Sample records for calves experimentally treated

  1. A RIKILT yeast estrogen bioassay (REA) for estrogen residue detection in urine of calves experimentally treated with 17ß-estradiol

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Divari, S.; Maria, De R.; Cannizzo, F.T.; Spada, F.; Mulasso, C.; Bovee, T.F.H.; Capra, P.; Leporati, M.; Biolatti, B.


    17ß-Estradiol is one of the most powerful sex steroids illegally used in bovine production. The objective of this study was to evaluate the application and the specificity of the RIKILT yeast estrogen bioassay (REA) for the detection of molecules with estrogenic activities in the urine of calves exp

  2. Experimental Winter Coccidiosis in Sheltered and Unsheltered Calves (United States)

    Niilo, L.


    Hereford calves, seven months old, were inoculated orally with sporulated oocysts of Eimeria bovis and E. zurnii and housed in a heated building together with uninoculated animals. Duplicate groups of similarly treated animals were left unsheltered in cold winter weather. Clinical coccidiosis developed in most of the inoculated calves, sheltered and unsheltered. There was no marked difference in the severity of the infections. The sheltered uninoculated contact animals remained clinically unaffected, but mild coccidiosis developed in the unsheltered controls. The results suggest that cold may increase the host's susceptibility to clinical coccidiosis, but may not increase the severity of the signs once the clinical infection is established. PMID:4245999

  3. Physiological effects of experimental verminous bronchitis in Friesian calves. (United States)

    Lekeux, P; Hajer, R; Boon, J H; Verstegen, M W; Breukink, H J


    Pulmonary function values were measured in five Friesian calves of five months of age during the patent phase of an experimental moderate lungworm infection and were compared with the pulmonary function values recorded in four control animals. All the nine calves were free of any previous challenge with Dictyocaulus viviparus and were submitted to the same standardized conditions of body conformation, housing, feeding and procedures for pulmonary function testing. A significant increase of respiratory rate, minute ventilation, total pulmonary resistance and power of breathing and a significant decrease of tidal volume, dynamic lung compliance and PaO2 were observed in the infested animals. The absolute intrapleural pressure values were also significantly more negative. The conclusions of the statistical analysis were almost identical when predicted instead of measured pulmonary function values were used in the control group. The clinical, functional and pathological findings in the infested animals were all consistent with the picture of a lower airway obstructive disease. PMID:3160451

  4. An explorative study to assess the efficacy of Toltrazuril-sulfone (Ponazuril in calves experimentally infected with Neospora caninum

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    Greif Gisela


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Neospora caninum is an important cause of infectious abortion and stillbirth in cattle world-wide. Infection is common and may frequently be passed from mother to calf (vertical transmission with no signs of disease. Based on our previous observation that N. caninum-infection can be efficiently controlled with Toltrazuril-sulfone (Ponazuril in experimentally infected mice, we addressed the question if efficacy could also be obtained in experimentally infected calves. Material and Methods The study included 19 calves and represents an initial explorative approach to document a basic effectiveness at first. Fifteen animals received each 2 x 108N. caninum trophozoites, half of the dose being injected intravenously and the other half subcutaneously. Efficacy of treatment was assessed using molecular detection of parasite DNA with PCR and pathological alterations by immunohistochemistry in different organs of the animals. Assessment included also clinical, serological and pathophysiological parameters. Results In those calves medicated with ponazuril (one, or six consecutive days, respectively, starting one day after infection, a complete abrogation of the parasite detectability was obtained in the brain and other organs, while 50% of non-treated calves became PCR-positive in brain and muscles. Clinically, ponazuril chemotherapy of infected calves – in comparison to non-treated infected animals – reduced symptoms (fever, but no differences were observed between treated and non-treated animals with regard to serum enzymes and metabolites. Efficacy of a six-day treament was also reflected by significantly lower anti-Neospora antibody concentrations developed after infection, when compared to non-treated animals. Conclusion Based on our findings in this initially explorative approach that indicate a basic effectiveness of ponazuril against experimental N. caninum infection in calves, we plan to follow our chemotherapeutical

  5. The effect of a fenbendazole treatment on cyst excretion and weight gain in calves experimentally infected with Giardia duodenalis. (United States)

    Geurden, Thomas; Vandenhoute, Els; Pohle, Herbert; Casaert, Stijn; De Wilde, Nathalie; Vercruysse, Jozef; Claerebout, Edwin


    A total of 28 Holstein-Friesian calves were experimentally infected with 10(5)Giardia duodenalis cysts. Eleven days later, all animals were allocated into two groups of 14 animals each, based on the average pre-treatment cyst counts. Treatment was randomly assigned to one of the two groups, and all animals in the treatment group received a daily oral dosage of 15mg fenbendazole per kg bodyweight during 3 consecutive days. The calves in the control group received a placebo (water). From 3 days after treatment onwards, cyst excretion was determined three times a week during 4 consecutive weeks. The faecal consistency and general health were recorded on a daily basis, and all animals were weighed prior to treatment and weekly thereafter. At the end of the experimental period, there was a significant (Pfenbendazole treated and untreated calves experimentally infected with G. duodenalis, although additional data need to confirm the need for treatment in natural conditions.

  6. Construction and validation of a decision tree for treating metabolic acidosis in calves with neonatal diarrhea

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    Trefz Florian M


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of the present prospective study was to investigate whether a decision tree based on basic clinical signs could be used to determine the treatment of metabolic acidosis in calves successfully without expensive laboratory equipment. A total of 121 calves with a diagnosis of neonatal diarrhea admitted to a veterinary teaching hospital were included in the study. The dosages of sodium bicarbonate administered followed simple guidelines based on the results of a previous retrospective analysis. Calves that were neither dehydrated nor assumed to be acidemic received an oral electrolyte solution. In cases in which intravenous correction of acidosis and/or dehydration was deemed necessary, the provided amount of sodium bicarbonate ranged from 250 to 750 mmol (depending on alterations in posture and infusion volumes from 1 to 6.25 liters (depending on the degree of dehydration. Individual body weights of calves were disregarded. During the 24 hour study period the investigator was blinded to all laboratory findings. Results After being lifted, many calves were able to stand despite base excess levels below −20 mmol/l. Especially in those calves, metabolic acidosis was undercorrected with the provided amount of 500 mmol sodium bicarbonate, which was intended for calves standing insecurely. In 13 calves metabolic acidosis was not treated successfully as defined by an expected treatment failure or a measured base excess value below −5 mmol/l. By contrast, 24 hours after the initiation of therapy, a metabolic alkalosis was present in 55 calves (base excess levels above +5 mmol/l. However, the clinical status was not affected significantly by the metabolic alkalosis. Conclusions Assuming re-evaluation of the calf after 24 hours, the tested decision tree can be recommended for the use in field practice with minor modifications. Calves that stand insecurely and are not able to correct their position if pushed

  7. Construction and validation of a decision tree for treating metabolic acidosis in calves with neonatal diarrhea (United States)


    Background The aim of the present prospective study was to investigate whether a decision tree based on basic clinical signs could be used to determine the treatment of metabolic acidosis in calves successfully without expensive laboratory equipment. A total of 121 calves with a diagnosis of neonatal diarrhea admitted to a veterinary teaching hospital were included in the study. The dosages of sodium bicarbonate administered followed simple guidelines based on the results of a previous retrospective analysis. Calves that were neither dehydrated nor assumed to be acidemic received an oral electrolyte solution. In cases in which intravenous correction of acidosis and/or dehydration was deemed necessary, the provided amount of sodium bicarbonate ranged from 250 to 750 mmol (depending on alterations in posture) and infusion volumes from 1 to 6.25 liters (depending on the degree of dehydration). Individual body weights of calves were disregarded. During the 24 hour study period the investigator was blinded to all laboratory findings. Results After being lifted, many calves were able to stand despite base excess levels below −20 mmol/l. Especially in those calves, metabolic acidosis was undercorrected with the provided amount of 500 mmol sodium bicarbonate, which was intended for calves standing insecurely. In 13 calves metabolic acidosis was not treated successfully as defined by an expected treatment failure or a measured base excess value below −5 mmol/l. By contrast, 24 hours after the initiation of therapy, a metabolic alkalosis was present in 55 calves (base excess levels above +5 mmol/l). However, the clinical status was not affected significantly by the metabolic alkalosis. Conclusions Assuming re-evaluation of the calf after 24 hours, the tested decision tree can be recommended for the use in field practice with minor modifications. Calves that stand insecurely and are not able to correct their position if pushed require higher doses of

  8. Possible contamination with clenbuterol from treated veal calves to untreated pen mates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groot, M.J.; Lasaroms, J.J.P.; Bennekom, van E.O.; Hende, van J.; Nielen, M.W.F.


    To investigate whether clenbuterol-treated calves could contaminate untreated pen mates, three animal experiments were performed. (1) One calf of a pen of five was treated with clenbuterol by injection (Ventipulmin injection, REG NL 2532, 2.5 mL/100 kg) twice a day for 10 days. (2) In two pens, one

  9. Serum protein concentrations in calves with experimentally induced pneumonic pasteurellosis

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    Fagliari J.J.


    Full Text Available Ten healthy 2 to 4-week-old Holstein calves were randomly allotted into control and infected groups. Control calves (n=5 were inoculated intrabronchially with 5ml of Dulbecco's phosphate-buffered saline solution (DPBSS. Infected calves (n=5 were inoculated intrabronchially with 5x10(9 log-phase Mannheimia haemolytica organisms suspended in 5ml of DPBSS. Blood samples were obtained 15 minutes before and one, two, four and six hours after inoculation. Serum protein concentrations were determined by means of sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Serum concentrations of proteins with molecular weights of 125,000 D (ceruloplasmin, 60,000 D (a 1-antitrypsin, 45,000 D (haptoglobin, and 40,000 D (acid glycoprotein were significantly increased in calves with pneumonic pasteurellosis, compared with concentrations in control calves. Results indicate that acute phase proteins increase more rapidly after the onset of inflammation than previously thought. Measurement of serum protein concentrations may be useful in monitoring the progression of the induced pneumonic pasteurellosis in calves.

  10. Ameliorative effect of two Ayurvedic herbs on experimentally induced arsenic toxicity in calves. (United States)

    Biswas, Suman; Maji, Chinmoy; Sarkar, Prasanta Kumar; Sarkar, Samar; Chattopadhyay, Abichal; Mandal, Tapan Kumar


    Chronic arsenic poisoning due to contaminated subsoil water is a threat to society in West Bengal, India and in Bangladesh. The human being may also be affected by the exposed cattle from the affected area by consuming milk, egg, meat and others. In Ayurveda, several herbs like Haridra (turmeric), Shunthi (dried ginger root) and others are used for the management of arsenic poisoning. The study was conducted to find out the ameliorative effect of turmeric and ginger powder against experimentally induced arsenic toxicity in calves. Twenty four calves were divided into four groups (group I, II, III and IV) having six animals in each group. Animals of group I, II and III were orally administered with sodium arsenite at 1mg/kg body weight for 90 days and in addition group II and group III animals were treated orally with turmeric and ginger powder respectively at 10mg/kg body weight from 46th day onwards. Group IV animals were given food and water without drug and served as control. Arsenic content was estimated in faeces, hair, urine and plasma in every 15 days. Bio-chemical, haematological and anti-oxidant parameters were also assessed. Turmeric and ginger powder significantly (Parsenic levels through increased excretion via faeces and urine. Haemoglobin level, TEC and TLC were decreased in groups I, II and III, however these were improved significantly (Parsenic from the body but also give protection from possible damage caused by arsenic exposure, it may be concluded from the present study that turmeric and ginger can be helpful in the therapy of chronic arsenic toxicity in calves. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Comparison of immune responses in calves fed heat-treated or unheated colostrum. (United States)

    Gelsinger, S L; Heinrichs, A J


    Understanding the mechanisms that underlie neonatal immune function is important for appropriately treating and preventing disease. Cytokines provided in colostrum may affect immune development and function, but data describing cytokine absorption in calves and the effects of colostrum heat treatment on absorption are limited. The objectives of this experiment were to characterize immune responses in calves that received heat-treated (HT) or unheated (UH) colostrum (in terms of growth, rectal temperature, and blood cytokine and IgG concentrations) and to determine calves' ability to absorb IFNγ and IL1β from HT and UH colostrum. A single large batch of colostrum was divided to create treatments. The HT colostrum was heated to 60°C for 60 min. Both treatments were frozen until needed and warmed immediately before feeding. Bull calves (n = 26) were randomly assigned to receive 8% of their birth weight in colostrum from 1 treatment at birth. Blood was collected at 0 and 24 to 48 h after birth for IL1β, IFNγ, and IgG analyses. Subcutaneous injections of ovalbumin (5.0 mg/mL) were given at 14 and 35 ± 3 d of age. Rectal temperature and growth were monitored for 10 d following each injection. Plasma samples were collected at 0, 4, 8, and 12 h post-injection and daily for the subsequent 10 d to measure IL1β, IFNγ, and IgG concentrations. Colostrum heat treatment failed to increase blood IgG concentrations or the apparent efficiency of IgG absorption. Serum IL1β concentrations were higher in UH calves 24 to 48 h after birth and remained higher than those in HT calves through 15 d of age. Both IFNγ and IgG increased in response to ovalbumin injection; we observed no differences between treatments. Rectal temperature increased and peaked 12 h after injection at 14 and 35 d. Growth rate was reduced by exposure to the foreign antigen. Interactions of calf age and colostrum treatment with time post-injection indicate that calves tended to show greater loss in average

  12. Increased pulmonary secretion of tumor necrosis factor-alpha in calves experimentally infected with bovine respiratory syncytial virus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rontved, C. M.; Tjørnehøj, Kirsten; Viuff, B.


    Bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV) is an important cause of respiratory disease among calves in the Danish cattle industry. An experimental BRSV infection model was used to study the pathogenesis of the disease in calves. Broncho alveolar lung lavage (BAL) was performed on 28 Jersey calves...... of the infection, as well as BRSV-infected calves free of bacteria reached the same level of TNF-alpha as animals from which bacteria were isolated from the lungs. It is concluded that significant quantities of TNF-alpha are produced in the lungs of the calves on PID 6-7 of BRSV infection. The involvement of TNF...

  13. Pathological and virological studies of experimental parvoviral enteritis in calves. (United States)

    Durham, P J; Lax, A; Johnson, R H


    Calves held in isolation showed a progressive decline in maternally derived antibody titres to bovine parvovirus but low concentrations of inhibitors resistant to heat and kaolin treatment persisted as the animals matured. These inhibitors had both haemagglutination inhibition and plaque neutralising activity and were considered to be of non-specific origin. Following oral challenge with bovine parvovirus, calves developed mild to moderate diarrhoea, with lymphopenia and viraemia. Sequential virological and immunofluorescent studies showed that the virus initially infected tonsils and intestinal tract, subsequently spreading to systemic lymphoid tissues. Histological and scanning electron microscopic examinations revealed moderate small intestinal villus atrophy and fusion due to crypt damage, together with lymphoid necrosis predominantly associated with the intestinal tract and thymus. Although the disease was not very severe, this may have been because the low parasite burden in the animals reduced mitotic activity in susceptible tissues.

  14. Evaluation of the effects of treating dairy cows with meloxicam at calving on retained fetal membranes risk. (United States)

    Newby, Nathalie C; Renaud, David; Tremblay, Robert; Duffield, Todd F


    Some non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs increase the risk of retained fetal membranes. This is the first study to investigate the effects of meloxicam on the risk of retained fetal membranes. Administration of meloxicam to dairy cattle immediately following calving revealed no differences in the incidence of retained fetal membranes between meloxicam-treated and untreated animals. There was no difference between the 2 groups in the incidence of periparturient diseases following calving. Meloxicam can be used on the day of calving in lactating cows without increasing the risk of retained fetal membranes.

  15. Clinical evaluation of cardiac effects of experimental doxycycline overdosing in healthy calves

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    Amory Hélène


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cardiac morphologic and functional changes consistent with cardiomyopathy have been reported in field cases of calves with accidental doxycycline overdosing. The purpose of this study was to evaluate clinically the cardiac effects of an experimentally-induced doxycycline overdosing in healthy calves. Twelve 2 months-old healthy Belgian Blue calves were studied. Six of them (group 1 received the normal dose (5 mg/kg, BID and the six others (group 2 received five times the normal dose (25 mg/kg, BID of oral doxycycline for five consecutive days (D1 to D5. Each calf was clinically examined daily. Measurement of serum AST, CK, Iso-CKs and LDH activities and an echocardiographic examination were performed before (D0 and one day after (D6 the last doxycycline administration. An ECG tracing was recorded at D0, D4, and D6. Results In both groups, no clinical, blood, echocardiographic or electrocardiographic changes suggestive of a cardiomyopathy were observed. Only a decreased appetite was observed in the calves of the group 2 between D3 and D6. Conclusions This trial failed to reproduce cardiac changes reported in accidental doxycycline-poisoning in calves, suggesting that high doses of doxycycline may not be the only etiologic factor of the cardiomyopathy reported in the field cases.

  16. Heat-treated colostrum feeding promotes beneficial bacteria colonization in the small intestine of neonatal calves. (United States)

    Malmuthuge, Nilusha; Chen, Yanhong; Liang, Guanxiang; Goonewardene, Laksiri A; Guan, Le Luo


    The present study investigated the effect of heat-treated colostrum feeding on the bacterial colonization in calf small intestine of neonatal calves within the first 12h of life. Newborn Holstein bull calves (n=32) were assigned to 3 treatment groups and fed with either fresh colostrum (FC, n=12) or heat-treated (60°C, 60 min) colostrum (HC, n=12) soon after birth, whereas the control (NC, n=8) group did not receive colostrum or water. Small intestinal tissues and contents were collected from proximal jejunum, distal jejunum, and ileum at 6 and 12h after birth, following euthanasia. Quantitative real time-PCR was used to explore the colonization of total bacteria, Lactobacillus, Bifidobacterium, and Escherichia coli. The feeding of colostrum soon after birth increased the colonization of total bacteria in calf gut within the first 12h compared with NC. In contrast, the prevalence of Lactobacillus was lower in HC and FC compared to NC. Remarkable changes in the prevalence of small intestinal tissue-attached Bifidobacterium were observed with the feeding of HC, but not that in small intestinal contents. The prevalence of Bifidobacterium was 3.2 and 5.2 fold higher in HC than FC and NC, respectively, at 6h. Although the feeding of FC did not enhance the prevalence of tissue-attached Bifidobacterium at 6h compared with NC, it displayed a gradual increase over the time that was higher than NC, but similar to that of HC at 12h. Moreover, the colonization of E. coli was drastically reduced in HC calves compared with FC and NC. Thus, the present study suggests that the feeding of HC enhances the colonization of Bifidobacterium but lessens E. coli in the calf small intestine immediately postpartum compared with that of FC and NC. The increased colonization of beneficial bacteria along with the decreased colonization of potential pathogens in calf gut may also diminish the neonatal calf diarrhea when calves are fed heat-treated colostrum soon after birth.

  17. Pathogenetic differences after experimental infection of calves with Korean non-cytopathic BVDV-1 and BVDV-2 isolates. (United States)

    Seong, Giyong; Oem, Jae-Ku; Choi, Kyoung-Seong


    The purpose of this study was to compare clinical and virological differences between non-cytopathic (ncp) bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV)-1 and ncp BVDV-2 isolated from Korean field cases. Each five naïve calves were experimentally infected with Korean ncp BVDV-1 or BVDV-2 isolates. Two additional age-matched animals were used as uninfected controls. Leukocyte, lymphocyte, and platelet counts declined in all infected calves, but were significantly lower and remained decreased longer in calves infected with ncp BVDV-2 isolate. The number of monocytes was greater in calves infected with ncp BVDV-2. Flow cytometric assay showed that lymphocyte apoptosis occurred with an increase of annexin-V positive cells in all infected calves by day 6. Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) concentration in all infected calves was lower than in control calves. In ncp BVDV-1 infected calves, interferon gamma (IFN-γ) levels in the serum were increased by day 6 compared to calves infected with ncp BVDV-2. These results demonstrated that the Korean ncp BVDV-2 isolate shows a reduced IFN-γ production, indicating prevention of the antiviral activity, and therefore promotes the development of pathological effects.

  18. Systemic acute phase proteins response in calves experimentally infected with Eimeria zuernii. (United States)

    Lassen, Brian; Bangoura, Berit; Lepik, Triin; Orro, Toomas


    Acute phase proteins (APPs) have been demonstrated to be useful in evaluating general health stress and diseases in cattle. Serum amyloid A (SAA) and haptoglobin (Hp) are APPs that are produced during inflammation, and likely play a role in host immunological defence against Eimeria infection and the associated intestinal tissue damage. We investigated the involvement of SAA and HP in an experimental study, including three groups of calves: a control group (group 0, n=11), and two groups infected with either 150,000 or 250,000 Eimeria zuernii oocysts (group 1 (n=11) and group 2 (n=12), respectively). The calves were monitored for 28 days and data was collected on oocyst excretion, faecal score, animal weight, and SAA and Hp serum concentrations. Generalized linear mixed models showed that the clinical symptoms, indicated by an increase in the number of oocysts in the faeces and severe diarrhoea, manifested at patency for group 1 and 2. Serum Hp and SAA levels also increased during this period. Hp appeared to be a more sensitive marker than SAA, and differences between groups 1 and 2 were observed only for Hp. Linear regression models showed a negative association between weight gain and Hp concentrations, calculated as the area under the curve (AUC) during the overall experimental period and the patency period. A similar result was seen for SAA only during the patency period. This result supports the assumption that reduced weight gain due to E. zuernii infection is an immunologically driven process that involves an increase in APPs. A random intercept regression model of oocyst shedding groups showed that calves shedding 1-500 oocysts had reduced concentrations of Hp, indicating that a different immunological reaction occurs during mild shedding of E. zuernii oocysts than during more intensive shedding. A similar model was used to examine associations between faecal scores and Hp concentrations for each group. Group 2 calves with haemorrhagic diarrhoea displayed


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    Amanat Ali, M. Fatahullah Khan and Muhmmad Ayaz


    Full Text Available Eight young male buffalo calves of Nili-Ravi breed, randomly divided into two groups A and B (4 animals in each with a mean initial body weight of 115.3 ± 12.4 and 117.0 ± 7.3 kg respectively, were used for this study. Three is nitrogenous and is energetic completely mixed rations based on untreated (UWSR, urea-treated (Ur- TWSR and ammonium bicarbonate treated (Am- TWSR wheat straw, were prepared. Treatment of chopped wheat straw in mud houses with either urea or ammonium bicarbonate increased its crude protein content tom 3.2 (untreated to 8.7 and 9.5% (for treated respectively. The feeding trials were conducted in the 2 phases. During the Fist phase, the animals were fed Ur- TWSR and Am- TWSR for a period of 63 days. In the 2nd phase UWSR and Ur- TWSR were compared for a period of 76 days. At the end of each experimental phase a digestion trial was conducted. The results indicated that the animals fed Ur- TWSR showed the best average daily live weight gain (0.72 kg as compared to both the UWSR (0.59 kg and Am- TWSR (0.41 kg. The performance of the animals on Am- TWSR was the poorest. No significant differences were observed in the average daily teed intake of animals fed UWSR and Ur- TWSR. The animals fed Am- TWSR consumed; significantly (P <0.05 less feed as compared to UWSR and Ur- TWSR. The best feed conversion ratio was observed for the Ur- TWSR. The apparent digestibility coefficients for dry matter, crude protein, crude fibre and ether extract measured by total collection method indicated that Ur- TWSR was significantly (P<0.05 better digestible as compared to other rations. The cost per kg live weight gain in animals fed Ur- TWSR was significantly (P <0.05 less as compared to other rations. It is concluded that buffalo calves can efficiently and. economically be raised on completely mixed urea treated wheat straw based rations.

  20. Experimental inoculation of calves with atypical Hobi-like pestivirus shows pattern similar to BVDV-1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larska, Magdalena; Polak, Mirosław P.; Uttenthal, Åse;

    of experimental inoculation of European cattle with atypical pestivirus. The experiment included 4 groups of 5 calves each inoculated with: BVDV-1 (Ho916), Hobi-like pestivirus (Th/04_KhonKaen), a mixture of both viruses or EaglesMEM (control animals). Th/04_KhonKaen induced milder clinical signs than observed......, lymphocytes and granulocytes in blood on PID 2 correlated to the onset of viraemia. Animals started to seroconvert on PID 14, however the level of anti- Th/04_KhonKaen antibodies was significantly lower that the level of anti-BVDV-1 antibodies, probably due to the specificity of the test used. The experiment...


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    G. P. Itkin


    Full Text Available Aim of our experimental study was evaluation of the first domestic implantable axial pump as a left ventricle assist device in calves. Materials and methods. 18 calves 90–120 days of age, weighing 95 ± 5 kg were exposed to implantation of an axial pump under the scheme «left ventricular – aorta» in paracorporeal and implantable in chest cavity versions. Two models of the pump were tested. Model 1 is a pump with cylindrical bearings and elongated straightener, model 2 had ball bearings and modified design of impeller and straightener. Results. In the first series (n = 12 the pump model 1 was tested. The duration of experiments was 4,9 ± 5,3 days, maximal duration was 16 days. The experiments were finalized due to intraoperation cardiac fibrillation (n = 3, uncrop- ped acute bleeding (n = 3, lowering of blood flow through the pump of 60 ± 15% (n = 6 because of thrombo- sis of the pump (n = 5 and outlet line (n = 1, in 3 cases of 5, combined with mechanical wear of bearings. In the second series (n = 6 the pump model 2 was tested. In 4 experiments of 6 the duration was 74,5 ± 29 days. One experiment was finalized due to intraoperation cardiac fibrillation. Another one experiment was finalized on 8 day as planned. In 5 experiments there was absence of either thrombosis or mechanical wear of bearings. Morphological and histological examination of the kidneys, liver and lungs in the 5 experiments of second series did not reveal the presence of zones of ischemia or thromboembolia. Conclusion. The results of the second series can be treaded as preclinical testing of the first domestic implantable axial pump as a left ventricle assist device in calves

  2. Effects of Varying Levels of Fungal (Arachniotus sp.) Treated Wheat Straw as an Ingredient of Total Mixed Ration on Growth Performance and Nutrient Digestibility in Nili Ravi Buffalo Calves. (United States)

    Shahzad, F; Abdullah, M; Chaudhry, A S; Bhatti, J A; Jabbar, M A; Ahmed, F; Mehmood, T; Asim, M; Ahmed, S; Kamran, Z; Irshad, I; Tahir, M N


    The study was carried out to explore the effects of replacing wheat straw with fungal treated wheat straw as an ingredient of total mixed ration (TMR) on the growth performance and nutrient digestibility in Nili Ravi buffalo male calves. Fungal treated wheat straw was prepared using Arachniotus sp. Four TMRs were formulated where wheat straw was replaced with 0 (TMR1), 33 (TMR2), 67 (TMR3), and 100% (TMR4) fungal treated wheat straw in TMR. All TMRs were iso-caloric and iso-nitrogenous. The experimental TMRs were randomly assigned to four groups of male calves (n = 6) according to completely randomized design and the experiment continued for four months. The calves fed TMR2 exhibited a significant improve in dry matter intake, average daily weight gain, feed conversion ratio and feed economics compared to other groups. The same group also showed higher digestibility of dry matter, crude protein, neutral-, and acid detergent fibers than those fed on other TMRs. It is concluded that TMR with 33% fungal-treated wheat straw replacement has a potential to give an enhanced growth performance and nutrient digestibility in male Nili Ravi buffalo calves.

  3. Virulent Properties of Russian Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus Strains in Experimentally Infected Calves

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    Alexander G. Glotov


    Full Text Available The results of experimental study of three noncytopathic and two cytopathic bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV strains isolated from cattle in the Siberian region and belonging to the type 1 (subtypes 1a, 1b, and 1d have been presented. All investigated strains caused the development of infectious process in the seronegative 4–6-month-old calves after aerosol challenge with the dose of 6 log10 TCID50. The greatest virulence had noncytopathic strain and cytopathic strain related to the subtypes 1d and 1b, respectively. All strains in infected calves caused some signs of moderate acute respiratory disease and diarrhea: depression 3–5 days postinfection (p.i., refusal to food, severe hyperthermia to 41.9°С, serous exudate discharges from the nasal cavity and eyes, transient diarrhea with blood, leukopenia (up to 2700 cells/mm3, and macroscopic changes in the respiratory organs and intestine. The infected animals recovered from 12 to 15 days p.i. and in 90% cases formed humoral immune response 25 days p.i. (antibody titers to BVDV: 1 : 4–1 : 16. Our results confirmed the presence of virulent BVDV1 strains and showed the need for researches on the molecular epidemiology of the disease, development of more effective diagnostic systems, and optimization of control programs with use of vaccines.

  4. Evaluation of radiology as a tool to diagnose pulmonic lesions in calves, for example prior to experimental infection studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tegtmeier, Conny; Arnbjerg, J.


    The aim of the study was to evaluate radiology as a technique to visualize pulmonary lesions in young calves, e.g. as a selection criterion for research animals in order to eliminate animals with lung lesions Drier to experimental studies of pneumonia. Five calves with acute clinical signs...... of pneumonia were included in a direct comparative study of radiological and post mortem findings. Also, a number of animals with no signs of pneumonia were included as controls. The study revealed good agreement between the radiological and post mortem findings. Thus, in conclusion, radiology should...

  5. Platelet aggregation responses and virus isolation from platelets in calves experimentally infected with type I or type II bovine viral diarrhea virus. (United States)

    Walz, P H; Bell, T G; Grooms, D L; Kaiser, L; Maes, R K; Baker, J C


    Altered platelet function has been reported in calves experimentally infected with type II bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV). The purpose of the present study was to further evaluate the ability of BVDV isolates to alter platelet function and to examine for the presence of a virus-platelet interaction during BVDV infection. Colostrum-deprived Holstein calves were obtained immediately after birth, housed in isolation, and assigned to 1 of 4 groups (1 control and 3 treatment groups). Control calves (n = 4) were sham inoculated, while calves in the infected groups (n = 4 for each group) were inoculated by intranasal instillation with 10(7) TCID50 of either BVDV 890 (type II), BVDV 7937 (type II), or BVDV TGAN (type I). Whole blood was collected prior to inoculation (day 0) and on days 4, 6, 8, 10, and 12 after inoculation for platelet function testing by optical aggregometry by using adenosine diphosphate and platelet activating factor. The maximum percentage aggregation and the slope of the aggregation curve decreased over time in BVDV-infected calves; however, statistically significant differences (Freidman repeated measures ANOVA on ranks, P infected with the type II BVDV isolates. Bovine viral diarrhea virus was not isolated from control calves, but was isolated from all calves infected with both type II BVDV isolates from days 4 through 12 after inoculation. In calves infected with type I BVDV, virus was isolated from 1 of 4 calves on days 4 and 12 after inoculation and from all calves on days 6 and 8 after inoculation. Altered platelet function was observed in calves infected with both type II BVDV isolates, but was not observed in calves infected with type I BVDV. Altered platelet function may be important as a difference in virulence between type I and type II BVDV infection.

  6. Genu valgum in Legg-Calvé-Perthes disease treated with femoral varus osteotomy. (United States)

    Glard, Yann; Katchburian, Marcos V; Jacquemier, Michel; Guillaume, Jean-Marc; Bollini, Gérard


    Femoral varus osteotomy is one of the most common treatments for patients with symptomatic Legg-Calvé-Perthes disease with more severe deformities. We hypothesized knee valgus alignment at maturity in patients with Legg-Calvé-Perthes disease is an effect of the disease and not an effect of femoral varus osteotomy. We retrospectively compared matched groups of 28 patients with and without femoral varus osteotomy. The two groups were similar with respect to age at onset and classification of Herring et al. The distribution of valgus alignment among patients who had surgery and patients who did not have surgery was assessed at maturity and was similar between the operative and nonoperative groups. The data suggest valgus malalignment (genu valgum) is not a side effect of femoral varus osteotomy in patients with Legg-Calvé-Perthes disease, but rather an effect of the disease. Level III, prognostic study. See the Guidelines for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.

  7. Hot topic: investigating the risk of violative meat residues in bob veal calves fed colostrum from cows treated at dry-off with cephapirin benzathine. (United States)

    Hausler, K; Godden, S M; Schneider, M J; Lightfield, A R; Bulthaus, M; Haines, D


    The objective was to conduct a study to investigate if violative meat residues are detected in very young bob veal calves that are fed first-milking colostrum harvested from cows that were dry treated, on-label, with cephapirin benzathine. First-milking colostrum was collected from cows that were given intramammary treatment at dry off, on-label, with cephapirin benzathine (ToMORROW, Boehringer Ingelheim Vetmedica Inc., St. Joseph, MO). Newborn bull calves meeting study inclusion criteria were removed from their dams shortly after birth and before suckling, and assigned to 1 of 2 trials. For the first trial, 6 treated calves were fed 3.8L of fresh maternal colostrum and 1 control calf was fed 1.5 doses of a plasma-derived colostrum replacer (Secure Calf Colostrum Replacer, VitaPlus Inc., Madison, WI) within 1h after birth. For the second trial, 5 treated calves were fed 3.8L of fresh maternal colostrum and 1 control calf was fed 1.5 doses of Secure Calf Colostrum Replacer within 1h after birth. All calves were humanely euthanized at 24h (trial 1) or 48h (trial 2) of age, and tissues were harvested for antimicrobial residue testing. Samples of maternal colostrum and colostrum replacer were also submitted for antimicrobial residue testing. Kidneys collected from all study calves tested negative for cephapirin benzathine residues when using both the KIS assay (Charm Sciences, Lawrence, MA) and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry analysis. The potential transfer of cephapirin from cows treated on-label at dry off to calves via colostrum may not be a significant source of cephapirin residues in veal tissues.

  8. Mechanisms controlling the oxygen consumption in experimentally induced hypochloremic alkalosis in calves. (United States)

    Cambier, Carole; Clerbaux, Thierry; Amory, Hélène; Detry, Bruno; Florquin, Sandra; Marville, Vincent; Frans, Albert; Gustin, Pascal


    . It may be concluded that, despite reduced oxygen delivery, oxygen consumption is maintained during experimentally induced hypochloremic alkalosis in healthy 10-30 day old calves.

  9. Heat-treated (in single aliquot or batch) colostrum outperforms non-heat-treated colostrum in terms of quality and transfer of immunoglobulin G in neonatal Jersey calves. (United States)

    Kryzer, A A; Godden, S M; Schell, R


    The objective of this randomized clinical trial was to describe the effect on colostrum characteristics and passive transfer of IgG in neonatal calves when using the Perfect Udder colostrum management system (single-aliquot treatment; Dairy Tech Inc., Greeley, CO) compared with a negative control (fresh refrigerated or fresh frozen colostrum) and a positive control (batch heat-treated colostrum). First-milking Jersey colostrum was pooled to achieve 31 unique batches with a minimum of 22.8 L per batch. The batch was then divided into 4 with 3.8 L allocated to each treatment group: (1) heat-treated in Perfect Udder bag at 60°C for 60 min and then stored at -20°C (PU); (2) heat-treated in a batch pasteurizer (Dairy Tech Inc.) at 60°C for 60 min and then stored at -20°C in Perfect Udder bag (DTB; positive control); (3) fresh frozen colostrum stored at -20°C in Perfect Udder bag (FF; negative control); and (4) fresh refrigerated colostrum stored at 4°C in Perfect Udder bag (FR; negative control). Colostrum from all treatments was sampled for analysis of IgG concentration and bacterial culture immediately after batch assembly, after processing, and before feeding. Newborn Jersey calves were randomly assigned to be fed 3.8 L of colostrum from 1 of the 4 treatment groups. A prefeeding, 0-h blood sample was collected, calves were fed by esophageal tube within 2 h of birth, and then a 24-h postfeeding blood sample was collected. Paired serum samples from 0- and 24-h blood samples were analyzed for IgG concentration (mg/mL) using radial immunodiffusion analysis. The overall mean IgG concentration in colostrum was 77.9 g/L and was not affected by treatment. Prefeeding total plate counts (log10 cfu/mL) were significantly different for all 4 treatments and were lower for heat-treated colostrum (PU=4.23, DTB=3.63) compared with fresh colostrum (FF=5.68, FR=6.53). Total coliform counts (log10 cfu/mL) were also significantly different for all 4 treatments and were lower for

  10. Efficacy of Bdellovibrio bacteriovorus 109J for the treatment of dairy calves with experimentally induced infectious bovine keratoconjunctivitis. (United States)

    Boileau, Mélanie J; Mani, Rinosh; Breshears, Melanie A; Gilmour, Margi; Taylor, Jared D; Clinkenbeard, Kenneth D


    OBJECTIVE To determine the efficacy of Bdellovibrio bacteriovorus 109J for the treatment of calves with experimentally induced infectious bovine keratoconjunctivitis (IBK). ANIMALS 12 healthy dairy calves. PROCEDURES For each calf, a grid keratotomy was performed on both eyes immediately before inoculation with Moraxella bovis hemolytic strain Epp63-300 (n = 11 calves) or nonhemolytic strain 12040577 (1 calf). For each calf inoculated with M bovis Epp63-300, the eyes were randomly assigned to receive an artificial tear solution with (treatment group) or without (control group) lyophilized B bacteriovorus 109J. Six doses of the assigned treatment (0.2 mL/eye, topically, q 48 h) were administered to each eye. On nontreatment days, eyes were assessed and corneal swab specimens and tear samples were collected for bacterial culture. Calves were euthanized 12 days after M bovis inoculation. The eyes were harvested for gross and histologic evaluation and bacterial culture. RESULTS The calf inoculated with M bovis 12040577 did not develop corneal ulcers. Of the 22 eyes inoculated with M bovis Epp63-300, 18 developed corneal ulcers consistent with IBK within 48 hours after inoculation; 4 of those eyes developed secondary corneal ulcers that were not consistent with IBK. Corneal ulcer size and severity and the time required for ulcer healing did not differ between the treatment and control groups. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results suggested that B bacteriovorus 109J was not effective for the treatment of IBK; however, the experimental model used produced lesions that did not completely mimic naturally occurring IBK.

  11. Pathology of experimental infection by Pasteurella multocida serotype A: 1 in buffalo calves. (United States)

    Praveena, P E; Periasamy, S; Kumar, A A; Singh, N


    Pasteurella multocida serotype A:3 has been mostly implicated in pneumonic pasteurellosis in ruminants. In contrast, our previous studies have reported that both serotypes A:1 and A:3 were responsible for respiratory diseases in cattle and buffaloes. However, the pathology and pathogenesis of P. multocida serotype A:1 (Pm A:1) infection have not been studied in ruminants. In the present study, 12- to 15-week-old buffalo calves (Bubalus bubalis) infected by Pm A:1 had fibrinous and suppurative bronchopneumonia with focal areas of coagulation necrosis typical of pneumonic pasteurellosis. For the first time, this study reports the lung pathology and pathogenecity of Pm A:1 infection in calves.

  12. Heat-treated colostrum and reduced morbidity in preweaned dairy calves: results of a randomized trial and examination of mechanisms of effectiveness (United States)

    A randomized controlled clinical trial was conducted using 1071 newborn calves from six commercial dairy farms in Minnesota and Wisconsin, with the primary objective being to describe the effects of feeding heat-treated colostrum on serum immunoglobulin G concentration and health in the preweaning p...

  13. Hot study: Investigating the risk for violative meat residues in bob veal calves fed colostrum from cows treated at dry-off with cephapirin benzathine (United States)

    The objective was to complete a pilot study to investigate if violative meat residues are detected in very young bob veal calves that are fed first milking colostrum harvested from cows that were dry treated, on label, with cephapirin benzathine. First milking colostrum was collected from cows that...

  14. Initial lung lesions in two calves experimentally infected with Haemophilus somnus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tegtmeier, Conny; Bloch, B.; Jensen, N.E.


    The initial lung lesions in two calves intrabronchially inoculated with Haemophilus somnus are described. The animals were euthanized wit hin 7 h after challenge. The in situ location of H. somnus and accompanying lesions were examined by light microscopy, immunohistochemistry and transmission...

  15. Trenbolone residue in tissues and urine of Onggole male calves treated with acetate trenbolone implant

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    R Widiastuti


    Full Text Available Trenbolone acetate (TBA is a hormone being permitted to be used as growth promoters for livestocks in several meat-exporting countries. The presence of trenbolone residu in animal products might affect human health. The purpose of this study was to determine the distribution of trenbolone residue (TBA dan 17 ß-trenbolone in tissues and urine of Onggole male calves. The implantation of 200 mg TBA as Finaplix-H® was done subcutaneously on the back side of the medial part of ear. Urine were collected periodically until 21 days post implantation. The animals were terminated on the day 21st post implantation. Urine, meat and organs were analysed for trenbolone residues. The results showed that TBA residues were detected in tissues of inner and surrounding areas of the implantation sites and liver with an average concentration of 11 ng/g, 2,1 ng/g and 1,6 ng/g respectively. The 17 ß-trenbolone residue was only detected in tissue of inner area of the implantation site at the average concentration of 8,2 ng/g. Meanwhile, none of the residues were detected in urine.

  16. Experimental Infection of Calves by Two Genetically-Distinct Strains of Rift Valley Fever Virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William C. Wilson


    Full Text Available Recent outbreaks of Rift Valley fever in ruminant livestock, characterized by mass abortion and high mortality rates in neonates, have raised international interest in improving vaccine control strategies. Previously, we developed a reliable challenge model for sheep that improves the evaluation of existing and novel vaccines in sheep. This sheep model demonstrated differences in the pathogenesis of Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV infection between two genetically-distinct wild-type strains of the virus, Saudi Arabia 2001 (SA01 and Kenya 2006 (Ken06. Here, we evaluated the pathogenicity of these two RVFV strains in mixed breed beef calves. There was a transient increase in rectal temperatures with both virus strains, but this clinical sign was less consistent than previously reported with sheep. Three of the five Ken06-infected animals had an early-onset viremia, one day post-infection (dpi, with viremia lasting at least three days. The same number of SA01-infected animals developed viremia at 2 dpi, but it only persisted through 3 dpi in one animal. The average virus titer for the SA01-infected calves was 1.6 logs less than for the Ken06-infected calves. Calves, inoculated with either strain, seroconverted by 5 dpi and showed time-dependent increases in their virus-neutralizing antibody titers. Consistent with the results obtained in the previous sheep study, elevated liver enzyme levels, more severe liver pathology and higher virus titers occurred with the Ken06 strain as compared to the SA01 strain. These results demonstrate the establishment of a virulent challenge model for vaccine evaluation in calves.

  17. Experimental Infection of Calves by Two Genetically-Distinct Strains of Rift Valley Fever Virus. (United States)

    Wilson, William C; Davis, A Sally; Gaudreault, Natasha N; Faburay, Bonto; Trujillo, Jessie D; Shivanna, Vinay; Sunwoo, Sun Young; Balogh, Aaron; Endalew, Abaineh; Ma, Wenjun; Drolet, Barbara S; Ruder, Mark G; Morozov, Igor; McVey, D Scott; Richt, Juergen A


    Recent outbreaks of Rift Valley fever in ruminant livestock, characterized by mass abortion and high mortality rates in neonates, have raised international interest in improving vaccine control strategies. Previously, we developed a reliable challenge model for sheep that improves the evaluation of existing and novel vaccines in sheep. This sheep model demonstrated differences in the pathogenesis of Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) infection between two genetically-distinct wild-type strains of the virus, Saudi Arabia 2001 (SA01) and Kenya 2006 (Ken06). Here, we evaluated the pathogenicity of these two RVFV strains in mixed breed beef calves. There was a transient increase in rectal temperatures with both virus strains, but this clinical sign was less consistent than previously reported with sheep. Three of the five Ken06-infected animals had an early-onset viremia, one day post-infection (dpi), with viremia lasting at least three days. The same number of SA01-infected animals developed viremia at 2 dpi, but it only persisted through 3 dpi in one animal. The average virus titer for the SA01-infected calves was 1.6 logs less than for the Ken06-infected calves. Calves, inoculated with either strain, seroconverted by 5 dpi and showed time-dependent increases in their virus-neutralizing antibody titers. Consistent with the results obtained in the previous sheep study, elevated liver enzyme levels, more severe liver pathology and higher virus titers occurred with the Ken06 strain as compared to the SA01 strain. These results demonstrate the establishment of a virulent challenge model for vaccine evaluation in calves.

  18. An experimental infection model for reproduction of calf pneumonia with bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV) based on one combined exposure of calves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tjørnehøj, Kirsten; Uttenthal, Åse; Viuff, B.


    temperature and 83% exhibited >5%, consolidation of the lung tissue. The disease closely resembled natural outbreaks of BRSV-related pneumonia, and detection of BRSV in nasal secretions and lung tissues confirmed the primary role of BRSV. Nine mock-inoculated control calves failed to develop respiratory...... experimental infection model for BRSV in 2-5-month-old, conventionally reared Jersey calves. Thirty-four colostrum-fed calves were inoculated once by aerosol and intratracheal injection with BRSV. Respiratory disease was recorded in 91% of the BRSV-inoculated calves, 72% had an accompanying rise in rectal...... disease. This model is a valuable tool for the study of the pathogenesis of BRSV and for vaccine efficacy studies....

  19. Experimental infection of calves and sheep with Leptospira interrogans serovar balcanica. (United States)

    Durfee, P T; Presidente, P J


    Two of four calves inoculated with Leptospira interrogans serovar balcanica developed low microscopic agglutinating (MA) titres to serovar hardjo. A third calf had an MA titre of 1:1024 by day 19 post-inoculation (PI). Transient leptospiruria was recorded in one calf on days 12 and 13 PI. An in-contact calf did not seroconvert. None of the calves had fever or other clinical signs of disease. Four ewes inoculated with balcanica developed MA titres to hardjo by day 13 PI, and a transient leptospiruria between days 14 and 25 PI. None of the ewes showed any evidence of clinical disease and three of them delivered healthy lambs 22 to 64 days PI. One ewe had mild lesions of focal interstitial nephritis.

  20. Marked induction of IL-6, haptoglobin and IFN gamma following experimental BRSV infection in young calves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grell, Susanne Nedergaard; Tjørnehøj, Kirsten; Larsen, Lars Erik


    Bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV) has been identified worldwide as an important pathogen associated with acute respiratory disease in calves. An infection model has been developed reflecting accurately the clinical course and die, development of pathological signs during a natural BRSV-in...... that early mediators connected with the innate responses are induced on a first encounter with the pathogen. but not on a second encounter (reinfection) where the adaptive immune system may act as the first line defence....

  1. Weight development and survival rate of reindeer calves treated against Oedemagena tarandi L and Cephenemyia trompe L

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    Endre Persen


    Full Text Available Three trials with treatment of reindeer warbles are carried out. All treated groups were injected intramuscularly with Warbex (35%, American Cyanamid, dosage 10 mg active ingredient/10 kg live weight. In total 911 calves and 403 adult females were included in the experiments. All animals were individually marked with plastic eartags. The trials tried to give answers as to the effect of treatment on: a weight development during winter, b weight development to the normal age of slaughter (18 months and c loss rate during winter. One trial deals with the effect of weight loss during winter by different date of treatment. All studies are undertaken within sex. Generelly the trials show that treated animals lost more weight during winter than untreated. There was found significant higher weight loss for treated female calves (0.7 kg, p=0.005 in the period January 13. — April 28. in trial I and for male calves (0.8 kg, p=0.01 in the period February 14. — April 4. in trial II. There is a trend that treatment increases the slaughter weight. A significant higher increase in the slaughter weight (0.8 kg, p=0.05 of treated male calves was found in trial III. No effect was found by treatment in the loss of animals in winter. The calves lossed during winter had a significant lower live weight at the start of the trial compared to those which survived. In the period February 14. — April 4. there was a higher weight loss in the male calves which were treated on February 14. compared to those treated on November 27. (0.5 kg, p=0.01. Forsøk med behandling av reinkalver mot reinbremslarver (Oedemagena tarandi L og Cephenemyia trompe L.Effekt på kalvens kondisjon målt ved levende vekt og overlevingsevne.Abstract in Norwegian / Sammendrag: Det er utført tre forsøk med behandling av rein mot reinbremselarver (Oedemagena tarandi L. og Cephenemyia trompe L.. I alle forsøk er brukt intramuskulær injeksjon av Warbex (Am. Cyanamid 35% med dosering 30 mg

  2. Oxidation of nutrients in bull calves treated with beta-adrenergic agonists

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chwalibog, André; Jensen, K; Thorbek, G


    Oxidation of protein (OXP), carbohydrate (OXCHO) and fat (OXF) was investigated with 12 growing bulls treated with beta-agonist (L-644, 969) during two 6 weeks trials (Section A and B) at a mean live weight of 195 and 335 kg. Heat production and nutrient oxidation was calculated from gas exchange......, with CO2 reduced for CO2 from fermentation processes, and nitrogen excretion in urine. The beta-agonist had no effect on the level of rumen fermentation as indicated by the same methane production for control and treated animals. Heat Production (HE, RQx) increased by the treatment of beta......-agonist corresponding to the increment in the protein retention. OXP/HE,RQx was reduced to about 10% in treated animals, indicating that in order to supply amino acids for an increased protein deposition oxidation of protein is decreased. OXF/HE,RQx were markedly higher in treated animals, but as indicated by the same...

