases as well as other challenges of productivity

  15. EFFECT OF CAMEL MILK ON ALLOXAN-INDUCED DIABETIC RATS

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    Eman G. E. Helal*, Samia M. Abd-Elwahab**, and Anwaar Alkamel Mohammad

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Back ground: Diabetes is a chronic metabolic disease which affects large number of population all over the world. Such disease is associated with many complications which may leads finally to patient's mortality. Camel milk supplementation reduces the insulin requirement in Type I diabetic patients. So this study was planned to evaluate the effect of camel milk as hypoglycemic agent.Material and method: Thirty male adult albino rats were used to investigate the effect of camel milk (CM treating diabetic rats. Rats were divided into three equal groups, control, diabetic non treated and diabetic CM treated groups. After thirty days of treatment all rats of each group were sacrificed. The body weight of each rat was determined at the beginning and the end of each period. Blood glucose, serum insulin, lipid and protein profiles, liver and kidney functions, blood picture and liver glycogen were determined for each rat at the end of each period. Pancreatic samples were obtained and processed for microscopic and quantitative evaluation after staining the prepared sections with both Heamatoxylin and eosin as well as special stain for demonstration of the different pancreatic cells in the Islet of Langerhans. Results: The obtained results showed that the induced diabetes was diagnosed by laboratory assessment to body weight loss, hyperglycemia, and hypoinsulinemia, significant increase in liver and kidney functions, lipid and protein profiles and decreased liver glycogen content. While, CM treatment led to a significant improvement in all these parameter except liver function. Microscopically there was definite vaculation, degeneration, karyolysis and pyknosis of beta pancreatic cells in diabetic group while the other pancreatic cells were not affected (alpha and delta cells. The use of CM treatment of this study greatly improves such cellular changes.Conclusion: it was recommended that the use of the CM as a hypoglycemic agent may be of good results

  16. Proliferation index of camel skin fibroblast cells as nuclear donor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaiselmeri is an excellent breed of riding camel, found in Jaiselmer and other adjoining districts of Western Rajasthan in India. Jaiselmeri camel like other pack animals are declining in India over the years due to increased mechanization and control of desert agriculture to some extent. The deep freezing technology on camel semen is poorly developed in India. The somatic cell technology has been developed at this Institute as an alternative tool of long-term conservation on endangered livestock breeds. For this study, samples of (0.25 cm2) skin tissue were collected from ear biopsy from elite male germplasm from National Research Centre on Camel, Bikaner. Skin tissues were cultured at 37 deg. C in Medium (DMEM+ Ham's F-12 nutritive mixture) supplemented with 10% fetal bovine serum, L-Glutamine and antibiotics in an incubator under 98% humidified and 5% Co2 atmosphere. The cell explants were visible from 12-16 days of culture. The cells were allowed to confluent in the TC flasks for additional 3-5 days till nearly 80% surface area is covered by the cells. The primary cells were harvested by usual trypsin-EDTA protocol. The cells were counted using Neubar's haemocytometer and cells were passaged subsequently. Since no reference values were available for camel skin fibroblasts, the present experiments were conducted to study the cell proliferation index, population doubling time, standard growth curve and cell viability using standard growth and MTT assays. It is shown that growth curves showed true sigmoid shape but a marked variation between the cell lines was observed. Moreover, cells, which grew faster attained plateau on day 6 while in slow growing cultures, the curve showed elevation even on day 8. This is probably due to non-availability of growing space for cells having faster growth rate. It was concluded that all animals do not produce karyoplast donors at equal rate or efficiency. Therefore, the growing cultures need to be compared with standard growth

  17. Camel milk is a safer choice than goat milk for feeding children with cow milk allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehlayel, Mohammad; Bener, Abdulbari; Abu Hazeima, Khalid; Al-Mesaifri, Fatima

    2011-01-01

    Background. Various sources of mammalian milk have been tried in CMA. Objectives. To determine whether camel milk is safer than goat milk in CMA. Methods. Prospective study conducted at Hamad Medical Corporation between April 2007 and April 2010, on children with CMA. Each child had medical examination, CBC, total IgE, cow milk-specific IgE and SPT. CMA children were tested against fresh camel and goat milks. Results. Of 38 children (median age 21.5 months), 21 (55.3%) presented with urticaria, 17 (39.5%) atopic dermatitis, 10 (26.3%) anaphylaxis. WBC was 10, 039 ± 4, 735 cells/μL, eosinophil 1, 143 ± 2, 213 cells/μL, IgE 694 ± 921 IU/mL, cow's milk-specific-IgE 23.5 ± 35.6 KU/L. Only 7 children (18.4%) tested positive to camel milk and 24 (63.2%) to goat milk. 6 (15.8%) were positive to camel, goat, and cow milks. Patients with negative SPT tolerated well camel and goat milks. Conclusions. In CMA, SPT indicates low cross-reactivity between camel milk and cow milk, and camel milk is a safer alternative than goat milk. PMID:23724227

  18. Nutritional and Therapeutic Characteristics of Camel Milk in Children: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zibaee, Said; Hosseini, Syed Musa al-reza; Yousefi, Mahdi; Taghipour, Ali; Kiani, Mohammad Ali; Noras, Mohammad Reza

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Camel milk is the closest to a human mother’s milk. Camel milk is different from other milks, however, having low sugar and cholesterol, high minerals (sodium, potassium, iron, copper, zinc and magnesium, and vitamin C). The milk is considered have medicinal characteristics as well. This systematic review is aimed at determining and reporting nutritional values and medicinal characteristics of camel milk in children. Methods The search strategy of the current review is “(camel AND milk) AND (autism OR food allergy OR milk allergy OR children OR diarrhea.” The search was conducted via PubMed, Scopus, and Google scholar. Also two Persian scientific databases (SID and Iranmedex) and international congresses were investigated. Full-text papers and abstracts on the topic of camel milk, evaluating nutritional value and medicinal properties, were included in this systematic review. Results Out of the 472 records found in the resources, 35 related studies were included in the final analysis. The result showed that camel milk is highly nutritious and is safe for consumption by children. Conclusion It seems that many researchers did not follow a specific guideline for reporting and confirming the therapeutic properties of camel milk in children, but there is evidence denoting the importance, trials, and investigations of its usability and benefits. Camel milk as a supplemental treatment seems less invasive and costly than specialist care, medications, alternative treatments, and behavioral interventions. Based on our findings, camel milk is safer for children, effective in the treatment of autism, improves general well-being, promotes body natural defenses, is a good nutritional source, and can helps the daily nutritional needs of humans. PMID:26767108

  19. Determination of certain elements in camel's milk by neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Natural milk samples were analysed by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) for (Mn, Fe, Zn, Co, Cr, Rb, Br, I). These samples were collected from different regions of libya co-operation with camel,s research center in tripoli. In our laboratories trace elements in human and milk powder samples have been, also determined using the (INAA) technique. The concentration level of the elements of interest of interest are in agreement to within 10% with obtained values for human and powder milk, except for the concentration of Br, I, and Rb which were found to be higher in camel's milk results of this investigation will be presented. 6 figs

  20. Aetiology and Pathogenesis Studies on Osteoporosis in Bactrian Camel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Zong-ping; QU Ya-ling; MA Xiao-jun; ZHANG You-jia; CAO Sui-zhong; YANG De-bing; CHI Bin; HU Qian-de

    2003-01-01

    A disease characterized by emaciation, pica, lameness and liability to fracture in bactrian camelfrom gravel desert pasture was described. Analyses of mineral elements in soil, water and forage from the af-fected and normal areas as well as in blood, hair and parts of tissues from normal and diseased camel, togetherwith a pathological study were carried out to define the nature and major causes of the disease. The relatedblood indices were also measured. The result indicated that copper and phosphorus in the soil and forage fromthe affected area were significantly lower than those of the normal area (P<0.01). The levels of phosphorusin the blood, hair and rib reduced significantly in affected camels. The concentrations of PTH, T3, T4, creat-inine(Crt) and the activities of alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) in serum rosemarkedly (P<0.01). Bone injury was characterized by osteoporosis. The degenerative and necrotic lesions ofliver and kidney were common. In addition, slight demylination of brains and spinal cords were showed byhistopathological and ultrastructural studies. It is concluded that the disease is caused mainly by phosphorusdeficiency in the food chain.

  1. Musculoskeletal modelling of an ostrich (Struthio camelus) pelvic limb: influence of limb orientation on muscular capacity during locomotion

    OpenAIRE

    Hutchinson, John R.; Rankin, Jeffery W.; Jonas Rubenson; Kate H. Rosenbluth; Siston, Robert A.; Scott L. Delp

    2015-01-01

    We developed a three-dimensional, biomechanical computer model of the 36 major pelvic limb muscle groups in an ostrich (Struthio camelus) to investigate muscle function in this, the largest of extant birds and model organism for many studies of locomotor mechanics, body size, anatomy and evolution. Combined with experimental data, we use this model to test two main hypotheses. We first query whether ostriches use limb orientations (joint angles) that optimize the moment-generating capacities ...

  2. Reference serum protein and lipoprotein fractions of ostriches (Struthio camelus in Turkey : research communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U. Polat

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine for reference purposes the values of serum albumin, a1-globulin, a2-globulin, b-globulin, g-globulin, and a-lipoprotein (high density lipoprotein, pre-b-lipoprotein (very low density lipoprotein and b-lipoprotein (low density lipoprotein fractions of normal ostriches (Struthio camelus in Turkey. Five male and five female ostriches, 18 months old, were used. All the ostriches were fed on a diet that contained 15.14 % crude protein and 2 950 Kcal/kg of metabolizable energy. The serum protein and lipoprotein fractions were measured using agarose gel electrophoresis. The fractions were found to be 60.96 % albumin, 0.24% a1-globulin, 15.91 % a2-globulin, 13.34 % b-globulin, 9.55 % g-globulin, 53.77 % HDL, 0.60 % VLDL and 48.09 % LDL.

  3. Eosinophilic Meningitis in a Middle Aged Man After Consumption of Camel Meat

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    K Ummer

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available We report the case of a middle aged male who presented with headache and vomiting and later diagnosed to have eosinophilic meningitis as a complication after consumption of camel meat.

  4. Antioxidant activity of camel milk casein before and after in vitro simulated enzymatic digestion

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    Zeineb Jrad

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The effect of a successive in vitro hydrolysis by pepsin and pancreatin on the free radical scavenging activity of camel milk casein was investigated in order to assess the effect of gastro-intestinal digestion. Hydrolysis of camel casein was controlled by reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography. Anti-oxidant activity was measured by the 2,2’-azino-bis-(3-ethylbensothiazoline-6- sulfonic acid (ABTS method. The Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC values of camel casein and its hydrolysate were 1.6±0.12 μmol TE/mg protein and 0.25 μmol TE/μmol eq. NH2, respectively. After digestion, the scavenging activity of the casein peptides was more efficient than those reported in the literature regarding digestive hydrolysates of camel milk, colostrum and whey proteins.

  5. Ag-ELISA for the detection of trypanosome infections in cattle and camels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document describes very briefly the two elisa kits used for the detection of trypanosome infections in cattle and camels. Results on the specificity and sensitivity of assays performed with the kits are summarized. 9 refs

  6. USING PCU-CAMEL, A WEB-BASED LEARNING ENVIRONMENT, IN EVALUATING TEACHING-LEARNING PROCESS

    OpenAIRE

    Arlinah Imam Rahardjo

    2008-01-01

    PCU-CAMEL (Petra Christian University-Computer Aided Mechanical Engineering Department Learning Environment) has been developed to integrate the use of this web-based learning environment into the traditional, face-to-face setting of class activities. This integrated learning method is designed as an effort to enrich and improve the teaching-learning process at Petra Christian University. A study was conducted to introduce the use of PCU-CAMEL as a tool in evaluating teaching learning process...

  7. Biochemical Studies on Camel Milk as a Radioprotector in Irradiated Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work, was conducted to evaluate the possible capability of camel milk, as a radioprotector in irradiated (4.0 Gy) rats. Two examinations were performed after two and four weeks post irradiation. γ-irradiation caused significant disorders in hematological, physiological parameters and liver cellular aspects. Drinking of camel milk induced no adverse effect on the tested parameters. Moreover, it minimized and ameliorated the radiation disorders

  8. Effect of Camel Milk on Oxidative Stresses in Experimentally Induced Diabetic Rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esraa Tantawy

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Camel milk has an importance in the treatment of diabetes. It has been shown that the patients who drink camel milk daily, their need to insulin decrease. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the effect of camel milk in comparison with insulin treatment in experimentally-induced diabetes. This study was carried out on forty male New Zealand rabbits, divided into four groups with ten rabbits in each. The first group G1 was considered as control non-diabetic group and received only normal saline solution. The other animals were injected intravenously with alloxan for induction of diabetes mellitus and then divided into three groups' ten rabbits each as the follows: G2 considered as control diabetic and left untreated, G3 was considered as diabetic and treated with insulin, and G4 was considered as diabetic and received camel milk. At the end of the experiment (4 weeks, blood (whole blood & serum and tissue samples (liver, kidney and pancreas were collected from all the animals for analysis of: enzymatic SOD and catalase, non-enzymatic GSH antioxidant enzyme activities. Serum malondialdeyde, glucose, insulin and lipid profile also were analyzed. The results showed that the camel milk was effective in the treatment of diabetes in comparison to insulin treatment alone. In addition to its hypoglycemic effect, camel milk improved the diabetes-induced oxidative stress. The histopathological evaluations demonstrated that there was a regeneration in β cells and the islets of Langerhans among the pancreatic acini in rabbits receiving camel milk. Our findings suggested that the camel milk administration in case of insulin dependant diabetes mellitus might be recommended as an oral anti-diabetic remedy.

  9. CAMEL ACTIVE9月重装亮相上海淮海路

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴昕潞

    2009-01-01

    近日,从CAMEL ACTIVE中国总部获悉,时下最受都市男士欢迎的休闲服饰品牌CAMEL ACTIVE在上海淮海路的专卖店目前即将升级改造完毕,将于9月中旬盛装开业,这将成为时尚大都会上海的又

  10. Reactions of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) of camels with monoclonal antibodies against ruminant leukocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ungar-Waron, H; Yagil, R; Brenner, J; Paz, R; Partosh, N; Van Creveld, C; Lubashevsky, E; Trainin, Z

    2003-03-01

    The particular immune system of the camel has been but little investigated. In this work circulating camel peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) were studied by flow cytometry. Monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) raised against ruminant leukocytes were used for the detection of cell surface antigens. Monoclonals to T-cell markers, CD4 (CACT138A) and CD8 (CACT80C), exhibited no reactivity towards camel PBMC in contrast to their reactivity to PBMC of other ruminant species and those of cattle in particular. A relatively high percentage (29.1+/-8.9%) of camel PBMC reacted with a non-immunoglobulin cell surface marker, B-B2, comparable to the reactivity of bovine PBMC. The B-B7 cell marker revealed 22.4+/-10.0% of reactive camel PBMC while the CD45 leukocyte common antigen was identified only on 19.4+/-3.1% of camel PBMC as compared to 74.7+/-4.9% for bovine PBMC. IgM (PIg45A) was detected on 9.1+/-1.4% of camel PBMC and on 46.6+/-19.5% of the bovine PBMC. Double fluorescent labeling with two B-cell markers and an anti-ruminant lambda light-chain mAb revealed 7-9% of cells bearing both B and lambda L-chain markers. Light chain reactivity was also assessed using an anti-goat F(ab')(2) antiserum. The values obtained, 14.3+/-5.8% for the camel and 47.8+/-2.7% for the cattle, are close to the values observed for surface IgM. These data suggest that camels, like other ruminants, possess L-chain bearing cells of the B-cell lineage. However, in the camel, Igs are different in that in addition to regular four chain Igs, about 65% of them possess two heavy chain Igs devoid of light chains. Because different sets of V(H) gene segments are used by four and two chain Igs, it is possible that there might be two lineages of B-cells each secreting a different form of antibodies. PMID:12493494

  11. Comparison of diagnostic tests for the detection of Brucella spp. in camel sera

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    Gwida Mayada M

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Brucellosis in livestock causes enormous losses for economies of developing countries and poses a severe health risk to consumers of dairy products. Little information is known especially on camel brucellosis and its impact on human health. For surveillance and control of the disease, sensitive and reliable detection methods are needed. Although serological tests are the mainstay of diagnosis in camel brucellosis, these tests have been directly transposed from cattle without adequate validation. To date, little information on application of real-time PCR for detection of Brucella in camel serum is available. Therefore, this study was performed to compare the diagnostic efficiency of different serological tests and real-time PCR in order to identify the most sensitive, rapid and simple combination of tests for detecting Brucella infection in camels. Findings A total of 895 serum samples collected from apparently healthy Sudanese camels was investigated. Sudan is a well documented endemic region for brucellosis with cases in humans, ruminants, and camels. Rose Bengal Test (RBT, Complement Fixation Test (CFT, Slow Agglutination Test (SAT, Competitive Enzyme Linked Immunosorbant Assay (cELISA and Fluorescence Polarization Assay (FPA as well as real-time PCR were used. Our findings revealed that bcsp31 kDa real-time PCR detected Brucella DNA in 84.8% (759/895 of the examined samples, of which 15.5% (118/759 were serologically negative. Our results show no relevant difference in sensitivity between the different serological tests. FPA detected the highest number of positive cases (79.3% followed by CFT (71.4%, RBT (70.7%, SAT (70.6% and cELISA (68.8%. A combination of real-time PCR with one of the used serological tests identified brucellosis in more than 99% of the infected animals. 59.7% of the examined samples were positive in all serological tests and real-time PCR. A subpopulation of 6.8% of animals was positive in all

  12. BIOCHEMICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF LACTIC ACID PRODUCING BACTERIA AND PREPARATION OF CAMEL MILK CHEESE BY USING STARTER CULTURE

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    T. Ahmed and R. Kanwal

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Lactic acid bacteria (LAB were isolated from camel milk by culturing the milk on specific media and pure culture was obtained by sub-culturing. Purification of culture was confirmed by Gram’s staining and identified by different biochemical tests. Camel milk contained lactic acid producing bacteria like Streptococci such as S. cremoris and S. lactis and Lactobacilli such as L. acidophilus. L. acidophilus grew more rapidly in camel milk than others as its growth was supported by camel milk. Ability of each strain was tested to convert lactose of milk into lactic acid. It was observed that 66% lactose was converted by S. lactis 20, whereas S. cremoris 22 and L. acidophilus 23 converted 56 and 74% lactose into lactic acid, respectively. Effect of freeze-drying was also recorded and the results showed that in all cases there was a slight decrease in the cell count before and after the freeze-drying. The decrease was approximately 0.47, 0.078 and 0.86% for S. lactis 20, S. cremoris 22 and L. acidophilus 23, respectively. Starter culture was prepared from strains isolated from camel milk. Camel and buffalo milk cheese was prepared by using starter culture. The strains isolated from camel milk were best for acid production and coagulated the milk in less time. It is concluded that cheese can be prepared successfully from camel milk and better results can be obtained by coagulating milk with starter culture.

  13. Lead acetate toxicity on glucose level and liver enzymes ameliorated by camel's milk in wistar albino rat

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    Marwan M. Draid

    2016-06-01

    Conclusions: The ability of camel milk to reduce lead toxicity may relate to its antioxidant actions or enhancing, the metal chelating action. In conclusion, Supplementation of daily diets with camel milk may be recommended to improve the body in case of lead contamination. [Int J Basic Clin Pharmacol 2016; 5(3.000: 1125-1130

  14. Effects of Parasitic Infections on Erythrocyte Indices of Camels in Nigeria

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    Jalailudeen Lawal Rabana

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to determine the prevalence and effect of parasitic infection on erythrocyte indices in trade camels slaughtered in Maiduguri, Nigeria. Two hundred adult one humped camels comprised of 87 (43.5 % males and 113 (56.5 % females were examined for helminths and hemoparasites at their slaughter time according to the standard procedures. An overall prevalence of 79 % for single and mixed infections was observed. Examination of faecal samples from camels shows 82 (41 % were harbouring different nematodes, mostly Strongyle, Strongyloides and Hemonchus species. Buffy coat and thin smear examination of blood samples showed Babesia and Anaplasma species. More females (44.5 % than males (34.5 % were positive for various parasitic infections. But the percentage was not statistically significant (P > 0.05. Packed cell volume (PCV, mean haemoglobin concentration (MCH, mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration (MCHC and red blood cell counts were significantly (P < 0.01 affected in the infected camels compared to the non-infected ones. Parasite infection in camels leads to macrocytic anaemia.

  15. Indigenous knowledge of pastoralists on respiratory diseases of camels in northern Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wako, D D; Younan, M; Tessema, T S; Glücks, I V; Baumann, M P O

    2016-08-01

    The camel disease terminology of pastoralists in northern Kenya differentiates between two respiratory disease complexes of camels. Participatory epidemiology data were collected in 2011 in three camel keeping communities (Gabra, Garri, and Somali) and analysed to assess the validity of this differentiation. Further queries assessed recurrence of the disease in the same animal, most affected age group, relative frequency of occurrence, morbidity rates, mortality rates and response to antibiotic treatment. Based on matrix scoring the cardinal symptom nasal discharge was significantly correlated with Respiratory Disease Complex 1 (RDC1; Somali Hergeb, Gabra & Garri Furri) while cough was correlated with Respiratory Disease Complex 2 (RDC2; Somali Dhuguta, Gabra Qufa, Garri Dhugud). RDC1 appears to occur regularly every year and does not respond to antibiotic treatments while outbreaks of RDC2 are only observed at intervals of several years and treated cases do generally respond to antibiotics. While RDC1 is more severe in calves, RDC 2 is mostly associated with respiratory disease in adults. Elements of this differentiation appear to be in agreement with other authors who differentiate between camel influenza (PI3 virus) and bacterial camel pneumonia, respectively. PMID:27435647

  16. Effects of age and period of fattening on carcass and non-carcass characteristics of one-humped camels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saghi, Davoud Ali; Shahdadi, Ali Reza; Mokhtarpour, Amir

    2016-08-01

    This study was conducted to compare the carcass characteristics and quantity of carcass and non-carcass components of 2- and 3-year-old male camels fattened for either 3 or 6 months. Twelve 2-year-old camels with an average body live weight of 268.5 ± 21.4 kg and twelve 3-year-old camels with an average body live weight of 307.5 ± 29.9 kg were used in a completely randomized design with a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement. For carcass analysis, three camels from each group were selected and slaughtered. The results showed that camel age and fattening period had no significant effect on average daily gain (ADG). Older camels and a longer fattening period resulted in heavier hot and cold carcass weights. Three-year-old camels had a higher dressing percentage compared to 2-year-old camels, regardless of the period of fattening. Analysis of non-carcass components showed that the heaviest component was the hide and 2-year-old camels fattened for 90 days had the greatest weight of hide as percentage of cold carcass weight. Total muscle weight was greater for the 3-year-old camels compared to the 2-year-old ones, regardless of the fattening period, and camels fattened for 180 days had heavier weight than those fattened for 90 days, regardless of age at fattening. However, the greatest weight of total muscle was detected in camels at 2 years of age fattened for 180 days when it was expressed as percentage of carcass weight. The highest and the lowest total fat content as kilogram or as percentage of cold carcass was observed in 3-year-old camels fattened for 180 days and 2-year-old camels fattened for 180 days, respectively. Our results suggested that the best age for slaughtering is 2 years old with the fattening period of 180 days. PMID:27256367

  17. Botany and zoology in the late seventeenth-century Philippines: the work of Georg Josef Camel SJ (1661-1706).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes, Raquel A G

    2009-10-01

    Georg Josef Camel (1661-1706) went to the Spanish colony of the Philippine Islands as a Jesuit lay brother in 1687, and he remained there until his death. Throughout his time in the Philippines, Camel collected examples of the flora and fauna, which he drew and described in detail. This paper offers an overview of his life, his publications and the Camel manuscripts, drawings and specimens that are preserved among the Sloane Manuscripts in the British Library and in the Sloane Herbarium at the Natural History Museum, London. It also discusses Camel's links and exchanges with scientifically minded plant collectors and botanists in London, Madras and Batavia. Among those with whom Camel corresponded were John Ray, James Petiver, and the Dutch physician Willem Ten Rhijne. PMID:20014508

  18. The structure of the atrioventricular node in the heart of the female laying ostrich (Struthio camelus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parto, P

    2012-02-01

    The electrical impulse for cardiac contraction is generated in the Sinoatrial node (SA node), subsequently spreads to the Atrioventricular node (AV node) and continues in the Atrioventricular bundle (AV bundle). The AV node may not always be present in different avian species and seems to differ in location and contents between species. In this study, the anatomy and histology of the AV node were studied five female adult ostriches (Struthio camelus). Routine paraffin sectioning and transmission electron microscopic method were performed. The study showed that in the ostrich, the AV node is located in the endocardium of the atrial surface of the right atrioventricular valve adjacent to the fibrous ring. The parenchyma of the AV node is formed by small specialized muscle fibres that are spread within a loose connective tissue network. The AV node is not covered by a connective tissue sheath and some arterioles are present. Nerve fibres are seen related to the node. Ultrastructurally, they stain lighter and contain fewer organized myofibrils than usual myocardial cells. The myofibril bundles run parallel to one another and have interspersed mitochondria, which display distinct cristae. The cells have a large euchromatic nucleus with a clear perinuclear area, and they connected by desmosomes. The ostrich is, thus, one of the birds that have the AV node, whose position varies from the other birds. PMID:21943125

  19. Quest for the piroplasms in camels: Identification of Theileria equi and Babesia caballi in Jordanian dromedaries by PCR

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Qablan, M.; Sloboda, M.; Jirků, Milan; Oborník, Miroslav; Dwairi, S.; Amr, Z. S.; Hořín, P.; Lukeš, Julius; Modrý, David

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 186, 3/4 (2012), s. 456-460. ISSN 0304-4017 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA206/09/0927 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : Babesia * Theileria * Camelus * Jordan * Host specificity * Diagnosis Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 2.381, year: 2012

  20. Camels Milk: Nutrition and Health Perspectives Iranian Traditional Medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyyd Musa al-Reza Hosseini

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Camel milk is the closest to human mother’s milk. In the references on Iranian traditional medicine, camel’s milk has been represented as the one having numerous nutritious and medical properties.Objectives: In this article, the nutritive and therapeutic effects of camel’s milk have been examined from the view point of Iranian traditional medicine.Materials and Methods: The present study is a qualitative one, which was carried out, based on certain criteria, through purposeful search of certain keywords in the written references of Iranian traditional medicine.Results: Numerous pharmacological functions and therapeutic effects of camel’s milk on patients suffering from liver, kidney, bladder, spleen, stomach and intestines, uterus, skin, lungs, and brain diseases have been mentioned. Camel’s milk seems to be an appropriate alternative/supplement to nourish infants and children.Conclusions: Animal resources, such as camel’s milk and its various products, have comprehensively been dealt with regarding their nutritive and therapeutic effects. Its compatibility with and similarity to mother’s milk have led to its application in pediatrics; thus, offering valid information to pediatricians on camel’s milk can further enhance the consumption of this natural product.

  1. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for rapid diagnosis and differentiation of parapoxvirus and orthopoxvirus infections in camels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rapid identification and differentiation of camel pox (CMP) and camel contagious ecthyma (CCE) were achieved by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) with primers that distinguish Orthopoxvirus (OPV) and Parapovirus (PPV). Forty scab specimens collected from sick camels and sheep were treated by 3 different DNA extraction procedures and examined by PCR. The sensitivity of the PCR was compared with that of electron microscopy and virus isolation in cell culture. Procedure 1, in which viral DNA was extracted directly from scab specimens followed by PCR, proved to be superior and more sensitive. Procedure 2 enables a fast specific diagnosis of PPV and OPV infections directly from scab materials without the need for DNA extraction. These assays provide a rapid and feasible alternative to electron microscopy and virus isolation. (author)

  2. Study of brucellosis in serum of camels in southeast of Iran

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    Ahmad Rafieipour

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out in the town of Qalegange, located in southeast of Iran, home of about 3816 camels. To study brucellosis in these animals, serological examinations including rose Bengal plat test (RBPT, MRT and 2ME were performed on 3502 camel’s serum samples. Positive results were obtained in 245 (7%, 163 (4.66% and 89 (7.92% camels thus tested, respectively. Twenty three percent of the positive camels were adult 2 years old, 36% three years old, 22% four years old, 17% five years old and the remaining 3 percent were six years old. In the infected herds, abortion rates associated with the disease ranged from 10 to 39 percent. Other ailments observed associated with brucellosis were retention of the placenta, fetal death and mummification, delayed maturity and infertility. Recommendations for brucellosis control were given, in order to increase the awareness of shepherds, by suggesting regular testing, slaughtering of infected animals and vaccinations.

  3. Comparison of the principal proteins in bovine, caprine, buffalo, equine and camel milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinz, Katharina; O'Connor, Paula M; Huppertz, Thom; Ross, R Paul; Kelly, Alan L

    2012-05-01

    Proteomic analysis of bovine, caprine, buffalo, equine and camel milk highlighted significant interspecies differences. Camel milk was found to be devoid of β-lactoglobulin, whereas β-lactoglobulin was the major whey protein in bovine, buffalo, caprine, and equine milk. Five different isoforms of κ-casein were found in camel milk, analogous to the micro-heterogeneity observed for bovine κ-casein. Several spots observed in 2D-electrophoretograms of milk of all species could tentatively be identified as polypeptides arising from the enzymatic hydrolysis of caseins. The understanding gained from the proteomic comparison of these milks may be of relevance both in terms of identifying sources of hypoallergenic alternatives to bovine milk and detection of adulteration of milk samples and products. PMID:22365180

  4. CAMEL MILK MODULATES GAMMA RADIATION INDUCED BIOCHEMICAL HAZARDOUS CHANGES IN RATS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tissue damage in animals subjected to single sub-lethal dose of gamma rays usually occur within few hours following irradiation and the body may be continuously exposed to the damaging action of free radicals.The present study was conducted to examine the effects of camel milk administration on some radiation induced biochemical changes in rats.A total of 96 albino rats were divided into two equal groups; males and females. Each group were assigned randomly into 4 equal sub-groups, (12 rats/ group). Group 1: control, group 2 (camel milk); rats treated with camel milk instead of water, group 3 (irradiated); rats exposed to single sub-lethal dose of gamma irradiation (4 Gy) and group 4 (combined treatment ); rats treated with camel milk post-irradiation and continuously through the experiment.Animals were sacrificed on 14 and 28 days after gamma irradiation. Sera and liver tissues were collected. The contents of Zn, Cu, Mn, Mg and Fe , total protein, albumin, creatinine, uric acid, total thyroxine were determined in the serum. The activities of AST and ALT, and reduced glutathione content were determined in the liver. The results obtained indicated that camel milk improved the activities of AST and ALT and increased the reduced glutathione content in the liver of irradiated rats. Also, there was noticeable improvement in T4 and albumin levels in female groups and T4, A/G ratio, creatinine and uric acid in male groups. In addition, a remarkable improvement in Zn, Cu, Fe and Mn levels was recorded for both sex.It could be concluded that camel milk taken post-irradiation may modulate gamma radiation-induced hazards in male as well as female rats

  5. Quality and safety of camel milk along the value chain in Eastern Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mulugojjam Adugna

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The safety of camel milk was assessed along the value chain in Erer, eastern Ethiopia. A total of 24 camel milk samples were aseptically collected from producers in Erer (n=12, and wholesalers and retailers (n=12 along the chain. Milk quality parameters were analyzed following standard procedures. The mean (±SD total bacteria (TBC, Enterobacteriaceae (EC, coliform (CC, spore-forming bacteria (SFBC and yeast and mould (YMC counts of the milk samples analyzed were 5.2 ± 1.90, 3.2 ± 2.30, 2.9 ± 2.27, 2.1 ± 2.41 and 2.7 ± 1.61 log10 cfu mL-1, respectively. The TBC, EC, CC and SFBC of milk samples obtained from retailers in the final marketing sites were significantly higher (P < 0.05 than those obtained from producers and wholesalers in Erer. Salmonella spp. was detected in milk samples collected from all sites. Other microorganisms isolated from camel milk samples include Staphylococcus aureus (16.2%, Entrobacter spp. (14.9%, Streptococcus spp. (13.5%,Escherichia coli (8.1%, Acinetobacter spp. (7.4%, Staphylococcus epidermidis (6.8%, Klebsiella spp. (6.1%, Bacillus spp. (5.4%, Corynebacterium spp. (5.4%, Micrococcus spp. (4.7%, Lactobacillus spp. (4.1%, Listeria spp. (4.1%, Pseudomonas spp. (2% and Shigella spp. (1.4% . The quality of camel milk produced in the study area was generally poor and microbial contamination of camel milk occurs along the value chain while it is transported from the production site to the market. This calls for strict hygienic measures along the entire value chain in order to improve the quality and safety of camel milk produced in the area evaluated.

  6. Pathology of camel tuberculosis and molecular characterization of its causative agents in pastoral regions of Ethiopia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gezahegne Mamo

    Full Text Available A cross sectional study was conducted on 906 apparently healthy camels slaughtered at Akaki and Metehara abattoirs to investigate the pathology of camel tuberculosis (TB and characterize its causative agents using postmortem examination, mycobacteriological culturing, and multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR, region of difference-4 (RD4-based PCR and spoligotyping. The prevalence of camel TB was 10.04% (91/906 on the basis of pathology and it was significantly higher in females (χ(2 = 4.789; P = 0.029. The tropism of TB lesions was significantly different among the lymph nodes (χ(2 = 22.697; P = 0.002 and lung lobes (χ(2 = 17.901; P = 0.006. Mycobacterial growth was observed in 34% (31/91 of camels with grossly suspicious TB lesions. Upon further molecular characterization using multiplex PCR, 68% (21/31 of the colonies showed a positive signal for the genus Mycobacterium, of which two were confirmed Mycobacterium bovis (M. bovis by RD4 deletion typing. Further characterization of the two M. bovis at strains level revealed that one of the strains was SB0133 while the other strain was new and had not been reported to the M. bovis database prior to this study. Hence, it has now been reported to the database, and designated as SB1953. In conclusion, the results of the present study have shown that the majority of camel TB lesions are caused by mycobacteria other than Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex. And hence further identification and characterization of these species would be useful towards the efforts made to control TB in camels.

  7. Camel Milk Is a Safer Choice than Goat Milk for Feeding Children with Cow Milk Allergy

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad Ehlayel; Abdulbari Bener; Khalid Abu Hazeima; Fatima Al-Mesaifri

    2011-01-01

    Background. Various sources of mammalian milk have been tried in CMA. Objectives. To determine whether camel milk is safer than goat milk in CMA. Methods. Prospective study conducted at Hamad Medical Corporation between April 2007 and April 2010, on children with CMA. Each child had medical examination, CBC, total IgE, cow milk-specific IgE and SPT. CMA children were tested against fresh camel and goat milks. Results. Of 38 children (median age 21.5 months), 21 (55.3%) presented with urticari...

  8. Too big to be noticed: cryptic invasion of Asian camel crickets in North American houses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary Jane Epps

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Despite the rapid expansion of the built environment, we know little about the biology of species living in human-constructed habitats. Camel crickets (Rhaphidophoridae are commonly observed in North American houses and include a range of native taxa as well as the Asian Diestrammena asynamora (Adelung, a species occasionally reported from houses though considered to be established only in greenhouses. We launched a continental-scale citizen science campaign to better understand the relative distributions and frequency of native and nonnative camel crickets in human homes across North America. Participants contributed survey data about the presence or absence of camel crickets in homes, as well as photographs and specimens of camel crickets allowing us to identify the major genera and/or species in and around houses. Together, these data offer insight into the geographical distribution of camel crickets as a presence in homes, as well as the relative frequency and distribution of native and nonnative camel crickets encountered in houses. In so doing, we show that the exotic Diestrammena asynamora not only has become a common presence in eastern houses, but is found in these environments far more frequently than native camel crickets. Supplemental pitfall trapping along transects in 10 urban yards in Raleigh, NC revealed that D. asynamora can be extremely abundant locally around some homes, with as many as 52 individuals collected from pitfalls in a single yard over two days of sampling. The number of D. asynamora individuals present in a trap was negatively correlated with the trap’s distance from a house, suggesting that these insects may be preferentially associated with houses but also are present outside. In addition, we report the establishment in the northeastern United States of a second exotic species, putatively Diestrammena japanica Blatchley, which was previously undocumented in the literature. Our results offer new insight into the

  9. Prevalence, risk factors, and major bacterial causes of camel mastitis in Borana Zone, Oromia Regional State, Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regassa, Alemayehu; Golicha, Gelma; Tesfaye, Dawit; Abunna, Fufa; Megersa, Bekele

    2013-10-01

    A cross-sectional study was carried out from November 2010 up to April 2011 to estimate mastitis prevalence and associated risk factors and to assess its bacterial causes in traditionally managed camels in Borana Zone, Southern Ethiopia. Thus, 348 lactating camels were examined clinically, and subclinical cases were checked with California mastitis test (CMT). The overall prevalence of mastitis was 44.8 % (156/348), comprising clinical (19, 5.4 %) and subclinical (137, 39.4 %) cases. The quarter level prevalence of mastitis was 24.0 % (334/1,392). Of the total 1,392 examined teats, 30 were blind, and hence, from the 1,362 non-blind CMT-examined teats, 22.3 % (304/1,362) were CMT positive. Of the 304 CMT-positive samples, 264 were culture positive (197 Gram-positive, 41 Gram-negative, and 26 mixed isolates), and 40 were culture negative. The prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus was found to be the highest at both the animal (12.8 %, 39/304) and quarter level (2.9 %, 39/1,362). Regression analysis revealed higher likelihood of mastitis occurrence among camels from Dharito (OR = 3.4, 95 % confidence interval (CI) = 1.8, 6.4), Gagna (OR = 3.4, 95 % CI = 1.8, 6.5), and Haro Bake (OR = 2.6, 95 % CI = 1.3, 5.1) than camels from Surupha. Likewise, there was higher chance of mastitis occurrence among camels at the early lactation stage (OR = 2.3, 95 % CI = 1.1, 4.6) and camels with udder/teat lesions (OR = 13.7, 95 % CI = 1.7, 109.4) than among camels at late lactation stage and camels with healthy udder/teats, respectively. In conclusion, this study reveals the current status of camel mastitis in Southern Ethiopia. PMID:23563738

  10. First isolation of West Nile virus from a dromedary camel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Sunitha; Wernery, Ulrich; Teng, Jade Ll; Wernery, Renate; Huang, Yi; Patteril, Nissy Ag; Chan, Kwok-Hung; Elizabeth, Shyna K; Fan, Rachel Yy; Lau, Susanna Kp; Kinne, Jörg; Woo, Patrick Cy

    2016-01-01

    Although antibodies against West Nile virus (WNV) have been detected in the sera of dromedaries in the Middle East, North Africa and Spain, no WNV has been isolated or amplified from dromedary or Bactrian camels. In this study, WNV was isolated from Vero cells inoculated with both nasal swab and pooled trachea/lung samples from a dromedary calf in Dubai. Complete-genome sequencing and phylogenetic analysis using the near-whole-genome polyprotein revealed that the virus belonged to lineage 1a. There was no clustering of the present WNV with other WNVs isolated in other parts of the Middle East. Within lineage 1a, the dromedary WNV occupied a unique position, although it was most closely related to other WNVs of cluster 2. Comparative analysis revealed that the putative E protein encoded by the genome possessed the original WNV E protein glycosylation motif NYS at E154-156, which contained the N-linked glycosylation site at N-154 associated with increased WNV pathogenicity and neuroinvasiveness. In the putative NS1 protein, the A70S substitution observed in other cluster 2 WNVs and P250, which has been implicated in neuroinvasiveness, were present. In addition, the foo motif in the putative NS2A protein, which has been implicated in neuroinvasiveness, was detected. Notably, the amino-acid residues at 14 positions in the present dromedary WNV genome differed from those in most of the closely related WNV strains in cluster 2 of lineage 1a, with the majority of these differences observed in the putative E and NS5 proteins. The present study is the first to demonstrate the isolation of WNV from dromedaries. This finding expands the possible reservoirs of WNV and sources of WNV infection. PMID:27273223

  11. Consolidated Storage Facilities: Camel's Nose or Shared Burden? - 13112

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Blue Ribbon Commission (BRC) made a strong argument why the reformulated nuclear waste program should make prompt efforts to develop one or more consolidated storage facilities (CSFs), and recommended the amendment of NWPA Section 145(b) 2 (linking 'monitored retrievable storage' to repository development) as an essential means to that end. However, other than recommending that the siting of CSFs should be 'consent-based' and that spent nuclear fuel (SNF) at stranded sites should be first-in-line for removal, the Commission made few recommendations regarding how CSF development should proceed. Working with three other key Senators, Jeff Bingaman attempted in the 112. Congress to craft legislation (S. 3469) to put the BRC recommendations into legislative language. The key reason why the Nuclear Waste Administration Act of 2012 did not proceed was the inability of the four senators to agree on whether and how to amend NWPA Section 145(b). A brief review of efforts to site consolidated storage since the Nuclear Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1987 suggests a strong and consistent motivation to shift the burden to someone (anyone) else. This paper argues that modification of NWPA Section 145(b) should be accompanied by guidelines for regional development and operation of CSFs. After review of the BRC recommendations regarding CSFs, and the 'camel's nose' prospects if implementation is not accompanied by further guidelines, the paper outlines a proposal for implementation of CSFs on a regional basis, including priorities for removal from reactor sites and subsequently from CSFs to repositories. Rather than allowing repository siting to be prejudiced by the location of a single remote CSF, the regional approach limits transport for off-site acceptance and storage, increases the efficiency of removal operations, provides a useful basis for compensation to states and communities that accept CSFs, and gives states with shared circumstances a shared stake in storage and

  12. Examining Cultural Tourism Attractions for Foreign Visitors: The Case of Camel Wrestling in Selçuk (Ephesus)

    OpenAIRE

    Vedat Çalışkan

    2010-01-01

    This study focuses on the Camel Wrestling Festival in Selçuk, which has gained importance with its tourist appeal among traditional camel wrestling organizations in Western Anatolia. The study aimed to investigate those aspects of the Festival, which were found to be attractive for foreign visitors, and to evaluate the impacts of tourism on this traditional event. The study data were obtained from the surveys that were completed by 56 foreign visitors at the Camel Wrestling Festival in Selçuk...

  13. Behavioral benefits of camel milk in subjects with autism spectrum disorder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To investigate the possible therapeutic effects of camel milk on behavioral characteristics as an interventional strategy in autistic children. Study Design: Double-blind, Randomized Clinical Trial (RCT). Place and Duration of Study: Autism Research and Treatment Center, Al-Amodi Autism Research Chair, Department of Physiology, Faculty of Medicine, King Khalid University Hospital, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, from October 2012 to May 2013. Methodology: Changes in behavioral characteristics in 65 (boys=60, girls=5) children with autism (aged from 2 to 12 years) were assessed. The behavioral symptoms were evaluated by Childhood Autism Rating Scale (CARS), Social Responsiveness Scale (SRS), and Autism Treatment Evaluation Checklist (ATEC) before and after the 2 weeks of camel milk therapy. Results: Significant differences were detected on Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) by CARS, SRS and ATEC scales, following 2 weeks of camel milk consumption, but not in the placebo group. Conclusion: The present study demonstrates that camel milk could be very promising therapeutic intervention in ASD. Further wide scale studies are strongly recommended. (author)

  14. Comparison of composition and whey protein fractions of human, camel, donkey, goat and cow milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halima El-Hatmi

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to compare the physicochemical parameters of milk samples of five different species: cow, goat, donkey, camel and human. Also the analysis of whey protein profile in different milk samples was performed by anion-exchange fast protein liquid chromatography (FPLC while polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis was used to identify a single fraction. Camel milk was the most acid (pH 6.460±0.005 and the richest in total proteins (3.41±0.31 % and ash (0.750±0.102 %, whereas donkey milk had a neutral pH (7.03±0.02 and characterised by low proteins (1.12±0.40 % and fat (0.97±0.03 % content, being very close to human milk. Proteomic analysis of cow, goat, donkey, camel and human milk highlighted significant interspecies differences. Camel milk was similar to human milk in lacking of β-lactoglobulin and richness of α-lactalbumin. The knowledge gained from the proteomic comparison of the milk samples analysed within this study might be of relevance, both, in terms of identifying sources of hypoallergenic alternatives to bovine milk and detection of adulteration of milk samples and products.

  15. Influence of pH on retention of camel chymosin in curd

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Børsting, Mette Winther; Qvist, Karsten B.; Ardö, Ylva Margareta

    2014-01-01

    Retained coagulant in cheese initiates casein breakdown and influences cheese structure and flavour formation. This study investigated the influence of milk pH on retention of camel chymosin in curd and compared it with bovine chymosin. Milk at five different pH levels was coagulated with same...... coagulant activity of each chymosin and centrifuged. Chymosin activity in whey was determined using the synthetic peptide Pro-Thr-Glu-Phe-(NO2-Phe)-Arg-Leu as substrate and HPLC analysis of the resulting product. Camel chymosin had 2.7 times lower activity in milk than bovine chymosin at the same...... coagulation activity. The retention of camel chymosin in curd was rather constant at ∼20% between pH 6.65 and 6.00, while it increased almost linear from 2 to 21% for bovine chymosin. The lower pH dependence for retention of camel chymosin than of bovine chymosin may be explained by a lower negative charge of...