  3. Feeding heat-treated colostrum reduces morbidity in preweaned dairy calves (United States)

    Previous studies have demonstrated that batch pasteurizers can be used on farms to heat-treat bovine colostrum at 60ºC for 60 minutes, resulting in a significant reduction in bacterial exposure to the calf while maintaining overall colostral Immunoglobulin G (IgG) concentrations. However, studies h...

  4. Quantitative protein and fat metabolism in bull calves treated with beta-adrenergic agonist

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chwalibog, André; Jensen, K; Thorbek, G


    Protein and energy utilization and quantitative retention of protein, fat and energy was investigated with 12 Red Danish bulls during two subsequent 6 weeks trials (Sections A and B) at a mean live weight of 195 and 335 kg respectively. Treatments were control (Group 1) and beta-agonist (L-644...... matter, metabolizable energy and digestible protein was of the same magnitude for all groups. The beta-agonist had no significant effect on protein digestibility and metabolizability of energy, but daily live weight gain was significantly higher in the treated bulls. The utilization of digested protein...... was strongly influenced by treatment, with the highest values for Group 2 in both sections. The protein retention increased with 25% in Group 2, with the highest increment of 113 g/d in Section B. The fat retention decreased in treated animals, most pronounced in Group 3, where the reduction was about 50...

  5. Histopathological, immunohistochemical, and molecular study of BHV-5 infection in the central nervous system of experimentally infected calves

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    Didier Q. Cagnini


    Full Text Available Bovine meningoencephalitis caused by BHV-5, a double-stranded DNA enveloped virus that belongs to the family Herpesviridae and subfamily Alphaherpesvirinae, is an important differential diagnosis of central nervous diseases. The aim of this study was to describe the histological changes in the central nervous system of calves experimentally infected with BHV-5 and compare these changes with the PCR and IHC results. Formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded central nervous system samples from calves previously inoculated with BHV-5 were microscopically evaluated and tested using IHC and PCR. All the animals presented with nonsuppurative meningoencephalitis. From 18 evaluated areas of each calf, 32.41% and 35.19% were positive by IHC and PCR, respectively. The telencephalon presented more accentuated lesions and positive areas in the PCR than other encephalic areas and was the best sampling area for diagnostic purposes. Positive areas in the IHC and PCR were more injured than IHC and PCR negative areas. The animal with neurological signs showed more PCR- and IHC-positive areas than the other animals.

  6. Lesions and distribution of viral antigen following an experimental infection of young seronegative calves with virulent bovine virus diarrhea virus-type II. (United States)

    Ellis, J A; West, K H; Cortese, V S; Myers, S L; Carman, S; Martin, K M; Haines, D M


    During the past several years, acute infections with bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) have been causally linked to hemorrhagic and acute mucosal disease-like syndromes with high mortality. The majority of BVDVs isolated in such cases have been classified as type II on the basis of genetic and antigenic characteristics. It was our objective to examine clinical disease, lesions and potential sites of viral replication, following experimental BVDV type II infection in young calves. On approximately day 35 after birth, calves that had received BVDV-antibody-negative colostrum were infected by intranasal inoculation of 5 x 10(5) TCID50 of BVDV type II isolate 24,515 in 5 mL of tissue culture fluid (2.5 mL/nostril). Calves were monitored twice daily for signs of clinical disease. Approximately 48-72 h after infection, all calves developed transient pyrexia (39.4-40.5 degrees C) and leukopenia. Beginning on approximately day 7 after infection, all calves developed watery diarrhea, pyrexia (40.5-41.6 degrees C), marked leukopenia (> or = 75% drop from preinoculation values), variable thrombocytopenia, and moderate to severe depression. Calves were euthanized on days 10, 11, or 12 after infection due to severe disease. Gross and histological lesions consisted of multifocal bronchointerstitial pneumonia (involving 10%-25% of affected lungs), bone marrow hypoplasia and necrosis, and minimal erosive lesions in the alimentary tract. Immunohistochemical staining for BVDV revealed widespread viral antigen usually within epithelial cells, smooth muscle cells and mononuclear phagocytes in multiple organs, including lung, Peyer's patches, gastric mucosa, thymus, adrenal gland, spleen, lymph nodes, bone marrow, and skin. This BVDV type II isolate caused rapidly progressive, severe multisystemic disease in seronegative calves that was associated with widespread distribution of viral antigen and few gross or histological inflammatory lesions.

  7. Experimental induction of abdominal tympany, abomasitis, and abomasal ulceration by intraruminal inoculation of Clostridium perfringens type A in neonatal calves. (United States)

    Roeder, B L; Chengappa, M M; Nagaraja, T G; Avery, T B; Kennedy, G A


    The etiologic role of Clostridum perfringens type A in the acute abdominal syndrome characterized by abomasal and rumen tympany, abomasitis, and abomasal ulceration was investigated in neonatal calves. Eight calves, 4 to 12 days old, were inoculated intraruminally with toxigenic C perfringens type A. Before and after C perfringens inoculation, blood samples were collected from all calves for blood gas and serum biochemical analysis and for determination of serum copper concentration; ruminal fluid was obtained for isolation of C perfringens. Calves were monitored daily for clinical signs of the syndrome and, depending on the severity of clinical signs, they were either euthanatized or redosed within 4 to 7 days. After necropsy, specimens obtained from the abomasum and rumen for macroscopic and microscopic examination and for anaerobic bacteriologic culture were processed in routine manner. Intraruminal inoculation of C perfringens type A into healthy calves induced anorexia, depression, bloat, diarrhea, and in some calves, death. Serum copper concentration was within normal range. Necropsy revealed variable degrees of abomasitis, petechial and ecchymotic hemorrhages, and ulcers (ranging from pinpoint to nearly perforate) in the abomasum. Seven of those calves also had multiple trichobezoars in the rumen. These necropsy findings were not seen in calves (controls) given distilled H2O only. In affected calves, acute abdominal syndrome was unrelated to copper deficiency, and C perfringens type A given intraruminally was able to induce clinical signs similar to those of the naturally acquired disease.

  8. Tight junction gene expression in gastrointestinal tract of dairy calves with coccidiosis and treated with glucagon-like peptide-2 (United States)

    Selective permeability of the intestinal epithelium and efficient nutrient absorption are important functions for proper growth and development of calves. Damage to the intestinal mucosa can give rise to harmful long-term health effects and reduce productivity of the mature animal. Tight junction pr...

  9. The effects of partial replacement of soybean meal by xylose-treated soybean meal in the starter concentrate on performance, health status, and blood metabolites of Holstein calves

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    Mehdi Kazemi-Bonchenari


    Full Text Available The objective was to study the effects of partial replacement of soybean meal (SBM with xylose-treated SBM (XSBM as a source of rumen undegradable protein (RUP in the starter concentrate of calves on performance, health status and selected blood metabolites. Twenty-one female Holstein dairy calves (body weight=39.6±2.3 kg were randomly assigned to 3 groups (n=7 each: i starter concentrate with 25% SBM [control (CTR]; ii starter concentrate with 17.5% SBM +7.5% XSBM (7.5XSBM; and iii starter concentrate with 12.5% SBM+12.5% XSBM (12.5XSBM. Calves received 2 L of milk twice daily, with ad libitum access to starter concentrates from d 4 until weaning (d 56. Performance and health status were recorded throughout the experiment. Blood samples collected on d 4, 35 and 56 were assayed for concentrations of glucose, total protein (TP, and plasma urea nitrogen (PUN. Starter intake (560, 400, and 420 g/d for CTR, 7.5XSBM, and 12.5XSBM, respectively, average daily gain (0.67, 0.6 and 0.57 kg/d, and feed to gain ratio (0.83, 0.67, and 0.74 were affected by treatments (P<0.05. Hearth girth, height at withers, body length, rectal temperature, faecal score, and respiratory score did not differ among treatments. Mean plasma glucose and TP were not affected by treatments, whereas PUN in the 12.5XSBM group was lower than in the other groups (P<0.05. In conclusion, the present results showed that partial replacement of SBM by XSBM may improve efficiency of dietary protein utilisation in pre-weaned calves, which warrants further studies.

  10. Efficacy of florfenicol and intravenous fluid therapy for treatment of experimental salmonellosis in newborn calves Eficácia do florfenicol e da fluidoterapia parenteral no tratamento da salmonelose experimental em bezerros neonatos

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    D.G. Silva


    Full Text Available The efficacy of florfenicol associated or not to intravenous fluid therapy for treatment of Salmonella Dublin-infected calves was determined. Twenty-four healthy 10 to 15-day-old Holstein calves were randomly allotted into four groups, with six animals each: control (group 1; infected with 10(8CFU Salmonella Dublin and not treated (group 2; infected with 10(8CFU Salmonella Dublin and treated with florfenicol (group 3; and infected with 10(8CFU Salmonella Dublin and treated with florfenicol associated to fluid therapy (group 4. All animals were submitted to physical examination just before inoculation and every 24 hours, during seven days after experimental infection. Rectal swabs and blood samples were collected for Salmonella Dublin isolation and pH and blood electrolytes determination. The experimental infection with Salmonella Dublin induced clinical signs of salmonellosis, such as diarrhea and fever, and caused reduction in blood concentrations of pH, sodium, potassium and chlorides. The treated calves showed good clinical recovery, and the group treated with antibiotic in combination to fluid therapy presented a faster and more efficient correction of the hydro-electrolyte balance.Avaliou-se a eficácia terapêutica do florfenicol associado ou não à fluidoterapia intravenosa no tratamento de bezerros infectados experimentalmente com Salmonella Dublin. Foram utilizados 24 bezerros sadios da raça Holandesa com 10 a 15 dias de idade, distribuídos aleatoriamente em quatro grupos experimentais, constituídos por seis animais cada: controle (grupo 1; infectado com 10(8UFC de Salmonella Dublin e não tratado (grupo 2; infectado com 10(8UFC de Salmonella Dublin e tratado com florfenicol (grupo 3; e infectado com 10(8UFC de Salmonella Dublin (grupo 4 e tratado com florfenicol associado à fluidoterapia. Todos os animais foram submetidos ao exame físico logo antes da inoculação e a cada 24 horas, durante sete dias após a infec


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. T. Javed, A. Khan, Abid Hussain and Babar Niaz


    Full Text Available The study was conducted on 24 calves of one week-age, randomly divided into four groups, of six calves each. First three groups were experimentally infected with E. coli and given treatment in various combinations, while group four was taken as uninfected untreated control. Results obtained on different parameters were, green to yellow-white diarrhoea with variable consistency from watery to semisolid. Generally in all groups during first two days, calves passed faeces around 6-10 times a day and this frequency lowered in about 2-4 days. During first 3-4 days of treatment, all calves appeared weak, dull, depressed with cold skin and wetness of the muzzle, while oral mucosa was pale and eyes were sunken. Overall mean respiration rate of treatment groups was slower (P<0.05 than control group. However, pulse rate showed no difference between treatment and control group. Overall mean rectal temperature was lower (P<0.05 in calves treated with antibiotic alone and with antibiotic + electrolytes, while body weight was higher (P<0.05 in calves treated with antibiotic but was lower along with creatinine (P<0.05 in calves treated with antibiotic + electrolytes and those treated with electrolytes alone.

  12. Temporal dynamics of 'HoBi'-like pestivirus quasispecies in persistently infected calves generated under experimental conditions. (United States)

    Weber, Matheus N; Bauermann, Fernando V; Canal, Cláudio W; Bayles, Darrell O; Neill, John D; Ridpath, Julia F


    'HoBi'-like virus is an atypical group within the Pestivirus genus that is implicated in economic losses for cattle producers due to both acute and persistent infections. Pestivirus strains exist as quasispecies (swarms of individual viruses) in infected animals and the viral populations making up the quasispecies differ widely in size and diversity in each animal. In the present study the viral quasispecies circulating in persistently infected (PI) calves, generated and maintained under experimental conditions using two different 'HoBi'-like strains, was observed over time. An increase in genetic variability and the development of certain mutations was observed over time. Mutations observed included the loss of a putative N-linked glycosylation site in the E2 region and the change of specific residues in E1/E2. It is hypothesized that these changes may be the results on continued adaption of the pestivirus to individual hosts. This is the first study characterizing variation in the viral swarms of animals persistently infected with HoBi-like viruses over time. Studies of the shifts in PI viral swarms will contribute to our understanding of the host and viral mechanisms that function in the maintenance of pestivirus persistent infections.

  13. Avaliação clínica da infecção experimental de bezerros com Salmonella Dublin Clinical evaluation of experimental Salmonella Dublin infection in calves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.G. Silva


    Full Text Available The clinical conditions of healthy calves infected with experimental 10(8CFU of Salmonella Dublin were evaluated and the viability of the experimental model in disease induction in calves was verified. Twelve 10 to 15-day-old male Holstein calves were examined. They were allocated into two groups, control and experimentally infected with 10(8CFU of Salmonella Dublin. Animals were submitted to clinical examination after inoculation and at every 12 hours, during seven days after the experimental infection. Samples of rectal swabs were collected for Salmonella Dublin isolation. All animals had severe diarrhea, with mucus and bleeding, 12 to 84 hours after the experimental infection with Salmonella Dublin, accompanied by fever, dehydration and respiratory signs. The isolation of Salmonella Dublin from rectal swabs occurred 12 hours after the infection. Two out of the six animals inoculated with Salmonella Dublin died with symptoms of enteritis, fibrinous pneumonia, centrilobular hepatic steatosis, hepatocyte necrosis, spleen congestion, interstitial nephritis, and tubular degeneration. Thus, the oral administration of 10(8CFU of Salmonella Dublin induced clinical signs of salmonellosis in 10 to 15-day-old calves.

  14. The effect of zeolite A supplementation in the dry period on blood mineral status around calving

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thilsing-Hansen, T; Jørgensen, R J; Enemark, J M


    This article summarizes the results obtained in 6 separate studies concerned with the effect of zeolite A supplementation in the dry period on blood calcium, magnesium and phosphorus status around calving. The experiments were conducted on 5 different farms, and comprised a total of 117 cows. Two...... of the experiments (exp. 5 and 6) were conducted under extensive farming conditions whereas the rest (exp. 1-4) were conducted on intensively driven farms. All cows included in the experiments had completed at least 2 lactations. The cows were allocated as either untreated control cows or zeolite treated...... experimental cows according to expected date of calving and parity. The experimental cows were fed between 0.5 and 1.0 kg of zeolite A per day during the last 2 to 4 weeks of the dry period. Blood samples were drawn on the day of calving and day one and two after calving (all experiments), three weeks before...

  15. Early Attachment Sites for Shiga-toxigenic Escherichia coli O157:H7 in Experimentally Inoculated Weaned Calves (United States)

    Weaned 3-to- 4-month-old calves were fasted 48 h, inoculated with 10**10 CFU of Shiga toxin-positive Escherichia coli (STEC) O157:H7 strain 86-24 (STEC O157) or STEC O91:H21 strain B2F1 (STEC O91), Shiga toxin-negative E. coli O157:H7 strain 87-23 (Stx**- O157), or non-pathogenic control E. coli, ne...

  16. Initial experience of use of an articulated external fixator in treating Legg-Calvé-Perthes disease by means of arthrodiastasis during the active phase of the disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Augusto Malheiros Luzo


    Full Text Available ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE: To present the preliminary results from treating patients with Legg-Calvé-Perthes Disease (LCPD by means of hip arthrodiastasis using a monolateral external fixator applied to the hip and to succinctly describe the surgical technique used, in a prospective study. METHODS: Prospective study on 18 patients with LCPD who underwent surgical treatment by means of the hip arthrodiastasis technique using a monolateral external fixator. There were 13 male and five female patients of mean age 8.5 years, ranging from five to 13 years. All the patients presented unilateral hip impairment: nine on the right side and nine on the left. The results were evaluated at maturity using clinical and radiological criteria. RESULTS: All the patients evolved with improvement of joint mobility, and pain relief was achieved in 88.9% of them. Reossification of the femoral epiphysis occurred within the first three months of the treatment. The hips operated at the necrosis stage of the disease did not passed through the fragmentation stage, thus shortening the evolution of the disease. The results were 77.8% satisfactory and 22.2% unsatisfactory. CONCLUSION: Hip arthrodiastasis with a monolateral external fixator during the active phase of LCPD improved the degree of joint mobility. Use of the arthrodiastasis technique at the necrosis stage or at the fragmentation stage (active phase of the disease presented satisfactory results from treatment of LCPD.

  17. Clinical and virological characteristics of calves experimentally infected with a Brazilian isolate of bovine viral diarrhea virus type 1a

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luana Marchi Quadros

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: To study the pathogenicity of the Brazilian bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV type 1a 241.10 isolate, four calves were intranasally inoculated with a viral suspension containing 107.2 TCID50 mL-1. One calf was left uninoculated and kept in contact with the other calves to investigate viral transmissibility. After inoculation, the animals were monitored daily for clinical signs of infection. The presence of the virus in the blood and nasal secretions was confirmed by virus isolation in cell culture. White blood cells were quantified prior to and every 3 days after infection, and the presence of antibodies was checked every 7 days, starting at day 0 until day 42 post-inoculation (pi. After infection, nasal and ocular serous secretions were observed between days 1 and 5 pi, along with a mild cough from days 2 to 4 pi; however, no severe clinical signs were present. Body temperature was slightly elevated between days 4 and 6 pi. The control calf did not develop any of the signs observed in the infected animals. Cell culture-mediated virus isolation confirmed viremia between days 4 and 8 pi and the presence of the virus in the nasal secretions between days 1 and 10 pi. All infected animals showed a decrease in white blood cell count. Antibodies could be detected from day 14 pi, and these levels remained high until day 35 pi. The control calf had no viremia, viral presence in nasal secretions, or positive serology, indicating the absence of viral transmission. Thus, isolate BVDV 1a 241.10 has low pathogenicity and transmissibility but retains immunosuppressive capacity.

  18. Early infection dynamics after experimental challenge with Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis in calves reveal limited calf-to-calf transmission and no impact of Hsp70 vaccination. (United States)

    Santema, Wiebren J; Poot, Jacqueline; Segers, Ruud P A M; Van den Hoff, Daniëlle J P; Rutten, Victor P M G; Koets, Ad P


    Efficient control of bovine paratuberculosis is hampered by lack of a vaccine. The purpose of this study was to evaluate efficacy of a candidate vaccine, consisting of recombinant Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP) Hsp70 with DDA adjuvant, in calves experimentally infected with MAP. Four groups of 14 animals each were used. Animals in group 1 and 2 were all vaccinated with Hsp70/DDA at day 0, 84, 168 and 357, and those in group 3 and 4 were non-vaccinated controls. In each group half (n=7) of the animals were challenged and the remaining half served as contacts. Blood and fecal samples were collected at three week intervals until day 588, and subsequently all animals were subjected to necropsy. The primary outcomes assessed were fecal culture (FC) of MAP, tissue colonization of MAP, and transmission of infection to contact animals. The kinetics of MAP shedding in feces of challenged animals showed a peak around 130 days post-challenge, irrespective of vaccination status. At necropsy no differences in the level of tissue colonization between vaccinated animals and controls were observed in the challenged groups. Only one contact animal (non-vaccinated) was positive at necropsy, indicating limited to no transmission within groups. These findings indicate that Hsp70/DDA vaccination does not influence early infection dynamics after experimental infection. However, early shedding of MAP in calves did not result in efficient transmission of infection to contact animals. The latter implies that introduction of an infected calf in a cohort of susceptibles has limited consequences for spread of infection.

  19. Ideas for Hypertensive Experimental Study Prevented and Treated by TCM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Hypertensive experimental studies prevented and treated by TCM are matured relevant studies of western medicine for reference, such as the hypotensive effect and elucidating its therapeutic mechanism. Comprehension in all literatures, most simple herbs and compound recipes show functions such as: Adjustment of renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS), like angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor (ACEI);

  20. Ideas for Hypertensive Experimental Study Prevented and Treated by TCM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    @@ Hypertensive experimental studies prevented and treated by TCM are matured relevant studies of western medicine for reference,such as the hypotensive effect and elucidating its therapeutic mechanism.Comprehension in all literatures, most simple herbs and compound recipes show functions such as: Adjustment of renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS), like angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor (ACEI);

  1. Accelerated Growth Programme with Polyherbal Formulations for Dairy Calves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available An experimental field study in approximately one month old, forty eight Jaffrabadi buffalo calves was carried out to evaluate efficacy of herbal formulations on growth & average daily gain. Calves were randomly divided into four groups, one control & three treatments. Treated groups were administered herbal formulations; Ruchamax, AV/DAC/16 @5gm/calf/day & Yakrifit @1 bolus/calf/day following treatment regimen of once a week per month for three consecutive months therapy. Growth related parameters were recorded for ninety days of experimental trial. It was observed that supplementation of herbal growth promoter & liver tonic products significantly improved liver function, feed assimilation & digestibility of ration ultimately leading to gain in body weight as compared to untreated control group. [Vet. World 2009; 2(2.000: 62-64

  2. Technical note: Ruminal cannulation technique in young Holstein calves:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Niels Bastian; Engbæk, Marie; Vestergaard, Mogens


    for effects on performance traits and gross anatomy of the gastrointestinal tract compared with a control group not undergoing surgery. Five calves were ruminally cannulated at approximately 10 d of age and 5 matching calves were used as controls. All calves were fed milk replacer and a diet based on clover...... grass silage and sodium hydroxide-treated wheat. Ruminal fluid was collected from cannulated calves once weekly for 3 consecutive weeks. All calves were euthanized at 43 ± 3 d of age. No apparent adverse effects of cannulation were observed. Feed intake, BW gain, and gross anatomy...

  3. [Progress of experimental research on treating Alzheimer's disease by acupuncture]. (United States)

    Liu, Yu-Jing; Fu, Yu


    To discuss the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD), we summarized the mechanisms of treating AD animal models by acupuncture from literatures in recent years as follows. Senile dementia rats' cognitive capabilities and memory could be improved by reduction of beta-amyloid protein, attenuation of excessive phosphorylation of tau protein, regulation of center neurotransmitter dysmetabolism, oxidation of anti-free radicals, reduction of neuron apoptosis in the cortex and the hippocampus, inhibition of glial cells' differentiation, adjustment of G protein signaling transduction, and improvement of the mitochondrial dysfunction, thus providing experimental evidence for treating AD by acupuncture.

  4. The Experimental Research of Growth Development in Yak Calves%牦牛犊生长发育的试验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Objective]Currently the production mode of yak still belongs to the basic traditional produc-tion mode,and production management is still in accordance with the extensive production systems,which is characterized with low input,low output,low consumption,long cycle,slow turnover.Thus,yak in-dustry production efficiency is still very low since it's difficult for the herdsman to scientifically make breeding management and culture on a large scale.Moreover,in the past,many factors involving in com-peting for milk between human and calves,squeezing milk in excess,led to insufficient intake of nutrition for calves,then it directly affected the production performance.In order to change the production mode of the extended down for a long time,this paper studied the growth conditions of yak calves after all breast-feeding.[Method]A total of 60 new-born calves were divided into 2 groups using random sampling meth-od,named experimental group and the control group,respectively.[Results]The results showed that the parameters of body height,body length,chest circumference,pipe circumference,weight were 79.74 cm, 86.84 cm,100.10 cm,1 1.68 cm,64.87 kg,respectively,when they were 6 months old.[Conclusion]The data statistical analysis showed significantly difference (P < 0.05).%[目的]目前牦牛生产仍然基本沿用传统的生产模式,生产管理仍是按照传统的低投入、低消耗、低产出、长周期、周转慢的粗放生产系统,牦牛业的生产效率仍然很低,由于牧民难以科学地和有规模地进行科学的饲养管理,早期由于人犊争奶、过度挤母乳,造成犊牛摄取营养不足,直接影响其生产性能的发挥。为了改变这一长期延用下来的生产模式,笔者就对牦牛犊进行全哺乳后的生长发育情况进行了试验研究。[方法]采用随机抽样法将60头初生犊牛分成2组,分别为试验组与对照组,[结果]表明6月龄时其体高、体斜长、胸围、

  5. The behavioral assessment and alleviation of pain associated with castration in beef calves treated with flunixin meglumine and caudal lidocaine epidural anesthesia with epinephrine. (United States)

    Currah, Jan M; Hendrick, Steven H; Stookey, Joseph M


    The objectives of this study were 1) to determine the effects of flunixin megulmine in combination with caudal epidural anesthesia as a postoperative analgesic in beef calves following surgical castration, and 2) to consider stride length and pedometry as potential behavioral assessment tools for detecting postcastration pain. Surgical castration was performed in 101 beef calves randomly assigned to 3 treatment subgroups: 1) castration without anesthesia (SURG); 2) castration following lidocaine with epinephrine caudal epidural anesthesia (SURG + EPI); 3) castration following lidocaine with epinephrine caudal epidural anesthesia and flunixin meglumine (SURG + EPI + F). Several outcomes, including pedometer counts, changes in stride length, subjective visual assessment of pain, instantaneous scan sampling of the calves' postoperative activities, and the amount of movement and vocalization during the castration procedure, were measured to identify and quantify pain. The results indicated that stride length and the number of steps taken by calves after castration appear to be good measures of pain. Significant differences found between treatment groups for stride length and visual assessments suggest that flunixin meglumine can be considered to provide visible pain relief up to 8 hours postcastration.

  6. Milk supplemented with immune colostrum: protection against rotavirus diarrhea and modulatory effect on the systemic and mucosal antibody responses in calves experimentally challenged with bovine rotavirus. (United States)

    Parreño, V; Marcoppido, G; Vega, C; Garaicoechea, L; Rodriguez, D; Saif, L; Fernández, F


    Group A bovine rotavirus (BRV) is the major cause of neonatal calf diarrhea worldwide. As a preventive strategy, we evaluated the protection and immunomodulation in two groups of BRV-inoculated calves. All calves received control colostrum (CC; VN=65,536; IgG(1)=16,384) prior to gut closure followed by the milk supplemented with immune colostrum (VN=1,048,576; IgG(1)=262,144), twice a day, for 14 days. Calves received milk supplemented with 0.8% immune colostrum [(Gp 1) VN=16,384; IgG(1)=4096] or milk supplemented with 0.4% immune colostrum [(Gp 2) VN=1024; IgG(1)=1024]. Calves receiving CC or colostrum deprived calves (CD) fed antibody (Ab) free milk served as controls (Gp 3 and 4). Calves were inoculated with virulent BRV IND at 2 days of age. Group 1 calves (milk IgG(1) 4096) showed 80% protection against BRV diarrhea and significantly reduced virus shedding. At 21 post-inoculation days (PID), the antibody secreting cell (ASC) responses of Gp 1 calves were limited mainly to duodenal and jejunal lamina propria (LP) with limited or no responses in systemic sites (spleen and PBL) and mesenteric lymph nodes. The profile of serum and fecal Ab responses as well as the ASC responses was also modulated by the presence of passive IgG(1) Abs and probably other colostrum components, toward higher titers of IgA Ab in serum and feces and a greater number of IgA ASC in the proximal intestine, reflecting positive modulation by colostrum toward this isotype associated with optimal protection of the intestinal mucosa. After challenge, at PID 21, all calves in Gp 1 and 2 were fully protected against diarrhea and only 1 of 5 calves in Gp 1 shed virus asymptomatically, indicating that the passive Ab treatment for 14 days was effective in protecting most of the animals after a first and a second virus exposure. The final outcome was a positive modulation of the mucosal immune responses and a high protection rate against diarrhea and virus shedding during the period of peak

  7. Enterotoxemia in neonatal calves. (United States)

    Fleming, S


    The incidence, bacterial characteristics, disease syndromes, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of enterotoxemia of neonatal calves caused by Clostridium perfringens (Types A, B, C, D, and E) are reviewed.

  8. Giardiasis in dairy calves: effects of fenbendazole treatment on intestinal structure and function. (United States)

    O'Handley, R M; Buret, A G; McAllister, T A; Jelinski, M; Olson, M E


    Twelve Giardia duodenalis-infected Holstein dairy calves were allocated into a treatment (n=6) and placebo group (n=6) according to pre-study faecal cyst counts. Calves in the treatment group received an oral dose of 5 mg/kg fenbendazole once daily for 3 days, while placebo calves received a sterile saline solution. Calves were euthanised 7 days following the initiation of treatment and intestinal were collected and prepared for trophozoite quantitation, histology, electron microscopy, and disaccharidase assays. In all calves treated with fenbendazole, intestinal trophozoites were below detection limits, while in saline-treated calves, trophozoites were observed in all intestinal segments. Histologically, no significant difference was observed between treatment groups with respect to intestinal villus height or crypt depth. However, a significant decline in the number of intraepithelial lymphocytes (IEL) was observed in fenbendazole-treated calves when compared with placebo-treated calves in the duodenum (13.9+/-1.2 vs. 17.0+/-1.1 IEL/100 enterocytes) and jejunum (21.6+/-0.8 vs. 30.7+/-1.0 IEL/100 enterocytes). In addition, measurements from TEM micrographs demonstrated a significant increase in microvillus surface area in the jejunum of fenbendazole-treated calves compared with saline-treated calves (31.2+/-10.2 vs. 22.8+/-7.6 microm(2)). This increase in microvillus surface area was also associated with an increase in jejunal maltase activity in fenbendazole-treated calves compared with calves treated with saline. These results demonstrate that fenbendazole is an effective treatment for giardiasis in calves. fenbendazole treatment eliminated Giardia trophozoites from the small intestine of calves resulting in increased microvillus surface area and greater intestinal enzyme activity. This study also demonstrates that the pathogenesis of giardiasis in calves is similar to that observed in humans and laboratory animals, and provides further evidence that Giardia is

  9. Analysis of mRNA expression for genes associated with regulatory T lymphocytes (CD25, FoxP3, CTLA4, and IDO) after experimental infection with bovine viral diarrhea virus of low or high virulence in beef calves. (United States)

    Palomares, Roberto A; Hurley, David J; Woolums, Amelia R; Parrish, Jacqueline E; Brock, Kenny V


    Immunosuppression caused by bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) has been associated with lymphocyte depletion, leukopenia and impairment of leukocyte function; however, no work has been done on the relationship between BVDV and regulatory T lymphocytes (Tregs). The objective of this study was to compare the mRNA expression of genes associated with Tregs (CD25, FoxP3, CTLA4, and IDO), after experimental infection of beef calves with low (LV) or high (HV) virulence BVDV. Thirty BVDV-naïve calves were randomly assigned to three groups. Calves were intra-nasally inoculated with LV (n=10, strain SD-1) or HV (n=10, strain 1373) BVDV or BVDV-free cell culture medium (control, n=10). Quantitative RT-PCR was used to determine the expression of target genes in tracheo-bronchial lymph nodes and spleen on day 5 post-infection. The mRNA expression of CD25 was up-regulated in tracheo-bronchial lymph nodes of LV (Pviral strains, or differences in viral infectivity of the host cells.

  10. The effect of group composition and age on social behavior and competition in groups of weaned dairy calves. (United States)

    Faerevik, G; Jensen, M B; Bøe, K E


    The objective of the present study was to investigate how group composition affects behavior and weight gain of newly weaned dairy calves and how age within heterogeneous groups affects behavior and competition. Seventy-two calves were introduced into 6 groups of 12 calves, of which 3 groups were homogeneous and 3 groups were heterogeneous (including 6 young and 6 old calves). The 9.8 mx9.5 m large experimental pen had 4 separate lying areas as well as a feeding area. Behavior and subgrouping were recorded on d 1, 7, and 14 after grouping, and calves were weighed before and after the experimental period of 14 d. Analysis of the effect of group composition on behavior and weight gain included young calves in heterogeneous groups and calves in homogeneous groups within the same age range at grouping (30 to 42 d). Irrespective of group composition, time spent feeding and lying increased, whereas time spent active decreased from d 1 to 7. In homogeneous groups, calves were more explorative on d 1 after grouping. Finally, calves in homogeneous groups had a higher average daily weight gain than calves in heterogeneous groups. Analysis of the effect of age included young and old calves of heterogeneous groups. Young calves were less explorative than old calves. Young calves were more active than old calves on d 1 but less active on d 7. Time spent lying and lying alone increased over time. More displacements from the feed manger were performed by old calves than by young calves. An analysis including all calves in both homogeneous and heterogeneous groups showed that when lying, calves were evenly distributed on the 4 lying areas and formed subgroups of on average 3 calves. In conclusion, age heterogeneity leads to increased competition, which may have a negative influence on the young calves' performance.

  11. Efficacy of a modified live intranasal bovine respiratory syncytial virus vaccine in three-week-old calves experimentally challenged with BRSV

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vangeel, I.; Antonis, A.F.G.; Fluess, M.; Peters, A.R.; Harmeyer, S.S.


    Bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV) is a widespread cause of lower respiratory tract disease in cattle. Calves less than four months of age are often involved in outbreaks of respiratory disease. We evaluated the efficacy of a single intranasal dose of a bivalent modified live vaccine containi

  12. Mannheimiose pulmonar experimental em bezerros: swab nasal e nasofaringeano como auxílio diagnóstico Experimental pneumonic mannheimiosis in calves: nasal and nasopharingeal swabs for diagnostic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana de Souza Coutinho


    Full Text Available Um modelo experimental de mannheimiosepneumônica bovina (MPB foi utilizado com o objetivo de avaliar as espécies bacterianas das cavidades nasais e nasofaringeanas em diferentes momentos do curso da doença, bem como verificar a eficiência diagnóstica do exame microbiológico dos swabs nasais (SN e nasofaringeanos (SNF. Um total de 28 bezerros foi distribuído aleatoriamente em quatro grupos experimentais (G1 a G4. SN e SNF foram colhidos sete dias antes e 12 (G1, 24 (G2, 48 (G3 e 72 (G4 horas após a inoculação intrabronquial de Mannheimia haemolytica. Após a indução da MPB, a bactéria M. haemolytica biotipo A foi predominante nos SN e SNF, sendo isolada em todos os momentos avaliados, com exceção de um SN colhido 24 horas após a indução da infecção. Não houve diferença significativa nas taxas de isolamento de Pasteurella multocida nos SN ou SNF, colhidos antes e após a indução da MPB. Contudo, esta bactéria passou a ser isolada mais freqüentemente após a indução da MPB, principalmente no SNF. Portanto, pode-se concluir que o exame microbiológico de SN e SNF é um teste auxiliar no diagnóstico da MPB.An experimental model of bovine pneumonic mannheimiosis (BPM was used to evaluate the nasal and nasopharynx bacterial species of calves during the course of the disease and for checking the diagnostic efficiency of nasal swab (NS and nasopharingeal swab (NPS microbiological exams. A total of 28 calves were randomized into four experimental groups (G1-G4. NS and NPS were obtained 7 days before and 12 (G1, 24 (G2, 48 (G3 e 72 (G4 hours after intrabronchial inoculation of Mannheimia haemolytica. After the induction of BPM, M. haemolytica biotype A was the predominant isolated bacterium in NS and NPS in all evaluated sampling times, except for one NS (harvested 24 hours. There were no significant statistical differences for the rates of Pasteurella multocida isolation in NS and NPS, harvested before and after the induction

  13. Age-dependent response of the acid-base parameters (Henderson-Hasselbalch, Stewart) in healthy calves with experimentally induced metabolic acidosis. (United States)

    Elkhair, Nawal M; Siegling-Vlitakis, Christiane; Radtke, Eva; Willing, Antje; Hartmann, Helmut


    The intensity of the response to acid-base parameters in relation to the age after a defined acid load was studied in calves. 32 clinically healthy calves (age: 4-104 days) were infused with 5M NH4Cl solution (dose: 1.0 ml/kg) through a permanent intravenous catheter. Before (0 hrs) and after starting the infusion (2, 4, 6, 8 and 24 hrs) venous blood samples were collected for the determination of the various acid-base parameters. The intensity of the response of the acid-base parameters was estimated by using the "area under curve (AUC)" procedure. By 2-6 hrs after the infusion of the NH4Cl solution, the Henderson-Hasselbalch parameters decreased significantly (decrease pH, decrease [HCO3-]) as did Stewart's variables (decrease [Strong ion difference=SID3], decrease [Acid total = A(tot) or A-]). A transient moderate hyperchloraemic acidosis with a slight hypoproteinaemic alkalosis was observed in all calves in association with a respiratory compensation (decrease PCO2). The younger calves (1st-3rd week) showed a similar pattern of response to the same dose per kg 0.75 acid load with significantly greater acid-base parameters response (higher AUC values) than the older animals. The calculated pH was determined by using the three Stewart variables PvCO2, serum-[SID3] and serum-[A(tot)]. The mean difference was -0.03 to -0.09 compared with the measured pH (7.32-7.40). The Stewart model appears to be more successful in providing a comprehensive evaluation of acid-base status compared with the traditional Henderson-Hasselbalch model. The younger calves during the first week of life reacted more sensitively to an equal acidotic condition than the older animals.

  14. Economic evaluation and efficacy of strategic-selective treatment of gastrointestinal parasites in dairy calves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuly Andrea Caicedo Blanco

    Full Text Available Abstract In the Experimental Farm of the Universidade Federal de Lavras (EF-UFLA, state of Minas Gerais, Brazil, on their day of birth, female Holstein calves were randomly selected and placed into two groups containing fifteen animals each: Strategic-Selective Treatment (S-ST or Conventional Treatment (CT. In the S-ST, calves were treated after coproparasitological examinations according to criteria established previously by the researchers. Calves in the CT were treated according to the opinion of the veterinarian of EF-UFLA. For statistical analysis, the frequency (% of fecal samples with count of eggs per gram of feces (EPG ≥300, count of oocysts per gram of feces (OoPG ≥500 and fecal samples with count of cysts of Giardia spp. ≥1 were conducted. The overall average frequency of fecal samples with EPG ≥300, OoPG ≥500 and Giardia spp. cysts ≥1, respectively, was similar (p >0.05 between S-ST (20.3%; 17.3%; and 31.5% and CT (26.4%; 23.9%; and 37.3%. The effective operational cost, per animal, in 12 months, was of R$ 784.58 (US$ 241.41 and R$ 83.90 (US$ 25.81 in S-ST and CT, respectively. The S-ST requires adjustments to be used as a technically efficient and economically viable alternative for the control of gastrointestinal parasitosis in female Holstein calves.

  15. The effect of group composition and age on social behaviour and competition in groups of weaned dairy calves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Færevik, G.; Jensen, Margit Bak; Bøe, K. E.


    including all calves in both homogeneous and heterogeneous groups showed that when lying, calves were evenly distributed on the 4 lying areas and formed subgroups of on average 3 calves. In conclusion, age heterogeneity leads to increased competition, which may have a negative influence on the young calves......The objective of the present study was to investigate how group composition affects behavior and weight gain of newly weaned dairy calves and how age within heterogeneous groups affects behavior and competition. Seventy-two calves were introduced into 6 groups of 12 calves, of which 3 groups were...... homogeneous and 3 groups were heterogeneous (including 6 young and 6 old calves). The 9.8 m × 9.5 m large experimental pen had 4 separate lying areas as well as a feeding area. Behavior and subgrouping were recorded on d 1, 7, and 14 after grouping, and calves were weighed before and after the experimental...

  16. The Statistical Physics of Iceberg Calving and the Emergence of Universal Calving Laws (United States)

    Bassis, J. N.


    Determining a calving law valid for all glaciological regimes has proven to be a difficult problem in glaciology. For this reason, most models of the calving process are semi-empirical, with little connection to the underlying fracture processes. In this study, I introduce methods rooted in statistical physics to show how calving laws, valid for any glaciological domain, can emerge naturally as a large spatial-scale/long temporal-scale limit of an underlying continuous or discrete fracture process. An important element of the method developed here is that iceberg calving is treated as a stochastic process and that the probability that an iceberg will detach in a given interval of time can be described by a probability distribution function. Using limiting assumptions about the underlying probability distribution, the theory is shown to be able to simulate a range of calving styles including the sporadic detachment of large, tabular icebergs from ice tongues and ice shelves and the more steady detachment of smaller sized bergs from tidewater/outlet glaciers. The method developed has the potential to provide a physical basis to include iceberg calving into numerical ice sheet models that can be used to produce more realistic estimates of the glaciological contribution to sea level rise.

  17. Crevassing and calving of glacial ice (United States)

    Kenneally, James Patrick

    Calving of ice is a relatively new area of research in the still young field of glaciology. In the short time that calving has been studied, it has been mainly treated as an afterthought, with the predominant mode of thinking being that it will happen so to concern oneself with why is not important. Many studies dealt with observations of calving front positions over time vs. ice velocity in an attempt to quantify the calving rate as the difference between the two, while others have attempted to deduce some empirical relationship between calving rate and variables such as water depth or temperature. This study instead addresses the question of why, where, and when ice will first become crevassed, which is an obviously necessary condition for a later calving event to occur. Previous work examining the causes of calving used ideas put forth from a variety of fields, including civil engineering, materials science, and results from basic physics and mechanics. These theories are re-examined here and presented as part of a larger whole. Important results from the field of fracture mechanics are utilized frequently, and these results can be used as a predictor of ice behavior and intrinsic properties of ice, as well as properties like back stresses induced by local pinning points and resistive shears along glacial ice boundaries. A theory of fracture for a material experiencing creep is also presented with applications to ice shelves and crevasse penetration. Finally, a speculative theory regarding large scale iceberg formation is presented. It is meant mainly as an impetus to further discussion on the topic, with the hope that a model relating crevasse geometries to flow parameters can result in crevasse spacings that could produce the tabular icebergs which are so newsworthy. The primary focus of this thesis is to move away from the "after the fact" studies that are so common in calving research, and instead devote energy to determining what creates the conditions that

  18. Evaluation of DNA extraction protocols for Brucella abortus pcr detection in aborted fetuses or calves born from cows experimentally infected with strain 2308. (United States)

    Matrone, M; Keid, L B; Rocha, V C M; Vejarano, M P; Ikuta, C Y; Rodriguez, C A R; Ferreira, F; Dias, R A; Ferreira Neto, J S


    The objective of the present study was to improve the detection of B. abortus by PCR in organs of aborted fetuses from infected cows, an important mechanism to find infected herds on the eradication phase of the program. So, different DNA extraction protocols were compared, focusing the PCR detection of B. abortus in clinical samples collected from aborted fetuses or calves born from cows challenged with the 2308 B. abortus strain. Therefore, two gold standard groups were built based on classical bacteriology, formed from: 32 lungs (17 positives), 26 spleens (11 positives), 23 livers (8 positives) and 22 bronchial lymph nodes (7 positives). All samples were submitted to three DNA extraction protocols, followed by the same amplification process with the primers B4 and B5. From the accumulated results for organ, the proportion of positives for the lungs was higher than the livers (p=0.04) or bronchial lymph nodes (p=0.004) and equal to the spleens (p=0.18). From the accumulated results for DNA extraction protocol, the proportion of positives for the Boom protocol was bigger than the PK (pprotocols (p=0.5). Some positive samples from the classical bacteriology were negative to the PCR and vice-versa. Therefore, the best strategy for B. abortus detection in the organs of aborted fetuses or calves born from infected cows is the use, in parallel, of isolation by classical bacteriology and the PCR, with the DNA extraction performed by the Boom protocol.

  19. Targeting miR-155 to Treat Experimental Scleroderma. (United States)

    Yan, Qingran; Chen, Jie; Li, Wei; Bao, Chunde; Fu, Qiong


    Scleroderma is a refractory autoimmune skin fibrotic disorder. Alterations of microRNAs in lesional skin could be a new approach to treating the disease. Here, we found that expression of miR-155 was up regulated in lesional skin tissue from patients with either systemic or localized scleroderma, and correlated with fibrosis area. Then we demonstrated the potential of miR-155 as a therapeutic target in pre-clinical scleroderma models. MiR-155(-/-) mice were resistant to bleomycin induced skin fibrosis. Moreover, topical antagomiR-155 could effectively treat mice primed with subcutaneous bleomycin. In primary skin fibroblast, miR-155 silencing could inhibit collagen synthesis function, as well as signaling intensity of two pro-fibrotic pathways, Wnt/β-catenin and Akt, simultaneously. We further showed that miR-155 could regulate the two pathways via directly targeting casein kinase 1α (CK1α) and Src homology 2-containing inositol phosphatase-1 (SHIP-1), as previous reports. Mice with miR-155 knockout or topical antagomir-155 treatment showed inhibited Wnt/β-catenin and Akt signaling in skin upon bleomycin challenge. Together, our data suggest the potential of miR-155 silencing as a promising treatment for dermal fibrosis, especially in topical applications.

  20. Evaluation of flunixin meglumine as an adjunct treatment for diarrhea in dairy calves. (United States)

    Barnett, Staci C; Sischo, William M; Moore, Dale A; Reynolds, James P


    To assess the use of flunixin meglumine as an adjunct treatment for diarrhea in calves. Clinical trial. 115 calves with diarrhea that were 1 to 21 days old at enrollment. Calves that developed diarrhea were randomly assigned to receive no flunixin meglumine (controls), a single dose of flunixin meglumine (2.2 mg/kg [1.0 mg/lb]), or 2 doses of flunixin meglumine administered 24 hours apart. Serum IgG concentration and PCV were measured prior to enrollment in the trial. Calves were evaluated daily to determine rectal temperature, fecal consistency, demeanor, and skin elasticity score. The primary analytic outcome was days of sickness (morbid-days). Calves with fecal blood and treated with a single dose of flunixin meglumine had fewer morbid-days and antimicrobial treatments, compared with controls. Although not significant, calves given 2 doses of flunixin meglumine in 24 hours had fewer morbid-days than untreated control calves. Regardless of severity of diarrhea, calves without fecal blood did not benefit from the use of flunixin. For calves with fecal blood, failure of passive transfer (low serum IgG concentration) was an independent risk factor for increased morbid-days. Treatment with a single dose of flunixin meglumine resulted in fewer antimicrobial treatments and morbid-days in calves with fecal blood. As observed in other studies, calves with failure of passive transfer were at high risk for poor outcomes. This emphasizes the importance of developing and implementing effective colostrum delivery programs on dairy farms.

  1. Effect of dietary administration of bananas on immunocytes in F1 hybrid calves. (United States)

    Matsuda, Keiichi; Ohtsuka, Hiromichi; Ichijho, Toshihiro; Kawamura, Seiichi


    The effect of dietary administration of bananas on immunocytes in calves was investigated. Twenty Fl hybrid calves were used in this study (treated group n=10, control group n=10). Banana (2 g/kg BW) was administered to the calves for 5 days. Leukocyte subsets were examined on days 0, 5, 10, and 15. The numbers CD3+, (CD3+)CD45R-, and (CD3+)TcR+ cells significantly increased between day 0 and day 5 in the treated group (Pbanana to calves increased T-lymphocytes, suggesting it might be possible to enhance protective functions against infections.

  2. Ingestion of colostrum from specific cows induces Bovine Neonatal Pancytopenia (BNP in some calves

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    Carlin Annette


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Since 2006, cases of haemorrhagic diathesis in young calves have been observed with a much higher incidence than previously known. The syndrome, now uniformly called Bovine Neonatal Pancytopenia (BNP, is characterized by multiple (external and internal haemorrhages, thrombocytopenia, leukocytopenia, and bone marrow depletion. Although various infectious and toxicological causes of bleeding disorders in calves have been ruled out, the aetiology of BNP remains unknown. However, field observations have led to the hypothesis that the aetiological principle may be transmitted to calves via colostrum. The objective of the present study was to verify whether ingestion of colostrum from dams of known BNP calves can elicit signs of BNP and typical haematological findings in conveniently selected neonatal calves. Six such calves received one feeding of colostrum (or a mixture of colostrum batches from dams of known BNP calves. As controls, another six conveniently selected calves from herds which had never had a BNP case received one feeding of colostrum from their own dams. Haematological and clinical parameters were monitored. Results One of the six experimental calves never showed any haematological, clinical or pathological evidence of BNP. In the other five calves, thrombocyte and leukocyte counts dropped within a few hours following ingestion of colostrum. Of those, three calves developed clinical signs of BNP, their post-mortem examination revealed bone marrow depletion. Of the remaining two calves, a pair of mixed twins, marked thrombocytopenia and recurrent leukocytopenia was evident in one, in which only slight changes in the bone marrow were detected, while in the other thrombocyte counts dropped, but rebounded later, and no bone marrow changes were noted. Thrombocyte counts of the experimental calves were statistically significantly lower than those of the control calves at 2 hours post ingestion of colostrum and at every

  3. Physiological data including evaluation of immuno-response in relation to anabolic effects on veal calves. (United States)

    Gropp, J; Herlyn, D; Boehncke, E; Schulz, V; Sandersleben, J V; Hänichen, T; Geisel, O


    In a series of experiments with a total of 1480 veal calves, different aspects of treating calves with anabolic steroids were examined. The anabolics used were 17beta-estradiol (E), trenbolone acetate (T), progesterone (P), testosterone (Te), C+T, E+P, E+Te and zeranole (Z). The N-retention was estimated by examining the urea: creatinine ratio in single urine specimens during the course of two feeding trials. Increased gain due to the treatment with E (20 mg implanted/calf) + P (200 mg) and Te (200 mg), respectively, E + T (140 mg) or Z (36 mg) was during the whole experimental period. The extra gain, due to anabolics seems to contain even more protein. This conclusion may be supported by the crude protein content of meat samples. The antibody production of a total of 311 male and female calves was investigated after the application of the following steroids: E (20 mg), T (200 mg), T (200 mg), E + T, P (200 mg), Te (200 mg), E + P, E + Te, and Z. Eleven days after the implantation of the steroids the animals were immunized with alumprecipitated human serumalbumin. Antibody-titres were determined by the Antigen-Binding-Capacity Test on day 14 following immunization. In nearly all groups the antibody-titres of female calves exceeded those of male calves on the average by 75%. The immune response of all experimental groups did not differ significantly from that of the corresponding control groups. However, the results indicate that both E + T and its single components E and T exert an immunodepressive effect in male calves. While the humoral antibody formation in the calf appears not to be influenced by anabolic steroids, it cannot be decided presently whether these substances effect cell-mediated immune reactions and/or unspecific mechanisms of resistance. When estradiol (20, 200, and 500 mg) and trenbolone acetate (140, 1400, 3500 mg) alone and in combination were implanted in female calves, blood glucose, GOT, GPT, alkaline phosphatase, LDH, cholesterine and

  4. Accidental salinomycin intoxication in calves. (United States)

    Omidi, Arash; Aslani, Mohammad R; Movassaghi, Ahmad R; Mohri, Mehrdad; Dadfar, Mohammad


    Twenty-four 10- to 16-week-old calves in a dairy herd in Birjand, Iran, inadvertently received an excessive dose of salinomycin mixed with barley grain. There was 58% mortality within 10 d. The calves had high serum AST, LDH, and CK activities; histopathologic lesions in myocardium, liver, and kidneys; and clinical signs associated with acute and congestive heart failure.

  5. Effects of inulin and lactulose on the intestinal morphology of calves. (United States)

    Masanetz, S; Wimmer, N; Plitzner, C; Limbeck, E; Preißinger, W; Pfaffl, M W


    For some time now prebiotics have been proposed to improve health by stimulation of beneficial bacteria in the intestine of humans and animals. The current study is aiming to show effects of feeding of either 2% inulin or 2% lactulose in milk replacer on performance and intestinal morphology of male Holstein-Friesian calves. After 20 weeks of feeding inulin led to significantly higher daily weight gains than lactulose while control animals ranged between the experimental feedings. Ingestion of milk replacer was reduced in lactulose treated animals. Additionally differences of villus height in jejunum (P = 0.07) and ileum (P = 0.03) could be found with an increase for lactulose treated animals and a decrease for inulin treated animals. In ileum the density of proliferative epithelial cells tended to be lower in inulin treated and higher in lactulose treated animals (P = 0.08). Both inulin and lactulose tended to decrease the quantity of goblet cells in the tips of ileal villi (P = 0.07). Both prebiotics can affect performance and intestinal morphology of calves and may as such affect animal health. But effects differ between substances.

  6. Treatment of peroneal paralysis with transposition of vastus lateralis muscle in calves. (United States)

    Kilic, E; Yayla, S; Aksoy, O; Ozaydin, I; Ermutlu, C Ş


    This study aimed to clinically evaluate the results achieved by using tendon transposition to treat postinjection peroneal paralysis in calves. The study material consisted of 23 calves in all of which the clinical history indicated the problem had occurred within 1-3 days of intramuscular injection. Each patient was administered medical treatment for three weeks. After that, a decision was made to perform tendon transposition in all the subjects because their prognosis was estimated to be poor. The owners of five of the calves did not agree to the operation, and so, medical treatment was continued. Following intrathecal anaesthesia, the vastus lateralis muscle was dissected at the insertion, and the musculus (m) extensor (ext) digitalis (dig) longus and m fibularis tertius were dissected at the origin in 18 calves. The tendon ends were joined by using the locking loop suture technique in the 18 calves. Follow-up after two to three months revealed hind limb use in all surgically treated calves, while the medically treated calves had to be slaughtered because of lameness and decubitus. The results of the present study suggest that the peroneal paralysis of calves can be successfully treated by a tendon transposition technique.

  7. Effect of Enterococcus faecium SF68 on growth performance and in vivo digestibility in buffalo calves

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    V. Proto


    Full Text Available The effect of dietary supplementation with Enterococcus faecium strain SF68 on growth performance, faecal consistency and in vivo digestibility in buffalo (Bubalus bubalis calves was evaluated. Forty calves were randomly assigned at 10 d of age to one of four treatments: (A milk replacer with no additive, (B milk replacer supplemented with 0.17 g/l of viable (2 x l09 cfu/g E. faecium bacteria daily for 3 days with an interval of 7 days throughout 11 weeks, (C milk replacer supplemented with E. faecium daily for 4 weeks, (D milk replacer supplemented with E. faecium daily for 11 weeks. A total mixed ration was offered ad libitum from 5th week of the experimental period. Faecal score was significantly better in E. faecium-treated calves than control ones. The use of E. faecium had no effect on average daily gain at any stage, total body weight (BW gain, dry matter intake or total tract digestibility. Therefore, E. faecium supplementation may be able to act favourably on the health of the gastrointestinal tract.

  8. [Cases of nacrobacillosis in calves]. (United States)

    Simov, I; Pavlov, N


    Necrobacillosis was established in 48 out of a total of 90 calves aged from 1 to 6 months, raised on a common premise. The disease affected only calves under the age of 3 months, running a more severe course with high mortality in the younger animals. Along with the clinical manifestations associated with the organs involved there was also bradicardia in most of the diseased calves. Nonreactive necroses were observed in the digestive organs, liver, spleen, lungs, and lymph nodes with adjacent resorptive foci of histiocytes, fibroblasts, and giant cells.

  9. Calving rates from crevasse calving in PISMv0.7 (United States)

    Koldtoft, Iben; Rodehacke, Christian; Hvidberg, Christine; Hesselbjerg Christensen, Jens


    Calving of icebergs is an important mechanism for rapidly transferring mass from the ice sheets into the adjacent ocean. In Greenland icebergs contributes up to 44% of the Greenland Ice Sheet mass loss every year, while melting counts for the rest (57%). A crevasses-depth calving criteria based on structural damage of the ice by penetration of surface and basal crevasses are implemented into the thermodynamically ice sheet model Parallel Ice Sheet Model (PISM). The calving rate is estimated, by running modified setups of the standard experiment from the Marine Ice Sheet Model Intercomparison Project (MISMIP). In the presentation we discuss the influence of the special model resolution, bed slope inclination, accumulation rate, ice softness (magnitude of basal friction), and the water depth in the surface crevasses on the calving rate.

  10. Association between birth conditions and glucose and cortisol profiles of periparturient dairy cows and neonatal calves. (United States)

    Vannucchi, C I; Rodrigues, J A; Silva, L C G; Lúcio, C F; Veiga, G A L; Furtado, P V; Oliveira, C A; Nichi, M


    Parturition in cattle is a stressful event for both the dam and the offspring. Stress and pain can alter the energy profile of calves and calving cows, producing a metabolic imbalance at birth. This study aimed to assess the effects of dystocia and oxytocin and calcium infusion on metabolic homeostasis in dairy cows and calves. Thirty Holstein cows and their calves were divided into three groups: an eutocia group (n=10), in which no calving assistance was needed; a dystocia group, which required mild-to-severe obstetric assistance (n=10); and a uterine inertia group, which was treated with oxytocin and calcium (n=10). To assess serum cortisol and blood glucose levels, blood samples were collected during the peripartum period from cows and during the first hour since birth from calves. All groups were hyperglycaemic following parturition. Infusion of oxytocin and calcium resulted in lower maternal glucose concentrations and lower levels of stress than in cows in the dystocia group. Birth condition was significantly associated with blood glucose and cortisol concentrations in calves. Glucose concentration was lower in calves born with oxytocin and calcium infusion than those born with fetal extraction. In conclusion, assisted calving with fetal extraction causes important metabolic changes for the dam and calf. Conversely, the practice of oxytocin and calcium infusion for hypotonic cows has no harmful effects on metabolic balance and can be safely employed as a medical treatment.

  11. Effects of heat stress on metabolism, digestibility, and rumen epithelial characteristics in growing Holstein calves. (United States)

    Yazdi, M Hossein; Mirzaei-Alamouti, H R; Amanlou, H; Mahjoubi, E; Nabipour, A; Aghaziarati, N; Baumgard, L H


    To distinguish between the direct effects of heat stress (HS) and reduced DMI on metabolic and physiological variables, morphometry, and gene expression of transporters involving in ruminal VFA absorption, 16 Holstein bull calves (178.1 ± 7.55 kg of BW) were used in a randomized complete design using 2 experimental periods. In period 1 (P1), all animals were housed in thermoneutral (TN) conditions (20.7 ± 3.0°C and a temperature-humidity index [THI] of 65.2 ± 3.1) and fed ad libitum for 8 d. In period 2 (P2; 9 d), half of the calves ( = 8) were subjected to HS condition (29.9 to 41.0°C and a THI ≥ 85 for 8 h/d) and the other half ( = 8) were maintained in TN conditions but were pair fed (pair-fed thermoneutral [PFTN]) to the HS calves. Heat stress decreased DMI (20%; calves had similar reduced intakes. During P1, ADG was similar between groups (1.7 kg/d), but ADG was reduced similarly for both groups (0.14 kg/d) during P2 ( calves had decreased plasma glucose levels (12.5%; calves (71%; calves. Circulating NEFA concentrations did not differ between periods in the HS calves, but PFTN animals had increased basal NEFA levels (100%; calves had increased blood urea nitrogen concentration in P2 ( calves. Heat stress had no measurable effect on nutrient digestibility. Rumen papillae height increased (51%; calves whereas papillae top width decreased (40%; calves (albeit tissue composition of growth is not unknown).

  12. Intestinal infection following aerosol challenge of calves with Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis

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    Eisenberg Susanne WF


    Full Text Available Abstract A challenge experiment was performed to investigate whether administration of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP via the respiratory route leads to MAP infection in calves. Eighteen calves from test negative dams were randomly allocated to four groups. Six calves were challenged with MAP nasally and six calves were challenged by transtracheal injection; three orally challenged calves served as positive controls, and three non challenged calves as negative controls. The challenge was performed as a nine-fold trickle dose, 107 CFU in total. Blood and faecal samples were collected frequently. Calves were euthanized three months post-challenge and extensively sampled. Blood samples were tested for the presence of antibodies and interferon gamma producing cells by ELISA. Faecal and tissue samples were cultured in a liquid culture system and the presence of MAP was confirmed by IS900 realtime PCR. Fourteen out of fifteen calves had no MAP antibody response. The negative controls remained negative; all positive controls became infected. Two nasally challenged calves showed a Purified Protein Derivative Avian (PPDA specific interferon gamma response. In all nasally challenged calves, MAP positive intestinal samples were detected. In three calves of the nasal group MAP positive retropharyngeal lymph nodes or tonsils were detected. In all calves of the transtracheal group MAP positive intestinal tissues were detected as well and three had a MAP positive tracheobronchial lymph node. These findings indicate that inhalation of MAP aerosols can result in infection. These experimental results may be relevant for transmission under field conditions since viable MAP has been detected in dust on commercial dairy farms.

  13. Comparison of short-term health and performance effects related to prophylactic administration of tulathromycin versus tilmicosin in long-hauled, highly stressed beef stocker calves. (United States)

    Nickell, J S; White, B J; Larson, R L; Blasi, D A; Renter, D G


    Health and feed performance parameters of 293 beef stocker calves at risk for bovine respiratory disease were compared after metaphylactic administration of one of two antimicrobials (tulathromycin or tilmicosin) with different durations of activity; the antimicrobial was administered 1 day after arrival. Calves that received metaphylactic tulathromycin displayed significant improvement in morbidity, mortality, and first-treatment success rates (P<.05) compared with tilmicosin-treated calves. Tulathromycin-treated calves also showed a significantly improved average daily gain and feed:gain ratio (P<.05) compared with tilmicosin-treated calves. Under conditions of this study, calves receiving tulathromycin were healthier through a 43-day growing phase compared with calves receiving tilmicosin. This health difference likely accounted for the differences in feed performance between the treatment groups.

  14. The effect of timing of oral meloxicam administration on physiological responses in calves after cautery dehorning with local anesthesia. (United States)

    Allen, K A; Coetzee, J F; Edwards-Callaway, L N; Glynn, H; Dockweiler, J; KuKanich, B; Lin, H; Wang, C; Fraccaro, E; Jones, M; Bergamasco, L


    Dehorning is a painful husbandry procedure that is commonly performed in dairy calves. Parenteral meloxicam combined with local anesthesia mitigates the physiological and behavioral effects of dehorning in calves. The purpose of this study was to determine the influence of timing of oral meloxicam administration on physiological responses in calves after dehorning. Thirty Holstein bull calves, 8 to 10 wk of age (28-70 kg), were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 treatment groups: placebo-treated control group (n=10), calves receiving meloxicam administered orally (1 mg/kg) in powdered milk replacer 12h before cautery dehorning (MEL-PRE; n=10), and calves receiving meloxicam administered as an oral bolus (1 mg/kg) at the time of dehorning (MEL-POST; n=10). Following cautery dehorning, blood samples were collected to measure cortisol, substance P (SP), haptoglobin, ex vivo prostaglandin E2 (PgE2) production after lipopolysaccharide stimulation and meloxicam concentrations. Maximum ocular temperature and mechanical nociceptive threshold (MNT) were also assessed. Data were analyzed using noncompartmental pharmacokinetic analysis and repeated measures ANOVA models. Mean peak meloxicam concentrations were 3.61±0 0.21 and 3.27±0.14 μg/mL with average elimination half-lives of 38.62±5.87 and 35.81±6.26 h for MEL-PRE and MEL-POST, respectively. Serum cortisol concentrations were lower in meloxicam-treated calves compared with control calves at 4 h postdehorning. Substance P concentrations were significantly higher in control calves compared with meloxicam-treated calves at 120 h after dehorning. Prostaglandin E2 concentrations were lower in meloxicam-treated calves compared with control calves. Mechanical nociceptive threshold was higher in control calves at 1h after dehorning, but meloxicam-treated calves tended to have a higher MNT at 6h after dehorning. No effect of timing of meloxicam administration on serum cortisol concentrations, SP concentrations, haptoglobin

  15. Pain management with flunixin meglumine at dehorning of calves. (United States)

    Huber, J; Arnholdt, T; Möstl, E; Gelfert, C-C; Drillich, M


    Dehorning (DH) of calves is a common procedure on commercial dairy farms. Pain management of calves has been investigated in several studies. It is generally accepted that the use of local anesthesia before DH is essential for pain management. Postoperative inflammatory pain should be treated by using a nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drug. The objective of this controlled, randomized, and blinded clinical trial was to determine the effects of the nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drug flunixin meglumine before DH on cortisol concentrations in sera of 5- to 9-wk old calves. Furthermore, selected behavioral characteristics and heart and respiratory rate were examined to assess pain in the hours after dehorning. A total of 80 calves were allocated to 4 groups. In each of 20 replicates, 4 calves were randomly assigned to the following groups: in 3 treatment groups, calves received a local anesthetic (10 mL of procain hydrochloride) and a first treatment (i.v.) with flunixin meglumine or a placebo 20 min before hot-iron dehorning, and a second treatment with flunixin meglumine or a placebo (0.9% saline) 3 h after DH. Calves in the control (CON) group were not dehorned and did not receive any treatment. Groups received 2.2 mg of flunixin meglumine/kg followed by a placebo (FP), 2.2 mg of flunixin meglumine/kg for both treatments (FF), or a placebo for both treatments (PP). Blood samples were collected from all calves, including CON calves, 20 min before restraint in a headlock for DH, 2 min after DH, as well as 30 min and 1, 2, 4, 6, and 8 h after DH. Samples were analyzed for concentration of cortisol by enzyme immunoassay. It was found that concentration of cortisol, calculated as area under the curve, was greater in PP compared with FF and tended to be greater compared with FP. Significant differences between PP and FF were detected at 30 min and 2 h after DH. Throughout the observation period, cortisol concentrations were in both flunixin meglumine-treated groups at a

  16. [Treatment of long bone fractures in 125 newborn calves. A retrospective study]. (United States)

    Nuss, K; Spiess, A; Feist, M; Köstlin, R


    Retrospective study of the causes, location, configuration, treatment and outcome of long bone fractures in newborn calves. The medical records of 125 calves presented during a 16-year period because of fracture of the humerus (3 calves), radius/ulna (14), femur (50) or tibia (58) were evaluated. The majority of calves (61.6%) sustained the fractures during assisted delivery. Of 125 calves, 107 were treated and 18 were euthanized because of concurrent diseases. Conservative treatment was used in 16 calves and surgical treatment in 91. Four of the latter were euthanized because of muscle contraction which prevented fracture reduction, and five others died in surgery. Fracture healing occurred after conservative treatment in 10 of 16 calves and after surgical treatment in 44 of 82 calves. The outcome was better in calves with plate and clamp-rod internal fixation (37/58 healed) than with intramedullary pinning (4/16 healed) or external fixation (3/8 healed). There were significant associations (chi2-test, ptherapy and fracture healing. Of 67 calves that developed complications, only 26 could be cured. Common complications were implant loosening and instability, which were often followed by osteomyelitis and sepsis. Implants were removed in 39 of 44 surgically treated calves that survived up to 6 months postoperatively. Long-term follow up (> 6 months postoperatively) by clinical and radiographic re-examination (25 calves) or telephone inquiry (29 calves) revealed that 54 animals were sound and had returned to their intended use. The treatment of long bone fractures in newborn calves remains difficult because of a high incidence of complications. These are most likely attributable to trauma during delivery, which results in insufficient colostrum intake and predisposes to concurrent diseases. In addition, the characteristics of juvenile bones do not provide sufficient physical strength for implants. Therefore, professional and diligent assistance during forced

  17. Significance of Timing on Effect of Metaphylactic Toltrazuril Treatment against Eimeriosis in Calves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enemark, Heidi; Dahl, Jan; Enemark, Jörg Matthias Dehn


    of Eimeria bovis and Eimeria zuernii. Three commercial herds and a total of 71 calves, aged 48 – 135 days, were included. Treatment with a single oral dose of toltrazuril (15 mg/kg) was given after relocation to common pens and one week before expected outbreak of eimeriosis. The effect of treatment...... was followed by weekly faecal sampling and weighing initially and at the end of a study period of 8 weeks. In Herd 2 and 3 toltrazuril treated calves gained on average 7.95 kg more than placebo treated calves (p = 0.007), and both oocyst excretion and prevalence of Eimeria spp. were significantly reduced...

  18. Legg-Calve-Perthes disease: etiology, pathogenesis, and biology. (United States)

    Kim, Harry K W


    Legg-Calve-Perthes disease is a complex pediatric hip disorder with many uncertainties. Various theories on its etiology have been proposed but none have been validated conclusively. Through experimental studies, however, some insight into the pathogenesis of a femoral head deformity after ischemic necrosis has been gained. These studies reveal that mechanical and biological factors contribute to the development of the femoral head deformity. Better understanding of the pathobiology of Legg-Calve-Perthes disease will lead to the development of more effective treatments, which are able to specifically target the pathogenic processes.

  19. Passive immunity transfer and serum constituents of crossbred calves

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    Thaís G. Rocha


    Full Text Available Passive immunity transfer (PIT evaluation is an essential tool for the maintenance of healthy calves during the first months of life. Since lactation number and breed have been proven to influence immunoglobulin levels in colostrum, the aim of this study was to evaluate PIT from primiparous and multiparous Canchim cows to their calves. Blood samples were collected from the calves before colostrum intake and 1, 2, 7, 15 and 30 days thereafter, while colostrum samples from the cows were taken immediately after parturition. Activities of gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT, alkaline phosphatase (ALP, and concentrations of total protein, albumin, globulins, immunoglobulin A (IgA, immunoglobulin G (IgG, total and ionized calcium, inorganic phosphorus, magnesium, sodium and potassium were evaluated in calves' serum and activities of GGT and ALP and concentrations of total protein, IgA and IgG were assessed in cow's colostrum whey. Immunoglobulins concentrations were evaluated by electrophoresis in polyacrylamide gels. Serum biochemistry evaluations revealed an increase in gamma-glutamyl transferase and alkaline phosphatase activities and in total protein, globulins, immunoglobulin A and immunoglobulin G levels in calves' serum after colostrum intake. Only total protein and light chain immunoglobulin G levels in colostrum whey were affected by the cows' lactation number. Phosphorus and magnesium levels in blood serum increased after colostrum intake, while sodium and potassium levels oscillated in the experimental period. PIT was influenced by the cows' lactation number but was efficient in both groups.

  20. Fatigue behaviour of welded joints treated by high frequency hammer peening: Part 1 , experimental study


    LE QUILLIEC, Guenhael; LIEURADE, Henri Paul; BOUSSEAU, Marc; DRISSI-HABTI, Monssef; INGLEBERT, Geneviève; MACQUET, Pascal; JUBIN, Laurent


    High frequency hammer peening is a recent improvement method which is probably one of the most effective for treating welded assemblies. A number of experimental results relating to this process are presented in this article. These results lead to better understand the mechanisms of the process, to outline the influence of the operating parameters and to confirm the role played by the initial quality of the welds. In the long run, the aim of this study is to propose an industrially applicable...

  1. Fatigue Behaviour of Welded Joints Treated by High Frequency Hammer Peening: Part I , Experimental Study


    LE QUILLIEC, Guenhael; Lieurade, Henri-Paul; BOUSSEAU, Marc; DRISSI-HABTI, Monssef; INGLEBERT, Geneviève; MACQUET, Pascal; JUBIN, Laurent


    International audience; High frequency hammer peening is a recent improvement method which is probably one of the most effective for treating welded assemblies. A number of experimental results relating to this process are presented in this article. These results lead to better understand the mechanisms of the process, to outline the influence of the operating parameters and to confirm the role played by the initial quality of the welds. In the long run, the aim of this study is to propose an...

  2. Cross protection of a Mannheimia haemolytica A1 Lkt-/Pasteurella multocida ΔhyaE bovine respiratory disease vaccine against experimental challenge with Mannheimia haemolytica A6 in calves. (United States)

    Crouch, C F; LaFleur, R; Ramage, C; Reddick, D; Murray, J; Donachie, W; Francis, M J


    Bovine respiratory disease causes significant economic losses in both beef and dairy calf industries. Although multi-factorial in nature, the disease is characterized by an acute fibrinous lobar pneumonia typically associated with the isolation of Mannheimia haemolytica. M. haemolytica A1 and A6 are the two most commonly isolated serotypes from cattle, however, the majority of vaccines have not demonstrated cross-serotype protection. In the current study, the efficacy of a novel, attenuated live vaccine, containing both M. haemolytica serotype A1 and Pasteurella multocida, was evaluated in calves challenged with M. haemolytica serotype A6. Although the challenge was more severe than expected, vaccinated calves had reduced clinical scores, lower mortality, and significantly lower lung lesion scores compared to the placebo-vaccinated control group. The results demonstrate that vaccination with an attenuated live vaccine containing M. haemolytica serotype A1 can protect calves against clinical disease following challenge with M. haemolytica serotype A6.

  3. Ultrasonographic imaging of abomasal milk clotting and abomasal diameter in healthy and diarrheic calves. (United States)

    Kirchner, Daniela; Schwedhelm, Lea; Wenge, Julia; Steinhöfel, Ilka; Heinrich, Christian; Coenen, Manfred; Bachmann, Lisa


    In case of diarrhea calves are treated with oral rehydration solutions (ORS), which are known to increase abomasal pH and inhibit milk clotting in vitro. Nevertheless, recent studies have shown that ORS with HCO3(-) ≤ 62 mmol/L do not interfere with abomasal milk clotting in healthy calves. However, in diarrheic calves, feeding ORS and milk simultaneously may disturb abomasal curd formation and exacerbate diarrhea due to faster abomasal passage of ingesta. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to ultrasonographically examine abomasal milk clotting and diameter after feeding milk and milk replacer (MR) with and without ORS to healthy and diarrheic calves. Abomasal curd formation and diameter in healthy and diarrheic calves were ultrasonographically imaged before and after feeding milk, MR and ORS prepared in milk or MR. Feeding mixtures of milk or MR with ORS did not cause any remarkable differences in the ultrasonographic images of abomasal content. Moreover, abomasal milk clotting was not disturbed due to diarrhea. Statistically significant differences of abomasal diameter after feeding between healthy and diarrheic calves indicated that abomasal emptying is delayed in diarrheic calves. Hence, further studies are needed to determine reasons for decelerated abomasal passage in calves suffering from diarrhea.

  4. Effects of repeat fenbendazole treatment in dairy calves with giardiosis on cyst excretion, clinical signs and production. (United States)

    O'Handley, R M; Cockwill, C; Jelinski, M; McAllister, T A; Olson, M E


    In this 90-day study, 60 male Holstein dairy calves were experimentally infected with Giardia duodenalis. Calves were randomly blocked by weight into treatment (N=30) and placebo (N=30) groups. Beginning on study Day 0, calves in the treatment group were administered an oral dose of 5mg/kg of fenbendazole once daily for three consecutive days. Calves in the placebo group received a daily oral treatment of 5 ml of saline for 3 days. These treatments were repeated on Days 30 and 60 of the study. Fecal samples were collected from calves once per week and examined for the presence of Giardia cysts. Calves were monitored daily for clinical signs of intestinal disease and all episodes of diarrhea recorded. Calves were weighed once per week and total feed intake, on a dry matter basis, was calculated daily. Following each treatment, the number of calves shedding Giardia cysts in the fenbendazole group was reduced (pfenbendazole group had fewer cysts (pfenbendazole had fewer total days with diarrhea (pfenbendazole is an effective treatment for giardiosis, resulting in a clinical benefit and reducing the number of infective cysts shed by calves. However, this treatment regime had no impact on production parameters and reinfection occurred rapidly in these calves.

  5. Lactobacillus rhamnosus strain GG is a potential probiotic for calves (United States)


    Abstract Diarrhea is a common occurrence in neonatal calves. Several veterinary probiotics claiming to prevent or treat calf diarrhea are available, but have not been well studied. This study assessed the capability of Lactobacillus rhamnosus strain GG (LGG) to maintain viability in the gastrointestinal tract of calves. We also determined whether LGG can be administered in an oral rehydration solution (ORS) without compromising the efficacy of the ORS or the viability of LGG, and whether LGG produces D-lactate or not. To investigate the intestinal survival of LGG, 15 calves were randomized into 3 groups and LGG was administered orally with their morning milk feeding on 3 consecutive days at a low (LD), medium (MD), or high (HD) dosage. Fecal samples were collected on days 0 (control), 1, 2, 3, 5, and 7 and incubated for 72 h on deMan, Rogosa, Sharpe agar. Twenty-four hours after the 1st feeding, LGG was recovered from 1 out of 5 calves in the LD group, 4 out of 5 calves in the MD group, and 5 out of 5 calves in the HD group. To determine if LGG caused the glucose levels in the ORS to drop below effective levels, 1.5 L of the ORS was incubated with LGG for 2 h at 37°C and the glucose concentration was measured every 20 min using a glucose meter. This ORS was then further incubated for 10 h and aliquots analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography to determine if D-lactate was produced by LGG. Glucose concentrations did not change over the 2 h of incubation, and no D-lactate was produced after 48 h. The LGG maintained viability in ORS. Therefore, this study demonstrated that LGG survives intestinal transit in the young calf, produces no D-lactate, and can be administered in an ORS. PMID:15581218

  6. Pharmacokinetics and tissue elimination of flunixin in veal calves. (United States)

    Kissell, Lindsey W; Brinson, Patrick D; Gehring, Ronette; Tell, Lisa A; Wetzlich, Scott E; Baynes, Ronald E; Riviere, Jim E; Smith, Geof W


    OBJECTIVE To describe plasma pharmacokinetic parameters and tissue elimination of flunixin in veal calves. ANIMALS 20 unweaned Holstein calves between 3 and 6 weeks old. PROCEDURES Each calf received flunixin (2.2 mg/kg, IV, q 24 h) for 3 days. Blood samples were collected from all calves before the first dose and at predetermined times after the first and last doses. Beginning 24 hours after injection of the last dose, 4 calves were euthanized each day for 5 days. Plasma and tissue samples were analyzed by ultraperformance liquid chromatography. Pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated by compartmental and noncompartmental methods. RESULTS Mean ± SD plasma flunixin elimination half-life, residence time, and clearance were 1.32 ± 0.94 hours, 12.54 ± 10.96 hours, and 64.6 ± 40.7 mL/h/kg, respectively. Mean hepatic and muscle flunixin concentrations decreased to below FDA-established tolerance limits (0.125 and 0.025 μg/mL, respectively) for adult cattle by 3 and 2 days, respectively, after injection of the last dose of flunixin. Detectable flunixin concentrations were present in both the liver and muscle for at least 5 days after injection of the last dose. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE The labeled slaughter withdrawal interval for flunixin in adult cattle is 4 days. Because administration of flunixin to veal calves represents extralabel drug use, any detectable flunixin concentrations in edible tissues are considered a violation. Results indicated that a slaughter withdrawal interval of several weeks may be necessary to ensure that violative tissue residues of flunixin are not detected in veal calves treated with that drug.

  7. Effect of subclinical lead intake on calves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dinius, D.A.; Brinsfield, T.H.; Williams, E.E.


    Sixteen bull calves were fed a 70% concentrate diet containing no added lead, 10 ppM lead from newsprint, or 10 and 100 ppM lead from lead chromate. The diets were pelleted and fed ad libitum for 100 days. Fecal and urine samples were collected and EKG and respiration rates were monitored at 25-day intervals. At the end of the 100-day feeding trial, the calves were sacrificed and samples of skeletal muscle, cerebral cortex, liver and kidney were collected for lead analysis. Supplemental lead did not affect feed consumption nor weight gain; however, newsprint depressed both intake and gain. Neither EKG patterns, heart rate nor respiration rate were affected by dietary treatment. The percentage of ingested lead excreted in feces and urine was not significantly different among treatments. There were no significant tissue accumulations of lead from feeding newsprint or 10 ppM lead chromate; however, feeding 100 ppM lead chromate resulted in accumulations of the element in liver and kidney. Samples of cerebral cortex, liver and kidney cortex were examined by electron microscopy. Changes were not detected in the cellular ultrastructure of these tissues from either control or treated animals.

  8. The Effect of CD3-Specific Monoclonal Antibody on Treating Experimental Autoimmune Myasthenia Gravis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ruonan Xu; Jianan Wang; Guojiang Chen; Gencheng Han; Renxi Wang; Beffen Shen; Yan Li


    CD3-specific monoclonal antibody was the first one used for clinical practice in field of transplantation. Recently,renewed interests have elicited in its capacity to prevent autoimmune diabetes by inducing immune tolerance. In this study, we tested whether this antibody can also be used to treat another kind of autoimmune disease myasthenia gravis (MG) and explored the possible mechanisms. MG is caused by an autoimmune damage mediated by antibody- and complement-mediated destruction of AChR at the neuromuscular junction. We found that administration of CD3-specific antibody (Fab)2 to an animal model with experimental autoimmune myasthenia gravis (EAMG) (B6 mice received 3 times of AChR/CFA immunization) could not significantly improve the clinical signs and clinical score. When the possible mechanisms were tested, we found that CD3 antibody treatment slightly down-regulated the T-cell response to AChR, modestly up-regulation the muscle strength. And no significant difference in the titers of IgG2b was found between CD3 antibody treated and control groups. These data indicated that CD3-specific antibody was not suitable for treating MG, an antibody- and complementmediated autoimmune disease, after this disease has been established. The role of CD3-specific antibody in treating this kind of disease remains to be determined.

  9. Experimental study and chemical application of GaAs semiconductor laser treating trigeminal neuralgia (United States)

    Qiu, Ke-Qum; Cao, Shu-Chen; Wang, Hu-Zhong; Wang, Ke-Ning; Xiao, Ton-Ha; Shen, Ke-Wei


    GaAs semiconductor laser was used to treat trigeminal neuralgia with an effective rate of 91.1%, and no side effects were found in 67 cases. Changes in and the recovery of the trigeminal nerve cell were studied with light and electromicroscope. Discussed in this article are the time length and quantity of laser treatment with low power. Experimental study and clinical application of the GaAs semiconductor laser have been carried out in our department since 1987. One-hundred-fifteen patients with various diseases in the maxillofacial region (including 67 cases of trigeminal neuralgia) have been treated with satisfactory effects and without any side-effects. The wavelength of the laser is 904 mu, the largest pulse length is 200 mu, and the average power is 2000 HZ.

  10. Physical and geotechnical properties of cement-treated clayey soil using silica nanoparticles: An experimental study (United States)

    Ghasabkolaei, N.; Janalizadeh, A.; Jahanshahi, M.; Roshan, N.; Ghasemi, Seiyed E.


    This study investigates the use of nanosilica to improve geotechnical characteristics of cement-treated clayey soil from the coastal area of the eastern Caspian Sea in the Golestan province, Iran. Atterberg limits, unconfined compressive strength, and California bearing ratio (CBR) tests were performed to investigate the soil plastic and strength parameters. The specimens were prepared by mixing soil with 9% cement and various contents of nanosilica. An ultrasonic bath device was used to disperse nanosilica in water. The addition of nanosilica enhanced the strength parameters of the clayey soil. Moreover, a nanosilica percentage of 1.5% by weight of cement improved the compressive strength of the cement-treated clay up to 38%, at age of 28 days. A scanning electron microscope (SEM) and an atomic force microscope (AFM) were used to evaluate specimen morphology. SEM and AFM results confirm the experimental ones. Therefore, nanosilica can be employed for soil improvement in geotechnical engineering.

  11. Legg-Calve-Perthes disease (United States)

    ... Calve-Perthes disease. In: Herring JA, ed. Tachdjian's Pediatric Orthopaedics . 5th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2014:chap 17. Review Date 7/10/2015 ... MD, MHA, Clinical Assistant Professor of Pediatrics, University of Washington School of Medicine, Seattle, WA. ...

  12. Experimental endometriosis reduction in rats treated with Uncaria tomentosa (cat's claw) extract. (United States)

    Nogueira Neto, João; Coelho, Tarcísio Mota; Aguiar, Guilherme Carneiro; Carvalho, Laura Rosa; de Araújo, Ana Gisélia Portela; Girão, Manuel João B C; Schor, Eduardo


    The aim of this study was to analyze the macroscopic and histological changes that occur in experimental endometriosis after treatment with Uncaria tomentosa. Experimental endometriosis was induced in twenty-five female Wistar rats. After three weeks, 24 animals developed grade III experimental endometriosis and were divided into two groups. Group "U" received U. tomentosa extract orally (32 mg/day), and group "C" (control group) received a 0.9% sodium chloride solution orally (1 ml/100g of body weight/day). Both groups were treated with gavage for 14 days. At the surgical intervention and after the animal was euthanized, the implant volume was calculated with the following formula: [4π (length/2)×(width/2)×(height/2)/3]. The autotransplants were removed, dyed with hematoxylin-eosin, and analyzed by light microscopy. The Mann-Whitney test was used for the independent samples, and the Wilcoxon test analyzed the related samples, with a significance level of 5%. The difference between the initial average volumes of the autotransplants was not significant between the groups (p = 0.18). However, the final average volumes were significantly different between the groups (p = 0.001). There was a significant increase (p = 0.01) between the initial and final average volumes in the control group, and treatment with the U. tomentosa caused a marked reduction in the growth over time (p = 0.009). Histologically, in the experimental group (n = 10) six rats had a well-preserved epithelial layer, three had mildly preserved epithelium, and one had poorly preserved epithelium. The epithelial layer occasionally presented sporadic epithelial cells. The control group (n = 12) presented seven cases (58.3%) of well-preserved epithelial cells and five cases (41.7%) of mildly preserved epithelial cells. Cat's claw extract appears to be a promising alternative for treating endometriosis. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. [Histopathology of meibomian gland abnormalities in experimental PenCB intoxicated beagle treated with squalane]. (United States)

    Kohno, T; Ohnishi, Y


    In order to examine the effect of squalane to excrete PCB from the intoxicated animals, histopathological studies of Meibomian gland abnormalities were carried out in experimental PenCB (3,4,5,3',4'-pentachlorobiphenyl) intoxicated beagles treated with squalane. All experimental animals except a control group showed characteristic changes of Meibomian glands: dilation of the duct and squamous metaplasia of the alveolar cells. According to the degree of these findings, five stages were divided in the processes of Medibomian gland changes. The PenCB intoxicated dogs initially showed mild pathological changes of the glands and later moderate to severe degrees of findings. In the PenCB intoxicated animals treated with squalane, severe degree of Meibomian gland findings were found in the early stage and mild to moderate abnormalities in the late stage. The concentration of PenCB in blood varied in each animal, and the animals with advanced Medibomian gland abnormalities tended to have high level of PenCB concentration in blood. In conclusion, the effect of squalane to excrete PCB from the intoxicated animals were not determined in this study.

  14. Tratamento da úlcera corneana experimental com membrana amniótica Experimental corneal ulcer treated with amniotic membrane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliana Cristina Louza Monteiro


    Full Text Available Objetivo: Avaliar a evolução da úlcera de córnea experimental tratada com enxerto de membrana amniótica (MA homóloga. Métodos: Foram utilizados 18 coelhos, divididos em dois grupos experimentais: úlcera corneana (G1 e úlcera corneana tratada com enxerto de MA (G2. A ulceração corneana foi induzida na córnea toda, com álcool absoluto e lâmina de bisturi. Os animais foram sacrificados em três momentos experimentais: 7 dias (M1, 15 dias (M2 e 30 dias (M3 após a indução da ulceração. Os defeitos corneanos foram avaliados com fotodocumentação por analisador de imagem Luzex-F e exames histopatológicos, comparando-se os resultados por meio da análise de variância. Resultados: O resultado do exame morfométrico mostrou desepitelização maior em G2 no M1; a opacidade corneana foi mais intensa na área central da córnea, sendo significativamente maior em G1 no M3. Os neovasos corneanos também foram mais intensos em G1. A avaliação histopatológica revelou ulceração epitelial em dois animais de G1 no M2 e em dois de G2 no M1; o edema estromal foi mais intenso em G1, assim como a presença de neovasos. Conclusão: O uso de MA homóloga no tratamento da úlcera corneana experimental não acelerou a cicatrização, porém preveniu o edema estromal e a formação de neovascularização corneana. A cicatrização se mostrou mais deficiente na área central da córnea.Purpose: To evaluate healing of experimental corneal ulcer of rabbit eyes terated with homologous amniotic membrane (AM graft. Methods: 18 rabbits were used and divided into two experimental groups: corneal ulcer (G1 and corneal ulcer treated with AM graft (G2. Corneal ulcer was induced by a total epithelial removal using a scalpel and absolute alcohol. The animals were sacrificed at three experimental moments: 7 days (M1, 15 days (M2 and 30 days (M3 after the induction of the ulceration. Corneal defects were evaluated with image analyzer Luzex-F and histopathologic

  15. Less pressure at Calve (food industry); Calve onder lagere druk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roggen, M. (ed.)


    Since 1 January 2002, the Dutch food industry Calve applies a sophisticated compressed air system for the production of peanut butter, mayonnaise and sauces in the Delft factory. Parent company Unilever hopes the new system will reduce energy consumption by nearly 400,000 kWh. In a business where product quality is crucial, and where compressed air is critical for quality, pressure reduction is a daring move. [Dutch] De productie van pindakaas, mayonaise en sauzen van Calve in Delft verloopt sinds 1 januari met een uitgekiendere persluchtregeling. Zo hoopt moederbedrijf Unilever jaarlijks bijna 400.000 kWh op de energienota te besparen. In een bedrijf waar de kwaliteit van het product zeer kritisch is en sterk afhankelijk is van perslucht, is drukverlaging een gedurfde onderneming.

  16. Effects of additional milk replacer feeding on calf health, growth, and selected blood metabolites in calves. (United States)

    Quigley, J D; Wolfe, T A; Elsasser, T H


    The objective of the experiment was to evaluate effects of increased milk replacer feeding on growth, intake, feed efficiency, and health parameters in stressed calves. Holstein bull calves (n = 120; approximately 3 to 8 d of age) were purchased from sale barns and dairy farms and housed in fiberglass hutches. In addition, wood shavings contaminated with coronavirus were mixed with clean shavings and added to each hutch before the start of the experiment. Calves were fed either a fixed amount (454 g/d) of a 20% crude protein (CP), 20% fat milk replacer to weaning at 28 d or a variable amount (454, 681, 908, and 454 g/d on d 0 to 7, 8 to 14, 15 to 31, and 32 to 41, respectively) of a milk replacer containing 28% CP and 17% fat without or with added dietary supplement containing bovine serum. Calves were also fed commercial calf starter and water ad libitum. Plasma IgG concentration in most calves on arrival at the facility was feed efficiency, morbidity and mortality, and selected plasma metabolites were determined. Body weight at 28 d, 56 d, daily body weight gain, intake of milk replacer, fecal scores, days with diarrhea, and days treated with antibiotics were increased with feeding variable amount of milk replacer over the 56-d study. Starter intake from d 1 to 56 was reduced from 919 to 717 g/d in calves fed fixed and variable amounts of milk replacer, respectively. Morbidity, measured as the number of days that calves had diarrhea, was increased by 53% when a variable amount of milk replacer was fed. Calves fed variable milk replacer were treated with antibiotics for 3.1 d compared with 1.9 d for calves fed 454 g of milk replacer/d. Concentrations of plasma glucose, urea N, and insulin-like growth factor-I were increased when calves were fed variable amount of milk replacer. Dietary supplement containing bovine serum had no effect on any parameter measured. There was no effect of milk replacer feeding on concentrations of nonesterified fatty acids, total

  17. Performance of Tharparkar calves following a suckling or non-suckling rearing system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vipin Kumar Upadhyay


    Full Text Available Aim: The aim was to find out the influence of suckling and non-suckling system of rearing on growth performance of indigenous Tharparkar calves. Materials and Methods: A total of 14 Tharparkar calves was randomly divided into two groups. The Group 1 (G-1 was suckling group, in which calves were allowed to suckle from the same dam twice a day before/after milking from birth to 90 days of age, while in Group 2 (G 2, calves were weaned (non-suckling immediately after birth (1st day weaning. The non-suckling calves were fed with colostrum within few hours after birth and twice daily for 3 days at the rate of 10% of live body weight (LBW and later, kept under pail feeding till 71 days of age along with calf starter and green fodder as per the Indian Veterinary Research Institute protocol. The experimental trial was continued for 90 days of age of calf from its birth. Observations regarding various growth performances were made following standard procedures and the data obtained were statistically analyzed by SPSS program version 17. Results: The effect of rearing system was found to be significantly (p≤0.05 higher for G 1 calves on 15 days LBW whereas it was highly significant (p≤0.01 on LBW’s at subsequent readings as compared to G 2 calves. For average daily gain (ADG (g/day, G 1 calves showed highly significant (p≤0.01 value than G 2 calves during 0-30 days (447.62±58.13 in G 1 vs. 176.19±15.79 in G 2 and 31-60 days (614.29±77.27 in G 1 vs. 233.33±37.80 in G 2 and remained statistically significant (p≤0.05 between 61 and 90 days. On different body measurements, effect of system of rearing was non-significant up to 15 days. From 30 days onwards, higher significant values for G 1 calves were observed for heart girth and body length whereas for body height significant results were obtained from 45 days onward. This superiority in all growth parameters expressed by suckling system calves might be due to longer duration of milk feeding

  18. Histological and histomorphometric analysis of animal experimental dehiscence defect treated with three bio absorbable GTR collagen membrane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parichehr Behfarnia


    Conclusion: The membrane-treated groups had a statistically significant increase in bone formation and connective tissue attachment compared to control groups. However, there are some differences among experimental groups, which should be considered in GTR treatments.

  19. Effect of Moringa oleifera on hematological parameters of calves reared in industrial fluorotic area

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    Kruti Debnath Mandal


    Full Text Available Aim: The present study was undertaken to evaluate the ameliorative potential of dried Moringa oleifera fruit powder in fluorosis affected calves reared around the vicinity of aluminium smelter plant. Materials and Methods: Total 107 calves were screened on the basis of clinical signs and higher plasma fluoride (more than 0.2 ppm level for evidence of fluorosis. Out of that, 90 samples found positive and from them 18 calves of 6-12 months age group were selected and divided equally into three groups named as Group II, III, and IV. Group II remained as disease control group whereas Group III calves were supplemented with dried M. oleifera fruit powder of 25 g/calve for 60 days. Group IV calves were supplemented with calcium carbonate at 100 mg/kg body weight and boric acid at 10 mg/kg for the same experimental period. Group I consisted of six numbers of healthy calves taken from the non-fluorotic zone, i.e. Bhubaneswar. Plasma fluoride level, hemoglobin (Hb, packed cell volume (PCV, total leukocyte count (TLC, differential count (DC, total erythrocyte count, mean corpuscular volume (MCV, mean corpuscular Hb (MCH, and MCH concentration (MCHC were estimated on day 0, 30, and 60 of the experiment. Results: Supplementation of dried M. oleifera fruit powder to fluorosis affected calves resulted in significant reduction in plasma fluoride level and increase in Hb%, PCV, TLC and altered DC. Similar results were also recorded in calcium+boron group, except PCV and Hb. No significant changes were observed in MCV, MCH, and MCHC values. Conclusion: The present study concluded that supplementation of dried M. oleifera fruit powder daily for 60 days has shown protection against chronic fluoride toxicity in calves.

  20. Behaviour around the time of calving in dairy cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Margit Bak


    The aim of this study was to investigate behavioural changes before and after calving in dairy cows in order to describe behavioural signs of imminent calving and of cows’ recovery after calving. Thirty-two multiparous Danish Holstein Frisian cows with an unassisted calving were studied from 96 h...... before until 96 h after calving while housed in individual calving pens. Data on behaviour were obtained via video recordings and accelerometers attached to the cows’ legs. Cows spent less time lying, had more lying bouts and were more active the day before calving as compared to 2–4 days before calving...... throughout the 24 h following birth. Cows spent more time lying on the second day after calving than on the first day after calving. The results show marked behavioural changes during the last 6 h prior to calving and suggest that behavioural changes may be useful indicators of imminent calving. Furthermore...

  1. [Protozoan infection causes diarrhea in calves]. (United States)

    Geurden, T; Claerebout, E; Vercruysse, J


    The role of protozoan parasites in the etiology of diarrhea in calves is highlighted with emphasis on correct diagnosis. In neonatal calves, Cryptosporidium parvum is isolated in more than 44% of the faeces of diarrhetic calves. In calves older than one month, both Eimeria bovis and E. zuernii, and Giardia duodenalis are associated with diarrhea and poor growth. Clinical diagnosis has to be confirmed by examination of host faecal material. Both for C. parvum and G. duodenalis immunological assays are available. Control measures must aim to reduce or prevent oocyst or cyst transmission, by combining management measures, desinfection and chemotherapeutic treatment.