  16. Coercive copopulation in two sexually cannibalistic camel-spider species (Arachnida: Solifugae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hrusková-Martisová, M.; Pekár, S.; Bilde, T.

    2010-01-01

    Males can overcome female resistance to mating either by using luring behaviour or through sexual coercion. We studied mating behaviour in two sexually cannibalistic camel-spider species Galeodes caspius subfuscus (Galeodidae) and Gluvia dorsalis (Desiidae), to determine the presence of luring an......-predation strategy, as sexual cannibalism occurred in c. 40% of all sexual interactions....

  17. Comparative aspects of ruminants and camels grazing on a thornbush savannah pasture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A factor limiting animal production in a savannah pasture is the ability of the animals to adapt and survive during the harsh dry season. Survival strategies for the various species are different. Compared to cattle and sheep, camels, and to a lesser extent goats, have the advantage of being able to select high quality plant species. Camels and goats compete very little for forage that is predominantly grazed by cattle, donkeys and sheep. As a result, camels and goats are less subject to the grazing pressures experienced by other animals. During the harsh dry season, cattle, and also sheep, eat mostly low quality forage. When doing this, they are able to increase the retention time of feed particles in the forestomach by increasing forestomach volume. This strategy allows the digestion of poor quality, fibre rich diets to be improved. Camels are superior because they are able to use two different strategies. When fed a very poor quality diet they selectively retain feed particles in the forestomach for a considerable length of time. When grazing in the thornbush savannah, on the other hand, they select medium or high quality plants, which are not used by cattle, donkeys and sheep and are only partly used by goats. A multispecies grazing system may help to improve livestock productivity on a semiarid pasture because the available plant biomass is utilized more efficiently. At the same time overgrazing and its consequences are diminished. (author). 11 refs

  18. Complete Genome Sequence of Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus Isolated from a Dromedary Camel in Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandeil, Ahmed; Shehata, Mahmoud M; El Shesheny, Rabeh; Gomaa, Mokhtar R; Ali, Mohamed A; Kayali, Ghazi

    2016-01-01

    We generated the near-full genome sequence of Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) from a collected nasal sample of dromedary camel in Egypt. The newly characterized Egyptian strain has high similarity to the previously characterized Egyptian virus and both of viruses fell into a cluster distinct from other MERS-CoVs. PMID:27125484

  19. Camels in Asia and North Africa: Interdisciplinary Perspectives on their Past and Present Significance

    OpenAIRE

    Robin Bendrey

    2014-01-01

    Review of Camels in Asia and North Africa: Interdisciplinary Perspectives on their Past and Present Significance. Eva-Maria Knoll and Pamela Burger, eds. 2012. Verlag der Österreichischen Akademie der Wissenschaften (Austrian Academy of Sciences Press), Wien (Vienna). Pp. 298, 111 colour illustrations, 33 black-and-white illustrations. €45.00 (paperback). ISBN 9783700172444.

  20. Proteomic analysis of cow, yak, buffalo, goat and camel milk whey proteins: quantitative differential expression patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yongxin; Bu, Dengpan; Zhao, Xiaowei; Sun, Peng; Wang, Jiaqi; Zhou, Lingyun

    2013-04-01

    To aid in unraveling diverse genetic and biological unknowns, a proteomic approach was used to analyze the whey proteome in cow, yak, buffalo, goat, and camel milk based on the isobaric tag for relative and absolute quantification (iTRAQ) techniques. This analysis is the first to produce proteomic data for the milk from the above-mentioned animal species: 211 proteins have been identified and 113 proteins have been categorized according to molecular function, cellular components, and biological processes based on gene ontology annotation. The results of principal component analysis showed significant differences in proteomic patterns among goat, camel, cow, buffalo, and yak milk. Furthermore, 177 differentially expressed proteins were submitted to advanced hierarchical clustering. The resulting clustering pattern included three major sample clusters: (1) cow, buffalo, and yak milk; (2) goat, cow, buffalo, and yak milk; and (3) camel milk. Certain proteins were chosen as characterization traits for a given species: whey acidic protein and quinone oxidoreductase for camel milk, biglycan for goat milk, uncharacterized protein (Accession Number: F1MK50 ) for yak milk, clusterin for buffalo milk, and primary amine oxidase for cow milk. These results help reveal the quantitative milk whey proteome pattern for analyzed species. This provides information for evaluating adulteration of specific specie milk and may provide potential directions for application of specific milk protein production based on physiological differences among animal species. PMID:23464874

  1. Complete Genome Sequence of Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus Isolated from a Dromedary Camel in Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shehata, Mahmoud M.; El Shesheny, Rabeh; Gomaa, Mokhtar R.; Ali, Mohamed A.; Kayali, Ghazi

    2016-01-01

    We generated the near-full genome sequence of Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) from a collected nasal sample of dromedary camel in Egypt. The newly characterized Egyptian strain has high similarity to the previously characterized Egyptian virus and both of viruses fell into a cluster distinct from other MERS-CoVs. PMID:27125484

  2. Detection of Helicobacter pylori in bovine, buffalo, camel, ovine, and caprine milk in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahimi, Ebrahim; Kheirabadi, Elahe Kazemi

    2012-05-01

    Helicobacter pylori infection in humans is one of the most common infections worldwide. However, the origin and transmission of this bacterium has not been clearly explained. One of the suggested theories is transmission via raw milk from animals to human beings. This study was conducted to determine the prevalence rate of H. pylori in bulk milk samples from dairy bovine, buffalo, camel, ovine, and caprine herds in Iran. In the present study, 447 bulk milk samples from 230 dairy bovine, buffalo, camel, ovine, and caprine herds were collected in four provinces and tested for H. pylori by cultural method and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for the detection of the ureC (glmM) gene. The animals whose milk samples collected for this study were clinically healthy. Using the cultural method, three of 447 milk samples (0.67%), including two sheep (2.2%) and one buffalo (1.6%) milk samples, were found to be contaminated with H. pylori. H. pylori ureC gene was detected in 56 (12.5%) of milk samples, including 19 cow (14.1%), 11 sheep (12.2%), nine goat (8.7%), two camel (3.6%), and 15 buffalo (23.4%) milk samples. Using PCR method, there were significant differences (pmilk samples collected from different species. The present study is the first report of the isolation of H. pylori from raw sheep and buffalo milk in Iran and the first demonstration of H. pylori DNA in camel and buffalo milk. PMID:22458716

  3. Predicting Bank CAMELS and S&P Ratings. The Case of Czech Republic

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Derviz, Alexis; Podpiera, J.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 44, č. 1 (2008), s. 87-101. ISSN 1540-496X Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10750506 Keywords : bank rating * CAMELS * ordered logit * panel data Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 0.611, year: 2008

  4. A survey for piroplasmids in horses and Bactrian camels in North-Eastern Mongolia

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sloboda, M.; Jirků, Milan; Lukešová, D.; Qablan, M.; Batsukh, Z.; Fiala, Ivan; Horin, P.; Modrý, David; Lukeš, Julius

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 179, 1-3 (2011), 246-249. ISSN 0304-4017 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA523/09/1972 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : Piroplasmosis * Babesia * Theileria * Horse * Bactrian camel * Dog Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 2.579, year: 2011

  5. USING PCU-CAMEL, A WEB-BASED LEARNING ENVIRONMENT, IN EVALUATING TEACHING-LEARNING PROCESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arlinah Imam Rahardjo

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available PCU-CAMEL (Petra Christian University-Computer Aided Mechanical Engineering Department Learning Environment has been developed to integrate the use of this web-based learning environment into the traditional, face-to-face setting of class activities. This integrated learning method is designed as an effort to enrich and improve the teaching-learning process at Petra Christian University. A study was conducted to introduce the use of PCU-CAMEL as a tool in evaluating teaching learning process. The study on this method of evaluation was conducted by using a case analysis on the integration of PCU-CAMEL to the traditional face-to-face meetings of LIS (Library Information System class at the Informatics Engineering Department of Petra Christian University. Students’ responses documented in some features of PCU-CAMEL were measured and analyzed to evaluate the effectiveness of this integrated system in developing intrinsic motivation of the LIS students of the first and second semester of 2004/2005 to learn. It is believed that intrinsic motivation can drive students to learn more. From the study conducted, it is concluded that besides its capability in developing intrinsic motivation, PCU-CAMEL as a web-based learning environment, can also serve as an effective tool for both students and instructors to evaluate the teaching-learning process. However, some weaknesses did exist in using this method of evaluating teaching-learning process. The free style and unstructured form of the documentation features of this web-based learning environment can lead to ineffective evaluation results

  6. Stomoxys calcitrans as possible vector of Trypanosoma evansi among camels in an affected area of the Canary Islands, Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noé Francisco Rodríguez

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Trypanosoma evansi was first identified in the Canary Islands in 1997, and is still present in a small area of the Archipelago. To date, the disease has exclusively affected camel herds, and has not been detected in any other animal hosts. However potential vectors of Trypanosoma evansi must be identified. Methods One Nzi trap was placed on a camel farm located in the infected area for a period of one year. Results Two thousand five hundred and five insects were trapped, of which Stomoxys calcitrans was the sole hematophagous vector captured. Conclusions Stomoxys calcitrans could be exclusively responsible for the transmission of Trypanosoma evansi among camels in the surveyed area, as other species do not seem to be infected by S. calcitrans in the presence of camels.

  7. Behavior of Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Listeria monocytogenes during fermentation and storage of camel yogurt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Nabulsi, Anas A; Olaimat, Amin N; Osaili, Tareq M; Ayyash, Mutamed M; Abushelaibi, Aisha; Jaradat, Ziad W; Shaker, Reyad; Al-Taani, Mahmoud; Holley, Richard A

    2016-03-01

    In addition to its nutritional and therapeutic properties, camel milk has the ability to suppress the growth of a wide range of foodborne pathogens, but there is a lack of information regarding the behavior of these pathogens in products such as yogurt produced from camel milk. The objective of the current study was to investigate the behavior of Listeria monocytogenes and Escherichia coli O157:H7 during manufacture and storage of camel yogurt. Camel milk inoculated with L. monocytogenes and E. coli O157:H7 was fermented at 43° C for 5h using freeze-dried lactic acid bacteria (LAB) starter cultures (Streptococcus thermophilus and Lactobacillus bulgaricus) and stored at 4 or 10 °C for 14 d. Camel milk inoculated with L. monocytogenes and E. coli O157:H7 without starter culture was also prepared. During fermentation, the numbers of L. monocytogenes and E. coli O157:H7 increased 0.3 and 1.6 log cfu/mL, respectively, in the presence of LAB, and by 0.3 and 2.7 log cfu/mL in the absence of LAB. During storage at 4 or 10 °C, L. monocytogenes increased 0.8 to 1.2 log cfu/mL by 14 d in camel milk without LAB, but in the presence of LAB, the numbers of L. monocytogenes were reduced by 1.2 to 1.7 log cfu/mL by 14 d. Further, E. coli O157:H7 numbers in camel milk were reduced by 3.4 to 3.5 log cfu/mL in the absence of LAB, but E. coli O157:H7 was not detected (6.3 log cfu/mL reduction) by 7d in camel yogurt made with LAB and stored at either temperature. Although camel milk contains high concentrations of natural antimicrobials, L. monocytogenes was able to tolerate these compounds in camel yogurt stored at refrigerator temperatures. Therefore, appropriate care should be taken during production of yogurt from camel milk to minimize the potential for postprocess contamination by this and other foodborne pathogens. PMID:26723116

  8. Gauss´s Mortality Formula: A Demometric Analysis with Application to the Feral Camel Population in Central Australia

    OpenAIRE

    Pflaumer, Peter

    2014-01-01

    A life table for the feral camel population in central Australia is constructed, using an extension of the Gompertz distribution, which was first proposed in a note by the famous mathematician Gauss. It is shown that under certain conditions some important life table parameters can be represented by simple formulae. The derived life table is then used to formulate both a continuous and a discrete model of the camel population. The models yield an annual growth rate of about 7%, a net reproduc...

  9. Expression and purification of a new recombinant camel hepcidin able to promote the degradation of the iron exporter ferroportin1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boumaiza, Mohamed; Jaouen, Maryse; Deschemin, Jean-Christophe; Ezzine, Aymen; Ben Khalaf, Noureddine; Vaulont, Sophie; Marzouki, Mohamed Nèjib; Sari, Marie Agnès

    2015-11-01

    Hepcidin, a 25-amino-acid and highly disulfide bonded antimicrobial peptide, is the central regulator of iron homeostasis. This hormone is expressed in response to iron and inflammation and interacts with ferroportin1 (FPN1), the only known iron exporter in vertebrates, inducing its internalization and degradation. Thus, the export of iron from cells to plasma will be significantly diminished. Thereby, hepcidin has become the target of intense research studies due to its profound biomedical significance. This study describes the functional expression of recombinant camel hepcidin in Escherichia coli. Biologically active recombinant camel hepcidin was obtained thanks to the production of a hepcidin-thioredoxin fusion protein (TRX-HepcD) and a purified camel hepcidin, with an extra methionine at the N-terminus, was obtained after enterokinase cleavage of the fusion protein. Presence of the four disulfide bridges was verified using MALDI-ToF spectrometry. The recombinant camel hepcidin was compared to related synthetic bioactive peptides, including human hepcidin, and was found equally able to promote ferroportin degradation of mouse macrophages. Furthermore, camel hepcidins exhibits a high capacity to inhibit the growth of Leishmania major promastigotes. These results proved that production of functional camel hepcidin can be achieved in E. coli, this is a major interest for the production of cysteine rich peptides or proteins that can be purified under their functional form without the need of a refolding process. PMID:26169129

  10. Review of present knowledge on machine milking and intensive milk production in dromedary camels and future challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagy, Peter; Juhasz, Judit

    2016-06-01

    The camel dairy industry has gone through major development in the last decade. The world's first large-scale camel dairy farm was established 10 years ago in Dubai, United Arab Emirates, and since then, several commercial and scientific projects have been started, and more studies have been published demonstrating increasing interest in camel milk. The aims of this paper are to summarize relevant published data on factors influencing milk production under intensive management, compare those with our own observations obtained from Emirates Industry for Camel Milk and Products (EICMP), and highlight areas of research that are indispensable for further development. As in other species, the most important factors influencing milk yield are genetic and individual variation, age, parity, stage of lactation, nutrition, management, season, photoperiod, etc. However, the precise role of the various factors has not been thoroughly studied in camels and based on our understanding of the basic physiological processes, endocrine control is minimal. In addition, machine milking of dromedaries is still at early stage and requires research for improvement of the technology and defining factors affecting and improving milk ejection. The role of environment (like photoperiod, nutrition) should also be investigated as there is significant annual variation both in milk quantity and quality that might influence the processing characteristics of raw camel milk. The large pool of animals and thoroughly recorded data at EICMP provide an excellent opportunity for increasing milk production and improving milk quality using various methods, like feeding, management, reproduction, selection, and breeding. PMID:26992732

  11. GROSS AND MICROSCOPIC ANATOMY OF MAMMARY GLAND OF DROMEDARIES UNDER DIFFERENT PHYSIOLOGICAL CONDITIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Kausar, A. Sarwar and C.S. Hayat

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available Samples of 24 mammary glands from healthy one-humped camel (Camelus dromedarius cows were investigated under different physiological conditions for their gross and light microscopic anatomy. Different groups included equal number of immature heifers, mature heifers, lactating and non-lactating animals. Tissues fixed in 10% NBF were processed as per routine and stained with hematoxylin and eosin (H&E and Massons trichome. Morphometry was done with the help of stage and ocular micrometer. Gross studies revealed that the camel's udder consists of four quarters. The udder and teat showed light brown to solid black tinge in colour. The tips of teats sloped to a point both in immature and mature animals, however, the conformation of teats turned rounded at the tips in lactating camels. Each teat possessed two teat canals. The dimensions of teat and streak canal varied markedly among four different groups. Number of Furestenberg's rosettes ranged from 11.6 to 13.6. Microscopic studies revealed that streak canal was lined by stratified squamous keratinized epithelium that was partially extremely thin in some parts. Cutaneous layer of teat was devoid of hair follicles except at the base of teat. Follicles were associated with sebaceous glands. Sweat glands were less coiled and showed a wide acinous element forming the part of excretory duct. Glomus organs occurred in the stratum profundum of the corium as well as in the subcutis of the skin of mammary gland. They also revealed great variation in structure and size. Epithelial lining of the alveoli varied from flattened to columnar according to physiological state. Number and size of alveoli per lobule decreased and the parenchyma was replaced by loose connective tissue during non-lactating phase. These results suggested that age and lactation considerably influenced gross and microscopic anatomy of mammary gland in camels.

  12. The Tarsometatarsus of the Ostrich Struthio camelus: Anatomy, Bone Densities, and Structural Mechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Meagan M.; Snively, Eric; Cotton, John

    2016-01-01

    Background The ostrich Struthio camelus reaches the highest speeds of any extant biped, and has been an extraordinary subject for studies of soft-tissue anatomy and dynamics of locomotion. An elongate tarsometatarsus in adult ostriches contributes to their speed. The internal osteology of the tarsometatarsus, and its mechanical response to forces of running, are potentially revealing about ostrich foot function. Methods/Principal Findings Computed tomography (CT) reveals anatomy and bone densities in tarsometatarsi of an adult and a young juvenile ostrich. A finite element (FE) model for the adult was constructed with properties of compact and cancellous bone where these respective tissues predominate in the original specimen. The model was subjected to a quasi-static analysis under the midstance ground reaction and muscular forces of a fast run. Anatomy–Metatarsals are divided proximally and distally and unify around a single internal cavity in most adult tarsometatarsus shafts, but the juvenile retains an internal three-part division of metatarsals throughout the element. The juvenile has a sparsely ossified hypotarsus for insertion of the m. fibularis longus, as part of a proximally separate third metatarsal. Bone is denser in all regions of the adult tarsometatarsus, with cancellous bone concentrated at proximal and distal articulations, and highly dense compact bone throughout the shaft. Biomechanics–FE simulations show stress and strain are much greater at midshaft than at force applications, suggesting that shaft bending is the most important stressor of the tarsometatarsus. Contraction of digital flexors, inducing a posterior force at the TMT distal condyles, likely reduces buildup of tensile stresses in the bone by inducing compression at these locations, and counteracts bending loads. Safety factors are high for von Mises stress, consistent with faster running speeds known for ostriches. Conclusions/Significance High safety factors suggest that bone

  13. Application integration of the camel in network platform GSM900 prepaid telecommunication companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroll Altube

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available La presente investigación se realizó con la finalidad de proponer la Integración de la Aplicación CAMEL en la Plataforma Prepagada de la Red GSM900 de Empresas de Telecomunicaciones considerando como patrón una de las empresas que presta servicios de Telefonía en el occidente del país; el objetivo principal de la investigación fue Desarrollar una propuesta para la integración de la aplicación CAMEL en la Plataforma Prepagada de la Red GSM900 de la Empresa INFONET.La investigación se caracterizó por ser del tipo Descriptivo modalidad de Campo y según la naturaleza de los datos es del tipo Cuantitativo, basado en un diseño de investigación No Experimental del tipo Transeccional-Descriptivo. La población objeto de estudio estuvo constituida por diez (10 profesionales del área de operaciones de la empresa seleccionada y la muestra fue un censo poblacional donde todos los elementos fueron considerados. La técnica de recolección de datos fue la Encuesta y el instrumento utilizado fue un Cuestionario de diez (10 preguntas, además del análisis de la documentación encontrada en la empresa; el instrumento fue validado por un grupo de expertos en cuanto a su redacción y contenido.Los resultados obtenidos fueron tratados a través de estadística descriptiva realizando distribución de frecuencias, y además se realizó la discusión de dichos resultados confrontándolos con la teoría presentada en el Capitulo II de esta investigación (Marco Teórico, en base a estos resultados se pudo diseñar el modelo de integración de la Aplicación CAMEL en la Plataforma GSM900 de Empresas de Telecomunicaciones. Como conclusión se determino que con Aplicación CAMEL mejoraría significativamente la limitante en cuanto a la movilidad para la cartera de clientes móviles prepagados de la empresa, es por ello que se recomienda considerar esta investigación como base para un proyecto que contemple la implantación de la Aplicación CAMEL

  14. Immunohistochemical studies for the neuronal elements in the vomeronasal organ of the one-humped camel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Dalia; Abdel-Maksoud, Fatma; Taniguchi, Kazumi; Yamamoto, Yoshio; Taniguchi, Kazuyuki; Nakamuta, Nobuaki

    2015-02-01

    The neuronal elements of the vomeronasal organ (VNO) of camel were investigated immunohistochemically. PGP 9.5 labeled the receptor cells in the vomeronasal sensory epithelium, but not the supporting or basal cells. OMP stained some receptor cells, but no immunoreactive signals for OMP were detected in the non-sensory epithelium. PLCβ2 labeled scattered cells in the sensory epithelium and a larger number of cells in the non-sensory epithelium. Double labeling immunohistochemistry revealed that the PLCβ2-positive cells were surrounded by substance P-positive nerve fibers. Collectively, these data suggest that the camel VNO bears, in addition to the mature vomeronasal receptor cells, trigeminally-innervated solitary chemosensory cells which are expected to play a substantial role in the control of stimulus access to the VNO. PMID:25319516

  15. Fuel motion in the CAMEL top-simulation LMFBR safety tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Post-failure fuel motion in coolant channels has been examined in a series of CAMEL-loop experiments under conditions of the postulated, unterminated transient overpower accident in an LMFBR. The observed fuel motion behavior, together with test data depicting channel pressurization and sodium flowrate behavior, have given evidence that bundle coherency as well as the occurrence of local, small-scale fuel-coolant interactions have significant bearing on fuel sweepout. 5 refs

  16. Technological Aptitude and Applications of Leuconostoc mesenteroides Bioactive Strains Isolated from Algerian Raw Camel Milk

    OpenAIRE

    Zineb Benmechernene; Hanane Fatma Chentouf; Bellil Yahia; Ghazi Fatima; Marcos Quintela-Baluja; Pilar Calo-Mata; Jorge Barros-Velázquez

    2013-01-01

    Two strains (B7 and Z8) of the Leuconostoc mesenteroides subspecies mesenteroides that were isolated from Algerian camel milk from an initial pool of 13 strains and demonstrated a high ability to inhibit the growth of Listeria spp. were selected and characterised at the phenotypic and genotypic levels. Probiotic profiling and inhibition spectra against food borne pathogens in mixed cultures were also investigated. The bacteriocin produced by L. mesenteroides strain B7 was identified as le...

  17. Penilaian Tingkat Kesehatan Bank Dengan Analisa Camels Studi Kasus PT. Bank Sumut

    OpenAIRE

    Siregar, Chatrin C.M.

    2011-01-01

    CAMELS Anilysis is the device activity that support enterprise operational or organization as a part of in organization structure. Direction of estabilish accounting information system with stable like computer basic system therefore management have information about operation organization in exactly and quickly. Bank Sumut is appears enterprise that use accounting information system at computer basic on a scale consistant in operational enterprise use with batch system as decision making sup...

  18. Immunohistochemical studies for the neuronal elements in the vomeronasal organ of the one-humped camel

    OpenAIRE

    Ibrahim, Dalia; ABDEL-MAKSOUD, Fatma; TANIGUCHI, Kazumi; Yamamoto, Yoshio; TANIGUCHI, Kazuyuki; NAKAMUTA, Nobuaki

    2014-01-01

    The neuronal elements of the vomeronasal organ (VNO) of camel were investigated immunohistochemically. PGP 9.5 labeled the receptor cells in the vomeronasal sensory epithelium, but not the supporting or basal cells. OMP stained some receptor cells, but no immunoreactive signals for OMP were detected in the non-sensory epithelium. PLCβ2 labeled scattered cells in the sensory epithelium and a larger number of cells in the non-sensory epithelium. Double labeling immunohistochemistry revealed tha...

  19. Too big to be noticed: cryptic invasion of Asian camel crickets in North American houses

    OpenAIRE

    Mary Jane Epps; Menninger, Holly L.; Nathan LaSala; Dunn, Robert R.

    2014-01-01

    Despite the rapid expansion of the built environment, we know little about the biology of species living in human-constructed habitats. Camel crickets (Rhaphidophoridae) are commonly observed in North American houses and include a range of native taxa as well as the Asian Diestrammena asynamora (Adelung), a species occasionally reported from houses though considered to be established only in greenhouses. We launched a continental-scale citizen science campaign to better understand the relativ...

  20. Antigenotoxic and anticytotoxic effect of camel milk in mice treated with cisplatin

    OpenAIRE

    Salwa, M. Quita; Lina, A.F. Kurdi

    2010-01-01

    Camel milk (CM) has good nutritive value, in addition to its antigenotoxic and anticytotoxic effects. Therefore the aim of this investigation was to evaluate the capacity of CM to inhibit the micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes (MnPCEs) in the bone marrow and improve the mitotic activity produced by cisplatin. Cisplatin is one of the most widely used antineoplastic drugs in the treatment of cancer. The 70 adult male Swiss albino mice were divided into seven groups:Gr. I: treated with di...

  1. Could Lehman Brothers’ Collapse Be Anticipated? An Examination Using CAMELS Rating System

    OpenAIRE

    Apostolos G. Christopoulos; John Mylonakis; Pavlos Diktapanidis

    2011-01-01

    The collapse of Lehman Brothers, the largest investment bank that has ever declared bankrupt has had a major impact among economies and in most stock markets across the globe. For this reason, the case of Lehman Brothers is being examined by analysing its financial particulars of the last five years (2003-2007) using the CAMELS ratios. Research results showed that its credits were found as bad and doubtful while its management appeared to be unwilling and unable to reverse its declining cours...

  2. Comparative Analysis of Immune Repertoires between Bactrian Camel's Conventional and Heavy-Chain Antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xinyang; Duan, Xiaobo; Yang, Kai; Zhang, Wei; Zhang, Changjiang; Fu, Longfei; Ren, Zhe; Wang, Changxi; Wu, Jinghua; Lu, Ruxue; Ye, Yanrui; He, Mengying; Nie, Chao; Yang, Naibo; Wang, Jian; Yang, Huanming; Liu, Xiao; Tan, Wen

    2016-01-01

    Compared to classical antibodies, camel heavy chain antibodies (HCAbs) are smaller in size due to lack of the light chain and the first constant domain of the heavy chain (CH1 region). The variable regions of HCAbs (VHHs) are more soluble and stable than that of conventional antibodies (VHs). Even with such simple structure, they are still functional in antigen binding. Although HCAbs have been extensively investigated over the past two decades, most efforts have been based upon low throughput sequence analysis, and there are only limited reports trying to analyze and describe the complete immune repertoire (IR) of camel HCAbs. Here we leveraged the high-throughput data generated by Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) of the variable domains of the antibody heavy chains from three Bactrian camels to conduct in-depth comparative analyses of the immunoglobulin repertoire. These include analyses of the complementary determining region 3 (CDR3) length and distribution, mutation rate, antibody characteristic amino acids, the distribution of the cysteine (Cys) codons, and the non-classical VHHs. We found that there is higher diversity in the CDR2 than in the other sub-regions, and there is a higher mutation rate in the VHHs than in the VHs (P Arg AA substitution at the first position of framework 4 for all types of clones. We present, for the first time, a relatively complete picture of the Bactrian camel antibody immune repertoire, including conventional antibody (Ab) and HCAbs, using PCR and in silico analysis based on high-throughput NGS data. PMID:27588755

  3. Genomic Data from Extinct North American Camelops Revise Camel Evolutionary History.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heintzman, Peter D; Zazula, Grant D; Cahill, James A; Reyes, Alberto V; MacPhee, Ross D E; Shapiro, Beth

    2015-09-01

    Recent advances in paleogenomic technologies have enabled an increasingly detailed understanding of the evolutionary relationships of now-extinct mammalian taxa. However, a number of enigmatic Quaternary species have never been characterized with molecular data, often because available fossils are rare or are found in environments that are not optimal for DNA preservation. Here, we analyze paleogenomic data extracted from bones attributed to the late Pleistocene western camel, Camelops cf. hesternus, a species that was distributed across central and western North America until its extinction approximately 13,000 years ago. Despite a modal sequence length of only around 35 base pairs, we reconstructed high-coverage complete mitochondrial genomes and low-coverage partial nuclear genomes for each specimen. We find that Camelops is sister to African and Asian bactrian and dromedary camels, to the exclusion of South American camelids (llamas, guanacos, alpacas, and vicuñas). These results contradict previous morphology-based phylogenetic models for Camelops, which suggest instead a closer relationship between Camelops and the South American camelids. The molecular data imply a Late Miocene divergence of the Camelops clade from lineages that separately gave rise to the extant camels of Eurasia. Our results demonstrate the increasing capacity of modern paleogenomic methods to resolve evolutionary relationships among distantly related lineages. PMID:26037535

  4. Relationship between external and internal udder and teat measurements of machine milked dromedary camels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atigui, Moufida; Marnet, Pierre-Guy; Harrabi, Hager; Bessalah, Salma; Khorchani, Touhami; Hammadi, Mohamed

    2016-06-01

    This study aims to determine the relationship between internal and external udder and teat measurements and evaluate their correlation with milk yield and milk partitioning in the udder of dromedary camels. Six Maghrebi camels reared under intensive conditions were monitored at early, middle, and late lactation. Udder measurements included udder depth, udder horizontal circumference, fore and rear teat length and diameter. Besides, scans of the left fore and rear quarters were taken in duplicate before morning milking (16 h) using an oxytocin receptor blocking agent (Atosiban) to determine teat and gland distension before milk ejection. Cisternal and alveolar milk volumes were then evaluated. Correlation coefficients were calculated between the performed udder external and ultrasonographical measurements and cisternal and daily milk production on the measurement day. Significant effect of lactation stage was observed in all measured traits. All internal and external measurements decreased significantly at late lactation as well as cisternal and total milk yield. The quarter cisternal area averaged 16.3 ± 2.2 cm(2) and decreased about three times at late lactation compared to early and middle lactation. All external and internal measurements were positively and highly correlated (P < 0.001). The knowledge of the relationship between udder internal and external morphological traits would permit to predict udder cisternal storage capacity and can ultimately be adopted to improve milk storage capacity of dromedary camels. PMID:27129886

  5. Outbreaks of brucellosis related to the consumption of unpasteurized camel milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcell, Humberto G; Garcia, Elias G; Pueyo, Pedro V; Martín, Isis R; Arias, Ariadna V; Alfonso Serrano, Ramon N

    2016-01-01

    Brucellosis is the most frequent zoonosis reported in Qatar, mainly related to exposure to infected camels. An outbreak of human brucellosis in 14 members of a family living in a rural area in Qatar is reported herein. Clinical, epidemiological and laboratory results from all 14 patients with Brucella and 12 non-confirmed family members were collected from files. All patients reported fever for a maximum of 14 days, associated with arthralgia (6 patients), weakness (4 patients), headache (4 patients), diarrhea (2 patients) and abdominal pain (2 patients). The median age of the patients was 10 years and that of non-cases was 16 years, with a predominance of males (92.9%). Elevated levels of transaminases were observed in patients. A mixed infection caused by Brucella abortus and Brucella melitensis was identified by blood culture and serology. The source of the infection was the milk of an infected camel. The outbreak of brucellosis melitensis/abortus related to the consumption of camel milk constitutes a gap in the prevention and control of the potential sources of brucellosis in animal farms. Proper control and education of the population are required. PMID:26796768

  6. Prevalence of some mastitis causes in dromedary camels in Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.A. Al-Juboori1

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The present study was designed to determine the prevalence of different types of mastitis in camels in U.A.E. and to identify the causative microorganisms and their sensitivity to different antimicrobial agents. From 162 lactating she-camels, 630 milk samples were collected from different cities in Abu Dhabi Emirate/UAE. The overall prevalence of mastitis was 18.52% (7.94% on quarter basis, the prevalence of clinical and sub clinical mastitis was found to be 24.70% and 11.67% on animal basis, respectively; it being 9.70% and 5.86% on quarter basis, respectively. The hind quarters were more frequently affected than the fore quarters. Bacteriological examination of milk samples revealed that Staphylococcus was the chief etiological agents both in clinical and sub clinical mastitis (41.67% in camels, followed by Streptococcus spp. (21.67%, Enterobacter spp. (15.00%, C. pyogenes (10.00%, Micrococcus spp. (5.00%, Pasteurells spp. (5.00% and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (1.66%. Most of the Staphylococcus spp., Streptococcus spp. and C. pyogenes strains were sensitive to carbenicillin, gentamycin, kanamycin, and erythromycin, but resistant to colistin and sulphamethoxazole. Other pathogens like Enterobacter, Micrococcus, Pasteurella spp. and Ps. aeuroginosa isolates showed variable sensitivities to the antimicrobials.

  7. Factors influencing the prevalence of subclinical mastitis in lactating dromedary camels in Riyadh Region, Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aljumaah, Riyadh S; Almutairi, Faris F; Ayadi, Moez; Alshaikh, Mohammad A; Aljumaah, Ali M; Hussein, Mansour F

    2011-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of subclinical mastitis in camels in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia and the factors influencing its incidence. A total of 740 quarter milk samples were collected from 47 camel herds belonging to Majahim, Maghatir, Shu'l, and Sufer breeds. California mastitis test (CMT) was used as a screening test for subclinical mastitis. Samples giving negative or trace CMT scores (0) were assigned to healthy quarters, while those giving positive scores of 1+ to 3+ were assigned to subclinically affected quarters. Logistic regression was used to assess the association of breed, parity, and stage of lactation with the prevalence of subclinical mastitis. Milk fat, protein, lactose, solid nonfat percentages and Na, Ca, and K concentrations were compared in CMT-positive versus healthy quarters. One third (33%) of tested quarters had subclinical mastitis based on CMT. The estimated probability of subclinical mastitis with the combined effects of breed, parity, and stage of lactation ranged from 15.8% to 54.6%. The risk of subclinical mastitis increased significantly with parity and with the early stage of lactation. The Shu'l breed had significantly higher prevalence of subclinical mastitis than other breeds. Significant decreases in protein, lactose, and solid nonfat, Ca and K concentrations and increase in Na concentrations were associated with subclinical mastitis. In conclusion, subclinical mastitis is prevalent in Saudi camels, and its incidence is influenced by breed, parity, and stage of lactation. PMID:21637994

  8. Immunohistochemical and lectin histochemical studies on the developing olfactory organs of fetal camel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Dalia; Taniguchi, Kazumi; Yamamoto, Yoshio; Taniguchi, Kazuyuki; Nakamuta, Nobuaki

    2015-07-01

    Little is known about the development of the olfactory organs of camel. In this study, prenatal development and neuronal differentiation of the vomeronasal organ (VNO) and the olfactory epithelium (OE) of the one-humped camel were studied by immunohistochemistry and lectin histochemistry. A neuronal marker, protein gene product (PGP) 9.5, but not a marker of fully differentiated olfactory receptor cells, olfactory marker protein, intensely labeled the olfactory receptor cells of the VNO and OE at 395 mm, 510 mm, and 530 mm fetal ages, indicating that the olfactory receptor cells are differentiated, but not fully matured both in the VNO and the OE. In 187 mm and 190 mm fetuses, PGP 9.5 yielded faint immunoreactive signals in the VNO, but not in the OE, although the presence of olfactory receptor cells were demonstrated in both tissues by intense WGA and LEL stainings. We conclude that the camel VNO and OE bear differentiated, but still immature receptor cells; in addition, the onset of neuronal differentiation seems to be somewhat earlier in the VNO than in the OE till half of the prenatal life. PMID:25950169

  9. CAMELS-based Determinants for the Credit Rating of Turkish Deposit Banks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serhat Yuksel

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper demonstrates the relationship between CAMELS ratios and credit ratings of deposit banks in Turkey. Annual data was used for the period between 2004 and 2014 in this study. Moreover, 20 deposit banks of Turkey were analyzed and 21 different ratios of CAMELS components were used. In addition to that, credit ratings of these banks were provided from Moody’s corporation or annual activity reports of the banks. After that, we created multi nominal logistic regression analysis in order to illustrate the relationship. The major finding in this study is that three components (Asset Quality, Management Quality, and Sensitivity to Market Risk of CAMELS have effects on credit ratings whereas the ratios related to Capital Adequacy and Earnings are not effective. As a result, it was recommended that Turkish deposit banks should concentrate on the percentage of fixed assets and interest income to have a better rating. Moreover, having high market share with respect to total assets and lower interest expense are also other important points for this purpose. On the other hand, Turkish deposit banks should control the proportion of financial assets and increase the amount of FX liquid assets to prevent credit ratings to decrease. Additionally, market share of banks for loans should not reach at high level for this objective.

  10. Serological evidence of camel exposure to Peste des Petits ruminants virus in Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. S. Swai,

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available A repository of camel sera collected in northern Tanzania between June through August 2010 was assayed for antibody against Peste des petits virus ruminants virus (PPRV known to be widespread in the inter-tropical regions of Africa, as well as in the Arabian Peninsula, the Middle East and Asia. A total of 193 serum samples, collected from 14 herds were tested by competitive enzyme linked immunosorbent assay(c-ELISA for PPRV antibody detection. The overall individual animal level seroprevalence was low, with mean of 2.6% (5/193 and all positive sera were from homebred camels, with at least one seropositive animal detected in 14.2% (2/14 of herds. Amongst the risk factors/variables examined, camels located in Hai, Kilindi and of age category ≥5-10 years old appeared to be most at risk, with seroprevalences of 15%, 13.3% and 5.1%, respectively. The results indicate that PPR virus is circulating in Tanzania. Despite the low prevalence recorded; however, the potential risk to animal health and economic is of concern; underscoring the need for further research, active surveillance to better understand the epidemiology of the disease in a wider geographical area in Tanzania.

  11. The differentiation of camel breeds based on meat measurements using discriminant analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Atiyat, Raed Mahmoud; Suliman, Gamal; AlSuhaibani, Entissar; El-Waziry, Ahmad; Al-Owaimer, Abdullah; Basmaeil, Saeid

    2016-06-01

    The meat productivity of camel in the tropics is still under investigation for identification of better meat breed or type. Therefore, four one-humped Saudi Arabian (SA) camel breeds, Majaheem, Maghateer, Hamrah, and Safrah were experimented in order to differentiate them from each other based on meat measurements. The measurements were biometrical meat traits measured on six intact males from each breed. The results showed higher values of the Majaheem breed than that obtained for the other breeds except few cases such dressing percentage and rib-eye area. In differentiation analysis, the most discriminating meat variables were myofibrillar protein index, meat color components (L* and a*, b*), and cooking loss. Consequently, the Safrah and the Majaheem breeds presented the largest dissimilarity as evidenced by their multivariate means. The canonical discriminant analysis allowed an additional understanding of the differentiation between breeds. Furthermore, two large clusters, one formed by Hamrah and Maghateer in one group along with Safrah. These classifications may assign each breed into one cluster considering they are better as meat producers. The Majaheem was clustered alone in another cluster that might be a result of being better as milk producers. Nevertheless, the productivity type of the camel breeds of SA needs further morphology and genetic descriptions. PMID:26922738

  12. 驼绒的脱色工艺%Bleaching technique on camel hair

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭永利; 孙勇; 李玉梅; 罗灿

    2012-01-01

    驼绒本身带有较深的棕黄色,无法进行染色,必须先进行脱色处理.以双氧水为氧化剂对驼绒进行脱色处理.脱色工艺条件为:浴比1:40,双氧水质量浓度14.5g/L,氧漂稳定剂质量浓度6g/L,脱色时间4h、温度55℃、pH6.5.驼绒的白度由-14.32脱色为62.57,可以满足染色工艺的白度要求;单纤断裂强力由13.3cN降为12.5cN,降幅6.0%,但不影响其正常纺纱所需的强力.SEM分析证明经过脱色处理后的驼绒纤维表而变得规整、洁净,鳞片表面变得粗糙,边缘圆滑.%Camel hair can't be dyed because of its deep brown, so it must be bleached firstly. Camel hair was bleached by hydrogen peroxide as oxidizer in the paper. The bleaching technological conditions were bath ratio 1:40, concentration of hydrogen peroxide 14. 5 g/L, concentration of oxygen bleaching stabilizer 6 g/L, bleaching time 4h, temperature 55 ℃ and pH 6.5. Whiteness of camel hair is bleached from - 14. 32 to 62.57 and can be applied to dyeing. The brute force of camel hair cellfibre has some decrease from 13. 3 cN to 12.5 cN,and decreasing amplitude is 6.0% , which still satisfies the brute force of spinning technology. SEM analysis proves that the surface feature of bleached camel hair is changed obviously from irregular to clear and neat, and the edge of squama is smooth and sleek.

  13. Churning efficiency and microbial quality of butter made from camel milk alone and blending it with goat milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleme Asresie

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the churning efficiency of milk sample for buttermaking from camel milk by blending it with goat milk and microbiological quality of butter made at different blending levels were assessed. The experiment was laid out in completely randomized design with five treatments: T1 (100% camel milk, T2 (75% camel and 25% goat milk, T3 (50% camel and 50% goat milk, T4 (25% camel and 75% goat milk and T5 (100% goat milk. The churning efficiency and microbiological quality of the milk and butter samples were analyzed following standard procedures. The fermentation time (11.33 days, churning time (121.7 min and churning temperature (28°C of T1 were significantly (P < 0.001 higher than the other milk samples. T1 had significantly (P < 0.001 lower churning pH (4.13 and butter yield (49.3 g/L than the other samples. T3 and T4 had significantly (P < 0.001 higher butter yield than the other milk samples. The fermentation time, churning time and churning temperature of T5 were significantly (P < 0.001 lower than the rest and T5 required significantly (P < 0.001 higher churning pH than the other milk samples. The coliform count (CC, enterobacteriaceae count (EBC, lipolytic bacteria count (LBC and yeast and mould count (YMC of T1 was significantly (P < 0.001 higher than the other butter samples. The CC, EC and total bacteria count (TBC of T5 was significantly (P < 0.001 higher than T2, T3 and T4 and it had significantly (P < 0.001 lower TBC than the others. The results showed that blending camel milk with goat milk improved churning efficiency and microbial quality of butter made from camel milk at different blending levels. Although butter can be made from pure camel milk, it took longer churning time and fermentation time. Thus, research is needed in order to reduce the churning time, improve the yield of butter and microbial quality made from pure and blended camel milk by manipulating the operating parameters viz., pH of the milk, churning

  14. Disease and health conditions affecting camel production in pastoral and agro-pastoral communities of northern Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. S. Swai,

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available A cross-sectional field survey was conducted to determine the seroprevalence and to identify risk factors for brucellosis seropositivity and udder health in camel from 8 geographical localities of northern Tanzania during the period of June to August 2010. The study populations comprised 193 camels of all age and sexes, selected from 14 traditional managed herds. Individual animal and herd-level data were collected using a structured questionnaire. Mastitis was investigated based on microbiology and California mastitis test (CMT, while brucellosis was evaluated serologically for antibodies against Brucella infection using Rose Bengal Plate test (RBPT. The crude prevalence of antibodies to Brucella was 2.1% for individual camels and 21.4% for herds. Of the 128 udder quarters and 128 teats investigated, proportion found to have physical lesion or defects were 0.8% for teats and 4.7% for udder quarters, respectively. The common observed teats lesion was scar and for quarters was firmness upon touch. Of the 32 lactating camels examined, 12.5% had abnormalities in their udder as evidence of mastitis with 3.1% and 9.3% being clinical and sub-clinical mastitis respectively; at camel level. Of the 128 quarters examined 9(7.03% were infected: 4(3.1% clinically and 5(3.9% sub-clinically. E. coli was the major isolate from camel milk samples. The mean (±SE calving interval of the 17 camels that were reported to have calved more than once in their life time was estimated to be 789 ± 14 days. Results of univariable logistic regression models identified body condition score and geographical location to be the major risk factors for individual herd seroprevalence. Poor condition score (16.6%; P<0.036 was associated with increased risk of seropositivity compared to animals with fair to good condition. Results of the present study suggest that poor husbandry practices, production related diseases namely brucellosis and mastitis in camels exists within camel

  15. Effect of Camel Milk Administration on Radiation- Induced Changes in Blood and Liver Tissue in Female Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study was conducted to investigate the possible role of camel milk administration against damages induced by gamma-rays. Female albino rats (100-150 g) were divided equally into four groups each consisting of 12 rats. Group 1: Control animals, group 2: Rats drinking camel milk instead of water, group 3: Rats exposed once to gamma-irradiation (4 Gy) and group 4: Rats drinking camel milk post irradiation for 4 weeks. Blood samples and liver tissue specimens were obtained after two and 4 weeks post-irradiation. Haematocrit value (Ht), haemoglobin concentration (Hb), red (RBCs) and white (WBCs) blood cells count, serum insulin, glucose, cholesterol, calcium and total lipids concentrations as well as cell number, cell size and DNA and total protein content in liver tissue were determined. Gamma-irradiation caused significant disturbances in haematological, biochemical parameters and liver cellular aspects. Drinking of camel milk induced no effect on the tested parameters. On the other hand, combined treatment including camel milk administration post irradiation showed a significant amelioration of unfavourable changes produced by gamma irradiation

  16. Examining Cultural Tourism Attractions for Foreign Visitors: The Case of Camel Wrestling in Selçuk (Ephesus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vedat Çalışkan

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This study focuses on the Camel Wrestling Festival in Selçuk, which has gained importance with its tourist appeal among traditional camel wrestling organizations in Western Anatolia. The study aimed to investigate those aspects of the Festival, which were found to be attractive for foreign visitors, and to evaluate the impacts of tourism on this traditional event. The study data were obtained from the surveys that were completed by 56 foreign visitors at the Camel Wrestling Festival in Selçuk on January 18, 2009. Findings of the study demonstrate that this traditional event attracts foreign visitors from various countries worldwide, for they are curious about this event and desire to have a cultural-authentic experience. The Camel Wrestling Festival in Selçuk is a cultural heritage, which has not been commercialized or lost its authentic significance yet, although it is vulnerable to the impact of international tourism. Nevertheless, handing this value down to the future by conserving it with its cultural surroundings is possible through a sustainable tourism policy. The Camel Wrestling Festival in Selçuk is in the process of becoming a touristic product, and the proposals in the study contribute to the development of a policy for the festival concerned.

  17. CAMEL vs. discriminante, un análisis de riesgo al sistema financiero venezolano CAMEL vs discriminant, a risk analysis to the Venezuelan financial system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús Yoel Crespo

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available  El artículo presentan las calificaciones de riesgo de las instituciones pertenecientes al sistema financiero venezolano al cierre del primer semestre del año 2010, obtenidas mediante la aplicación de dos metodologías: la primera conocida como CAMEL y la segunda a través de una técnica estadística denominada análisis discriminante, esta última permitirá clasificar a las instituciones financieras en categorías de riesgo, formar un perfil que muestre las característica más representativa de las categoría y cuantificar la probabilidad de pertenecer a una calificación. La investigación pretende establecer si un modelo es mejor que el otro, sino demostrar que se puede complementar el análisis netamente descriptivo con el análisis multivariante, aplicándolo en un área del saber que ha sido poco explotada en Venezuela, permitiendo informar a la colectividad en general, las técnicas estadísticas empleadas en materia de riesgo. AbstractThis paper presents the credit ratings of the institutions belonging to the Venezuelan financial system at the end of the first half of 2010, obtained by applying two methods: the first known as CAMEL and the second through a statistical technique called analysis discriminant, the latter will qualify for financial institutions in risk categories, form a profile that shows the most representative feature of the category and quantify the probability of belonging to a rating. This research does not establish whether one model is better than the other, but show that you can supplement purely descriptive analysis multivariate analysis, applied to an area of knowledge that has been little exploited in Venezuela, allowing to inform the public at large , the statistical techniques used in risk.This paper presents the credit ratings of the institutions belonging to the Venezuelanfinancial system at the end of the first half of 2010, obtained by applying two methods:the first known as CAMEL and the second

  18. Improving the physico-chemical and sensory characteristics of camel meat burger patties using ginger extract and papain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Naeem, Heba H S; Mohamed, Hussein M H

    2016-08-01

    The objective of the current study was to include tenderizing agents in the formulation of camel meat burger patties to improve the physico-chemical and sensory characteristics of the product. Camel meat burger patties were processed with addition of ginger extract (7%), papain (0.01%) and mixture of ginger extract (5%) and papain (0.005%) in addition to control. Addition of ginger, papain and their mixture resulted in significant (Ppapain extract caused noticeable destructive effect on connective tissue. Moreover, ginger and papain resulted in improvement of the lipid stability of treated burger patties during storage. Therefore, addition of ginger extract and papain powder during formulation of camel burger patties can improve their physico-chemical and sensory properties. PMID:27045253

  19. What prevents Struthio camelus and Dromaius novaehollandiae (Palaeognathae from choking? A novel anatomical mechanism in ratites, the linguo-laryngeal apparatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crole Martina R

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The avian glottis channels air from the oropharynx to the trachea and is situated on an elevated structure, the laryngeal mound. It is imperative that the glottis be protected and closed during swallowing, which in mammals is achieved by covering the glottis with the epiglottis, as well as by adduction of the arytenoid cartilages. An epiglottis, however, is reportedly absent in birds. Ratites such as Struthio camelus and Dromaius novaehollandiae possess a very wide glottis in comparison to other birds. The question therefore arises as to how these large birds avoid inhalation of ingesta through a wide glottis, with apparently little protection, particularly as their feeding method involves throwing the food over the glottis to land in the proximal esophagus. Results In S. camelus when the glottis was closed and the tongue body retracted, the smooth tongue root became highly folded and the rostral portion of the laryngeal mound was encased by the pocket in the base of the ∩ − shaped tongue body. In this position the lingual papillae also hooked over the most rostral laryngeal projections. However, in D. novaehollandiae, retraction of the tongue body over the closed glottis resulted in the prominent, triangular tongue root sliding over the rostral portion of the laryngeal mound. In both S. camelus and D. novaehollandiae these actions resulted in the rostral portion of the laryngeal mound and weakest point of the adducted glottis being enclosed and stabilised. Conclusions Only after conducting a comparative study between these two birds using fresh specimens did it become clear how specific morphological peculiarities were perfectly specialised to assist in the closure and protection of the wide glottis. We identify, describe and propose a unique anatomical mechanism in ratites, which may functionally replace an epiglottis; the linguo-laryngeal apparatus.

  20. Behavioral indicators to detect ovarian phase in the dromedary she-camel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padalino, B; Rateb, S A; Ibrahim, N B; Monaco, D; Lacalandra, G M; El-Bahrawy, K A

    2016-06-01

    This pilot study was conducted to test the hypothesis that female camels behave differently in various ovarian phases in the presence of a restrained male camel. The aim was to identify behavioral patterns which could be used as indicators to detect ovulatory phase by visual observation in the presence of a restrained virile bull. Twenty-four healthy, nonpregnant, and nonlactating adult females were used. Transrectal ultrasonography was performed for each animal once a week over a 3-week period to determine the phase of the ovarian cycle. Females were considered to be in the ovulatory phase (O) when there was at least one preovulatory follicle (12detected. Immediately after examination, each female was freely exposed to a restrained bull for 15 minutes, and her behaviors were filmed. The videos were analyzed through a focal animal-sampling ethogram (states: looking at the male; looking outside; standing close to the male; searching; and lying down; events: interaction with the male; urination; defecation; sound emission; and steps). A score for tail position (tail score: 1 = close to the vulva, 2 = horizontal, 3 = vertical) and for interest in the bull (male time score: from 1 to 5; 1 = lie down in front of him (P = 0.1202). Moreover, ovulatory phase had a significant effect on male time score (P detect their ovulatory phase. This would have profound implications for enhancing fertility in dromedary camels by improving timing of mating or artificial insemination. PMID:26928646

  1. Strategic (adaptive) hypothermia in bull dromedary camels during rut; could it increase reproductive success?

    OpenAIRE

    Grigg, Gordon; Beard, Lyn; Dörges, Birgit; Heucke, Jürgen; Coventry, Jocelyn; Coppock, Alex; Blomberg, Simon

    2009-01-01

    In this study of body temperatures (Tb) in free ranging dromedary camels, we found that bulls in rut start the days cooler. Daily minima during rut averaged 0.6°C lower than at other times (95% CI 0.27–0.94°C) and daily maxima averaged 0.45°C higher (95% CI −0.01 to –0.91°C), increasing the daily Tb cycle. Knut Schmidt-Nielsen described a similar pattern in captive dromedaries deprived of water in hot conditions, which he interpreted as a strategy to conserve water. Our observations were made...

  2. Angiography of testicular artery with special reference to the blood supply of the testis in camel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The right and left testicular arteries in camel arose independently from the ventrolateral aspect of abdominal aorta at the level of fourth of fifth lumbar vertebra. Both arteries although had different relations and course inside the abdominal cavity had similar inguinal and post inguinal course. The artery described a great number of convolutions in close apposition to each other, thus formed an elongated vascular cone with its apex at the superficial inguinal ring and the base on the caputal extremity of the testis. As testicular artery reached caputal extremity of testis it showed 2 patterns in its course. The intratesticular arborization of testicular artery consideted of centripetal and centrifugal arteries

  3. Effects of a long-acting trace mineral rumen bolus supplement on growth performance, metabolic profiles, and trace mineral status of growing camels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alhidary, Ibrahim A; Abdelrahman, Mutassim M; Harron, Raafat M

    2016-04-01

    A study was conducted to evaluate the effects of a long-acting trace mineral rumen bolus (TMB) supplement on the productive performance, metabolic profiles, and trace mineral status of growing camels under natural grazing conditions. Fifteen 6-month-old growing male camels (average bodyweight 139.51 ± 26.49 kg) were used in a 150-day trial. Animals were individually housed in a shaded pen and randomly assigned to receive zero (control group, CON), one (TMB1), or two (TMB2) long-acting TMBs. Feed intake was measured weekly, and camels were weighed monthly. Blood samples were collected from all camels on days 1, 30, 60, 90, 120, and 150 to obtain metabolic profiles. Zinc, selenium, copper, cobalt, and manganese concentrations were determined in the diet, serum, and liver. In comparison with controls, giving camels one TMB increased the average daily gain (14.38%; P copper, selenium, cobalt, and manganese were greater (P mineral profiles of camels. Different levels, sources, and synergistic combinations of trace minerals can be used in further studies to elucidate their abilities to increase productive variables as well as their availability and cost to the camel industry. PMID:26894497

  4. Camel Milk Triggers Apoptotic Signaling Pathways in Human Hepatoma HepG2 and Breast Cancer MCF7 Cell Lines through Transcriptional Mechanism

    OpenAIRE

    Alhaider, Abdulqader A.; El-Kadi, Ayman O. S.; Abd-Allah, Adel R.; Korashy, Hesham M.; Maayah, Zaid H.

    2012-01-01

    Few published studies have reported the use of crude camel milk in the treatment of stomach infections, tuberculosis and cancer. Yet, little research was conducted on the effect of camel milk on the apoptosis and oxidative stress associated with human cancer. The present study investigated the effect and the underlying mechanisms of camel milk on the proliferation of human cancer cells using an in vitro model of human hepatoma (HepG2) and human breast (MCF7) cancer cells. Our results showed t...

  5. TIBETANS, CAMELS, YURTS, AND SINGING TO THE SALT GODDESSES: AN A MDO ELDER REFLECTS ON LOCAL CULTURE

    OpenAIRE

    Wenchangjia; CK Stuart

    2015-01-01

    Historical camel herding and use in Mang ra (Guinan) County, Mtsho lho (Hainan) Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture, Mtsho sngon (Qinghai) Province, China is described through the recollections of Rin chen skyid (1919-2011) and other lifelong residents of the area. Yurts and salt collecting and culture are also described. Three maps and four photographs provide additional information.

  6. Author Shares a Message of Acceptance with Young Readers: Encouraging Cultural Understanding Author Prue Mason's "Camel Rider"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curriculum Review, 2007

    2007-01-01

    This article presents an interview with Prue Mason about her book "Camel Rider." Prue Mason has written articles for a children's magazine in Dubai, United Arab Emirates, and for "The School Magazine" in Australia. Mason also serves as the science and technology editor for an Australian children's magazine. She discusses what prompted her to write…

  7. TIBETANS, CAMELS, YURTS, AND SINGING TO THE SALT GODDESSES: AN A MDO ELDER REFLECTS ON LOCAL CULTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenchangjia

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Historical camel herding and use in Mang ra (Guinan County, Mtsho lho (Hainan Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture, Mtsho sngon (Qinghai Province, China is described through the recollections of Rin chen skyid (1919-2011 and other lifelong residents of the area. Yurts and salt collecting and culture are also described. Three maps and four photographs provide additional information.

  8. Influence of Sodium Bisulfite and Lithium Bromide Solutions on the Shape Fixation of Camel Guard Hairs in Slenderization Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xueliang Xiao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Outstanding performance of natural camel hair has attracted much attention on the effective use of such specialty fiber to apparel textiles. In this paper, sodium bisulfide (SB and lithium bromide (LB solutions were used to process the camel guard hair before its slenderization. It is found that camel guard hair processed by SB solution shows the highest breaking elongation (~140% due to the breakage of disulfide bonds (reflected by Raman spectra. LB ions result in the disruption of hair crystalline phase with slight benefit to the slenderization (determined by X-ray diffraction and differential scanning calorimetry. IR spectra indicate that hydrogen bonds of camel guard hair act as fixation switch in the programmed tensile test. It is discovered that guard hair reveals the best water-induced shape memory with 90% of stretching shape recovery, whereas the value remained to be 70% and 60% for hair processed by LB and SB solutions after breaking partial crystalline phase and disulfide cross-links separately (polymer net-points. The poorer shape memory of processed guard hair benefits its slenderization for more stable fixation of stretched length.

  9. Vertical transmission of Trypanosoma evansi in dromedary camels and studies on fetal pathology, diagnosis and treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narnaware, Shirish D; Ghorui, Samar K; Kumar, Sanjay; Patil, Nitin V

    2016-06-01

    In the present study, a total of 14 (73.68%) cases of abortions and two (100%) cases of still births were detected positive for Trypanosoma evansi infection by wet and dry blood smear examination and fetal tissue PCR in camels of an organized farm. The abortions in infected dams were recorded from 8 to 11.5 month of gestation, however majority occurred during 9th to 10th month. The important laboratorial findings in infected dams were anemia, hypoglycemia, hyperproteinemia and leukocytosis. At necropsy the T. evansi infected aborted and still born fetuses showed subcutaneous edema, presence of moderate amount of dark red hemolysed blood in thoracic and abdominal cavity, bronchopneumonia, hepatic necrosis and acute congestion in all vital organs. Microscopically, there was severe congestion, thickening of bronchial and alveolar wall and mononuclear infiltration in the fetal lung, necrotic and degenerative changes in the liver, nephritis along with severe congestion and tubular necrosis in the kidneys and necrotic and degenerative changes and congestion of capillaries in the brain. The T. evansi DNA was detected by PCR from blood, lung, spleen, liver, kidney and brain of all the infected aborted and still born fetuses. The results of the study indicated that T. evansi can cross placental barrier and cause pathological events in the fetus resulting into abortion or still birth in pregnant camels. PMID:27078656

  10. Molecular detection of Trypanosoma from one-humped camels slaughtered in Najafabad slaughterhouse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samaneh Mehrabiyan

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available   Introduction: Trypanosomes infect a variety of animals and cause fever, weakness, and lethargy, which lead to weight loss and anemia. In livestock the disease is fatal unless treated and causes serious economic losses. Present study was conducted to detection of Trypanosoma from one-humped camels slaughtered in Najafabad slaughterhouse .   Materials and methods: 278 blood samples were taken at three different time periods from one-humped camels slaughtered in Najafabad slaughterhouse and were tested by polymerase chain reaction (PCR to detection of Trypanosoma .   Results: The overall infection rate of Trypanosoma was 1.07%. Positive samples (3.8% only found in spring and summer, and no positive sample was found in fall and winter .   Discussion and conclusion : Fortunately, this may suggest that the prevalence of Trypanosoma is very low in the region. It is suggested to prevent the disease by preventing livestock suspected of carrying the disease from entering the country. If it is not possible to test imported healthy livestock by molecular assays, it is recommended that simple and rapid tests such as agglutination tests that do not need an expert be assessed .

  11. Sero-Prevalence and Epidemiology of Brucellosis in Camels, Sheep and Goats in Abu Dhabi Emirate

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    Maymona A Mohammed

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Brucellosis is a disease of animals caused by Brucella species and is transmissible to humans. This study was undertaken to determine the sero-prevalence of the disease in livestock including sheep and goats and camels, in different regions of Abu Dhabi emirate and to identify factors associated with the epidemiology of the disease. A serological study using 6126 blood samples from livestock were obtained from 267 farms (Izaba during the period from January 2009 to December 2010. The Rose Bengal Plate Test and competitive ELISA were used as screening and confirmatory tests, respectively. The overall sero-prevalence of Brucella antibodies was 8.00% and 7.00% detected by the RBPT by c-ELISA respectively. Brucella prevalence was 8.3, 5.9 and 4.7% in Alain, Abu Dhabi and Western region. The prevalence of the disease was higher (8.4% in sheep and goats than (4.4% in camels respectively. The result showed that, the prevalence of brucellosis was significantly higher in females than male (p<0.04 Out of the 267 farms sampled in the study, 147 (55.1% were infected with Brucella There was strong correlation between herd size and prevalence of the disease, very large herds had significantly higher prevalence when compared with small ones. The study revealed light of a size able prevalence among livestock in Abu Dhabi Emirate and the results reflect the necessity of a control program of the disease is needed to be adopted.

  12. Evaluation of performance and carcass characteristics of camel-calves fattened with molasses

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    H. K. Mohamed,

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Twenty camel-calves were employed in this feeding trial for a period of 98 days. Calves were stratified according to body weight into two groups, then allotted randomly to two dietary treatments. Diet (A consists of molasses feed while Diet (B consists of sorghum grain feed. During the pre-experimental period (12 days, the experimental animals were maintained on sorghum Stover diet, the experimental diets were introduced gradually until full replacement took place. The results indicated that no significant differences (P<0.05 were observed in dry matter intake, rate of body weight gain, and feed conversion ratio. No significant differences were found (in percentage between the two groups; in head, hide, four feet, intestine, stomach, mesenteric fats, kidneys, kidneys fats, liver, heart, lung and diaphragm. Also, no significant differences were found between the two groups in hot carcass weight, cold carcass weight and dressing percentage. This trial confirmed that no significant differences were found in chemical analysis, carcass colour and water holding capacity and cooking loss. This study was carried out to evaluate performance and carcass characteristics of camel-calves fattened with molasses that replaced sorghum grains which is the basal diet of most Sudanese people.

  13. Camel's Milk Protects against Aluminum Chloride-Induced Toxicity in the Liver and Kidney of White Albino Rats

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    Fahaid Al-Hashem

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Aluminum chloride (AlCl3 is commonly used in daily life but it can be potentially toxic. Therefore, the present study was carried out to investigate the protective effects of camel' milk against aluminum-induced biochemical alterations and oxidative stress in the liver and kidney of white albino rats. Approach: White albino male rats (230-250 g were divided into three groups of 10 rats: a control group treated with normal saline, the AlCl3-treated group and the camel's milk-AlCl3-treated group. The AlCl3 treated group received 0.5 mg kg-1 of AlCl3 orally. The camel's milk-AlCl3-treated group was fed 1 mL of fresh camel's milk 10 minutes prior to the administration of oral AlCl3. All rats were treated every day for 30 days. Liver and kidney biochemical serum parameters were analyzed. Lipid peroxidation, as determined by the tissue concentrations of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS and hydrogen peroxide (HP, and the oxidative stress status, as measured by glutathione (GSH, superoxide dismutase (SOD and catalase (CAT activity, were evaluated in the kidney and liver of treated rats. Results: Data showed that the oral administration of AlCl3 resulted in statistically significant increases in the serum levels of urea, creatinine, bilirubin, aspartate aminotransferase (AST, alanine aminotransferase (ALT, alkaline phosphatase (ALP, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH, cholesterol and triglycerides; the total amount of protein and albumin were also significantly decreased. However, these parameters were within normal levels in the rats given camel's milk prior to AlCl3. Additionally, oral administration of AlCl3 induced lipid peroxidation in the liver and kidney, which was indicated by a significant increase in lipid peroxidation biomarkers (TBARS and HP and a significant decrease in the activities of GSH, SOD and CAT. In all rats treated with camel's milk before being given AlCl3, lipid peroxidation and oxidative stress

  14. Studies on the susceptibility of ostriches (Struthio camelus to the Indonesian velogenic strain of Newcastle disease virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darminto

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available Susceptibility of ostriches (Struthio camelus to the Indonesian velogenic strain of Newcastle disease virus (NDV was evaluated by artificial infection . Twelve - 5 to 6 week old ostriches were divided into 3 groups each containing 4 birds . The first group was inoculated through respiratory system by dropping directly the virus solution into the nostrils, while the second group was inoculated through digestive system by dropping directly the virus solution into the oesophagus, with the dose of infection 106ELDSo (50%-embryo lethal dose per bird . Meanwhile, the third group was treated as uninfected control . All infected birds developed antibody responses, but only two inoculated birds from the first group and two inoculated birds from the second group developed clinical signs of Newcastle disease (ND, with no specific pathological alterations . Infected birds, either sicks or healthy, excreted the challenge viruses through the respiratory system and still be detected up to the end of this experiment, ie . 15 days post-inoculation . The challenge viruses can be re-isolated from the brain, trachea, lungs, heart, liver, spleen, kidneys, small intestine, cecal-tonsil, and proventriculus of the infected birds . This study concludes that: (1 the ostriches are susceptible to the infection of the Indonesian velogenic strain ofNDV; (2 all infected birds developed immune responses, but only half of them develops el jtigi aj i disease ; (3 the infected birds excreted the challenge viruses for a considerable long time which may play role as the Mginiseti.ce ofinfectron the other healthy ostriches ; and (4 the challenge viruses can be re-isolated from various organs of the birds . .

  15. Poblaciones bacterianas utilizadoras de hidrógeno presentes en el tracto gastrointestinal del avestruz (Struthio camelus Var. Domesticus

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    J. M. Miramontes-Carrillo

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Tres grupos de bacterias compiten por hidrógeno en diferentes ecosistemas anaerobios, y junto con CO 2 , producen metano, sulfuro dehidrógeno y acetato. Estas reacciones representan ganancia de energía al animal. Motivo por el cual, el presente trabajo pretende evaluar la presencia y tamaño de poblaciones de bacterias utilizadoras de hidrógeno en el tracto gastrointestinaldel avestruz. Para ello se utilizaron medios AC11 para acetogénicas, Potgate para sulfato-reductoras y Fosfato buffer para metanogénicas. Las poblaciones se determinaron por el método del número más probable (NMP. El diseño fue completamente al azar, con arreglo factorial, A = porciones del tracto digestivo y B = microorganismo. El NMP, de acetogénicas y metanogénicas fue cero. Las bacterias sulfato-reductoras están presentes en todo el tracto gastrointestinal. Las poblaciones fueron 544.00; 532.00; 157.20; 155.32 y 76.48 x 10/ 6 para el intestino grueso, ciegos, intestino delgado, proventrículo y ventrículo, respectivamente. Los resultados confirman presencia y predominio de las sulfato-reductoras en todas las porciones del tracto gastrointestinal del Struthio camelus. La producción de AGV en el tracto gastrointestinal del avestruz, es producto del metabolismo y reutilización del hidrógeno por bacterias sulfato-reductoras.

  16. Genomic and Proteomic Characterization of Bacteriocin-Producing Leuconostoc mesenteroides Strains Isolated from Raw Camel Milk in Two Southwest Algerian Arid Zones

    OpenAIRE

    Zineb Benmechernene; Inmaculada Fernández-No; Marcos Quintela-Baluja; Karola Böhme; Mebrouk Kihal; Pilar Calo-Mata; Jorge Barros-Velázquez

    2014-01-01

    Information on the microbiology of camel milk is very limited. In this work, the genetic characterization and proteomic identification of 13 putative producing bacteriocin Leuconostoc strains exhibiting antilisterial activity and isolated from camel milk were performed. DNA sequencing of the 13 selected strains revealed high homology among the 16S rRNA genes for all strains. In addition, 99% homology with Leuconostoc mesenteroides was observed when these sequences were analysed by the BLAST t...

  17. Water turnover rate and total body water affected by different physiological factors under Egyptian environmental conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The tritiated water dilution technique was used to determine the total body water (TBW) and water turnover rate (WTR), which is assumed to be similar to water intake, in water buffalo, Red Danish cattle, fat-tailed Osemi sheep and crossed Nubian-Bedouin goats and camels (Camelus dromedarius). There was a significant (P < 0.05) effect of species on TBW and WTR. The combined data of buffalo, cattle and sheep revealed a significant (P < 0.05) effect of pregnancy on TBW, but not on WTR. The combined data of buffalo and cattle showed a significantly lower TBW (P < 0.01) and a higher WTR (P < 0.05) in lactating animals than in heifers. In buffalo WTR was on average 81% higher in summer grazing (SG) than in spring. It was also 118 and 20% higher in summer non-grazing (SNG), than in either spring or SG, respectively. The differences between treatments in heifers, pregnant and lactating, were significant (P<0.01), except between spring and SG in heifers. The TBW was on average 12% higher in SG than in spring. It was also 18 and 5% higher in SNG than in either spring or SG, respectively. The differences between treatments in heifers, pregnant and lactating, were significant, except between SG and SNG in heifers and lactating cows and between spring and SG in lactating cows. (author)

  18. Scarabaeus cristatus (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) as intermediate host of Physocephalus dromedarii (Nematoda: Spirocercidae)-a contribution to the epidemiology of camel physocephalidosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuster, Rolf K; Sivakumar, Saritha; Ismail, Akhmad A; Baumann, Maximilian P O

    2016-03-01

    In UAE, camel Physocephalus dromedarii was diagnosed for the first time in 2011 in dromedaries from a farm that previously had imported animals from foreign countries. The large scarab beetle, Scarabaeus cristatus, was found to be the major intermediate host for this parasite in Dubai. A total of 638 specimens of S. cristatus were collected and examined for the presence of third-stage larvae of nematode larvae at two sites in the Dubai Emirate (Emirates Industry for Camel Milk and Products and horse endurance training track) within a distance of 15 km. Third-stage larvae of P. dromedarii were detected in 94 and 97 % of beetles collected from the territory of the camel milk farm and the endurance training track, respectively. In addition to third-stage larvae, 264 beetles contained second-stage larvae. Only four beetles were infected with other than P. dromedarii larvae. The average larval burden in beetles from camel milk farm was significantly higher compared to those in beetles collected from the other site (1538 vs. 697). Comparison of larval burdens in juvenile and adult beetles collected at the camel milk farm showed a significantly higher intensity in adult specimens (501 vs. 1734) while in beetles found on the horse endurance track, larval burdens were comparable (548 vs. 858). The results suggest that S. cristatus become infected at the camel milk farm, and in search for other sources of food, they fly to places where they were found feeding on feces of other animals. PMID:26621282

  19. Molecular characterization of Echinococcus granulosus s.l. cysts from cattle, camels, goats and pigs in Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tigre, Worku; Deresa, Benti; Haile, Adane; Gabriël, Sarah; Victor, Bjorn; Pelt, Jani Van; Devleesschauwer, Brecht; Vercruysse, Jozef; Dorny, Pierre

    2016-01-15

    Cystic Echinococcosis (CE) caused by Echinococcus granulosus sensu lato (s.l.) is a neglected helminth zoonosis affecting humans and various animal species. Human CE has been reported in almost all countries of sub-Saharan Africa but its prevalence and public health impact are subject to large geographical variations. The reasons for these differences are not well understood; among other factors, occurrence of different species/genotypes of E. granulosus s.l. has been suggested. CE is very common in all livestock species in Ethiopia; human CE is poorly documented in the country. The aim of this study was to assess the fertility and molecularly characterize hydatid cysts collected from cattle, camels, goats and pigs from different parts of the country. From the 137 samples characterized by PCR-RFLP and sequencing, 115 (83.9%) were identified as E. granulosus s.s. (G1, common sheep strain), 6 (4.4%) as Echinococcus ortleppi (G5, cattle strain) and 16 (11.7%) as Echinococcus intermedius (G6/7, camel strain). In cattle, E. granulosus s.s. and E. ortleppi were found; in camels and goats, E. granulosus s.s. and E. intermedius; two cysts found in pigs were identified as E. granulosus s.s. and E. ortleppi, respectively. All cysts recovered from goats and pigs were sterile, while fertility was 34% and 50% in cysts from cattle and camels, respectively. In cattle, 31% of E. granulosus s.s. cysts were fertile, showing the importance of cattle in the transmission of the "sheep strain". Next to E. granulosus s.s., E. intermedius (camel strain) was the predominant species: 34.4% of the cysts collected from camels and 62.5% from goats were identified as E. intermedius. These animals originated from the drier Central, Eastern and Southern parts of the country. For the first time, we showed the presence of CE in pigs in Ethiopia. The presence of these strains and especially the fact that the zoonotic E. granulosus s.s. and E. intermedius are dominant, make CE an important public

  20. Epidemiology of camel trypanosomosis due to Trypanosoma evansi in Mauritania and its control strategies for sustainable livestock production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Camel trypanosomiasis due to Trypanosoma evansi is mechanically transmitted by hematophagious diptera such as Tabanidae, Stomoxyinae, and Hippoboscidae. In its acute form, the disease results in a generalized weakness. The animal lies down as of the least effort; milk production falls with the abortion of females. At times, the animal dies after a prolonged decubitus. However, in 80% cases, the disease is observed in its chronic form, which is characterized by considerable economic losses resulting from abortions, reduction of milk production, loss weight, and cachexia. Due to its extremely dry conditions Mauritania remains a favourable environment for camels as preferred livestock species of considerable economic importance. The animals are kept by shepherds who are very mobile in the field in search of good pastures and water points. Unfortunately, this pastoral system is reported to expose dromedaries to numerous pathologic conditions, especially camel trypanosomiasis due to T. evansi. Our investigations from 1993 to 1997 showed that T. evansi is present in the dromedaries in Mauritania. According the haematocrit centrifuge technique the parasite prevalence rate ranged from 1.1 to 13.6 % while seroprevalence varied from 13% to 36.7% according to the CATT test. In the Trarza region, as consequence of a good rainy season we more recently observed an abundance of tabanids and stomoxes hence a favourable ecology of T. evansi vectors, and subsequently an outbreak of camel trypanosomosis. Prevalence rate was 17.6% using buffy coat examination and 58.8% with the CATT. In many herds, numerous abortions were recorded and all breeders registered very important milk production losses. In order to limit the infections due to T. evansi, two control strategies for camel husbandry could be practiced in the Trarza region. The first is 'northern strategy' with the potential of lowering pastures availability and usage. However, it has the advantage of avoiding the direct and

  1. Prediction of default probability in banking industry using CAMELS index: A case study of Iranian banks

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    Mohammad Khodaei Valahzaghard

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the relationship between CAMELS index and default probability among 20 Iranian banks. The proposed study gathers the necessary information from their financial statements over the period 2005-2011. The study uses logistic regression along with Pearson correlation analysis to consider the relationship between default probability and six independent variables including capital adequacy, asset quality, management quality, earning quality, liquidity quality and sensitivity of market risk. The results indicate that there were no meaningful relationship between default probability and three independent variables including capital adequacy, asset quality and sensitivity of market risk. However, the results of our statistical tests support such relationship between default probability and three other variables including management quality, earning quality and liquidity quality.

  2. Angiography of renal artery with special reference to the blood supply of the kidney in camel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The vascular system of kidney of the camel is strikingly different from that of other domestic animals. The right and left renal arteries emanated independently from the ventrolateral aspect of abdominal aorta behind cranial mesenteric artery at the level of cranial border of third and fourth lumbar vertebra respectively. The renal artery after short lateral course divided into medial and lateral lobar arteries before reaching the hilus. The lobar artery after entering into the hilus gave 9-11 interlobar arteries. These interlobar arteries at the corticomedullary junction formed 2 - 7 arcuate arteries. The arcuate arteries detached numerous straight branches from their convex surfaces and then ended by dividing into 2 - 4 terminal branches. The straight branches and the terminal branches were present in a radiating manner as interlobular arteries

  3. Analyzing Financial Performance of Commercial Banks in India: Application of CAMEL Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prof. Dr. Mohi-ud-Din Sangmi

    Full Text Available Sound financial health of a bank is the guarantee not only to its depositors but is equally significant for the shareholders, employees and whole economy as well. As a sequel to this maxim, efforts have been made from time to time, to measure the financial position of each bank and manage it efficiently and effectively. In this paper, an effort has been made to evaluate the financial performance of the two major banks operating in northern India .This evaluation has been done by using CAMEL Parameters, the latest model of financial analysis. Through this model, it is highlighted that the position of the banks under study is sound and satisfactory so far as their capital adequacy, asset quality, Management capability and liquidity is concerned.

  4. A comparative analysis on ranking insurance firms using RBC and CAMELS

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    Zahra Houshmand Neghabi

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Ranking insurance firms plays an important role on choosing the most appropriate company for receiving appropriate services especially long term insurances such as life insurances. The proposed model of this paper uses two well-known methods of CAMELS and RBC to rank 18 active private and governmental insurance firms in Iran over the period of 2009-2011. The results of Spearman test imply that there is no meaningful difference between these two methods for year 2010 and year 2011 and according to Freedman test, there is not meaningful difference between these two methods in any three years of 2009, 2010 and 2011. In summary, we can conclude that the results of both methods could be used in practice.

  5. The Effect of Traditional Remedies (Camels Thorn, Flixweed and Sugar Water on Idiopathic Neonatal Jaundice

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    Shahin Mafinejad

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective:Jaundice is the most common reason of newborns admission to neonatal ward. Many Iranian families give traditional remedies like sugar water, camels thorn and flixweed extracts to breast-fed babies for reducing jaundice. This study investigated the effect of traditional remedies on idiopathic neonatal jaundice. Methods:This prospective study has been performed on 336 babies with idiopathic jaundice in a four year period (2005-2009 at Ghaem hospital, Mashhad, Iran. The babies were divided into two groups. In case group (n=234 breast-fed babies received no remedy and in control group (n=102, traditional remedies were given additional to breast milk and the results recorded and compared. Findings:In the present study significant differences were observed between the two groups in age of admission (6.8±3.2 vs 9.2±3.7 day, P<0.001, serum bilirubin values (17.8 vs 21.3 mg/dl, P<0.001 and percent of weight loss (P<0.01. There were no significant differences between the two groups in birth weight, sex, gestational age and duration of hospitalization, age at jaundice remission, hematocrit value and maternal factors (age, gestational order, pregnancy and labor problems(P>0.05. Conclusion:Traditional remedies (camels thorn, flixweed and sugar water cause more weight loss and delayed reexamination of newborns leading to increased hyperbilirubinemia. These remedies may raise pseudo confidence in parents, which postpones reexamination and follow up of the newborns.

  6. Musculoskeletal modelling of an ostrich (Struthio camelus) pelvic limb: influence of limb orientation on muscular capacity during locomotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchinson, John R; Rankin, Jeffery W; Rubenson, Jonas; Rosenbluth, Kate H; Siston, Robert A; Delp, Scott L

    2015-01-01

    We developed a three-dimensional, biomechanical computer model of the 36 major pelvic limb muscle groups in an ostrich (Struthio camelus) to investigate muscle function in this, the largest of extant birds and model organism for many studies of locomotor mechanics, body size, anatomy and evolution. Combined with experimental data, we use this model to test two main hypotheses. We first query whether ostriches use limb orientations (joint angles) that optimize the moment-generating capacities of their muscles during walking or running. Next, we test whether ostriches use limb orientations at mid-stance that keep their extensor muscles near maximal, and flexor muscles near minimal, moment arms. Our two hypotheses relate to the control priorities that a large bipedal animal might evolve under biomechanical constraints to achieve more effective static weight support. We find that ostriches do not use limb orientations to optimize the moment-generating capacities or moment arms of their muscles. We infer that dynamic properties of muscles or tendons might be better candidates for locomotor optimization. Regardless, general principles explaining why species choose particular joint orientations during locomotion are lacking, raising the question of whether such general principles exist or if clades evolve different patterns (e.g., weighting of muscle force-length or force-velocity properties in selecting postures). This leaves theoretical studies of muscle moment arms estimated for extinct animals at an impasse until studies of extant taxa answer these questions. Finally, we compare our model's results against those of two prior studies of ostrich limb muscle moment arms, finding general agreement for many muscles. Some flexor and extensor muscles exhibit self-stabilization patterns (posture-dependent switches between flexor/extensor action) that ostriches may use to coordinate their locomotion. However, some conspicuous areas of disagreement in our results illustrate

  7. Comparison between infants receiving traditional supplements (camel thorn, flix weed, and sugar water) and exclusively breast fed infants

    OpenAIRE

    Hassan Boskabadi; Sepideh Bagheri

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Although breast milk is considered the best nutritional option for neonates, use of traditional supplements such as sugar water, camel thorn, and flix weed in the first week of life of infants is quite common in Iran and many other countries. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether consuming such supplements has any impact on infant’s breastfeeding behavior. Materials and Methods: Four hundred fifty four term infants who were referred to the neonatal clinic of Ghaem hospital ...

  8. Analisis CAMEL untuk Menilai Tingkat Kesehatan Bank pada Perusahaan Perbankan yang Terdaftar di Bursa Efek Indonesia Periode 2009 – 2011

    OpenAIRE

    Khaira, Wandani Okti

    2015-01-01

    This research aims to provide empirical evidence about the factors that affect the conditions experienced by troubled banks in Indonesia by analyzing financial statements of the bank. Factors examined include the ratio of CAMEL is composed of Capital Adequacy Ratio (CAR), Non Performing Loan (NPL), Net Profit Margin (NPM), Net Interest Margin (NIM), Operating Expenses to Operating Income (BOPO), dan Loan to Deposit Ratio (LDR). The problem of this research is due to a contradiction (research ...

  9. Bioprospecting of Leuconostoc mesenteroides strains isolated from Algerian raw camel and goat milk for technological properties useful as adjunct starters

    OpenAIRE

    ZAROUR, K.; BENMECHERNENE, Z.; HADADJI, M.; MOUSSA-BOUDJEMAA, B.; HENNI, D.; Kihal, M.

    2012-01-01

    Leuconostoc species are lactic acid bacteria widely used in milk fermentation. Based on morphological, physiological and biochemical analysis, 18 strains of Leuconostoc mesenteroides were isolated and identified from 10 samples of goat's milk and camel's milk. Strains were identified as follows 09 strains of L. mesenteroides subsp. mesenteroides and 09 strains of L. mesenteroides subsp. dextranicum The results of technological tests of the strains showed that strains produced dextran, car...

  10. Lead acetate toxicity on glucose level and liver enzymes ameliorated by camel's milk in wistar albino rat

    OpenAIRE

    Draid, Marwan M.; Mujahed O. Bushwereb; Shadia G. Ramadan

    2016-01-01

    Background: The present work was conducted to investigate the effects of lead acetate intoxication on glucose and liver functions in albino rats, and the possible effectiveness of using camel milk to protect against lead induced toxicity. Methods: Eighteen male albino rats were divided into three groups of six, the first was a control group, the second received orally lead acetate in water as (2 ml saline containing 5 mg/kg body weight of lead acetate) and the third received the same ...

  11. High seroprevalence of bluetongue virus antibodies in Sheep, Goats, Cattle and Camel in different districts of Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Ahmed Al-Eesa

    Full Text Available Aim: To estimate the prevalence and distribution of serum antibodies to BTV in different domesticated animals in different localities of Saudi Arabia. Materials and Methods: A total of 4845 field sera collected from different animal species within 10 districts in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia were screened for the presence of group-specific BTV antibodies by competitive ELISA (c ELISA. Results: The overall BTV antibody prevalence was 54.1%, 53.3%, 44.8% and 25.7% in sheep, goat, cattle and camel respectively (at 95% confidence level. The Jizan and Eastern Province districts were the regions with the highest prevalence resulting 65.8% of sheep, 68.2% of goats, 49.3% of cattle, 44% of camel in Jizan and 65.8% of sheep, 62.5% of goats, 53.4% of cattle, 28.5% of camel in Eastern Province positive to c-ELISA. The second highest rate was in Najran district where the seropositivity for Bluetongue was found to be 60% of sheep, 57.9% of goats, 47.2% of cattle and 29.3% of camel. Our results recorded positive animals in all examined districts which indicate serological evidence of exposure to infection was widely distributed all over the country. Conclusions: These results demonstrate the high occurrence of the BTV that emphasize the necessity to a well-defined control strategy for preventing and controlling the BTV in Saudi Arabia. [Vet. World 2012; 5(7.000: 389-393

  12. Microbial load and phytochemicals stability of camel hay (Cymbopogon Schoenanthus L) leaves as affected by gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The influence of gamma irradiation on microbial load and chemical quality of camel hay (Cymbopogon schoenanthus) leaves was evaluated at doses of 0, 5,10, and 15 kGy in a cobalt-60 package irradiator. The results revealed that, immediately after irradiation, gamma irradiation was found to cause significant reduction in microbial load proportionate to the doses delivered. TLC analysis indicated that irradiation of camel hay leaves extract with 15 kGy doses of gamma radiation had no effect on flavonoids concentrations, however, increase in total phenols and tannins was observed. In addition, the chemical constituents of camel hay leaves as represented by HPLC retention time (min) at different wave lengths showed that the compounds of retention time 8.42, 29.08, 8.38, 16.93, 14.80 and 42.80 min remained approximately unchanged, while the compound of retention times 16.95 min was eliminated. The compounds of retention times 9.66, 2.03 and 29.35 min were decreased from 16.56 to 11.77, 14.06 to 9.88 and 8.25 to 2.88 min respectively. An increase in the chemical constituents, was observed in the compounds of the retention times 14.37 and 35.42 min from 33.76 to 40.11 and 5.64 to 10.05, respectively. (Author)

  13. Responses to dehydration in the one-humped camel and effects of blocking the renin-angiotensin system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud Alhaj Ali

    Full Text Available Our objectives were to compare the levels of circulating electrolytes, hormones, and renal function during 20 days of dehydration in camels versus the level in non-dehydrated camels and to record the effect of blocking angiotensin II AT1 receptors with losartan during dehydration. Dehydration induced significant increments in serum sodium, creatinine, urea, a substantial fall in body weight, and a doubling in plasma arginine vasopressin (AVP levels. Plasma aldosterone, however, was unaltered compared with time-matched controls. Losartan significantly enhanced the effect of dehydration to reduce body weight and increase serum levels of creatinine and urea, whilst also impairing the rise in plasma AVP and reducing aldosterone levels. We conclude that dehydration in the camel induces substantial increments in serum sodium, creatinine, urea and AVP levels; that aldosterone levels are altered little by dehydration; that blockade of angiotensin II type 1 receptors enhances the dehydration-induced fall in body weight and increase in serum creatinine and urea levels whilst reducing aldosterone and attenuating the rise in plasma AVP.

  14. The Cytotoxic Effect of Small and Large Molecules of PMF Fraction Extracted from Camel Urine on Cancer Cells

    KAUST Repository

    Khorshid, Faten

    2015-01-10

    Aim of the work: Animal urine, including that of camels, has long been used for the therapeutic management of human ailments. In this study, we sought to characterize the cytotoxic properties of newly derived purified fractions from previously described camel urine extract (PMF) on various cancer cell lines. Methodology: Two new size dissimilar fractions of PMF (large and small) were obtained by fractionalizing PMF using 3kD and 50kD membrane filters. A SRB cytotoxicity assay of the PMF fractions was performed on cancer cell lines (A549, HCT116, HepG2, MCF-7, U251 and Hela) as well as normal cell lines (human fibroblast cell line and Vero). Results: This study showed that the newly derived and more purified fraction of PMF (new PMF) possesses effective and selective anti-cancer properties against several types of cancer cell lines. Conclusion: This study, as well as previous ones, suggests that camel urine extracts (old and new PMF) may provide newer therapeutic alternatives to clinically manage cancer patients. However, further studies are needed to verify these positive preliminary results.

  15. Field Investigation on the Prevalence of Trypanosomiasis in Camels in Relation to Sex, Age, Breed and Herd Size

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Bhutto, J. A. Gadahi, G. Shah1, P. Dewani2 and A.G. Arijo

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Blood samples were collected from 240 camels (183 male and 57 female of four breeds from six districts of Sindh. An overall infection was determined as 11.25%. Species of Trypanosoma was identified as Trypanosoma evansi. District wise infection was found to be 2.5, 7.5, 12.5, 15.00, 22.5 and 7.5% in Hyderabad, Mirpur Khas, Umerkot, Badin, Thatta and Larkana, respectively. A higher infection was found in females (15.79% as compared to males (9.84%. Highest (14.96% infection was noted in age group >7 years, followed by 8.57 and 4.65% in 3 to 7 years and less than to 3 years old camels, respectively. Four breeds of camels were surveyed and the highest infection rate was found in Sakrai breed (21.82%, followed by 16.67, 6.15 and 5.95% in Kharai, Sindhi and Dhati breeds respectively. When herd size was considered, infection rate was 1.67, 6.67, 15.00 and 21.67% in herds possessing 1 to 5, 6 to 10, 11 to 20 and more than 20 animals, respectively.

  16. Coxiella burnetii, the causative agent of Q fever in Saudi Arabia:molecular detection from camel and other domestic livestock

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Osama B Mohammed; Abdulrahman A Jarelnabi; Riyadh S Aljumaah; Mohammed A Alshaikh; Amel O Bakhiet; Sawsan A Omer; Abdulaziz N Alagaili; Mansour F Hussein

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To detectCoxiella burnetii(C. burnetii)DNA in clinical specimens from camel, goats, cattle and sheep in theKingdom ofSaudiArabia.Methods:A total of367 clinical samples including blood, milk, faeces and urine were collected from different livestock and subjected to PCR amplification using primers which amplify transposon-like region and transposase gene. Results:Positive amplification from both regions was obtained from camel,goats and cattle but not from sheep.A percentage of10.8% samples yielded positivePCR amplification from both blood and milk, where15 of139 blood and16 of148 milk samples were positive.Faeces and urine showed higher percentages of positive samples reaching40.8% and23.8% respectively. Conclusions:The preferred route of shedding in camel appeared to be the faeces followed by urine, while that of goats appeared to be the faeces and that of the cattle appeared to be the milk.