  2. The collagen, fibrinogen and thrombin biological adhesive is effective in treating experimental liver injuries. (United States)

    Oliveira, Frederico Michelino de; Carvalho, Marcus Vinícius H de; Marchi, Evaldo; Pinto, Clóvis Antônio Lopes


    to evaluate the effectiveness of an collagen-based adhesive associated with fibrinogen and thrombin in experimental liver injuries in rats. we randomly divided 30 Wistar rats into three groups: A, B and C. All underwent a standard liver traumatic injury. In group A, the lesion was treated with the adhesive; in group B, with conventional, absorbable suture; group C received no treatment. We analyzed the time of hemostasis, mortality, occurrence of adhesions and any histological changes. there was no statistical difference in relation to mortality (p=0.5820). The adhesive treated group showed the lowest hemostasis times (p=0.0573, odds ratio 13.5) and lower incidence of adhesions (p=0.0119). The histological alterations of the Groups A and B were similar, with foreign body granuloma formation separating the adhesive material and the hepatic stroma suture. the collagen adhesive associated with fibrinogen and thrombin was effective in treating experimental hepatic injury, providing a lower incidence of adhesions between the liver and surrounding structures. avaliar a eficácia de um adesivo a base de colágeno associado ao fibrinogênio e trombina, no trauma hepático experimental em ratos. toram incluídos no estudo 30 ratos Wistar, igualmente divididos aleatoriamente em três grupos: A, B e C. Todos foram submetidos à lesão traumática hepática padronizada. No grupo A, a lesão foi tratada com o adesivo, no grupo B, com sutura convencional com fio absorvível, e no grupo C, não houve tratamento da lesão. Foram analisados o tempo de hemostasia, mortalidade, ocorrência de aderências e eventuais alterações histológicas. os resultados mostraram que não houve diferença estatística em relação à mortalidade (p=0,5820). O grupo tratado com adesivo apresentou os menores tempos de hemostasia (p=0,0573 e odds ratio 13,5) e menor ocorrência de aderências (p=0,0119). Microscopicamente as alterações histológicas dos grupos A e B foram semelhantes, com a forma

  3. Effect of hay on performance of Holstein calves at suckling and post-weaning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robson Kyoshi Ueno


    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the performance of Holstein calves in suckling and post-weaning phases, intensively managed during suckling in the absence or presence of hay. Twenty-four male Holstein calves, at an average age of 15 days and initial weight of 43 kg were used in the experiment. The experimental design was completely randomized, consisting of two treatments and six replications. The treatments were as follows: 1 suckling with milk substitute + initial concentrate for calves, ad libitum + temperate grass hay (oat/ryegrass, ad libitum; 2 suckling with milk substitute + initial concentrate for calves, ad libitum. No significant difference was found between treatments for weight gain and feed conversion. However, the supply of hay caused an increase in daily dry matter intake (2.127 vs 1.894 kg. The intake of hay promoted greater stimulus to consumption of concentrate and greater weight at weaning.

  4. Efficacy of diclazuril and toltrazuril in the prevention of coccidiosis in dairy calves under field conditions. (United States)

    Zechner, G; Bauer, C; Jacobs, J; Goossens, L; Vertenten, G; Taylor, M A


    A blinded, controlled, randomised field study was undertaken on two commercial dairy farms in Germany to compare the efficacy of the anticoccidials, diclazuril and toltrazuril in the prevention of bovine coccidiosis. A total of 86 calves aged between five and six weeks were randomly allocated to two treatment and one untreated control groups. Calves were monitored for 78 days post-treatment by clinical observation, bodyweight gain, faecal oocyst counts (FOCs) and coccidia species differentiation. Strategic treatments had no significant effect on bodyweight gains (P>0.05). Whilst the number of diarrhoea days was similar for all three groups from days 1 to 41, there was a significant difference in the number and percentage of diarrhoea days from day 42 with the diclazuril-treated group showing only one diarrhoea day compared with 9 days (P=0.0195) and 18 days (P=0.0027) for the control and toltrazuril-treated groups, respectively. FOCs in control calves fluctuated throughout the period of study indicating continued coccidia challenge. FOCs in the diclazuril-treated calves declined to low levels post-treatment, increasing to occasional counts >500 oocysts per gram of faeces (OPG) between days 27 and 42, but thereafter remained low. Calves treated with toltrazuril also showed low FOCs until day 40 but then showed several peaks of oocyst output >500 OPG coinciding with days of diarrhoea. British Veterinary Association.

  5. Experimental poisoning by Senecio brasiliensis in calves: quantitative and semi-quantitative study on changes in the hepatic extracellular matrix and sinusoidal cells Intoxicação experimental por Senecio brasiliensis em bovinos: estudo quantitativo e semi-quantitativo da matrix extracelular e de células sinusoidais do fígado

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    Márcia Bersane A.M. Torres


    Full Text Available Extracellular matrix plays an important role in chronic hepatic lesions and has been studied in experimental intoxication models. However in cattle, studies on chronic disease have focused on the hepatocellular damage and extracellular matrix (ECM changes are usually overlooked. There are no specific studies on the hepatic ECM in either normal or chronically damaged bovine liver. Thus an experimental model of hepatic toxicity model using Senecio brasiliensis poisoned calves was designed. Senecio brasiliensis contains pyrrolizidine alkaloids which cause either acute or chronic progressive dose dependent liver damage. Five calves were orally fed with 0.38g of dry leaves of S. brasiliensis/kg/day for 24 days. Liver needle biopsy specimens were obtained every 15 days for 60 days. Clinical signs of digestive complications appeared at 3rd week. One calf died on 45th day and four were evaluated up to 60th day. Biopsy samples were processed for routine light microscopy, immuno-histochemistry and transmission electron microscopy. From 30th day on progressive liver damage characterized by hepatocellular ballooning, necrosis, apoptosis and megalocytosis, centrilobular, pericellular and portal fibrosis were seen by light microscopy. Quantitative and semi-quantitative measurements of hepatic ECM components were performed before and after the onset of lesions. Morphometric analysis of total collagen and elastic fiber system was conducted. Total collagen and I and III collagen types progressively increased in throughout the liver of affected calves. Changes in location, amount and disposition of the elastic fiber system were also observed. Then numbers of Kupffer cells were significantly increased at 30th day and total numbers of sinusoidal cells were significantly increased at 45th and 60th days. Liver damage was progressive and irreversible even after the exposure to the plant was discontinued. Severe fibrotic lesions occurred mainly in portal tracts

  6. Collagen, fibrinogen and thrombin biological addesive is effective in treating experimental liver injuries. (United States)

    Oliveira, Frederico Michelino DE; Carvalho, Marcus Vinícius H DE; Marchi, Evaldo; Pinto, Clóvis Antônio Lopes


    : to evaluate the effectiveness of a collagen-based adhesive associated with fibrinogen and thrombin in experimental liver injury in rats. : the study included 30 Wistar rats randomly divided into three groups: A, B and C. All underwent standard liver traumatic injury. In group A the lesion was treated with the adhesive; in group B, with conventional absorbable suture; and in group C, there was no treatment. We analyzed the time of hemostasis, mortality, occurrence of adhesions and any histological changes. : there was no statistical difference in relation to mortality (p = 0.5820). The group treated with the adhesive showed the lowest hemostasis times (p = 0.0573, odds ratio 13.5) and lower incidence of adhesions (p = 0.0119). Microscopic histological alterations of Groups A and B were similar, with foreign body granuloma formation separating the adhesive material or the suture from the hepatic stroma. : the adhesive of collagen associated with fibrinogen and thrombin was effective in the treatment of experimental hepatic injury, providing a lower incidence of adhesions between the liver and surrounding structures. avaliar a eficácia de um adesivo à base de colágeno associado a fibrinogênio e trombina, no trauma hepático experimental em ratos. foram incluídos no estudo 30 ratos Wistar, igualmente divididos aleatoriamente em três grupos: A, B e C. Todos foram submetidos à lesão traumática hepática padronizada. No grupo A a lesão foi tratada com o adesivo, no grupo B com sutura convencional com fio absorvível e no grupo C não houve tratamento da lesão. Foram analisados o tempo de hemostasia, mortalidade, ocorrência de aderências e eventuais alterações histológicas. os resultados mostraram que não houve diferença estatística em relação à mortalidade (p=0,5820). O grupo tratado com adesivo apresentou os menores tempos de hemostasia (p=0,0573 e odds ratio 13,5) e menor ocorrência de aderências (p=0,0119). Microscopicamente, as altera

  7. Methylene Blue to Treat Protamine-induced Anaphylaxis Reactions. An Experimental Study in Pigs

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    Agnes Afrodite S. Albuquerque

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: To examine if methylene blue (MB can counteract or prevent protamine (P cardiovascular effects. Methods: The protocol included five heparinized pig groups: Group Sham -without any drug; Group MB - MB 3 mg/kg infusion; Group P - protamine; Group P/MB - MB after protamine; Group MB/P - MB before protamine. Nitric oxide levels were obtained by the nitric oxide/ozone chemiluminescence method, performed using the Nitric Oxide Analizer 280i (Sievers, Boulder, CO, USA. Malondialdehyde plasma levels were estimated using the thiobarbiturate technique. Results: 1 Groups Sham and MB presented unchanged parameters; 2 Group P - a Intravenous protamine infusion caused mean arterial pressure decrease and recovery trend after 25-30 minutes, b Cardiac output decreased and remained stable until the end of protamine injection, and c Sustained systemic vascular resistance increased until the end of protamine injection; 3 Methylene blue infusion after protamine (Group P/MB - a Marked mean arterial pressure decreased after protamine, but recovery after methylene blue injection, b Cardiac output decreased after protamine infusion, recovering after methylene blue infusion, and c Sustained systemic vascular resistance increased after protamine infusion and methylene blue injections; 4 Methylene blue infusion before protamine (Group MB/P - a Mean arterial pressure decrease was less severe with rapid recovery, b After methylene blue, there was a progressive cardiac output increase up to protamine injection, when cardiac output decreased, and c Sustained systemic vascular resistance decreased after protamine, followed by immediate Sustained systemic vascular resistance increase; 5 Plasma nitrite/nitrate and malondialdehyde values did not differ among the experimental groups. Conclusion: Reviewing these experimental results and our clinical experience, we suggest methylene blue safely prevents and treats hemodynamic protamine complications, from the

  8. Methylene Blue to Treat Protamine-induced Anaphylaxis Reactions. An Experimental Study in Pigs. (United States)

    Albuquerque, Agnes Afrodite S; Margarido, Edson A; Menardi, Antonio Carlos; Scorzoni, Adilson; Celotto, Andrea Carla; Rodrigues, Alfredo J; Vicente, Walter Vilella A; Evora, Paulo Roberto B


    To examine if methylene blue (MB) can counteract or prevent protamine (P) cardiovascular effects. The protocol included five heparinized pig groups: Group Sham -without any drug; Group MB - MB 3 mg/kg infusion; Group P - protamine; Group P/MB - MB after protamine; Group MB/P - MB before protamine. Nitric oxide levels were obtained by the nitric oxide/ozone chemiluminescence method, performed using the Nitric Oxide Analizer 280i (Sievers, Boulder, CO, USA). Malondialdehyde plasma levels were estimated using the thiobarbiturate technique. 1) Groups Sham and MB presented unchanged parameters; 2) Group P - a) Intravenous protamine infusion caused mean arterial pressure decrease and recovery trend after 25-30 minutes, b) Cardiac output decreased and remained stable until the end of protamine injection, and c) Sustained systemic vascular resistance increased until the end of protamine injection; 3) Methylene blue infusion after protamine (Group P/MB) - a) Marked mean arterial pressure decreased after protamine, but recovery after methylene blue injection, b) Cardiac output decreased after protamine infusion, recovering after methylene blue infusion, and c) Sustained systemic vascular resistance increased after protamine infusion and methylene blue injections; 4) Methylene blue infusion before protamine (Group MB/P) - a) Mean arterial pressure decrease was less severe with rapid recovery, b) After methylene blue, there was a progressive cardiac output increase up to protamine injection, when cardiac output decreased, and c) Sustained systemic vascular resistance decreased after protamine, followed by immediate Sustained systemic vascular resistance increase; 5) Plasma nitrite/nitrate and malondialdehyde values did not differ among the experimental groups. Reviewing these experimental results and our clinical experience, we suggest methylene blue safely prevents and treats hemodynamic protamine complications, from the endothelium function point of view.

  9. Does swimming exercise affect experimental chronic kidney disease in rats treated with gum acacia?

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    Badreldin H Ali

    Full Text Available Different modes of exercise are reported to be beneficial in subjects with chronic kidney disease (CKD. Similar benefits have also been ascribed to the dietary supplement gum acacia (GA. Using several physiological, biochemical, immunological, and histopathological measurements, we assessed the effect of swimming exercise (SE on adenine-induced CKD, and tested whether SE would influence the salutary action of GA in rats with CKD. Eight groups of rats were used, the first four of which were fed normal chow for 5 weeks, feed mixed with adenine (0.25% w/w to induce CKD, GA in the drinking water (15% w/v, or were given adenine plus GA, as above. Another four groups were similarly treated, but were subjected to SE during the experimental period, while the first four groups remained sedentary. The pre-SE program lasted for four days (before the start of the experimental treatments, during which the rats were made to swim for 5 to 10 min, and then gradually extended to 20 min per day. Thereafter, the rats in the 5th, 6th, 7th, and 8th groups started to receive their respective treatments, and were subjected to SE three days a week for 45 min each. Adenine induced the typical signs of CKD as confirmed by histopathology, and the other measurements, and GA significantly ameliorated all these signs. SE did not affect the salutary action of GA on renal histology, but it partially improved some of the above biochemical and physiological analytes, suggesting that addition of this mode of exercise to GA supplementation may improve further the benefits of GA supplementation.

  10. The effect of medroxyprogesterone acetate on pregnancy rates in reindeer calves (Rangifer tarandus

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    Erik Ropstad


    Full Text Available In September 1990, a total of 69 calves with a minimum body weight of 46 kg were allocated into two groups, one treated with a single injection of 75 mg medroxyprogesterone acetate (N = 35, the other serving as control (N=34. Blood samples were collected for progesterone analysis in December 1990 and 1991. Udder palpation was performed in July and September 1990. Treated animals had significantly lower plasma progesterone levels in December 1990. The pregnancy rate as determined by udder palpation was 16.7% for treated animals and 48.3% for controls (P<0.01. All animals which were found to be pregnant had high progesterone levels (>5 ng/ml the following winter. The mean body weight increase was 5.1 kg lower in females which kept their calves until September than in barren females (P<0.05. More than 50% of the pregnant females lost their calves during the summer.

  11. Effects of hydrolyzed yeast supplementation in calf starter on immune responses to vaccine challenge in neonatal calves. (United States)

    Kim, M H; Seo, J K; Yun, C H; Kang, S J; Ko, J Y; Ha, J K


    The effects of hydrolyzed yeast supplementation on growth performance, health and immune-physiological parameters in neonatal calves challenged with vaccine were investigated. Twelve Holstein calves were started in the experiment at 2 ± 1 days of age and were studied for 35 days. Calves were randomly assigned to each of two dietary treatments, a control (CON) and hydrolyzed yeast (HY) group. The calves in the HY group received control calf starter supplemented with 0.2% HY. All calves were given calf starter ad libitum for 5 weeks starting in week 1. Calves were also given whole milk according to a step-down milking protocol. In order to induce immune responses, all calves were challenged with Hog cholera and Erysipelothrix insidiossa live vaccines by intramuscular injection at 3 weeks of age. Growth performance and feed intake were not affected by dietary treatment throughout the experimental period, except that the HY group had significantly higher (P Feeding HY supplemented calf starter resulted in a higher (P calf starter can improve the health status and immune-related serum protein production and affect blood cell composition in neonatal calves after vaccine challenge.

  12. Behaviour of calves in the first weeks of life

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    Wojciech NEJA


    Full Text Available Behavioural observations were conducted on 20 calves (10 bull calves and 10 heifer calves. The first series of observations was made in the first 4 days of life, and the second after a month (within 30 to 33 days of calving. Time from birth to first unassisted standing (standing on all extended legs ranged from 16 minutes (heifers to 158 minutes (bulls for normal calving. Calves born from normal parturitions stood up after an average of 81 minutes and those born from difficult parturitions after 302 minutes. Calves that required assistance at calving showed shorter standing and longer lying time. In the first 4 days of life and after a month, both male and female calves were more often in left lateral recumbency when resting. Heifer calves more often visited the feeder while bull calves more often consumed concentrates, water and hay.

  13. Does temperament affect learning in calves?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Webb, L.E.; Reenen, van C.G.; Jensen, M.B.; Schmitt, O.; Bokkers, E.A.M.


    The aim of the study was to investigate how temperament affects learning ability in calves.Nine two-month-old Holstein-Friesian bull calves were subjected to four challenge tests:novel object (NOT), novel environment (NET), social isolation (SIT), and social isolationwith a novel environmental cue (

  14. Energy metabolism of young, unadapted calves.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schrama, J.W.


    Calves reared for veal or other meat production are usually purchased before 2 weeks of age. The first weeks at the rearing unit represent a critical phase regarding their health. During this period calves are fed at a very low level. In this thesis, the energy metabolism of young, newly purchased c

  15. Effect of Imidocarb dipropionate on the immune response to Foot and Mouth Disease vaccine in healthy and anaplasmosis-infected calves

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    N. A. Afifi


    Full Text Available Aim: This work was performed to investigate the effect of a potent anti-protozoan drug, Imidocarb on the cell mediated and humoral immune response to foot and mouth disease vaccine (FMDV, O1 strain in normal and Anaplasmosis-infected calves. Materials and Methods: A total of 55 male mixed bred calves were used and divided into two main groups of 25 calves each. The first group was healthy and the second was Anaplasma - infected calves. FMDV was administered in both groups. Calves of the first and second groups were subdivided into equal five subgroups of 5 calves each. The first subgroup was vaccinated control. The treated subgroups were each given 3 mg / kg body weight Imidocarb dipropionate in a single intramuscular dose at one week before vaccination, at time of vaccination, one week and two weeks post vaccination with FMDV (O1, respectively. The cellular immune response in the different groups was evaluated weekly, however antibody titers were measured by ELISA and serum neutralization test Results: Imidocarb increased rate of erythrocyte rosette forming lymphocytes when it was administered one week before vaccination, at time of vaccination and one week post vaccination. Imidocarb increased antibody titre of FMDV in both normal and anaplasmosis-infected calves. The protection rate due to challenge with virulent FMDV was high in treated calves as compared with the vaccinated control. Conclusion: The best immunopotentiating effect of Imidocarb is achieved by dosing one week before vaccinating calves with FMD vaccine.

  16. Double blind field evaluation of a trivalent vaccine against respiratory disease in veal calves. (United States)

    Frankena, K; Klaassen, C H; Bosch, J C; van de Braak, A E; van de Haar, A G; van Tilburg, F C; Debouck, P


    A field trial was performed to determine the effect of a trivalent vaccine on Clinical Respiratory Tract Problems (CRTP) in veal calves. The vaccine has been developed to increase immunity against the causal agents of IBR, BVD and BRSV infection. In total 928 calves, housed in 16 compartments of one herd, were involved. In four compartments of 58 calves each, vaccinated and non-vaccinated calves were housed together. Four other compartments were treated as a whole and 8 compartments were left untreated. CRTP incidence, medications, weight gain, haemoglobulin and IgG level were recorded. From CRTP positive animals, seroconversion and presence of specific bacteriae and/or viruses were measured as well. Results of the compartments where vaccinated and non-vaccinated calves were housed together showed that the incidence of CRTP in vaccinated calves was 0.16 while it amounted to 0.28 in controls. Most cases were found between day 40 and 60 after the start of the trial. Seroconversion for vaccine specific viruses was sporadically found, but the presence of Pasteurella's was confirmed in the majority of cases. Presumably, the higher incidence of CRTP in the control group was due to a higher level of BVDV infection which might facilitate a clinical infection with Pasteurella's. Vaccination was also negatively related to the percentage of affected lungs at slaughter, the number of days antibiotics had to be administered and subsequently to medicine costs, although these effects were not significant. Daily weight gain was significantly affected by CRTP, but not by vaccination. The effects of vaccination in the compartments where calves were either all vaccinated or not-vaccinated, were similar or larger when compared to the effects in compartments where half of the calves were vaccinated.


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    C. C. Lima


    Full Text Available The present study evaluated the growth of nursling Nelore calves supplemented with chromium during creep feeding. The study was conducted using 131 Nelore calves with an average age of 60 days and average adjusted initial weight of 75 kg; considering that all calves were accompanied by their mothers. Therefore, the experimental groups were defined as T1: 35 males supplemented with chromium; T2: 34 males without chromium, T3: 30 females supplemented with chromium and T4: 32 females supplemented without chromium. The experimental period lasted from 60 days of age to 210 days (weaning, the animals were kept in two pickets of Panicum maximum cv. Mombasa provided with troughs for the creep feeding system, which permitted calves exclusive access to the concentrate formula based on 75% of TDN and 20% of crude protein, with 35% of soybean meal, 63% of corn and 2% of mineral nucleus containing 10 mg of chromium chelate for each kg of the product. The data were subjected to the analysis of variance, using the software R (R Development Core Team, 2013. In the evaluation of the live weight at 150 days of age, no significant difference was found in the use of chromium in males and females (regardless of sex. However, in the analysis between sexes, females’ live weights were lower than males’ live weight (p = 0.04, being 131.1 kg and 138.1 kg respectively. In the evaluation of live weight at 210 days there was no significant difference between males and females (p = 0.07, but there was a difference (p = 0.03 in the use of chrome in the evaluated treatments. So, it could be concluded that the creep feeding system with chrome chelate supplementation promoted an improvement in male and females calves’ growth for average daily weight gain and weaning weight, with a positive influence on the weight of cows.

  18. [Grazing systems, rotenone and parasites control in crossbred calves: effect on live weight gain and on parasites burdens]. (United States)

    Catto, João B; Bianchin, Ivo; Santurio, Jânio M; Feijó, Gelson L D; Kichel, Armindo N; Silva, José M da


    Practices for endo and ectoparasite control in beef cattle were evaluated in two independent experiments. First, the effects of rotenone on Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus ticks were evaluated in vitro and in experimentally infected calves. In the second trial, the effects of grazing systems associated with endo and ectoparasite treatments on parasite burden and weight gain of naturally parasited animals were evaluated. Rotenone showed acaricide action on larvae and engorged ticks during in vitro tests and on larvae in experimentally infected calves. Three treatments with endectocide decreased (P parasited by horn fly, tick and larvae of Dermatobia hominis and the group treated with rotenone were significantly less parasited by horn fly in relation to control. Animals under rotational grazing showed significantly higher EPG than those under continuous grazing. Three treatments with endectocide in the dry season plus three acaricide treatments with fipronil in the raining season reduced EPG, tick, and screw worm larva counts, and provided a significant increase (23 kg) of live weight gain in relation to untreated animals.

  19. Veal Calves Produce Less Antibodies against C. Perfringens Alpha Toxin Compared to Beef Calves

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    Bonnie R. Valgaeren


    Full Text Available Enterotoxaemia is a disease with a high associated mortality rate, affecting beef and veal calves worldwide, caused by C. perfringens alpha toxin and perfringolysin. A longitudinal study was conducted to determine the dynamics of antibodies against these toxins in 528 calves on 4 beef and 15 veal farms. The second study aimed to determine the effect of solid feed intake on the production of antibodies against alpha toxin and perfringolysin. The control group only received milk replacer, whereas in the test group solid feed was provided. Maternal antibodies for alpha toxin were present in 45% of the veal calves and 66% of the beef calves. In beef calves a fluent transition from maternal to active immunity was observed for alpha toxin, whereas almost no veal calves developed active immunity. Perfringolysin antibodies significantly declined both in veal and beef calves. In the second study all calves were seropositive for alpha toxin throughout the experiment and solid feed intake did not alter the dynamics of alpha and perfringolysin antibodies. In conclusion, the present study showed that veal calves on a traditional milk replacer diet had significantly lower alpha toxin antibodies compared to beef calves in the risk period for enterotoxaemia, whereas no differences were noticed for perfringolysin.


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    H. Nanbakhsh


    Full Text Available Urban drainage systems are vital infrastructure assets, which protect our cities from flooding and transmission of waterborne diseases. The objective of this research was to assess the treatment efficiencies of experimental stormwater detention (extended storage systems receiving concentrated runoff that had been primary treated by filtration with different aggregates. Five detention systems with different packing order arrangements of aggregates and plant roots were used in the system to test the effects of gravel, sand, ecosoil, block paving and turf on the water treatment performance. Inflow water, polluted by road runoff, was collected by manual abstraction with a 2 litter beaker from randomly selected gully pots the near by main roads. Several parameters such as BOD5, NO3, PO4, NH4, SS, TS, DO, pH, EC, NTU and temperature were examined based on standard method book. Results showed that concentrations of biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5 in contrast to suspended solids (SS were frequently reduced to below international secondary wastewater treatment standards. The BOD and SS concentrations within the outflow from the planted system compared to the unplanted gravel and sand systems were similar. However, BOD in the outflow of system 5 was lower than other systems. The denitrification process was not completed. This resulted in higher outflow than inflow nitrate-nitrogen concentrations. An analysis of variance indicated that some systems were similar in terms of most of their treatment performance variables including BOD and SS. It follows that there is no need to use additional aggregates with high adsorption capacities in the primary treatment stage from the water quality point of view.

  1. Antigen-presenting cells transfected with Hsp65 messenger RNA fail to treat experimental tuberculosis

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    Rocha, C.D.; Trombone, A.P.F.; Lorenzi, J.C.C.; Almeida, L.P.; Gembre, A.F.; Padilha, E. [Departamento de Bioquímica e Imunologia, Faculdade de Medicina de Ribeirão Preto, Universidade de São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, SP (Brazil); Ramos, S.G. [Departamento de Patologia, Faculdade de Medicina de Ribeirão Preto, Universidade de São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, SP (Brazil); Silva, C.L.; Coelho-Castelo, A.A.M. [Departamento de Bioquímica e Imunologia, Faculdade de Medicina de Ribeirão Preto, Universidade de São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, SP (Brazil)


    In the last several years, the use of dendritic cells has been studied as a therapeutic strategy against tumors. Dendritic cells can be pulsed with peptides or full-length protein, or they can be transfected with DNA or RNA. However, comparative studies suggest that transfecting dendritic cells with messenger RNA (mRNA) is superior to other antigen-loading techniques in generating immunocompetent dendritic cells. In the present study, we evaluated a new therapeutic strategy to fight tuberculosis using dendritic cells and macrophages transfected with Hsp65 mRNA. First, we demonstrated that antigen-presenting cells transfected with Hsp65 mRNA exhibit a higher level of expression of co-stimulatory molecules, suggesting that Hsp65 mRNA has immunostimulatory properties. We also demonstrated that spleen cells obtained from animals immunized with mock and Hsp65 mRNA-transfected dendritic cells were able to generate a mixed Th1/Th2 response with production not only of IFN-γ but also of IL-5 and IL-10. In contrast, cells recovered from mice immunized with Hsp65 mRNA-transfected macrophages were able to produce only IL-5. When mice were infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis and treated with antigen-presenting cells transfected with Hsp65 mRNA (therapeutic immunization), we did not detect any decrease in the lung bacterial load or any preservation of the lung parenchyma, indicating the inability of transfected cells to confer curative effects against tuberculosis. In spite of the lack of therapeutic efficacy, this study reports for the first time the use of antigen-presenting cells transfected with mRNA in experimental tuberculosis.

  2. Effects of the supplementation with yeast (saccharomyces cerevisiae on weight gain and development of water buffalo calves

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    N. García


    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of a commercial yeast culture (Saccharomyces cerevisiae on weight gain and development of buffalo calves from water buffalo herd in north of Colombia. The buffalo calves (age: 71,12 +/- 22 days old were randomly assigned to one of two treatments, during 45 days. One group (n=13 received 50 gr/day of commercial product of yeast and the other group (n = 13 don’t received yeast. The buffalo calves grazed in same pastures under same milking system. All animals were weighed and measured weekly. During the test the animals gain 11,38 +/- 5,2 Kgr y 13.92 +/- 5,0 Kgr by treated and non treated calves, respectively. The increase of the corporal measures during the test was (cm: Toraxic Circumference 7,0 +/- 5,58 Vs 9,23 +/- 4,02, Height 5,77 +/- 6,81 Vs 5,92 +/- 4,5 and Length 2,92 +/- 8,17 Vrs 0,54 +/- 4,86 by treated and no treated calves, respectively. No statistic difference was found between groups. In conclusion, the feeding with yeast culture didn’t increase significantly the weight gain and development in water buffalo calves.

  3. Evaluation study of calves with total artificial heart (TAH) surviving for 218-293 days of pumping. (United States)

    Vasků, J; Vasků, J; Dostál, M; Guba, P; Gregor, Z; Vasků, A; Urbánek, P; Necas, J; Dolezel, S; Cídl, K


    Evaluation of five longest surviving calves among a total of 54 longterm survivors, at the Brno Research Centre was performed. These calves were treated by administration of antihypertensives and partially by electrical stimulation of the right atrium to reduce central venous pressure (CVP). Treatment for CVP was effective, as compared with two groups of 5 calves each not treated in this way, and it is assumed to be an important factor for prolongation of survival. Mineralization of driving diaphragms was present in all these calves. No preventive measures of this pathologic change were performed in this group. Another complication is hemolysis, which is partly caused by immune mechanisms initiated by administration of alpha-methyl dopa and partly by mechanical destruction due to a heavily mineralized driving diaphragm. The prevention of mineralization is another important problem for future research. Other problems, concerning the survival of TAH recipients are discussed.

  4. Effect of Cobalt Supplementation on Performance of growing Calves

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    Full Text Available The experiment was conducted to study the effect of critical supplementation of wheat straw with cobalt on fibre utilization and nutrient utilization in growing cross-bred male calves. Twenty-one crossbred (HF X Local male growing calves of 3-4 months age were fed with wheat straw based diet consisting without (Co0 and with 1 (Co1 and 6 (Co6 ppm cobalt as cobaltous chloride. There was no significant difference in intake of wheat straw, concentrate and DMI between the three groups and the ratio between concentrate and wheat straw was maintained at 40:60 irrespective of dietary level of cobalt. Similarly, average cumulative body weight, net gain in body weight or feed efficiency did not differ significantly between treatments. No significant effect was observed on the digestibility of dry matter, organic matter, crude protein, ether extract and fibre constituents like NDF, ADF, hemicellulose or cellulose by supplementation of 1 and 6 ppm Co to the diet of growing calves. Balance of nutrients such as Nitrogen, Calcium and Phosphorus was similar and positive in all the treatment groups. TDN and DCP values of the experimental diets remained almost similar irrespective of dietary level of cobalt. [Veterinary World 2008; 1(10.000: 299-302

  5. Effect of hot-iron disbudding on behaviour and plasma cortisol of calves sedated with xylazine. (United States)

    Stilwell, G; Carvalho, R C; Carolino, N; Lima, M S; Broom, D M


    We investigated cortisol and behaviour for the first hour after hot-iron disbudding of calves aged 37+/-4 days: disbudded after i/m xylazine (n=10); disbudded after i/m xylazine and regional anaesthesia with lidocaine (n=10); sham-disbudded after xylazine and lidocaine (n=11); sham-disbudded after i/m saline and lidocaine (n=10). Xylazine-treated groups had higher cortisol than saline-treated animals and showed no differences among them at any time. Sham-disbudded calves with xylazine had lower cortisol at 60 min compared with all other times. Xylazine-alone disbudded calves struggled more during the procedure than all other groups. Xylazine-alone disbudded calves showed more ear-flicks at 10, 25 and 40 min and head-shakes at 40 min than all other groups. We conclude that cortisol should not be used as an indicator of pain in disbudded calves while under the sedative effect of xylazine and that some behaviours during and after the procedure are useful in showing that xylazine alone does not control hot-iron disbudding pain. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Characterization and time course of pulmonary lesions in calves after intratracheal infection with Pasteurella multocida A:3. (United States)

    Dagleish, M P; Finlayson, J; Bayne, C; MacDonald, S; Sales, J; Hodgson, J C


    Pasteurella multocida A:3 is a common cause of suppurative bronchopneumonia in calves and results in significant production losses and mortality. Here we describe the lesions in three calves at each of four time points (1 day and 4, 7 and 10 days) after experimental intratracheal infection with approximately 1x10(9) colony-forming units of P. multocida A:3 Moredun Research Institute (MRI isolate 671/90). Equivalent age- and time-matched sham-dosed negative control animals were also studied. Infected calves developed significantly elevated mean rectal temperatures (Pmultocida A:3 and provides the foundations for further investigation of the pathogenesis of this disease in cattle.

  7. Does temperament affect learning in calves?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Webb, Laura E.; van Reenen, Cornelis G.; Jensen, Margit Bak;


    challenge tests, may affect learning an operant conditioning task in calves. Understanding how temperament affects learning in calves can help with the training of calves on novel automated feeding apparatuses or on novel feed components, and can thus help improve calf health and welfare....... on learning variables, and these were proposed to reflect feed motivation and working speed. A single correlation was found between temperament and learning PC scores: high activity was associated with low feed motivation. This preliminary exploratory study suggests that temperament, as assessed during...

  8. Charge effect of a liposomal delivery system encapsulating simvastatin to treat experimental ischemic stroke in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Campos-Martorell M


    Full Text Available Mireia Campos-Martorell,1 Mary Cano-Sarabia,2 Alba Simats,1 Mar Hernández-Guillamon,1 Anna Rosell,1 Daniel Maspoch,2,3 Joan Montaner1,4 1Neurovascular Research Laboratory, Institut de Recerca Vall d’Hebron, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Barcelona, 2Catalan Institute of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology (ICN2, CSIC and The Barcelona Institute of Science and Technology, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Barcelona, 3Institució Catalana de Recerca i Estudis Avançats (ICREA, 4Neurovascular Unit, Department of Neurology, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Hospital Vall d’Hebron, Barcelona, Spain Background and aims: Although the beneficial effects of statins on stroke have been widely demonstrated both in experimental studies and in clinical trials, the aim of this study is to prepare and characterize a new liposomal delivery system that encapsulates simvastatin to improve its delivery into the brain. Materials and methods: In order to select the optimal liposome lipid composition with the highest capacity to reach the brain, male Wistar rats were submitted to sham or transitory middle cerebral arterial occlusion (MCAOt surgery and treated (intravenous [IV] with fluorescent-labeled liposomes with different net surface charges. Ninety minutes after the administration of liposomes, the brain, blood, liver, lungs, spleen, and kidneys were evaluated ex vivo using the Xenogen IVIS® Spectrum imaging system to detect the load of fluorescent liposomes. In a second substudy, simvastatin was assessed upon reaching the brain, comparing free and encapsulated simvastatin (IV administration. For this purpose, simvastatin levels in brain homogenates from sham or MCAOt rats at 2 hours or 4 hours after receiving the treatment were detected through ultra-high-protein liquid chromatography. Results: Whereas positively charged liposomes were not detected in brain or plasma 90 minutes after their administration, neutral and negatively charged liposomes

  9. Synthetic sex pheromone attracts the leishmaniasis vector Lutzomyia longipalpis to experimental chicken sheds treated with insecticide

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    Brazil Reginaldo P


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Current strategies for controlling American visceral leishmaniasis (AVL have been unable to prevent the spread of the disease across Brazil. With no effective vaccine and culling of infected dogs an unpopular and unsuccessful alternative, new tools are urgently needed to manage populations of the sand fly vector, Lutzomyia longipalpis Lutz and Neiva (Diptera: Psychodidae. Here, we test two potential strategies for improving L. longipalpis control using the synthetic sand fly pheromone (±-9-methylgermacrene-B: the first in conjunction with spraying of animal houses with insecticide, the second using coloured sticky traps. Results Addition of synthetic pheromone resulted in greater numbers of male and female sand flies being caught and killed at experimental chicken sheds sprayed with insecticide, compared to pheromone-less controls. Furthermore, a ten-fold increase in the amount of sex pheromone released from test sheds increased the number of females attracted and subsequently killed. Treating sheds with insecticide alone resulted in a significant decrease in numbers of males attracted to sheds (compared to pre-spraying levels, and a near significant decrease in numbers of females. However, this effect was reversed through addition of synthetic pheromone at the time of insecticide spraying, leading to an increase in number of flies attracted post-treatment. In field trials of commercially available different coloured sticky traps, yellow traps caught more males than blue traps when placed in chicken sheds. In addition, yellow traps fitted with 10 pheromone lures caught significantly more males than pheromone-less controls. However, while female sand flies showed a preference for both blue and yellow pheromone traps sticky traps over white traps in the laboratory, neither colour caught significant numbers of females in chicken sheds, either with or without pheromone. Conclusions We conclude that synthetic pheromone could

  10. Haematological Studies of Gaolao Calves

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    P. M. Kapale


    Full Text Available The hematological study in fifteen healthy Gaolao calves ranging from birth to 12 months of age indicate the mean ± S.E. value of TEC (11.00± 0.20 million/, Hb (14.27±0.43 gm%, PCV (35.00±0.79%, MCV (31.70±0.92 cu.μ, MCH (13.04±0.84 μ. μgm, MCHC (41.16±1.76%, TLC (07.49±0.39 thousand/, Lymphocytes (71.87 ±1.45%, Neutrophil (23.27±1.27%, Monocyte (1.3 ±0.25%, Basophil (0.27±0.12% and Esonophil (3.4 ±0.49%. [Veterinary World 2008; 1(1.000: 17-17

  11. Growth performance of calves fed microbially enhanced soy protein in pelleted starters. (United States)

    Senevirathne, N D; Anderson, J L; Gibbons, W R; Clapper, J A


    Our objective was to determine effects of feeding calves pelleted starters with microbially enhanced (fungi-treated) soy protein (MSP) in replacement of soybean meal (SBM) with different milk replacers (MR). Thirty-six Holstein calves (2 d old; 24 females, 12 males) in individual hutches were used in a 12-wk randomized complete block design study. Treatments were (1) MSP pellets with MR formulated for accelerated growth (28% crude protein, 18% fat; MSPA), (2) SBM pellets with MR formulated for accelerated growth (SBMA), and (3) MSP pellets with conventional MR (20% crude protein, 20% fat; MSPC). Pellets were similar except for 23% MSP or 23% SBM (dry matter basis). Pellets and water were fed ad libitum throughout the study. Feeding rates of MR on a dry matter basis were 0.37kg twice daily during wk 1, 0.45kg twice daily during wk 2 to 5, and 0.45kg once daily during wk 6. Intakes were recorded daily. Body weights, frame size measurements, and jugular blood samples were collected 2 d every 2 wk at 3 h after the morning feeding. Fecal grab samples were collected 5 times per d for 3 d during wk 12 and then composited by calf for analysis of apparent total-tract digestibility of nutrients using acid detergent insoluble ash as an internal marker. Total and starter pellet dry matter intake were greatest for calves fed SBMA and least for MSPC. Calves had similar average daily gain among treatments, but there was a treatment by week interaction and during the last few weeks of the study calves on MSPC had less body weight compared with MSPA or SBMA. Gain-to-feed ratio was similar among treatments; however, there was a treatment by week interaction. Serum glucose was similar among treatments. Plasma urea nitrogen was greatest for calves fed MSPA and least for MSPC. Plasma concentrations of IGF-1 were greatest for calves fed SBMA. Plasma concentrations of triglycerides were greatest for calves fed MSPC. Plasma concentrations of β-hydroxybutyrate had a treatment by time

  12. Supplementation of female calves in creep feeding system and productive and nutritional parameters of beef cows on tropical pasture


    Lívia de Vieira Barros; Mário Fonseca Paulino; Mário Luiz Chizzotti; Luciana Navajas Rennó; Javier Enrique Garces Cardenas; Eriton Egídio Lisboa Valente;; Sidnei Antônio Lopes; Carla Heloisa Avelino Cabral; Nelcino Francisco de Paula; Felipe Gomes da Silva


    The performance of female calves in creep-feeding system receiving only mineral mixture or multiple supplements; and milk production and pasture intake and digestibility of beef cows on Urochloa decumbens pastures, were assessed. Forty-eight suckling female calves aged 5 months on average, with an initial weight of 125.4 ± 1.34 kg, and their respective mothers initially weighing 435.2 ± 10.3 kg, were used. The experimental design was completely randomized. Supplements contained approximately ...

  13. An experimental study on thymus immune tolerance to treat surgical brain injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zheng Yongtao; Kang Jianmin; Liu Baolong; Fan Weijia; Wu Qiaoli; Luo Kai; Yan Hua


    Background Many researches demonstrate that the secondary brain injury which is caused by autoimmune attack toward brain antigens plays an important role in surgical brain injury (SBI).Although traditional immunosuppression can reduce autoimmune attack,it will lower the body immunity.Immune tolerance,by contrast,not only does not lower the body immunity,but also could lighten autoimmunity.This study used thymus tolerance to develop an immune system that is tolerant to autologous cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and autologous brain tissue so that autoimmune injury can be suppressed following the disruption of the blood-brain barrier,thereby reducing brain damage.Methods Eighty experimental rabbits were divided into five groups by random number table method:16 in SBI group (group A),16 in SBI+CSF drainage group (group B),16 in SBI+CSF drainage+PBS injection group (group C),16 in SBI+CSF drainage+CSF intrathymic injection group (group D),and 16 in SBl+brain homogenate intrathymic injection group (group E).Rabbits' CSF was drained in group B; was drained and injected PBS into thymus in group C; was drained and injected CSF into thymus in group D; and was injected brain homogenate in group E.Half of the rabbits in each group were phlebotomized on 1st,3rd,7th,and 14th days to observe the changes in IL-I,TGF-β by ELISA test,and CD4CD25 regulatory T cells ratio by flow cytometry,and in other animals brain tissues were taken on 7th day for exploring FasL expression by RT-PCR.The least significant difference (LSD) test was used to make paired comparisons; P <0.05 was considered statistically significant.Results The levels of FasL,TGF-β,and the ratios of CD4CD25 regulatory T cells in groups D and E were apparently higher than those in other three groups (P <0.05).Likewise,the levels of IL-1 in these two groups were lower than the other three groups (P <0.05).Moreover,the ratios of CD4CD25 regulatory T cells and the levels of TGF-β in groups B and C were higher than those

  14. Experimental Investigation and Analysis of Mercerized and Citric Acid Surface Treated Bamboo Fiber Reinforced Composite (United States)

    De, Jyotiraman; Baxi, R. N., Dr.


    Mercerization or NaOH fiber surface treatment is one of the most popular surface treatment processes to make the natural fibers such as bamboo fibers compatible for use as reinforcing material in composites. But NaOH being a chemical is hazardous and polluting to the nature. This paper explores the possibility of use of naturally derived citric acid for bamboo fiber surface treatment and its comparison with NaOH treated Bamboo Fiber Composites. Untreated, 2.5 wt% NaOH treated and 5 wt% citric acid treated Bamboo Fiber Composites with 5 wt% fiber content were developed by Hand Lay process. Bamboo mats made of bamboo slivers were used as reinforcing material. Mechanical and physical characterization was done to compare the effects of NaOH and citric acid bamboo fiber surface treatment on mechanical and physical properties of Bamboo Fiber Composite. The experiment data reveals that the tensile and flexural strength was found to be highest for citric acid and NaOH treated Bamboo Fiber Composite respectively. Water absorption tendency was found more than the NaOH treated Bamboo Fiber Composites. SEM micrographs used to analyze the morphology of fracture surface of tensile test specimens confirm improvement in fiber-matrix interface bonding due to surface treatment of bamboo fibers.

  15. Effects of short term clinoptilolite supplementation on weight gain in Holstein calves

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    Deniz Alic Ural


    Full Text Available Objective. To determine whether short term supplemantation at two levels (1 or 2 g/kg of clinoptilolite (CLNP in the colostrum of dairy calves had any effect on total weight gain (TWG and mean daily gain of weight (mdwg. Materials and methods. A total of 24 clinically healthy calves without diarrhea were assigned in a subset of three major groups of calves were studied: group I (n=8 received colostrum with clnp at the rate of 1/kg started immediately following calving at 12 and 24 hours, for a total of 2 doses. Group II consisted of calves (n=8 receiving colostrum with clnp at the rate of 2/kg within the same interval as the first experimental group. The last group III, which served as control, received solely colostrum. Results. Group had significant effect on weight (kg of Holstein calves [twg (mean±SE- control: 12.66±0.349, group I: 14.73±0.414, group II: 14.19±0.468, p<0.01; mdwg (mean±SE-control: 0.338±0.0155, group I: 0.396±0.0189, group II: 0.397±0.0196, p<0.05]. There was a significant difference observed for twg (p<0.01 and mdwg (p<0.05 among control group and both clnp treatment groups. Conclusions. The results showed that the addition of both levels of clinoptilolite administration via colostrum appeared to enhance twg and mdwg in newborn calves without having any observable adverse effect.

  16. The ethics of industry experimentation using employees: the case of taste-testing pesticide-treated tobacco. (United States)

    McDaniel, Patricia A; Solomon, Gina; Malone, Ruth E


    In the United States, companies that use their own funds to test consumer products on their employees are subject to few regulations. Using previously undisclosed tobacco industry documents, we reviewed the history of that industry's efforts to create internal guidelines on the conditions to be met before employee taste testers could evaluate cigarettes made from tobacco treated with experimental pesticides. This history highlights 2 potential ethical issues raised by unregulated industrial research: conflict of interest and lack of informed consent. To ensure compliance with accepted ethical standards, an independent federal office should be established to oversee industrial research involving humans exposed to experimental or increased quantities of ingested, inhaled, or absorbed chemical agents.

  17. [Effect of ad lib and restricted milk feeding on the course of illness and body weight in young calves with diarrhea]. (United States)

    Hinderer, A; Seemann, G; Klee, W


    Two different feeding regimens for calves (age up to 21 days) suffering from acute diarrhea were evaluated with respect to course of illness and change in body weight. The patients of the experimental group were given whole milk ad libitum three times a day. The patients of the control group were offered whole milk at a rate of 13% their body mass per day divided into three meals. In addition, both groups were offered an oral rehydration solution at a rate 9.5% of body mass per day, also divided into three portions. Data from 60 calves (30 in both groups) were available for statistical analysis. The duration of illness in the experimental group was 10.9 +/- 6.0 days vs. 10.0 +/- 5.2 days in the control group. The daily increase of body mass in the experimental group averaged 0.607 +/- 0.452 kg, the one in the control group 0.230 +/- 0.231 kg (p = 0.0002). The calves of the experimental group required 13.16 +/- 11.18 I milk per kg weight gain, the calves of the control group 21.39 +/- 12.80 I. Six calves of the experimental group and two calves of the control group subsequently had a relapse. On the basis of the results obtained, a feeding regimen for calves suffering from acute diarrhea is suggested.

  18. Impact of insecticide-treated nets on wild pyrethroid resistant Anopheles epiroticus population from southern Vietnam tested in experimental huts


    Trung Ho; Speybroeck Niko; Berkvens Dirk; Chinh Vu; Van Bortel Wim; Coosemans Marc


    Abstract Background In this study, the efficacy of insecticide-treated nets was evaluated in terms of deterrence, blood-feeding inhibition, induced exophily and mortality on a wild resistant population of Anopheles epiroticus in southern Vietnam, in order to gain insight into the operational consequences of the insecticide resistance observed in this malaria vector in the Mekong delta. Method An experimental station, based on the model of West Africa and adapted to the behaviour of the target...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lubo Zbransk


    Full Text Available Healthy and strong individuals are fundamental in every cattle breeding. The aim of this study was to find out which of these given supplement had the best influence on calf weight gain in the early period after weaning to milk nutrition. This research was carried out in cooperation with the farm in Haklovy Dvory. Calves were studied from March 2012 to February 2013. They were weaned into outdoor individual box after birth. There were added supplements into their ration in the first two weeks of life. Calves were partitioned according to the added supplement into three experimental groups and one control group. The first weight control of calves was after birth and the second weight control was at the age of thirty days. The average weight gain was calculated from the differences in these values. The best demonstrable effect was in the experimental Homeopathy and Prebiotics (Biopolym groups with the average increment of 26.9 kilograms, then in the experimental Probiotics (Lactovita group with the average increment of 26.1 kilograms. The last group was the Control one, there was not any change in the calves ration and their average increment was 23.5 kilograms. The results of the statistical evaluation was p = 0.0572 in the Biopolym group, p = 0.2570 in the Lactovita group and p = 0.2124 in the Homeopathy group versus the Control group. It can be concluded from the results of this study that calves had a positive reaction on the supplements added in the first days of life and these had a favourable effect on diarrhoea prevention. Prebiotics, homeopathic drugs and probiotics beneficially stimulate calvesdigestive system and, in general, they have a positive effect on the calves physiological condition.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kate Sharon


    Full Text Available Infectious Bovine Rhinotracheitis (IBR, caused by bovine herpesvirus-1, contributes significantly to economic losses in the dairy and beef cattle industry. Lysine has been shown reduce virulence of herpesviruses in felids and humans. Our objective was to evaluate the effects of supplemental lysine on serum IBR antibody titer and rectal temperature in response to a modified-live Intranasal (IN or Intramuscular (IM respiratory-virus vaccination. Sixty-four neonatal Holstein bull calves (7±2 d of age; BW = 37±4.2 kg were used in a completely randomized design. Calves were fed milk replacer supplemented with either 17 g/d L-lysine monohydrochloride (LYS; 28 calves or an equivalent amount of casein (CAS; 28 calves for 42 d. Calves were then vaccinated with either an IN IBR-Parainfluenza virus-3 (PI3 or an IM (IBR-PI3-bovine viral diarrhea type I and II, bovine respiratory syncytial virus modified-live vaccine on d 36. A control group (8 calves received no supplement or vaccination. All calves were housed in individual calf pens (1.2×2.1 m. Daily feed intakes were monitored and BW measured weekly. Calves were bled on d 0, 35, 36, 37 and 42. Temperature data loggers were attached to rectal probes and temperatures were recorded every 5 min from d 28 to d 42. No significant differences were determined for average performance, rectal temperature, or IBR antibody titers with either IN or IM vaccinations between LYS and CAS treated calves (p>0.10. However, serum urea nitrogen and the ratio of serum lysine: Arginine increased (p<0.05 for LYS compared to CAS calves. These results suggest that supplementing lysine impacts nitrogen metabolism but does not alter the response to IBR vaccination or animal performance in neonatal Holstein calves.