  17. Influence of stimulation by electroejaculation on myocardial function, acid-base and electrolyte status, and hematobiochemical profiles in male dromedary camels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tharwat, M; Ali, A; Al-Sobayil, F; Derar, R; Al-Hawas, A

    2014-10-01

    This study was carried out to evaluate the effect of electroejaculation (EEJ) on myocardial function, acid-base balance, and hematobiochemical profiles in male dromedary camels. Twenty sexually mature, apparently healthy male camels were assigned to EEJ. Parallel, eight naturally mated male camels were enrolled as a control group. Three blood samples were collected from each camel: just before (T0), directly after (T1), and 24 hours after (T2) EEJ or natural mating. The serum concentrations of the cardiac biomarker troponin I (cTnI), blood gas parameters, and hematobiochemical profiles were determined. Nineteen camels were ejaculated by the end of the second circuit and one by the end of the first circuit. In both groups, the mean heart and respiratory rates had increased significantly immediately after the procedure, but returned to normal values 24 hours after the procedure. The mean serum concentration of cTnI had increased significantly in all camels after EEJ, but not in controls. However, at 24 hours post-EEJ, the serum concentration of cTnI did not differ significantly compared with baseline values. The blood pH and base excess had decreased, and the PCO2 and lactic acid had increased after EEJ. The EEJ provoked decreases in hematocrit and mean corpuscular volume. In the control group, the base excess, HCO3(-), TCO2, anion gap, and lactic acid increased slightly after mating but did not reach a significant level compared with premating values. It is concluded that EEJ in camels results in a reversible myocardial injury, changes in the acid-base status, and increase the lactic acid concentration. PMID:25139755

  18. Survival of Bifidobacterium bifidum in cow- and camel-milk yogurts enriched with Cinnamomum verum and Allium sativum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amal Bakr Shori

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The effects of Allium sativum and Cinnamomum verum water extracts on the survival of Bifidobacterium bifidum during 21 days of refrigerated storage and after simulated gastrointestinal digestion (SGD were investigated. Two types of yogurt (cow- and camel-milk yogurts were prepared in the presence of A. sativum or C. verum. The viable cell counts (VCC of B. bifidum in fresh A. sativum- or C. verum-cow milk yogurt (1 day were higher (8.1 × 109 cfu/ml and 6.6 × 109 cfu/ml, respectively; p < 0.05 than plain-yogurt (1.9 × 109 cfu/ml. In contrast, B. bifidum VCC in fresh plain-camel milk yogurt was 1.99 × 109 cfu/ml whereas the presence of A. sativum or C. verum in yogurt increased (p < 0.05 VCC to 19.61 × 109 cfu/ml and 25.55 × 109 cfu/ml, respectively. The VCC of B. bifidum in both herbal-yogurts decreased (p < 0.05 during refrigerated storage for both types of yogurt. The VCC of B. bifidum was ∼1.3 × 109 cfu/ml in all fresh cow milk yogurts after 1 h gastric digestion. Intestinal digestion (1 h increased VCC of B. bifidum in all fresh yogurts but not in 7 day old yogurts (plain- and A. sativum-yogurts. However, prolonged digestion to another 1 h in intestine reduced (p < 0.05 VCC of B. bifidum in all fresh and storage yogurts. In contrast, all fresh camel milk yogurts showed VCC of B. bifidum ⩽1 × 109 cfu/ml after SGD. Seven day old A. sativum – camel milk yogurt showed the lowest survival of B. bifidum after gastric digestion compared to plain- and C. verum-yogurt. The VCC reduced (p < 0.05 in all camel milk-yogurts after 2 h intestinal digestion.

  19. Short communication: survival of the characteristic microbiota in probiotic fermented camel, cow, goat, and sheep milks during refrigerated storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varga, L; Süle, J; Nagy, P

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to monitor the viability during storage of Lactobacillus acidophilus LA-5 (A), Bifidobacterium animalis ssp. lactis BB-12 (B), and Streptococcus thermophilus CHCC 742/2130 (T) in probiotic cultured dairy foods made from pasteurized camel, cow, goat, and sheep milks fermented by an ABT-type culture. The products manufactured were stored at 4°C for 42d. Microbiological analyses were performed at weekly intervals. Streptococcus thermophilus CHCC 742/2130 was the most numerous culture component in all 4 products both at the beginning and at the end of storage. The viable counts of streptococci showed no significant decline in fermented camel milk throughout the entire storage period. The initial numbers of Lb. acidophilus LA-5 were over 2 orders of magnitude lower than those of Strep. thermophilus CHCC 742/2130. With the progress of time, a slow and constant decrease was observed in lactobacilli counts; however, the final viability percentages of this organism did not differ significantly in the probiotic fermented milks tested. The cultured dairy foods made from cow, sheep, and goat milks had comparable B. animalis ssp. lactis BB-12 counts on d 0, exceeding by approximately 0.5 log10 cycle those in the camel milk-based product. No significant losses occurred in viability of bifidobacteria in fermented camel, cow, and sheep milks during 6wk of refrigerated storage. In conclusion, all 4 varieties of milk proved to be suitable raw materials for the manufacture of ABT-type fermented dairy products that were microbiologically safe and beneficial for human consumption. It was suggested that milk from small ruminants be increasingly used to produce probiotic fermented dairy foods. The development of camel milk-based probiotic cultured milks appears to be even more promising because new markets could thus be conquered. It must be emphasized, however, that further microbiological and sensory studies, technology development activities, and

  20. The de novo genome assembly and annotation of a female domestic dromedary of North African origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitak, Robert R; Mohandesan, Elmira; Corander, Jukka; Burger, Pamela A

    2016-01-01

    The single-humped dromedary (Camelus dromedarius) is the most numerous and widespread of domestic camel species and is a significant source of meat, milk, wool, transportation and sport for millions of people. Dromedaries are particularly well adapted to hot, desert conditions and harbour a variety of biological and physiological characteristics with evolutionary, economic and medical importance. To understand the genetic basis of these traits, an extensive resource of genomic variation is required. In this study, we assembled at 65× coverage, a 2.06 Gb draft genome of a female dromedary whose ancestry can be traced to an isolated population from the Canary Islands. We annotated 21 167 protein-coding genes and estimated ~33.7% of the genome to be repetitive. A comparison with the recently published draft genome of an Arabian dromedary resulted in 1.91 Gb of aligned sequence with a divergence of 0.095%. An evaluation of our genome with the reference revealed that our assembly contains more error-free bases (91.2%) and fewer scaffolding errors. We identified ~1.4 million single-nucleotide polymorphisms with a mean density of 0.71 × 10(-3) per base. An analysis of demographic history indicated that changes in effective population size corresponded with recent glacial epochs. Our de novo assembly provides a useful resource of genomic variation for future studies of the camel's adaptations to arid environments and economically important traits. Furthermore, these results suggest that draft genome assemblies constructed with only two differently sized sequencing libraries can be comparable to those sequenced using additional library sizes, highlighting that additional resources might be better placed in technologies alternative to short-read sequencing to physically anchor scaffolds to genome maps. PMID:26178449

  1. New polymorpic microsatellite loci for analysis of genetic diversity in camel species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: In this study, new microsatellite loci were screened and sequenced on the basis of the genomic DNA of a male Camelus bactrianus (bactrian). The DNA was restricted with Sau3AI, and the restriction fragments were enriched using magnetic beads (Dynabeads, DYNAL) coated with the biotinylated oligonucleotides (CA)10/(GT)10 and (ATCC)7. The enriched fragments were cloned and then sequenced. Primers were defined for PCR and applied to genomic DNA from 20 bactrians from the Russian Altai region, 220 dromedaries from four Kenyan breeds, and 7 bactrians, 6 llamas and 4 alpacas from German zoos. Locus specific allelic fragment sizes were analysed on an automated DNA sequencer. Basic statistical tests were conducted using the software package BIOSYS-1.7. The between breed diversity was measured using the bootstrapping procedure of PHYLIP and the standard Nei's distance. Among 32 sequenced microsatellite loci, specific PCR products were generated for the 23 loci in bactrian as well as in dromedary. Amongst them, 19 loci could be amplified in llama and 20 in alpaca. Different repeat motifs were found, which were not always complementary to the oligonucleotides used for screening. Fragment lengths per locus were more similar between llama and alpaca and between dromedary and bactrian than between New and Old World Camelides. The loci were largely different with regard to their polymorphism. No significant (p<0.05) deviation from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium was observed for all animal groups. Five of the investigated loci were monomorphic and had identical fragment sizes in all investigated species. One locus was monomorphic in bactrian and dromedary and could not be amplified in the other species. Three loci were monomorphic in each of the species, but had different fragment sizes in individual species. More than one allele within a species were observed in 13 loci for bactrian, 12 loci for dromedary, 11 loci for llama and 12 loci for alpaca. Seven (50%) of the

  2. Haematological and serum biochemical indices of growing rabbits fed camel blood-rumen content mixture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Gambo,

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Forty-five crossbred rabbits (Dutch × New Zealand White of mixed sexes with age between 5 and 7 weeks were divided into 5 groups of 9 rabbits and fed camel blood–rumen content mixture (CBRCM for 10 weeks. The CBRCM which contained 36.40% crude protein and 22.36% crude fibre was included at 0, 10, 20, 30 and 40% levels in diets of group 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 respectively. The packed cell volume (PCV, red blood cells (RBC, mean corpuscular volume (MCV, mean corpuscular haemoglobin (MCH and mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration (MCHC were not significantly different (P>0.05 among the treatments groups, although the haemoglobin (Hb and white blood cells (WBC were significantly (P<0.05 influenced by the treatments. The number of basophils, neutrophils, eosinophils and lymphocytes were not affected by the levels of inclusion, however, only the monocytes differed significantly (P<0.05 among the treatments. All values for blood parameters were within the normal range for growing rabbit. Thus, the study indicated that up to 40% CBRCM could be incorporated into the diets of growing rabbits without compromising the health status of the rabbits.

  3. Evaluation and Modeling of Camel Thorn (Alhagi Maurorum Weed Cutting by Water Jet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Naghipour Zade Mahani

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Due to the importance of weed control and the limitations of mechanical methods in some places, in this research the water jet cutting for weed control was investigated. The cutting tests were performed on camel thorn weed in Shahid Bahonar university of Kerman. The water jet pressure of 90 bars was achieved with the aid of a suitable pump. The cutting time was studied in a completely randomized factorial design experiment (CRD with five replications. Factors of experiments are: stem diameter in 2 levels (smaller and larger than 5 mm, distance of spraying jet from weeds in 3 levels (10, 20 and 30 cm and two types of plant holders: blade and plate. The results showed that stem diameter and jet distance from the weed stem had significant effects on cutting time (at the 1%. The mean comparison of parameters showed that with increase of stem diameter the cutting time increased and any increase in jet distance from the weeds decreased the cutting time linearly with R2=0.96 and R2=0.99 for small and large diameter weeds, respectively. The minimum cutting time was measured at 30 cm of the jet from small diameter of stems. A multivariate linear regression model was also proposed for cutting weed parameters. It can be concluded that due to the flexibility of water jet cutting for restricted places, hydrodynamic control of weeds is proposed as a complementary method and sometimes a competing substitute method.

  4. Technological Aptitude and Applications of Leuconostoc mesenteroides Bioactive Strains Isolated from Algerian Raw Camel Milk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benmechernene, Zineb; Chentouf, Hanane Fatma; Yahia, Bellil; Fatima, Ghazi; Quintela-Baluja, Marcos; Calo-Mata, Pilar; Barros-Velázquez, Jorge

    2013-01-01

    Two strains (B7 and Z8) of the Leuconostoc mesenteroides subspecies mesenteroides that were isolated from Algerian camel milk from an initial pool of 13 strains and demonstrated a high ability to inhibit the growth of Listeria spp. were selected and characterised at the phenotypic and genotypic levels. Probiotic profiling and inhibition spectra against food borne pathogens in mixed cultures were also investigated. The bacteriocin produced by L. mesenteroides strain B7 was identified as leucocin B by specific PCR. In vitro studies demonstrated that both Leuconostoc mesenteroides strains exhibited a marked probiotic profile, showing high survival at low pH (2-3 and 4) in the presence of 0.5%, 1%, and 2% of bile salts and at pH 3 in the presence of 3 mg/mL pepsin. Susceptibility testing against antimicrobial agents was also performed for both strains. When tested in a mixed culture with Listeria innocua, Listeria ivanovii, or Staphylococcus aureus, strain B7 reduced the numbers of these species by 1.87, 1.78, and 1.38 log units, respectively. Consequently, these two strains were found to possess good probiotic properties in vitro and a high capacity for Listeria spp. inhibition in mixed cultures. Therefore, these strains have a favourable technological aptitude and a potential application as novel probiotic starters. PMID:24392451

  5. Technological Aptitude and Applications of Leuconostoc mesenteroides Bioactive Strains Isolated from Algerian Raw Camel Milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zineb Benmechernene

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Two strains (B7 and Z8 of the Leuconostoc mesenteroides subspecies mesenteroides that were isolated from Algerian camel milk from an initial pool of 13 strains and demonstrated a high ability to inhibit the growth of Listeria spp. were selected and characterised at the phenotypic and genotypic levels. Probiotic profiling and inhibition spectra against food borne pathogens in mixed cultures were also investigated. The bacteriocin produced by L. mesenteroides strain B7 was identified as leucocin B by specific PCR. In vitro studies demonstrated that both Leuconostoc mesenteroides strains exhibited a marked probiotic profile, showing high survival at low pH (2-3 and 4 in the presence of 0.5%, 1%, and 2% of bile salts and at pH 3 in the presence of 3 mg/mL pepsin. Susceptibility testing against antimicrobial agents was also performed for both strains. When tested in a mixed culture with Listeria innocua, Listeria ivanovii, or Staphylococcus aureus, strain B7 reduced the numbers of these species by 1.87, 1.78, and 1.38 log units, respectively. Consequently, these two strains were found to possess good probiotic properties in vitro and a high capacity for Listeria spp. inhibition in mixed cultures. Therefore, these strains have a favourable technological aptitude and a potential application as novel probiotic starters.

  6. Technological aptitude and applications of Leuconostoc mesenteroides bioactive strains isolated from Algerian raw camel milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benmechernene, Zineb; Chentouf, Hanane Fatma; Yahia, Bellil; Fatima, Ghazi; Quintela-Baluja, Marcos; Calo-Mata, Pilar; Barros-Velázquez, Jorge

    2013-01-01

    Two strains (B7 and Z8) of the Leuconostoc mesenteroides subspecies mesenteroides that were isolated from Algerian camel milk from an initial pool of 13 strains and demonstrated a high ability to inhibit the growth of Listeria spp. were selected and characterised at the phenotypic and genotypic levels. Probiotic profiling and inhibition spectra against food borne pathogens in mixed cultures were also investigated. The bacteriocin produced by L. mesenteroides strain B7 was identified as leucocin B by specific PCR. In vitro studies demonstrated that both Leuconostoc mesenteroides strains exhibited a marked probiotic profile, showing high survival at low pH (2-3 and 4) in the presence of 0.5%, 1%, and 2% of bile salts and at pH 3 in the presence of 3 mg/mL pepsin. Susceptibility testing against antimicrobial agents was also performed for both strains. When tested in a mixed culture with Listeria innocua, Listeria ivanovii, or Staphylococcus aureus, strain B7 reduced the numbers of these species by 1.87, 1.78, and 1.38 log units, respectively. Consequently, these two strains were found to possess good probiotic properties in vitro and a high capacity for Listeria spp. inhibition in mixed cultures. Therefore, these strains have a favourable technological aptitude and a potential application as novel probiotic starters. PMID:24392451

  7. Enterococcus bulliens sp. nov., a novel lactic acid bacterium isolated from camel milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadri, Zaina; Spitaels, Freek; Cnockaert, Margo; Praet, Jessy; El Farricha, Omar; Swings, Jean; Vandamme, Peter

    2015-11-01

    Four lactic acid bacteria isolates obtained from fresh dromedary camel milk produced in Dakhla, a city in southern Morocco, were characterised in order to determine their taxonomic position. The four isolates had highly similar MALDI-TOF MS and RAPD fingerprints and identical 16S rRNA gene sequences. Comparative sequence analysis revealed that the 16S rRNA gene sequence of the four isolates was most similar to that of Enterococcus sulfureus ATCC 49903(T) and Enterococcus italicus DSM 15952(T) (99.33 and 98.59% similarity, respectively). However, sequence analysis of the phenylalanyl-tRNA synthase (pheS), RNA polymerase (rpoA) and ATP synthase (atpA) genes revealed that the taxon represented by strain LMG 28766(T) was well separated from E. sulfureus LMG 13084(T) and E. italicus LMG 22039(T), which was further confirmed by DNA-DNA hybridization values that were clearly below the species demarcation threshold. The novel taxon was easily differentiated from its nearest neighbour species through sequence analysis of protein encoding genes, MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry and multiple biochemical tests, but had a similar percentage G+C content of about 39%. We therefore propose to formally classify these isolates as Enterococcus bulliens sp. nov., with LMG 28766(T) (=CCMM B1177(T)) as the type strain. PMID:26346480

  8. Male Armaments and Reproductive Behavior in “Nutcracker” Camel Crickets (Rhaphidophoridae, Pristoceuthophilus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauren P. Conroy

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Males of many species possess striking weaponry used in intrasexual competition for access to females. Until recently, there were no known cases of male weaponry being used against females in sexual coercion. However, in the camel cricket, Pristoceuthophilus marmoratus, males use modified hind legs to fight with each other and also to trap females and force them to copulate. To determine whether hind leg armaments serve similar fighting and mating functions in morphologically similar congeners, we performed a comparative survey of armament use in intra- and inter-sexual interactions in four additional species of Pristoceuthophilus (P. arizonae and three undescribed species: P. ‘Huachuca summer,’ P. ‘Madera’ and P. ‘Mt. Pinos’. Intrasexual leg fighting occurred in all species for which trials were performed, and hints of sexual coercion occurred in two species (P. ‘Huachuca summer’ and P. ‘Mt. Pinos’, suggesting additional cases of a uniquely dual-purpose armament. These findings suggest an evolutionary exaptation of hind leg armaments in this genus, wherein an intrasexual fighting weapon took on a secondary function of sexual coercion.

  9. Musculoskeletal modelling of an ostrich (Struthio camelus pelvic limb: influence of limb orientation on muscular capacity during locomotion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John R. Hutchinson

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available We developed a three-dimensional, biomechanical computer model of the 36 major pelvic limb muscle groups in an ostrich (Struthio camelus to investigate muscle function in this, the largest of extant birds and model organism for many studies of locomotor mechanics, body size, anatomy and evolution. Combined with experimental data, we use this model to test two main hypotheses. We first query whether ostriches use limb orientations (joint angles that optimize the moment-generating capacities of their muscles during walking or running. Next, we test whether ostriches use limb orientations at mid-stance that keep their extensor muscles near maximal, and flexor muscles near minimal, moment arms. Our two hypotheses relate to the control priorities that a large bipedal animal might evolve under biomechanical constraints to achieve more effective static weight support. We find that ostriches do not use limb orientations to optimize the moment-generating capacities or moment arms of their muscles. We infer that dynamic properties of muscles or tendons might be better candidates for locomotor optimization. Regardless, general principles explaining why species choose particular joint orientations during locomotion are lacking, raising the question of whether such general principles exist or if clades evolve different patterns (e.g., weighting of muscle force–length or force–velocity properties in selecting postures. This leaves theoretical studies of muscle moment arms estimated for extinct animals at an impasse until studies of extant taxa answer these questions. Finally, we compare our model’s results against those of two prior studies of ostrich limb muscle moment arms, finding general agreement for many muscles. Some flexor and extensor muscles exhibit self-stabilization patterns (posture-dependent switches between flexor/extensor action that ostriches may use to coordinate their locomotion. However, some conspicuous areas of disagreement in our

  10. Urinary excretion of purine derivatives and its utilization as an index of microbial protein synthesis in the fore-stomach of the camel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Five experiments were carried out on camels to establish a model for estimating the microbial protein outflow from the rumen to the small intestine using the excretion rate of purine derivatives (PD) in urine. In Experiment I, a significant linear regression was established between the level of feed intake and the urinary excretion of total PD. The amount of PD excretion in urine increased by about 11 mmol PD/kg digestible organic matter intake/d with the increasing level of feeding. In Experiment II, endogenous excretion of PD was measured in four camels fasted for 5 continuous d. The endogenous excretion of PD averaged 230 μmol/kgW0.75/d, which was lower than values obtained in other ruminants. In Experiment III, xanthine oxidase (XO) activity in plasma, liver and intestinal tissues of three camels was measured and detected in liver and intestine, but not in the plasma. For the tissues examined, XO activity in camel was lower than values reported for cattle. In Experiment IV, when purine bases (PB) from RNA yeast were infused at increasing rates into the duodenum of two camels, urinary excretion of PD responded linearly with an average recovery rate of 52%. Nitrogen (N) content of microbes (N) was 8.0 mg/g DM and PB 100.3 μmol/g DM, with a PB/N (mmol/g) ratio of 1.26. In Experiment V, carried out under conditions similar to those in Experiment I, daily creatinine (C) excretion in urine was 0.34 ± 0.04 mmol/kgW0.75/d. PD/C ratios in spot samples of urine, collected several times in a d, were regressed against the measured daily PD excretion. A high correlation (R2=0.86) was obtained indicating that the PD/C ratio in spot samples of urine can be used with confidence to estimate the daily PD excretion in camels. (author)

  11. Determination of Micro minerals in Milk from Farm and Pasture-reared Cow, Goat and Camel; using Inductively Coupled Plasma-Optical Emission Spectrometry

    OpenAIRE

    SirelkhatimBalla Elhardallou; Ashraf Yehia El-naggar

    2016-01-01

    This study covers raw fresh milk of cow, goat and camel (farm and pasture-reared),in addition to two brands of commercial milk samples, liquid milk of powder origin and drinking yoghurt samples. Camel milk showed a relatively lower pH range (6.15 - 6.46) compared cow, goat and commercial milk. The pH of drinking yoghurt was found (4.35 - 4.47).Microwave digestion, was selected followed by mineral analysis using Inductively Coupled Plasma-Optical Emission Spectrometry. Micro minerals; Cd, Cr...

  12. Prevalence and antibiotic resistance of thermophilic campylobacter spp. isolates from raw beef, mutton and camel meat in Sokoto, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salihu, M. D, Junaidu,

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Campylobacter is one of the common causes of human gastroenteritis worldwide. The organism is transmitted mostly via foods of animal origin. The study was conducted to investigate the prevalence of contamination of raw beef, mutton and camel meat in Sokoto, Nigeria, with thermophilic Campylobacter spp. and determined antibiotic susceptibilities of thermophilic Campylobacter spp. isolated from these carcasses. From March 2008 to February 2009, a total of 531 raw meat samples from beef (n=242, mutton (n=181 and camel (n=108 were collected randomly from meat processing facilities and retail stalls in Sokoto, and were evaluated for the presence of thermophilic Campylobacter spp. Thermophilic Campylobacter spp. were isolated from139 (26.33% of the tested samples and the individual prevalence are 22.08%, 37.22% and 17.49% for beef, mutton and camel meat respectively. The most prevalent thermophilic Campylobacter spp. isolates from the raw meat samples was Campylobacter jejuni (74.10%. The antibiotic susceptibility of the isolates were determined for 10 antibiotic, revealed that resistance to tetracycline was the most common (71.4% resistance observed, followed by ciprofloxacin (42.9% and nalidixic acid (37.1%. All the isolates tested were susceptible to chloramphenicol and gentamycin. The results of our study have demonstrated that high proportion of meat samples are contaminated by thermophilic Campylobacter spp. which may have serious effects on public health. Most of the isolates are antimicrobial resistant strains. Campylobacteriosis is transmitted primarily through food of animal origin, the presence of antimicrobial-resistant strains in meat is of serious concern to food safety and public health.

  13. A study on relationship between CAMELS Index's and Risk taking: A case study of Iranian banking industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Khodaei Valahzaghard

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Among the activists of the money market, banks as the most important financial institutions undertake an important role in optimal appropriation of financial short-term resources. Furthermore, they allocate the short-term surplus funds to enterprises, which have a short-term need. Holding a main part of the funds in economy circulation, banks have a critical role in adjustment of economic relations. Banks are facing different types of risks in their daily operations. In the banking system, the CAMELS indictors are used to evaluate and rate of the performance of banks. The CAMELS rating model is one of the most effective systems of financial assessment in banks. Therefore, in this research, the effects of CAMELS indicators of banks on risk taking of Iranian banks are studied. The statistical population of the national banking system includes all governmental and private banks. The whole statistical population is studied as a research sample during 2006-2011. Taking into consideration the fact that the research data or section-bounded and time-bounded, a combinational regression analysis has been used. The results of the combinational regression analysis have supported the presence of a reverse and meaningful effect of the indicators of assets quality and sensitivity of market risk on risk taking in national banks. In addition, the results have supported the direct and meaningful effects of capital sufficiency and quality of profit-making on risk taking, however, the effects of the indicators of management quality and liquidity quality on risk taking have been rejected.

  14. Pengaruh Rasio CAMEL terhadap Pertumbuhan Laba Perbankan yang Go Public di Bursa Efek Indonesia Periode 2010-2013

    OpenAIRE

    Butar-Butar, Ayanti Novalina

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to identify and analyze the influence of the ratio of CAMEL consisting of Capital Adequacy Ratio (CAR), Non Performing Loan (NPL), Net Profit Margin (NPM), Operating Expenses to Operating Income (ROA), and Loan to Deposit Ratio ( LDR), to the profit growth of banking companies that go public in Indonesia Stock Exchange 2010-2013. This study used secondary data obtained from the Indonesia Stock Exchange www.idx.com website and the website of each bank by using a sample of 30 ba...

  15. Survival of Bifidobacterium bifidum in cow- and camel-milk yogurts enriched with Cinnamomum verum and Allium sativum

    OpenAIRE

    Amal Bakr Shori; Ahmad Salihin Baba

    2015-01-01

    The effects of Allium sativum and Cinnamomum verum water extracts on the survival of Bifidobacterium bifidum during 21 days of refrigerated storage and after simulated gastrointestinal digestion (SGD) were investigated. Two types of yogurt (cow- and camel-milk yogurts) were prepared in the presence of A. sativum or C. verum. The viable cell counts (VCC) of B. bifidum in fresh A. sativum- or C. verum-cow milk yogurt (1 day) were higher (8.1 × 109 cfu/ml and 6.6 × 109 cfu/ml, respectively; p ...

  16. Adaptation of indigenous sheep, goats and camels in harsh grazing conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Microbial breakdown of cellulose is a rather slow process. Therefore the retention time of digesta and the volume of the fermentation chamber are factors limiting the quantity of fibrous diets that can be digested. Indigenous ruminants can generally adapt to harsh grazing conditions better than conventional breeds. Unexpectedly high rumen volumes were reported in a number of indigenous ruminants. In studies reported in this paper, Heidschnucken, an indigenous breed of sheep in the heather region of Northern Germany, were able to increase their rumen volume from 14% to 22% of body weight during adaptation to a low quality fibrous diet. Heidschnucken did not lose significant body weight, whereas Blackface sheep lost 20% and failed to adapt the rumen volume. Rumen volume of indigenous sheep and goats in Northern Kenya was 20% of body weight while grazing in the thornbush savannah during the dry season, compared with 9-12% while kept indoors on a hay-concentrate diet. Mean retention time of particles in the total gastrointestinal tract of goats and sheep in Kenya was 38 h and 46 h respectively. In the experiment with Heidschnucken, these sheep increased the retention time of particles to 71 h on a straw diet, while Blackface sheep retained particles 58 h. Dietary preference and feed intake have been studied in indigenous sheep and goats in Kenya at seasonal pasture conditions in the thornbush savannah. Goats have a higher preference to dicotyledon species (92-97%) than sheep, who are less selective grazers. The feeding behaviour of indigenous sheep and goats was complementary rather than competitive. Feeding observations indicate that this is also the case when cattle (grazers) and camels (browsers) are included in such a comparison. (author)

  17. Bioactivities of some essential oils against the camel nasal botfly, Cephalopina titillator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khater, Hanem F

    2014-02-01

    Nasopharyngeal myiasis of camels is caused by the larvae of Cephalopina titillator. We determined the efficacy of essential oils (EOs) of pumpkin, Cucurbita maxima; lupinus, Lupinus luteus; garlic oil, Allium sativum; and peppermint, Mentha piperita, against the third larval stage of C. titillator using larval immersion tests. The positive control group was treated with ivermectin and the negative control one was treated with distilled water and few drops of Tween 80. Larvae were reared until adult emergence. The data indicated that complete larval mortalities were reached 24 h post treatment (PT) with 2 % pumpkin, 7.5 % garlic and peppermint, 30 % lupinus, and 0.15 % ivermectin. The lethal values, LC50s, were 0.20, 0.44, 0.42, 0.47, and 0.03 %, respectively. Pumpkin and ivermectin were 2 and 17 times, respectively, more effective than the other EOs. Ivermectin was seven times more intoxicating than pumpkin oil. Formation of pupae had been stopped after treatment of larvae with 2 % pumpkin, 7.5 % garlic and peppermint, 30 % lupines, and 0.04 % ivermectin. Adult emergence had been completely ceased following treatment of larvae with 0.5 % EOs and 0.04 % ivermectin. Morphological abnormalities were pronounced after treatments, and peppermint oil was the foremost cause of deformation in larvae (44 % PT with 7.5 %) and pupae (40 % PT with 2 %). Pumpkin oil (6 %) was selected to be the drug of choice for controlling C. titillator. Besides their insecticidal effects, EOs are much safer than ivermectin regarding health and environmental issues. Consequently, EOs described herein merit further study as potential nasal drench for C. titillator control. PMID:24276644

  18. A traditional Sudanese fermented camel's milk product, Gariss, as a habitat of Streptococcus infantarius subsp. infantarius

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abdelgadir, Warda; Nielsen, Dennis Sandris; Hamad, Siddig; Jakobsen, Mogens

    2008-01-01

    Samples of the traditional Sudanese fermented camel's milk product Gariss representing 9 different regions in Sudan were microbiologically characterized using an integrated approach including phenotypic and genotypic methods. Lactic acid bacteria [log(CFU/g) = 7.76-8.66] and yeasts [log(CFU/g) = 6...

  19. Extensor and flexor digit synovial sheath, sac and synovial capsule in the distal part of the limbs in buffalos and camels and its relation of surgical interference

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. AL-sadi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Sixty one samples of the distal parts of limbs were obtained from different ages of buffalo and camels of both sex to study the synovial structures to determine the suitable sites for injection of surgical interference. The result showed that extensor digit synovial sheath was extend between middle or distal part of metacarpal (metatarsal to the extensor processes and this formed with synovial capsule dorsal pouches which serve in surgical interference. The flexor digit synovial sheath extended to palmar (planter between distal extremity of metacarpal (metatarsal to the middle of second phalanx in buffalo while in camel it extended to the proximal extremity of second phalanx, that sheath was formed with suspensory ligament and sessamoid bone palmar or planter pouches which were serve the surgical interference. Fourth synovial bursa observed situated dorsally between the extensor digit laterals tendon and capsule of fetlock joint, forms site of injection during surgical interference, while the other two synovial bursa were located to palmer (planter between deep flexor tendon and distal sessamoid bone in buffalo while in camel these bursa were located between deep flexor tendon and cartilage of the second phalanx, these bursa were served for surgical interference. The synovial capsule which serve the surgical interference through digit cushion these were shown extended from the claw capsule. The result show that surgical interference was form six pouches in buffalo and eight pouches in camel, which formed by synovial structures and the tissue associated with them.

  20. Efficacy of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus Bm86 against Hyalomma dromedarii and Amblyomma cajennense tick infestations in camels and cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Valle, Manuel; Taoufik, Amar; Valdés, Mario; Montero, Carlos; Ibrahin, Hassan; Hassan, Shawgi Mohammed; Jongejan, Frans; de la Fuente, Jose

    2012-05-14

    The recombinant Bm86-based tick vaccines have shown their efficacy for the control of cattle ticks, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus and R. annulatus infestations. However, cattle ticks often co-exist with multi-host ticks such as Hyalomma and Amblyomma species, thus requiring the control of multiple tick infestations for cattle and other hosts. Vaccination trials using a R. microplus recombinant Bm86-based vaccine were conducted in cattle and camels against Hyalomma dromedarii and in cattle against Amblyomma cajennense immature and adult ticks. The results showed an 89% reduction in the number of H. dromedarii nymphs engorging on vaccinated cattle, and a further 32% reduction in the weight of the surviving adult ticks. In vaccinated camels, a reduction of 27% and 31% of tick engorgement and egg mass weight, respectively was shown, while egg hatching was reduced by 39%. However, cattle vaccination with Bm86 did not have an effect on A. cajennense tick infestations. These results showed that Bm86 vaccines are effective against R. microplus and other tick species but improved vaccines containing new antigens are required to control multiple tick infestations. PMID:22446633

  1. Losses associated with mortality of cattle and camels during transportation to Oko-Oba abattoir, Lagos State, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ademola A. Ibironke

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Many food animals meant for slaughter arrive at the Agege abattoir and lairage daily to be produced into wholesome meat for human consumption. These animals generally get to the abattoir packed in Lorries and transported over long distances for many days to get to their destinations. Over a period of 36 months (three years, a total of 1179492 cattle and 11403 camels arrived for slaughter at the abattoir for human consumption. Over the same period, 1197 cattle and 27 camels died in the course of transportation due to the stress and inhumane treatment during transport. All the animals that arrived dead in transit had their carcass totally condemned and destroyed resulting in substantial losses to cattle traders, butchers and the general citizenry. Some of the reasons for these mortalities associated with transportation included overcrowding, long transportation without resting, stress, poor access road networks and traders not adhering to minimal space requirement for animal transportation in a bid to increase their profit margins. Failure to address the issue of proper transportation of food animals are likely to lead to more losses of food animals during transportation.

  2. Phimosis in male dromedary camels: Clinical findings and changes in the hemogram, nitric oxide metabolites, and testosterone concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Ahmed; Derar, Derar; Al-Sobyil, Fahd A; Zeitoun, Moustafa M; Hassanein, Khaled M A; Al-Howas, Abdella

    2016-06-01

    The objectives of this study were to elucidate the clinical findings in male dromedary camels with phimosis (PHI, n = 43) and to investigate the association of this syndrome with the hemogram, nitric oxide metabolites (NOMs), and testosterone concentrations. History and signalment were obtained, and a breeding soundness examination was performed. The penis was exteriorized after administration of a pudendal nerve block. Abnormal masses obtained from the prepuce and penis were prepared for histopathology. Blood samples for hemogram assessment were taken from the diseased animals and from 10 healthy control males. Total nitrates/nitrites were determined in sera using the Griess assay. Testosterone was estimated in sera using ELISA. Phimosis associated with detectable pathologic lesions, mainly including ulcerative posthitis and lacerated glans penis, was present in 34 (79.1%) of the 43 cases (PHI-P), whereas the remaining nine (20.9%) of the 43 cases had no noticeable lesions (PHI-N). The PHI-P group showed higher leukocyte counts (P = 0.001), especially neutrophils (P = 0.0001), and greater NOM concentrations (P = 0.002) than the PHI-N and control groups. However, testosterone concentrations did not differ among groups. In conclusion, PHI in the male dromedary camels was mainly associated with ulcerative posthitis and laceration of the glans penis. The presence of pathologic lesions in cases with PHI was associated with leukocytosis, neutrophilia, and high NOM concentrations. PMID:26879996

  3. Use of ELISA in the diagnosis of infection and evaluation of treatment with Cymelarsan in camels infected with Trypanosoma evansi in Kenya

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A polyclonal based antigen detection enzyme immunoassay (Ag-ELISA) was validated and used for the diagnosis of camel trypanosomiasis in five localities in Kenya. The Ag-ELISA results were correlated with those of parasitological tests, namely, Buffy Coat Technique (BCT) and rodent subinoculation (RI). More animals showed evidence of infection using Ag-ELISA than when using BCT and RI, and showed infection rates ranging from 45.3% to 86.2% in sampled herds, compared with 0.8% to 18% using parasitologial tests. An overall apparent sensitivity of 74% by Ag-ELISA was obtained after screening sera from three camel herds. Higher ELISA values were observed in those herds with the highest rate of patent infection or where drug intervention was not being practised. However, the study revealed that trypanosomiasis was endemic in all the sampled herds and although treatment with quinapyramine sulphate suppressed parasitaemia, the presence of circulating trypanosomal antigens indicated the probable persistence of infection due to resistance to this drug. In experimental camels, the use of Ag-ELISA in evaluating the efficacy of Cymelarsan revealed that in more than 80% of the treated camels there appeared to be cure, characterized by the absence of both parasitaemia and circulating trypanosomal antigens. However, in a few animals relapse in parasitaemia occurred, and in a number of camels, antigenaemia persisted throughout the study period. Treatment on the basis of a positive Ag-ELISA reduced the proportion of Ag-positive animals from 75% to 26% and parasite positive animals were no longer present at the end of the experiment. (author). 13 refs, 4 figs, 3 tabs

  4. Effect of continuous female exposure on behavioral repertoire and stereotypical behaviors in restrained male dromedary camels during the onset of the breeding season.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatnassi, Meriem; Padalino, Barbara; Monaco, David; Khorchani, Touhami; Lacalandra, Giovanni Michele; Hammadi, Mohamed

    2016-06-01

    This study aimed to test the effects of the three management systems on the behavioral repertoire and particularly on the incidence of stereotypical behavior in restrained camels. Five male camels were tested under the following management systems: (i) unexposed, housing in a single box (Unexpo); (ii) continuous exposure, exposed continuously to females (ConExpoF); and (iii) re-unexposed, housing again in a single box (Re-Unexpo). Every day, bulls were filmed for 30 min and videos were analyzed using a focal animal sampling ethogram. Under the ConExpoF system, camels spent the majority of time in standing with opened legs (490.0 ± 94.3 s), looking (925.0 ± 93.7 s), and walking toward the females (206.0 ± 73.4 s) and they ate and ruminated less compared to Unexpo and Re-Unexpo systems. Rumination and standing durations were significantly longer in Re-Unexpo than in Unexpo and ConExpoF management systems. When camels were continuously exposed to females, they showed few stereotypical behaviors compared to Unexpo (490.0 ± 146.1 s) and Re-Unexpo (624.0 ± 146.1 s) systems. The frequency of both total and oral stereotypes was significantly higher in Unexpo and Re-Unexpo systems compared to ConExpoF; however, no significant difference was observed among the three management systems in the frequency of locomotor stereotypes. Overall, it appears that the continuous female exposure system might be a suitable management practice for male camels used for intensive reproduction, as it decreases the manifestation of stereotypical behavior in comparison with housing for 24 h in a single box. PMID:26970973

  5. Camel Milk Modulates the Expression of Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor-Regulated Genes, Cyp1a1, Nqo1, and Gsta1, in Murine hepatoma Hepa 1c1c7 Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hesham M. Korashy

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available There is a traditional belief in the Middle East that camel milk may aid in prevention and treatment of numerous cases of cancer yet, the exact mechanism was not investigated. Therefore, we examined the ability of camel milk to modulate the expression of a well-known cancer-activating gene, Cytochrome P450 1a1 (Cyp1a1, and cancer-protective genes, NAD(PH:quinone oxidoreductase 1 (Nqo1 and glutathione S-transferase a1 (Gsta1, in murine hepatoma Hepa 1c1c7 cell line. Our results showed that camel milk significantly inhibited the induction of Cyp1a1 gene expression by 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD, the most potent Cyp1a1 inducer and known carcinogenic chemical, at mRNA, protein, and activity levels in a concentration-dependent manner. In addition, camel milk significantly decreased the xenobiotic responsive element (XRE-dependent luciferase activity, suggesting a transcriptional mechanism is involved. Furthermore, this inhibitory effect of camel milk was associated with a proportional increase in heme oxygenase 1. On the other hand, camel milk significantly induced Nqo1 and Gsta1 mRNA expression level in a concentration-dependent fashion. The RNA synthesis inhibitor, actinomycin D, completely blocked the induction of Nqo1 mRNA by camel milk suggesting the requirement of de novo RNA synthesis through a transcriptional mechanism. In conclusion, camel milk modulates the expression of Cyp1a1, Nqo1, and Gsta1 at the transcriptional and posttranscriptional levels.

  6. Camel milk modulates the expression of aryl hydrocarbon receptor-regulated genes, Cyp1a1, Nqo1, and Gsta1, in murine hepatoma Hepa 1c1c7 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korashy, Hesham M; El Gendy, Mohamed A M; Alhaider, Abdulqader A; El-Kadi, Ayman O

    2012-01-01

    There is a traditional belief in the Middle East that camel milk may aid in prevention and treatment of numerous cases of cancer yet, the exact mechanism was not investigated. Therefore, we examined the ability of camel milk to modulate the expression of a well-known cancer-activating gene, Cytochrome P450 1a1 (Cyp1a1), and cancer-protective genes, NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase 1 (Nqo1) and glutathione S-transferase a1 (Gsta1), in murine hepatoma Hepa 1c1c7 cell line. Our results showed that camel milk significantly inhibited the induction of Cyp1a1 gene expression by 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), the most potent Cyp1a1 inducer and known carcinogenic chemical, at mRNA, protein, and activity levels in a concentration-dependent manner. In addition, camel milk significantly decreased the xenobiotic responsive element (XRE)-dependent luciferase activity, suggesting a transcriptional mechanism is involved. Furthermore, this inhibitory effect of camel milk was associated with a proportional increase in heme oxygenase 1. On the other hand, camel milk significantly induced Nqo1 and Gsta1 mRNA expression level in a concentration-dependent fashion. The RNA synthesis inhibitor, actinomycin D, completely blocked the induction of Nqo1 mRNA by camel milk suggesting the requirement of de novo RNA synthesis through a transcriptional mechanism. In conclusion, camel milk modulates the expression of Cyp1a1, Nqo1, and Gsta1 at the transcriptional and posttranscriptional levels. PMID:22570534

  7. Sex-related differences of morphometric, densitometric, and geometric parameters of tibia and tarsometatarsal bone in 14-month-old ostriches (Struthio camelus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charuta, A; Dzierzecka, M; Pierzchala, M; Cooper, R G; Polawska, E; Horbanczuk, J O

    2013-11-01

    The aim of the current study was to investigate basic morphometric, geometric, and densitometric parameters of tibia and tarsometatarsus in 14-mo-old male and female ostriches, and interrelationships between these parameters. The study was conducted on 20 tibiae and 20 tarsometatarsal bones of the left pelvic limb derived from 20 healthy 14-mo-old ostriches (Struthio camelus): 10 males and 10 females. The following parameters were determined using peripheral quantitative computed tomography: bone mineral content (BMC), volumetric bone mineral density (vBMD), cortical content (CRT_CNT), cortical density (CRT_DEN), trabecular content, trabecular density (TRAB_DEN), bone area (TOT_A), trabecular area (TRAB_A), cortical area (CRT_A), cortical thickness (CRT_THK_C), periosteal circumference (PERI_C), endocortical circumference (ENDO_C), and strength-strain index (SSI) in the metaphysis and diaphysis of the bones. Statistical evaluation of the obtained results was performed using Student's t-test, and the Pearson correlation coefficient between the investigated parameters was determined. The obtained results have shown significant differences in proximal metaphysis between males and females when evaluating such parameters as CRT_DEN, TOT_A, TRAB_A, PERI_C, SSI in tibia (P correlations between BW and bone weight were found (P correlations of morphometric, geometric, and densitometric parameters of metaphysis and diaphysis of the tibia and tarsometatarsus were stated (P correleations observed between the investigated parameters have shown that ostrich tibia and tarsometatarsus may present a valuable model for further studies on bone tissue metabolism regulation in breeding birds. PMID:24135601

  8. Comparative chromosome painting of pronghorn (Antilocapra americana) and saola (Pseudoryx nghetinhensis) karyotypes with human and dromedary camel probes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Pronghorn (Antilocapridae, 2n = 58) and saola (Bovidae, 2n = 50) are members of Pecora, a highly diversified group of even-toed hoofed mammals. Karyotypes of these species were not involved in chromosome painting studies despite their intriguing phylogenetic positions in Pecora. Results To trace the chromosome evolution during very fast radiation of main families from the common Pecoran ancestor, high-resolution comparative chromosome maps of pronghorn and saola with human (HSA) and dromedary camel (CDR) painting probes were established. The human and dromedary camel painting probes revealed 50 and 64 conserved segments respectively in the pronghorn genome, while 51 and 63 conserved segments respectively in the saola genome. Integrative analysis with published comparative maps showed that inversions in chromosomes homologous to CDR19/35/19 (HSA 10/20/10), CDR12/34/12 (HSA12/22/12/22), CDR10/33/10 (HSA 11) are present in representatives of all five living Pecoran families. The pronghorn karyotype could have formed from a putative 2n = 58 Pecoran ancestral karyotype by one fission and one fusion and that the saola karyotype differs from the presumed 2n = 60 bovid ancestral karyotype (2n = 60) by five fusions. Conclusion The establishment of high-resolution comparative maps for pronghorn and saola has shed some new insights into the putative ancestral karyotype, chromosomal evolution and phylogenic relationships in Pecora. No cytogenetic signature rearrangements were found that could unite the Antilocapridae with Giraffidae or with any other Pecoran families. Our data on the saola support a separate position of Pseudorigyna subtribe rather than its affinity to either Bovina or Bubalina, but the saola phylogenetic position within Bovidae remains unresolved. PMID:24923361

  9. THE ANALYSIS OF ISLAMIC BANK FINANCIAL PERFORMANCE BY USING CAMEL, SHARIAH CONFORMITY AND PROFITABILITY (SCnP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Widiya Ratnaputri

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to examine how the model variables cover innovation entrepreneur orientation, learning orientation, initiative, commitment, adaptability and organizational performance based on the research gap and SMEs phenomena that exists in Semarang. The method used in this research is quantitative method. The data were collected through interviews by conducting the focus group disscusion (FGD, study documentation, and participant observation. The respondents of this research is 135 managers of SMEs in Semarang. The analysis techniques for this study  is Structural Equation Model (SEM with AMOS software. The study result shows that the increase of SMEs performance in Semarang is influenced by the ability of adaptability which is built by the commitment on consensus. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengukur kinerja bank syariah dengan menggunakan CAMEL dan SCnP Model. Populasi penelitian ini adalah semua bank umum syariah yang terdaftar di BI dari tahun 2009-2012. Teknik pengambilan sampel menggunakan purposive sampling, sementara teknik analisis data berupa deskriptif yang bersifat explanatory. Model CAMEL memiliki lima variabel, yaitu capital menggunakan proksi CAR, asset quality menggunakan proksi RORA, management menggunakan proksi NPM, earning menggunakan proksi ROA dan liquidity menggunakan proksi FDR. Model SCnP memiliki dua variabel, yaitu Shariah Conformity dan Profitability. Hasil penelitian ini menunjukkan, bahwa rasio CAR, RORA dan FDR telah memenuhi standar yang ditentukan BI, sedangkan rasio NPM dan ROA belum memenuhi standar. Analisis pada hasil SCnP yaitu, bank syariah tersebar dalam empat kuadran (ULQ, LLQ, URQ dan LRQ dan merekomendasikan Bank Syariah Mandiri sebagai sasaran investasi karena mampu bertahan pada kuadran kanan atas (URQ selama periode 2009-2012.

  10. Determination of Micro minerals in Milk from Farm and Pasture-reared Cow, Goat and Camel; using Inductively Coupled Plasma-Optical Emission Spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SirelkhatimBalla Elhardallou

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This study covers raw fresh milk of cow, goat and camel (farm and pasture-reared,in addition to two brands of commercial milk samples, liquid milk of powder origin and drinking yoghurt samples. Camel milk showed a relatively lower pH range (6.15 - 6.46 compared cow, goat and commercial milk. The pH of drinking yoghurt was found (4.35 - 4.47.Microwave digestion, was selected followed by mineral analysis using Inductively Coupled Plasma-Optical Emission Spectrometry. Micro minerals; Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn and Pb, ranged from not detected to 23.4+0.52mg/L for Fe while Sr (0.32+0.005 – 2.51+0.043 mg/L and Zn (1.58+0.01 – 8.91+0.14 mg/L in all milk samples.

  11. Prevalence of Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella in camels, cattle, goats, and sheep harvested for meat in Riyadh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosilevac, Joseph M; Gassem, Mustafa A; Al Sheddy, Ibraheem A; Almaiman, Salah A; Al-Mohizea, Ibrahim S; Alowaimer, Abdullah; Koohmaraie, Mohammad

    2015-01-01

    Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella are significant foodborne pathogens that can be found in the feces and on the hides of meat animals. When hides are removed during the harvest process, the carcass and subsequent meat products can become contaminated. Camels, cattle, sheep, and goats are harvested for meat in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. The prevalence of E. coli O157:H7 and Salmonella are unknown in these animals, and it is assumed that if the animals carry the pathogens in their feces or on their hides, meat products are likely to become contaminated. To this end, a minimum of 206 samples each from hides and feces of camels, cattle, goats, and sheep were collected over the course of 8 months and tested for E. coli O157:H7 and Salmonella. It was found that E. coli O157:H7 was present in feces (10.7, 1.4, 2.4, and 2.4%) and on hides (17.9, 8.2, 2.9, and 9.2%) of cattle, goats, camels, and sheep, respectively. The prevalence of Salmonella was 11.2, 13.5, 23.2, and 18.8% in feces and 80.2, 51.2 67.6, and 60.2% on hides of cattle, goats, camels, and sheep, respectively. The prevalence of E coli O157:H7 was nearly zero in all samples collected in June and July, while Salmonella did not exhibit any seasonal variation. These results constitute the first comprehensive study of E. coli O157:H7 and Salmonella prevalence in Saudi Arabian meat animals at harvest. PMID:25581182

  12. SIMMER II analysis of the CAMEL II C6 and C7 experiments (simulated fuel penetration into a primary control assembly)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The CAMEL C6 and C7 tests, performed at Argonne National Laboratory, simulated asymmetric midplane fuel injection into a nonvoided fully withdrawn primary control assembly during the meltdown phase of a hypothetical core-disruptive accident in a liquid-metal-cooled fast breeder reactor. These tests were modeled with no a priori knowledge of the experimental results using the SIMMER-II code. Subsequent comparison of calculations with experimental results showed good agreement. 21 figures, 3 tables

  13. Short chain fatty acids in the forestomach of camels and indigenous cattle, sheep and goats and in the caecum of donkeys grazing a thornbush savannah pasture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Concentrations of short chain fatty acids (SCFAs) were measured in the forestomach of camels and indigenous cattle, sheep and goats and in the caecum of donkeys grazing a thornbush savannah pasture. Total SCFA concentrations in camels were 40-90% higher than in ruminants. SCFA concentrations in the caecum of donkeys were about 30-40% lower. Seasonal variations in the quality of feed and differences in the feeding behaviour of the five animal species indicate considerable differences of microbial activity in the fermentation chambers. Concentrations of SCFAs in the fermentation chambers, on the other hand, showed only small seasonal variations; no differences between sheep and goats were found, although goats selected a diet of significantly higher digestibility in the dry season than sheep. The absorption of SCFAs through the epithelium of the reticulorumen of sheep and goats measured in the temporarily isolated forestomach was similar in the two species. The rate constants of SCFA absorption were 60-90% higher for propionate and butyrate than for acetate. Parallel measurements of forestomach fluid volumes and fluid turnover showed larger SCFA pools and higher flow rates of SCFAs (relative to body weight) in camels than in the ruminants. It is concluded that concentrations of SCFAs do not reflect actual SCFA production rates. Dilution rate, rumen fluid volume and absorption rate influence SCFA concentrations far more than production rate. (author). 20 refs, 3 figs, 6 tabs

  14. Genomic and Proteomic Characterization of Bacteriocin-Producing Leuconostoc mesenteroides Strains Isolated from Raw Camel Milk in Two Southwest Algerian Arid Zones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benmechernene, Zineb; Fernández-No, Inmaculada; Quintela-Baluja, Marcos; Kihal, Mebrouk; Calo-Mata, Pilar; Barros-Velázquez, Jorge

    2014-01-01

    Information on the microbiology of camel milk is very limited. In this work, the genetic characterization and proteomic identification of 13 putative producing bacteriocin Leuconostoc strains exhibiting antilisterial activity and isolated from camel milk were performed. DNA sequencing of the 13 selected strains revealed high homology among the 16S rRNA genes for all strains. In addition, 99% homology with Leuconostoc mesenteroides was observed when these sequences were analysed by the BLAST tool against other sequences from reference strains deposited in the Genbank. Furthermore, the isolates were characterized by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDITOF MS) which allowed for the identification of 2 mass peaks 6242 m/z and 5118 m/z that resulted to be specific to the species L. mesenteroides. Remarkably, the phyloproteomic tree provided more intraspecific information of L. mesenteroides than phylogenetic analysis. Accordingly, phyloproteomic analysis grouped L. mesenteroides strains into different subbranches, while all L. mesenteroides isolates were grouped in the same branch according to phylogenetic analysis. This study represents, to our knowledge, the first report on the use of MALDI-TOF MS on the identification of LAB isolated from camel milk. PMID:24809059

  15. Genomic and Proteomic Characterization of Bacteriocin-Producing Leuconostoc mesenteroides Strains Isolated from Raw Camel Milk in Two Southwest Algerian Arid Zones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zineb Benmechernene

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Information on the microbiology of camel milk is very limited. In this work, the genetic characterization and proteomic identification of 13 putative producing bacteriocin Leuconostoc strains exhibiting antilisterial activity and isolated from camel milk were performed. DNA sequencing of the 13 selected strains revealed high homology among the 16S rRNA genes for all strains. In addition, 99% homology with Leuconostoc mesenteroides was observed when these sequences were analysed by the BLAST tool against other sequences from reference strains deposited in the Genbank. Furthermore, the isolates were characterized by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDITOF MS which allowed for the identification of 2 mass peaks 6242 m/z and 5118 m/z that resulted to be specific to the species L. mesenteroides. Remarkably, the phyloproteomic tree provided more intraspecific information of L. mesenteroides than phylogenetic analysis. Accordingly, phyloproteomic analysis grouped L. mesenteroides strains into different subbranches, while all L. mesenteroides isolates were grouped in the same branch according to phylogenetic analysis. This study represents, to our knowledge, the first report on the use of MALDI-TOF MS on the identification of LAB isolated from camel milk.

  16. Genomic and proteomic characterization of bacteriocin-producing Leuconostoc mesenteroides strains isolated from raw camel milk in two southwest Algerian arid zones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benmechernene, Zineb; Fernández-No, Inmaculada; Quintela-Baluja, Marcos; Böhme, Karola; Kihal, Mebrouk; Calo-Mata, Pilar; Barros-Velázquez, Jorge

    2014-01-01

    Information on the microbiology of camel milk is very limited. In this work, the genetic characterization and proteomic identification of 13 putative producing bacteriocin Leuconostoc strains exhibiting antilisterial activity and isolated from camel milk were performed. DNA sequencing of the 13 selected strains revealed high homology among the 16S rRNA genes for all strains. In addition, 99% homology with Leuconostoc mesenteroides was observed when these sequences were analysed by the BLAST tool against other sequences from reference strains deposited in the Genbank. Furthermore, the isolates were characterized by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDITOF MS) which allowed for the identification of 2 mass peaks 6242 m/z and 5118 m/z that resulted to be specific to the species L. mesenteroides. Remarkably, the phyloproteomic tree provided more intraspecific information of L. mesenteroides than phylogenetic analysis. Accordingly, phyloproteomic analysis grouped L. mesenteroides strains into different subbranches, while all L. mesenteroides isolates were grouped in the same branch according to phylogenetic analysis. This study represents, to our knowledge, the first report on the use of MALDI-TOF MS on the identification of LAB isolated from camel milk. PMID:24809059

  17. Physiological responses of camel calves to weaning stress with absence of dams under group or individual rearing system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present study was performed to investigate the effects of weaning stress, rearing system and probiotics supplementation on live body weight, LBW; total feed intake, TFI, water consumption, WC, average daily gain, ADG and growth rate, GR, plasma cortisol and thyroid hormones concentrations during weaning period. This study was carried out at Maryout Research Station of the Desert Research Center, 35 km southwest of Alexandria, Egypt. Ten Maghraby breed camel calves were separated from their dams at 280 days of age with initial LBW of 236.76±0.22 kg. The duration of the study was 35 days and divided into five weeks; first week served as pre-weaning period followed by four weeks served as post-weaning period. Camel calves were weaned using calf-dam contact off system (calves were completely separated from their dams at all times during weaning process) under two rearing systems (6 calves penned in two groups and 4 calves penned in complete isolation, each alone in 4 replicates). Half of calves in each type of rearing system were supplemented with probiotics while the others were not-supplemented with probiotics. The results showed that maternal and milk deprivation affect significantly LBW, TWG, ADG and GR during post-weaning period (28 days), where grouped and isolated calves were different significantly in LBW, TWG and ADG, during the first two weeks post-weaning, but not different significantly in GR (1.66%) at the end of weaning period (28 days). However, grouped calves were more endurance (less responsive) to weaning stress along weaning period. The beneficial effect of probiotics supplementation on TFI was more pronounced from d14 till d28 post-weaning for both grouped and isolated-housed calves. The results showed also that completely social isolation was more pronounced as a stressful condition, this was indicated by the physiological changes which were considered indicative for a higher state of stress, such as an acute release of cortisol hormone and

  18. Isolation and Characterization of Dromedary Camel Coronavirus UAE-HKU23 from Dromedaries of the Middle East: Minimal Serological Cross-Reactivity between MERS Coronavirus and Dromedary Camel Coronavirus UAE-HKU23

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woo, Patrick C. Y.; Lau, Susanna K. P.; Fan, Rachel Y. Y.; Lau, Candy C. Y.; Wong, Emily Y. M.; Joseph, Sunitha; Tsang, Alan K. L.; Wernery, Renate; Yip, Cyril C. Y.; Tsang, Chi-Ching; Wernery, Ulrich; Yuen, Kwok-Yung

    2016-01-01

    Recently, we reported the discovery of a dromedary camel coronavirus UAE-HKU23 (DcCoV UAE-HKU23) from dromedaries in the Middle East. In this study, DcCoV UAE-HKU23 was successfully isolated in two of the 14 dromedary fecal samples using HRT-18G cells, with cytopathic effects observed five days after inoculation. Northern blot analysis revealed at least seven distinct RNA species, corresponding to predicted subgenomic mRNAs and confirming the core sequence of transcription regulatory sequence motifs as 5′-UCUAAAC-3′ as we predicted previously. Antibodies against DcCoV UAE-HKU23 were detected in 58 (98.3%) and 59 (100%) of the 59 dromedary sera by immunofluorescence and neutralization antibody tests, respectively. There was significant correlation between the antibody titers determined by immunofluorescence and neutralization assays (Pearson coefficient = 0.525, p alpaca CoV, confirming that DcCoV UAE-HKU23 is a novel member of Betacoronavirus 1. PMID:27164099

  19. Camel Milk Modulates the Expression of Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor-Regulated Genes, Cyp1a1, Nqo1, and Gsta1, in Murine hepatoma Hepa 1c1c7 Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Korashy, Hesham M.; El Gendy, Mohamed A. M.; Alhaider, Abdulqader A.; El-Kadi, Ayman O.

    2012-01-01

    There is a traditional belief in the Middle East that camel milk may aid in prevention and treatment of numerous cases of cancer yet, the exact mechanism was not investigated. Therefore, we examined the ability of camel milk to modulate the expression of a well-known cancer-activating gene, Cytochrome P450 1a1 (Cyp1a1), and cancer-protective genes, NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase 1 (Nqo1) and glutathione S-transferase a1 (Gsta1), in murine hepatoma Hepa 1c1c7 cell line. Our results showed that...

  20. The use of polymerase chain reaction for rapid diagnosis and differentiation of para- and ortho-pox virus infections in camels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Camels are important livestock resource uniquely adapted to hot and arid environment. Two camel diseases are of economic importance; Camel Pox (CP) caused by an orthopoxvirus and Camel Contagious Ecthyma (CCE) caused by a Parapoxvirus. Clinically CCE is indistinguishable from CP, especially when both diseases co-exist in the same locality. The current traditional methods for laboratory diagnosis of both diseases are not reliable, time consuming or not available in countries where these diseases are endemic. Nucleic acid hybridization techniques based on the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) are now used for detection and characterization of many viruses including Poxvirus. The aim of this investigation is to develop a rapid and reliable technique to separate CCE from CP and to overcome costly and time- consuming traditional techniques. A number of 22 CCE-suspected and 4 CP-suspected skin scabs collected from camels in the Sudan as well as 3 skin scabs collected from sheep affected with Contagious Pustular Dermatitis (Orf) were used. As a reference, MR I strain (Parapoxvirus) and Vaccinia Elstree strain (Orthopoxvirus) were included. Skin scabs were cut into small pieces and homogenized. Scab homogenates were either used directly in the PCR or purified through a 36% sucrose cushion. Viral DNA was extracted from skin scabs using a commercial DNA Isolation kit (Gentra Systems). Accordingly, 3 PCR methods were followed; 1) using DNA prepared directly from skin scabs (PCR 1); 2) scab homogenates were added to the PCR minus the polymerase and then the reaction heated at 100 deg. C as described by Ireland and Binepal (PCR 2); 3) purification of the poxvirus in scab homogenate and virus pellets added to the PCR reaction and then treated as in 2 (PCR 3). In order to compare the PCR methods with traditional techniques for diagnosis, a small volume of each sample was examined by negative contrast electron microscopy (EM). Portion of the same samples were also inoculated onto

  1. Isolation and Characterization of Dromedary Camel Coronavirus UAE-HKU23 from Dromedaries of the Middle East: Minimal Serological Cross-Reactivity between MERS Coronavirus and Dromedary Camel Coronavirus UAE-HKU23.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woo, Patrick C Y; Lau, Susanna K P; Fan, Rachel Y Y; Lau, Candy C Y; Wong, Emily Y M; Joseph, Sunitha; Tsang, Alan K L; Wernery, Renate; Yip, Cyril C Y; Tsang, Chi-Ching; Wernery, Ulrich; Yuen, Kwok-Yung

    2016-01-01

    Recently, we reported the discovery of a dromedary camel coronavirus UAE-HKU23 (DcCoV UAE-HKU23) from dromedaries in the Middle East. In this study, DcCoV UAE-HKU23 was successfully isolated in two of the 14 dromedary fecal samples using HRT-18G cells, with cytopathic effects observed five days after inoculation. Northern blot analysis revealed at least seven distinct RNA species, corresponding to predicted subgenomic mRNAs and confirming the core sequence of transcription regulatory sequence motifs as 5'-UCUAAAC-3' as we predicted previously. Antibodies against DcCoV UAE-HKU23 were detected in 58 (98.3%) and 59 (100%) of the 59 dromedary sera by immunofluorescence and neutralization antibody tests, respectively. There was significant correlation between the antibody titers determined by immunofluorescence and neutralization assays (Pearson coefficient = 0.525, p < 0.0001). Immunization of mice using recombinant N proteins of DcCoV UAE-HKU23 and Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV), respectively, and heat-inactivated DcCoV UAE-HKU23 showed minimal cross-antigenicity between DcCoV UAE-HKU23 and MERS-CoV by Western blot and neutralization antibody assays. Codon usage and genetic distance analysis of RdRp, S and N genes showed that the 14 strains of DcCoV UAE-HKU23 formed a distinct cluster, separated from those of other closely related members of Betacoronavirus 1, including alpaca CoV, confirming that DcCoV UAE-HKU23 is a novel member of Betacoronavirus 1. PMID:27164099

  2. Bioscreening and expression of a camel anti-CTGF VHH nanobody and its renaturation by a novel dialysis-dilution method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Xiulei; Fan, Xiaobo; Qu, Qingrong; Wu, Guoqiu

    2016-12-01

    The variable regions of the camel heavy chain antibody, also known as nanobody is the smallest antibody with antigen-binding efficiency. CTGF is considered important during extracellular matrix deposition which was involved in the pathogenesis of fibrosis related diseases. There are several anti-CTGF-C nanobody drugs under developing in pharmacy. In this study, we described the screening of a novel anti-CTGF-C nanobody from the peripheral blood of immunized camel by phage display. The screened nanobody was further expressed and purified from E. coli cells. A sophisticated dialysis-dilution method was designed for the in vitro refolding of the nanobody. The results showed that the expressed nanobody was consisted of 135 amino acid and mainly expressed as inclusion body in E. coli cells. The dialysis-dilution method was very effective and the recovery rate of the renaturation was more than 80 %. The ELISA result suggested the nanobody had been well refolded showing a superior CTGF binding activity to the commercial mouse anti-CTGF-C mAb. In conclusion, the anti-CTGF-C nonobody had been successfully screened by phage display. The dialysis-dilution refolding method was very effective and the recovery rate reached over 80 %. PMID:27620736

  3. Effect of camel chymosin on the texture, functionality, and sensory properties of low-moisture, part-skim Mozzarella cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moynihan, A C; Govindasamy-Lucey, S; Jaeggi, J J; Johnson, M E; Lucey, J A; McSweeney, P L H

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the effect of coagulant (bovine calf chymosin, BCC, or camel chymosin, CC), on the functional and sensory properties and performance shelf-life of low-moisture, part-skim (LMPS) Mozzarella. Both chymosins were used at 2 levels [0.05 and 0.037 international milk clotting units (IMCU)/mL], and clotting temperature was varied to achieve similar gelation times for each treatment (as this also affects cheese properties). Functionality was assessed at various cheese ages using dynamic low-amplitude oscillatory rheology and performance of baked cheese on pizza. Cheese composition was not significantly different between treatments. The level of total calcium or insoluble (INSOL) calcium did not differ significantly among the cheeses initially or during ripening. Proteolysis in cheese made with BCC was higher than in cheeses made with CC. At 84 d of ripening, maximum loss tangent values were not significantly different in the cheeses, suggesting that these cheeses had similar melt characteristics. After 14 d of cheese ripening, the crossover temperature (loss tangent = 1 or melting temperature) was higher when CC was used as coagulant. This was due to lower proteolysis in the CC cheeses compared with those made with BCC because the pH and INSOL calcium levels were similar in all cheeses. Cheeses made with CC maintained higher hardness values over 84 d of ripening compared with BCC and maintained higher sensory firmness values and adhesiveness of mass scores during ripening. When melted on pizzas, cheese made with CC had lower blister quantity and the cheeses were firmer and chewier. Because the 2 types of cheeses had similar moisture contents, pH values, and INSOL Ca levels, differences in proteolysis were responsible for the firmer and chewier texture of CC cheeses. When cheese performance on baked pizza was analyzed, properties such as blister quantity, strand thickness, hardness, and chewiness were maintained for a longer

  4. 木瓜蛋白酶对骆驼肉嫩化效果的研究%Effects of Papain on Tenderness of Two-Humped Camel Meat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马欣欣; 双全; 李秀丽; 乌尼孟和; 陈泽明

    2012-01-01

    通过试验研究木瓜蛋白酶处理对骆驼肉嫩度及感官品质的影响。对木瓜蛋白酶用量、处理温度、处理时间进行试验,并且通过L9(33)正交试验,筛选出木瓜蛋白酶嫩化骆驼肉的最佳条件。结果表明:木瓜蛋白酶对骆驼肉的失水率、持水力及嫩度均有显著影响,且对骆驼肉感官品质没有影响。木瓜蛋白酶嫩化骆驼肉的最佳条件:酶用量为0.02%、处理温度4℃、恒温放置时间60min。因素的显著性次序为:木瓜蛋白酶用量〉处理温度〉处理时间。%The influences of papain solution on the tenderness of two-humped camel meat and its sensory qualities were determined in this study. With papain dosage, treatment temperature and time were variables, L9(33) orthogonal experiment was used to sift the optimal conditions of the tenderization. The results showed that papain could significantly affect water loss rate, water holding capacity and the tenderness of the camel meat, without the change of sensory qualities. The optimum conditions are papain dosage 0.02%, temperatuxe 4 ℃, treatment time 60 min. The sequence of the significance of these factors is as follows: papain dosage〉treatment temperature〉treatment time.

  5. Prevalence study of Bovine viral diarrhea virus by evaluation of antigen capture ELISA and RT-PCR assay in Bovine, Ovine, Caprine, Buffalo and Camel aborted fetuses in Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Safarpoor Dehkordi, Farhad

    2011-01-01

    Bovine viral diarrhea virus is a pestivirus in the family Flaviviridae that cause abortions and stillbirths in livestock and its traditional diagnosis is based on cell culture and virus neutralization test. In this study, for more sensitive, specific detection and determined the prevalence of virus in aborted Bovine, Ovine, Caprine, Buffalo and Camel fetuses the antigen capture ELISA and RT-PCR were recommended. From the total of 2173 aborted fetuses, 347 (15.96%) and 402 (18.49%) were positi...

  6. Prevalence of Listeria species in camel sausages from retail markets in Aydin province in Turkey and RAPD analysis of Listeria monocytogenes Isolates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozbey Gokben

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Samples were taken from 100 camel sausages from the different retail markets in Aydin province in the south-west of Turkey and they were tested for the presence of Listeria spp by biochemical methods. Samples were enriched using Listeria Enrichment Broth and they were inoculated onto Listeria Selective Agar. Listeria monocytogenes was isolated from nine samples (9%, Listeria innocua from 14 samples (14% and Listeria welshimeri from two samples(2%. A 701 bp fragment of listeriolysin O sequence for L. monocytogenes was amplified using specific primers by polymerase chain reaction (PCR for confirmation of the identification. A random primer (OPA-11 was used in a random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD assay. This detected five different band profiles amongst the L. monocytogenes isolates, indicating a relatively large amount of genetic heterogeneity amongst the nine isolates. The study has highlighted the need for improved strategies for food safety, in particular appropriate hygienic precautions to avoid contamination of sausage during the manufacturing process and appropriate preservation techniques during storage and transport, to prevent transmission of Listeria spp to consumers at home and abroad.

  7. Rating System CAMEL as Instrument of Assessment of the Financial Stability of the Bank Рейтинговая система CAMEL как инструмент оценки финансовой стабильности банка

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kolodizev Oleg Nikolaevich

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The article substantiates the basic theoretical and methodic bases as to the use of rating assessments of CAMEL. It gives recommendations as to the use of rating assessments of CAMEL for the assessment of the activity of the banks of Ukraine.Обоснованы основные теоретико-методические основы использования рейтинговых оценок CAMEL. Предоставлены рекомендации относительно использования рейтинговых оценок CAMEL для оценки деятельности банков в Украине.

  8. Establishment and Optimization of Incubation System of Bactrian Camel Studying CYP2D6 Enzyme in Vitro%双峰驼 CYP2D6酶体外孵育体系的建立与优化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王艳; 高飞; 哈斯苏荣

    2016-01-01

    为了研究双峰驼 CYP2D6酶体外活性,建立双峰驼肝微粒体孵育体系并对孵育体系中探针底物浓度、肝微粒体蛋白浓度和孵育时间等进行优化研究。首先采用改良差速离心法制备双峰驼肝微粒体、BCA 法测定双峰驼肝微粒体蛋白浓度、CO 还原差示光谱法检测 CYP 总酶含量,然后采用 HPLC 法跟踪检测孵育体系中 CYP2D6酶特异性底物的主要代谢产物去甲右美沙芬含量进而优化孵育条件。结果表明,双峰驼肝微粒体蛋白浓度为5.5650 mg/mL±0.5197 mg/mL,CYP 总酶含量为0.1777 nmol/mg±0.0503 nmol/mg;肝微粒体孵育体系的最适底物浓度为250μg/mL,肝微粒体蛋白浓度为5.5650 mg/mL,最适孵育时间为40 min 。所制备的双峰驼肝微粒体各项指标和优化后的肝微粒体孵育条件均能满足后续对双峰驼 CYP2D6酶体外活性研究的基本要求。%In order to study the in vitro activities of Bactrian Camel CYP2D6 enzyme,the liver microsome in-cubation system was established and optimized by studying the concentration of probe substrate,protein content of liver microsome and incubation time,etc.Firstly,liver microsomes of bactrian camel was pre-pared by modified differential centrifugation method,the protein content of bactrian camel liver microsomes was detected by using BCA method and the total content of CYP enzyme was determined by using CO re-duction method.Secondly,the incubation system was optimized by detecting and tracking the concentration of dextrophan,an active essential metabolite of dextromethorphan,in incubation system by using HPLC method.The results showed that the liver microsomal protein content of bactrian camel was 5.565 0 mg/mL±0.519 7 mg/mL,total CYP enzyme content was 0.177 7 nmol/mg±0.050 3 nmol/mg and the optimum substrate concentration in the liver microsome incubation system was 250 μg/mL,the op-timum concentration of protein in liver microsomes was 5

  9. Contribuição ao estudo de parâmetros bioquímicos sanguíneos de alpacas (Lama pacos) e guanacos (Lama guanicoe) da fauna de camelídeos sulamericanos

    OpenAIRE

    Cartelli, Rafael

    2012-01-01

    O principal objetivo do presente trabalho é o de estudar algumas características dos eritrócitos, particularmente o fluxo glicolítico, de camelídeos sulamericanos, a alpaca, Lama pacos, e o guanaco, Lama guanicoe. Uma revisão de literatura revelou que a informação científica sobre esse assunto é muito escarça. Estudos foram levados a efeito, sobre o hemograma, o conteúdo de enzimas séricas, aspartato aminotransferase e desidrogenase do lactato, e de uréía sérica e glicose plasmática no sangue...

  10. The history of Old World camelids in the light of molecular genetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burger, Pamela Anna

    2016-06-01

    Old World camels have come into the focus as sustainable livestock species, unique in their morphological and physiological characteristics and capable of providing vital products even under extreme environmental conditions. The evolutionary history of dromedary and Bactrian camels traces back to the middle Eocene (around 40 million years ago, mya), when the ancestors of Camelus emerged on the North American continent. While the genetic status of the two domestic species has long been established, the wild two-humped camel has only recently been recognized as a separate species, Camelus ferus, based on molecular genetic data. The demographic history established from genome drafts of Old World camels shows the independent development of the three species over the last 100,000 years with severe bottlenecks occurring during the last glacial period and in the recent past. Ongoing studies involve the immune system, relevant production traits, and the global population structure and domestication of Old World camels. Based on the now available whole genome drafts, specific metabolic pathways have been described shedding new light on the camels' ability to adapt to desert environments. These new data will also be at the origin for genome-wide association studies to link economically relevant phenotypes to genotypes and to conserve the diverse genetic resources in Old World camelids. PMID:27048619

  11. 论甘肃安南坝国家级自然保护区野骆驼生存环境的保护%Discussion on Wild Camel Habitat Environment Protection of Gansu Annan Dam National Nature Reserve

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    白升选; 张永虎

    2011-01-01

    To protect wild camel and their habitat is our common responsibility,and called for all the society to take care of this glorious missoon.once this species extinct,our descendants can only learn it from the textbook,as a wild camel sanctuary worker,this is our generation's malpractice,also the fault that our people of this generation commits.%保护野骆驼及栖息环境是我们保护区人共同的责任,呼吁全社会都来关心和担负起这份光荣的使命,一旦这个物种灭绝了,我们的子孙们只能从教科书中了解它、看到它,这是我们这一代野骆驼保护区工作者的失职,也是我们这一代人犯下的罪过。

  12. 双峰驼血淋巴结的形态结构研究%STUDIES ON MORPHOSTRUCTURE OF HEMOLYMPH NODES IN BACTRIAN CAMELS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李晓明; 陈怀涛

    2001-01-01

    本研究用解剖学和组织学方法首次确定我国双峰驼具有血淋巴结这一形态结构。其外观呈卵圆形、紫红色,直径6~11 mm,常见于皮下结缔组织中。在组织学上,外有一层由胶原纤维、弹性纤维和成纤维细胞构成的薄而疏松的被膜,其中有较多的血管和淋巴管;被膜伸入内部形成细小且分布散乱的小梁,但未将实质分隔成明显的小叶。实质由大量的血窦、较少的淋巴小结和淋巴窦构成,未见索状淋巴组织。血窦可分为边缘窦和中间窦,充满血液,前者位于被膜下方,较宽大,呈索状排列;后者狭窄,吻合成网;窦壁由内皮和基膜组成。淋巴窦较少,窦壁完整,明显扩张。淋巴小结多呈卵圆形,散在分布于血窦之间,由淋巴、网状组织构成,有的有明显的生发中心。和他种动物相比,双峰驼血淋巴结在组织学上有以下特点:(1)除具有血管和血窦外,还有淋巴管和淋巴窦;(2)实质无皮质和髓质之分;(3)淋巴组织主要为淋巴小结,未见索状的淋巴组织。%Morphostructure of hemolymph nodes of 35 bactrian camels were studied by anatomic and histological techniques.The results are as follow:It is first proved that there are hemolymph nodes in Bactrian camel′s body.The hemolymph nodes were purple,slightly round and very small in outer apperance.They were often found in connective tissue below the skin.Histologically,the thin capsule which consists of collagenous fibers,elastic fibers and fibroblasts went inward,but could not divide the parenchyma into obvious lobules.The parenchyma consisted of many hemal sinuses,few lymph nodules and lymph sinuses,but the cordlike lymph tissue was not found in it.The hemal sinuses filled with blood could be divided into two portions,the marginal sinuses,located below the capsule were bigger and cordlike,but the intermediate sinuses were

  13. CAMEL: concept annotated image libraries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natsev, Apostol; Chadha, Atul; Soetarman, Basuki; Vitter, Jeffrey S.

    2001-01-01

    The problem of content-based image searching has received considerable attention in the last few years. Thousands of images are now available on the Internet, and many important applications require searching of images in domains such as E-commerce, medical imaging, weather prediction, satellite imagery, and so on. Yet, content-based image querying is still largely unestablished as a mainstream field, nor is it widely used by search engines. We believe that two of the major hurdles for this poor acceptance are poor retrieval quality and usability.

  14. 山羊绒与细羊毛、牦牛绒、驼绒混纺产品中羊绒含量分析的探讨%Discussion of Quantitative Analysis of Cashmere Content in the Product Blended by Cashmere, Wool, Yak Hair and Camel Hair

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄富强; 薛瑞

    2012-01-01

    Cashmere, wool, yak hair and camel hair are constituted by polyclonal keratin cells and have similar structure. It" s difficult to test cashmere content in the product blended by cashmere, wool, yak hair and camel hair. In this article, the structural features of animal hair fibers were introduced. According to the imagines by optical microscope and the structural differences of cashmere, wool, yak hair and camel hair, the quantitative analysis of cashmere content in the blended product is discussed.%山羊绒与细羊毛、牦牛绒、驼绒均为角朊蛋白细胞组成,结构特征相似,在测定其混纺产品中羊绒含量具有一定的难度,是检验部门面对的一大难题。本文介绍了动物纤维的结构特点,结合光学显微镜图片围绕着山羊绒与细羊毛、牦牛绒、驼绒的鳞片形态特征的差异,对这几种混纺产品中羊绒含量的定量方法做出探讨。

  15. ‘Everybody knows’, but the rest of the world: the case of a caterpillar-borne reproductive loss syndrome in dromedary camels observed by Sahrawi pastoralists of Western Sahara

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background The traditional knowledge of local communities throughout the world is a valuable source of novel ideas and information to science. In this study, the ethnoveterinary knowledge of Sahrawi pastoralists of Western Sahara has been used in order to put forward a scientific hypothesis regarding the competitive interactions between camels and caterpillars in the Sahara ecosystem. Methods Between 2005 and 2009, 44 semi-structured interviews were conducted with Sahrawi pastoralists in the territories administered by the Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic, Western Sahara, using a snow-ball sampling design. Results Sahrawi pastoralists reported the existence of a caterpillar-borne reproductive loss syndrome, known locally as duda, affecting their camels. On the basis of Sahrawi knowledge about duda and of a thorough literature review, we built the hypothesis that: 1) caterpillars of the family Lasiocampidae (genera Lasiocampa, Psilogaster, or Streblote) have sudden and rare outbreaks on Acacia treetops in the Western Sahara ecosystem after heavy rainfall; 2) during these outbreaks, camels ingest the caterpillars while browsing; 3) as a consequence of this ingestion, pregnant camels have sudden abortions or give birth to weaklings. This hypothesis was supported by inductive reasoning built on circumstantiated evidence and analogical reasoning with similar syndromes reported in mares in the United States and Australia. Conclusions The possible existence of a caterpillar-borne reproductive loss syndrome among camels has been reported for the first time, suggesting that such syndromes might be more widespread than what is currently known. Further research is warranted to validate the reported hypothesis. Finally, the importance of studying folk livestock diseases is reinforced in light of its usefulness in revealing as yet unknown biological phenomena that would deserve further investigation. Resumen ‘Todos lo saben’, menos el resto del mundo: el caso de un s

  16. ‘Everybody knows’, but the rest of the world: the case of a caterpillar-borne reproductive loss syndrome in dromedary camels observed by Sahrawi pastoralists of Western Sahara

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volpato Gabriele

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The traditional knowledge of local communities throughout the world is a valuable source of novel ideas and information to science. In this study, the ethnoveterinary knowledge of Sahrawi pastoralists of Western Sahara has been used in order to put forward a scientific hypothesis regarding the competitive interactions between camels and caterpillars in the Sahara ecosystem. Methods Between 2005 and 2009, 44 semi-structured interviews were conducted with Sahrawi pastoralists in the territories administered by the Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic, Western Sahara, using a snow-ball sampling design. Results Sahrawi pastoralists reported the existence of a caterpillar-borne reproductive loss syndrome, known locally as duda, affecting their camels. On the basis of Sahrawi knowledge about duda and of a thorough literature review, we built the hypothesis that: 1 caterpillars of the family Lasiocampidae (genera Lasiocampa, Psilogaster, or Streblote have sudden and rare outbreaks on Acacia treetops in the Western Sahara ecosystem after heavy rainfall; 2 during these outbreaks, camels ingest the caterpillars while browsing; 3 as a consequence of this ingestion, pregnant camels have sudden abortions or give birth to weaklings. This hypothesis was supported by inductive reasoning built on circumstantiated evidence and analogical reasoning with similar syndromes reported in mares in the United States and Australia. Conclusions The possible existence of a caterpillar-borne reproductive loss syndrome among camels has been reported for the first time, suggesting that such syndromes might be more widespread than what is currently known. Further research is warranted to validate the reported hypothesis. Finally, the importance of studying folk livestock diseases is reinforced in light of its usefulness in revealing as yet unknown biological phenomena that would deserve further investigation. Resumen ‘Todos lo saben’, menos el resto del

  17. FİNANSAL KRİZLERİN BANKALARIN PERFORMANSLARINA ETKİSİ: TÜRK MEVDUAT BANKALARINDA CAMELS MODELİNİN İNCELENMESİ VE ÖRNEK BİR UYGULAMA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selami GÜNEY

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available ÖZ: Günümüzde, finansal sistemin yapı taşı olan bankacılık sektöründe, finansal krizlerin etkisinde ve oluşan rekabet ortamında, bankaların finansal performansının objektif bir şekilde ölçülememesinden dolayı, sektörde performans ölçümünün önemi artmıştır. Banka yönetimleri ya da denetim otoritelerince uygulanabilen performans değerlemeleri, bankaların mevcut durumlarını, potansiyellerini, yönetim stratejilerini belirleyebilmeleri ve sektörde rekabet avantajı elde edebilmelerini sağlamaktadır. Bu çalışmada, CAMELS modeli ile mevduat banka gruplarının kendi aralarında ve mevduat bankaları içindeki performansları 2002-2012 dönemi itibariyle TBB verileri kullanılarak analiz edilmiş, finansal krizlerin analiz sonuçlarına yansımaları değerlendirilmiştir. Analiz sonucunda; incelenen dönemde yabancı sermayeli mevduat bankalarının performansı en iyi olan ve özel sermayeli mevduat bankalarının performansı en düşük olan grup olduğu tespit edilmiştir. Mevduat bankalarının 2001 krizinden sonra yüksek sermaye yeterlilik ve likidite oranlarına sahip olmalarından dolayı krizlere karşı tedbirli oldukları ve 2008 küresel ekonomik krizini sektörle paralel olarak ufak sıyrıklarla atlatmayı başardıkları sonucuna ulaşılmıştır. ABSTRACT: Nowadays, it has increased the importance of performance measurement in banking sector that is the building block of the financial system due to inability measured banks’ financial performance by the impact of financial crisis and the resulting competitive environment. Banks’ management or supervisory authorities can be applied performance evaluations that banks determine current situation, potential, management strategies and ensure that they are able to achieve competitive advantage in banking sector. In this study, the performance of deposit bank groups were analyzed with CAMELS model in the 2002-2012 period by using the data of the

  18. [A case of Echinococcus granulosus hydatid cyst in a zoo born dromedary in the Berlin-Fridrichsfelde zoo].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priemer, J; Jakob, W

    1998-03-01

    In Germany, the threat to human health by the small fox tapeworm (Echinococcus multilocularis) has been increasingly discussed in the last few years. On the other hand, the hydatid worm of the dog (Echinococcus granulosus) became more and more rare in Germany and was often declared to be eradicated. This paper presents a case of hydatid infection of the lung in an adult dromedary (Camelus dromedarius), which was born and kept all its life at Tierpark Berlin-Friedrichsfelde. Questions connected with E. granulosus infection are discussed from an ecological point of view: history, urbanisation, biology, clinical signs, potential threat to man, prophylaxis and treatment. In view of the extensive and sometimes uncontrolled dog keeping in urban households it must be stressed that careful documentation and surveillance of this life-threatening zoonosis, which was the main reason for its decline in the past, has not yet lost its importance. PMID:9542809

  19. Vitamin C status in Sudanese camels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elkhidir, Hassab Elrasoul Hussein Mohamed

    2002-01-01

    Vitamin C (ascorbic acid), which is a potent antioxidant, recently has received a great deal of attention because of its positive action on the immune response and disease resistance of animals. Brief reviews are presented on ascorbic acid metabolism in animals and its relation with stressful condit

  20. Ultrastructure of ostrich (Struthio camelus) spermatozoa: I. Transmission electron microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soley, J T

    1993-06-01

    The origin and relationships of the tinamous (Order Tinamiformes), ratites (Order Struthioniformes, Rheiformes, Casuariiformes, Apterygiformes) and birds of the order Galliformes and Anseriformes is the subject of much debate and it has been suggested that the ultrastructural analysis of a wide variety of avian sperm may provide information relevant to this problem. This paper describes the fine structure of ostrich sperm and compares the results with published information for other non-passerine birds. Ostrich sperm display a short, conical acrosome which covers the tapered tip of the long, cylindrical nucleus. A nuclear invagination housing an acrosomal rod extends deep within the karyoplasm. A centriolar complex is situated beneath the head and consists of a short proximal centriole and a long (3.0 microns) distal centriole which extends the complete length of the midpiece. The central cavity of the distal centriole contains a pair of microtubules embedded in a rod of electron-dense material. The midpiece is surrounded by a mitochondrial sheath. Concentrations of fine granular material are present between the mitochondria. The principal-piece of the tail is demarcated from the midpiece by a distinct annulus and characterized by a ribbed fibrous sheath enclosing a typical axoneme. Rudimentary coarse fibres are observed between the fibrous sheath and the doublet microtubules of the axoneme in the proximal region of the principal-piece. The end-piece contains a disorganized collection of axonemal microtubules. Ostrich sperm differ in a number of respects from that of other non-passerine birds (the absence of a typical perforatorium; the presence of a ribbed fibrous sheath; a deep nuclear invagination; the structure and length of the distal centriole) but show a close similarity to sperm of the rhea and crested tinamou, both representatives of primitive avian families. These observations add further support to the theory that the ratites and tinamous constitute a monophyletic group. The evidence presented also reinforces the hypothesis that the ratites were the first group to branch off from the main avian stem, to be followed by the Galliformes & Anseriformes. Although it was impossible to determine whether the sperm of the tinamou are more "primitive" than those of the ostrich or rhea, it is clear that ostrich and rhea sperm are closely allied and distinct from tinamou sperm. PMID:8332322

  1. Comparison of chemical restraint techniques in ostrich (Struthio camelus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Ciboto

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Chemical restraint in ostriches is usually required for short-time interventions. Thus, this study established and evaluated intravenous anesthetics formulated from commonly used drugs in order to accomplish total restraint on this species and allow painful procedures to be performed. Thirty male and female ostriches weighing from 40 to 90 kg were randomly distributed into five groups. Animals in Groups I, II and III were given acepromazine (0.25 mg/kg i.m. and those in Groups IV and V were given xylazine (1.0 mg/kg i.m.. The following drugs were administered intravenously 15 to 20 min later: Group I - propofol (4.0 mg/kg, Groups II and IV - ketamine (5.0 mg/kg and diazepam (0.25 mg/kg, Groups III and V - tiletamine-zolazepam (3.0 mg/kg. All protocols have produced satisfactory results regarding total containment, muscular relaxation and maintenance of the evaluated parameters within a normal range.

  2. Aspergillosis and proventricular impaction in an ostrich (Struthio camelus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahrzad Azizi

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Aspergillosis is the most common mycotic infection in a wide variety of bird and causes significant economic losses. The present study described concurrent occurrence of aspergillosis and proventricular impaction in a 4-year-old male ostrich. The bird had respiratory problems, coughing and anorexia. Postmortem examination revealed numerous greenish-white caseous foci, 0.5 to 1 cm in diameter distributed on the surfaces of the air sacs and throughout the lungs. In histopathological study, multifocal areas of caseous necrosis that surrounded by inflammatory cells including heterophils, lymphocytes and macrophages were present. Long branching septated hyphae were visible in the necrotic areas with hematoxylin and eosin and Periodic acid-Schiff staining. Thrombi were present in the blood vessels. The proventriculus was full of gravel.

  3. Fatty acid composition of ostrich (Struthio camelus abdominal adipose tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Belichovska

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Fatty acid composition of foods has a great impact on nutrition and health. Therefore, thе determination and knowledge of the fatty acid composition of food is very important for nutrition. Due to the high nutritional characteristics of ostrich meat and its products, the research determining their quality is of topical interest. The aim of the present investigation was the determination of fatty acid composition of ostrich adipose tissue. The content of fatty acids was determined according to AOAC Official Methods of Analysis and determination was performed using a gas chromatograph with a flame-ionization detector (GC-FID. The results are expressed as a percentage of the total content of fatty acids. The method was validated and whereupon the following parameters were determined: linearity, precision, recovery, limit of detection and limit of quantification. The repeatability was within of 0.99 to 2.15%, reproducibility from 2.01 to 4.57%, while recovery ranged from 94.89 to 101.03%. According to these results, this method is accurate and precise and can be used for analysis of fatty acids in foods. It was concluded that the content of saturated fatty acids (SFA accounted 34.75%, of monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA 38.37%, of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA 26.88%, of total unsaturated fatty acids (UFA 65.25% and of desirable fatty acids (DFA (total unsaturated + stearic acid 70.37% of the analysed samples. The ratio polyunsaturated/saturated fatty acids accounted 0.77. The most present fatty acid is the oleic (C18:1n9c with 28.31%, followed by palmitic (C16:0 with 27.12% and linoleic (C18:2n6c acid with 25.08%. Other fatty acids are contained in significantly lower quantities.