  1. Influence of colostrum preservation and sodium bicarbonate on performance of dairy calves. (United States)

    Jenny, B F; Hodge, S E; O'Dell, G D; Ellers, J E


    Forty-eight Holstein calves were fed one of four liquid diets from 3 to 30 days of age to compare sodium benzoate, propionic acid, and formaldehyde as preservatives for colostrum. Colostrum batches were fermented at temperatures of 20 degrees C or higher. Diets were 2.73 kg of 1) naturally fermented colostrum, or colostrum treated with 2) sodium benzoate (.5% by weight), 3) propionic acid (1.0% by weight), or 4) formaldehyde (.05% by weight). Colostrum diets were diluted with .91 kg water. Prior to feeding, 25 g. sodium bicarbonate was added to liquid diets of one-half the calves on each treatment. Liquid diets were fed once daily. Water and a 15% crude protein complete starter were offered for ad libitum consumption. Calves were weaned abruptly at 30 days of age and received only water and starter from 31 to 44 days of age. Daily gain from 0 to 4 wk and 0 to 6 wk favored calves fed colostrum treated with sodium benzoate or propionic acid. Gains from 0 to 6 wk were .33, .44, .45, and .32 kg/day for the four diets, and feed efficiencies (kg dry matter intake/kg gain) were 3.23, 2.36, 2.76, and 2.89 during the same period. Addition of sodium bicarbonate to colostrum diets improved intake during the 1st wk of feeding. Gain and feed efficiency were similar during wk 0 to 4 but favored slightly calves not receiving sodium bicarbonate during the overall study, wk 0 to 6. Daily gain and efficiencies during wk 0 to 6 were .41 and 2.53 for calves without .36 and 3.01 with sodium bicarbonate added to colostrum diets.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  2. Level of cortisol and reactivity of adrenal cortex to exogenous ACTH at neonatal period in calves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Friedrich, M. [Akademia Rolnicza, Szczecin (Poland)


    The studies were carried out on calves from 1st to 21st day of life. Cortisol level and reactivity of adrenal cortex to exogenous ACTH were analysed. The highest level of cortisol in blood was observed in first days of life in the calves. Then the level became considerably decreased. In the experimental group two subgroups differing in cortisol level were distinguished. High or low level occurred on the first day and the difference kept over two weeks of their life. Adrenal cortex just on the day of birth showed full functional maturity of molecular receptors binding ACTH. (author). 15 refs.

  3. Health and growth of veal calves fed milk replacers with or without probiotics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Timmerman, H.M.; Mulder, L.; Everts, H.; Espen, van D.C.; Wal, van der E.; Klaassen, G.; Rouwers, S.M.G.; Hartemink, R.; Rombouts, F.M.; Beynen, A.C.


    Four experiments with 1-wk-old veal calves were conducted to assess the influence of probiotics on growth and health indicators. In experiments 1 and 2, the liquid probiotic supplements were administered daily from experimental d 1 to 15. The treatment period in experiments 3 and 4 was extended to

  4. Health and growth of veal calves fed milk replacers with or without probiotics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Timmerman, H.M.; Mulder, L.; Everts, H.; Espen, van D.C.; Wal, van der E.; Klaassen, G.; Rouwers, S.M.G.; Hartemink, R.; Rombouts, F.M.; Beynen, A.C.


    Four experiments with 1-wk-old veal calves were conducted to assess the influence of probiotics on growth and health indicators. In experiments 1 and 2, the liquid probiotic supplements were administered daily from experimental d 1 to 15. The treatment period in experiments 3 and 4 was extended to 5

  5. Health and growth of veal calves fed milk replacers with or without probiotics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Timmerman, H.M.; Mulder, L.; Everts, H.; Espen, van D.C.; Wal, van der E.; Klaassen, G.; Rouwers, S.M.G.; Hartemink, R.; Rombouts, F.M.; Beynen, A.C.


    Four experiments with 1-wk-old veal calves were conducted to assess the influence of probiotics on growth and health indicators. In experiments 1 and 2, the liquid probiotic supplements were administered daily from experimental d 1 to 15. The treatment period in experiments 3 and 4 was extended to 5


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available At our work we have analysed the organisation of calving in Charolais breed during the years from 1998 to 2001 at selected farm. Our monitoring of calving during winter season (from January to February shows the percentage of calving was in particular years ranged from 43.2 to 71.1. The most calves were born in February. We found out (total all years diffi cult calving (value 3 in 2 cases in April (1998 and 1999 and 1 case in February (1998 and 1 in March (1999. Calving marked with value 2 (total of all years we found out in January (2 cases, February (3 cases, March (4 cases and from September to December past one case. From 18 cases of diffi cult calving what we found out, 11 calves (61.11 % come from CHV 529 bull. In calves born by normal calving was found out average weight 34.75 kg, in ones born by calving with level 2 of diffi culty 36.36 kg, and in calves born by calving with diffi culty 3 was recorded average weight 41.5 kg. Recorded weight at 210 days of age in mostly cases was similar like in published breed standard.

  7. Short communication: Flooring preferences of dairy cows at calving. (United States)

    Campler, M; Munksgaard, L; Jensen, M B; Weary, D M; von Keyserlingk, M A G


    The present study investigated the flooring preference during the 30 h before parturition in Holstein dairy cows housed individually in a maternity pen. Seventeen multiparous cows were moved, on average, 2 d before expected calving date into an individual maternity pen with 3 different flooring surfaces: 10 cm of sand, pebble-top rubber mats, or concrete flooring, each covered with 15 cm of straw. Calving location, lying time, and total time and number of lying bouts on each of the floor types were recorded during 2 periods: precalving (24 to 29 h before calving) and at calving (0 to 5h before calving). Ten cows calved on sand, 6 on concrete, and 1 on the rubber mat. Lying bouts increased during the hours closest to calving, regardless of flooring. The number of lying bouts did not differ between flooring types precalving but cows had more lying bouts on sand and concrete compared with rubber at calving. Cows spent more time lying down on sand and concrete compared with rubber precalving, but lying times did not differ between treatments at calving. Cows that calved on sand spent more time lying on sand at calving compared with the other 2 flooring types. Cows that calved on concrete did not show a flooring preference at calving. These results indicate that rubber mats are the least preferred by dairy cows in the maternity pens, even when covered with a deep layer of straw.

  8. [The experimental application of chitosan membrane for treating chemical burns of the skin]. (United States)

    Pogorielov, M; Kalinkevich, O; Gortinskaya, E; Moskalenko, R; Tkachenko, Yu


    The basic method for skin damage treatment, including chemical wounds, is a topical application of different agents. Their objective is to repair structure of the skin and its functions. All dressings for treating wounds are classified as biological, artificial and composites containing both synthetic and natural materials. There are many studies concerning application of chitosan, which is a derivate of natural polymer chitin, as a basis for topical materials to treat burns. However, data are rather limited about application of chitosan for treating acid burns. Thus, the aim of research is to study the morphological futures of skin regeneration after the chemical burn applying chitosan membranes. We performed the experiment on 60 young rats (3 months old) with the chemical burns of third-degree (IIIA degree) to study the morphofunctional features of skin regeneration. Later we applied the chitosan membranes on the burns. We carried out a histologic investigation on the biopsy specimens of wound to determine the morphological features of wound regeneration. The results confirmed that earlier granulation and epithelialization of the skin surface happened as the chitosan membrane was applied on the acid effected surface. The final result of the application of chitosan film is to achieve full epithelialization, preserve the structure of tissues beneath the burn and prevent getting scars.

  9. Clinical pathology of milking calves digestion disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatur Bogo


    Full Text Available The period from calving until normal dry food feeding is very sensitive for preruminat animals. Normal weaning can be successful at 6 to 8 weeks post partum. Young milking calves are very susceptible to bacterial or viral infection if immunity is not reached through colostrum on time. On the other hand indigestions are very frequent and account for one-third of the most frequent disorders in young calves. Parturition losses (dystocia and respiratory diseases are more frequent. The final result of negative environmental and management influences can be the onset of acute or chronic diarrhea associated with long, expensive and often unsuccessful treatment. Acute dehydration and death are not so rare. Etiological reasons are known, it is possible define them: inadequate feeding of pregnant cows and heifers in late stages of pregnancy; hygiene problems and bad management of neonate calves. Contaminated milk, starters and milk substitutes are the main source of scours. These problems are evident on farms where owners or workers do not have the elementary knowledge about physiology, anatomic differences and management principles for preruminant animals. At weaning time calves can develop serious problems when dry feeding does not begin on time. For does that reason normal micro flora and fauna are not able to accept normal function for ruminal digestion.

  10. evaluation of early calves' weaning diet as milk replacer for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    This results in depressed calves' growth rates, high calf mortality rates, late ... additive can be an effective milk- replacer in smallholder dairy production systems to wean dairy calves at 28-35 ... consumption, but also increases cash income for.

  11. Ultrastructural changes in blood vessels in epidermal growth factor treated experimental cutaneous wound model. (United States)

    Kılıçaslan, Seda M Sarı; Cevher, Sule Coşkun; Peker, Emine G Güleç


    This study investigates the impact of epidermal growth factor (EGF) on blood vessels, specifically on the development of intussusceptive angiogenesis in cutaneous wound healing. Excisional wounds were formed on both sides of the medulla spinalis in dorsal location of the rats. The control and EGF-treated groups were divided into two groups with respect to sacrifice day: 5 d and 7 d. EGF was topically applied to the EGF-treated group once a day. The wound tissue was removed from rats, embedded in araldite and paraffin, and then examined under transmission electron and light microscopes. The ultrastructural signs of intussusceptive angiogenesis, such as intraluminal protrusion of endothelial cells and formation of the contact zone of opposite endothelial cells, were observed in the wound. Our statistical analyses, based on light microscopy observations, also confirm that EGF treatment induces intussusceptive angiogenesis. Moreover, we found that induction of EGF impact on intussusceptive angiogenesis is higher on the 7th day of treatment than on the 5th day. This implies that the duration of EGF treatment is important. This research clarifies the effects of EGF on the vessels and proves that EGF induces intussusceptive angiogenesis, being a newer model with respect to sprouting type.

  12. [Experimental model for treating pulmonary metastatic melanoma using grape-seed extract, red wine and ethanol]. (United States)

    Martínez Conesa, Cristina; Vicente Ortega, Vicente; Yáñez Gascón, M Josefa; García Reverte, Juana Maria; Canteras Jordana, Manuel; Alcaraz Baños, Miguel


    Melanoma is one of the neoplasias that most frequently metastasize, especially in the lung, where represents a challenge in oncology since current treatment is ineffective, and mortality is high. Swiss mice (n = 52) were inoculated with 0.5 x 106 B16F10 cell lines and, later, given an oral administration of grape-seed extract, red wine or ethanol. Metastatic nodules on the lung surface were counted and, after processing for microscopy, five sections were selected for image analysis and the invasion index was calculated. Macroscopic analysis showed that grape-seed extract and red wine reduced the number of metastatic nodules by 26.07 and 20.81%, respectively, compared with a control group treated with ethanol. Microscopically, the reduction in the invasion index was 31.65 for grape-seed extract and 17.57% for red wine. Ethanol administration significantly increased pulmonary metastasis while grape-seed extract and red wine led to their reduction.

  13. Experimental investigation of interactions between the temperature field and biofouling in a synthetic treated sewage stream. (United States)

    Yang, Qianpeng; Wilson, D Ian; Chen, Xiaodong; Shi, Lin


    Biofouling causes significant losses in efficiency in heat exchangers recovering waste heat from treated sewage. The influence of the temperature field on biofouling was investigated using a flat plate heat exchanger which simulated the channels in a plate and frame unit. The test surface was a 316 stainless steel plate, and a solution of Bacillus sp. and Aeromonas sp. was used as a model process liquid. The test cell was operated under co-current, counter-current, and constant wall temperature configurations, which gave different temperature distributions. Biofouling was monitored via changes in heat transfer and biofilm thickness. The effect of uniform temperature on biofouling formation was similar to the effect of uniform temperature on planktonic growth of the organisms. Further results showed that the temperature field, and particularly the wall temperature, influenced the rate of biofouling strongly. The importance of wall temperature suggests that fouling could be mitigated by using different configurations in summer and winter.

  14. Biochemical responses in mice experimentally infected with Paracoccidioides brasiliensis and treated with Canova

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gisele Takahachi


    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate biochemical parameters in Paracoccidioides brasiliensis infected mice and the effect of Canova medicine on these parameters. Mice infected with the isolate Paracoccidioides brasiliensis Pb18 and treated with Canova for 17 weeks were used. The biochemical parameters analysed were the levels of aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase and amylase, and the concentration of total proteins, albumin and globulins. The results suggested that the animals that were treated with Canova had less functional alterations in their internal organs.A Paracoccidioidomicose é uma micose sistêmica endêmica em alguns países da América Latina. Essa doença afeta principalmente pulmões, gânglios e mucosas, além de causar diminuição da imunidade celular. O medicamento Canova tem sido utilizado com sucesso por pacientes imunodeprimidos, como por exemplo portadores de câncer e de AIDS. O objetivo desse trabalho foi avaliar aspectos bioquímicos em camundongos infectados com Paracoccidioides brasiliensis e os efeitos do medicamento Canova sobre esses parâmetros. Foram utilizados camundongos infectados com o isolado de Paracoccidioides brasiliensis Pb18 e tratados com o medicamento Canova durante dezessete semanas. Os parâmetros bioquímicos analisados foram níveis de atividade de aspartato amino transferase, alanina amino transferase, fosfatase alcalina e amilase, concentração de proteínas totais, albumina e globulinas. Os resultados obtidos sugerem que os animais que receberam tratamento com o medicamento Canova tiveram menores alterações funcionais nos seus órgãos internos.

  15. Spring migration, calving and post-calving distribution and initial productivity of the Porcupine Caribou Herd, 1986 (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The continued collection of information regarding calving and post-calving distribution, and initial productivity of the Porcupine Caribou Herd is important for...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Arcidiacono


    Full Text Available In this study the Life Cycle Assessment (LCA of the Arundo donax production process for energy purpose is proposed. The cultivation of this type of herbaceous biomass, irrigated with urban wastewater, was carried out in an experimental field, sited in eastern Sicily (Italy. The analysis by LCA makes it possible, among other things, to evaluate the potential environmental impacts related to each phase of the process. In this study a sensitivity analysis of the LCA results were carried out by varying the process stages. Furthermore the incidence of each process stage on the damage categories by varying the cultivation- cycle length was evaluated. The stages constituting the Arundo donax production process, considered in this assessment, regard seedling production, agronomic practices, irrigation, and transport to boiler. The functional unit used in the analyses was 1 ton of biomass and crop productivity values were derived from literature. The analyses allowed to identify the most significant stages of the Arundo donax production process related to the experimental field. In detail, this study highlights that seedling production and irrigation stages contributed most of all to the overall environmental burden, whereas agronomic practices stage showed a minor influence on the process.

  17. Dairy cows with prolonged calving seek additional isolation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rørvang, Maria Vilain; Herskin, Mette S.; Jensen, Margit Bak


    In modern calving facilities, dairy cows either calve in a group pen or are moved to a separate individual pen when calving is imminent. In practice, cows are often moved too close to calving, which poses a health risk to cow and calf. Thus, a need exists for new calving facility designs and mana...... that interactions between motivation for isolation seeking and calving behavior exist.......In modern calving facilities, dairy cows either calve in a group pen or are moved to a separate individual pen when calving is imminent. In practice, cows are often moved too close to calving, which poses a health risk to cow and calf. Thus, a need exists for new calving facility designs...... and management practices that better align with the motivations of the cow. This study examined dairy cow preferences for individual calving pens by offering 3 different levels of isolation (tall and narrow, low and wide, and tall and wide) by analyzing the association between precalving behavior, choice...

  18. Genetic parameters of direct and maternal effects for calving ease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eaglen, S.A.E.; Bijma, P.


    Genetic parameters of direct and maternal effects for calving ease in Dutch dairy cattle were estimated using 677,975 calving ease records from second calving. Particular emphasis was given to the presence and impact of environmental dam-offspring covariances on the estimated direct-maternal genetic

  19. Evaluation of colostrum protection of calves

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    Jonić Branko


    Full Text Available The aim of these investigations was to examine the concentration of total proteins and total immunoglobulins in blood serum of calves and on the bases of the obtained results to evaluate the risk of their contracting a disease in the first month of life. Examinations were carried out on 23 calves maintained in farm conditions, whose medical condition was monitored in the first month of life. Blood samples were taken by puncture from the v. jugularis immediately at birth, and at 24 and 48 hours after that, and blood serum was obtained by spontaneous coaggulation. The concentration of total proteins in blood serum was determined using biuretic probe, and the immunoglobulin level using the refractometric method with the zinc-sulphate test (ZST. The average value of total proteins in calves immediately at birth was low and stood at 42±0.3 g/l. The increased concentration of total proteins in calves after the intake of colostrum is a result of the absorption of colostrum immunoglobulins. A high positive correlation was established between the concentration of total proteins and total immunoglobulins at 24 and 48 hours after birth (rxy = 0.92 and rxy = 0.75. Based on the results of monitoring the health condition and the values for total protein concentrations during the examined period (24 and 48 hours after birth it is possible to make the following risk evaluation regarding diseases in newborn calves: 1 proteinaemia lower than 50 g/l presents a high risk; 2 proteinaemia between 50-54 g/l presents a medium risk: and, 3 proteinaemia between 55-69 g/l presents a low risk for diseases occurring in newborn calves. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR31085

  20. Clinical and hematological alterations in dogs during experimental envenomation with Crotalus durissus terrificus venom and treated with antiophidic serum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. M. B. Nogueira


    Full Text Available The present work aimed to evaluate the clinical and hematological aspects during experimental envenomation by Crotalus durissus terrificus in dogs treated with different antiophidic serum doses. Sixteen dogs were divided into two groups of eight animals each. Group I received 1mg/kg venom subcutaneously and 30mg antiophidic serum intravenously; Group II received 1mg/kg venom subcutaneously and 60mg antiophidic serum intravenously. In the clinical evaluation, we observed ataxia, moderate sedation, dilated pupils, sialorrhea, flaccid paralysis of mandibular muscles, and discreet edema at the site of venom inoculation. Evaluating red and white blood cells, we observed a decrease of hemoglobins, globular volume and erythrocytes, and an increase of plasmatic proteins, leukocytes, neutrophils, monocytes and lymphocytes. Clotting time increased and there was blood incoagulability with return to normal clotting time six hours after antiophidic serum administration. Animals treated with six antiophidic serum flasks had a faster recovery than the animals that received three serum flasks.

  1. Supplementation of grazing suckling beef calves receiving different energy sources

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    Josilaine Aparecida da Costa Lima


    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of different energy sources - corn, sorghum, and wheat bran - on performance, intake, digestibility, and nitrogen utilization efficiency of beef calves subjected to creep feeding. Thirty-four calves (12 males and 22 females with initial age and weight of four months and 108±3.9 kg, respectively, were used in a randomized-block experimental design with four treatments and two blocks (males and females. Treatments were control (MM, a mineral mixture ad libitum; corn (C; corn + sorghum (C+S; and corn + sorghum + wheat bran (C+S+WB. Supplements contained approximately 20% crude protein (CP, and were fed in the amount of 0.5% of body weight. Supplemented animals had higher performance (P < 0.05 when compared with those on treatment MM. Supplementation increased (P < 0.05 the intakes of dry matter (DM, organic matter (OM, crude protein (CP, neutral detergent fiber corrected for ash and protein (NDFap, non-fibrous carbohydrates (NFC, digestible neutral detergent fiber (dNDF, and digestible organic matter (dOM. The digestibility of NFC was higher (P < 0.05 in the supplemented treatments. The C+S and C+S+WB treatments provided increased digestibility (P < 0.05 of OM, CP, and NDFap. The synthesis of nitrogen compounds was higher (P < 0.05 in animals on treatment C as compared with those on the other supplemented treatments. Animals on treatments C+S and C+S+WB had higher (P < 0.05 nitrogen utilization efficiency compared with those on the other treatments. Concentrate supplementation improved the animal performance. The use of other energy sources (sorghum or wheat bran in association with corn is recommended for suckling calves.

  2. Experimental Study on Effect of Renal Failure Granule in Treating Uremia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王琛; 郑平东; 何立群; 王怡


    Objective: To observe the efficacy of Renal Failure Granule (RFG) in treating uremia and explore its mechanism. Methods: Platt's method was used to establish the chronic renal failure model. Forty-eight rats were divided into normal group, model group, Jiangzhuo recipe (降浊方) group, Fuzheng recipe (扶正方) group, RFG group and aldehyde-oxygen encapsulated starch group, 8 rats in each group, to observe the effects of RFG on serum creatinine (SCr), blood urea nitrogen (BUN), plasma calcium (Ca), plasma phosphorus (P), parathyroid hormone (PTH), middle molecular substance (MMS), methylguanidine (MG), guanidinosuccinic acid (GSA) and other parameters. Results: Comparison of SCr and BUN changes after medication for 30 and 60 days, the RFG group, the Fuzheng recipe group and the Jiangzhuo recipe group, with the aldehyde-oxygen encapsulated starch group or model group, demonstrated that the difference was significant (P<0.05, P<0.01), For PTH, Ca, P, MMS, MG and GSA, RFG was clearly different with the model group (P<0.05, P<0.01). Jiangzhuo recipe and Fuzheng recipe group also were variously efficacious in above-mentioned parameters. Conclusions: RFG can retard the development of uremia, and its mechanism may be related to the decrease of uremic toxin.

  3. Factors secreted from dental pulp stem cells show multifaceted benefits for treating experimental rheumatoid arthritis. (United States)

    Ishikawa, Jun; Takahashi, Nobunori; Matsumoto, Takuya; Yoshioka, Yutaka; Yamamoto, Noriyuki; Nishikawa, Masaya; Hibi, Hideharu; Ishigro, Naoki; Ueda, Minoru; Furukawa, Koichi; Yamamoto, Akihito


    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is an autoimmune disease characterized by synovial hyperplasia and chronic inflammation, which lead to the progressive destruction of cartilage and bone in the joints. Numerous studies have reported that administrations of various types of MSCs improve arthritis symptoms in animal models, by paracrine mechanisms. However, the therapeutic effects of the secreted factors alone, without the cell graft, have been uncertain. Here, we show that a single intravenous administration of serum-free conditioned medium (CM) from human deciduous dental pulp stem cells (SHED-CM) into anti-collagen type II antibody-induced arthritis (CAIA), a mouse model of rheumatoid arthritis (RA), markedly improved the arthritis symptoms and joint destruction. The therapeutic efficacy of SHED-CM was associated with an induction of anti-inflammatory M2 macrophages in the CAIA joints and the abrogation of RANKL expression. SHED-CM specifically depleted of an M2 macrophage inducer, the secreted ectodomain of sialic acid-binding Ig-like lectin-9 (ED-Siglec-9), exhibited a reduced ability to induce M2-related gene expression and attenuate CAIA. SHED-CM also inhibited the RANKL-induced osteoclastogenesis in vitro. Collectively, our findings suggest that SHED-CM provides multifaceted therapeutic effects for treating CAIA, including the ED-Siglec-9-dependent induction of M2 macrophage polarization and inhibition of osteoclastogenesis. Thus, SHED-CM may represent a novel anti-inflammatory and reparative therapy for RA.

  4. Sustained kidney biochemical derangement in treated experimental diabetes: a clue to metabolic memory (United States)

    de Oliveira, Antonio Anax F.; de Oliveira, Tiago F.; Bobadilla, Larissa L.; Garcia, Camila C. M.; Berra, Carolina Maria; de Souza-Pinto, Nadja C.; Medeiros, Marisa H. G.; Di Mascio, Paolo; Zatz, Roberto; de M. Loureiro, Ana Paula


    The occurrence of biochemical alterations that last for a long period of time in diabetic individuals even after adequate handling of glycemia is an intriguing phenomenon named metabolic memory. In this study, we show that a kidney pathway is gradually altered during the course of diabetes and remains persistently changed after late glycemic control in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. This pathway comprises an early decline of uric acid clearance and pAMPK expression followed by fumarate accumulation, increased TGF-β expression, reduced PGC-1α expression, and downregulation of methylation and hydroxymethylation of mitochondrial DNA. The sustained decrease of uric acid clearance in treated diabetes may support the prolonged kidney biochemical alterations observed after tight glycemic control, and this regulation is likely mediated by the sustained decrease of AMPK activity and the induction of inflammation. This manuscript proposes the first consideration of the possible role of hyperuricemia and the underlying biochemical changes as part of metabolic memory in diabetic nephropathy development after glycemic control. PMID:28079150

  5. Short communication: Calving site selection of multiparous, group-housed dairy cows is influenced by site of a previous calving

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rørvang, Maria Vilain; Nielsen, B.L.; Herskin, Mette S.


    A calving cow and her newborn calf appear to have an attracting effect on periparturient cows, which may potentially influence the functionality of future motivation-based calving pen designs. In this pilot study we examined whether calving site selection of group-housed Holstein dairy cows was a...

  6. Efficacy of low doses of fenbendazole and its administration via drinking water in the prophylaxis of nematodiasis in grazing calves. (United States)

    Downey, N E; O'Shea, J


    Under experimental conditions, fenbendazole given at doses of 0.4 and 1.0 mg/kg body weight suppressed calves' faecal output of Ostertagia and Cooperia species eggs and Dictyocaulus viviparus larvae. Both dose levels were given in the form of small daily drenches and the higher level showed greater efficacy. In a grazing experiment, medication with fenbendazole at 1.0 mg/kg/day administered intermittently to calves using an automatic dose dispenser almost completely suppressed the output of trichostrongylid eggs. As a result, infection on the pasture and in the calves remained at a low level throughout the grazing season. By contrast, control pasture and control calves showed rather heavy infection from mid-August onwards with significantly lower weight gains and widespread signs of parasitic gastroenteritis. At post mortem examination of representative calves from each group in November, the medicated animals had 99 per cent less Ostertagia species, whether adults or larvae arrested at the early fourth stage, and 95 per cent less Cooperia species compared with controls. Medication in the drinking water suppressed the faecal output of D viviparus larvae for most of the grazing season by comparison with the controls but the medicated calves became infected with this parasite towards the end of the season. Until this problem is overcome, precautions against parasitic bronchitis are advised when this system of medication is adopted.

  7. Effect of pre-partum supplementation of vitamin E to Murrah buffaloes on immune functions and viability of calves. (United States)

    Singh, A K; Pandita, S; Pampoori, Z A; Huozha, R; Ashutosh, M


    This study was undertaken in buffalo neonates born to vitamin E (dl-alpha-tocopherol acetate)-supplemented and non-supplemented Murrah buffaloes. Calves from vitamin E-supplemented buffaloes (n = 10; vitamin E -supplemented calves [VeC]) and non-supplemented buffaloes (n = 10; control calves [CC]) constituted the treatment and control groups respectively. Two colostrum samples were taken at the first post-partum milking and again after 12 h from dams for IgG estimation. Sampling of blood was performed on days 0 (before colostrum feeding), 1, 3, 7, 14, 21, 28, 42, 56, 70, 84, 98, 112 and 126 post-birth and analysed for apparent efficiency of absorption (%) of IgG and various immune parameters. Colostral IgG level was significantly higher (p calves in both groups were born hypogammaglobulinemic with IgG level feeding resulted in significantly elevated IgG levels (>10 g/l) in calves of both groups at 24 h, which remained high afterwards. Apparent efficiency of absorption (%) of IgG at 24 h was significantly higher (p calves of either group at birth, which declined significantly (p feeding to dams had no added effect on NO levels in experimental calves. Total leucocyte counts did not differ significantly between the two groups. However, lymphocyte and neutrophil counts changed significantly between groups (p calves were immunologically immature at birth. Ante-partum supplementation of vitamin E did not influence plasma NO or IgG but had a significant effect on colostral IgG (p < 0.05). It also improved the apparent efficiency of absorption (%) of IgG at 24 h in VeC as compared to CC.

  8. Forage and sugar in dairy calves' starter diet and their interaction on performance, weaning age and rumen fermentation. (United States)

    Beiranvand, H; Ghorbani, G R; Khorvash, M; Kazemi-Bonchenari, M


    The effects of sugar and forage inclusion in calves' starter and their interaction on animal performance and rumen fermentation parameters were investigated. Twenty-eight neonatal Holstein male calves 3 days of age with average body weights of 42 ± 4 kg were allocated to four different treatments. All calves were fed a similar basal diet consisting of milk and concentrate. The experimental treatments were: (i) basal diet with no supplementation (Control, hereafter designated by C), (ii) basal diet plus 5% granular sugar cane (Sugar, designated by S), (iii) basal diet plus 5% forage (Forage, designated by F) and (iv) basal diet plus 5% forage with 5% granular sugar cane (F × S). Supplement ingredients were used on a dry matter (DM) basis. Rumen fluid parameters were measured twice on days 35 and 70 of the study period. The calves were weaned when they could consume 1 kg of starter for three consecutive days. The results show that starter intake was not affected by treatment; however, the lowest ADG was observed with calves in the sugar treatment. Weaning age was affected by treatments, and forage showed to reduce milk consumption period down to its shortest. Forage-sugar interaction was found to have no effects on animal performance. The structural body indices as well as the health status of the calves were similar in different treatments. Rumen pH did not differ among the treatment groups. Among the rumen parameters, total VFA concentration and molar proportions of butyrate and propionate did not exhibit any significant differences among the treatments. However, ruminal acetate concentration decreased in calves that fed sugar cane during the early weeks of the study period. Comparison of forage and sugar included in the starter diets revealed that forage reduced weaning age, while sugar cane had a negative effect on calves' performance. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2013 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  9. Evaluation of supplementation plans for suckling beef calves managed on tropical pasture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sidnei Antônio Lopes


    Full Text Available This study assessed the effects of different amounts of supplement on the productive performance, nutrional caracteristics and behaviour of suckling beef calves, as well as on the productive performance of their dams on tropical pastures. Forty-four male Nellore beef calves with an average age of 120 days and an initial average body weight (BW of 145±3.7 kg and their respective dams, with an average BW of 449±6.9 kg, were used. The amounts of supplement evaluated were as follows: 0 = calves received only mineral mixture ad libitum; 3, 6, and 9 = calves received 3, 6, or 9 g kg-1 BW of supplement, respectively, containing 250 g CP kg-1 (as-fed. The experimental design was completely randomized. A positive linear effect (P < 0.01 was observed in the intakes of dry matter and organic matter, and a cubic effect (P < 0.07 was observed for the intake of neutral detergent fiber corrected for ash and protein. There was quadratic effect (P < 0.06 for total digestibility of neutral detergent fiber. A cubic effect (P < 0.01 was observed for the calves’ performance. However, the calves’ supplementation did not affect the milk yield and performance (P ? 0.21 of their dams. The supplementation decreased grazing time (P < 0.01 but did not influence suckling time (P ? 0.59. It is recommended supplying of supplement containing 250 g CP kg-1 (as-fed in amount 6 g kg-1 BW to suckling beef calves managed in tropical pasture. Supplementation of suckling beef calves increases the intake of dry matter, decreases grazing time and forage intake. However, it does not affect the suckling time and productive performance of their dams.

  10. Transmission and quantification of verocytotoxin-producing Escherichia coli O157 in dairy cattle and calves. (United States)

    Schouten, J M; Graat, E A M; Frankena, K; VAN Zijderveld, F; DE Jong, M C M


    Data from a field study of 14 months duration in a naturally colonized dairy herd and data from an experiment with calves were used to quantify transmission of verocytotoxin-producing Escherichia coli (VTEC O157) in cattle. For the latter, two groups of 10 calves were randomly assigned and put out in one of two pastures. From each group, five animals were experimentally inoculated with 109 c.f.u. O157 VTEC and, considered infectious, put back in their group. Each of the susceptible contact calves became positive within 6 days of being reunited. The estimate of the basic reproduction ratio (R0) in the experiment was 7.3 (95% CI 3.92-11.5), indicating that each infectious calf will infect seven other calves on average during an assumed infectious period of 28 days in a fully susceptible population. The R0 among dairy cows appeared to be about 10 times lower (0.70, 95% CI 0.48-1.04). After the transmission experiment, six contact-infected animals that were shedding continuously during the experiment were housed in a tie stall during winter. After 40 days, all six tested negative for O157 VTEC. In June, after a period of 34 weeks in which the heifers remained negative, they were put out in a clean and isolated pasture to observe whether they started shedding again. On each pasture that was infected with O157 VTEC during the transmission experiment the previous summer, newly purchased susceptible calves were placed. None of the heifers or calves started shedding during 14 weeks, indicating that both the heifers and the previously contaminated pasture did not function as reservoir of O157 VTEC.

  11. Implantable synthetic cytokine converter cells with AND-gate logic treat experimental psoriasis. (United States)

    Schukur, Lina; Geering, Barbara; Charpin-El Hamri, Ghislaine; Fussenegger, Martin


    Psoriasis is a chronic inflammatory skin disease characterized by a relapsing-remitting disease course and correlated with increased expression of proinflammatory cytokines, such as tumor necrosis factor (TNF) and interleukin 22 (IL22). Psoriasis is hard to treat because of the unpredictable and asymptomatic flare-up, which limits handling of skin lesions to symptomatic treatment. Synthetic biology-based gene circuits are uniquely suited for the treatment of diseases with complex dynamics, such as psoriasis, because they can autonomously couple the detection of disease biomarkers with the production of therapeutic proteins. We designed a mammalian cell synthetic cytokine converter that quantifies psoriasis-associated TNF and IL22 levels using serially linked receptor-based synthetic signaling cascades, processes the levels of these proinflammatory cytokines with AND-gate logic, and triggers the corresponding expression of therapeutic levels of the anti-inflammatory/psoriatic cytokines IL4 and IL10, which have been shown to be immunomodulatory in patients. Implants of microencapsulated cytokine converter transgenic designer cells were insensitive to simulated bacterial and viral infections as well as psoriatic-unrelated inflammation. The designer cells specifically prevented the onset of psoriatic flares, stopped acute psoriasis, improved psoriatic skin lesions and restored normal skin-tissue morphology in mice. The antipsoriatic designer cells were equally responsive to blood samples from psoriasis patients, suggesting that the synthetic cytokine converter captures the clinically relevant cytokine range. Implanted designer cells that dynamically interface with the patient's metabolism by detecting specific disease metabolites or biomarkers, processing their blood levels with synthetic circuits in real time, and coordinating immediate production and systemic delivery of protein therapeutics may advance personalized gene- and cell-based therapies.

  12. Lactose in milk replacer can partly be replaced by glucose, fructose, or glycerol without affecting insulin sensitivity in veal calves. (United States)

    Pantophlet, A J; Gilbert, M S; van den Borne, J J G C; Gerrits, W J J; Roelofsen, H; Priebe, M G; Vonk, R J


    Calf milk replacer (MR) contains 40 to 50% lactose. Lactose strongly fluctuates in price and alternatives are desired. Also, problems with glucose homeostasis and insulin sensitivity (i.e., high incidence of hyperglycemia and hyperinsulinemia) have been described for heavy veal calves (body weight >100 kg). Replacement of lactose by other dietary substrates can be economically attractive, and may also positively (or negatively) affect the risk of developing problems with glucose metabolism. An experiment was designed to study the effects of replacing one third of the dietary lactose by glucose, fructose, or glycerol on glucose homeostasis and insulin sensitivity in veal calves. Forty male Holstein-Friesian (body weight=114 ± 2.4 kg; age=97 ± 1.4 d) calves were fed an MR containing 462 g of lactose/kg (CON), or an MR in which 150 g of lactose/kg of MR was replaced by glucose (GLU), fructose (FRU), or glycerol (GLY). During the first 10d of the trial, all calves received CON. The CON group remained on this diet and the other groups received their experimental diets for a period of 8 wk. Measurements were conducted during the first (baseline) and last week of the trial. A frequently sampled intravenous glucose tolerance test was performed to assess insulin sensitivity and 24 h of urine was collected to measure glucose excretion. During the last week of the trial, a bolus of 1.5 g of [U-(13)C] substrates was added to their respective meals and plasma glucose, insulin, and (13)C-glucose responses were measured. Insulin sensitivity was low at the start of the trial and remained low [1.2 ± 0.1 and 1.0 ± 0.1 (mU/L)(-1) × min(-1)], and no treatment effect was noted. Glucose excretion was low at the start of the trial (3.4 ± 1.0 g/d), but increased in CON and GLU calves (26.9 ± 3.9 and 43.0 ± 10.6g/d) but not in FRU and GLY calves. Postprandial glucose was higher in GLU, lower in FRU, and similar in GLY compared with CON calves. Postprandial insulin was lower in FRU

  13. Bacteriocinogeny in experimental pigs treated with indomethacin and Escherichia coli Nissle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jan Bures; Stanislav Rejchrt; Jirina Lesna; Viktor Vorisek; Marcela Kopacova; David Smajs; Jaroslav Kvetina; Miroslav F(o)rstl; Jan Smarda; Darina Kohoutova; Martin Kunes; Jiri Cyrany; Ilja Tacheci


    AIM: To evaluate bacteriocinogeny in short-term highdose indomethacin administration with or without probiotic Escherichia coli Nissle 1917 (EcN) in experimental pigs.METHODS: Twenty-four pigs entered the study: Group A (controls), Group B (probiotics alone), Group C (indomethacin alone) and Group D (probiotics and indomethacin).EcN (3.5 × 1010 bacteria/d for 14 d) and/or indomethacin (15 mg/kg per day for 10 d) were administrated orally. Anal smears before and smears from the small and large intestine were taken from all animals.Bacteriocin production was determined with 6 different indicator strains; all strains were polymerase chain reaction tested for the presence of 29 individual bacteriocinencoding determinants.RESULTS: The general microbiota profile was rather uniform in all animals but there was a broad diversity in coliform bacteria (parallel genotypes A, B1, B2 and D found). In total, 637 bacterial strains were tested,mostly Escherichia coli (E. coli ). There was a higher incidence of non-E. coli strains among samples taken from the jejunum and ileum compared to that of the colon and rectum indicating predominance of E. coli strains in the large intestine. Bacteriocinogeny was found in 24/77 (31%) before and in 155/560 (28%)isolated bacteria at the end of the study. Altogether,13 individual bacteriocin types (out of 29 tested) were identified among investigated strains. Incidence of four E. coli genotypes was equally distributed in all groups of E. coli strains, with majority of genotype A (ranging from 81% to 88%). The following types of bacteriocins were most commonly revealed: colicins Ia/Ib (44%),microcin V (18%), colicin E1 (16%) and microcin H47(6%). There was a difference in bacteriocinogeny between control group A (52/149, 35%) and groups with treatment at the end of the study: B: 31/122 (25%, P= 0.120); C: 43/155 (28%, P = 0.222); D: 29/134 (22%,P = 0.020). There was a significantly lower prevalence of colicin Ib, microcins H47 and V (probiotics

  14. A comparison of florfenicol-flunixin meglumine versus tulathromycin for the treatment of undifferentiated fever in fall-placed feedlot calves. (United States)

    Van Donkersgoed, Joyce; Berg, Janice; Hendrick, Steven


    The purpose of this study was to compare the efficacy of a new combination drug, florfenicol-flunixin meglumine, with tulathromycin for initial treatment of undifferentiated fever (UF) in fall-placed calves that received metaphylactic tilmicosin on arrival at the feedlot. No significant differences were observed in UF relapses between the two drugs. Calves treated with florfenicol-flunixin had a lower crude case fatality rate (P = .0447) than calves treated with tulathromycin but did not have a significantly lower respiratory disease and histophilosis case fatality rate (P = .12). Whether the new florfenicol-flunixin product is more cost-effective than tulathromycin for the treatment of UF in fall-placed feedlot calves will depend on how the new product is priced in the marketplace relative to tulathromycin.

  15. First-principles Simulations and the Criticality of Calving Glaciers (United States)

    Vallot, D.; Åström, J. A.; Schäfer, M.; Welty, E.; O'Neel, S.; Bartholomaus, T. C.; Liu, Y.; Riikilä, T.; Zwinger, T.; Timonen, J.; Moore, J.


    The algoritm of a first principles calving-simulation computer-code is outlined and demonstrated. The code is particle-based and uses Newtonian dynamics to simulate ice-fracture, motion and calving. The code can simulate real-size glacier but is only able to simualte individual calving events within a few tens of minutes in duration. The code couples to the Elmer/Ice ice flow-simulation code: Elmer is employed to produce various glacier geomteries, which are then tested for stability using the particle code. In this way it is possible to pin-point the location of calving fronts. The particle simulation code and field observations are engaged to investigate the criticality of calving glaciers. The calving mass and inter-event waiting times both have power-law distributions with the same critical exponents as found for Abelian sand-pile models. This indicate that calving glaciers share characteristics with Self-Organized Critical systems (SOC). This would explain why many glacier found in nature may become unstable as a result of even minor changes in their environment. An SOC calving glacier at the critical point will display so large fluctuations in calving rate that it will render the concept 'average calving rate' more or less useless. I.e. 'average calving rate' will depend on measurement time and always have fluctuaions in the range of 100% more or less independent of the averaging time.

  16. Early inflammation disorder in neonatal calves (United States)

    In the present study, 30 Holstein calves were acquired at birth and were randomly subjected to one of six treatments. One treatment group was colostrum deprived (CD) and five other treatment groups were fed colostrum replacer (CR). Of the five CR groups, one group was not further supplemented (CR), ...

  17. Rumen development in veal (preruminant) calves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Suárez, B.J.


    Historically, veal calves were fed until slaughter weight with only milk replacer and, in absence of solid feed the physiological development of the forestomachs was limited. In 1997, a new EU legislation stipulated that a minimum amount of solid feed (fiber) has to be provided for the welfare of

  18. Efficacy of fenbendazole against tapeworms in calves. (United States)

    Ciordia, H; Stuedemann, J A; McCampbell, H C


    Forty-five commercial-grade Angus calves naturally infected with tapeworms (Moniezia sp) were used in 2 controlled experiments to evaluate the cestocidal efficacy of 3 dosage levels of fenbendazole, methyl-5-(phenylthio) -2-benzimidazolecarbamate. In the 1st trial, 15 calves were divided into 3 groups of 5 each. One group served as nonmedicated controls. Other groups were drenched with fenbendazole at dosage rates of 10 and 15 mg/kg of body weight. Thirty calves used in the 2nd experiment were divided into 3 equal groups. One group served as nonmedicated controls and the other 2 groups were drenched at dosage rates of 7.5 and 10 mg/kg. Calves were necropsied 13 days after treatment. Doses of 10 and 15 mg/kg were 100% efficacious in reducing the number of tapeworm scolices, and a dose of 7.5 mg/kg was 91.7% effective. Signs of toxicosis were not observed in medicated cattle from time of treatment to necropsy.

  19. Rumen development in veal (preruminant) calves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Suárez, B.J.


    Historically, veal calves were fed until slaughter weight with only milk replacer and, in absence of solid feed the physiological development of the forestomachs was limited. In 1997, a new EU legislation stipulated that a minimum amount of solid feed (fiber) has to be provided for the welfare of th

  20. Pneumonia outbreaks in calves and finishers. (United States)


    Pneumonia in calves and finishers. Ovarian tumour in a calf . Abortion associated with bovine herpesvirus 1 in a suckler herd. Parasitic gastroenteritis causing illthrift and death in sheep. Outbreaks of acute fasciolosis in sheep. These are among matters discussed in the disease surveillance report for December 2015 from SAC Consulting: Veterinary Services (SAC C VS). British Veterinary Association.

  1. Synthesis of a highly water-soluble acacetin prodrug for treating experimental atrial fibrillation in beagle dogs. (United States)

    Liu, Hui; Wang, Ya-Jing; Yang, Lei; Zhou, Mei; Jin, Man-Wen; Xiao, Guo-Sheng; Wang, Yan; Sun, Hai-Ying; Li, Gui-Rong


    We previously reported that duodenal administration of the natural flavone acacetin can effectively prevent the induction of experimental atrial fibrillation (AF) in canines; however, it may not be used intravenously to terminate AF due to its poor water-solubility. The present study was to design a water-soluble prodrug of acacetin and investigate its anti-AF effect in beagle dogs. Acacetin prodrug was synthesized by a three-step procedure. Aqueous solubility, bioconversion and anti-AF efficacy of acacetin prodrug were determined with different methodologies. Our results demonstrated that the synthesized phosphate sodium salt of acacetin prodrug had a remarkable increase of aqueous solubility in H2O and clinically acceptable solution (5% glucose or 0.9% NaCl). The acacetin prodrug was effectively converted into acacetin in ex vivo rat plasma and liver microsome, and in vivo beagle dogs. Intravenous infusion of acacetin prodrug (3, 6 and 12 mg/kg) terminated experimental AF without increasing ECG QTc interval in beagle dogs. The intravenous LD50 of acacetin prodrug was 721 mg/kg in mice. Our preclinical study indicates that the synthesized acacetin prodrug is highly water-soluble and safe; it effectively terminates experimental AF in beagle dogs and therefore may be a promising drug candidate for clinical trial to treat patients with acute AF.

  2. Performance, muscle composition and meat texture in veal calves administered a β-agonist (clenbuterol). (United States)

    Berge, P; Culioli, J; Ouali, A; Parat, M F


    The effect of clenbuterol administration on performance, muscle composition and meat texture was studied in veal calves. Three groups, of ten animals each, were assigned to the three following treatments for 27 days: control, administration of 0·3 and 1·0 ppm in the feed (dry matter basis). After a 14-day withdrawal period, the animals were slaughtered, and three muscles were sampled (M. longissumus thoracis; M. triceps brachii caput longum; M. rectus abdominis). During the period of clenbuterol administration, the treated calves exhibited a higher daily liveweight gain (DLWG) and a higher feed conversion efficiency (FCE) compared to those of the control calves, but these effects were reversed during the subsequent withdrawal period. At slaughter, the overall DLWG, FCE and carcass weight were similar in the three treatments, but the dressing percentage in the clenbuterol-treated calves was up to 5·7 points higher than that of the control calves. In the muscles studied, the clenbuterol had little effect on pH, sarcomere length, dry matter and nitrogen contents, collagen heat stability (solubility, isometric tension) or cooking loss; but it markedly reduced the content of lipids, collagen and haem pigments. The clenbuterol also affected myofibrillar strength after ageing, measured either on raw meat or on cooked meat. This was particularly evident in cooked meat which showed up to a two-fold increase in mechanical parameters (maximum stress, compression modulus) after the clenbuterol treatment. No dose effect was detected except for the mechanical parameters. It was concluded that clenbuterol administration affects, meat in two opposite ways, viz. a marked toughening effects, due to a reduction in the muscle ageing rate, that is not compensated by a concomitant tenderizing effect (through a decrease in the intramuscular collagen content).