  4. Morphological aspects of atrioventricular valves in the ostrich (Struthio camelus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco A. Pereira-Sampaio

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Heart anatomy in the ostrich has been reported, but there are few information on the histological features of the atrioventricular valves. Hearts of young ostriches were fixed in 10% formaldehyde for 24 h and dissected to characterize their macroscopic anatomy. Samples of valves were harvested and stained with Mallory’s trichrome, Gomori’s trichrome, and Picro-Sirius red, for later analysis. The right atrioventricular valve consists of a muscle flap with two fixations. The left atrioventricular valve consists of two layers of endocardium with a layer of connective tissue between them. The free border of the tricuspid valve supports a varying number of chordae tendineae. One of the cusps is attached to the septum, while the other two cusps are attached to the opposite wall. The aortic valve, as well as the pulmonary trunk valve, consists of three cusps. The right atrioventricular valve showed up only as a muscle flap of myocardium coated with a thin layer of dense connective tissue, with two fixations. In the connective tissue, we find a predominance of type I collagen fibers and a lesser amount of type III, with a small presence of elastic fibers. The presence of Purkinje fibers were also usual in the valvular subendocardium, suggesting that they directly participate in the transmission of nervous stimulation to the muscle fibers within the valves. The left atrioventricular valve consisted of 3 cusps, a dorsal, a left, and a right.

  5. Water requirement and total body water estimation as affected by species, pregnancy and lactation using tritiated water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiotracer dilution technique was used to determine total body water (TBW) and the water turnover rate (WTR) estimate of water requirements in water buffaloe, Red Dannish cattle, fat tailed Osemi sheep and Camellus Dromedarius. Water buffaloes were found to have highest TBW, followed by camels, sheep and cattle in a descending order. The WTR ranking was highest for sheep followed by water buffaloe endurance to heat was found inseperable to high water usage, while in camels, an intericate water retention mechanism help animals to thrive in deserts. Fat tailled Osemi sheep and cattle failed to cope with high environmental temperature resulting in temporary dehydration. TBW was 17% and 6% higher in pregnant cattle and sheep than non-pregnant animals respectively, while there was no observed change in pregnant buffaloes. Water retention of pregnant cattle was associated with an appriciable increase in WTR, which was not noticable in buffaloe or sheep. Lactating buffaloe have had a higher TBW and WTR than lactating cattle. Milk yield per day during the period of measurement was higher in buffalo than cattle. Wallowing of buffalo in water pools during grazing, represents a behavioural adaptation for life in hot regions, aside of tendency for higher WTR with concomitant water retention

  6. Zygomycetes from herbivore dung in the ecological reserve of Dois Irmãos, Northeast Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Luiz Cabral Monteiro de Azevedo Santiago

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Thirty-eight taxa of Zygomycetes distributed in 15 genera were recorded from tapir (Tapirus terrestris, camel (Camelus bactrianus, horse (Equus caballus, deer (Cervus elaphus, agouti (Dasyprocta aguti, donkey (Equus asinus, llama (Llama glama and waterbuck (Kobus ellipsiprymnus dung collected at the Reserva Ecológica de Dois Irmãos located in Recife, State of Pernambuco, Northeast Brazil. The samples were collected on a monthly basis from June 2005 to May 2006, taken to the laboratory and incubated in moist chambers. Higher number of taxa was observed in the excrements of tapir, followed by deer and donkey. The highest number of species was detected for Mucor, followed by Pilobolus. Statistical analyses showed significant differences in richness of Zygomycetes taxa between the herbivore dung types. Differences of species composition, however, were weak. Seasonality influenced the Zygomycetes species composition but not its richness. Variations in taxa composition between ruminants and non-ruminants dung were non significant.

  7. Taxonomy Icon Data: ostrich [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available amelus_NL.png Struthio_camelus_S.png Struthio_camelus_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?...i=Struthio+camelus&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Struthio+camelus&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy..._icon/icon.cgi?i=Struthio+camelus&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Struthio+camelus&t=NS ...

  8. 我国商业银行信用评级5A模型初探--以骆驼评级为启示%The 5A model of Credit Rating of Commercial Banks in China---With Camel Rating for Inspiration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾曼莉

    2015-01-01

    strategy and the additive items on the basis of the model of CAMEL. The purpose of the paper is to initiate and cause the public to be acquainted with, focus on and probe into Chinese commercial bank rating.

  9. Structure and Function of Bovine and Camel Chymosin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jesper Langholm

    complexes of bovine chymosin, human pepsin, and endothiapepsin with the inhibitor pepstatin were examined to explain pepstatin’s lower affinity towards bovine chymosin. Human pepsin has a loop insert and a more hydrophobic binding cleft leading to a larger interaction surface with the hydrophobic pepstatin...

  10. Amino acid analysis and group function of camel insulin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. E. A. Baragob,

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available In the current study, the claimed amino analysis and groups fraction of Sudanese camels’ insulin was obtained by hydrolysis using amino acid analyzer. The result obtained indicated the presence of all amino acids except cystine and tryptophan which were not detected by this method due to destruction during acid hydrolysis.

  11. Amino acid analysis and group function of camel insulin

    OpenAIRE

    A. E. A. Baragob,; O. Y. Mohammed,; A. F. Mustafa,; S. M. E. Khojali; H. A. Samia

    2011-01-01

    In the current study, the claimed amino analysis and groups fraction of Sudanese camels’ insulin was obtained by hydrolysis using amino acid analyzer. The result obtained indicated the presence of all amino acids except cystine and tryptophan which were not detected by this method due to destruction during acid hydrolysis.

  12. Phlegmon of the Foot As A Camel Bite Complication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Skonieczny Bartosz

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The great popularity of foreign excursions and travel in exotic directions, as well as increasing popularity of breeding exotic animals at home, is evidence that in daily practice one may observe injuries inflicted by animals atypically occurring in Poland.

  13. Cigarette taxes. The straw to break the camel's back.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossman, M; Chaloupka, F J

    1997-01-01

    Teenage cigarette smoking is sensitive to the price of cigarettes. The most recent research suggests that a 10% increase in price would reduce the number of teenagers who smoke by 7%. If the proposed 43-cent hike in the Federal excise tax rate on cigarettes contained in the Hatch-Kennedy Bill were enacted, the number of teenage smokers would fall by approximately 16%. This translates into more than 2.6 million fewer smokers and more than 850,000 fewer smoking-related premature deaths in the current cohort of 0 to 17-year-olds. Adjusted for inflation, the current 24-cent-a-pack tax costs the buyer about half of the original cigarette tax of 8 cents imposed in 1951. A substantial tax hike would curb youth smoking; this strategy should move to the forefront of the antismoking campaign. PMID:9258294

  14. Cigarette taxes. The straw to break the camel's back.

    OpenAIRE

    Grossman, M.; F. J. Chaloupka

    1997-01-01

    Teenage cigarette smoking is sensitive to the price of cigarettes. The most recent research suggests that a 10% increase in price would reduce the number of teenagers who smoke by 7%. If the proposed 43-cent hike in the Federal excise tax rate on cigarettes contained in the Hatch-Kennedy Bill were enacted, the number of teenage smokers would fall by approximately 16%. This translates into more than 2.6 million fewer smokers and more than 850,000 fewer smoking-related premature deaths in the c...

  15. Mecanoreceptores da mucosa palatina de avestruz (Struthio camelus: estudo ao microscópio de luz Mechanoreceptors of the palatine mucosa of ostrich (Struthio camelus: light microscope study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana P. Guimarães

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Foram estudados corpúsculos de Herbst da mucosa palatina de avestruz em nível de microscopia de luz. Os corpúsculos compõem-se de uma cápsula externa, cápsula interna e axônio central. A cápsula externa apresentou numerosas lamelas, enquanto que a cápsula interna mostrou estrutura de folhas compactas. Os corpúsculos apresentaram formato ovalado ou circular e circundado por espessos feixes de fibras colágenas. Cada lamela estava composta de uma densa rede de fibras espessas. Os axônios terminais estavam situados ao longo do eixo, terminando em um bulbo terminal. As fibras da cápsula externa, coradas por Picrosirius e examinadas no microscópio óptico sob luz polarizada, revelou a presença de fibras colágenas do tipo I em verde e na região periférica observou-se grande quantidade de fibras colágenas do tipo III. Os corpúsculos apresentaram-se envoltos por células planas e envoltos por fibras colágenas.Herbst corpuscles of the palatine mucosa of ostrich were studied by light microscopy. The corpuscles are composed of an outer core, inner core and central nerve terminal. The outer core presents numerous lamellae, while the inner core shows compact structure of cytoplasm sheets. The corpuscles are elongate or oval in shape and are surrounded by bundles of collagen fibers. Each lamella is composed of a dense network of thick fibrils. The terminal axons are located along the axis and form a bulb terminal. The fibers of external core stained by Picrosirius and examined by polarized light microscopy revealed to be green in color like type I collagen fibers, and at the periphery is a large amount of collagen type III. The corpuscles are surrounded by flat cells and dense collagen fibers at the periphery.

  16. In situ measurements for calculating evapotranspiration values using neutron moisture meter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Field experiment was conducted at the Wadi Sudr area, south Sinai, Egypt. Two types of residual animal farm (i.e., goat and camel)used wheat crop, beside control (no manure). The neutron scattering method and tensiometers were used to calculate the components of soil moisture depletion, evapotranspiration (ET) and drainage rate (DR). Evapotranspiration (ET) was determined by four methods, i.e, soil moisture depletion (SMD), Active rooting depth (ARD) at 80% SMD, active rooting depth (ARD) at zero hydraulic potential gradient (dh/dz = 0) and Blaney - Criddle formula (climatically data) using published crop coefficient (Kc) ET values for goat and camel residuals and control treatments were found to be 5.59, 5.54 and 6.80; 4.48, 4.43 and 5.44; 5.01, 4.11 and 11.66 and 4.5 mm day 1 for all treatments using the previous four methods respectively. The data obtained also showed that ET values under organic manure treatments were lower than control treatment, while the dry weight of wheat crop was higher in the manure-treated plots relative to the control. These less irrigation water requirements are needed to be applied to manure-treated plots and this should reduce the opportunity of soil deterioration if saline water is used

  17. Radiographic anatomy of the thoraco-abdominal cavity of the ostrich (Struthio camelus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W.M. Wagner

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available This study provides a reference for the radiographic anatomy of the thoraco-abdominal cavity of female ostriches as a representative of ratites. One ostrich cadaver, 2 adult and 2 growing ostriches were used. Right lateral radiographs produced by a 6-frame technique and 2 dorsoventral radiographs produced by an adapted 3-frame technique were selected and schematic illustrations of these were labelled to illustrate normal radiographic anatomy. Differences from other avian species and unique features of the ostrich are briefly discussed.

  18. Ultra-structure of adipocytes in the digital cushion of ostrich (Stuthio Camelus) foot pad

    OpenAIRE

    Amira Eid Derbalah

    2012-01-01

    The ultra-structural examination of adipocytes in the digital cushion of ostrich foot pad was performed to reveal the structural adaptation of adipocytes and elastic fibers of digital cushion to accommodate with fast movement of this unique bird. Two types of adipocytes were found, the first type was typical signet ring cells which had large fat droplets whose dimension dwarfed the cell organelles. The second type was diffused form with oval shaped adipocytes...

  19. Macroscopic features of the venous drainage of the reproductive system of the male ostrich (Struthio camelus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.Z.J. Elias

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The macroscopic features of the venous drainage of the reproductive system of the male ostrich were studied in six pre-pubertal and three sexually mature and active birds. Each testis was drained by one to four testicular veins. The right testicular veins drained the right testis and epididymis and its appendix to the caudal vena cava and to the right common iliac vein, whereas the left testicular veins drained the left testis and epididymis and its appendix exclusively to the left common iliac vein. A number of variations in the drainage pattern based on the point of entry and number of testicular veins were observed. The cranial aspect of the testis was also linked to the caudal vena cava or common iliac vein via the adrenal veins. The cranial, middle and caudal segments of the ductus deferens (and ureter were drained by the cranial, middle and caudal ureterodeferential veins respectively, to the caudal testicular veins, the caudal renal veins and pudendal / caudal part of the internal iliac veins. In some specimens, the caudal ureterodeferential veins also drained into the caudal mesenteric vein. The surface of the phallus was drained by tributaries of the pudendal vein. The basic pattern of venous drainage of the reproductive organs of the male ostrich was generally similar to that described for the domestic fowl. However, important differences, including the partial fusion of the caudal renal veins, drainage of the cranial aspect of the testes via the adrenal veins, drainage of the caudal ureterodeferential veins into the caudal mesenteric vein and the presence of veins draining the surface of the phallus, were observed. Although significant, these differences may simply reflect variations in the normal pattern of venous drainage of the reproductive tract of birds which could be verified by studying more specimens and more species.

  20. Endocardiosis and congestive heart failure in a captive ostrich (Struthio camelus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A.G. Kubba

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available A seven-year-old blue-necked male ostrich was found dead after a few days of illness. The animal was living in an open yard of 25 square meters along with three other females. They were given concentrate-rich ration with free access to green leaves and water. Autopsy revealed cardiac enlargement due to left ventricular hypertrophy and right ventricular dilatation. The left aterioventricular valves were irregularly thickened and contracted. The lungs were engorged with blood and the liver had nutmeg appearance. The small intestine showed segmental sub-serosal petechial hemorrhages. Histological examination revealed myxomatous degeneration of the left aterioventricular valves, pulmonary congestion and edema, congestion of periacinar hepatic zone and fatty degeneration of outer zones, renal glomerulosclerosis and arteriosclerosis. The affected parts of the small intestine showed villous atrophy with lacteal distention. The venules in the affected intestinal segment were severely dilated while the arterioles had narrow lumen and irregular wall thickening with hyaline deposition. The current article reports an endocardiosis in ostrich and discusses other vascular disorders.

  1. Serosurvey of selected avian pathogens in brazilian commercial Rheas (Rhea americana) and Ostriches (Struthio camelus)

    OpenAIRE

    OC Freitas Neto; AOT Carrasco; TF Raso; RLM Sousa; A Berchieri Júnior; AA Pinto

    2009-01-01

    Ratite farming of has expanded worldwide. Due to the intensive farming methods used by ratite producers, preventive medicine practices should be established. In this context, the surveillance and control of some avian pathogens are essential for the success of the ratite industry; however, little is known on the health status of ratites in Brazil. Therefore, the prevalence of antibodies against Newcastle Disease virus, Chlamydophila psittaci, Mycoplasma gallisepticum, Mycoplasma synoviae, and...

  2. Serosurvey of selected avian pathogens in brazilian commercial Rheas (Rhea americana and Ostriches (Struthio camelus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    OC de Freitas Neto

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Ratite farming of has expanded worldwide. Due to the intensive farming methods used by ratite producers, preventive medicine practices should be established. In this context, the surveillance and control of some avian pathogens are essential for the success of the ratite industry; however, little is known on the health status of ratites in Brazil. Therefore, the prevalence of antibodies against Newcastle Disease virus, Chlamydophila psittaci, Mycoplasma gallisepticum, Mycoplasma synoviae, and Salmonella Pullorum were evaluated in 100 serum samples collected from commercial ostriches and in 80 serum samples from commercial rheas reared in Brazil. All sampled animals were clinically healthy. The results showed that all ostriches and rheas were serologically negative to Newcastle disease virus, Chlamydophila psittaci, Mycoplasma gallisepticum, and Mycoplasma synoviae. Positive antibody responses against Salmonella Pullorum antigen were not detected in ostrich sera, but were detected in two rhea serum samples. These results can be considered as a warning as to the presence of Salmonella spp. in ratite farms. Therefore, the implementation of good health management and surveillance programs in ratite farms may contribute to improve not only animal production, but also public health conditions.

  3. Running in ostriches (Struthio camelus): three-dimensional joint axes alignment and joint kinematics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubenson, Jonas; Lloyd, David G; Besier, Thor F; Heliams, Denham B; Fournier, Paul A

    2007-07-01

    Although locomotor kinematics in walking and running birds have been examined in studies exploring many biological aspects of bipedalism, these studies have been largely limited to two-dimensional analyses. Incorporating a five-segment, 17 degree-of-freedom (d.f.) kinematic model of the ostrich hind limb developed from anatomical specimens, we quantified the three-dimensional (3-D) joint axis alignment and joint kinematics during running (at approximately 3.3 m s(-1)) in the largest avian biped, the ostrich. Our analysis revealed that the majority of the segment motion during running in the ostrich occurs in flexion/extension. Importantly, however, the alignment of the average flexion/extension helical axes of the knee and ankle are rotated externally to the direction of travel (37 degrees and 21 degrees , respectively) so that pure flexion and extension at the knee will act to adduct and adbuct the tibiotarsus relative to the plane of movement, and pure flexion and extension at the ankle will act to abduct and adduct the tarsometatarsus relative to the plane of movement. This feature of the limb anatomy appears to provide the major lateral (non-sagittal) displacement of the lower limb necessary for steering the swinging limb clear of the stance limb and replaces what would otherwise require greater adduction/abduction and/or internal/external rotation, allowing for less complex joints, musculoskeletal geometry and neuromuscular control. Significant rotation about the joints' non-flexion/extension axes nevertheless occurs over the running stride. In particular, hip abduction and knee internal/external and varus/valgus motion may further facilitate limb clearance during the swing phase, and substantial non-flexion/extension movement at the knee is also observed during stance. Measurement of 3-D segment and joint motion in birds will be aided by the use of functionally determined axes of rotation rather than assumed axes, proving important when interpreting the biomechanics and motor control of avian bipedalism. PMID:17601959

  4. Mechanical and energetic scaling relationships of running gait through ontogeny in the ostrich (Struthio camelus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Nicola C; Wilson, Alan M

    2013-03-01

    It is unclear whether small animals, with their high stride frequency and crouched posture, or large animals, with more tendinous limbs, are more reliant on storage and return of elastic energy during locomotion. The ostrich has a limb structure that appears to be adapted for high-speed running with long tendons and short muscle fibres. Here we investigate biomechanics of ostrich gait through growth and, with consideration of anatomical data, identify scaling relationships with increasing body size, relating to forces acting on the musculoskeletal structures, effective mechanical advantage (EMA) and mechanical work. Kinematic and kinetic data were collected through growth from running ostriches. Joint moments scaled in a similar way to the pelvic limb segments as a result of consistent posture through growth, such that EMA was independent of body mass. Because no postural change was observed, relative loads applied to musculoskeletal tissues would be predicted to increase during growth, with greater muscle, and hence tendon, load allowing increased potential for elastic energy storage with increasing size. Mass-specific mechanical work per unit distance was independent of body mass, resulting in a small but significant increase in the contribution of elastic energy storage to locomotor economy in larger ostriches. PMID:23155079

  5. A preliminary study on normal electrocardiographic parameters of ostriches (Struthio camelus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Rezakhani

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Electrocardiograms were taken from 100 normal healthy male and female ostriches which were 1 to 15 months old using a base apex lead. The heart rate of those less than 3 months old ranged from 107 to 250 beats per minute with a mean of 171.47+9.03 and that of ostriches of more than 3 months old ranged from 43 to 167 with a mean of 90.52+2.64 beats / minute. The P-waves were positive in all cases except in 1 ostrich which it was isoelectric. The ORS complexes were mainly negative and either monophasic (QS or biphasic (rS or RS. The T-wave showed more variation than other waves. The durations of P, P-R, QRS, Q-T and T-waves of chicks and of those more than 3 months of age (4-15-month-old were 0.04 + 0.00, 0.06+0.00; 0.14+0.04, 0.16+0.00; 0.04+0.00, 0.06+0.00; 0.18+0.00, 0.27+0.00 and 0.06+0.00, 0.09+0.01 s, respectively, and amplitudes of the main direction of P-, QRS and T- waves of 2 groups were 0.29 + 0.02, 0.26 + 0.01; 1.87 + 0.17, 2.21 + 0.08; and 0.34 + 0.06, 0.37 + 0.02 mV, respectively. Ten cases showed cardiac dysrhythmias of which 9 showed sinus arrhythmia and 1 showed premature atrial contractions (PAC. This study showed that the base apex lead can be a suitable monitoring lead for electrocardiographic examination of ostriches.

  6. A preliminary study on normal electrocardiographic parameters of ostriches (Struthio camelus)

    OpenAIRE

    Rezakhani, A; H. Komali; M.R. Mokhber-Dezfoul; M. Zarifi; M. Ghabi; N Alidadi; M.G. Nadalian

    2007-01-01

    Electrocardiograms were taken from 100 normal healthy male and female ostriches which were 1 to 15 months old using a base apex lead. The heart rate of those less than 3 months old ranged from 107 to 250 beats per minute with a mean of 171.47+9.03 and that of ostriches of more than 3 months old ranged from 43 to 167 with a mean of 90.52+2.64 beats / minute. The P-waves were positive in all cases except in 1 ostrich which it was isoelectric. The ORS complexes were mainly negative and either mo...

  7. Diagnóstico microbiológico e histopatológico de mortalidade em avestruzes (Struthio camelus Microbiological and histological diagnosis in mortality of ostrich (Struthio camelus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Vieira-da-Motta

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Several young ostrich, including nestlings, with lassitude and inappetence followed by death or victim of sudden death were immediately brought to diagnosis at an Animal Health Laboratory. At necropsy, animals presented hemorrhage and altered content of the vitelline sac, and necrotic foci in the small intestine; one animal showed necrotic pleuropneumonia with psammomatosus bodies in the lung parenchyma. The cultures from different samples revealed Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Serratia marcescens, Enterobacter aglomerans, and Pseudomonas mendocina. It was suggested one case of septicemia in an animal with exclusive growth of K. pneumoniae isolated from samples of small intestine, lung, and liver.

  8. Description of an outbreak of highly pathogenic avian influenza in domestic ostriches (Struthio camelus) in South Africa in 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Helden, L S; Sinclair, M; Koen, P; Grewar, J D

    2016-06-01

    In 2011, the commercial ostrich production industry of South Africa experienced an outbreak of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI), subtype H5N2. Surveillance using antibody and antigen detection revealed 42 infected farms with a between-farm prevalence in the affected area of 16%. The outbreak was controlled using depopulation of infected farms, resulting in the direct loss of 10% of the country's domestic ostrich population. Various factors in the ostrich production system were observed that could have contributed to the spread of the virus between farms, including the large number of legal movements of ostriches between farms, access of wild birds to ostrich camps and delays in depopulation of infected farms. Negative effects on the ostrich industry and the local economy of the ostrich-producing area were observed as a result of the outbreak and the disease control measures applied. Prevention and control measures applied as a result of avian influenza in South Africa were informed by this large outbreak and the insights into epidemiology of avian influenza in ostriches that it provided, resulting in stricter biosecurity measures required on every registered ostrich farm in the country. PMID:27237385

  9. Ostrich ( Struthio camelus ) Infected with H5N8 Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza Virus in South Korea in 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hye-Ryoung; Kwon, Yong-Kuk; Lee, Youn-Jeong; Kang, Hyun-Mi; Lee, Eun-Kyoung; Song, Byung-Min; Jung, Suk-Chan; Lee, Kyung-Hyun; Lee, Hyun-Kyoung; Baek, Kang-Hyun; Bae, You-Chan

    2016-06-01

    Highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) virus of the H5N8 subtype was isolated from a young ostrich in South Korea in March 2014. Clinical signs characterized by anorexia, depression, and signs of nervousness were observed. The isolated A/ostrich/Korea/H829/2014 (H5N8) virus had a cleavage site motif containing multiple basic amino acids, typical of HPAI virus. The phylogenetic tree of the hemagglutinin gene of the H5 HPAI virus showed that this ostrich H5N8 virus belongs to clade 2.3.4.4 viruses together with H5N8 strains isolated from ducks and wild birds in South Korea in 2014. Pathologically, redness of pancreas, enlargement and hemorrhage of spleen, friability of brain, and hydropericardium were prominently found. Histologic legions were observed in pancreas, spleen, liver, lung, heart, and brain, and influenza A nucleoproteins were detected in the same organs by immunohistochemistry. Other ostriches farmed together in open camps were not infected with HPAI virus based on the serologic and virologic tests. The findings indicate that ostriches are susceptible to H5N8 HPAI virus, but this virus does not spread efficiently among ratites. PMID:27309301

  10. Isolation and characterization of avian paramyxovirus type 3b from farmed Namibian ostriches (Struthio camelus f. dom.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaleta, Erhard F; Werner, Ortrud; Hemberger, Yvonne

    2010-01-01

    Meat and skin from farmed ostriches are valuable products for European consumers. The EU regulations require that ostrich products deamed for export need to come from ostriches that are free of antibodies against Newcastle disease virus (avian paramxovirus type 1, aPMV-1). After the detection of antibodies against aPMV-1 in one of five ostrich farms in Namibia, attempts were made to isolate the causative virus. No aPMV-1 but an avian paramyxovirus type 3 (aPMV-3) was isolated from five pharyngeal/cloacal swabs of clinically healthy farmed Namibian ostriches. Subtype determination proved that all isolates are members of the subtype aPMV-3 of psittacine bird origin and were designated as aPMV-3b. In the haemagglutination inhibition test, the aPMV-3b isolates cross-reacted with aPMV-1. This allows the conclusion that the antibodies originally detected in sera of the ostriches are due to the cross-reaction with aPMV-3b, rather than to an infection with aPMV-1.To our knowledge, this is the first description of the occurrence of aPMV-3b in farmed ostriches. PMID:20329642

  11. Risk factors and molecular typing of Toxoplasma gondii isolated from ostriches (Struthio camelus) from a Brazilian slaughterhouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Rodrigo Costa; Langoni, Helio

    2016-07-30

    Toxoplasma gondii has a worldwide distribution with different genotypes reported in animals and humans. The parasite is of great importance to food production and public health, highlighted by the high diversity of hosts, i.e. ostriches. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of T. gondii infection in ostriches from a Brazilian slaughterhouse, the genotype, and the associated risk factors. T. gondii antibodies were detected in 38/344 (11.05%) serum samples using the modified agglutination test using formalin-fixed tachyzoites (MAT-HS); the parasite was isolated from 14/38 (36.84%) ostrich brain samples using the mouse bioassay; and the DNA was detected from 25/38 (65.79%), using PCR. In farms, the water tank was considered the main risk factor (OR=141.87; p-valueanimals were slaughtered (1st sampling), and 40% (8/20) one-year after (2nd sampling) using microscopy and PCR. Non-ostrich fecal samples on the ground resulted negative. Bioassay isolation was confirmed by PCR. All PCR positive samples were sequenced and resulted in 100% homology to Toxoplasma gondii repetitive DNA sequence (GenBank access number EF648168-1). These samples were also typed through RFLP-PCR using 11 markers: SAG1, SAG2 (5'-3'SAG2 and alt.SAG2), SAG3, BTUB, GRA6, L358, c22-8, c29-6, PK1, Apico and CS3. Two isolates had a complete genotype, typed from the ostrich tissue. In ostrich samples, the parasite load ranged from 19,043 (TgOsBr1, avirulent) to 54,829 parasitesmL(-1) (TgOsBr2, virulent) using qPCR, whereas soil samples ranged from 11 to 2,275 parasitesmL(-1). Both typed isolates resulted on atypical clones, one previously reported to cause congenital toxoplasmosis in Brazilian patients (TgOsBr1, ToxoDB #206). Thus, these findings support the occurrence of T. gondii in slaughtered ostriches from Brazil, ostriches as sentinel for environmental contamination with T. gondii, the genotypic variability in Brazilian isolates, and the first isolation and genotyping of T. gondii from Brazilian slaughtered ostriches. PMID:27369578

  12. Učinak EDTA, heparina i pohrane na osmotsku krhkost eritrocita, osmolalnost plazme i hematokrit u odraslih nojeva (Struthio camelus).

    OpenAIRE

    Mafuvadze, Benford; Erlwanger, Kennedy Honey

    2007-01-01

    Istražen je učinak dvaju naširoko rabljenih antikoagulanata i pohrana eritrocita na njihovu in vitro osmotsku krhkost, hematokrit i osmolalnost plazme u nojeva. Krv je bila uzeta iz vene osam nojeva (90-110 kg) u epruvetu s vakuumom koja je sadržavala ili EDTA (k3) ili litij-heparin. Osmotska krhkost eritrocita bila je određena mjerenjem oslobođenoga hemoglobina iz krvi dodane u epruvete sa serijski razrijeđenom fosfat-puferiranom fiziološkom otopinom (PBS, pH 7,4). Hematokrit je bio određen ...

  13. Experimental assessment of the pathogenicity of two avian influenza A H5 viruses in ostrich chicks (Struthio camelus) and chickens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manvell, R.J.; Jørgensen, Poul Henrik; Nielsen, O.L.; Alexander, D.J.

    1998-01-01

    Virus excretion, immune response, and, for chickens, deaths were recorded in 3-week-old ostriches and chickens inoculated by either the intramuscular or intranasal route with one of two influenza A viruses of subtype H5, One of the viruses, A/turkey/England/50-92/91 (H5N1) (50/92), was highly...

  14. Perancangan Aplikasi Penentuan Tingkat Kesehatan Bank Perkreditan Rakyat Dengan Metode CAMEL

    OpenAIRE

    Simatupang, Alam Panuturi

    2011-01-01

    Bank Indonesia as the central bank has a function for supervision the quality performance of a bank. The quality performance of a bank can be known based on its health. The health of a bank can be valued by several indicators. The financial report and supervision data can be used as the indicator. Some actual cases such as bankrupt bank, bad credit and the other case are usually find in Indonesia. Therefore, it’s important to know the health level of a bank regularly so that we can know the q...

  15. Genomic data from extinct north American camelops revise camel evolutionary history

    OpenAIRE

    Heintzman, PD; Zazula, GD; Cahill, JA; Reyes, AV; MacPhee, RDE; Shapiro, B.

    2015-01-01

    © 2015 The Author. Recent advances in paleogenomic technologies have enabled an increasingly detailed understanding of the evolutionary relationships of now-extinct mammalian taxa. However, a number of enigmatic Quaternary species have never been characterized with molecular data, often because available fossils are rare or are found in environments that are not optimal for DNA preservation. Here, we analyze paleogenomic data extracted from bones attributed to the late Pleistocene western cam...

  16. Proteolytic Activity in Reduced-Fat Cheddar Cheese Made with Lactic Acid Bacteria and Camel Chymosin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Børsting, Mette Winther

    need of an extended ripening period to reach a similar cheese structure as in cheeses produced with BC. The aim of this project was to compensate for the lower proteolytic activity in cheese produced with CC compared to BC. Selection of dairy lactic acid bacteria (LAB) for cheese production with high...... ability to influence proteolysis and structure during cheese ripening. In an attempt to improve the screening methods and contribute to the development of a new classification system of Latcococcus lactic strains, the peptide profile formed by selected strains after growth in milk was analyzed and...... culture mediated an increase in the total amount of amino acids as well as a shorter structure. A model system, used to study the retention of chymosin in a curd, showed that the retention of CC was less dependent on pH compared to BC, and the retention of CC was higher than BC in the pH interval 6...

  17. East Africa's pastoralist emergency: is climate change the straw that breaks the camel's back?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackwell, P J

    2010-01-01

    The global warming trend of climate change is having severe adverse effects on the livelihoods of the Turkana pastoralists of northwestern Kenya. Care has to be taken in making assertions about the impact of climate change. The biggest effects may come not from lower average rainfall but from a widening of the standard deviation as weather extremes become more frequent. In a region already prone to drought, disease and conflict, climate change, access to modern weapons and new viral livestock diseases are now overwhelming pastoralists' coping capacity and deepening the region's roughly 30-year dependency on famine relief. This article examines the livelihood strategies of the Turkana and several poverty reduction programmes currently established, while addressing the reality that traditional pastoralism may no longer be a viable livelihood option, given the effects of climate change, disease and the ensuing conflict over diminishing resources. The findings conclude that the future for traditional Turkana pastoralists is dismal because they continue to depend on an environment that may no longer support them. Humanitarians are recommended to shift their focus to advocate and invest in alternative livelihood strategies that generate economic independence and help the Turkana adapt to their changing environment. PMID:21506297

  18. Globalising assessment: an ethnography of literacy assessment, camels and fast food in the Mongolian Gobi

    OpenAIRE

    Maddox, Bryan

    2014-01-01

    What happens when standardised literacy assessments travel globally? The paper presents an ethnographic account of adult literacy assessment events in rural Mongolia. It examines the dynamics of literacy assessment in terms of the movement and re-contextualisation of test items as they travel globally and are received locally by Mongolian respondents. The analysis of literacy assessment events is informed by Goodwin’s ‘participation framework’ on language as embodied and situated interactive ...

  19. THE CAMEL AND THE CONTRAVENTIONAL GALAXY. REFLECTIONS ON THE CODE OF FAULTS IN CORDOBA, ARGENTINA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas Crisafulli

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This article will analyze the police practices enabled by the Misdemeanors Code of Córdoba-Argentina. Most countries have "administrative" laws that authorize the use of state coercion without judicial review or participation. This use of the state coercive power transforms executive state officers and police officers in micro-dictators. Whether it is immigration laws in Central Europe, "vagrancy" laws in Venezuela, "loafers" act in Bolivia, bylaws in USA municipalities or Codes of Conduct in Argentina; almost every western country have or have had misdemeanor legislation that criminalize acts by using ambiguous terms and producing large spaces for administrative arbitrariness. In the province of Cordoba-Argentina, the Misdemeanors penalizes with arrest-day behaviours such as ‘disturbing prostitution,’ ‘refusal to identify,’ ‘prowl,’ among other figures of dubious constitutionality. Moreover, the prosecution for the commission of these offenses is carried directly by the police officers without judicial intervention or participation of a lawyer. Penalties include fines and arrest, although the last sentence is the most widespread application. Thus, from police practices authorized by misdemeanor legislation we will analyze the implications of hyper- misdemeanor-incarceration in control societies. Detentions by the application of the misdemeanors code exceeds five times the number of arrests for the violation of the Criminal Code. Key words: Control Societies, misdemeanour, police.

  20. Of Linear Colliders, the GDE Workshop at Bangalore, Mughals, Camels, Elephants and Sundials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this colloquium, the speaker will give a summary of the recent International Linear Collider (ILC) Global Design Effort (GDE) Workshop at Bangalore and how the High Energy Physics community converged to this meeting after many years of electron-positron linear collider design and experimental work. Given that this workshop for the first time took place in India, the speaker will also show a few pictures and talk briefly about what he learned in that fascinating country.

  1. Rift Valley Fever Risk Map Model and Seroprevalence in Selected Wild Ungulates and Camels from Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Britch, Seth C.; Binepal, Yatinder S.; Ruder, Mark G.; Kariithi, Henry M.; Linthicum, Kenneth J.; Anyamba, Assaf; Small, Jennifer L.; Tucker, Compton J.; Ateya, Leonard O.; Oriko, Abuu A.; Gacheru, Stephen; Wilson, William C.

    2013-01-01

    Since the first isolation of Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) in the 1930s, there have been multiple epizootics and epidemics in animals and humans in sub-Saharan Africa. Prospective climate-based models have recently been developed that flag areas at risk of RVFV transmission in endemic regions based on key environmental indicators that precede Rift Valley fever (RVF) epizootics and epidemics. Although the timing and locations of human case data from the 2006-2007 RVF outbreak in Kenya have been compared to risk zones flagged by the model, seroprevalence of RVF antibodies in wildlife has not yet been analyzed in light of temporal and spatial predictions of RVF activity. Primarily wild ungulate serum samples from periods before, during, and after the 2006-2007 RVF epizootic were analyzed for the presence of RVFV IgM and/or IgG antibody. Results show an increase in RVF seropositivity from samples collected in 2007 (31.8%), compared to antibody prevalence observed from 2000-2006 (3.3%). After the epizootic, average RVF seropositivity diminished to 5% in samples collected from 2008-2009. Overlaying maps of modeled RVF risk assessments with sampling locations indicated positive RVF serology in several species of wild ungulate in or near areas flagged as being at risk for RVF. Our results establish the need to continue and expand sero-surveillance of wildlife species Kenya and elsewhere in the Horn of Africa to further calibrate and improve the RVF risk model, and better understand the dynamics of RVFV transmission.

  2. Globalising Assessment: An Ethnography of Literacy Assessment, Camels and Fast Food in the Mongolian Gobi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maddox, Bryan

    2014-01-01

    What happens when standardised literacy assessments travel globally? The paper presents an ethnographic account of adult literacy assessment events in rural Mongolia. It examines the dynamics of literacy assessment in terms of the movement and re-contextualisation of test items as they travel globally and are received locally by Mongolian…

  3. Exile, camps, and camels: recovery and adaptation of subsistence practices and ethnobiological knowledge among Sahrawi refugees

    OpenAIRE

    Volpato, G.

    2014-01-01

    The study of how people adapt to social and environmental change is central to current theoretical understandings of human-nature relationships. There are recurrent cases in human history in which entire populations have been uprooted from the environments in which they live, where it becomes exceedingly difficult for them to maintain their ways of life including their modes of subsistence, social and ecological relations, knowledge, and culture. The ways in which such people exercise their c...

  4. Exile, camps, and camels: recovery and adaptation of subsistence practices and ethnobiological knowledge among Sahrawi refugees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Volpato, G.

    2014-01-01

    The study of how people adapt to social and environmental change is central to current theoretical understandings of human-nature relationships. There are recurrent cases in human history in which entire populations have been uprooted from the environments in which they live, where it becomes exceed

  5. Sistemática, taxonomía y domesticación de alpacas y llamas: nueva evidencia cromosómica y molecular Systematics, taxonomy and domestication of alpaca and llama: new chromosomal and molecular evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JUAN C MARÍN

    2007-06-01

    the vicuña (Vicugna vicugna, and two domestic, the alpaca (Lama pacos and the llama (Lama glama. However, the origin of the domestic species has been a matter of debate. In the present study, variations in chromosome G banding patterns and in two mitochondrial gene sequences have been used to study the origin and classification of the llama and alpaca.-Similar patterns in chromosome G band structure were observed in all four Lamini species, and these in turn were similar to the bands described for camels, Camelus bactrianus. However, fine and consistent differences were found in the short arms of chromosome 1, separating camels, guanacos and llamas from vicuñas and alpacas. This pattern was consistent even in a hybrid guanaco x alpaca. Equivalent relationship showed the complete cytochrome b gene sequences, and the minimum expansion tree of the partial control region sequence, grouping guanaco with llama and vicuña with alpaca. Phylogenetic analyses showed V. vicugna and L. guanicoe as monophyletic groups. Analysis of both gene sequences revealed two clades within vicuña, concordant with the two described subspecies, but the results for guanaco did not confirm existence of the four previously proposed subspecies. The combined analysis of chromosomal and molecular variation showed close genetic similarity between alpacas and vicuñas, as well as between llamas and guanacos. Although directional hybridization was revealed, our results strongly support the hypothesis that the llama would have derived from L. guanicoe and the alpaca from V. vicugna, supporting reciassification as V. pacos

  6. Digesta retention patterns of solute and different-sized particles in camelids compared with ruminants and other foregut fermenters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dittmann, Marie T; Runge, Ullrich; Ortmann, Sylvia; Lang, Richard A; Moser, Dario; Galeffi, Cordula; Schwarm, Angela; Kreuzer, Michael; Clauss, Marcus

    2015-07-01

    The mean retention times (MRT) of solute or particles in the gastrointestinal tract and the forestomach (FS) are crucial determinants of digestive physiology in herbivores. Besides ruminants, camelids are the only herbivores that have evolved rumination as an obligatory physiological process consisting of repeated mastication of large food particles, which requires a particle sorting mechanism in the FS. Differences between camelids and ruminants have hardly been investigated so far. In this study we measured MRTs of solute and differently sized particles (2, 10, and 20 mm) and the ratio of large-to-small particle MRT, i.e. the selectivity factors (SF(10/2mm), SF(20/2mm), SF(20/10mm)), in three camelid species: alpacas (Vicugna pacos), llamas (Llama glama), and Bactrian camels (Camelus bactrianus). The camelid data were compared with literature data from ruminants and non-ruminant foregut fermenters (NRFF). Camelids and ruminants both had higher SF(10/2mm)FS than NRFF, suggesting convergence in the function of the FS sorting mechanism in contrast to NRFF, in which such a sorting mechanism is absent. The SF(20/10mm)FS did not differ between ruminants and camelids, indicating that there is a particle size threshold of about 1 cm in both suborders above which particle retention is not increased. Camelids did not differ from ruminants in MRT(2mm)FS, MRTsoluteFS, and the ratio MRT(2mm)FS/MRTsoluteFS, but they were more similar to 'cattle-' than to 'moose-type' ruminants. Camelids had higher SF(10/2mm)FS and higher SF(20/2mm)FS than ruminants, indicating a potentially slower particle sorting in camelids than in ruminants, with larger particles being retained longer in relation to small particles. PMID:25921796

  7. Globalization of the cashmere market and the decline of large mammals in central Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Joel; Buuveibaatar, Bayarbaatar; Mishra, Charudutt

    2013-08-01

    As drivers of terrestrial ecosystems, humans have replaced large carnivores in most areas, and human influence not only exerts striking ecological pressures on biodiversity at local scales but also has indirect effects in distant corners of the world. We suggest that the multibillion dollar cashmere industry creates economic motivations that link western fashion preferences for cashmere to land use in Central Asia. This penchant for stylish clothing, in turn, encourages herders to increase livestock production which affects persistence of over 6 endangered large mammals in these remote, arid ecosystems. We hypothesized that global trade in cashmere has strong negative effects on native large mammals of deserts and grassland where cashmere-producing goats are raised. We used time series data, ecological snapshots of the biomass of native and domestic ungulates, and ecologically and behaviorally based fieldwork to test our hypothesis. In Mongolia increases in domestic goat production were associated with a 3-fold increase in local profits for herders coexisting with endangered saiga (Saiga tatarica).That increasing domestic grazing pressure carries fitness consequences was inferred on the basis of an approximately 4-fold difference in juvenile recruitment among blue sheep (Pseudois nayaur)in trans-Himalayan India. Across 7 study areas in Mongolia, India, and China's Tibetan Plateau, native ungulate biomass is now <5% that of domestic species. Such trends suggest ecosystem degradation and decreased capacity for the persistence of native species, including at least 8 Asian endemic species: saiga, chiru (Pantholops hodgsoni), Bactrian camel (Camelus bactrianus), snow leopard(Panthera uncia), khulan(Equus hemionus), kiang (E. kiang), takhi (E. przewalski), and wild yak (Bos mutus). Our results suggest striking yet indirect and unintended actions that link trophic-level effects to markets induced by the trade for cashmere. PMID:23866036

  8. Methane emission by camelids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dittmann, Marie T; Runge, Ullrich; Lang, Richard A; Moser, Dario; Galeffi, Cordula; Kreuzer, Michael; Clauss, Marcus

    2014-01-01

    Methane emissions from ruminant livestock have been intensively studied in order to reduce contribution to the greenhouse effect. Ruminants were found to produce more enteric methane than other mammalian herbivores. As camelids share some features of their digestive anatomy and physiology with ruminants, it has been proposed that they produce similar amounts of methane per unit of body mass. This is of special relevance for countrywide greenhouse gas budgets of countries that harbor large populations of camelids like Australia. However, hardly any quantitative methane emission measurements have been performed in camelids. In order to fill this gap, we carried out respiration chamber measurements with three camelid species (Vicugna pacos, Lama glama, Camelus bactrianus; n = 16 in total), all kept on a diet consisting of food produced from alfalfa only. The camelids produced less methane expressed on the basis of body mass (0.32±0.11 L kg⁻¹ d⁻¹) when compared to literature data on domestic ruminants fed on roughage diets (0.58±0.16 L kg⁻¹ d⁻¹). However, there was no significant difference between the two suborders when methane emission was expressed on the basis of digestible neutral detergent fiber intake (92.7±33.9 L kg⁻¹ in camelids vs. 86.2±12.1 L kg⁻¹ in ruminants). This implies that the pathways of methanogenesis forming part of the microbial digestion of fiber in the foregut are similar between the groups, and that the lower methane emission of camelids can be explained by their generally lower relative food intake. Our results suggest that the methane emission of Australia's feral camels corresponds only to 1 to 2% of the methane amount produced by the countries' domestic ruminants and that calculations of greenhouse gas budgets of countries with large camelid populations based on equations developed for ruminants are generally overestimating the actual levels. PMID:24718604

  9. Satellite telemetry of large mammals in Mongolia: what expectations should we have for collar function?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takehiko Y. Ito

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The rapid pace of the development of satellite wildlife tracking tools has left little time for thorough testing of new equipment and identifying possible sources of technical failures. In the Gobi and Eastern Steppe region of Mongolia we deployed 104 satellite collars, collecting animal locations using the Doppler based Argos or the global positioning system (GPS, on 45 Asiatic wild asses (Equus hemionus, 34 Mongolian gazelles (Procapra gutturosa, 15 Przewalski’s horses (Equus ferus przewalskii, eight wild Bactrian camels (Camelus ferus, and two wolves (Canis lupus. Although, we collected valuable data from little-known species in a remote environment, of 104 collars deployed, only 34 worked as good as or better than expected whereas 70 were subject to technical problems. The majority of problems had to do with a reduced performance of the Argos component (n = 13, with both the Argos and the GPS components (n = 1, or with the Argos component in combination with another unknown problem (n = 12. Further problems were caused by human error during manufacturing or deployment (n = 10, software bugs (n = 7, mechanical failures (n = 5, poor GPS performance (n = 1 and premature failures for unknown reasons (3 ≤ n ≤ 21. Although, several premature failures may have been caused by animals being poached, our failure rate remains high and indicates that managers and researchers need to be aware that there is a high risk of equipment failure when applying newly emerging satellite tracking technology. This entrains logistic and financial uncertainties which may be difficult to explain to the scientific community, the public, management and funding agencies alike. We recommend the development of a web-based platform where users and producers of telemetry products can quickly post and exchange their experiences.

  10. Isolation and characterization of avian paramyxovirus type 1 (Newcastle disease) viruses from a flock of ostriches (Struthio camelus) and emus (Dromaius novaehollandiae) in Europe with inconsistent serology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Poul Henrik; Herczeg, J.; Lomniczi, B.;

    1998-01-01

    During a 95-day study period in 1995 in Denmark, 18 ostriches in a flock of 77 ostriches and four emus held in quarantine died, Clinical and pathological observations did not indicate the presence of transmissible infectious disease in the hock. Management failures and indoor housing were believed...... epizootic of Newcastle disease in back yard poultry ire Denmark. Blood samples were taken from all live birds in the flock after 25 and 95 days of quarantine and all were negative for antibodies to APMV-1 in haemagglutination inhibition tests. All samples taken after 95 days of quarantine were also negative...

  11. Gross anatomical and histomorphological observations on the terminal rectum and the cloaca in the Ostrich Struthio camelus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Warui, C.N.; Erlwanger, K.H.; Skadhauge, Erik

    2009-01-01

    rectum had an unusual tunica muscularis externa (TME) and was clearly demarcated from the caudal part of the rectum proper by a semilunar fold, an abrupt thickening of the gut wall and an increase in the calibre of the gut. The cloaca had a distinct rectocoprodeal fold at the terminal rectum......-cloaca junction with a well-formed sphincter muscle. The cloaca had a proximal coprodeum, a middle urodeum and a caudal proctodeum. The mucosa of the cloaca was folded and lined by simple columnar epithelium except in the urodeum and the floor and ventral walls of the proctodeum. The coprodeal wall had a thick...

  12. A Comparative Study On Financial Performance Of Public Sector Banks In India: An Analysis On Camel Model

    OpenAIRE

    Kishore Meghani, Kishore Meghani; Hari Krishna Karri, Hari Krishna Karri; Bharti Meghani Mishra, Bharti Meghani Mishra

    2015-01-01

    Banking sector is one of the fastest growing sectors in India. Today’s banking sector becoming more complex. The objective of this study is to analyze the Financial Position and Performance of the Bank of Baroda and Punjab National Bank in India based on their financial characteristics. This study attempts to measure the relative performance of Indian banks. For this study, we have used public sector banks. We know that in the service sector, it is difficult to quantify the output...

  13. A Comparative Study On Financial Performance Of Public Sector Banks In India: An Analysis On Camel Model

    OpenAIRE

    Kishore Meghani, Kishore Meghani; Hari Krishna Karri, Hari Krishna Karri; Bharti Meghani Mishra, Bharti Meghani Mishra

    2015-01-01

    Banking sector is one of the fastest growing sectors in India. Today’s banking sector becoming more complex. The objective of this study is to analyze the Financial Position and Performance of the Bank of Baroda and Punjab National Bank in India based on their financial characteristics. This study attempts to measure the relative performance of Indian banks. For this study, we have used public sector banks. We know that in the service sector, it is difficult to quantify the output because it ...

  14. Joe Camel in a bottle: Diageo, the Smirnoff brand, and the transformation of the youth alcohol market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosher, James F

    2012-01-01

    I have documented the shift in youth alcoholic beverage preference from beer to distilled spirits between 2001 and 2009. I have assessed the role of distilled spirits industry marketing strategies to promote this shift using the Smirnoff brand marketing campaign as a case example. I conclude with a discussion of the similarities in corporate tactics across consumer products with adverse public health impacts, the importance of studying corporate marketing and public relations practices, and the implications of those practices for public health. PMID:22095339

  15. TIME SERIES ANALYSES OF AIR POLLUTION AND HEALTH: STRAINING AT GNATS WHILE SWALLOWING CAMELS? (R827355C009)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...

  16. Effects of feeding level on body weight, hump size, lipid content and adipocyte volume in the dromedary camel

    OpenAIRE

    Bengoumi, Mohammed; Faulconnier, Yannick; Tabarani, Ahmed; Sghiri, Abdelmalek; Faye, Bernard; Chilliard, Yves

    2005-01-01

    Effet du niveau d'alimentation sur le poids vif, la taille, la teneur en lipides et le volume des adipocytes de la bosse chez le dromadaire. Les effets de la suralimentation et de la sous-alimentation sur les réserves lipidiques chez le dromadaire ont été mesurés chez 14 chamelles divisées en trois lots : un lot suralimenté - sous-alimenté (OV-UN), un lot sous-alimenté - suralimenté (UN-OV) et un lot témoin (CTRL). Après 4 semaines d'adaptation un schéma expérimental croisé a été appliqué pen...

  17. Chymotryptic and tryptic hydrolysis of whey proteins camel: Study of the antigenicity / allergenicity of hydrolysates in BALB/c mice

    OpenAIRE

    Benhatchi, S; KHEROUA, O.; Mezemaze, F

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: The proteins of the animal specie and cow's milk certain can involve allergic reactions in particular in the predisposed young child. The beta lactoglobulin ( -Lg) and lactalbumin (!-La) are to it two the most accused proteins of the whey. Preceding studies showed that the consumption of the milk of dromedary causes a reaction crossed with proteins of the cow's milk. On the other hand, the hydrolysis of proteins of the milk of the two species attenuates their antigenici...

  18. Determination of the presence of Babesia species in blood samples of cattle, camel and sheep in Iran by PCR

    OpenAIRE

    Khamesipour Faham; Doosti Abbas; Koohi Arman; Chehelgerdi Mohammad; Mokhtari-Farsani Abbas; Chengula Augustino Alfred

    2015-01-01

    Babesia species are protozoan parasites that parasitize the erythrocytes of domestic animals and humans, causing anemia in the host. The parasites cause a zoonotic disease known as babesiosis. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) has proven to be very sensitive for detecting Babesia in blood samples of affected animals, particular in ruminants. The purpose of the current study was to determine the presence of Babesia spp. in blood samples obtained from 2 cattle,...

  19. Struthiolipeurus rheae Harrison, 1916 (Phthiraptera: Philopteridae infestando avestruzes (Struthio camelus em uma criação no Município de Três Rios, RJ Struthiolipeurus rheae Harrison, 1916 (Phthiraptera: Philopteridae infesting ostriches (Struthio camelus in one farming in the Municipality of Três Rios, RJ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thais F. Fagundes

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available No Brasil, a criação de avestruzes foi iniciada no final do Século XX, para suprir o mercado internacional de carne, plumas e couro. As plumas têm importância econômica nos setores industrial e artesanal. Os piolhos podem causar prurido intenso, que, dependendo da intensidade de infestação, pode levar à depreciação das plumas. No Estado do Rio de Janeiro, são desconhecidas as espécies de piolhos que infestam avestruzes. Assim, o objetivo deste trabalho foi identificar os piolhos que ocorrem nas aves pertencentes a um criatório comercial no Município de Três Rios. Nos anos de 2003 a 2006, mensalmente, as avestruzes foram examinadas, para verificar a presença de ectoparasitos. Quando constatada a infestação, algumas plumas foram retiradas, colocadas em sacos plásticos e enviadas ao laboratório para exame. Após serem coletados das plumas, os ectoparasitos foram examinados ao microscópio estereoscópio, clarificados em hidróxido de potássio a 10%, desidratados em álcool etílico e montados em lâmina com balsamo do Canadá natural, para observação em microscópio óptico. Baseando-se na observação das características, foi possível determinar os espécimes coletados como pertencentes à espécie Struthiolipeurus rheae.In Brazil ostriches farming began at the end of 20th Century, to supply the international market of meat, feathers and leather. Feathers are economically important to industry and artisanal sectors. Lice can cause intense pruritus that depending on the intensity of infestation can lead to depreciation of feathers. In Rio de Janeiro there are unknown species of lice infesting ostriches. Thus the objective of this study was to identify the lice that happen in birds from commercial farms in the Municipality of Três Rios. From 2003 to 2006 ostriches were monthly examined for the presence of ectoparasites. When infestations were detected some feathers were removed, placed into plastic bags and sent to the laboratory for further analysis. After removed from feathers, ectoparasites were examined using a stereoscope, followed by clarification in 10% potassium hydroxide and dehydrated in ethanol. Permanent slides were mounted in natural Canada balsam for observation in optical microscope. Based on observed characteristics, it was possible to determine that collected specimens belong to the species Struthiolipeurus rheae.

  20. Anatomia do sistema porta renal e suas implicações no emprego de agentes anestésicos na contenção de avestruzes (Struthio camelus Anatomy of the renal portal system and its implications for the use of anesthetic agents in the restraint of ostriches (Struthio camelus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haley Silva de Carvalho

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se com este estudo caracterizar a anatomia do sistema porta renal e verificar sua influência sobre o protocolo anestésico xilazina, tiletamina e zolazepam na contenção de avestruzes, por comparação da administração dos fármacos nos músculos da perna ou da asa. Em cinco animais foi injetado látex nas veias femorais no sentido de drenagem e, posteriormente, as aves foram fixadas em formol a 10%, por 72 horas. Em uma ave, procedeu-se à localização, colheita e fixação das valvas portais renais em formol a 10%. O sistema porta renal apresentou-se constituído por duas veias portais renais craniais, duas veias portais renais caudais e seis valvas portais renais. Na contenção química, seis avestruzes foram pré-tratados com xilazina (1mg kg-1 e, decorridos 10 minutos, receberam tiletamina/zolazepam (6mg kg-1. Os animais foram manipulados em duas ocasiões diferentes, sendo que na primeira anestesia o protocolo foi administrado nos músculos da base das asas (GI e, após 15 dias, os mesmos animais receberam o protocolo nos músculos das pernas (GII. Os períodos de latência, hábil e de recuperação não foram diferentes entre os grupos (P>0,05. A freqüência cardíaca permaneceu abaixo dos valores basais durante a anestesia (PThis study was aimed at characterizing the anatomy of the renal portal system, and determining its influence on the anesthetic protocol xylazine, tiletamine and zolazepam, in the restraint of ostriches, compared with the administration of drugs into the leg or wing muscles. Latex was injected into the femoral veins of five animals, for drainage purposes, and the birds were then fixed in 10% formaldehyde, for 72 hours. In one bird, the renal portal valves were located, collected and fixed in 10% formaldehyde. The renal portal system consisted of two cranial renal portal veins, two caudal renal portal veins, and six renal portal valves. In the chemical restraint, six ostriches were anesthetized with xylazine (1mg kg-1 and after 10 minutes, tiletamine/zolazepam (6mg kg-1. The animals were handled on two different occasions: in the first anesthesia, the protocol was administered into the muscles at the base of the wings (GI and after 15 days, the same animals received the protocol in the leg muscles (GII. The periods for the onset and duration of the anesthesia, and recovery, showed no difference between the groups (P>0.05. The heart rate remained below the basal values during the anesthesia (P<0.05, in both groups. The cloacal temperature increased in both groups, particularly in GII, leading to an increased respiratory rate to facilitate heat loss. Since the chemical restraint was adapted for procedures of short duration in the field in the ostriches of both groups, it was not possible to demonstrate the influence of the renal portal system.

  1. 16 CFR 300.18 - Use of name of specialty fiber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... designation permitted under this rule: 55% Alpaca—45% Camel Hair 50% Recycled Camel Hair—50% Wool 60% Recycled Alpaca—40% Rayon 35% Recycled Llama—35% Recycled Vicuna—30% Cotton 60% Cotton—40% Recycled Llama....

  2. Frequently Asked Questions on Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (MERS‐CoV)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Algeria, Austria, Egypt Greece Iran Jordan, Kuwait, Lebanon, Malaysia, the Netherlands, Oman Qatar Saudi Arabia Turkey, United ... with care to avoid cross-contamination with uncooked foods. Camel meat and camel milk are nutritious products ...

  3. Characterization of Asia 1 sdAb from Camels Bactrianus (C. bactrianus) and Conjugation with Quantum Dots for Imaging FMDV in BHK-21 Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Shuanghui Yin; Shunli Yang; Youjun Shang; Shiqi Sun; Guangqing Zhou; Ye Jin; Hong Tian; Jinyan Wu; Xiangtao Liu

    2013-01-01

    Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD), caused by FMD virus (FMDV), is a highly contagious viral disease affecting cloven-hoofed animals. Camelids have a unique immunoglobulin profile, with the smallest functional heavy-chain antibodies (sdAb or VHH) naturally devoid of light chains with antigen-binding capacity. We screened and characterized five sdAbs against FMDV by immunized library from C. bactrianus with Asia 1 virus-like particles (VLPs). Three of five recombinant sdAbs were stably expressed in ...

  4. Of goats, sheep, camels and oil : two Calgary lawyers are helping government officials in Somalia and Kurdistan design new petroleum laws

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lorenz, A.W.

    2007-05-15

    A few international energy companies have shown strong interest in the northern regions of Somalia for the exploration of oil, particularly since Somalia shares geological trends with Yemen and Sudan, both of which have prolific hydrocarbon basins. Two Calgary lawyers have been working with the government of Somalia in developing a new set of oil and gas laws. After decades of repression, Iraq's Kurdish Regional Government (KRG) has now asked one of the lawyers to also help develop their laws. Unlike the Somalis who live in a region where hydrocarbons have barely been explored, the Kurds live in a mountainous region with one of the world's largest hydrocarbon basins. The lawyers began by teaching the Somalis the basics of petroleum legal practices and designing Somalia's new system. This article emphasized that the task of creating a foundation for the petroleum legal system is quite similar for both regions, in terms of who is entitled to the resource and how much will be shared with foreign companies in return for investment and expertise. The Somalis have asked for advice on the best way to divide profits between the state and the foreign investor. This article also discussed the political challenges facing the Kurds in terms of negotiating their own exploration and development contracts in Iraq. One of the greatest challenges is that when a new Iraq National Oil Company was created, it was given basically every current field in the country, even those in Kurdistan. While oil companies prefer concession regimes, Iraq offers 3 different types of contracts, namely Production Sharing Agreements, service contracts and risk exploration contracts. 4 figs.

  5. Comparison of Shedding, and Antibiotic Resistance Properties of Listeria monocytogenes Isolated From Milk, Feces, Urine, and Vaginal Secretion of Bovine, Ovine, Caprine, Buffalo, and Camel Species in Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Farhad Safarpoor Dehkordi; Sara Barati; Hassan Momtaz; Seyyedeh Nasib Hosseini Ahari; Shahin Nejat Dehkordi

    2013-01-01

    Background: Listeria monocytogenes causes listeriosis characterized by encephalitis, septicaemia, and abortion or stillbirth. Its traditional diagnosis is based on serological responses, whileseveral molecular methods have been developed for safer and more rapid, sensitive, and accurate detection.The epidemiology, prevalence, shedding routes, and antibiotic resistance properties of L. monocytogenes are essentially unknown in various animals species.Objectives: The present study was performed ...

  6. Limiting prolonged inflammation during proliferation and remodeling phases of wound healing in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats supplemented with camel undenatured whey protein

    OpenAIRE

    Ebaid, Hossam; Ahmed, Osama M.; Mahmoud, Ayman M; Ahmed, Rasha R.

    2013-01-01

    Background Impaired diabetic wound healing occurs as a consequence of excessive reactive oxygen species (ROS) and inflammatory cytokine production. We previously found that whey protein (WP) was able to normally regulate the ROS and inflammatory cytokines during the inflammatory phase (first day) in streptozotocin (STZ)-diabetic wound healing. This study was designed to assess the effect of WP on metabolic status, the inflammation and anti-inflammation response, oxidative stress and the antio...

  7. Pengaruh Rasio CAMEL dan Risiko Perbankan Terhadap Kondisi Financial Distress Perusahaan Perbankan (Studi pada Perusahaan Perbankan yang terdaftar di Bursa Efek Indonesia Periode 2010 sampai dengan 2012)

    OpenAIRE

    Lubis, Irna Triannur

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to know the influence of non performing loan ratio, return on asset ratio, loan to deposit ratio, and liquidity risk ratio either partially or simultaneously toward financial distress condition in the banking companies on the Indonesia Stock Exchange. This research is classified as causal research with 17 banking firms listed in Indonesia Stocks Exchange during 2010 to 2012. This study uses a Altman financial ratio with Z-Score value to prediction of financ...

  8. Characterization of Asia 1 sdAb from camels bactrianus (C. bactrianus and conjugation with quantum dots for imaging FMDV in BHK-21 cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuanghui Yin

    Full Text Available Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD, caused by FMD virus (FMDV, is a highly contagious viral disease affecting cloven-hoofed animals. Camelids have a unique immunoglobulin profile, with the smallest functional heavy-chain antibodies (sdAb or VHH naturally devoid of light chains with antigen-binding capacity. We screened and characterized five sdAbs against FMDV by immunized library from C. bactrianus with Asia 1 virus-like particles (VLPs. Three of five recombinant sdAbs were stably expressed in E.coli, remained highly soluble, and were serotype-specific for VP1 protein of FMDV Asia 1 by ELISA. These failed to completely neutralize the Asia 1 virus. According to the KD value of binding affinity to three sdAbs, which ranged from 0.44 to 0.71 nm by SPR, sdAb-C6 was selected and conjugated with Zn/CdSe quantum dots (QDs to form a QDs-C6 probe, which was used to trace and image the subcellular location of FMDV in BHK-21 cells. The results show that FMD virions were observed from 3 h.p.i., and most of virions were distributed on one side of the nucleus in the cytoplasm. We demonstrate the utility of sdAbs as functionalized QDs are powerful tools for FMDV research.

  9. The Camel Tick, Hyalomma (Hyalomma dromedarii Koch, 1844 (Ixodoidea: Ixodidae: Description of the Egg and Redescription of the Larva by Scanning Electron Microscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashraf Ahmed Montasser

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study describes the egg of Hyalomma (H. dromedarii for the first time and adds more features to the larva using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM in order to extend our knowledge on these acarine stages to be useful for further taxonomical or control studies. With the purpose of presenting exact description of acarine eggs, it is preferable to examine them both with and without SEM processing. SEM processing caused partial removal of the chorion which makes the egg shell clear and easily observed. The study revealed rough surface of egg shell which was surrounded by the chorion. The egg shell was perforated particularly at poles. The chorion appeared as a finely perforated cloth. Different forms of bumps were noticed between egg shell and chorion. Length, width, l/w ratio and pore diameter of the egg were measured. SEM investigation of the larva revealed smooth scutum with slight irregular ornamentation and horizontally folded extensible cuticle with vertical ridges. At least 2 types of cuticular openings were noticed on the extensible cuticle of the idiosoma. The first type was represented by 1 pair on dorsal side and 2 pairs on ventral one. It was surrounded with thick integumental ring and guarded with 2 internal lips. The second type was numerous, slit-like and without rings or lips. Dorsolateral plate of the hypostome carried numerous oval, tile-like and elevated denticles while ventral one carried 4 rows of posteriorly directed retrograde conical denticles. Mouth enclosed 2 cheliceral digits, each terminated with 3 lobes. Each lobe is supported with 2 or 3 conical denticles which were externally directed to the posterior. Haller`s organ on the tarsus of the first pair of legs consisted of anterior pit and posterior capsule. The pit contained 6 conical sensillae while the capsule opening had extensively branched margin. Measurements of the whole body, idiosoma, scutum, eye, capitulum, hypostome, palp, cuticular pores, legs and Haller`s organ sensillae of the larva are also presented.

  10. Determinants of capital adequacy in the Banking Sub-Sector of the Nigeria Economy: Efficacy of Camels. (A Model Specification with Co-Integration Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harley Tega Williams

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the impact of banks characteristics, financial structure and macroeconomic indicators on banks Capital base in the Nigerian banking industry. The study does not account for ratio analysis in the computation of capital adequacy but rather it examines the determinant of Capital adequacy in Nigeria during the period 1980 – 2008 within an error correction framework. Co-integration technique revealed that economic indicators such as rate of inflation, real exchange rate, demand deposits, money supply, political instability, return on investment are most robust predictors of the determinants of capital adequacy in Nigeria. After the global credit crunch capital adequacy, being critical for banks, led the study to examine the relationship between bank capital base and macroeconomics variables. This implies that political stability may reduce financial distress and bankruptcy why Foreign investment will affect Banks capital in most developing economy in the period of financial crisis . However, the study also establishes that there is a negative relationship between inflation and banks capital base as inflation erode banks capital in most developing economy. This simply means that Nigerian government should regulate investment policy why banks regulators should strive to keep inflation rate at a minimum level, if possible below 5% for them to be more efficient so as to be globally competitive.

  11. Construction and Identification of a Naive Single-domain Recombinant Antibodies Library Derived from Xinjiang Camelus bactrianus%新疆双峰驼天然单域抗体库的构建及初步鉴定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张清华; 夏雪琴; 克力比努尔·热合曼; 李江伟

    2011-01-01

    旨在构建新疆双峰驼天然单域抗体库,及从中快速筛选VHH抗体.采用两种不同的抗原(溶菌酶和cAb-HEWL23)用天然文库进行筛选,成功筛选到了相应的抗体,并融溶菌酶筛选的VHH抗体(A3-1,A4-1和A10-1)进行表达和初步的ELISA检测.结果显示,A3-1和A10-1具有结合溶菌酶的能力.该方法简单方便、省时省力,可以快速从天然单城抗体库中筛选VHH抗体.

  12. Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (MERS-CoV) origin and animal reservoir.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohd, Hamzah A; Al-Tawfiq, Jaffar A; Memish, Ziad A

    2016-01-01

    Middle East Respiratory Syndrome-Coronavirus (MERS-CoV) is a novel coronavirus discovered in 2012 and is responsible for acute respiratory syndrome in humans. Though not confirmed yet, multiple surveillance and phylogenetic studies suggest a bat origin. The disease is heavily endemic in dromedary camel populations of East Africa and the Middle East. It is unclear as to when the virus was introduced to dromedary camels, but data from studies that investigated stored dromedary camel sera and geographical distribution of involved dromedary camel populations suggested that the virus was present in dromedary camels several decades ago. Though bats and alpacas can serve as potential reservoirs for MERS-CoV, dromedary camels seem to be the only animal host responsible for the spill over human infections. PMID:27255185

  13. 9 CFR 121.3 - VS select agents and toxins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... encephalopathy agent; Camel pox virus; Classical swine fever virus; Ehrlichia ruminantium (Heartwater); Foot-and... pathogenic), bovine spongiform encephalopathy agent, classical swine fever virus, foot-and-mouth...

  14. ‘Everybody knows’, but the rest of the world: the case of a caterpillar-borne reproductive loss syndrome in dromedary camels observed by Sahrawi pastoralists of Western Sahara

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Volpato, G.; Nardo, Di A.; Rossi, D.; Lamin Saleh, S.; Broglia, A.

    2013-01-01

    Background The traditional knowledge of local communities throughout the world is a valuable source of novel ideas and information to science. In this study, the ethnoveterinary knowledge of Sahrawi pastoralists of Western Sahara has been used in order to put forward a scientific hypothesis regardin

  15. "Mais vale um jegue que me carregue, que um camelo que me derrube... lá no Ceará" "Better a donkey that bears me than a camel that bucks me... up in Ceara"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Margaret Lopes

    1996-06-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo, sobre a história da Comissão Científica de Exploração das Províncias do Norte e Nordeste do Brasil, ressalta aspectos pouco conhecidos do quanto essa primeira expedição de naturalistas e engenheiros brasileiros, proposta através do Instituto Histórico e Geográfico Brasileiro (IHGB, em 1856, integrava as atividades científicas do Museu Nacional do Rio de Janeiro. Tais aspectos também nos permitem aclarar o significado da inserção do Museu Nacional do Rio de Janeiro no panorama científico do país em meados do século passado, bem como perceber melhor as redes de relações científicas, institucionais, políticas e mesmo pessoais entre aqueles que se dedicaram a implantar e consolidar as ciências naturais no país.This article on the Scientific Commission for the Exploration of the Northern and Northeastern Brazilian Provinces- sponsored by the Instituto Histórico e Geográfico Brasileiro (IHGB in 1856 and comprised solely of Brazilian naturalists and engineers-points out some lesser known aspects of how this expedition was an integral part of the Rio de Janeiro National Museum's scientific activities. In so doing, it also sheds some light on the important role that the National Museum played in Brazil's mid-1800's scientific context. The article further identifies institutional, political, and personal networks of scientific relations among those who dedicated themselves to establishing and consolidating the natural sciences in Brazil.

  16. De fardos que podem acompanhar a atividade docente ou de como o mestre pode devir burro (ou camelo Of how burdens can be laid on teaching activity or how a teacher can become a donkey (or a camel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylvio de Sousa Gadelha Costa

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available O texto explora, desdobra e mesmo força alguns dos traços e contornos ligados ao mal-estar que acompanha os educadores contemporâneos, para depois, em seu desfecho, reconduzir o leitor a uma possível e breve interpretação a partir do "duplo" Deleuze-Nietzsche. O sentido é tornar visíveis alguns processos e sintomas implicados na produção desse mal-estar, bem como a lógica que o anima. Assim, quem sabe, com essa rápida sinalização, este escrito possa dar o que pensar sobre a questão: como fazer da educação um problema, movimentando-a, inquietando-a, abrindo-a a novos possíveis, a novas experimentações e desafios.This paper explores, unfolds and in a sense stretches some of the traces and contours which could be connected to the malaise associated with contemporary educators. It then tries to lead the reader back to a possible and brief interpretation based on the "double" Deleuze-Nietzsche. It is intended to make visible some of the processes and symptoms implied in the production of this malaise, as well as to explicit the logic that gives life to it. These modest hints hope to force us to think about the following question: how can we transform education into a problem? Which, in turn, may put education in motion, disrupt it and open it up to new possibilities, experimentations and challenges.

  17. Livestock movement and emerging zoonotic disease outbreaks: applying ecological, network, and sociocultural theories to assess the risk of Middle East respiratory syndrome from camel trade in Ethiopia and Egypt

    OpenAIRE

    A Roess; L Carruth, PhD; M Mann, PhD; I Kabbash, MD; S Melaku, DVM; M Atia, PhD; M Mohamed, MD; S Bansal, PhD; S Lahm, PhD; Y Terefe, DVM; M Salman, DVM

    2015-01-01

    Background: Emerging infectious diseases are associated with complex linkages within the broader ecosystem. Studying infectious disease among hosts (animals and humans), outside of the context of their environment, ignores the complexity in which hosts interact. We aimed to formulate a framework to study the effect of large livestock movement on the ecology of emerging zoonotic infectious disease in low-income and middle-income countries. Ultimately such a framework could identify points of i...

  18. Presence of Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus antibodies in Saudi Arabia : a nationwide, cross-sectional, serological study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Müller, Marcel A; Meyer, Benjamin; Corman, Victor M; Al-Masri, Malak; Turkestani, Abdulhafeez; Ritz, Daniel; Sieberg, Andrea; Aldabbagh, Souhaib; Bosch, Berend-J; Lattwein, Erik; Alhakeem, Raafat F; Assiri, Abdullah M; Albarrak, Ali M; Al-Shangiti, Ali M; Al-Tawfiq, Jaffar A; Wikramaratna, Paul; Alrabeeah, Abdullah A; Drosten, Christian; Memish, Ziad A

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Scientific evidence suggests that dromedary camels are the intermediary host for the Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV). However, the actual number of infections in people who have had contact with camels is unknown and most index patients cannot recall any such cont

  19. Isolation of influenza A virus, subtype H5N2, and avian paramyxovirus type 1 from a flock of ostriches in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Poul Henrik; Nielsen, O.L.; Hansen, C.;

    1998-01-01

    A total of 146 of 506 ostriches (Struthio camelus) introduced into a quarantine in Denmark died within the first 23 days. The majority of deaths were in young birds up to 10 kg body weight. Avian influenza A viruses (AIVs) were isolated from 14 pools of organ tissues representing seven groups eac...

  20. Pox in ostriches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perelman, B; Gur-Lavie, A; Samberg, Y

    1988-01-01

    Clinical signs suggesting pox were observed in a flock of ostrich chicks (Struthio camelus), 10 to 60 days old. The disease was confirmed by isolation of the agent from affected ostriches and reproduction of typical pox lesions in turkeys. Further infection of young ostriches was prevented by vaccination with fowl pox vaccine. PMID:18766730

  1. Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV): animal to human interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omrani, Ali S; Al-Tawfiq, Jaffar A; Memish, Ziad A

    2015-01-01

    The Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) is a novel enzootic betacoronavirus that was first described in September 2012. The clinical spectrum of MERS-CoV infection in humans ranges from an asymptomatic or mild respiratory illness to severe pneumonia and multi-organ failure; overall mortality is around 35.7%. Bats harbour several betacoronaviruses that are closely related to MERS-CoV but more research is needed to establish the relationship between bats and MERS-CoV. The seroprevalence of MERS-CoV antibodies is very high in dromedary camels in Eastern Africa and the Arabian Peninsula. MERS-CoV RNA and viable virus have been isolated from dromedary camels, including some with respiratory symptoms. Furthermore, near-identical strains of MERS-CoV have been isolated from epidemiologically linked humans and camels, confirming inter-transmission, most probably from camels to humans. Though inter-human spread within health care settings is responsible for the majority of reported MERS-CoV cases, the virus is incapable at present of causing sustained human-to-human transmission. Clusters can be readily controlled with implementation of appropriate infection control procedures. Phylogenetic and sequencing data strongly suggest that MERS-CoV originated from bat ancestors after undergoing a recombination event in the spike protein, possibly in dromedary camels in Africa, before its exportation to the Arabian Peninsula along the camel trading routes. MERS-CoV serosurveys are needed to investigate possible unrecognized human infections in Africa. Amongst the important measures to control MERS-CoV spread are strict regulation of camel movement, regular herd screening and isolation of infected camels, use of personal protective equipment by camel handlers and enforcing rules banning all consumption of unpasteurized camel milk and urine. PMID:26924345

  2. Retail promotions and perceptions of R.J. Reynolds' novel dissolvable tobacco in a US test market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coan Lorinda L

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background With declining cigarette sales, tobacco manufacturers have been developing and marketing new smokeless products, such as R. J. Reynolds' dissolvable tobacco, Camel Sticks, Strips and Orbs. This study assessed the availability, price and point-of-purchase promotional strategies for Camel Dissolvables, and investigated consumer awareness, interest and perception of these products in the Indiana test market. Methods An exploratory retail audit of point-of-purchase promotions was conducted in a random sample of retailers from 6 store categories (n = 81 in the test market area. Data included: store type, location, product placement, forms/flavors carried, price, types and locations of advertisements and promotions, and ad messages. An Awareness-Attitude-Usage (AAU survey was used to gauge consumer awareness and knowledge of tobacco products including Camel Dissolvables. Respondents were shown promotional materials from a package onsert and perceptions and interest in the Camel Dissolvables were assessed. An Intended Target Survey (ITS compared subjects' perceptions of ad targets for several non-tobacco products, as well as Camel Snus, Camel No. 9 and Camel Dissolvables. Respondents were asked to identify each ad's intended target category, perceived targetedness, and purchase intent. Results The products were carried by 46% of stores, most frequently gas stations (100% and convenience stores (75%. They were shelved near smokeless tobacco (70%, cigarettes (25% or candy (5%. Prices ranged from $3.59 -$4.19 per package; most stores carried at least 1 promotional item. Ad messages included: "Dissolvable Tobacco" (60%. "Free Trial" (24%, "Special Price" (24%, "What's Your Style?" (22%. At 14% of stores, free trial packs of Camel Dissolvables were offered with another Camel purchase. Awareness was reported by 42% of respondents (n = 243, and trial by 3%. Consumer interest was very low, but younger respondents ( 40 years, p Conclusions

  3. Construction and Characterization of a Naive Camelus Bactrianus Variable Domain of Heavy Chain of Heavy-Chain Antibody(VHH)Yeast Two-Hybrid Library%双峰驼天然重链抗体可变区酵母双杂交文库的构建与鉴定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡湘云; 高小龙; 付向晶; 刘丹丹; 范文涛; 王燕平; 杜恩岐; 王兴龙; 党如意

    2015-01-01

    构建双峰驼天然重链抗体可变区(VHH)酵母双杂交文库,并对文库质量进行鉴定.采集未经免疫的6月龄雌性双峰驼外周血、骨髓、脾和淋巴结,并从外周血中分离淋巴细胞.抽提总RNA,反转录为cDNA,用2对引物经过2轮PCR扩增得到400 bp左右的双峰驼VHH片段.根据Clontech公司Mate&PlateTM library construction system使用手册,将带有同源臂的VHH片段与线性化的pGADT7-Rec质粒共转化Y187酵母感受态细胞,转化产物涂布SD/-Leu平板,30℃倒置培养3~5 d后,收集平板上的所有克隆,即为双峰驼天然重链抗体可变区酵母双杂交文库.对文库的滴度、重组效率及多样性进行鉴定.结果显示,本研究构建的双峰驼天然重链抗体可变区酵母双杂交文库库容为2.07×107,滴度为7.6×108 cfu·mL-1.随机挑取47个独立克隆进行菌落PCR鉴定,43个含有VHH片段,重组率为91.5%;选取其中19个测序,均为独立克隆,且多样性好.该研究成功构建双峰驼天然重链抗体可变区酵母双杂交文库,且文库质量满足要求,为进一步获得特定抗原的VHH奠定了基础.

  4. Study In Some Quality Attribute Of Meat

    OpenAIRE

    Dr. Siham Abdelwhab Alamin; Prof. Sid Ahmed Elshafia; Prof. Daoud Alzubair Ahmed

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The study aimed to evaluate the quality attributes of fresh camel meat and beef. The result showed that hunter lightness L values were highly significant P 0.001 between the types of meat. Beef recorded higher values of lightness compared to camel meat as 35.40 and 29.56 respectively. Redness a values was significantly P 0.01 between the types of meat studied hence beef recorded the higher values than that in camel meat as 19.60 and 16.45 respectively. The yellowness b values were s...

  5. Camelpox: A brief review on its epidemiology, current status and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahiya, Shyam Singh; Kumar, Sachin; Mehta, Sharat Chandra; Narnaware, Shirish D; Singh, Raghvendar; Tuteja, Fateh Chand

    2016-06-01

    Camelpox caused by a Camelpox virus (CMLV) is a very important host specific viral disease of camel. It is highly contagious in nature and causes serious impact on health even mortality of camels and economic losses to the camel owners. It manifests itself either in the local/mild or generalized/severe form. Various outbreaks of different pathogenicity have been reported from camel dwelling areas of the world. CMLV has been characterized in embryonated chicken eggs with the production of characteristic pock lesions and in various cell lines with the capacity to induce giant cells. Being of Poxviridae family, CMLV employs various strategies to impede host immune system and facilitates its own pathogenesis. Both live and attenuated vaccine has been found effective against CMLV infection. The present review gives a comprehensive overview of camelpox disease with respect to its transmission, epidemiology, virion characteristics, viral life cycle, host interaction and its immune modulation. PMID:26902797

  6. Construction of a synthetic phage-displayed Nanobody library with CDR3 regions randomized by trinucleotide cassettes for diagnostic applications

    OpenAIRE

    Yan, Junrong; LI, GUANGHUI; Hu, Yonghong; Ou, Weijun; Wan, Yakun

    2014-01-01

    Background Nanobodies (Nbs) have proved their great value as therapeutic molecules and clinical diagnostic tools. Although the routine procedure to obtain Nbs is to immunize camels with antigens, it is unavailable to immunize a camel when the antigens are highly toxic, pathogenic or nonimmunogenic. A synthetic phage display library is an alternative to generate Nbs against such targets, besides all the other ones. Methods We constructed a large and diverse synthetic phage display Nanobody (Nb...

  7. Evaluation of a competitive enzyme immunoassay for detection of Coxiella burnetii antibody in animal sera.

    OpenAIRE

    Soliman, A.K.; Botros, B A; Watts, D M

    1992-01-01

    A competitive enzyme immunoassay (CEIA) was established and compared with other serological techniques for detecting Coxiella burnetii antibody in camels, goats, and sheep. This technique was evaluated because a conjugated anti-camel immunoglobulin was not available to serve as a direct signal for the demonstration of antigen-antibody reaction. A C. burnetii antibody-positive human serum and a peroxidase-conjugated anti-human immunoglobulin G were used as an indicator system competing against...

  8. PENGUKURAN TINGKAT KESEHATAN DAN GEJALA FINANCIAL DISTRESS BANK UMUM SYARIAH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhamad Nadratuzzaman Hosen

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstrak: Pengukuran Tingkat Kesehatan dan Gejala Financial Distress Bank Umum Syariah. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengukur, menganalisis serta membandingkan tingkat kesehatan Bank Umum Syariah (BUS dengan menggunakan metode CAMELS dan metode Multiple ECR. Faktor asset terdiri dari rasio KAP dan NPF, faktor earning mencakup rasio NOM, ROA, ROE dan REO serta faktor terakhir liquidity mencakup rasio STM dan STMP. Sedangkan pada Multiple Discriminant Analysis (MDA Altman Z-score. Berdasarkan hasil analisis dengan CAMEL ditemukan bahwa ketiga bank syariah yang diteliti tergolong sehat, namun demikian hasil MDA menyatakan ketiga bank tersebut dalam kondisi bankrut. Temuan yang bertentangan tersebut menunjukkan bahwa metode MDA ternyata tidak tepat untuk diterapkan pada perbankan karena karakteristik perbankan sebagai financial intermediatory jauh berbeda dengan karakteristik perusahaan.   Kata kunci: kesehatan bank, CAMELS, financial distress Abstract: Measurement of Financial Soundness and Financial Distress Symptom of Commercial Bank. This study aims to measure, analyze and compare the level of Islamic Banks (BUS soundness using the CAMELS and the Multiple ECR method. The results of the CAMEL analysis show that the three Islamic banks studied are healthy. However, the results of the MDA analysis suggest that those three banks are categorized bankrupt. This conflicting finding indicates that MDA method is not appropriate to assess commercial banks. This is because the natures of commercial bank as a financial intermediary are much different from those of the company. Keywords:  Bank Soundness, CAMELS, financial distress

  9. A note on feeding habits, Ectoparasites and measurements of the Black-Backed Jackal Canis Mesomelas from Addo Elephant National Park

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.J Hall-Martin

    1980-01-01

    Full Text Available DsitSi from a small sample of black-backed jackals confined to the National Park indicated that they were opportunistic feeders taking various insects, molluscs, reptiles, birds, mammals and fruits as available. Raiding of ostrich Struthio camelus nests and the probable technique of egg-breaking is also recorded. Body measurements of these jackals fall with the range reported for this species in the Cape Province of South Africa. Observations on age indicate spring or early summer births.

  10. A note on feeding habits, Ectoparasites and measurements of the Black-Backed Jackal Canis Mesomelas from Addo Elephant National Park

    OpenAIRE

    A.J. Hall-Martin; B. P Botha

    1980-01-01

    DsitSi from a small sample of black-backed jackals confined to the National Park indicated that they were opportunistic feeders taking various insects, molluscs, reptiles, birds, mammals and fruits as available. Raiding of ostrich Struthio camelus nests and the probable technique of egg-breaking is also recorded. Body measurements of these jackals fall with the range reported for this species in the Cape Province of South Africa. Observations on age indicate spring or early summer births.

  11. Design and Selection of a Camelid Single-Chain Antibody Yeast Two-Hybrid Library Produced De Novo for the Cap Protein of Porcine Circovirus Type 2 (PCV2)

    OpenAIRE

    Xiangjing Fu; Xiaolong Gao; Shengfang He; Di Huang; Peng Zhang; Xinglong Wang; Shuxia Zhang; Ruyi Dang; Shuanghui Yin; Enqi Du; Zengqi Yang

    2013-01-01

    Nanobodies (or variable domain of the heavy chain of the heavy-chain antibodies, VHHs) are single-domain antigen-binding fragments derived from camelid heavy chain antibodies. Their comparatively small size, monomeric behavior, high stability, high solubility, and ability to bind epitopes inaccessible to conventional antibodies make them especially suitable for many therapeutic and biotechnological applications. In this paper, for the first time, we created the immunized Camelus Bactrianus VH...

  12. A new species of Lamelligomphus Fraser, 1922 (Odonata: Gomphidae) from southern Yunnan, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hao-Miao; Yang, Guo-Hui; Cai, Qing-Hua

    2016-01-01

    Lamelligomphus annakarlorum sp. nov. is described based on specimens collected from southern Yunnan Province, China (holotype male: Xishuangbanna National Nature Reserve, 21°57'59''N, 101°12'37''E, Xishuangbanna Dai Autonomous Prefecture, Yunnan Province, China). All type specimens of the new species have been deposited in the Collection of Aquatic Animals, Institute of Hydrobiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan City, Hubei Province, China. It is compared with Lamelligomphus camelus (Martin, 1904), which shares some similar characters. PMID:27394602

  13. Genetic variability of antigen B among Echinococcus granulosus Egyptian isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tawfeek, Gihan M; Elwakil, Hala S; Awad, Nabil S; El-Hoseiny, Laila; Thabet, Hala S; Sarhan, Rania M; Darweesh, Samar K; Anwar, Wagida A

    2009-09-01

    Genetic polymorphisms of encoding antigen B2 gene (AgB2) in Echinococcus granulosus were studied using PCR-RFLP and DNA sequencing among 20 Egyptian isolates. Five isolates from different host origins (humans, camels, pigs, and sheep) were collected and used. All examined isolates of each host group gave very similar patterns of PCR-RFLP after restriction enzyme digestion with AluI, with the gene size of approximately 140 bp and 240 bp for sheep and human isolates, and approximately 150 bp and 250 bp for pig and camel isolates. No digestion pattern was obtained after incubation of all studied isolates with EcoRI. These results reveal high intra-group homogeneity. DNA sequence analysis highlighted that human infecting strain showed 100% identity with respect to sheep infecting isolate, 96% and 99% with pig and camel infecting isolates, respectively. PMID:19724699

  14. Biochemical adaptation of camelids during periods where feed is withheld

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Wensvoort

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available Biochemical changes during fasting or the withholding of feed for 5 day were studied in serum of camelids (dromedary camel, llama and ruminants (sheep, steers. Camels maintained low levels of 13-hydroxybutyrate (BHB and high levels of glucose but showed some increased levels of non-esterified fatty acid (NEFA and urea when fasting. Sheep and steers showed a rise in serum BHB and much higher increases of NEFA than camels and llamas. Sheep showed decreased serum glucose. The llama showed some increase in BHB but NEFA was lower than the other three species. The results indicate that camelids have a unique ability to control lipolytic and gluconeogenic activity to prevent or postpone the state of ketosis. Understanding and manipulation of these metabolic mechanisms in cattle and sheep could have great benefit to the livestock industry.

  15. Detection of antibodies against the orthopox virus cameli in sera of East African dromedaries using two different ELISAs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The suitability of using two different enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) for the detection of immunoglobulin G antibodies against the camel pox virus has been tested by examining 297 sera of dromedaries from Kenya, Somalia and Sudan. The ELISAs were based on an indirect method of antibody detection. One technique used direct conjugation of enzymes to antispecies-antibodies (C-EL), the other a biotin-avidin amplification system (BA-EL). Using the conventional technique (C-EL) on 196 sera of dromedaries from different ranches in Kenya during the period 1981 to 1984 we determined a high prevalence of antibodies, with titres of up to 1:4096. A comparison made for the years 1981 to 1984 showed a slight decrease in antibody titres. Five animals suffering from acute camel pox showed titres between 1:8192 and 1:32768; eight serum samples from Somalia, collected during an outbreak of camel pox, showed titres of 1:2048 to 1:8192. A high prevalence of antibodies was also found in 93 samples from Sudan; 95% of the animals showed titres of between 1:128 and 1:4096. Differences due to sex or age could not be determined. According to these results, camel pox appears to be endemic in the areas investigated. To test the applicability of the new BA-EL method, 60 camel sera were investigated. It was found that the sensitivity and specificity of this technique seem to be superior to those of the standard ELISA. The advantage of BA-EL is that it avoids direct conjugation of enzymes to antispecies-globulins which, in the case of exotic animals, are not commercially available. Both ELISAs can be regarded as suitable for serological screening tests and for rapid serological differentiation of orthopox and parapox virus infections, also in camels. (author)

  16. モンゴル国のラクダ乳酒(Hoormog)の性質と製造方法

    OpenAIRE

    石井, 智美; 小宮山, 博

    2010-01-01

    In the Gobi district of State of Mongolia, a Bactrian camel has been kept. We let the milk of the camel ferment in the Gobi district and made Hoormog. However, there are few reports about the property. We investigated it till now in the nomad's house who produced Hoormog in Umunu Gobi prefecture. We investigated it in the of the nomad's house (Mr. L) who had begun to make Hoormog newly in the Darhan Hoor prefecture that was near to the capital in 2008. As for the property of Hoormog of the Da...