  3. Effects of local anesthesia and flunixin meglumine on the acute cortisol response, behavior, and performance of young dairy calves undergoing surgical castration. (United States)

    Webster, H B; Morin, D; Jarrell, V; Shipley, C; Brown, L; Green, A; Wallace, R; Constable, P D


    This study assessed the effects of flunixin meglumine (FM) and a local anesthetic block (LA) on postcastration performance, plasma cortisol concentration, and behavior in dairy calves. Thirty 2- to 3-mo-old Holstein-Friesian bull calves were allocated to 5 treatments: castration with LA (2% lidocaine injected into the testes and subcutaneously), castration with FM (1.1mg/kg, i.v.), castration with LA+FM, castration without drugs (CC), and sham castration (SC). Castration was performed using a Newberry knife and Henderson castrating tool. Feed intake and body weight gain were recorded for 10d postcastration. Plasma cortisol concentration and behavior frequency and duration were monitored for 8h postcastration. Variables with repeated measures were analyzed using PROC MIXED (SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC); one-way ANOVA was used for nonrepeated measures. No differences in feed intake or body weight gain were detected among groups. Calves in the CC, LA, and FM groups had transient (<60, <60, and <45 min, respectively) increases in plasma cortisol concentration after castration, with a second increase at 120 min in the LA group, whereas cortisol concentration remained at baseline in the LA+FM and SC groups. Mean cortisol concentrations were lower for calves in the LA+FM and SC groups than in the CC group. The area under the plasma cortisol concentration curve during the first 3h postcastration was greater in CC- and LA-treated calves than in SC controls. Castration without drugs was associated with higher frequencies of crouching and statue standing and less oral activity compared with SC controls. Administering LA alone before castration was associated with higher frequencies of head turning, statue standing, and postural changes, and less feeding behavior compared with SC controls. More leg lifting to groom was seen in LA+FM-treated calves than in SC controls. Calves administered FM alone before castration exhibited less crouching than CC calves, fewer postural shifts

  4. Experimentally produced calf pneumonia. (United States)

    Gourlay, R N; Howard, C J; Thomas, L H; Stott, E J


    Experimental pneumonia was produced in calves by the endobronchial inoculation of pneumonic lung homogenates. Irradiated homogenates produced minimal pneumonia. Ampicillin treatment of the homogenates and the experimental calves reduced the extent of pneumonia. Treatment with tylosin tartrate prevented experimental pneumonia. These results suggest that the total pneumonia was due to organisms susceptible to tylosin tartrate and that the residual pneumonia remaining after ampicillin treatment was due to organisms susceptible to tylosin tartrate but not to ampicillin. Of the organisms isolated from the lungs, the ones in this latter category most likely to be responsible are Mycoplasma dispar and ureaplasmas (T-mycoplasmas).

  5. Comparative study of microvascular density in experimental third-degree skin burns treated with topical preparations containing herbal extracts. (United States)

    Mogoşanu, G D; Popescu, Florina Carmen; Busuioc, Cristina Jana; Lascăr, I; Mogoantă, L


    During the healing process of third-degree skin burns, a very complex response involves different cells and tissues linked together by intra- and extra-cellular mechanisms. For the restoration of damaged tissues, angiogenesis is the key point in the formation of new blood vessels. By their emollient, astringent, antiseptic, anti-inflammatory, biostimulator, epithelizing and cicatrizing effect, active principles from natural products contribute to the acceleration of the wound-healing process. In our study, we investigated the angiogenesis process in experimental model of third-degree skin burns treated with three topical preparations (cold-creams) containing 10% herbal extracts, comparing with 1% sulfadiazine cream and cold-cream base respectively. By their biostimulator, epithelizing and cicatrizing effect, cold-creams with herbal extracts are locally modulators of the cellular response and support the wound healing. The phytocomplex stimulates the favorable evolution of the burnt skin wounds and the development of neoangiogenesis capillaries.

  6. The influence of synthetic analogues of PgF2a on the evolution of puerperal period and the duration of the interval from calving to the first estrus in cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolae Păcală


    Full Text Available Puerperal period is the most critical period from the productive life of females, at the borderline between physiologic and pathologic. In this stage some reproductive turbulence may appear (uterine subinvolution, uterine infections, ovary inactivity, etc., which may lead to the increase of the interval between calving and first estrus manifestation. The aim of our paper was to reduce the interval between calving and the firs estrus, also the reduction of the incidence of some impediments of the reproductive function in cows, after calving. For this purpose 500 mcg Cloprostenol were administered at different intervals from calving (12, 24, hours and 7 days. At experimental lots, the interval from calving to first estrus was, on average, 37.57 days, and at control lot it was 45.2 days. Regarding to the impairing of the reproductive function, uterine subinvolution, evaluated at 14 days from calving, it was 26.78% at experimental lots and 33.33% at control lot, and uterine infections were, on average, 14.8% at experimental lots and 16.2% at control lot. In conclusion, administration of synthetic analogues of PgF2, in the first week after calving, has a negative influence on puerperal period and interval from calving to first estrus manifestation.

  7. Growth, behavior, and economics of group-fed dairy calves fed once or twice daily in an organic production system. (United States)

    Kienitz, M J; Heins, B J; Chester-Jones, H


    Heifer calves (n = 102) were used to evaluate the effect of once- or twice-daily feeding on growth, behavior, and economics of calves in an organic group management system. Calves were assigned to replicate feeding groups of 10 in superhutches by birth order, during 2 seasons from September to December 2013 and March to May 2014 at the University of Minnesota West Central Research and Outreach Center, Morris. Calves in groups were the experimental unit. Breed groups of calves were Holsteins (n = 26), crossbreds (n = 45) including combinations Holsteins, Montbéliarde, and Viking Red (selected for high production), and crossbreds (n = 31) including combinations of Holsteins, Jersey, Normande, and Viking Red (selected for robustness). Treatment groups were once-daily feeding (1×) or twice-daily feeding (2×). Calves in both groups were fed 6 L per calf/daily of organic milk with 13% total solids and then weaned at 60 d when the group consumption averaged 0.91 kg/d of starter per calf. Body weight and hip height were recorded at birth, once a week, at weaning, and at 90 and 120 d of age. Hobo Pendant G loggers (Onset Computer Corp., Bourne, MA) were applied to the right rear leg of calves to measure total lying and standing time. Data were analyzed using PROC MIXED of SAS (SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC). Independent variables for analyses were the fixed effects of birth weight (co-variable), season of birth, and treatment group, along with replicate as a random effect. No significant differences were found between feeding groups for body weight, weight gain, average daily gain, hip height, or heart girth. For calves in 1× and 2× groups, respectively, weaning group performance was as follows: gain per day was 0.79 and 0.81 kg, weaning weight was 92.7 and 93.3 kg, and weaning hip height was 95.2 and 95.3 cm. Daily gain to 90 d was 0.85 and 0.85 kg, and daily gain to 120 d was 0.85 and 0.83 kg for 1× and 2× calves, respectively. For lying time, calves in groups 1

  8. Effect of calving process on the outcomes of delivery and postpartum health of dairy cows with unassisted and assisted calvings. (United States)

    Kovács, L; Kézér, F L; Szenci, O


    Welfare aspects of obstetrical assistance were studied in multiparous Holstein-Friesian cows (n=176) with (1) unassisted calving in an individual pen (UCIP; n=42), (2) unassisted calving in a group pen (UCG; n=48), (3) assisted calving with appropriately timed obstetrical assistance (ACAP; n=50), and (4) assisted calving with inappropriately timed (premature) obstetrical assistance (ACIN; n=36). Duration of the stages of calving, the prevalence and the degree of dystocia, stillbirth ratio, newborn calf vitality, and the occurrence of postpartum health problems (i.e., retained placenta and vulvovaginal laceration) were recorded. The time from amniotic sac and hooves appearance to birth and the total duration of calving (from the onset of calving restlessness to delivery) were shorter for UCG cows than for any other groups. The overall incidence of dystocia was 31.3% in the calvings studied. The prevalence of dystocia was below 10% in cases of unassisted calvings. The proportion of severe dystocia was higher in ACIN cows than in ACAP cows (47.2 vs. 12.0%, respectively). The prevalence of stillbirths was the highest in ACIN calvings (22.2%), followed by ACAP, UCI, and UCG cows (8.0, 4.8, and 0.0%, respectively). The ACIN calves had lower vitality scores than calves born from ACAP, UCG, and UCIP dams immediately after delivery and 24h after birth. Although ACAP calves had lower vitality scores than UCG and UCIP calves at birth, a delayed recovery of vitality was mirrored by satisfactory vitality scores 24h after birth. Retained placenta and vulvovaginal laceration occurred more often with assisted dams (i.e., ACAP and ACIN animals) compared with UCIP cows with the highest prevalence in ACIN cows. In UCG cows, no injuries occurred in the vulva or vagina, and we noted only 4 cases of retained placenta (8.3%), proportions lower than in cows with unassisted calving in the maternity pen. Our results suggest that calving in a group might have benefits over calving in an

  9. Effect of feeding colostrum at different volumes and subsequent number of transition milk feeds on the serum immunoglobulin G concentration and health status of dairy calves. (United States)

    Conneely, M; Berry, D P; Murphy, J P; Lorenz, I; Doherty, M L; Kennedy, E


    Transfer of sufficient IgG to the newborn calf via colostrum is vital to provide it with adequate immunological protection and resistance to disease. The objectives of the present study were to compare serum IgG concentration and health parameters of calves (1) fed different volumes of colostrum [7, 8.5, or 10% of body weight (BW)] within 2h of birth and (2) given 0, 2, or 4 subsequent feedings of transition milk (i.e., milkings 2 to 6 postcalving). Ninety-nine dairy calves were fed 7, 8.5, or 10% of BW in colostrum within 2h of birth and given 0, 2, or 4 subsequent feedings of transition milk. The concentration of IgG in the serum of calves was measured at 24, 48, 72, and 642 h of age by an ELISA. The apparent efficiency of absorption for IgG was determined. Health scores were assigned to calves twice per week and all episodes of disease were recorded. The effect of experimental treatment on calf serum IgG concentration differed by the age of the calf. Calves fed 8.5% of BW in colostrum had a greater mean serum IgG concentration than calves fed 7 or 10% of BW at 24, 48, and 72 h of age. At 642 h of age, serum IgG concentrations of calves fed 8.5% of BW (24.2g/L) and calves fed 10% of BW (21.6g/L) did not differ, although the serum IgG concentration of calves fed 8.5% of BW was still greater than that of calves fed 7% of BW (20.7 g/L). No difference in serum IgG concentration existed between calves fed 7% of BW and those fed 10% of BW at any age. No significant effect of number of subsequent feedings of transition milk on calf serum IgG concentration was detected. The apparent efficiency of absorption of calves fed 8.5% of BW in colostrum (38%) was greater than calves fed 7% of BW in colostrum (26%) and tended to be greater than in calves fed 10% of BW (29%). Calves fed further feedings of transition milk after the initial feeding of colostrum had a lower odds (0.62; 95% confidence interval: 0.41 to 0.93) of being assigned a worse eye/ear score (i.e., a more

  10. Long-term follow-up of a patient cohort with Legg-Calvé-Perthes disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Froberg, Lonnie; Christensen, Finn; Pedersen, Niels W;


    The purpose of this study was to evaluate prognostic risk factors related to a poor radiological outcome. The study consisted of 74 patients with Legg-Calvé-Perthes disease treated using a Thomas splint. The modified Herring lateral pillar classification and the reviewed Stulberg classification...

  11. Protective Effect of Jiechangning (结肠宁)Decoction in Treating Experimental Ulcerative Colitis in Guinea Pigs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIONG Wu-jun; QIU Qi-yu; QIU De-kai


    Objective:To study the therapeutic effects and mechanism of Jiechangning (结肠宁, JCN)decoction on carrageenan induced experimental ulcerative colitis (UC). Methods: After sensitizing guinea pigs with carrageenan, we established UC animal models by free drinking water containing 2 % acid degraded carrageenan (ADC). JCN decoction was orally administered once a day for 2 weeks after carrageenan treatment. Salicylazosulfapyridine (SASP) and normal saline were given to the other two groups as control. The levels of colon lipid peroxide (LPO), acid phosphatase (ACP)activity and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α)were measured; colitis activity score (CAS) was carried out for assessment of the degree of tissue inflammation and injury; the colonic pathological changes were examined simultaneously with hematoxylin and eosin (HE) and toluidine blue staining used to evaluate the therapeutic effects of JCN decoction and SASP. Results:Experimental colitis models resembling human UC were successfully induced. The levels of tissue LPO, ACP activity and the content of tissue TNF-α were markedly increased in the model group as compared with the normal control group (P<0.01) and were positively correlated with CAS. JCN decoction could reverse these changes like SASP. HE staining showed that JCN decoction and SASP could reduce CAS and the degree of tissue injury, toluidine blue staining revealed that mucosa and submucosa red metachromasia pellets in JCN group and SASP group were markedly fewer than those in the model group. Conclusion: JCN decoction is effective in treating experimental UC, which provides theoretical basis for its clinical application.

  12. Differentiation of stress load resistant calves by the help of insulin-like growth factor–I (IGF–I in serum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juraj Petrák


    Full Text Available Animals do not respond uniformly to stress load. It leads to energy losses and body damage during stressor exposure. One of the hormones activated by stress, providing the repair of the body during and after load, is growth hormone. It acts directly on cells, but mainly through insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I, which protects cells from apoptosis and promotes their growth and proliferation. Changes in concentrations of IGF-I in the circulation during psychical load at individual excitatory types of calves (EHb+ highly reactive, EHb° medium reactive and EHb- low reactive are not known. Calves type EHb+ and EHb° are more resistant to stress than EHbtype calves. The aim of our study was to measure the levels of IGF-I immediately after the application of psychical form of load with the calves differentiated according to different types of excitation. Differentiation of excitatory types of calves was done after 20 minute habituation test. Habituation test was performed in habituation chamber. Immediately before and after habituation calves were taken blood from jugular vein by syringe. Blood sampling was allowed to clot in a refrigerator at 4 °C and after 4 to 6 hours, it was centrifuged at 1200 rpm for 10 min. Then serum was drawn in from the syringe and frozen in aliquots volume in eppendorf vessel until further processing at -20 °C. Serum samples of calves were treated enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay ELISA - test. The highest levels of IGF-I in all types of calves were in the resting blood collection. Within of individual type of excitation in a concentration IGF-I before and after load significant difference was not found. After application of psychical form of stress the concentration of IGF-I in blood of the calves declined.

  13. Feeding untreated and pasteurized waste milk and bulk milk to calves: effects on calf performance, health status and antibiotic resistance of faecal bacteria. (United States)

    Aust, V; Knappstein, K; Kunz, H-J; Kaspar, H; Wallmann, J; Kaske, M


    Non-saleable milk (waste milk, WM) is contaminated with an undefined spectrum of potentially harmful pathogens and antimicrobial residues. The objective of this study was to determine the impact of feeding bulk milk (BM) or WM - both pasteurized or not - on calf performance, health and the antibiotic resistance of specific faecal bacteria. A total of 114 calves from a large-scale dairy were housed outdoors in individual hutches and were randomly assigned to one of four feeding groups. The calves were fed either WM, pasteurized WM (pWM), BM or pasteurized BM (pBM) from day 3 to 56 of life. Milk samples taken from the pasteurizer and calves' nipple buckets were investigated at regular intervals for total plate count and counts of thermoduric bacteria, coliforms and mastitis pathogens. Faecal samples were taken on days 2, 14, 28 and 56 of life from randomly selected calves of the WM, pWM and BM groups (each N = 8-9) and processed to obtain from each sample preferably two isolates of Escherichia (E.) coli and Enterococcus spp. respectively. Isolates were tested for their antimicrobial susceptibility to 25 antimicrobial agents by broth microdilution. Daily weight gain, milk and calf starter intake and health parameters did not differ significantly between the calves of the four feeding groups. The proportion of resistant E. coli isolates was significantly higher in calves fed WM and in calves fed pWM (most pronounced for cephalosporins) than in calves receiving BM. No differences in resistance were found for Enterococus spp. Thus, the concerns for selecting resistant faecal bacteria by feeding WM seem to be justified. Nonetheless, pasteurized WM of cows not treated with antimicrobials represents an acceptable feed for young calves.

  14. Legg-Calvé-Perthes disease, protein C deficiency, and beta-thalassemia major: report of two cases. (United States)

    Levin, C; Zalman, L; Shalev, S; Mader, R; Koren, A


    Legg-Calvé-Perthes disease is an idiopathic osteonecrosis or avascular necrosis of the capital femoral epiphysis and the associated complications thereof occurring in an immature growing child. The association between osteonecrosis of the femoral head and thrombophilia was postulated by Glueck in 1994. We describe Legg-Calvé-Perthes disease associated with protein C deficiency and beta-thalassemia major in two children among a cohort of 79 beta-thalassemia patients treated in our clinic. The association of thrombophilia, aseptic necrosis of the femoral head, and beta-thalassemia has not been previously described in the literature.

  15. Longitudinal study on morbidity and mortality in white veal calves in Belgium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pardon Bart


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mortality and morbidity are hardly documented in the white veal industry, despite high levels of antimicrobial drug use and resistance. The objective of the present study was to determine the causes and epidemiology of morbidity and mortality in dairy, beef and crossbred white veal production. A total of 5853 calves, housed in 15 production cohorts, were followed during one production cycle. Causes of mortality were determined by necropsy. Morbidity was daily recorded by the producers. Results The total mortality risk was 5,3% and was significantly higher in beef veal production compared to dairy or crossbreds. The main causes of mortality were pneumonia (1.3% of the calves at risk, ruminal disorders (0.7%, idiopathic peritonitis (0.5%, enterotoxaemia (0.5% and enteritis (0.4%. Belgian Blue beef calves were more likely to die from pneumonia, enterotoxaemia and arthritis. Detection of bovine viral diarrhea virus at necropsy was associated with chronic pneumonia and pleuritis. Of the calves, 25.4% was treated individually and the morbidity rate was 1.66 cases per 1000 calf days at risk. The incidence rate of respiratory disease, diarrhea, arthritis and otitis was 0.95, 0.30, 0.11 and 0.07 cases per 1000 calf days at risk respectively. Morbidity peaked in the first three weeks after arrival and gradually declined towards the end of the production cycle. Conclusions The present study provided insights into the causes and epidemiology of morbidity and mortality in white veal calves in Belgium, housed in the most frequent housing system in Europe. The necropsy findings, identified risk periods and differences between production systems can guide both veterinarians and producers towards the most profitable and ethical preventive and therapeutic protocols.

  16. Pharmacokinetics and tissue disposition of meloxicam in beef calves after repeated oral administration. (United States)

    Coetzee, J F; Mosher, R A; Griffith, G R; Gehring, R; Anderson, D E; KuKanich, B; Miesner, M


    The objective of this study was to investigate the pharmacokinetics and tissue disposition of meloxicam after repeated oral administration in calves. Thirteen male British × Continental beef calves aged 4 to 6 months and weighing 297-392 kg received 0.5 mg/kg meloxicam per os once daily for 4 days. Plasma meloxicam concentrations were determined in 8 calves over 6 days after first treatment. Calves were randomly assigned to be euthanized at 5, 10, 15 (n = 3/timepoint), and 19 days (n = 4) after final administration. Meloxicam concentrations were determined in plasma (LOQ= 0.025 μg/mL) and muscle, liver, kidney, and fat samples (LOQ = 2 ng/g) after extraction using validated LC-MS-MS methods. The mean (± SD) Cmax , Cmin , and Caverage plasma meloxicam concentrations were 4.52 ± 0.87 μg/mL, 2.95 ± 0.77 μg/mL, and 3.84 ± 0.81 μg/mL, respectively. Mean (± SD) tissue meloxicam concentrations were highest in liver (226.67 ± 118.16 ng/g) and kidney samples (52.73 ± 39.01 ng/g) at 5 days after final treatment. Meloxicam concentrations were below the LOQ in all tissues at 15 days after treatment. These findings suggest that tissue from meloxicam-treated calves will have low residue concentrations by 21 days after repeated oral administration.

  17. Effect of a quadrivalent vaccine against respiratory virus on the incidence of respiratory disease in weaned beef calves. (United States)

    Stilwell, George; Matos, Miguel; Carolino, Nuno; Lima, Miguel S


    We investigated the effect of vaccination of male beef calves (mean age+/-S.D.: 158+/-31 days) against bovine herpes virus (BHV-1 or IBR virus), bovine respiratory syncitial virus (BRSV), bovine viral diarrhea (BVD) virus and para-influenza (PI(3)) virus on the incidence of respiratory disease during the first forty days after weaning and entering a feed-lot in Portugal. In May 2003, Mertolenga, Preta and mixed-breed calves from 10 different beef herds, were systematically assigned (by order of entrance in a chute) to two treatment groups, before moving to a common feed-lot. One hundred and twenty five male calves were vaccinated with a quadrivalent vaccine (Rispoval 4) and revaccinated after 21-27 days while 148 herdmates were injected with saline (0.9% NaCl) on the same occasions. The incidence and severity of clinical cases of "bovine respiratory disease" (BRD) were evaluated every day during the first 40 days after entering the feed-lot. Morbidity (3% vs. 14%) and mortality (0% vs. 4%) due to BRD were significantly lower in the vaccinated group. Ten days after revaccination, the calves were treated with an antimicrobial - ending the study - after an outbreak of BRD caused a high incidence of disease in the non-vaccinated group. In conclusion, our results showed that Rispoval 4, a quadrivalent vaccine against respiratory viruses, under field conditions, reduces morbidity and mortality due to BRD in beef calves after weaning.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Purwaningsih Purwaningsih


    Full Text Available This research was aimed to identify the financial feasibility of parasitiasis treatment for calves in the small holder breeding farm in Piji Subdistrict, Podosoko Village, Magelang Regency. Farmer was taken purposively, considering their objective of keeping cattle (breeding. Eight calves naturally infected gastrointestinal parasites were selected based on consideration of the uniformity of the age (4 months breeds of Limousin-PO (LimPO male 120-125 kg of body weight. They were divided into two groups, consisting of four calves for each group (Group I without treatment and Group II with improved health management. Farmers income was calculated based on the input and output data gathered from interview. The data were compared between Group I and II. Result showed that the value of additional revenue of the calves was IDR 4,230,000 and the selling price of one head of the treated antiparasitic calf was IDR 6,047,000. The calves net benefit in Group II was IDR 142,661/head/year, while group with improved health management (Group II achieved the net income of IDR 283,621/head/year.

  19. Risk factors for quinolone-resistant Escherichia coli in feces from preweaned dairy calves and postpartum dairy cows. (United States)

    Duse, Anna; Waller, Karin Persson; Emanuelson, Ulf; Unnerstad, Helle Ericsson; Persson, Ylva; Bengtsson, Björn


    Quinolone resistance may emerge in gut bacteria (e.g., in Escherichia coli) of animals. Such bacteria could cause infections in the animal itself or be transmitted to humans via the food chain. Quinolone resistance is also observed in fecal E. coli of healthy dairy cattle, but the prevalence varies between farms, not solely as a result of varying degree of fluoroquinolone exposure. The objective of this study was to identify risk factors for the fecal shedding of quinolone-resistant E. coli (QREC) from dairy calves and postpartum cows. Rectal swabs from 15 preweaned calves and 5 postpartum cows per farm were collected on 23 Swedish dairy farms to determine the prevalence of QREC. Risk factors for the shedding of QREC were investigated using multivariable statistical models. Quinolone-resistant E. coli were found on all but one farm. Factors associated with QREC shedding by calves were being younger than 18 d, being fed milk from cows treated with antimicrobials, recent use of fluoroquinolones in the herd, carriage of QREC by postpartum cows, and using the calving area never or rarely as a sick pen compared with often. Factors associated with QREC shedding by cows were calving in group pens or freestalls compared with single pens or tiestalls, purchasing cattle, sharing animal transports with other farmers, and poor farm hygiene. Proper biosecurity and improved hygiene, as well as minimizing fluoroquinolone exposure and waste milk feeding, may be important factors to reduce the burden of QREC on dairy farms.

  20. A comparison of surgical outcomes of perineal urethrostomy plus penile resection and perineal urethrostomy in twelve calves with perineal or prescrotal urethral dilatation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A. Marzok


    Full Text Available The clinical diagnosis, ultrasonographic findings, surgical management, outcome, and survival rate of perineal or prescrotal urethral dilatation in 12 male calves are described. All calves were crossbred and intact males. The most noticeable clinical presentations were perineal (n= 10 or prescrotal (n= 2 swellings and micturition problems. The main ultrasonographic findings were oval shaped dilatation of the urethra in all animals with dimensions of 40-75 X 30-62 mm. The calves with perineal urethral dilatation were treated by perineal urethrostomy (n= 4 and partial penile transection including the dilated urethra and urethral fistulation (n= 6. Prescrotal urethral dilatations were treated by penile transection proximal to the dilatation site (n= 2. Cystitis and stricture of the urethra were recorded postoperatively for two of the calves that underwent perineal urethrostomy. Nine animals were slaughtered at normal body weight approximately 6-8 months after the surgical treatment. Three animals were slaughtered after approximately three to four months, two of them having gained insufficient body weight. Our study shows that ultrasonography is a useful tool for the diagnosis of urethral dilatation in bovine calves. Our study also shows that the partial penile transection may be a suitable and satisfactory choice of surgical treatment for correcting the urethral dilatation in bovine calves.

  1. Effects of feeding beef females supplemental fat during gestation on cold tolerance in newborn calves. (United States)

    Lammoglia, M A; Bellows, R A; Grings, E E; Bergman, J W; Short, R E; MacNeil, M D


    Effects of prepartum fat supplementation of the dam on cold tolerance of calves were determined in two studies. In Exp. 1, 22 F1, crossbred heifers gestating F2 calves received diets containing either 1.7 or 4.7% dietary fat starting at d 230+/-2d of gestation. Safflower seeds (Carthamus tinctorius) containing 37% oil with 79% linoleic acid were the supplemental fat source in isocaloric-isonitrogenous diets. Calves were separated from their dams at birth, fed pooled dairy-cow colostrum, muzzled to prevent sucking, and returned to their dams in a heated (22 degrees C) barn for 3.5 h. At 4 h of age, a jugular catheter was inserted. At 5 h of age, calves were placed in a 0 degrees C room for 140 min and rectal temperatures and blood samples were obtained at 10- and 20-min intervals. Blood was assayed for glucose, cortisol, and cholesterol. In Exp. 2, 18 multiparous, crossbred beef cows bred to Murray Grey sires were randomly assigned to receive diets containing either 1.7 or 3.1% dietary fat starting at 235+/-2 d gestation. Safflower seeds were used as the supplemental fat source in isocaloric-isonitrogenous diets. At d 260 of gestation, premature parturition was induced in one-half of the cows from each diet group by feeding Ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) needles. Experimental protocols were the same as in Exp. 1, except that cold exposure was at 9 degrees C for 200 min. Rectal temperatures were affected in Exp. 1 by time and diet x time (both P stressed newborns. This increase in substrate availability suggests a potential positive effect on heat generation in newborns during sustained periods of cold stress. In Exp. 2, premature calves had compromised cold tolerance possibly due to impaired shivering or brown adipose tissue thermogenesis.

  2. Characterization of transfer of passive immunity in dairy heifer calves.

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    Jorge Alberto Elizondo-Salazar


    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the transfer of passive immunity in dairy heifer calves in Costa Rica. The data presented correspond to total serum protein (TSP measurements obtained in the period between 2010 and 2013, between August and November in 50 dairy farms. A total of 2500 heifer calves were sampled. Dams breed were classified into Holstein, Jersey, Holstein.Jersey crosses and others. For the purpose of this study, failure of passive immunity was considered when TSP concentration was less than 5.5 g/dl. TSP concentration ranged from 2.0 to 10.0, with an overall mean of 5.9 g/dl. Of all the calves evaluated, 38.8% presented failure of passive transfer of immunity. Calves born to Jersey and Holstein×Jersey crosses had significantly higher TSP concentrations than calves born to Holstein and other breeds. When considering calving of the dam, there were no significant differences on TSP concentration; however, offsprings born to first lactation heifers showed the lowest percentage of animals with failure of passive transfer of immunity. There were significant differences on TSP concentrations (P<0,05 between calves that were allowed to suckle their dams and calves that were given colostrum by bottle. Failure of passive transfer of immunity was higher when calves stayed with their dams (44% vs. 33%.

  3. Sugar Supplementation Stimulates Growth Performance in Calves with Growth Retardation


    Sato, Tomohiro; HIDAKA, Yuichi; KAMIMURA, Shunichi


    The growth effect of sugar supplementation was determined in 49 retarded growth calves. Calves were supplemented with sugar at 1 g/kg BW 2 times weekly for 8 weeks. Glucose tolerance tests prior to the experiment showed no difference between the retarded growth calves and normal growth controls. After sugar supplementation, the calves were classified into 4 groups characterized by high (H) or low (L) periodic changes in daily weight gain (DG) with a breakpoint of 0.8 kg/d in three periods, bi...

  4. Controls on Helheim Glacier calving rates from 2001-2014 (United States)

    Stearns, L. A.; Foga, S. C.; Hamilton, G. S.; Straneo, F.; Sutherland, D.; van der Veen, C. J.; Oltmanns, M.; Schild, K. M.


    Iceberg calving is an efficient mechanism for ice mass loss. While the physical controls on calving are not well understood, recent field and remote sensing observations from Helheim Glacier, southeast Greenland, suggest calving is dependent on both glacier and fjord conditions. This presentation investigates the sensitivity of calving rates to ice velocity, ocean temperature and mélange composition using a combination of in situ and satellite observations. Ocean properties in Sermilik Fjord for 2009-2014 are reconstructed using mooring data, and an object-based image analysis (OBIA) that inventories icebergs, sea-ice and small icebergs quantifies mélange composition several times a season. Ice velocity from InSAR and optical imagery is used to calculate calving rates and investigate the role of longitudinal gradients on calving. Ice velocity appears to be the dominant control on calving rates at Helheim Glacier. However, calving rates exhibit a complex pattern of seasonal and interannual variability, which does not simply mimic ice velocity patterns. We explore the relative roles of ocean properties, glacier geometry, and mélange composition on calving rates from 2001-2014 in order to improve physically-based glacier models.

  5. Impact of insecticide-treated nets on wild pyrethroid resistant Anopheles epiroticus population from southern Vietnam tested in experimental huts

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    Trung Ho


    Full Text Available Abstract Background In this study, the efficacy of insecticide-treated nets was evaluated in terms of deterrence, blood-feeding inhibition, induced exophily and mortality on a wild resistant population of Anopheles epiroticus in southern Vietnam, in order to gain insight into the operational consequences of the insecticide resistance observed in this malaria vector in the Mekong delta. Method An experimental station, based on the model of West Africa and adapted to the behaviour of the target species, was built in southern Vietnam. The study design was adapted from the WHO phase 2 guidelines. The study arms included a conventionally treated polyester net (CTN with deltamethrin washed just before exhaustion, the WHO recommended long-lasting insecticidal net (LLIN PermaNet 2.0® unwashed and 20 times washed and PermaNet 3.0®, designed for the control of pyrethroid resistant vectors, unwashed and 20 times washed. Results The nets still provided personal protection against the resistant An. epiroticus population. The personal protection ranged from 67% for deltamethrin CTN to 85% for unwashed PermaNet 3.0. Insecticide resistance in the An. epiroticus mosquitoes did not seem to alter the deterrent effect of pyrethroids. A significant higher mortality was still observed among the treatment arms despite the fact that the An. epiroticus population is resistant against the tested insecticides. Conclusion This study shows that CTN and LLINs still protect individuals against a pyrethroid resistant malaria vector from the Mekong region, where insecticide resistance is caused by a metabolic mechanism. In the light of a possible elimination of malaria from the Mekong region these insights in operational consequences of the insecticide resistance on control tools is of upmost importance.

  6. Exercise training enhances insulin-stimulated nerve arterial vasodilation in rats with insulin-treated experimental diabetes. (United States)

    Olver, T Dylan; McDonald, Matthew W; Grisé, Kenneth N; Dey, Adwitia; Allen, Matti D; Medeiros, Philip J; Lacefield, James C; Jackson, Dwayne N; Rice, Charles L; Melling, C W James; Noble, Earl G; Shoemaker, J Kevin


    Insulin stimulates nerve arterial vasodilation through a nitric oxide (NO) synthase (NOS) mechanism. Experimental diabetes reduces vasa nervorum NO reactivity. Studies investigating hyperglycemia and nerve arterial vasodilation typically omit insulin treatment and use sedentary rats resulting in severe hyperglycemia. We tested the hypotheses that 1) insulin-treated experimental diabetes and inactivity (DS rats) will attenuate insulin-mediated nerve arterial vasodilation, and 2) deficits in vasodilation in DS rats will be overcome by concurrent exercise training (DX rats; 75-85% VO2 max, 1 h/day, 5 days/wk, for 10 wk). The baseline index of vascular conductance values (VCi = nerve blood flow velocity/mean arterial blood pressure) were similar (P ≥ 0.68), but peak VCi and the area under the curve (AUCi) for the VCi during a euglycemic hyperinsulinemic clamp (EHC; 10 mU·kg(-1)·min(-1)) were lower in DS rats versus control sedentary (CS) rats and DX rats (P ≤ 0.01). Motor nerve conduction velocity (MNCV) was lower in DS rats versus CS rats and DX rats (P ≤ 0.01). When compared with DS rats, DX rats expressed greater nerve endothelial NOS (eNOS) protein content (P = 0.04). In a separate analysis, we examined the impact of diabetes in exercise-trained rats alone. When compared with exercise-trained control rats (CX), DX rats had a lower AUCi during the EHC, lower MNCV values, and lower sciatic nerve eNOS protein content (P ≤ 0.03). Therefore, vasa nervorum and motor nerve function are impaired in DS rats. Such deficits in rats with diabetes can be overcome by concurrent exercise training. However, in exercise-trained rats (CX and DX groups), moderate hyperglycemia lowers vasa nervorum and nerve function.

  7. Administration of high amounts of two solid feeds to veal calves: effects on growth performance and slaughter traits

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    Flaviana Gottardo


    Full Text Available The study aimed at assessing the effects on growth performance and slaughter traits of two type of solid feeds (Maize grain vs. Mix administrated to veal calves in amounts exceeding the minimum recommended by the welfare legislation. Fifty Polish Friesian calves, housed in 5 group pens per each experimental treatment, were fed the same milk replacer diett twice a day. After milk distribution a growing amount of solid feed was distributed through the fattening period. The type of solid feed did not affect calves final body weight and average daily gain although intake of solid feed was higher innnnnnnnnnnnncalves fed the Mix diet. Carcass weight and dressing percentage were no significantly affected by the two diets. Despite the higher haemoglobin level resulted with the Mix diet, no relevant differences between the two feeding treatments were observed regarding carcass colour parameters that were suitable for the meat market.

  8. Improving the sweeping efficiency of permanganate into low permeable zones to treat TCE: experimental results and model development. (United States)

    Chokejaroenrat, Chanat; Kananizadeh, Negin; Sakulthaew, Chainarong; Comfort, Steve; Li, Yusong


    The residual buildup and treatment of dissolved contaminants in low permeable zones (LPZs) is a particularly challenging issue for injection-based remedial treatments. Our objective was to improve the sweeping efficiency of permanganate into LPZs to treat dissolved-phase TCE. This was accomplished by conducting transport experiments that quantified the ability of xanthan-MnO4(-) solutions to penetrate and cover (i.e., sweep) an LPZ that was surrounded by transmissive sands. By incorporating the non-Newtonian fluid xanthan with MnO4(-), penetration of MnO4(-) into the LPZ improved dramatically and sweeping efficiency reached 100% in fewer pore volumes. To quantify how xanthan improved TCE removal, we spiked the LPZ and surrounding sands with (14)C-lableled TCE and used a multistep flooding procedure that quantified the mass of (14)C-TCE oxidized and bypassed during treatment. Results showed that TCE mass removal was 1.4 times greater in experiments where xanthan was employed. Combining xanthan with MnO4(-) also reduced the mass of TCE in the LPZ that was potentially available for rebound. By coupling a multiple species reactive transport model with the Brinkman equation for non-Newtonian flow, the simulated amount of (14)C-TCE oxidized during transport matched experimental results. These observations support the use of xanthan as a means of enhancing MnO4(-) delivery into LPZs for the treatment of dissolved-phase TCE.

  9. Use of Propolis Hydroalcoholic Extract to Treat Colitis Experimentally Induced in Rats by 2,4,6-Trinitrobenzenesulfonic Acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cely Cristina Martins Gonçalves


    Full Text Available This study focused on the therapeutic effect of a propolis SLNC 106PI extract on experimental colitis. Wistar adult rats received 0.8 mL rectal dose of one of the following solutions: saline (group S, 20 mg TNBS in 50% ethanol (group TNBS, 20 mg TNBS in 50% ethanol and propolis extract in saline (group TNBS-P, propolis extract in saline (group SP, and 20 mg TNBS in 50% ethanol and 50 mg/kg mesalazine (group TNBS-M. The animals were euthanized 7 or 14 days after the colitis induction. Samples of the distal colon were harvested for the analysis of myeloperoxidase (MPO enzyme activity and for morphometric analysis in paraffin-embedded histological sections with hematoxylin-eosin or histochemical staining. The animals treated with TNBS exhibited the typical clinical signs of colitis. Increased MPO activity confirmed the presence of inflammation. TNBS induced the development of megacolon, ulceration, transmural inflammatory infiltrate, and thickened bowel walls. Treatment with propolis moderately reduced the inflammatory response, decreased the number of cysts and abscesses, inhibited epithelial proliferation, and increased the number of goblet cells. The anti-inflammatory activity of the propolis SLNC 106 extract was confirmed by the reductions in both the inflammatory infiltrate and the number of cysts and abscesses in the colon mucosa.

  10. Conditioning and aversion to toxic Solanum bonariense ("naranjillo" leaves in calves

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    Paul Ruiz-Santos


    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Solanum bonariense is a perennial poisonous shrub that induces cerebellar cortical degeneration when eaten by cattle. The aim of this research was to outline a protocol to induce a conditioned aversion to this plant. During the pre-conditioning period ten calves (126±12kg BW were maintained at half of their normal energy intake with lucerne hay and water ad libitum, to stimulate consumption of S. bonariense. Every two days they were offered 100g ofS. bonariense leaves for 5 minutes. Calves began eating the target plant on day 10 and consumed all the plant material on day 12. The conditioning period began after each calf consumed the entire amount of S. bonariense for three consecutive sessions. Five animals were randomly selected for conditioning, and after ingestion ofS. bonariense they were dosed by oral gavage with lithium chloride (LiCl at 200mg kg-1 BW (treated group, while the other five received a similar volume of water by oral gavage (control group. After 2 doses of LiCl the treated group ate no S. bonariense while the control group consumed the entire 100g. We confirmed that LiCl is a powerful tool to induce conditioned aversions against S. bonariense in calves, which persists for at least 3 months.

  11. Effect of pre-calving zeolite, magnesium and phosphorus supplemention on periparturient serum mineral concentrations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pallesen, Anders; Pallesen, Flemming; Jørgensen, Rolf Jess


    the magnesium phosphate and group C: standard mineral and vitamin mix, monoammonium phosphate. All cows in group B had an apparently less variable serum calcium concentration around calving with no cases of milk fever and no subclinical hypocalcaemia or hypomagnesaemia recorded. In contrast, a parturient drop...... in blood Ca was seen in group A as well as group C. In group A, one cow was hypocalcaemic at calving, and developed milk fever. In group C, 12 blood samples, representing six cows, were hypocalcaemic, and three of these cows were treated for milk fever. All groups remained normomagnesaemic and there were...... no significant differences in blood Mg across groups. In conclusion, the combined P and Mg supplementation in addition to zeolite supplementation did not increase the serum Mg level (forage Mg 16.9g/day; 0.21% of DM). Combined P and Mg supplementation reduced the zeolite-induced hypophosphataemia but also...

  12. Using Nigella sativa meal as a substitute source for vegetable protein in rations of native growing calves

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    A. K. Nasser


    Full Text Available The present study was carried out on 15 growing local bull calves of about 150-200 kg, live body weight and 10-12 months old to investigate the effect of substituting soyabean meal as concentrate feed mixture protein by Nigella sativa meal (NSM at 0 , 60 and 100%. Animals were divided into 3 groups of 5 calves each, according to their live body weight for performing feeding trials. All groups of animals were fed iso-nitrogen (15% CP and iso-caloric (2.7 Mcal/kg. ME diets. Experimental rations were offered at 2.5% of live body weight with 1% of wheat straw. At the end of the feeding trial, which lasted for 105 days, blood samples were collected from all calves to estimate the total protein, albumin, globulin, triglyceride and cholesterol. Digestibility trial was carried out on three animals of each group to investigate the nutritional value of rations. Economical study was also carried out on experimental animals. Results indicated that there was an improvement in feed intake by 13 and 14% for groups fed a ration containing NSM compared with the group fed the control one. No significant differences were between groups of calves in total body weight gain and blood parameters. The feed conversion ratio improved by 12% for the group of calves fed control ration as compared with other groups. The same cost of producing 1 kg live body weight gain was found. Substituting soybean meal protein at 60 and 100% by NSM protein significantly improved crude fiber, ether extract, EE, and the values of digestion coefficient. It was concluded that NSM could be substituted instead of soyabean meal for growing local calves with out adverse effects on their performance.

  13. Comparison of Cervical Spine Anatomy in Calves, Pigs and Humans. (United States)

    Sheng, Sun-Ren; Xu, Hua-Zi; Wang, Yong-Li; Zhu, Qing-An; Mao, Fang-Min; Lin, Yan; Wang, Xiang-Yang


    Animals are commonly used to model the human spine for in vitro and in vivo experiments. Many studies have investigated similarities and differences between animals and humans in the lumbar and thoracic vertebrae. However, a quantitative anatomic comparison of calf, pig, and human cervical spines has not been reported. To compare fundamental structural similarities and differences in vertebral bodies from the cervical spines of commonly used experimental animal models and humans. Anatomical morphometric analysis was performed on cervical vertebra specimens harvested from humans and two common large animals (i.e., calves and pigs). Multiple morphometric parameters were directly measured from cervical spine specimens of twelve pigs, twelve calves and twelve human adult cadavers. The following anatomical parameters were measured: vertebral body width (VBW), vertebral body depth (VBD), vertebral body height (VBH), spinal canal width (SCW), spinal canal depth (SCD), pedicle width (PW), pedicle depth (PD), pedicle inclination (PI), dens width (DW), dens depth (DD), total vertebral width (TVW), and total vertebral depth (TVD). The atlantoaxial (C1-2) joint in pigs is similar to that in humans and could serve as a human substitute. The pig cervical spine is highly similar to the human cervical spine, except for two large transverse processes in the anterior regions ofC4-C6. The width and depth of the calf odontoid process were larger than those in humans. VBW and VBD of calf cervical vertebrae were larger than those in humans, but the spinal canal was smaller. Calf C7 was relatively similar to human C7, thus, it may be a good substitute. Pig cervical vertebrae were more suitable human substitutions than calf cervical vertebrae, especially with respect to C1, C2, and C7. The biomechanical properties of nerve vascular anatomy and various segment functions in pig and calf cervical vertebrae must be considered when selecting an animal model for research on the spine.

  14. Source of carbohydrate and metabolizable lysine and methionine in the diet of recently weaned dairy calves on digestion and growth. (United States)

    Hill, T M; Quigley, J D; Bateman, H G; Aldrich, J M; Schlotterbeck, R L


    Two 56-d trials with weaned Holstein dairy calves (initially 72 ± 1.8 kg of body weight, 58 to 60 d of age) fed 95% concentrate and 5% chopped grass hay diets were conducted. Each trial used 96 calves (4 calves/pen). During 15 of the last 21 d of the first trial and 10 of 14 d of the second and third week of the second trial, fecal samples were taken to estimate digestibility using acid-insoluble ash as an internal marker. Digestibility estimates along with 56-d average daily gain (ADG), hip width change, body condition score, and fecal score were analyzed with pen as the experimental unit. In trial 1, a textured diet (19% crude protein) with high starch [52% starch, 13% neutral detergent fiber (NDF)] based on whole corn and oats or a pelleted low-starch (20% starch, 35% NDF), high-digestible fiber diet were used. Within starch level, diets were formulated from supplemental soybean meal or soybean meal with blood meal and Alimet (Novus International Inc., St. Charles, MO) to provide 2 metabolizable protein levels (1 and 1.07% metabolizable lysine plus methionine). The 4 treatments were analyzed as a completely randomized design with a 2 by 2 factorial arrangement (6 pens/diet). In trial 2, all pelleted diets (19% crude protein) were fed. Diets were based on soybean hulls, wheat middlings, or corn, which contained increasing concentrations of starch (13, 27, and 42% starch and 42, 23, and 16% NDF, respectively; 8 pens/diet). Contrast statements were constructed to separate differences in the means (soybean hulls plus wheat middlings vs. corn; soybean hulls vs. wheat middlings). In trial 1, intake of organic matter (OM) did not differ. Digestibility of OM was greater in calves fed high- versus low starch-diets. Digestibility of NDF and starch were less in calves fed the high- versus low-starch diets. Calf ADG and hip width change were greater for high- versus low-starch diets. Source of protein did not influence digestibility or ADG. In trial 2, intake of OM was not

  15. The Effect of Age at First Calving and Calving Interval on Productive Life and Lifetime Profit in Korean Holsteins

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    Changhee Do


    Full Text Available This study was performed to estimate the effect of age at first calving and first two calving intervals on productive life and life time profit in Korean Holsteins. Reproduction data of Korean Holsteins born from 1998 to 2004 and lactation data from 276,573 cows with birth and last dry date that calved between 2000 and 2010 were used for the analysis. Lifetime profit increased with the days of life span. Regression of Life Span on Lifetime profit indicated that there was an increase of 3,800 Won (approximately $3.45 of lifetime profit per day increase in life span. This is evidence that care of each cow is necessary to improve net return and important for farms maintaining profitable cows. The estimates of heritability of age at first calving, first two calving intervals, days in milk for lifetime, lifespan, milk income and lifetime profit were 0.111, 0.088, 0.142, 0.140, 0.143, 0.123, and 0.102, respectively. The low heritabilities indicated that the productive life and economical traits include reproductive and productive characteristics. Age at first calving and interval between first and second calving had negative genetic correlation with lifetime profit (−0.080 and −0.265, respectively. Reducing age at first calving and first calving interval had a positive effect on lifetime profit. Lifetime profit increased to approximately 2,600,000 (2,363.6 from 800,000 Won ($727.3 when age at first calving decreased to (22.3 month from (32.8 month. Results suggested that reproductive traits such as age at first calving and calving interval might affect various economical traits and consequently influenced productive life and profitability of cows. In conclusion, regard of the age at first calving must be taken with the optimum age at first calving for maximum lifetime profit being 22.5 to 23.5 months. Moreover, considering the negative genetic correlation of first calving interval with lifetime profit, it should be reduced against the present

  16. Avaliação clínica e hematológica em bezerros Nelore infectados experimentalmente com isolados de Babesia bigemina das regiões Sudeste, Nordeste e Norte do Brasil Clinical and hematological evaluation of Nelore calves experimentally infected with isolates of Babesia bigemina from the Southeastern, Northeastern and Northern regions of Brazil

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    Carla Lopes de Mendonça


    alterations caused by isolates of Babesia bigemina from southeastern, northeastern and northern Brazil in experimentally infected Nelore calves. Eighteen calves between 7 and 9 months of age, without antibodies against Babesia sp and raised free from ticks, were used. Three animals were previously inoculated with 2.0x10(9 parasitic erythrocytes (PE for each stabilate. The other 15 calves were subdivided into three groups, with five animals each, that were subinoculated with 1.0x10(10 PE of the respective isolates. The clinical and hematological alterations were evaluated by the determination of parasitaemia, haemogram, plasmatic fibrinogen, reticulocyte count, descriptive analysis of the bone marrow and erythrocytic osmotic fragility, for 30 days, totalizing seven moments of observation. The follow-up of the immunological response by the indirect fluorescent antibody test was carried out daily until the 10th day after inoculation (DAI and after that, on the 15th, 20th, 25th and 30th DAI. A mild clinical manifestation of the disease was observed. The laboratory findings revealed low levels of parasitaemia; decrease of the erythrogram values; absence of reticulocytes, initial decrease in the total count of leukocytes, neutrophils and lymphocytes with a posterior elevation of the number of these cells; hypercellularity of the erythrocytic series and decrease of the myeloid: erythroid relation which was more accentuated between the 8th and 12th DAI, and an increase of the erythrocytic osmotic fragility in the groups inoculated with the Southeast and Northeast isolates. None of the three isolates of B. bigemina gave rise to the clinical characteristic form of the disease, although they induced an humoral immune response.

  17. FULL SCIENTIFIC REPORTS - Complex vertebral malformation in Holstein calves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agerholm, Jørgen S.; Bendixen, Christian; Andersen, Ole


    A recently observed lethal congenital defect of purebred Holstein calves is reported. Eighteen genetically related calves were necropsied. One calf had been aborted on gestation day 159, and the others were delivered between day 250 and day 285. Birth weights were reduced. The defect was characte...