  17. A sunken ship of the desert at the river Danube in Tulln, Austria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfred Galik

    Full Text Available Rescue excavations recovered a skeleton that resurrect the contemporary dramatic history of Austria in the 17th century as troops besieged Vienna in the second Osmanic-Habsburg war. Unique for Central Europe is the evidence of a completely preserved camel skeleton uncovered in a large refuse pit. The male individual of slender stature indicates a few but characteristic pathological changes revealing not a beast of burden but probably a valuable riding animal. Anatomical and morphometrical analyses suggest a hybrid confirmed by the ancient DNA analyses resulting in the presence of a dromedary in the maternal and a Bactrian camel in the paternal line.

  18. A sunken ship of the desert at the river Danube in Tulln, Austria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galik, Alfred; Mohandesan, Elmira; Forstenpointner, Gerhard; Scholz, Ute Maria; Ruiz, Emily; Krenn, Martin; Burger, Pamela

    2015-01-01

    Rescue excavations recovered a skeleton that resurrect the contemporary dramatic history of Austria in the 17th century as troops besieged Vienna in the second Osmanic-Habsburg war. Unique for Central Europe is the evidence of a completely preserved camel skeleton uncovered in a large refuse pit. The male individual of slender stature indicates a few but characteristic pathological changes revealing not a beast of burden but probably a valuable riding animal. Anatomical and morphometrical analyses suggest a hybrid confirmed by the ancient DNA analyses resulting in the presence of a dromedary in the maternal and a Bactrian camel in the paternal line. PMID:25831121

  19. Analysis of camelid antibodies for antivenom development: Neutralisation of venom-induced pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Darren A N; Owen, Timothy; Wagstaff, Simon C; Kinne, Joerg; Wernery, Ulrich; Harrison, Robert A

    2010-09-01

    Camelid IgG has been reported to be less immunogenic, less able to activate the complement cascade and more thermostable than IgG from other mammals, and has the ability to bind antigens that are unreactive with other mammalian IgGs. We are investigating whether these attributes of camelid IgG translate into antivenom with immunological and venom-neutralising efficacy advantages over conventional equine and ovine antivenoms. The objective of this study was to determine the preclinical venom-neutralising effectiveness of IgG from camels immunised with venoms, individually or in combination, of the saw-scaled viper, Echis ocellatus, the puff adder, Bitis arietans and the spitting cobra, Naja nigricollis - the most medically-important snake species in West Africa. Neutralisation of the pathological effects of venoms from E. ocellatus, B. arietans and N. nigricollis by IgG from the venom-immunised camels, or commercial antivenom, was compared using assays of venom lethality (ED(50)), haemorrhage (MHD) and coagulopathy (MCD). The E. ocellatus venom ED(50), MHD and MCD results of the E. ocellatus monospecific camel IgG antivenom were broadly equivalent to comparable ovine (EchiTAbG, MicroPharm Ltd, Wales) and equine (SAIMR Echis, South African Vaccine Producer, South Africa) antivenoms, although the equine antivenom required half the amount of IgG. The B. arietans monospecific camel IgG neutralised the lethal effects of B. arietans venom at one fourth the concentration of the SAIMR polyspecific antivenom (a monospecific B. arietans antivenom is not available). The N. nigricollis camel IgG antivenom was ineffective (at the maximum permitted dose, 100 mul) against the lethal effects of N. nigricollis venom. All the equine polyspecific antivenoms required more than 100 microl to be effective against this venom. The polyspecific camel IgG antivenom, prepared from five camels, was effective against the venom-induced effects of E. ocellatus but not against that of B. arietans

  20. Penerapan Metode Multiple Discriminant Analysis untuk Mengukur Tingkat Kesehatan yang Mengindikasikan Gejala Financial Distress pada Bank Umum Syariah

    OpenAIRE

    Shofaun Nada

    2015-01-01

    This research aims to account, analyse, and compare the level of Islamic commercial bank's health using CAMELS method mentioned in PBI No. 9/1/PBI/2007 and SEBI No. 9/24/DPBs/2007, and using multiple discriminant analysis (MDA) altman z-score method. There are only four from six factors that used in CAMELS: capital, asset, earning, and liquidity excluding management and sensivity of market risk factor. The variables of capital factors are KPMM and ECR ratio. Asset factor consist of KAP and NP...

  1. Penerapan Metode Multiple Discriminant Analysis untuk Mengukur Tingkat Kesehatan yang Mengindikasikan Gejala Financial Distress pada Bank Umum Syariah

    OpenAIRE

    Shofaun Nada

    2015-01-01

    This research aims to account, analyse and compare the level ofIslamic commercial bank’s health using CAMELS method mentioned in PBI No.9/1/PBI/2007 and SEBI No 9/24/DPbS/2007 and using multiple discriminant analysis (MDA) altman z-score method. There are only four of six factors that used in CAMELS: capital, asset, earning and liquidity excluding Management and Sensitivity of Market Risk factor. The variables of capital factors are KPMM and ECR ratio. Asset factor consist of KAP and NPF rati...

  2. Fossil struthionid eggshells from Laetoli, Tanzania: Taxonomic and biostratigraphic significance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Terry; Msuya, Charles P.

    2005-04-01

    Recent paleontological investigations at Laetoli and neighboring localities in northern Tanzania have produced a large collection of fossil ostrich eggshells from the Pliocene-aged Laetolil Beds (˜3.5-4.5 Ma) and Ndolanya Beds (˜2.6-2.7 Ma). A detailed analysis of the morphology of the eggshells and their taxonomic affinities indicates that two different species of Struthio are represented. In the Lower Laetolil Beds and in the Upper Laetolil Beds below Tuff 3 a new species is recognized— Struthio kakesiensis. This is replaced in the Upper Laetolil Beds by Struthio camelus, the modern species of ostrich. Since radiometric age determinations are available for the stratigraphic sequence at Laetoli, it is possible to precisely date the first appearance of S. camelus at ˜3.6-3.8 Ma. Comparisons of the Laetoli material with specimens from the well-dated sequences at Lothagam and Kanapoi in northern Kenya, allow the taxonomic and biochronological analysis to be extended back in time to the late Miocene. At about 6.5 Ma, Diamantornis and elephant birds were replaced in East Africa by ostriches belonging to the genus Struthio. Three time-successive species of ostriches are identified in the fossil record of East Africa, beginning with Struthio. cf. karingarabensis (˜6.5-4.2 Ma), followed by S. kakesiensis (˜4.5-3.6 Ma) and then S. camelus (˜3.8 Ma onwards). A similar sequence of taxa has previously been recorded from localities in Namibia, but at these sites there is no possibility to precisely calibrate the ages of the different species using radiometric dating. Nevertheless, the broadly similar evolutionary sequence and the close correspondence in inferred ages for the succession of species in East Africa and Namibia suggest that ostrich eggshells are a very useful tool for biochronological correlation of paleontological sites in sub-Saharan Africa.

  3. AVALIAÇÃO DA SOLUBILIDADE DAS PROTEÍNAS MIOFIBRILARES, CAPACIDADE DE EMULSIFICAÇÃO E PERDA POR COCÇÃO, EVAPORAÇÃO E GOTEJAMENTO DAS CARNES DE EMA, AVESTRUZ E FRANGO

    OpenAIRE

    Letícia Cristina Costa e SILVA; Julyanna Andrade SILVA; Roger DARROS-BARBOSA; Pedro Fernando ROMANELLI

    2012-01-01

    Esse estudo determinou a solubilidade das proteínas miofibrilares, capacidade de emulsificação das proteínas totais e perda por cocção, evaporação e gotejamento das carnes de ema (Rhea americana), avestruz (Struthio camelus) e frango (Gallus domesticus). Foram utilizadas 30 aves (machos), sendo 10 emas, 10 avestruzes e 10 frangos. Quatro amostras de cada espécie foram obtidas do músculo iliotibialis lateralis para realização das análises. A análise de solubilidade das ...

  4. Asian Highlands Perspectives 35

    OpenAIRE

    various

    2015-01-01

    This complete version of AHP 35 features four original research articles, three short stories, and seven book reviews. The research articles include studies of camels in Mang ra County, Sinophone Tibetan author Alai, marmot hunting, and the construction and maintenance of yurts.

  5. Asian Highlands Perspectives 35

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    various

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This complete version of AHP 35 features four original research articles, three short stories, and seven book reviews. The research articles include studies of camels in Mang ra County, Sinophone Tibetan author Alai, marmot hunting, and the construction and maintenance of yurts.

  6. Utility of Antibody Avidity for Rift Valley Fever Virus Vaccine Potency and Immunogenicity Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Disease outbreaks caused by arthropod-borne animal viruses (arboviruses) resulting in significant livestock and economic losses world-wide appear to be increasing. Rift Valley fever (RVF) virus is an important arbovirus that causes lethal disease in cattle, camels, sheep and goats in sub-Saharan Afr...

  7. Endoparasites of exotic ungulates from the Giraffidae and Camelidae families kept ex situ.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nosal, Paweł; Kowal, Jerzy; Kornaś, Sławomir; Wyrobisz, Anna; Skotnicki, Józef; Basiaga, Marta; Plucińska, Natalia E

    2016-01-01

    Giraffes and camels are popular attractions at zoological gardens. In order to present the diversity of parasites infecting exotic ungulates from zoos, faecal samples from three giraffes and six camels from both the Silesian Zoological Garden in Chorzów, and Kraków Zoological Garden, were examined. The research was carried out over a ten-month period in 2013 and 2014. In total, 100 faecal samples from 18 animals were analysed with the use of the McMaster method. Moreover, coccidian oocysts were incubated to investigate their development and larvoscopic examination was conducted to detect the presence of nematode species. Giraffes were infected with coccidia from the genus Eimeria, and gastrointestinal nematodes from the Strongylida order, and Trichuris and Aonhotheca genera. One male giraffe was uninfected. The level of infection in giraffes was low when compared to camels kept in both of the zoos. Limited contact with other animal species contributed greatly to the lower level of infection in camels from Kraków Zoo than those from Chorzów, which were kept in the same enclosure as alpacas and Shetland ponies. PMID:27262960

  8. 78 FR 77563 - Technical Amendments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-24

    ... Stat. 857 (1996). \\5\\ 5 U.S.C. 551. Final Rule Generally, the Administrative Procedure Act (APA... reflect the conversion to the CAMEL rating system for corporate credit unions. The APA permits an agency... under section 553(b)(3)(B) of the APA.\\6\\ NCUA also finds good cause to dispense with the 30-day...

  9. Triacylglycerol and melting profiles of milk fat from several species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smiddy, M.A.; Huppertz, T.; Ruth, van S.M.

    2012-01-01

    Gas chromatography and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) were used to differentiate the fats of cow, goat, sheep, water buffalo, donkey, horse and camel milk (n = 20 for each species). Principal component analysis of triacylglycerol (TAG) composition allowed classification into groups accordin

  10. Heavy chain only antibodies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moghimi, Seyed Moein; Rahbarizadeh, Fatemeh; Ahmadvand, Davoud;

    2013-01-01

    Unlike conventional antibodies, heavy chain only antibodies derived from camel contain a single variable domain (VHH) and two constant domains (CH2 and CH3). Cloned and isolated VHHs possess unique properties that enable them to excel conventional therapeutic antibodies and their smaller antigen...

  11. Muslim Students in Post-9/11 Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jandali, Ameena K.

    2012-01-01

    "Terrorist," "son of bin Laden," "camel jockey," "raghead," "towel-head"--variations of the same epithets resurface in each generation with the same painful impact. While Muslim students in public schools were objects of derision and harassment long before 9/11, the situation in the past decade has become markedly worse. Bullying and harassment…

  12. Parental Influences on the Prevalence and Development of Child Aggressiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahl, Klaus; Metzner, Cornelia

    2012-01-01

    The development of aggressiveness between 5 and 17 years and some parental influences on this development were analyzed using data from Germany. International studies have shown a "camel humps" curve, i.e., a peak of aggression of children (primarily boys) between 2 and 4 years and a second peak of antisocial or aggressive behavior of boys between…

  13. Investigating Salmonella Eko from Various Sources in Nigeria by Whole Genome Sequencing to Identify the Source of Human Infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leekitcharoenphon, Pimlapas; Raufu, Ibrahim; Nielsen, Mette T; Rosenqvist Lund, Birthe S; Ameh, James A; Ambali, Abdul G; Sørensen, Gitte; Le Hello, Simon; Aarestrup, Frank M; Hendriksen, Rene S

    2016-01-01

    Twenty-six Salmonella enterica serovar Eko isolated from various sources in Nigeria were investigated by whole genome sequencing to identify the source of human infections. Diversity among the isolates was observed and camel and cattle were identified as the primary reservoirs and the most likely source of the human infections. PMID:27228329

  14. Investigating Salmonella Eko from Various Sources in Nigeria by Whole Genome Sequencing to Identify the Source of Human Infections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leekitcharoenphon, Pimlapas; Raufu, Ibrahim; Thorup Nielsen, Mette;

    2016-01-01

    Twenty-six Salmonella enterica serovar Eko isolated from various sources in Nigeria were investigated by whole genome sequencing to identify the source of human infections. Diversity among the isolates was observed and camel and cattle were identified as the primary reservoirs and the most likely...

  15. Investigating Salmonella Eko from Various Sources in Nigeria by Whole Genome Sequencing to Identify the Source of Human Infections.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pimlapas Leekitcharoenphon

    Full Text Available Twenty-six Salmonella enterica serovar Eko isolated from various sources in Nigeria were investigated by whole genome sequencing to identify the source of human infections. Diversity among the isolates was observed and camel and cattle were identified as the primary reservoirs and the most likely source of the human infections.

  16. Modular and aggregation resistant Vh antibodies from a phage display library

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis, Niels Anton; Mandrup, Ole Aalund; Lykkemark, Simon; Castrillon, Carlos; Kristensen, Peter

    2012-01-01

    through immunisation of sharks or camels, or alternatively from recombinant libraries1. The domain antibodies have certain advantages, both pharmacologically and technically. Here we report the construction of a semi-synthetic and highly modular antibody library, based on a human framework (V3-23/D47...

  17. Brucellosis in Milk and Milk Products and Its Importance

    OpenAIRE

    Keskin, Dilek; TOROĞLU, Sevil

    2007-01-01

    Brucellosis, caused by Brucella spp, is a zoonotic disease which is patogenic to human. Brucella spp especially can be host cattle, sheep, goats, water bufalo pigs, dogs, camel, deer, certain poultry and human even tick and some artropod. Brucella spp are very important for public health because, along causing important economical losses, they infect man via milk and milk products of infected animals.

  18. 12 CFR Appendix A to Subpart A of... - Appendix A to Subpart A of Part 327

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... weighted average CAMELS component rating referred to in 12 CFR 327.9(d)(2)(i): Equation 7 PiT = + 30.211...; however, from time to time, the FDIC may drop some earlier years from its analysis. ...) + β2 (Loans past due 30 to 89 days ratioi,t) + β3 (Nonperforming asset ratioi,t) + β4 (Net loan...

  19. Diagnostic approaches for Rift Valley Fever

    Science.gov (United States)

    Disease outbreaks caused by arthropod-borne animal viruses (arboviruses) resulting in significant livestock and economic losses world-wide appear to be increasing. Rift Valley fever (RVF) virus (RVFV) is an important arbovirus that causes lethal disease in cattle, camels, sheep and goats in Sub-Saha...

  20. Evidence for an ancestral association of human coronavirus 229E with bats

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Corman, V. M.; Baldwin, H. J.; Tateno, A. F.; Zerbinati, R. M.; Annan, A.; Owusu, M.; Nkrumah, E. E.; Maganga, G. D.; Oppong, S.; Adu-Sarkodie, Y.; Vallo, Peter; da Silva Filho, L. V. R. F.; Leroy, E. M.; Thiel, V.; van der Hoek, L.; Poon, L. L. M.; Tschapka, M.; Drosten, C.; Drexler, J. F.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 89, č. 23 (2015), s. 11858-11870. ISSN 0022-538X Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : respiratory syndrome coronavirus * SARS-coronavirus * genomic characterization * dromedary camels * clinical impact * virus * children * protein * spike * classification Subject RIV: FN - Epidemiology, Contagious Diseases ; Clinical Immunology Impact factor: 4.439, year: 2014

  1. Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay To Differentiate the Antibody Responses of Animals Infected with Brucella Species from Those of Animals Infected with Yersinia enterocolitica O9

    OpenAIRE

    Erdenebaatar, Janchivdorj; Bayarsaikhan, Balgan; Watarai, Masahisa; Makino, Sou-Ichi; Shirahata, Toshikazu

    2003-01-01

    Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays using antigens extracted from Brucella abortus with n-lauroylsarcosine differentiated natural Brucella-infected animals from Brucella-vaccinated or Yersinia enterocolitica O9-infected animals. A field trial in Mongolia showed cattle, sheep, goat, reindeer, camel, and human sera without infection could be distinguished from Brucella-infected animals by conventional serological tests.

  2. A molecular survey on cystic echinococcosis in Sinnar area,Blue Nile state (Sudan)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kamal Ibrahim; Romig Thomas; Kern Peter; Rihab All Omer

    2011-01-01

    Background Cystic echinococcosis (CE) is a zoonosis caused by the cestodes of the Echinococcus species. Its life cycle involves dogs and other canids as definitive hosts for the intestinal tapeworm, as well as domestic and wild ungulates as intermediate hosts for the tissue-invading metacestode (larval) stage. The disease has a special impact on disadvantaged pastoralist communities and is listed now among the three top priority neglected tropical disease (NTD).Therefore, CE is a neglected disease even in high endemicity regions. This study aimed at investigation of the prevalence of CE in different animals slaughtered for food consumption in Sinnar area, Blue Nile states in Sudan.Methods A survey of CE in livestock was conducted from April 2009 to March 2011 in Sinnar area, Blue Nile state in Sudan. Location, parasitological status and fertility conditions were determined. In addition, 120 hydatid cysts (30 from camels, 62 from cattle and 28 from sheep) were examined by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and mitochondrial gene sequencing for the genetic allocation of Echinococcus strains or species Results The prevalence of CE was 29.7% (30/101) in camels, 2.7% (62/2310) in cattle and 0.6% (26/4378) in sheep. It was shown that infection rates increased with age in camels, cattle and sheep. In camels, 67% (20/30) of the infected animals were aged between 2-5 years whereas 58% (36/62) of the infected cattle were >5 years. In sheep, the prevalence rate was distributed equally between animals ranging 2-5 years and >5 years. Even though multiple cysts were found in some animals, the average number of cysts per animal was close to 1 in all examined species. Lungs were found to be the predilection sites for the parasite in both camels and cattle, while most of the cysts found in sheep were located in the liver. About 63.4% of cysts encountered in camels were considered as large (5-7 cm), whereas those in cattle and sheep were medium (2-4 cm) and small (<2

  3. Histochemical and biochemical observations on milk-fat-globule membranes from several mammalian species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welsch, U; Schumacher, U; Buchheim, W; Schinko, I; Jenness, P; Patton, S

    1990-01-01

    A specific secretory product of the lactating mammary gland are triglyceride fat globules which are enveloped by a very complex membrane, the milk fat globule membrane (MFGM). In different mammalian species (man, rhesus monkey, horse, goat, sheep, cow, grey seal, camel, alpaka) the glycoproteins of this membrane have been analyzed by gel electrophoresis, Western blotting and lectin histochemistry. A remarkable intra- and interspecific variability of these glycoproteins has been detected pointing to so far unknown physiological adaptions, which may play a role in the intestine of the new born. High molecular weight glycoproteins, with a very high degree of glycosilation have been found only in primates, horse and camel; the MFGMs of the true ruminants (cow, sheep, goat) are characterized by specific glycoproteins of a lower molecular weight range. PMID:2091048

  4. Infection, Replication, and Transmission of Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus in Alpacas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adney, Danielle R; Bielefeldt-Ohmann, Helle; Hartwig, Airn E; Bowen, Richard A

    2016-06-01

    Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus is a recently emerged pathogen associated with severe human disease. Zoonotic spillover from camels appears to play a major role in transmission. Because of logistic difficulties in working with dromedaries in containment, a more manageable animal model would be desirable. We report shedding and transmission of this virus in experimentally infected alpacas (n = 3) or those infected by contact (n = 3). Infectious virus was detected in all infected animals and in 2 of 3 in-contact animals. All alpacas seroconverted and were rechallenged 70 days after the original infection. Experimentally infected animals were protected against reinfection, and those infected by contact were partially protected. Necropsy specimens from immunologically naive animals (n = 3) obtained on day 5 postinfection showed virus in the upper respiratory tract. These data demonstrate efficient virus replication and animal-to-animal transmission and indicate that alpacas might be useful surrogates for camels in laboratory studies. PMID:27070385

  5. Infection, Replication, and Transmission of Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus in Alpacas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adney, Danielle R.; Bielefeldt-Ohmann, Helle; Hartwig, Airn E.

    2016-01-01

    Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus is a recently emerged pathogen associated with severe human disease. Zoonotic spillover from camels appears to play a major role in transmission. Because of logistic difficulties in working with dromedaries in containment, a more manageable animal model would be desirable. We report shedding and transmission of this virus in experimentally infected alpacas (n = 3) or those infected by contact (n = 3). Infectious virus was detected in all infected animals and in 2 of 3 in-contact animals. All alpacas seroconverted and were rechallenged 70 days after the original infection. Experimentally infected animals were protected against reinfection, and those infected by contact were partially protected. Necropsy specimens from immunologically naive animals (n = 3) obtained on day 5 postinfection showed virus in the upper respiratory tract. These data demonstrate efficient virus replication and animal-to-animal transmission and indicate that alpacas might be useful surrogates for camels in laboratory studies. PMID:27070385

  6. Penerapan Metode Multiple Discriminant Analysis untuk Mengukur Tingkat Kesehatan yang Mengindikasikan Gejala Financial Distress pada Bank Umum Syariah

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shofaun Nada

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This research aims to account, analyse and compare the level ofIslamic commercial bank’s health using CAMELS method mentioned in PBI No.9/1/PBI/2007 and SEBI No 9/24/DPbS/2007 and using multiple discriminant analysis (MDA altman z-score method. There are only four of six factors that used in CAMELS: capital, asset, earning and liquidity excluding Management and Sensitivity of Market Risk factor. The variables of capital factors are KPMM and ECR ratio. Asset factor consist of KAP and NPF ratio. Earning factor contains four ratios, such as NOM, ROA, ROE and REODOI: 10.15408/aiq.v5i2.2566

  7. Penerapan Metode Multiple Discriminant Analysis untuk Mengukur Tingkat Kesehatan yang Mengindikasikan Gejala Financial Distress pada Bank Umum Syariah

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shofaun Nada

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This research aims to account, analyse, and compare the level of Islamic commercial bank's health using CAMELS method mentioned in PBI No. 9/1/PBI/2007 and SEBI No. 9/24/DPBs/2007, and using multiple discriminant analysis (MDA altman z-score method. There are only four from six factors that used in CAMELS: capital, asset, earning, and liquidity excluding management and sensivity of market risk factor. The variables of capital factors are KPMM and ECR ratio. Asset factor consist of KAP and NPF ratio. Earning factor contains four ratios, such as NOM, ROA, ROE, and REO.DOI: 10.15408/aiq.v5i2.2119

  8. A survey of mites on farm animals in Libya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabaj, M M; Beesley, W N; Awan, M A

    1992-10-01

    In 1985-1988, 2287 farm animals (cattle, camels, sheep, goats, horses, donkeys, dogs and rabbits) suspected of carrying parasitic mites were examined at 58 farms throughout Libya. Mites were identified on 1303 of these animals. The commonest parasites on cattle were Psoroptes and Chorioptes, on camels and sheep were Sarcoptes and Psoroptes, and on goats were Sarcoptes and Demodex. Infested horses carrier Psoroptes or Chorioptes, and one donkey carried Sarcoptes. Otodectes was common on dogs, but Sarcoptes was rare and no Demodex were seen. Rabbits often had psoroptic ear mange or sarcoptic body mange. Dermanyssus gallinae and Ornithonyssus bursa were seen on chickens, but no mites were found on pigeons, ducks or turkeys. PMID:1288436

  9. Radioimmunoassay techniques and reproductive management of livestock in North Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The report summarizes the principal applications of progesterone radioimmunoassay (P4-RIA) in Morocco for evaluating and improving fertility in cattle, sheep and camels. In cattle, P4-RIA of blood or milk helped to determine the time for onset of sexual functions after parturition and the incidence of silent oestrus. It is especially important to assess the first factor in semi-extensively managed herds, while the second factor occurs mainly in intensively managed herds. P4-RIA is an important tool in fertility improvement programmes involving induction and synchronization of oestrus and testing for early pregnancy. In sheep, P4-RIA helped to define the optimum age at first mating of ewe lambs and the optimum mating season of the year for adult ewes. In camels, analysis of the profile of plasma progesterone before and after mating suggests that P4-RIA could be used for early pregnancy testing. (author)

  10. Generation and characterization of heavy chain antibodies derived from Camelids

    OpenAIRE

    Schmidthals, Katrin

    2013-01-01

    Antibodies and antibody fragments are essential tools in basic research, diagnostics and therapy. Conventional antibodies consist of two heavy and two light chains with both chains contributing to the antigen-binding site. In addition to these conventional antibodies, camelids (llamas, alpacas, dromedaries and camels) possess so-called heavy chain antibodies (hcAbs) that lack the light chains. The antigen binding site of these unusual antibodies is formed by one single domain only, the so cal...

  11. Proceedings of the 8. Biennial Scientific Conference. Dem and -Driven Agricultural Research and Development for Sustainable Resource Management and Increased Production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This conference covered areas like, technology delivery, compared the precision of experiments in biometrics, the role of agro-veterinary shops in animal health services,Preliminary economic evaluation,anthelmintic resistance survey,Impact of AIDS/HIV, improvement of dairy cattle productivity, dry season feeding for smallholder dairy farmers, screening of tree species, diagnosis of cowdriosis in sheep in Kenya, Camel diseases, effect of growth environment, and many others

  12. Brucellosis in Islamic republic of Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Hossein Esmaeili

    2015-01-01

    Brucellosis is a zoonotic disease that is widely distributed throughout the developing countries.In this review, an overview of the epidemiological and epizootic status of brucellosis in Islamic republic of Iran is presented. In Iran, the disease was first recognized in 1932, which is now endemic in the entire country. The first animal vaccination program was carried out in 1949. Brucellosis has been found in humans, cattle, sheep, goats, camels, horses, buffaloes, dogs and the prevalence of ...

  13. PHENOTYPING, VIRULENCE CHARACTERISTICS OF AEROMONAS SPECIES AND THE EFFECTS OF ESSENTIAL PLANT OILS AS ANTIMICROBIAL AGENTS AGAINST PATHOGENIC ISOLATES FROM DIFFERENT SOURCES

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmed M.A. Mansour; Hoda M. Zaki; Nibal A. Hassan; Nihad A.M. El-Nashar

    2014-01-01

    Aeromonas species are increasingly recognized as enteric pathogens. Faecal samples from 20 cow, 45 sheep; 60 goat and 60 camels were examined for the presence of Aeromonas species, which was also sought in the available drinking water (55 well water and 52 drinking chlorinated tap water were also examined). Aeromonas species was isolated more frequently from goats (21.7%) than from other animal groups sampled and isolated more frequentl...

  14. Activities of the Animal Production and Health Laboratory (Animal Production and Health Newsletter, No. 63, January 2016)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article provides information on: • Animal Genetics: Genetic variation on the control of resistance to internal parasites in small ruminants for improving animal productivity; Support to MSs for implementation of Global Plan of Action on animal genetic resources (AnGR); • Animal Health: Application of irradiation technology to develop a potential trypanosome vaccine; African swine fever; Study of pox diseases in Ethiopian camels; • Fellows/interns/consultants; • Field suppprt missions

  15. Risk of Escherichia coli O157:H7, Non-O157 Shiga Toxin-Producing Escherichia coli, and Campylobacter spp. in Food Animals and Their Products in Qatar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammed, Hussni O; Stipetic, Korana; Salem, Ahmed; McDonough, Patrick; Chang, Yung Fu; Sultan, Ali

    2015-10-01

    Escherichia coli O157:H7, non-O157 E. coli, and Campylobacter spp. are among the top-ranked pathogens that threaten the safety of food supply systems around the world. The associated risks and predisposing factors were investigated in a dynamic animal population using a repeat-cross-sectional study design. Animal and environmental samples were collected from dairy and camel farms, chicken processing plants, and abattoirs and analyzed for the presence of these pathogens using a combination of bacterial enrichment and real-time PCR tests without culture confirmation. Data on putative risk factors were also collected and analyzed. E. coli O157:H7 was detected by PCR at higher levels in sheep and camel feces than in cattle feces (odds ratios [OR], 6.8 and 21.1, respectively). Although the genes indicating E. coli O157:H7 were detected at a relatively higher rate (4.3%) in fecal samples from dairy cattle, they were less common in milk and udder swabs from the same animals (1 and 2%, respectively). Among the food adulterants, E. coli O103 was more common in cattle fecal samples, whereas O26 was more common in sheep feces and O45 in camel feces compared with cattle (OR, 2.6 and 3.1, respectively). The occurrence of E. coli in the targeted populations differed by the type of sample and season of the year. Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli were more common in sheep and camel feces than in cattle feces. Most of the survey and surveillance of E. coli focused on serogroup O157 as a potential foodborne hazard; however, based on the PCR results, non-O157 Shiga toxin-producing E. coli serotypes appeared to be more common, and efforts should be made to include them in food safety programs. PMID:26408129

  16. Emerging viral diseases of livestock in the developing world

    OpenAIRE

    Bayry, Jagadeesh

    2013-01-01

    Emerging and reemerging viral diseases of livestock and human beings are in sharp rise in recent years. Importantly, many of these viruses, including influenza, Hendra, Nipah and corona are of zoonotic importance. Several viral diseases of livestock such as bluetongue, peste des petits ruminants, camel pox, equine infectious anaemia, chicken anaemia and sheep-associated malignant catarrhal fever are crossing their traditional boundaries. Emergence of new serotypes and variant forms of viruses...

  17. Cytophotometric differentiation of high elevation spruces: physiological and ecological implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Red and black spruce and their hybrids can be determined by morphological indices; however, the criteria are somewhat subjective and increasingly difficult to use at higher elevations. Although the chromosome number is identical (2n = 24), red spruce has twice as much nuclear DNA (48 pg) than black spruce (24 pg) and thus the species and their hybrids can also be separated by cytophotometry. This is relevant to spruce decline studies because black spruce is much more resistant to high elevation environmental stresses, both natural and anthropogenic. It also has implications for the effect of climatic changes on the composition of high elevation spruce-fir forests because red spruce can outcompete black spruce under more mesic conditions. Four elevation transects sampling spruce on the east and west sides of Mount Washington (New Hampshire) and Camels Hump (Vermont) and a single transect on the southwest side of Whiteface Mountain (New York) were made to investigate the degree of hybridization and introgression between these two species. A positive correlation was found between increased elevation and increased black spruce genes on Mount Washington and Camels Hump. Pure black spruce was found on Mount Washington from 1356 m to 1582 m. No pure black or red spruce was found on Camels Hump although the proportion of red spruce alleles was significantly greater on Camels Hump. All trees sampled at all elevations on Whiteface Mountain were pure red spruce. Thus the proportion of black spruce alleles in high elevation spruce populations decreases from east to west. This closely parallels the increase in spruce decline which increases from east to west. (author)

  18. Alpaca (Lama pacos) as a convenient source of recombinant camelid heavy chain antibodies (VHHs)

    OpenAIRE

    Maass, David R.; Sepulveda, Jorge; Pernthaner, Anton; Shoemaker, Charles B.

    2007-01-01

    Recombinant single domain antibody fragments (VHHs) that derive from the unusual camelid heavy chain only IgG class (HCAbs) have many favourable properties compared with single-chain antibodies prepared from conventional IgG. As a result, VHHs have become widely used as binding reagents and are beginning to show potential as therapeutic agents. To date, the source of VHH genetic material has been camels and llamas despite their large size and limited availability. Here we demonstrate that the...

  19. Expression, purification, and characterization of a diabody against the most important angiogenesis cell receptor: Vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2

    OpenAIRE

    Mahdi Behdani; Sirous Zeinali; Morteza Karimipour; Hossein Khanahmad; Nader Asadzadeh; Kayhan Azadmanesh; Negar Seyed; Seyed Farzad Baniahmad; Mahdi Habibi Anbouhi

    2012-01-01

    Antibodies and their derivative fragments have long been used as tools in a variety of applications, in fundamental research work, biotechnology, diagnosis, and therapy. Camels produce single heavy-chain antibodies (VHH) in addition to usual antibodies. These minimal-sized binders are very robust and bind the antigen with high affinity in a monomeric state. Vascular endothelial growth factor recepror-2 (VEGFR2) is an important tumor-associated receptor that blockade of its signaling can lead ...

  20. Milking drylands : gender networks, pastoral markets and food security in stateless Somalia

    OpenAIRE

    M. Nori

    2010-01-01

    The Milking Drylands research initiative addresses the critical issues of food security, market integration, gender roles and governance matters in a peculiar area of the world, the Somali ecosystem. The research aims at exploring interesting dynamics of ongoing social change, in order to stimulate appropriate understanding of complex pastoral economics and provide options for sensitive interventions. More specifically camel milk marketing is a developing women enterprise in Somali drylands, ...

  1. What happens when Trypanosoma brucei leaves Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Jensen, Robert E.; Simpson, Larry; Englund, Paul T.

    2008-01-01

    Julius Lukeš and co-workers evaluated the evolutionary origin of Trypanosoma equiperdum and Trypanosoma evansi, parasites that cause horse and camel diseases. Although similar to T. brucei, the sleeping-sickness parasite, these trypanosomes do not cycle through the tsetse fly and have been able to spread beyond Africa. Transmission occurs sexually, or via blood-sucking flies or vampire bats. They concluded that these parasites, which resemble yeast petite mutants, are T. brucei sub-species, w...

  2. Seroprevalence of peste des petits ruminants among domestic small and large ruminants in the semi-arid region of North-eastern Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Abdul-Dahiru El-Yuguda; Saka Saheed Baba; Abdul Ganiyu Ambali; Godon O Egwu

    2013-01-01

    Background: Recent changes in the host range of peste des petits ruminants (PPR) virus coupled with the presence of a hugeruminant population in the study area has stimulated our interest to carry out a sero-survey for PPR among the differentdomestic ruminant populations of semi-arid region of North-eastern (NE) Nigeria.Materials and Methods: The prevalence of PPR virus antibodies among domestic animals (goat, sheep, cattle and camel)populations in NE Nigeria was studied using virus neutralis...

  3. Adolescents' responses to cigarette advertisements: links between exposure, liking, and the appeal of smoking

    OpenAIRE

    Arnett, J J; Terhanian, G.

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVE—To evaluate adolescents' responses to cigarette advertisements for different brands.
DESIGN—Adolescents were shown one print advertisement for each of five cigarette brands (Camel, Marlboro, Kool, Benson & Hedges, and Lucky Strike). They indicated on a structured questionnaire how many times they had seen the advertisement (or one almost like it), how much they liked it, whether or not they thought it made smoking more appealing, and whether or not it made them want to smoke cigaret...

  4. Uniform Orientation of Biotinylated Nanobody as an Affinity Binder for Detection of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) Cry1Ac Toxin

    OpenAIRE

    Min Li; Min Zhu; Cunzheng Zhang; Xianjin Liu; Yakun Wan

    2014-01-01

    Nanobodies are the smallest natural fragments with useful properties such as high affinity, distinct paratope and high stability, which make them an ideal tool for detecting target antigens. In this study, we generated and characterized nanobodies against the Cry1Ac toxin and applied them in a biotin-streptavidin based double antibodies (nanobodies) sandwich-ELISA (DAS-ELISA) assay. After immunizing a camel with soluble Cry1Ac toxin, a phage displayed library was constructed to generate Nbs a...

  5. CONSUMER PERCEPTIONS AND PREFERENCES OF MEAT TYPES IN HARAR AND HARAMAYA TOWNS, ETHIOPIA

    OpenAIRE

    Tsegay Teklebrhan

    2012-01-01

    A study was conducted to investigate the acceptability and preference of meat in Harar and Haramaya towns. The study was carried out from January to March, 2012. One hundred twenty (120) questionnaires were randomly distributed, completed and retrieved for analysis. The results showed that gender had no effect on livestock meat consumption. However, religious had impact on the types of meat consumption. Accordingly, pork was not consumed by both Muslim and Christian, camel meat was consumed b...

  6. Antioxidant activity and fatty acid profile of fermented milk prepared by Pediococcus pentosaceus

    OpenAIRE

    Balakrishnan, Gayathri; Agrawal, Renu

    2012-01-01

    Probiotics are the class of beneficial microorganisms that have positive influence on the health when ingested in adequate amounts. Probiotic fermented milk is one of the dairy products that is prepared by using probiotic lactic acid bacteria. The study comprised preparation of fermented milk from various sources such as cow, goat and camel. Pediococcus pentosaceus which is a native laboratory isolate from cheese was utilized for the product formation. Changes in functional properties in the ...

  7. Species Diversity and Distribution of Ticks (Acari: Ixodidae) in Zabol County, Eastern Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Maryam Ganjali; Mansour Dabirzadeh; Masoud Sargolzaie

    2014-01-01

    Background: Ticks are important vectors of human and animal pathogens. They are considered as main vectors for transmission of many viral, bacterial, rickettsial and parasitical pathogens. The aim of the present study was to find out species diversity of ticks, which infested the domestic ruminants in Zabol County, Eastern Iran in 2012. Methods: Ticks were selected randomly from sheep, goats, cattle and camels. The ticks were collected from the body of infested animals and stored in 70% ethan...

  8. Effects of Rotational Motion in Robotic Needle Insertion

    OpenAIRE

    Ramezanpour, H.; H. Yousefi; M. Rezaei; M Rostami

    2015-01-01

    Background Robotic needle insertion in biological tissues has been known as one the most applicable procedures in sampling, robotic injection and different medical therapies and operations. Objective In this paper, we would like to investigate the effects of angular velocity in soft tissue insertion procedure by considering force-displacement diagram. Non-homogenous camel liver can be exploited as a tissue sample under standard compression test with Zwick/Roell device employing 1-D axial load...

  9. Global solutions to general polynomial benchmark optimization problems

    OpenAIRE

    Zhou, Xiaojun

    2012-01-01

    The goal of this paper is to solve a class of high-order polynomial benchmark optimization problems, including the Goldstein-Price problem and the Three Hump Camel Back problem. By using a generalized canonical duality theory, we are able to transform the nonconvex primal problems to concave dual problems over convex domain(without duality gap), which can be solved easily to obtain global solutions.

  10. Independent introduction of two lactase-persistence alleles into human populations reflects different history of adaptation to milk culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enattah, Nabil Sabri; Jensen, Tine G K; Boyd, Mette;

    2008-01-01

    same history, probably related to the same cattle domestication event. In contrast, the compound Arab allele shows a different, highly divergent ancestral haplotype, suggesting that these two major global LP alleles have arisen independently, the latter perhaps in response to camel milk consumption....... These results support the convergent evolution of the LP in diverse populations, most probably reflecting different histories of adaptation to milk culture....

  11. Prevalence of Hydatid Cysts in Livestock Animals in Xinjiang, China

    OpenAIRE

    Qingling, Meng; Guanglei, Wang; Jun, Qiao; Xinquan, Zhu; Tianli, Liu; Xuemei, Song; Jinsheng, Zhang; Huisheng, Wang; Kuojun, Cai; Chuangfu, Chen

    2014-01-01

    Hydatid worms, hosted by humans and animals, impose serious human health risk and cause significant livestock production loss. To better understand the disease infection status in Xinjiang, China, we investigated the disease epidemics in 4 livestock animals, i.e., cattle, sheep (both sheep and goat), camels, and horses, slaughtered at the abattoirs in Urumqi, Yining, Tacheng, and Altay areas. The results showed that the animals were infected at different rates, in the order of sheep (9.8%), c...

  12. A tool for learning the programming style of Java

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arai, Masayuki

    2013-03-01

    We developed a tool for learning the programming style of Java. The tool has the following functions: (1) recommends the use of CamelCase and English words for the names of classes, methods, and variables; (2) recommends setting the correct scope level of variables and the appropriate length of variable names; (3) recommends writing comments in source programs; (4) shows sample source programs according to the programming style of Java.

  13. In Vitro Antibacterial Effects of Five Volatile Oil Extracts Against Intramacrophage Brucella Abortus 544

    OpenAIRE

    Ayman Al-Mariri; George Saour; Razan Hamoud

    2012-01-01

    Background: Brucella abortus is a gram-negative facultative intracellular bacterium that can cause a highly contagious disease in sheep, goats, cattle and one-humped camels. It is responsible for one of the most important zoonosis in human. The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of Mentha piperita, Origanum majorana, Citrus lemon, Cinnamomum verum and Myristica fragrans essential volatile oil extracts on human macrophages infected by B. abortus 544. Methods: Essential volatile oil ext...

  14. Design of Transparent Distributed IMS Network: Security Challenges Risk and Signaling Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Hamid Allouch; Mostafa Belkasmi

    2013-01-01

    The IP Multimedia subsystem (IMS) based on SIP as mechanism signalling and interfaces with otherservers using OSA (Open Service Access) and CAMEL (Customized Applications for Mobile networkEnhanced Logic).Is responsible for the interconnection of IP packets with other network, IMS support datacommunication services, voice, video, messaging and web-based technologies. In this work we present adistributed design of architecture that turns up some challenges of transparent mobility on the secure...

  15. Variation in mitochondrial minichromosome composition between blood-sucking lice of the genus Haematopinus that infest horses and pigs

    OpenAIRE

    Song, Simon D; Barker, Stephen C.; Shao, Renfu

    2014-01-01

    Background The genus Haematopinus contains 21 species of blood-sucking lice, parasitizing both even-toed ungulates (pigs, cattle, buffalo, antelopes, camels and deer) and odd-toed ungulates (horses, donkeys and zebras). The mitochondrial genomes of the domestic pig louse, Haematopinus suis, and the wild pig louse, Haematopinus apri, have been sequenced recently; both lice have fragmented mitochondrial genomes with 37 genes on nine minichromosomes. To understand whether the composition of mito...

  16. MOLECULAR CHARACTERIZATION AND IMMUNOPROTECTIVE ACTIVITY OF CAPSULAR POLYSACCHARIDE OF KLEBSIELLA PNEUMONIAE ISOLATED FROM FARM ANIMALS AT TAIF GOVERNORATE

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmed M.A. Mansour; Hoda M. Zaki; Nibal A. Hassan; Abdulrahman A. Al-Humiany

    2014-01-01

    Klebsiella pneumoniae is a Gram-negative enterobacterium that has historically been and currently remains, a significant cause of human disease and several kinds of infections in animals. In the present work, trials for the isolation of Klebsiella pneumoniae from diseased and apparently healthy farm animals (cows, sheep, goats and camels) were done for recognition of Klebsiella pneumoniae subspecies. It was noticed that there was a marked variation between incidences of Klebsiella pneumoniae ...

  17. Impact of cattle on the prevalence and severity of trachoma.

    OpenAIRE

    Sole, G.

    1987-01-01

    Ethiopia is the African country with the largest number of cattle (26 million). Because of the potential impact of cattle on the transmission and severity of trachoma, the major cause of blindness in the country, an attempt is made to document this association to justify the inclusion of the control of cattle pollution in the prevention of blindness. The prevalence of trachoma is lower in pastoralists who herd mainly camels than in pastoralists who herd mainly cattle. In the first group the p...

  18. No Fools with Horses

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MarkGodfrey

    2004-01-01

    HORSES have been around China for a long time. The Mongols conquered China on horseback and ruled as the Yuan Dynasty for a century. The terracotta warriors in Xi'an, cavalrymen by their steeds, date from the pre-millennial Qin Dynasty. Tang Dynasty ceramics depic thorses and camels, and many generals of the Republic of China in the 1920s had a predilection for equestrian statues of themselves.

  19. Rift Valley Fever Outbreak in Livestock in Kenya, 2006–2007

    OpenAIRE

    Munyua, Peninah; Murithi, Rees M.; Wainwright, Sherrilyn; Githinji, Jane; Hightower, Allen; Mutonga, David; Macharia, Joseph; Ithondeka, Peter M.; Musaa, Joseph; Breiman, Robert F.; Bloland, Peter; Njenga, M. Kariuki

    2010-01-01

    We analyzed the extent of livestock involvement in the latest Rift Valley fever (RVF) outbreak in Kenya that started in December 2006 and continued until June 2007. When compared with previous RVF outbreaks in the country, the 2006–07 outbreak was the most extensive in cattle, sheep, goats, and camels affecting thousands of animals in 29 of 69 administrative districts across six of the eight provinces. This contrasted with the distribution of approximately 700 human RVF cases in the country, ...

  20. The killing desert?: droogte, nomadentradities en ontwikkelingsbestuur bij de Turkana

    OpenAIRE

    P. Wymeersch; Beke, D.

    1987-01-01

    The Turkana are nomadic pastoralists who live in the desert regions of northwestern Kenya. The majority of the Turkana practice no agriculture nor fishing and live exclusively from the products of their livestock (milk, blood and meat). They keep multiple species herds (cattle, camels, goats, sheep and donkeys) in order to buffer the variations in the quality and distribution of vegetal resources and water requirements. The Turkana were one of many affected by several droughts. Although the f...