  18. An epidemiological study of gammaglobulin levels in newborn calves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dobbelaar, P.; Noordhuizen, J.P.T.M.; Keulen, K.A.S. van


    The effect of various factors on serum gammaglobulin concentration in newborn dairy calves was studied in 181 calves on six commercial farms. The refractometer test for monitoring colostrum management was found to be a reliable, rapid and practical method up to 6 days after birth. The three factors,

  19. Feeding & Management of Dairy Calves & Heifers. Teacher's Guide. (United States)

    Bjoraker, Walt

    This guide is designed to assist postsecondary and secondary teachers of agriculture in their use of the University of Wisconsin bulletin "Raising Dairy Replacements" in their dairy science instructional program. Eight lessons are provided in this unit: breeding decisions, management of cows from breeding to calving, care at calving time, the…

  20. Plane of nutrition affects plasma ghrelin concentrations in neonatal calves (United States)

    Investigating different planes of nutrition on appetite-related hormones could provide knowledge into the role of these hormones on growth performance in neonatal calves. The objective of the current study was to investigate the effects of feeding rates on ghrelin in plasma from preruminant calves....

  1. Selection for beef traits and calving performance in Piemontese cattle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Albera, A.


    Beef cattle selection programmes are usually focused on the improvement of production traits. However, also functional traits play an important role for the efficiency of animal production. Among these traits calving performance, affecting stillbirth of calves, fertility of cows, animal welfare and

  2. Selection for beef traits and calving performance in Piemontese cattle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Albera, A.


    Beef cattle selection programmes are usually focused on the improvement of production traits. However, also functional traits play an important role for the efficiency of animal production. Among these traits calving performance, affecting stillbirth of calves, fertility of cows, animal welfare and

  3. Toxocara vitulorum in suckling calves in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borgsteede, F.H.M.; Holzhauer, M.; Herder, F.L.; Veldhuis-Wolterbeek, E.G.; Hegeman, C.


    A Dutch farmer with beef cattle and suckling calves noticed one of the calves suffering from diarrhoea and observed large white worms near the perineum. In the faeces of this calf, eggs of Toxocara vitulorum were found. The majority of the cows in the herd were of the Piemontese breed previously imp

  4. Phosphorus requirement of finishing feedlot calves. (United States)

    Erickson, G E; Klopfenstein, T J; Milton, C T; Brink, D; Orth, M W; Whittet, K M


    Dietary P supplied to feedlot cattle is important because an inadequate supply will compromise performance, whereas excess P may harm the environment. However, P requirements of feedlot cattle are not well documented. Therefore, 45 steer calves (265.2+/-16.6 kg) were individually fed to determine the P required for gain and bone integrity over a 204-d finishing period. The basal diet consisted of 33.5% high-moisture corn, 30% brewers grits, 20% corn bran, 7.5% cottonseed hulls, 3% tallow, and 6% supplement. Treatments consisted of 0.16 (no supplemental inorganic P), 0.22, 0.28, 0.34, and 0.40% P (DM basis). Supplemental P was provided by monosodium phosphate top-dressed to the daily feed allotment. Blood was sampled every 56 d to assess P status. At slaughter, phalanx and metacarpal bones were collected from the front leg to determine bone ash and assess P resorption from bone. Dry matter intake and ADG did not change linearly (P > 0.86) or quadratically (P > 0.28) due to P treatment. Feed efficiency was not influenced (P > 0.30) by P treatment and averaged 0.169. Plasma inorganic P averaged across d 56 to 204 responded quadratically, with calves fed 0.16% P having the lowest concentration of plasma inorganic P. However, plasma inorganic P concentration (5.7 mg/dL) for steers fed 0.16% P is generally considered adequate. Total bone ash weight was not influenced by dietary P for phalanx (P = 0.19) or metacarpal bones (P = 0.37). Total P intake ranged from 14.2 to 35.5 g/d. The NRC (1996) recommendation for these calves was 18.7 g/d, assuming 68% absorption. Based on performance results, P requirements for finishing calves is < 0.16% of diet DM or 14.2 g/d. Based on these observations, we suggest that typical grain-based feedlot cattle diets do not require supplementation of inorganic mineral P to meet P requirements.

  5. Complex social housing reduces food neophobia in dairy calves. (United States)

    Costa, J H C; Daros, R R; von Keyserlingk, M A G; Weary, D M


    Animals are often reluctant to consume novel feeds. Research suggests that social housing can reduce fearfulness in animals. The aim of this study was to test the prediction that social housing reduces food neophobia in dairy calves. Beginning immediately at birth, Holstein bull calves were either reared individually (n=18) or in a complex social group with other calves and cows (n=18). In food neophobia tests, calves were exposed to 2 identical buckets, one empty and the other filled with a novel food (chopped hay in trial 1 and chopped carrots in trial 2). Calves were tested for 30 min/d on 3 consecutive days starting at 70 d of age. Regardless of the type of food, socially housed calves consumed more of the novel feed compared with individually housed calves. In trial 1, intake of hay as fed averaged 35 ± 6 versus 18 ± 6 g/d for socially versus individually housed calves. In trial 2, intake of chopped carrots as fed averaged 27 ± 6 versus 6 ± 6 g/d for socially versus individually housed calves, respectively. Social rearing decreased the latency to eat the novel feed. Calves housed in a complex social group began eating the hay after 1:23 ± 1:13 versus 3:58 ± 1:10 min:s for individually housed calves. Latency to begin eating the chopped carrots averaged 3:09 ± 1:17 versus 6:38 ± 1:13 min:s for socially versus individually housed calves. Treatment had no effect on time spent eating, latency to approach the food bucket or the empty bucket in either trial, or on time spent manipulating the empty bucket. These results indicate that housing dairy calves in a complex social group reduces food neophobia. More generally, this study contributes to a series of studies showing that calves raised in more complex social environments may be better able to transition to other changes in their environment.

  6. Bounds on the calving cliff height of marine terminating glaciers (United States)

    Ma, Yue; Tripathy, Cory S.; Bassis, Jeremy N.


    Increased calving and rapid retreat of glaciers can contribute significantly to sea level rise, but the processes controlling glacier retreat remain poorly understood. We seek to improve our understanding of calving by investigating the stress field controlling tensile and shear failure using a 2-D full-Stokes finite element model. Using idealized rectangular geometries, we find that when rapidly sliding glaciers thin to near buoyancy, full thickness tensile failure occurs, similar to observations motivating height-above-buoyancy calving laws. In contrast, when glaciers are frozen to their beds, basal crevasse penetration is suppressed and calving is minimal. We also find that shear stresses are largest when glaciers are thickest. Together, the tensile and shear failure criteria map out a stable envelope in an ice-thickness-water-depth diagram. The upper and lower bounds on cliff height can be incorporated into numerical ice sheet models as boundary conditions, thus bracketing the magnitude of calving rates in marine-terminating glaciers.

  7. Anticoccidial efficacy of medium-chain triglycerides (MCT) in calves. (United States)

    Sato, Hiroshi; Nitanai, Atushi; Kurosawa, Takashi; Oikawa, Shin


    Anticoccidial efficacy of dietary fat was evaluated in calves with coccidial infection (Eimeria spp., including E. bovis and E. zuernii). Medium-chain triglycerides (MCT)--natural edible fats composed of caprylic (C8), capric (C10), and lauric (C12) acids -- were given orally with milk to 5 calves and with 10% glucose solution to 3 older, weaned calves by using the reticular groove reflex. After 3 to 11 days of MCT feeding, all Eimeria spp. oocysts had disappeared from the feces of all calves. MCT had no adverse effects on appetite or on fecal pH, ammonia, lactic acid, or volatile fatty acid levels. MCT feeding for coccidial control in calves has minimal side-effects and has benefits in terms of residue-free food production.

  8. The pharmacokinetics and effects of meloxicam, gabapentin, and flunixin in postweaning dairy calves following dehorning with local anesthesia. (United States)

    Glynn, H D; Coetzee, J F; Edwards-Callaway, L N; Dockweiler, J C; Allen, K A; Lubbers, B; Jones, M; Fraccaro, E; Bergamasco, L L; KuKanich, B


    Approved analgesic compounds in cattle are not currently available in the United States due to the lack of validated pain assessment methods and marker residue depletion studies. In this study, we compared the pharmacokinetic parameters and effect of preemptive analgesics administered to calves subjected to dehorning with local anesthesia. Holstein steers were randomly assigned to receive one of the following treatments per os (PO) or intravenously (IV) (n = 8/group): meloxicam (1 mg/kg PO), gabapentin (15 mg/kg PO), meloxicam (1 mg/kg), and gabapentin (15 mg/kg) PO, flunixin (2.2 mg/kg IV), or a placebo. Plasma drug, haptoglobin, substance P (SP) concentrations, serum cortisol concentrations, ocular thermography, mechanical nociceptive threshold (MNT), and average daily gain (ADG) were evaluated. Data were analyzed using mixed-effects models and noncompartmental pharmacokinetic analysis. Meloxicam, gabapentin, and meloxicam with gabapentin at the present doses did not reduce cortisol concentrations. Analgesic-treated calves had significantly lower plasma SP concentrations and improved ADG compared with controls. Flunixin calves had reduced circulating cortisol compared with controls. Meloxicam-treated calves showed an increase in MNT at two horn bud sites compared with the other treatments. Analgesics improved ADG and reduced biomarkers of pain, but effects differed by compound and route of administration.

  9. Legg-Calvé-Perthes disease: Diagnostics and contemporary treatment

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    Vukašinović Zoran


    Full Text Available Legg-Calvé-Perthes disease represents avascular necrosis of the femoral head in a growing child. It commonly affects children aged 2-14 years, mostly boys, and has familiar pattern. The etiology of this disease is unknown. It is based on avascular necrosis due to variations of the femoral head vascular supply, trauma, coagulation of endocrine disturbances. The disease presents with limping and pain localized in the hip with projection to thigh and knee, frequently accompanied by the limitation of abduction and internal rotation, as well as slight limitation in flexion of about 20 degrees. Plain radiography is most informative additional diagnostic procedure, enabling assessment of the stage of disease, containment of the femoral head within the acetabulum, acetabular coverage and the extent of disease. Main treatment goal is obtaining the spherical congruity of the hip joint. This can be achieved by abduction bracing, varization femoral osteotomies and various innominate osteotomies (sometimes combined with femoral osteotomies. Children younger than four years of age, with minimal femoral head involvement, do not need any treatment. These children with a larger involvement, older than four years of age, with possible containment in hip abducion, should be treated by one of the following procedures: Salter innominate osteotomy, Salter innominate osteotomy with femoral shortening, or triple pelvic osteotomy. The patients with containment of the hip is not possible in abduction (related to subluxation and femoral head crush, should be treated by Chiari pelvic osteotomy.

  10. Researches on Rumination Behavior in Six Months of Age Calves from Romanian Black and White Breed Fed Using Different Feed Space Allowance

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    Iulian Tripon


    Full Text Available The aim of this paper was to measure the main aspects that characterize the rumination behavior in six months old calves fed using three different feed spaces allowance. During the experiments the following rumination behavior aspects were determined: number of rumination periods, the length of rumination periods and the total length of rumination periods. Results showed that calves spent ruminating, on average, only 96.4 minutes in the morning, 176 minutes in the afternoon and 262.6 minutes during the night when the length of feeding space was 0.6 m per calf. Calves spent ruminating 124.2 minutes during the morning, 173.6 minutes during the afternoon and 243.4 minutes during the night when the length of the feeding space was 0.32 m per calf. Calves spent ruminating 106.2 minutes during the morning, 134.2 minutes during the afternoon and 286.4 minutes during the night when the length of the feeding space was 0.28 m per calf. The total time spent ruminating by calves was 535 minutes when the length of feeding space was 0.6 m per calf, 541 minutes when the length of feeding space was 0.32 per calf and 527 minutes when the length of the feeding space was 0.28 per calf. There were no significant differences (p>0.05 for total time spent ruminating by calves between the three experimental variants.

  11. Sufentanil citrate immobilization of Alaskan moose calves. (United States)

    Kreeger, Terry J; Kellie, Kalin A


    Free-ranging Alaskan moose calves (Alces alces gigas) were immobilized with 0.12 mg/kg sufentanil (S; n=16), 0.12 mg/kg sufentanil plus 0.27 mg/kg xylazine (SX; n=11), or 0.007 mg/kg carfentanil plus 0.36 mg/kg xylazine (CX; n=13). Immobilants were antagonized with 1.2 mg/kg naltrexone (S) or 1.2 mg/kg naltrexone plus 2.4 mg/kg tolazoline (SX, CX). There were no differences in induction (P ≥ 0.29) or processing (P ≥ 0.44) times between groups. Moose given either S or SX had significantly shorter recovery times than moose given CX (P=0.001) and recovery times from S were shorter than from SX (P=0.02). Oxygen saturation values for all groups averaged 85 ± 8%, but were significantly higher (P=0.048) for CX (89 ± 7%) than for S (82 ± 8%). Based on these data, sufentanil at 0.1 mg/kg or sufentanil at 0.1 mg/kg plus xylazine at 0.25 mg/kg could provide effective remote immobilization for Alaskan moose calves and could be substituted for carfentanil or thiafentanil should the need arise.

  12. Efficacy of an immune modulator in enzootic pneumonia of dairy calves. (United States)

    Metzner, M; Behrmann, K; Döpfer, D; Klee, W


    The objective of this cohort study was the evaluation of the efficacy of an immune modulator in the prophylaxis, metaphylaxis and treatment of enzootic bronchopneumonia (EBP). A total of 552 dairy calves on 13 farms were included. Groups of calves were included in the study if the prevalence of respiratory disease on the first visit was at least 50%, and the number of animals aged 2-16 weeks was at least 10. Controls were treated with a placebo. Animals of both groups were treated antibiotically if body temperature exceeded 39.5 degrees C. A clinimetric system was devised and used for classifying the animals into one of seven categories (healthy, beginning respiratory disease, acute BP, subacute BP, chronic BP, acute flare-up of chronic BP, and other disease). Animals were examined clinically on days 1, 3, 10, and 28. In animals treated prophylactically, the incidence of BP on day 10 was significantly higher (51%) than in those that received the placebo (31%). In animals treated metaphylactically, the average number of treatment days was significantly lower (2.86) than in the placebo group (3.81). In animals treated therapeutically, the incidence of EBP on day 10 was significantly lower than in the placebo group.

  13. Concentrations of tilmicosin in mammary gland secretions of dairy cows following subcutaneous administration of one or two doses of an experimental preparation of tilmicosin and its efficacy against intramammary infections caused by Staphylococcus aureus. (United States)

    Mendoza, Jesus; Martínez-Cortés, Ismael; López-Ordaz, Reyes; Gutiérrez, Lilia; Sumano, Hector


    OBJECTIVE To determine the concentration of tilmicosin in mammary gland secretions of dairy cows following administration of an experimental preparation once or twice during the dry period (45-day period immediately prior to calving during which cows are not milked) and to evaluate its efficacy for the treatment of cows with intramammary infections (IMIs) caused by Staphylococcus aureus at dry off (cessation of milking; first day of dry period), compared with that of an intramammary infusion of ceftiofur. ANIMALS 172 cows. PROCEDURES Milk samples were collected for microbiological culture 5 days before dry off and at calving and 15 and 30 days after calving. Cows with Staphylococcus IMIs were randomly assigned to receive an experimental preparation of tilmicosin (20 mg/kg, SC) once at dry off (n = 58) or at dry off and again 20 days later (56) or receive a long-acting intramammary preparation of ceftiofur (500 mg/mammary gland; 56) at dry off. Mammary gland secretions were collected from 5 cows in the tilmicosin-treated groups every 5 days after dry off until calving for determination of tilmicosin concentration. RESULTS Mean maximum concentration of tilmicosin in mammary gland secretions ranged from 14.4 to 20.9 μg/mL after the first dose and was 17.1 μg/mL after the second dose. The bacteriologic cure rate was 100% for all 3 treatments. Tilmicosin was detectable for 0 and 18 days after calving in the milk of cows treated with 1 and 2 doses of tilmicosin, respectively. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Administration of an experimental preparation of tilmicosin (20 mg/kg, SC) once to dairy cows at dry off might be useful for the treatment of S aureus IMIs.

  14. Effect of heat stress during late gestation on immune function and growth performance of calves: isolation of altered colostral and calf factors. (United States)

    Monteiro, A P A; Tao, S; Thompson, I M; Dahl, G E


    Calves born to cows exposed to heat stress during the dry period and fed their dams' colostrum have compromised passive and cell-mediated immunity compared with calves born to cows cooled during heat stress. However, it is unknown if this compromised immune response is caused by calf or colostrum intrinsic factors. Two studies were designed to elucidate the effects of colostrum from those innate to the calf. The objective of the first study was to evaluate the effect of maternal heat stress during the dry period on calf-specific factors related to immune response and growth performance. Cows were dried off 46 d before expected calving and randomly assigned to 1 of 2 treatments: heat stress (HT; n=18) or cooling (CL; n=18). Cows of the CL group were housed with sprinklers, fans and shade, whereas cows of HT group had only shade. After calving, the cows were milked and their colostrum was frozen for the subsequent study. Colostrum from cows exposed to a thermoneutral environment during the dry period was pooled and stored frozen (-20 °C). Within 4h of birth, 3.8L of the pooled colostrum from thermoneutral cows was fed to calves born to both HT and CL cows. Day of birth was considered study d 0. All calves were exposed to the same management and weaned at d 49. Blood samples were collected before colostrum feeding, 24h after birth and twice weekly up to d 28. Total serum IgG concentrations were determined. Body weight was recorded at birth and at d 15, 30, 45, and 60. Relative to CL calves, HT calves were lighter at birth (38.3 vs. 43.1 kg), but no difference in weight gain was observed at d 60. Additionally, HT calves had lower apparent efficiency of IgG absorption (26.0 vs. 30.2%), but no differences were observed for total IgG concentration. The objective of the second study was to evaluate the isolated effect of the colostrum from HT cows on calf immune response and growth performance. The experimental design was identical to the first study, but all calves were

  15. Determination of trenbolone in urine and faeces of calves by radioimmunoassay

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    Schopper, D.

    Radioimmunological methods were established for the determination of residues of trenbolone acetate (TBA) in urine and faeces of calves treated with TBA. Both methods are easy to handle (about 60-80 samples within 2 days). Their reliability has been demonstrated by means of examining specificity, sensitivity, accuracy and reproducibility. The lower limit of sensitivity is around 0.024-0.032 ng TBOH/ml urine and 0.034-0.048 ng TBOH/g faeces. Both RIAs could be applied for routine control of illegal treatment of veal calves with TBA. For the first time the excretion of TBOH after implantation with TBA was measured radioimmunological in 2 veal calves. Residues of TBA are measurable in urine and in faeces during the whole fest period (up to 61 days after implantation). The major part of TBOH is excreted with the faeces. Until the substances needed for the RIA of TBOH are available commercially, thin-layer-chromatography (Vogt 1977) can alternatively be used for the determination of residues of TBA.

  16. Using of Different Grain Sources with or without Monensin on Fattening Performance of Brown Swiss Male Calves

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    M. Bashtani


    Full Text Available The effect of barley or triticale and monensin on fattening performance of Brown Swiss calves (with average body weight of 170±30 kg were studied in a completely randomized design with factorial arrangement of 2×2 and 4 replicates. Experimental treatments were: 1- barley grain without monensin 2- barley grain with monensin 3- triticale grain without monensin and 4- triticale grain with monensin. The amount of monensin in the ration was set to be 30 mg/kg DM. Calves weighing was undertaken monthly and dry matter intake was measured daily. Sampling from rumen fluid was carried out using a stomach tube, and blood sampes were taken at the end of each month. Average daily gain, feed conversion ratio and daily feed intake were not significantly affected by the treatments. Monensin had no significant effect on blood glucose concentration. Ruminal N-NH3, blood urea nitrogen and ruminal pH were not significantly affected by the experimental treatments. As grain sources and monensin application had no effect on fattening performance of the calves. it can therefore concluded that triticale grain might be utilized substituted with barley grain in feed lot diets. This substitutionn can be important from the economical of view in calves feed lot interprise.

  17. Effects of feeding pistachio by-products silage on growth performance, serum metabolites and urine characteristics in Holstein male calves. (United States)

    Shakeri, P; Riasi, A; Alikhani, M; Fazaeli, H; Ghorbani, G R


    This study investigated physiological effects of pistachio by-products silage (PBPS) substituted in Holstein male calves diets and its effects on the growth performance. Twenty-four Holstein male calves (4-5 months of age and 155.6 ± 13.5 kg BW) were randomly assigned to one of four experimental diets (n = 6); contained 0%, 6%, 12% and 18% of PBPS (DM basis) respectively. During a 6-month experiment, dry matter intake (DMI) and weight gain were recorded and blood and urine samples were collected at different times. Results showed that mean DMI was not affected by different levels of PBPS in diets. But the calves fed 6% PBPS had the highest average daily gain (p  0.05) on pH, specific gravity, the number of white and red blood cells and epithelial cells count in urine. The animals did not show any symptom of illness or toxicity during the experimental period and all of the blood and urine parameters were in a normal range. It was concluded that substitution of PBPS up to 18% of the total diet that provide up to 18.2 g/kg DM total tannin had no adverse effects for Holstein male calves.

  18. Effects of human handling during early rearing on the behaviour of dairy calves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schütz, K.E.; Hawke, M.L.; Waas, J.R.; McLeay, L.M.; Bokkers, E.A.M.; Reenen, van C.G.; Webster, J.R.; Stewart, M.


    We examined the effects of daily positive or negative human handling on the behaviour of Holstein-Friesian dairy calves (n = 20 calves per treatment, five calves per group). The response to humans and indicators of positive emotions were examined at four weeks of age. Calves that received positive h

  19. Pre- and post-weaning performance of artificially reared calves. II. The effects of milk substitute and milk substitute-whey diets on the performance of calves with particular reference to the selection of calves with improved growth potential from their blood composition a week after birth. (United States)

    Couvaras, S


    Sixteen Friesland bull calves were divided into two groups and raised artificially in an early weaning system. The liquid feeding of one group consisted of a commercial milk substitute and that of the other group of a 50:50 milk substitute-whey mixture. Blood samples were taken at regular intervals, starting one week after birth, and analysed for packed cell volume (PCV), blood glucose and haemoglobin (Hb); serum albumin, total protein, urea, inorganic phosphate (Pi), Ca, Mg, Na and K. The liquid portion of the diet had no significant effect on either the blood composition of the calves or on their performance (mass gain, dry matter intake and feed conversion) at the end of the experimental period (week 13). The only significant difference (P less than 0,05) between the two groups was the body mass of the calves at weaning. There were significant changes in the concentrations of most blood constituents with age (P less than 0,001 for Hb, PCV, albumin, globulin, Pi and K; P less than 0,01 for urea and Ca). A significant correlation (P less than 0,05) was also found between the calves' growth rates from 1 to 13 weeks and the concentration of globulin at one week of age. The regression of growth rate from 1 to 13 weeks with the blood constituents, globulin, Hb, PCV, Pi, Mg and Ca at one week of age accounted for 67,4% of the variance among calves. The evidence suggests that the above types of liquid feeding in an early weaning system would not significantly affect the composition of the blood of calves when sampled approximately six weeks or more after weaning, provided a predictive assessment of subsequent growth performance.

  20. National evaluation for calving ease, gestation length and birth weight by linear and threshold model methodologies. (United States)

    Lee, Deukhwan; Misztal, Ignacy; Bertrand, J Keith; Rekaya, Romdhane


    Data included 393,097 calving ease, 129,520 gestation length, and 412,484 birth weight records on 412,484 Gelbvieh cattle. Additionally, pedigrees were available on 72,123 animals. Included in the models were effects of sex and age of dam, treated as fixed, as well as direct, maternal genetic and permanent environmental effects and effects of contemporary group (herd-year-season), treated as random. In all analyses, birth weight and gestation length were treated as continuous traits. Calving ease (CE) was treated either as a continuous trait in a mixed linear model (LM), or as a categorical trait in linear-threshold models (LTM). Solutions in TM obtained by empirical Bayes (TMEB) and Monte Carlo (TMMC) methodologies were compared with those by LM. Due to the computational cost, only 10,000 samples were obtained for TMMC. For calving ease, correlations between LM and TMEB were 0.86 and 0.78 for direct and maternal genetic effects, respectively. The same correlations but between TMEB and TMMC were 1.00 and 0.98, respectively. The correlations between LM and TMMC were 0.85 and 0.75, respectively. The correlations for the linear traits were above.97 between LM and TMEB but as low as 0.91 between LM and TMMC, suggesting insufficient convergence of TMMC. Computing time required was about 2 hrs, 5 hrs, and 6 days for LM, TMEB and TMMC, respectively, and memory requirements were 169, 171, and 445 megabytes, respectively. Bayesian implementation of threshold model is simple, can be extended to multiple categorical traits, and allows easy calculation of accuracies; however, computing time is prohibitively long for large models.

  1. Control of cryptosporidiosis in neonatal calves: use of halofuginone lactate in two different calf rearing systems. (United States)

    De Waele, V; Speybroeck, N; Berkvens, D; Mulcahy, G; Murphy, T M


    To date there is no effective treatment for bovine cryptosporidiosis. This study describes the use of halofuginone lactate in preventing cryptosporidiosis in naturally infected neonatal calves on a dairy farm with a high prevalence of infection. The animals were kept in two different calf rearing systems. A randomized double-blind trial was carried out with 32 naturally infected calves, divided into four groups. The two prophylactic halofuginone lactate treated groups were kept in either individual or group pens. Similarly, the animals receiving the placebo were housed in either individual pens or together in a large pen. A total of ten faecal samples were collected periodically during the 28 days study from each calf and tested for the presence of Cryptosporidium spp. using microscopic and molecular methods. Generalized estimating equations models were used to determine if the effects of the various treatments and/or rearing systems on the presence of diarrhoea and infection were statistically significant. Further analysis (classification trees models) was carried out to explore possible risk factors for cryptosporidiosis and interactions between treatments and rearing systems. Halofuginone lactate was shown to be effective in reducing clinical signs of cryptosporidiosis and environmental contamination. However, the treatment did not delay the onset of diarrhoea and did not reduce the risk of infection amongst calves reared together in a highly contaminated environment. The use of halofuginone lactate in combination with good hygienic measures, such as rearing animals in clean individual pens, was the most effective method to reduce the risk of cryptosporidiosis amongst 7-13 days old calves. It was concluded that the control of the parasite could be achieved by the combination of using effective preventive drugs, such as halofuginone lactate and good animal husbandry procedures.

  2. Orally administered tylosin for the control of pneumonia in neonatal calves. (United States)

    Matsuoka, T; Muenster, O A; Ose, E E; Tonkinson, L


    The effectiveness of orally administered tylosin tartrate for the control of naturally occurring pneumonia was determined in 287 neonatal calves. Tylosin tartrate was mixed with reconstituted milk replacer at the time of feeding. Daily doses of 1.0 g (0.5 g BID), 2.0 g (1.0 g BID) and 4.0 g (2.0 g BID) were evaluated for periods ranging from seven to 28 days. Tylosin at the optimum dose of 2.0 g daily reduced mortality to 12 out of 95 (12.6 per cent) compared to 38 out of 89 (42.7 per cent) in the non-medicated control calves. The 1.0 g daily dose did not reduce mortality. The number of calves with moderate to severe lung lesions was also reduced by treatment at 2.0 g daily to 13 out of 95 (13.7 per cent) compared to 45 out of 89 (50.6 per cent) in the control group. All dose levels had a similar effect in reducing the severity of clinical signs indicative of respiratory disease. Tylosin treatment at all dose levels reduced the number of Pasteurella multocida isolations from lung tissue to 15/146 (10.3 per cent) compared to 61/141 (43.3 per cent) for the controls. However, there were no differences between treated and controls in the number of P haemolytica isolations. The frequency of mycoplasma isolations from lung tissue were reduced significantly by tylosin treatment at the 4.0 g and 2.0 g dose levels to 36/93 (38.7 per cent) compared to 61/86 (70.9 per cent) for the control calves.



    Yilmaz, I.


    The aim of this study is to determine the environmental factors related to sex of calves born from Brown-Swiss cattlereared at Malya (M) and Konuklar (K) State Farms in Türkiye. A total of 7055 calves (1861 calves for K and 5194calves for M state farms) were used as animal material. Unlike previous studies, a new ratio called “Relative FemaleRatio (RFR)” (the superiority of female to male calves) was firstly suggested in this study for dairy cattle. The data onsex of all these calves, calving...

  4. Estimation of Risk Factors - Useful Tools in Assessing Calves Welfare

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    Ioana Andronie


    Full Text Available The study has been aimed at identify risk factors that may be used in welfare assessment of calves reared in intensive farming systems. These factors may be useful to the farmers in planning breeder measures in order to increase the animal welfare levels in relation to the legislative requirements. The estimation considered the housing conditions of calves aged 0-6 months grouped in two lots A (n: 50 and B (n: 60, depending on their accommodation system. We have monitored the calves decubitus on the housing surface, body hygiene as well as that of the resting area and the thermal comfort. The assessment was made by direct observation and numerical estimation, based on the Welfare Quality ® 2009 protocol (Assessment protocol for cattle as well as by means of a calves safety and welfare evaluation chart according to the European and national legislation on minimum calves safety and protection standards. Data collected and processed have shown the fact that not all housing conditions completely answer calves physiological requirements. Thus the appropriate housing criterion in the present study was met at B lot of 85 % and to a much smaller degree by the A lot (76 %. The assessment carried out by means of the safety chart have indicated that only the minimum criteria for calves rearing were met, which does not translate into a high level of their welfare.

  5. The Effects of Germanium Biotite Supplement as a Prophylactic Agent against Respiratory Infection in Calves

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    Myunghwan Jung1, Bock-Gie Jung2, Seung Bin Cha1, Min-Kyoung Shin1, Won-Jung Lee1, Seung Won Shin1, Jin-A Lee2, Yeon-Kwon Jung3, Bong-Joo Lee2 and Han Sang Yoo1*


    Full Text Available Germanium biotite, a natural mineral, is comprised of mainly silicate. This mineral showed activities of increase in feed efficiency and non-specific immunostimulation in previous studies. The aims of the present study were to evaluate the prophylactic effects of germanium biotite against respiratory diseases in calves as a feed supplement and investigate the possibilities of the substitution of antibiotics with germanium biotite as feed additive. To achieve these purposes, bovine herpesvirus-1 (BHV-1 and Mannheimia haemolytica serotype A1 were experimentally inoculated into the calves. After challenge, germanium biotite showed a lower cumulative clinical score (CCS than the control group. In accordance with these clinical results, enhanced clearance of BHV-1, a low infection rate of Mannheimia haemolytica serotype A1, tempered superficial lesions, and moderated histopathological signs were observed in the germanium biotite group, compared with the control group. The results of the present study indicated that germanium biotite had prophylactic effects against bovine respiratory disease and could be a candidate for a new alternative feed supplement in calves, through its effects as a non-specific immune stimulator.

  6. Effects of bromocriptine on serum prolactin levels, pituitary weight and immunoreactive prolactin cells in estradiol-treated ovariectomized rats: an experimental model of estrogen-dependent hyperprolactinemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.F. Ribeiro


    Full Text Available The present study was designed to assess the effects of bromocriptine, a dopamine agonist, on pituitary wet weight, number of immunoreactive prolactin cells and serum prolactin concentrations in estradiol-treated rats. Ovariectomized Wistar rats were injected subcutaneously with sunflower oil vehicle or estradiol valerate (50 or 300 µg rat-1 week-1 for 2, 4 or 10 weeks. Bromocriptine (0.2 or 0.6 mg rat-1 day-1 was injected daily during the last 5 or 12 days of estrogen treatment. Data were compared with those obtained for intact control rats. Administration of both doses of estrogen increased serum prolactin levels. No difference in the number of prolactin cells in rats treated with 50 µg estradiol valerate was observed compared to intact adult animals. In contrast, rats treated with 300 µg estradiol valerate showed a significant increase in the number of prolactin cells (P<0.05. Therefore, the increase in serum prolactin levels observed in rats treated with 50 µg estradiol valerate, in the absence of morphological changes in the pituitary cells, suggests a "functional" estrogen-induced hyperprolactinemia. Bromocriptine decreased prolactin levels in all estrogen-treated rats. The administration of this drug to rats previously treated with 300 µg estradiol valerate also resulted in a significant decrease in pituitary weight and number of prolactin cells when compared to the group treated with estradiol alone. The general antiprolactinemic and antiproliferative pituitary effects of bromocriptine treatment reported here validate the experimental model of estrogen-induced hyperprolactinemic rats

  7. Short communication: Glucagon-like peptide-2 and coccidiosis alter tight junction gene expression in the gastrointestinal tract of dairy calves. (United States)

    Walker, M P; Evock-Clover, C M; Elsasser, T H; Connor, E E


    Tight junction (TJ) proteins are integral factors involved in gut barrier function, and therapy with glucagon-like peptide-2 (GLP-2) enhances gut integrity. Our aim was to assess effects of GLP-2 treatment on mRNA expression of 8 TJ complex proteins in the intestine of dairy calves not infected or infected with Eimeria bovis at 11±3d of age. Mucosal epithelium from jejunum, ileum, and cecum was collected at slaughter from Holstein bull calves assigned to 4 groups: noninfected, buffer-treated (n=5); noninfected, GLP-2 treated (n=4); E. bovis-infected, buffer-treated (n=5); and E. bovis-infected, GLP-2-treated (n=4). Infected calves were orally dosed with 100,000 to 200,000 sporulated E. bovis oocysts on d 0; GLP-2-treated calves received 50 µg of GLP-2/kg of body weight subcutaneously twice daily for 10d beginning on d 18; and buffer-treated calves received an equal injection volume of 0.01 M Na bicarbonate buffer. All calves were killed on d 28. The mRNA expression of coxsackie and adenovirus receptor (CXADR), claudins 1, 2, and 4 (CLDN1, CLDN2, and CLDN4), F11 receptor (F11R), junction adhesion molecule 2 (JAM2), occludin (OCLN), and tight junction protein ZO-1 (TJP1) was determined by real-time quantitative PCR. In jejunum and ileum, an interaction of E. bovis infection and GLP-2 treatment on gene expression was noted. In jejunum of noninfected calves, GLP-2 increased CXADR, CLDN2, OCLN, and TJP1 mRNA expression but had no effect on mRNA expression in infected calves. Treatment with GLP-2 also increased tight junction protein ZO-1 protein expression in jejunum of noninfected calves as determined by immunohistochemistry. In ileum, E. bovis decreased expression of JAM2, OCLN, and TJP1 in buffer-treated calves, and GLP-2 increased TJP1 expression in infected calves. In cecum, E. bovis infection reduced expression of CXADR, CLDN4, F11R, and OCLN, and GLP-2 therapy increased expression of CLDN4, F11R, OCLN, and TJP1. Results are consistent with studies in

  8. Allocating forage to fall-calving cow-calf pairs strip-grazing stockpiled tall fescue. (United States)

    Curtis, L E; Kallenbach, R L; Roberts, C A


    In a 2-yr study, we evaluated the effect of different forage allocations on the performance of lactating beef cows and their calves grazing stockpiled tall fescue. Allocations of stockpiled tall fescue at 2.25, 3.00, 3.75, and 4.50% of cow-calf pair BW/d were set as experimental treatments. Conventional hay-feeding was also evaluated as a comparison to grazing stockpiled tall fescue. The experiment had a randomized complete block design with 3 replications and was divided into 3 phases each year. From early December to late February (phase 1) of each year, cows and calves grazed stockpiled tall fescue or were fed hay in the treatments described above. Immediately after phase 1, cows and calves were commingled and managed as a single group until weaning in April (phase 2) so that residual effects could be documented. Residual effects on cows were measured after the calves were weaned in April until mid-July (phase 3). During phase 1 of both years, apparent DMI of cow-calf pairs allocated stockpiled tall fescue at 4.50% of BW/d was 31% greater (P calf BW/d, pasture utilization fell (P 0.40). Calf ADG in phase 1 increased linearly (P calf gain per hectare decreased linearly (P calf pairs allocated stockpiled tall fescue at 4.50% BW/d was nearly 40% less (P calf pairs stockpiled tall fescue at 2.25% of BW/d likely optimizes its use; because cow body condition is easily regained in the subsequent spring and summer months, less forage is used during winter, and calf gain per hectare is maximized.

  9. Experimental approaches to test pesticide-treated seed avoidance by birds under a simulated diversification of food sources. (United States)

    Lopez-Antia, Ana; Ortiz-Santaliestra, Manuel E; Mateo, Rafael


    Pesticide coated seeds are known to be potentially toxic for birds, but the risk of poisoning will depend on how likely the individuals are to consume them. To refine the risk assessment of coated seed consumption by birds we studied the consumption and avoidance of seeds treated with imidacloprid, thiram, maneb or rhodamine B under different scenarios of food unpredictability (diversity or changes in food sources). In a first set of experiments, we examined during four days the amount of ingested food by red-legged partridges (Alectoris rufa) when offered untreated seeds, treated seeds or both. In the latter case, we also assessed the effect of a daily interchange in the position of feeders containing treated and untreated food. A second experiment, conducted with imidacloprid only, consisted of offering, during 27 h, fixed overall amounts of treated and untreated food, equally distributed in a different number of feeders per pen (1, 2, 4 or 8 feeders of each type of food) in order to diversify food sources. All the tested pesticide-treated seeds were avoided in two-choice experiments, and imidacloprid and thiram were also avoided in one-choice experiments. We found that imidacloprid treated seeds were avoided, probably as a consequence of a conditioned aversion effect due to the post-ingestion distress. However, under a diversification of two-choice food sources with multiple feeders, imidacloprid-treated seeds were ingested by partridges at increasing amounts that can produce sublethal effects or even death. Thiram treated seeds were also initially avoided in one-choice experiment, but probably mediated by a sensory repellence that progressively decreased with time. Our results reveal that the risk of pesticide exposure in birds may increase by unpredictability of food resources or prolonged availability of coated seeds, so pesticide registration for seed coating should consider worst-case scenarios to avoid negative impacts on farmland birds. Copyright © 2014

  10. Effect of colostrum heat treatment and bacterial population on immunoglobulin G absorption and health of neonatal calves. (United States)

    Gelsinger, S L; Jones, C M; Heinrichs, A J


    Improved IgG absorption in calves fed heat-treated colostrum has been attributed to the reduced bacteria content in colostrum after heat treatment. However, at least one study reported that colostrum bacteria content did not affect IgG absorption. The main objective of the current study was a more conclusive test of the combined effects of colostrum bacteria content and heat treatment on IgG absorption. Comparison of conclusions from plasma IgG as measured by radial immunodiffusion and ELISA and comparison of health scores in the first week of life were secondary and tertiary objectives. Colostrum from individual cows was pooled, divided, either heat treated or unheated, and allowed to incubate for bacterial growth or not. The 4 treatments were unheated, low bacteria; unheated, high bacteria; heat-treated, low bacteria; and heat-treated, high bacteria. Plasma samples were collected from bull calves (n=25-27 per treatment) before and 48h after colostrum feeding for IgG and total protein analysis. Fecal, respiratory, and general health scores were assigned daily for the first 7 d. Plasma IgG, total protein, apparent efficiency of IgG absorption, and frequency of illness were analyzed using the MIXED and FREQ procedures in SAS (SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC). Plasma IgG values from ELISA were lower than radial immunodiffusion; however, conclusions were similar. Greater colostrum bacteria content reduced total protein, plasma IgG, and efficiency of IgG absorption. Heat treatment tended to improve 48-h plasma IgG as measured by ELISA. Respiratory scores were not affected by colostrum treatment, but calves fed heat-treated, low-bacteria colostrum tended to experience fewer scour days. These results provide conclusive evidence for the benefits of minimizing bacterial contamination in colostrum for feeding calves.

  11. Impact of respiratory disease, diarrhea, otitis and arthritis on mortality and carcass traits in white veal calves. (United States)

    Pardon, Bart; Hostens, Miel; Duchateau, Luc; Dewulf, Jeroen; De Bleecker, Koen; Deprez, Piet


    Little is known on the effects of common calf diseases on mortality and carcass traits in the white veal industry (special-fed veal), a highly integrated production system, currently criticized for the intensive pro- and metaphylactic use of antimicrobials. The objective of the present study was to determine the impact of bovine respiratory disease (BRD), diarrhea, arthritis and otitis on the economically important parameters of mortality, hot carcass weight (HCW), carcass quality, fat cover and meat color. For this purpose, a prospective study on 3519 white veal calves, housed in 10 commercial herds, was conducted. Case definitions were based on clinical observation by the producers and written treatment records were used. Calves received oral antimicrobial group treatments in the milk during 25.2% of the production time on average. With an increasing percentage of the production cycle spent on oral antimicrobials, HCW reduced, whereas the odds for insufficient fat cover or an undesirable red meat color both decreased. Of the calves, 14.8%, 5.3%, 1.5% and 1.6% were individually diagnosed and treated for BRD, diarrhea, arthritis and otitis, respectively. Overall, 5.7% of the calves died and the mortality risk was higher in the first weeks after arrival. Calves that experienced one BRD episode showed a 8.2 kg reduction in HCW, a lower fat cover and an increased mortality risk (hazard ratio (HR) = 5.5), compared to calves which were not individually diagnosed and treated for BRD. With an increasing number of BRD episodes, these losses increased dramatically. Additionally, calves, which experienced multiple BRD episodes, were more likely to have poor carcass quality and an undesirable red meat color at slaughter. Arthritis increased the mortality risk (HR = 3.9), and reduced HCW only when associated with BRD. Otitis did only increase the mortality risk (HR = 7.0). Diarrhea severely increased the mortality risk (HR = 11.0), reduced HCW by 9.2 kg on

  12. Effects of exogenous recombinant bovine somatotropin (rbST on hematological indices of Kundhi buffalo male calves.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khuhro AP


    Full Text Available The aim of present research was assessment of the rbST effects on hematological indices and also its optimum safe dose in kundhi buffalo male calves for beef production. The calves were divided into three groups, with or without rbST treatment. The rbST administered intramuscularly during fortnight, for eleven weeks with an interval of two weeks. Then blood samples were collected at the end of eleven weeks for analysis. In comparison with group A and B, red blood cells count, hemoglobin, mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration, platelets count and mean corpuscular volume indices were significantly (P<0.05 higher. There was no significant effect on mean corpuscular hemoglobin, erythrocyte sedimentation rate and packed cell volume. The white blood cells in rbST treated groups (P<0.05 increased, and this increase was attributed due to increase in neutrophil number. However, there was non-significant effect of rbST on eosinophils, basophils, monocytes and lymphocytes between all groups. It was concluded from outcomes that rbST produced dose dependent effect on hematological values in kundi buffaloe calves and no adversely higher values were observed that determine polycethemia or leukocytosis. It is therefore suggested that rbST can be used at the dose rate of 1mg/kg b.w. as growth promoter in Kundhi buffaloe calves.

  13. Legg-Calvé-Perthes Disease. (United States)

    Divi, Srikanth N; Bielski, Robert J


    Legg-Calve-Perthes disease (LCPD) is the insidious onset of idiopathic avascular necrosis of the hip in the pediatric population. The disease encompasses a wide spectrum of pathology, from mild with no long-term sequelae to severe with permanent degenerative change of the hip joint. A pediatric patient with hip pathology may initially only present with knee or thigh pain, thus obligating the clinician to maintain awareness about the hip during examination. Common physical examination findings include deficits in hip abduction and internal rotation, along with Trendelenburg gait in late stages. Plain radiographs demonstrate changes in the anterolateral aspect of the femoral head, sometimes only seen on the frog lateral X-ray in early stages. Treatment options aim to restore range of motion and maintain adequate coverage of the femoral head. When appropriate, surgery is used to reorient the femoral head or pelvis to maintain coverage.

  14. Performance and physiological responses of milk-fed calves to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    South African Journal of Animal Science ... Respiratory rate and rectal temperature (within first 4 weeks of life), feed intake and faecal score (during ... Feed intake, average daily gain, feed conversion ratio and structural growth of calves were ...

  15. A note on the early calving of beef heifers

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    production in the early calving group due to reduced udder development. The results ..... adipose tissue is different to that of a lean heifer and that this storage adipose, perhaps ... Technical Services, South Africa. AMIR, S. & KALI, J.,1975.

  16. Calving rates at tidewater glaciers vary strongly with ocean temperature (United States)

    Luckman, Adrian; Benn, Douglas I.; Cottier, Finlo; Bevan, Suzanne; Nilsen, Frank; Inall, Mark


    Rates of ice mass loss at the calving margins of tidewater glaciers (frontal ablation rates) are a key uncertainty in sea level rise projections. Measurements are difficult because mass lost is replaced by ice flow at variable rates, and frontal ablation incorporates sub-aerial calving, and submarine melt and calving. Here we derive frontal ablation rates for three dynamically contrasting glaciers in Svalbard from an unusually dense series of satellite images. We combine ocean data, ice-front position and terminus velocity to investigate controls on frontal ablation. We find that frontal ablation is not dependent on ice dynamics, nor reduced by glacier surface freeze-up, but varies strongly with sub-surface water temperature. We conclude that calving proceeds by melt undercutting and ice-front collapse, a process that may dominate frontal ablation where submarine melt can outpace ice flow. Our findings illustrate the potential for deriving simple models of tidewater glacier response to oceanographic forcing.

  17. Calving interval genetic parameters and trends for dairy breeds in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Calving interval genetic parameters and trends for dairy breeds in South Africa. ... easily be implemented in the National Dairy Genetic Evaluations of South Africa. ... calculated by averaging the CIindices of measured cows per year of birth.

  18. Clinical mastitis from calving to next conception negatively affected ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Feb 2, 2012 ... The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of clinical mastitis between calving and next conception on ... labour, milk discarding following treatment, death and ..... secretion of luteinizing hormone (LH) but not follicle.

  19. Effect of feed presentation on feeding patterns of dairy calves. (United States)

    Miller-Cushon, E K; Bergeron, R; Leslie, K E; Mason, G J; DeVries, T J


    The objectives of this study were to determine the effect of feed presentation on meal frequency and duration, as well as diurnal feeding patterns of dairy calves, and to assess any longer-term differences in feeding patterns resulting from previous experience. Twenty Holstein bull calves were exposed from wk 1 to 8 of life to 1 of 2 feed presentation treatments: concentrate and chopped grass hay (spent more time feeding than calves fed COM (56.7 vs. 46.8 min/d). In wk 8, calves fed MIX spent more time feeding (174.0 vs. 139.1 min/d) and had a lower rate of intake (11.5 vs. 14.7 g/min) compared with calves fed COM. Meal frequency was similar between treatments (12.2 meals/d). Diurnal feeding patterns in wk 8 were also affected by feed presentation, with calves fed MIX spending less time feeding at time of feed delivery and more time feeding throughout the rest of the daylight hours than calves fed COM. Diurnal feeding patterns of hay and concentrate in wk 8 differed for calves fed COM, with more time spent consuming hay at time of feed delivery and less time spent consuming hay throughout the rest of the day. Once calves previously fed COM were transitioned to the MIX diet in wk 9, meal frequency, meal duration, and diurnal feeding patterns were similar between treatments: both treatments spent similar amounts of time feeding (173.9 min/d) and had similar peaks in feeding activity at time of feed delivery, sunrise, and sunset. Provision of hay and concentrate to young calves as a mixed ration, compared with separate components, increases time spent feeding and results in more evenly distributed diurnal feeding patterns. However, differences in feeding patterns resulting from feed presentation did not persist after 8 wk of age, when all calves were fed a mixed ration. Copyright © 2013 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Laboratory investigations of seismicity caused by iceberg calving and capsize (United States)

    Cathles, L. M. M., IV; Kaluzienski, L. M.; Burton, J. C.


    The calving and capsize of cubic kilometer-sized icebergs in both Greenland and Antarctica are known to be the source of long-period seismic events classified as glacial earthquakes. The ability to monitor both calving events and the mass of ice calved using the Global Seismographic Network is quite attractive, however, the basic physics of these large calving events must be understood to develop a robust relationship between seismic magnitude and mass of ice calved. The amplitude and duration of the seismic signal is expected to be related to the mass of the calved iceberg and the magnitude of the acceleration of the iceberg's center of mass, yet a simple relationship between these quantities has proved difficult to develop from in situ observations or numerical models. To address this, we developed and carried out a set of experiments on a laboratory scale model of iceberg calving. These experiments were designed to measure several aspects of the post-fracture calving process. Our results show that a combination of mechanical contact forces and hydrodynamic pressure forces are generated by the capsize of an iceberg adjacent to a glacier's terminus. These forces combine to produce the net horizontal centroid single force (CSF) which is often used to model glacial earthquake sources. We find that although the amplitude and duration of the force applied to the terminus generally increases with the iceberg mass, the details depend on the geometry of the iceberg and the depth of the water. The resulting seismic signal is thus crucially dependent on hydrodynamics of the capsize process.

  1. Photosensitivity in feedlot calves apparently related to cocoa shells. (United States)

    Yeruham, I; Avidar, Y; Perl, S


    Primary photosensitization was observed in 11/78 cross-breed calves. The skin lesions were diffuse dermatitis with thickening and wrinkling with areas of alopecia. The severe photosensitivity dermatitis was associated with cocoa shell ingestion. The lesions resolved after removal of the cocoa shells from the feed ration and prevention of exposure to sunlight. Cocoa shells may contain photodynamic agents that cause photosensitization in calves.

  2. Pathological and microbiological studies on pneumonic lungs from Danish calves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tegtmeier, Conny; Uttenthal, Åse; Friis, N.F.


    During 1 year, the association between microbiological and pathological findings in 72 lungs from calves submitted to the Danish Veterinary Laboratory for diagnostic purposes was studied. All cases mere evaluated pathologically and bacteriologically, whereas only 68 cases were examined for the pr......During 1 year, the association between microbiological and pathological findings in 72 lungs from calves submitted to the Danish Veterinary Laboratory for diagnostic purposes was studied. All cases mere evaluated pathologically and bacteriologically, whereas only 68 cases were examined...

  3. A comparative study of the effects of meloxicam and flunixin meglumine (NSAIDs) as adjunctive therapy on interferon and tumor necrosis factor production in calves suffering from enzootic bronchopneumonia. (United States)

    Bednarek, D; Zdzisińska, B; Kondracki, M; Rzeski, W; Paduch, R; Kandefer-Szerszeń, M


    The study was performed on 18 Black-and-White Lowland Breed calves with clinical signs of enzootic bronchopneumonia divided into three groups and respectively treated with oxytetracycline and meloxicam--Group I (9 animals); oxytetracycline and flunixin meglumine--Group II (3 animals); and oxytetracycline only--Group III (6 animals--control). The following observations were recorded before treatment (1st day) and two days later (3rd day): body temperature, the serum level of interferon (IFN) and tumor necrosis factor (TNF) as well as cytokine production by bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) cells. The treatment of calves with a combination of oxytetracycline and meloxicam (Group I) and especially with oxytetracycline and flunixin meglumine (Group II) caused a significantly faster, in comparison to the control group, normalization of body temperature. Both drugs, meloxicam and especially flunixin meglumine, inhibited excessive TNF production in the organism (measured as the serum level of cytokine). Moreover, BAL cells isolated from calves treated with both NSAIDs were still able, ex vivo, to release TNF, in contrast to the control group (treated only with tetracycline) which lost the ability to produce TNF. The treatment of the calves with meloxicam and flunixin meglumine did not significantly influence the levels of IFN in sera but normalized ex vivo IFN production in BAL cells. These results suggest that the combination of meloxicam with an antibiotic or flunixin meglumine with an antibiotic which does not exert an immunosuppressive influence on the organism of calves suffering from enzootic bronchopneumonia is equally effective in the treatment of calves and superior to the antibiotic alone.

  4. Matricaria chamomilla CH12 decreases handling stress in Nelore calves. (United States)

    Reis, Luis Souza Lima de Souza; Pardo, Paulo Eduardo; Oba, Eunice; Kronka, Sergio do Nascimento; Frazatti-Gallina, Neuza Maria


    Matricaria chamomilla CH12 is a phytotherapeutic or homeopathic product, which has been used to reduce stress. Here, we examined its effect on preventing handling stress in bovines. Sixty Nelore calves were randomly distributed into two equal groups. One group was administered Matricaria chamomilla CH12 in diet and the other the 'control' was not. Animals in both groups were maintained unstressed for 30 days to adjust to the feeding system and pasture, and were then stressed by constraint on the 31th, 38th, 45th and 60th experimental days. Blood samples were taken on these days after animals had been immobilization in a trunk contention for 5 min. Stress was followed by analyzing serum cortisol levels. These peaked on the 45th day and then decreased, but not to baseline, on the 60th day. On the 45th day cortisol levels were significantly lower in animals fed Matricaria chamomilla CH12, suggesting that this product reduces stress. These effects may be a consequence of its inhibiting cortisol production and its calming and anxiolytic effects.

  5. Anaerobically fermented colostrum: an alternative for feeding calves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mara Helena Saalfeld


    Full Text Available Milk or commercial milk replacer blends are the most expensive components in final costs of calves breeding. Colostrum is available and it is the appropriate sources for calves' nutrition, being an excellent option as milk substitute. Besides having both nutritional and immunological characteristics that are superior to milk, colostrum represents no costs to the producer. However, difficulties in preservation of colostrum generate controversy results. The aim of this study was to evaluate the anaerobically fermented colostrum (colostrum silage as liquid diet for dairy calves. We evaluated the microbiological and physicochemical properties of silage, and performance of 31 animals up to 60 days age. From 21 days until 360 days of fermentation we isolated only bacteria of the genus Lactobacillus spp. The physicochemical evaluation of colostrum silage revealed a tendency to maintain the protein, dry matter and fat values during the evaluation period. The average weight gain of calves fed with milk was 0.6kg day-1 for female and 0.6g day-1 for males while those fed with colostrum silage was significantly higher (P<0.05 with a mean of 0.7kg day-1 for female and 0.7kg day-1 for males. The results of this study demonstrated that colostrum silage keeps the properties necessary for the development of the calves and is a suitable replacement for calves' milk.

  6. Calving on tidewater glaciers amplified by submarine frontal melting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. O'Leary


    Full Text Available While it has been shown repeatedly that ocean conditions exhibit an important control on the behaviour of grounded tidewater glaciers, modelling studies have focused largely on the effects of basal and surface melting. Here, a finite-element model of stresses near the front of a tidewater glacier is used to investigate the effects of frontal melting on calving, independently of the calving criterion used. Applications of the stress model to idealized scenarios reveal that undercutting of the ice front due to frontal melting can drive calving at up to ten times the mean melt rate. Factors which cause increased frontal melt-driven calving include a strong thermal gradient in the ice, and a concentration of frontal melt at the base of the glacier. These properties are typical of both Arctic and Antarctic tidewater glaciers. The finding that frontal melt near the base is a strong driver of calving leads to the conclusion that water temperatures near the bed of the glacier are critically important to the glacier front, and thus the flow of the glacier. These conclusions are robust against changes in the basal boundary condition and the choice of calving criterion, as well as variations in the glacier size or level of crevassing.

  7. Labile neurotoxin in serum of calves with "nervous" coccidiosis. (United States)

    Isler, C M; Bellamy, J E; Wobeser, G A


    Mouse inoculation was used to test for the presence of a toxin in the serum, cerebrospinal fluid, and intestinal contents collected from cases of bovine enteric coccidiosis, with and without neurological signs, and from control calves. Intravenous inoculation of mice with 10 mL/kg of serum from calves showing nervous signs caused effects significantly different from those caused by the inoculation of serum from calves not showing nervous signs and from control calves. The effect was particularly evident in female mice. At this dosage severe neurological signs such as loss of righting reflex, seizures and death occurred only with serum from calves with "nervous coccidiosis". The results suggest that serum from the calves with neurological signs contains a neurotoxin. This toxin appears to be highly labile. It was not present in the cerebrospinal fluid at levels comparable to those in the serum. The significance of this labile neurotoxin with respect to the pathogenesis of the neurological signs associated with bovine enteric coccidiosis is unknown. PMID:2955865

  8. Glacier calving, dynamics, and sea-level rise. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meier, M.F.; Pfeffer, W.T.; Amadei, B.


    The present-day calving flux from Greenland and Antarctica is poorly known, and this accounts for a significant portion of the uncertainty in the current mass balance of these ice sheets. Similarly, the lack of knowledge about the role of calving in glacier dynamics constitutes a major uncertainty in predicting the response of glaciers and ice sheets to changes in climate and thus sea level. Another fundamental problem has to do with incomplete knowledge of glacier areas and volumes, needed for analyses of sea-level change due to changing climate. The authors proposed to develop an improved ability to predict the future contributions of glaciers to sea level by combining work from four research areas: remote sensing observations of calving activity and iceberg flux, numerical modeling of glacier dynamics, theoretical analysis of the calving process, and numerical techniques for modeling flow with large deformations and fracture. These four areas have never been combined into a single research effort on this subject; in particular, calving dynamics have never before been included explicitly in a model of glacier dynamics. A crucial issue that they proposed to address was the general question of how calving dynamics and glacier flow dynamics interact.

  9. Effect of Heat-treatment on Quality and Microbiology of Colostrum and on Passive Transfer of Immunoglobulin G in Newborn Calves (United States)

    The objective of this study was to describe the effect of heat-treatment on microbial counts and IgG levels in colostrum and describe serum IgG concentrations in newborn calves fed heat-treated vs raw colostrum. Six farms, ranging from 1,200 to 2,500 cows, enrolled in the study. First milking ...

  10. Effect of growth-promoting 17beta-estradiol, 19-nortestosterone and dexamethasone on circulating levels of nine potential biomarker candidates in veal calves.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cacciatore, G.; Eisenberg, S.W.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/314000380; Situ, C.; Mooney, M.H.; Delahaut, P.; Klarenbeek, S.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/30483159X; Huet, A.C.; Bergwerff, A.A.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/125023553; Elliott, C.T.


    The use of screening methods based on the detection of biological effects of growth promoters is a promising approach to assist residue monitoring. To reveal useful effects on protein metabolism, male and female veal calves at 10 weeks of age were treated thrice with a combination of 25mg

  11. Topical treatment of calves with synthetic pyrethroids: effects on the non-target dung fly Neomyia cornicina (Diptera: Muscidae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sommer, C.; Jensen, Karl-Martin Vagn; Jespersen, Jørgen B.


    Dung from calves treated with synthetic pyrethroids negatively influenced, in varying degrees, survival, reproduction and size of the common dung fly Neomyia cornicina (Fabricius). This was documented in assays where the coprophagous larvae and adults of N. cornicina were exposed to dung collected...

  12. Growth disturbance in Legg-Calvé-Perthes disease and the consequences of surgical treatment. (United States)

    Leitch, J M; Paterson, D C; Foster, B K


    Seventy-two patients with Legg-Calvé-Perthes disease were studied to assess the interference with proximal femoral growth as a result of the disease itself and of surgical treatment. Twenty-five patients were treated nonoperatively, 20 were treated by femoral varus derotation osteotomy, and 27 by innominate osteotomy. All patients were studied clinically for evidence of abductor weakness and leg-length discrepancy. They were also studied roentgenographically for evidence of femoral head deformity and trochanteric overgrowth. The overall results showed a 6% incidence of leg-length discrepancy greater than 2 cm after both operative and nonoperative treatment. The articulo-trochanteric distance (ATD) was less than +5 mm in 23% of patients, of which 43% had a positive Trendelenburg sign. A significantly lower mean ATD was found in patients treated by femoral varus osteotomy, which should be avoided in patients over eight years of age. The study also demonstrated a strong association between coxa magna and growth disturbance of the proximal femoral physis manifesting itself as either a leg-length discrepancy or as a low ATD. The significant effects of growth disturbance after treatment must be considered, as well as the sphericity of the healed femoral head, in the final assessment in Legg-Calvé-Perthes disease.

  13. Assessment of an oxfendazole pulsed release bolus for control of parasitic gastroenteritis in calves in a rotational grazing system. (United States)

    Mitchell, G B


    A group of 71 Friesian bullocks, aged six to nine months, vaccinated against lungworm, were randomly allocated on a liveweight basis to two groups of 40 and 31 animals. At turn-out each calf in the group of 40 calves was dosed orally with a pulsed release bolus designed to deliver five doses of oxfendazole at regular intervals during a period of up to 130 days, the first dose being released about 21 days after administration. The group treated with the bolus grazed 2.4 ha and the control group grazed 3.6 ha of permanent pasture for six weeks before having additional access to similar areas of silage aftermath. The control group was treated 99 days after turn-out and when they were housed with fenbendazole (7.5 mg/kg). Faecal worm egg counts, plasma pepsinogen activities, pasture larval counts and liveweights were recorded fortnightly. Significant reductions in worm egg counts and plasma pepsinogen activities were recorded in the calves dosed with the pulsed release bolus together with significant improvements in the liveweight of younger calves compared with control animals. Pasture larval counts were lower in the fields grazed by animals treated with the bolus.

  14. Some Environmental Factors Affecting Birth Weight, Weaning Weight and Daily Live Weight Gain of Holstein Calves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erdal Yaylak


    Full Text Available The present study was conducted to determine some environmental factors affecting birth weight, weaning weight and daily live weight gain of Holstein calves of a livestock facility in Izmir, Turkey. The data on 2091 calves born between the years 2005-2010 were used to assess the relevant parameters. Effects of calving year, calving month, calf gender and the interaction between calving year and calving month on calves’ birth weights were highly significant. The overall mean of birth weights was 39.6±0.15 kg. In addition, effects of calving year, calving month, gender, birth weight, weaning age, calving year x calving month, calving year x gender and calving year x calving month x gender interactions on weaning weight (WW and daily live weight gain (DLWG were highly significant. The overall means of WW and DLWG were respectively found to be 79.7±0.20 kg and 525±2.5 g. A one kilogram increase in birth weight resulted in an increase of 0.89 kg in weaning weight and a decrease of 1.26 g in daily live weight gain. Prenatal temperature-humidity index (THI affected birth weight of calves (R2=0.67. Increasing THI from 50 to 80 resulted in 3.8 kg decrease in birth weight.

  15. Experimental and Clinical Evaluation of Plantago australis Extract as an Anti-Inflammatory Agent to Treat Oral Pathologies

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    Full Text Available Background Plantago australis is a native plant from Southern Brazil used to reduce inflammation. Interestingly, there are no previous studies evaluating its use to treat oral lesions. Objectives The study aimed to investigate in vivo the anti-inflammatory activity of 10% ethanol extract of P. australis in recurrent aphthous stomatitis (RAS, erosive lichen planus (ELP and actinic cheilitis (AC. Methods Thirty patients with RAS, ELP and AC were treated topically with 10% P. australis solution-based or cream. Results In the comparison of in vivo data before and after the treatment and between different lesions, all P values were less than 0.05. Conclusions The pharmaceutical formulation of 10% P. australis was therapeutically effective in the subjects with inflammatory oral lesions of RAS, ELP and AC.

  16. Effect of Different Protein Levels On Nutrient Digestion Metabolism and Serum Biochemical Parameters in Calves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Hui; DIAO Qi-yu; ZHANG Nai-feng; TU Yan; WANG Ji-feng


    The current study has been performed to examine the effects of different dietary protein levels on the growth,nutrient digestion and absorption,as well as biochemical parameters in calves.Nine healthy newborn calves were selected,randomly divided into 3 groups and fed 3 milk replacers with different protein levels(18,22,and 26%),respectively.Five period-digestion-metabolism trials were taken between 12-20,22-30,32-40,42-50,and 52-60 days after birth.All 3 groups showed a similar growth curve during 11 to 61 experimental days,however,the growth rate of the 22%crude protein(CP) group was 8.89%higher than that of the 18%CP group and 19.48%higher than that of the 26%CP group.respectively. The apparent digestibility of dry material(DM)declined gradually with age,whereas,the apparent digestibility of N,extract ether(EE)rose slightly.Compared to the 22%CP and 26%CP group,calves fed with 18%CP apparently had a lower digestibility than DM,EE,and nitrogen(N).The average apparent digestibilities of N were 69.39,75.36,and 74.55%, respectively.Both the apparent digestibility and retention of calcium(Ca)and phosphorus(P)were steady throughout the experiment,but the average apparent digestibility of P in the 26%CP group was only 63.83%,which was markedly lower than that of the 18%CP group(70.40%)and 22%CP group(69.73%).In addition,the sernm concentrations of total protein(TP),albumin(ALB),and globulin(GLOB)of the 22%CP group were higher than those in the 18%CP and 26%CP groups.The urea N(BUN)content in the 18%CP group,on the other hand,was significantly lower than that of the other two groups.The highest glucose(GLU)concentration was found in the 22%CP group(5.38 mmol L-1),at the end of the trials.The protein levels in the milk replacer affected the digestion metabolism of nutrition and the serum biochemical parameters of calves at different physiological phases.Calves fed with 22%CP milk replacer had a better growth performance than the other groups.

  17. Evaluation of Glycopyrrolate as an Anticholinergic in Buffalo Calves (Bubalus bubalis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Singh


    Full Text Available Twelve experimental trials were undertaken on clinically healthy male buffalo calves. Glycopyrrolate was injected @ 0.01 mg/kg, IM. After glycopyrrolate administration, two animals became ataxic. Muzzle, mouth and nostrils became dry after 41.5±3.334 minute of drug administration; the same again became wet at 578.8±19.27 minute. The pulse pressure increased significantly after glycopyrrolate administration without any significant variation in heart rate, mean arterial pressure (MAP and central venous pressure (CVP.

  18. An experimental study of using Chai Lai Prescription to treat in vitro rabbit models of reflux esophagitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Xiao-hua; WEN Hao; YOU Si-hong; XU Xiao-fei; WEN Wei


    Background Chai Lai Prescription is a Chinese herbal compound which is used to sooth the liver,strengthen the spleen and harmonize the stomach for descending adverse Qi.We initiated the study to investigate its mechanism of treating in vitro rabbit reflux esophagitis models.Methods Adult male Japanese white rabbits,weighing 1.8-2.2 kg,were divided into five groups of three each,which were:normal control group (Krebs buffer,pH7.4),esophagitis model group (Krebs buffer,pH5.8),esophagitis model proup+low-dose Chinese herbal medicine protection group (0.6 mg·ml1·kg1),esophagitis model group+moderate-dose Chinese herbal medicine protection group (6 mg·ml1·kg1),esophagitis model group+high-dose Chinese herbal medicine protection group (60 mg·ml1·kg1).The RT-PCR method was used to test the influence of Chai Lai Prescription on IL-1 and IL-6 in in vitro rabbit models of esophagitis.We treated the in vitro models with different doses of Chinese herbal medicine.Results Esophageal mucosa were filled with various liquids.IL-6 and IL-1β mRNA expression was increased in rabbit esophageal mucosa stimulated with acid.Chinese herbal medicine significantly reduced the levels of IL-6 and IL-1β mRNA expression in the in vitro cultured rabbit esophageal mucosa.Using Chinese herbal medicine to treat in vitro models of RE,we found that the IL-6 and IL-1β mRNA expression levels went down,near to or lower than the normal control levels,compared with the group treated with acidified buffer solution.Conclusions Chai Lai Prescription lowered the IL-1β and IL-6 cytokine mRNA levels and protected the esophageal mucosa in the in vitro models of reflux esophagitis,suggesting that the traditional Chinese herbal compound may be able to treat reflux esophagitis by inhibiting the its inflammatory mediators.

  19. Macromolecule absorption and cortisol secretion in newborn calves derived from in vitro produced embryos

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, H; Sangild, P T; Schmidt, M;


    Earlier reports indicate that calves derived from in vitro produced (IVP) embryos are more susceptible to neonatal disease than calves produced after artificial insemination (AI) or natural mating. The aims of the present study were to investigate whether calves born after IVP embryos show......) was compared with that in two groups of IVP calves (IVP-defined: SOFaa embryo culture with polyvinyl alcohol, n=6; IVP-serum: SOFaa embryo culture with serum and co-culture, n=8). The calves were fed colostrum (40ml/kg) at 2, 6 and 12h after birth. At 24h after birth, both AI and IVP calves had achieved...

  20. Risk factors for isolation of Staphylococcus aureus or Streptococcus dysgalactiae from milk culture obtained approximately 6 days post calving. (United States)

    Osterås, Olav; Whist, Anne Cathrine; Sølverød, Liv


    Milk culture results at approximately 6 d post calving were assessed in a 2-year retrospective single-cohort study in 178 Norwegian herds. A combined teat dipping and selective antibiotic therapy trial was performed in these herds where cows with composite milk somatic cell count (CMSCC) >100,000 cells/ml before drying-off (geometric mean of the last three CMSCC test-days) and isolation of Staphylococcus aureus or Streptococcus dysgalactiae were selected for either short-acting lactation antibiotic treatment or long-acting dry cow antibiotic treatment. Milk culture results at approximately 6 d post-calving were available from 437 treated cows and 3061 non-treated cows before drying-off and separate multivariable logistic regression models were ran for these two groups. Risk factors associated with isolation of Staph. aureus 6 d post calving for non-treated cows were CMSCC >400,000 cells/ml before drying-off v. 200,000 cells/ml before drying-off v. 50,000 cells/ml compared with teat disinfection (PMTD) did not influence the isolation of Staph. aureus 6 d post calvin, but it was less likely to isolate Str. dysgalactiae 6 d post calving if iodine PMTD was used regularly rather than irregularly. The external teat sealant had no effect on either of the two bacteria. This study indicates that the CMSCC limit for sampling cows before drying-off can be reduced to 50,000 cells/ml in herds with a Str. dysgalactiae problem. Iodine PMTD should also be recommended in these herds. Cows with a CMSCC > 400,000 cells/ml prior to drying-off should receive long-acting dry cow formula irrespective of the milk result.

  1. Intake of specific fatty acids and fat alters growth, health, and titers following vaccination in dairy calves. (United States)

    Esselburn, K M; O'Diam, K M; Hill, T M; Bateman, H G; Aldrich, J M; Schlotterbeck, R L; Daniels, K M


    Typical fatty acid profiles of milk and milk replacer (MR) differ. Calf MR in the United States are made from animal fat, which are low in short- and medium-chain fatty acids and linolenic acid. Two 56-d trials compared a control MR containing 27% crude protein and formulated with 3 fat and fatty acid compositions. The 3 MR treatments were (1) only animal fat totaling 17% fat (CON), (2) animal fat supplemented with butyrate, medium-chain fatty acids, and linolenic acid using a commercial product (1.25% NeoTec4 MR; Provimi North America, Brookville, OH) totaling 17% fat (fatty acid-supplemented; FA-S), and (3) milk fat totaling 33% fat (MF). The MR were fed at 660 g of dry matter from d 0 to 42 and weaned. Starter (20% crude protein) and water were fed ad libitum for 56 d. Trial 1 utilized Holstein calves (24 female, 24 male) during summer months and trial 2 utilized Holstein calves (48 male) during fall months. Calves (41±1 kg of initial body weight; 2 to 3d of age) were sourced from a single farm and housed in a naturally ventilated nursery without added heat. Calves were in individual pens with straw bedding. Calf was the experimental unit. Data for each trial were analyzed as a completely randomized design with a 3 (MR treatment) × 2 (sex) factorial arrangement of treatments in trial 1 with repeated measures and as a completely randomized design with 3 MR treatments in trial 2 with repeated measures. Preplanned contrast statements of treatments CON versus FA-S and CON versus MF were used to separate means. We found no interactions of MR treatment by sex. Calf average daily gain, hip width change, and feed efficiency differed (CONFA-S). Titers to bovine respiratory parainfluenza-3 and bovine virus diarrhea type 1 (vaccinations to these pathogens were on d 7 and 28) in serum samples taken on d 49 and 56 differed (CONFA-S; CONFA-S; CON>MF). Calves fed FA-S and MF had improved growth and feed efficiency compared with calves fed CON, whereas calves fed FA-S also

  2. Tuberculosis Detection in Paratuberculosis Vaccinated Calves: New Alternatives against Interference (United States)

    Serrano, Miriam; Elguezabal, Natalia; Sevilla, Iker A.; Geijo, María V.; Molina, Elena; Arrazuria, Rakel; Urkitza, Alfonso; Jones, Gareth J.; Vordermeier, Martin; Garrido, Joseba M.; Juste, Ramón A.


    Paratuberculosis vaccination in cattle has been restricted due to its possible interference with the official diagnostic methods used in tuberculosis eradication programs. To overcome this drawback, new possibilities to detect Mycobacterium bovis infected cattle in paratuberculosis vaccinated animals were studied under experimental conditions. Three groups of 5 calves each were included in the experiment: one paratuberculosis vaccinated group, one paratuberculosis vaccinated and M. bovis infected group and one M. bovis infected group. The performance of the IFN-gamma release assay (IGRA) and the skin test using conventional avian and bovine tuberculins (A- and B-PPD) but also other more specific antigens (ESAT-6/CFP10 and Rv3615c) was studied under official and new diagnostic criteria. Regarding the IGRA of vaccinated groups, when A- and B-PPD were used the sensitivity reached 100% at the first post-challenge sampling, dropping down to 40–80% in subsequent samplings. The sensitivity for the specific antigens was 80–100% and the specificity was also improved. After adapting the diagnostic criteria for the conventional antigens in the skin test, the ability to differentiate between M. bovis infected and non-infected animals included in paratuberculosis vaccinated groups was enhanced. Taking for positive a relative skin thickness increase of at least 100%, the single intradermal test specificity and sensitivity yielded 100%. The comparative intradermal test was equally accurate considering a B-PPD relative skin increase of at least 100% and greater than or equal to that produced by A-PPD. Using the specific antigens as a proteic cocktail, the specificity and sensitivity reached 100% considering the new relative and absolute cut-offs in all experimental groups (Δ≥30% and Δmm ≥ 2, respectively). Results suggest that the interference caused by paratuberculosis vaccination in cattle could be completely overcome by applying new approaches to the official

  3. Strategic control of acute diarrhea of newborn calves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siti Chotiah


    Full Text Available Economic performance of beef cattle operations can be severely hampered by acute calfhood diarrhea. Accordingly, a study was conducted at Bbalitvet to identify the causal agents, reduce clinical incidence, and increase body weight gain of newborn calves. One potential control is application of suitable vaccines to pregnant cows. The study was begun by identifying cases of diarrhea followed by isolation and identification of the causal agents in 12 beef cattle farms in West Java. A field trial was then designed for controlling calf diarrhea in such farms. Inactive vaccines Ecoli-Closvak polivalen were administered to pregnant cows to increase specific resistance of the newborn calves. At 2 months prepartum, 12 pregnant cows were assigned either to a vaccination or a placebo group, with a booster vaccination 3 weeks prior to parturition. Strict hygenic management was provided to both groups, and all calves were provided adequately with colostrum. Subjects were observed for 5 months, starting from the time of initial vaccination until the calves were 3 months of age. In the initial farm surveys, entero-pathogenic bacteria such as Escherichia coli serotype K99 and Clostridium perfringens type A and C were isolated and identified in fecal samples from 4 beef cattle farms in 3 districts (Garut, Tasikmalaya, Ciamis and 2 beef cattle farms in 2 districts (Tasikmalaya and Ciamis of West Java. In the vaccination trial, good immune responses to E. coli and C. perfringens alpha toxin measured by ELISA were observed. Application of effective control of calf diarrhea including vaccination and good livestock management showed good results. No death or signs of diarrhea were found in the new born calves up to 3 months of age. The rate of body weight gain was significantly higher in calves of vaccinated dams than in calves of non-vaccinated dams.

  4. Adapting sampling plans to caribou distribution on calving grounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michel Crête


    Full Text Available Between 1984 and 1988, the size of the two caribou herds in northern Québec was derived by combining estimates of female numbers on calving grounds in June and composition counts during rut in autumn. Sampling with aerial photos was conducted on calving grounds to determine the number of animals per km2, telemetry served to estimate the proportion of females in the census area at the time of photography in addition to summer survival rate, and helicopter or ground observations were used for composition counts. Observers were able to detect on black and white negatives over 95 percent of caribou counted from a helicopter flying at low altitude over the same area; photo scale varied between = 1:3 600 and 1:6 000. Sampling units covering less than 15-20 ha were the best for sampling caribou distribution on calving grounds, where density generally averaged » 10 individuals-km"2. Around 90 percent of caribou on calving grounds were females; others were mostly yearling males. During the 1-2 day photographic census, 64 to 77 percent of the females were present on the calving areas. Summer survival exceeded 95 percent in three summers. In autumn, females composed between 45 and 54 percent of each herd. The Rivière George herd was estimated at 682 000 individuals (± 36%; alpha = 0.10 in 1988. This estimate was imprecise due to insufficiens sample size for measuring animal density on the calving ground and for determining proportion of females on the calving ground at the time of the photo census. To improve precision and reduce cost, it is proposed to estimate herd size of tundra caribou in one step, using only aerial photos in early June without telemetry.

  5. Calving fluxes and basal melt rates of Antarctic ice shelves. (United States)

    Depoorter, M A; Bamber, J L; Griggs, J A; Lenaerts, J T M; Ligtenberg, S R M; van den Broeke, M R; Moholdt, G


    Iceberg calving has been assumed to be the dominant cause of mass loss for the Antarctic ice sheet, with previous estimates of the calving flux exceeding 2,000 gigatonnes per year. More recently, the importance of melting by the ocean has been demonstrated close to the grounding line and near the calving front. So far, however, no study has reliably quantified the calving flux and the basal mass balance (the balance between accretion and ablation at the ice-shelf base) for the whole of Antarctica. The distribution of fresh water in the Southern Ocean and its partitioning between the liquid and solid phases is therefore poorly constrained. Here we estimate the mass balance components for all ice shelves in Antarctica, using satellite measurements of calving flux and grounding-line flux, modelled ice-shelf snow accumulation rates and a regional scaling that accounts for unsurveyed areas. We obtain a total calving flux of 1,321 ± 144 gigatonnes per year and a total basal mass balance of -1,454 ± 174 gigatonnes per year. This means that about half of the ice-sheet surface mass gain is lost through oceanic erosion before reaching the ice front, and the calving flux is about 34 per cent less than previous estimates derived from iceberg tracking. In addition, the fraction of mass loss due to basal processes varies from about 10 to 90 per cent between ice shelves. We find a significant positive correlation between basal mass loss and surface elevation change for ice shelves experiencing surface lowering and enhanced discharge. We suggest that basal mass loss is a valuable metric for predicting future ice-shelf vulnerability to oceanic forcing.

  6. Effect of calf starter feeding on gut microbial diversity and expression of genes involved in host immune responses and tight junctions in dairy calves during weaning transition. (United States)

    Malmuthuge, Nilusha; Li, Meiju; Goonewardene, Laksiri A; Oba, Masahito; Guan, L Luo


    Calf starters are usually offered to dairy calves to facilitate the weaning process, however, the effect of solid feed consumption on gut health has not been well studied. This study aimed to investigate the effect of calf starter feeding on the gut bacterial community and mucosal immune functions in dairy calves during weaning transition. Mucosal tissue and digesta samples were collected from rumen, jejunum, ileum, cecum, and colon upon slaughtering of calves (n=8) after feeding the experimental diets [milk replacer (MR) or milk replacer + calf starter (MR+S)] for 6 wk. Expression of toll-like receptor (TLR) 10 was downregulated along the gut, whereas TLR2 in colon and TLR6 along the gut were upregulated in MR+S-fed calves compared with MR-fed calves. Ileal TLR9 and TLR10 showed higher expression compared with the other regions regardless of the diet. Peptidoglycan recognition protein 1 demonstrated a diet- and gut-regional dependent expression pattern, whereas β-defensin did not. The diet and gut region also affected the expression of tight junction-regulating genes claudin 4 and occludin. Bacterial diversity tended to be different between the 2 diets, whereas the bacterial density was different among gut regions and sample type. The present study revealed that changes in bacterial diversity, expression of genes encoding host mucosal immune responses, and barrier functions were associated with the MR+S diet, and suggests that solid feed consumption may alter gut microbiome and host mucosal functions during weaning transition.

  7. Experimental Investigation on the Fatigue Life of Ti-6Al-4V Treated by Vibratory Stress Relief

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    Han-Jun Gao


    Full Text Available Vibratory stress relief (VSR is a highly efficient and low-energy consumption method to relieve and homogenize residual stresses in materials. Thus, the effect of VSR on the fatigue life should be determined. Standard fatigue specimens are fabricated to investigate the fatigue life of Ti-6Al-4V titanium alloy treated by VSR. The dynamic stresses generated under different VSR amplitudes are measured, and then the relationship between the dynamic stress and vibration amplitude is obtained. Different specimen groups are subjected to VSRs with different amplitudes and annealing treatment with typical process parameters. Residual stresses are measured to evaluate the stress relieving effects. Finally, the fatigue behavior under different states is determined by uniaxial tension–compression fatigue experiments. Results show that VSR and annealing treatment have negative effects on the fatigue life of Ti-6Al-4V. The fatigue life is decreased with the increase in VSR amplitude. When the VSR amplitude is less than 0.1 mm, the decrease in fatigue limit is less than 2%. Compared with specimens without VSR or annealing treatment, the fatigue limit of the specimens treated by VSR with 0.2 mm amplitude and annealing treatment decreases by 10.60% and 8.52%, respectively. Although the stress relieving effect is better, high amplitude VSR will lead to the decrease of Ti-6Al-4V fatigue life due to the defects generated during vibration. Low amplitude VSR can effectively relieve the stress with little decrease in fatigue life.

  8. Clinical and Experimental Study on Effect of Yangxin Fumai Oral Liquid (养心复脉口服液) in Treating Patients with Extrasystole

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    樊巧玲; 许惠琴; 李飞; 祁晓华; 汤粉英


    Objective: To evaluate the therapeutic effect of Yangxin Fumai Oral Liquid (YFOL,养心复脉口服液), a Chinese herbal medicine for nourishing Heart and restoring pulse, in treating patients with extrasystole. Methods: The effect of YFOL was observed in treating 30 patients with different kinds of extrasystole and compared with that in 30 patients treated by propafenone. The effect of YFOL on experimental arrhythmia was studied in animals as well. Results: Clinical observation showed that the effect of treatment against extrasystole in the two groups was similar, but the YFOL group showed better results in symptom improvement (P<0.01) with no marked side-effect. Experimental study showed that YFOL could reduce the chloroform induced ventricular fibrillation occurrence in mice, delay the initiating time of ventricular extrasystole, tachycardia and fibrillation induced by aconitine, BaCl2 and coronary artery ligation in rats, or shorten the lasting time of arrhythmia, reduce the attacking frequency of ventricular extrasystole. There was significant difference in comparing with the control group (P<0.05, P<0.01). Conclusion:YFOL is a good and convenient Chinese herbal preparation for different kinds of extrasystole with few toxic and side-effect in clinical practice.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agatha POPESCU


    Full Text Available The paper goal was to study the influence of the calving interval on milk yield for the Romanian Brown breed, using 950 lactations, of which: 573 lactations (60.31 % belonged to the over 400 days calving interval and 377 lactations (39.69% belonged to the 351-400 days calving interval. The calving interval varied between 446.41±18.94 days, the highest length for the 51 dairy cows which had parturition in September and 373.49 ±14.28 days, the shortest length for 53 cows which calved in October. The average calving interval for the cows with a calving interval longer than 400 days accounted for 425.58±14.10 days, while the average calving interval for the cows with this reproductionindicator between 351 and 400 days was 358.65±10.07 days. For the cows whose calving interval was longer than 400 days, milk yield accounted for 4,682.5±124.92 while for the cows whose calving interval varied between 351 and 400 days registered 4,240.0±215.10 kg. The calculations revealed a gross product of Lei 6,087 per lactation in case of cows whose calving interval was longer than 400 days and Lei 5,512 in case of the cows whose calving interval varied between 351-400 days. For an average difference of 66.93 days calving interval between the two calving interval size groups taken into consideration, the milk yield difference accounted for 442.50 kg in the benefit of the cows with the calving interval longer than 400 days. Also, a difference of Lei 575 was recorded in the favor of the cows with calving intervals longer than 400 days because they registered higher a milk yield. This means Lei 8.59 additional income per cow and calving interval day longer than 400 days.

  10. Loss of protection with insecticide-treated nets against pyrethroid-resistant Culex quinquefasciatus mosquitoes once nets become holed: an experimental hut study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irish SR


    Full Text Available Abstract Background An important advantage of pyrethroid-treated nets over untreated nets is that once nets become worn or holed a pyrethroid treatment will normally restore protection. The capacity of pyrethroids to kill or irritate any mosquito that comes into contact with the net and prevent penetration of holes or feeding through the sides are the main reasons why treated nets continue to provide protection despite their condition deteriorating over time. Pyrethroid resistance is a growing problem among Anopheline and Culicine mosquitoes in many parts of Africa. When mosquitoes become resistant the capacity of treated nets to provide protection might be diminished, particularly when holed. An experimental hut trial against pyrethroid-resistant Culex quinquefasciatus was therefore undertaken in southern Benin using a series of intact and holed nets, both untreated and treated, to assess any loss of protection as nets deteriorate with use and time. Results There was loss of protection when untreated nets became holed; the proportion of mosquitoes blood feeding increased from 36.2% when nets were intact to between 59.7% and 68.5% when nets were holed to differing extents. The proportion of mosquitoes blood feeding when treated nets were intact was 29.4% which increased to 43.6–57.4% when nets were holed. The greater the number of holes the greater the loss of protection regardless of whether nets were untreated or treated. Mosquito mortality in huts with untreated nets was 12.9–13.6%; treatment induced mortality was less than 12%. The exiting rate of mosquitoes into the verandas was higher in huts with intact nets. Conclusion As nets deteriorate with use and become increasingly holed the capacity of pyrethroid treatments to restore protection is greatly diminished against resistant Culex quinquefasciatus mosquitoes.

  11. Histological and immunohistochemical study of cutaneous angiogenesis process in experimental third-degree skin burns treated with allograft. (United States)

    Busuioc, Cristina Jana; Popescu, Florina Carmen; Mogoşanu, G D; Pârvănescu, H; Streba, Liliana; Mogoantă, L


    Skin burns are a rather high incidence lesions which, depending on their depth and extension, can severely affect not only the skin but the entire organism. Third-degree skin burns extended on over 20% of the body surface often require skin graft. Skin allograft is a therapeutic alternative when autograft cannot be used. We investigated the allograft influence on the angiogenesis process in third-degree skin burns, using an experimental model. We noticed that the allograft induces a stronger inflammatory reaction associated with intense angiogenesis process by about 10-15% compared to control group.

  12. Experimental study on port-wine stain treated by small dose HpD and variable pulsed 532nm laser (United States)

    Qin, Meixiang; Zhu, Jing; Yuan, Xiawen


    To obtain a new therapy for port-wine stain (PWS) with good effect and few side effects, the Leghorn chicken combs chosen as the animal models and treated by small dose HpD and variable pulsed 532nm laser were evaluated clinically using four different scoring systems commonly used in previous publication. Result: It was shown significant difference among 5 groups (p<0.01), and the treatment groups have better effect than the control groups. There's also difference among the four treatment groups and the higher dose of HpD has better effect. In all groups the higher the fluency of laser was used, the better the effect produce. Conclusion: The results provide evidence that small dose HpD and variable pulsed 532nm laser can increase the efficacy of treatment in PWS. Increasing the fluency of laser and the dose of HpD can improve the efficacy.

  13. Metaphylactic effect of Diclazuril 0.25% in suckling beef calves, during a coccidiosis outbreak in extensive farming. (United States)

    Romero, Jorge; Sanabria, Rodrigo; Travería, Gabriel; Di Paolo, Leandro; Peralta, Luis


    The weight gain performance and oocysts reduction, as response to the metaphylactic treatment with Diclazuril 0.25% at the start of a coccidiosis outbreak, was studied by a cases-controls transverse study. Fifty-eight suckling calves of approximately 90 days old were randomly selected from an infected beef herd on extensive farming. The calves were weighted and individual faecal samples were taken for oocyst per gram count (OPG). Out of those, 29 were drenched with 1 mg kg(-1) of Diclazuril in one oral dose (group T), since the other 29 remained as control group (group C). Samples for OPG and weights were measured again at days 7 and 21 after treatment, respectively. Later, the groups were divided (by the median) in higher or lower OPG counts, and were compared in the same way, in order to remove those without apparent infection (lower OPG counts). The faecal oocysts reduction reached 99.5% (p<0.0001), for the treated group. Along the three weeks of study, an increment of 2.65 kg in 21 days (125 g day(-1), p=0.036), was seen in treated group respect to controls, but this difference increased to 3.94 kg in 21 days (p<0.0001), when only the calves with higher OPG were taken into account. These results highlight the magnitude of the subclinical impact of coccidiosis, biased by the individual susceptibility to infection, which leads to get heavier infections and express higher oocysts output.

  14. Doxycycline levels and anti-Wolbachia antibodies in sera from dogs experimentally infected with Dirofilaria immitis and treated with a combination of ivermectin/doxycycline. (United States)

    Menozzi, A; Bertini, S; Turin, L; Serventi, P; Kramer, L; Bazzocchi, C


    Sera from Dirofilaria immitis-experimentally infected dogs treated with a combination of ivermectin/doxycycline were analysed for doxycycline levels by HPLC and anti-Wolbachia Surface Protein (rWSP) antibodies by ELISA and compared with sera from dogs treated with doxycycline alone. Results show that doxycycline levels were not statistically different between the two groups. Circulating anti-WSP antibody titres were markedly lower in both treatment groups when compared to control D. immitis infected dogs, indicating that doxycycline is able to reduce Wolbachia and prevent the immune response against the bacteria. The combination treatment protocol has been shown to be highly adulticidal and further studies are needed to better understand the interaction between doxycycline and ivermectin in D. immitis infected dogs.

  15. Production of transgenic calves by somatic cell nuclear transfer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GONG Guochun; WAN Rong; HUANG Yinghua; LI Ning; DAI Yunping; FAN Baoliang; ZHU Huabing; WANG Lili; WANG Haiping; TANG Bo; LIU Ying; LI Rong


    Bovine fetal oviduct epithelial cells were transfected with constructed double marker selective vector (pCE-EGFP-IRES-Neo-dNdB) containing the enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) and neomycin-resistant (Neor) genes by electroporation, and a transgenic cell line was obtained. Somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) was carried out using the transgenic cells as nuclei donor. A total of 424 SCNT embryos were reconstructed and 208 (49.1%) of them developed to blastocyst stage. 17 blastocysts on D 7 after reconstruction were transferred to 17 surrogate calves, and 5 (29.4%) recipients were found to be pregnant. Three of them maintained to term and delivered three cloned calves. PCR and Southern blot analysis confirmed the integration of transgene in all of the three cloned calves. In addition, expression of EGFP was detected in biopsy isolated from the transgenic cloned calves and fibroblasts derived from the biopsy. Our results suggest that transgenic calves could be efficiently produced by SCNT using transgenic cells as nuclei donor. Furthermore, all cloned animals could be ensured to be transgenic by efficiently pre-screening transgenic cells and SCNT embryos using the constructed double marker selective vector.

  16. Calving on tidewater glaciers amplified by submarine frontal melting

    CERN Document Server

    O'Leary, Martin


    While it has been shown repeatedly that ocean conditions exhibit an important control on the behaviour of grounded tidewater glaciers, modelling studies have focused largely on the effects of basal and surface melting. Here, a finite-element model of stresses near the front of a tidewater glacier is used to investigate the effects of frontal melting on calving, independently of the calving criterion used. Applications of the stress model to idealized scenarios reveal that undercutting of the ice front due to frontal melting can drive calving at up to ten times the mean melt rate. Factors which cause increased frontal melt-driven calving include a strong thermal gradient in the ice, and a concentration of frontal melt at the base of the glacier. These properties are typical of both Arctic and Antarctic tidewater glaciers. The finding that frontal melt near the base is a strong driver of calving leads to the conclusion that water temperatures near the bed of the glacier are critically important to the glacier f...

  17. Evaluation of silage diets offered to reindeer calves intended for slaughter. I. Feeding of silage and barley from September to March

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Nilsson


    Full Text Available An experiment involving 75 male reindeer calves (mean initial live weight 39.6 kg, SD=3.7 intended for slaughter was undertaken to study the effect of proporrion of barley to silage in the diets on animal performance. The calves were alloted to five groups including one group slaughtered at the start of the experiment in September. The remaining groups were offered diets containing either, 30% (LB, or 60% (HB rolled barley, based on the dry matter (DM content, until slaughter in November (LB and HB or in March (HB. The silage (43% DM was made from the primary growth of a predominantly grass sward preserved as plastic-wrapped big bales. Small amounts of lichens were mixed with the rations during rhe first two weeks of the experiment and the calves adapted well to the experimental diets. However, health problems and deaths occurred on borh rarions after five weeks of feeding. Since the animals fed the LB diet lost live weight and condition the experimental feeding of these calves were interrupted at the slaughter in November. Calves fed the LB diet had significantly lower daily DM intake (P<0.01. They also had lower live weighr gain (not significant, greater losses of carcass weight and fat in the abdominal cavity relative to those offered the HB diet. During the second period of the study the remaining animals offered the HB diet showed no signs of ill-health and increased live weight, carcass weighr, and fat in the abdominal cavity. The results of the presenr experiment indicate that when silage of the investigated quality is fed to reindeer calves rhe proportion of silage should not exceed 40% of the DM.

  18. Researches on Feeding Behavior in Six Months of Age Calves from Romanian Black and White Breed Fed Using Different Feed Space Allowance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iulian Tripon


    Full Text Available The aim of this paper was to measure the main aspects that characterize the feeding behavior in six months old calves fed using three different feed spaces allowance. During the experiments the following feeding behavior aspects were determined: number of feeding periods, the length of feeding periods and the total length of feeding periods. Results showed that calves spent feeding, on average, 292 minutes in the morning, 198 minutes in the afternoon and only 71 minutes during the night when the length of feeding space was 0.6 m per calf. Calves spent feeding 175 minutes during the morning, 193 minutes during the afternoon and 53 minutes during the night when the length of the feeding space was 0.32 m per calf. Calves spent feeding 255 minutes during the morning, 227 minutes during the afternoon and 30 minutes during the night when the length of the feeding space was 0.28 m per calf. The total time spent feeding by calves was 560 minutes when the length of feeding space was 0.6 m per calf, 421 minutes when the length of feeding space was 0.32 per calf and 512 minutes when the length of the feeding space was 0.28 per calf. There were significant differences (p<0.05 for total time spent feeding by calves between the first experimental variant (0.6 m feeding space per calf and the second variant (0.32 m feeding space per calf and between the second experimental variant and the third variant (0.28 m feeding space per calf.

  19. Analysis of experimental tendinitis in rats treated with laser and platelet-rich plasma therapies by Raman spectroscopy and histometry. (United States)

    de Carvalho, Paula Kariluce; Silveira, Landulfo; Barbosa, Danillo; Munin, Egberto; Salgado, Miguel Angel Castillo; Villaverde, Antonio Balbin


    The objective of this controlled experimental study was to analyze the changes in the Achilles tendons of rats with experimentally induced tendinitis after treatment with platelet-rich plasma (PRP) and/or laser therapies by histometry to quantify fibroblasts and by Raman spectroscopy to determine the biochemical concentration of collagen types I and III. Fifty-four male Wistar rats were divided into six treatment groups: control (G1); PRP only (G2); irradiation with 660 nm laser (G3); irradiation with 830 nm laser (G4); PRP plus 660 nm laser irradiation (G5); and PRP plus 830 nm laser irradiation (G6). Injuries (partial tenotomy) were inflicted in the middle third of the Achilles tendon, with PRP added prior to suture in the appropriate experimental groups. A diode laser (model Laser Flash® III, DMC Equipamentos Ltda, São Carlos, SP, Brazil) that can be operated in two wavelengths 660 and 830 nm was used for irradiation treatments. The irradiation protocol was energy density of 70 J/cm², 20 s irradiation time, and 0.028 cm² spot area, per point in three points in the injured. The histometry was made in micrographical images of the H&E stained sections and evaluated by ImageJ (version 1.46r)®. Raman spectra were collected using a dispersive spectrometer at 830 nm excitation, 200 mW power, and 10 s integration time (P-1 Raman system, Lambda Solutions, Inc. MA, USA). The relative amount of type I collagen was significantly greater in the PRP plus 830 nm laser irradiation group (468 ± 188) than in the control (147 ± 137), 630 nm laser only (191 ± 117), and 830 nm laser only (196 ± 106) groups (p < 0.01), while the quantity of type III collagen was significantly greater in the PRP-only group compared to both irradiated groups without PRP (p < 0.05). Treatment with PRP combined with irradiation at 830 nm resulted in a larger number of fibroblasts and increased concentration of type I collagen, thus accelerating the healing of the injured

  20. The level of social contact affects social behaviour in pre-weaned dairy calves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duve, Linda Rosager; Jensen, Margit Bak


    The present study investigated the effects of the level of social contact in the home environment on the social preference, bonding and social behaviour of pre-weaned dairy calves. Twenty-seven pairs of calves were reared from birth until 6 weeks either individually (with limited social contact...... between bars; L-calves), in pairs (with full social contact; F-calves), or individually for 3 weeks and in pairs for the next 3 weeks (LF-calves). At 5 weeks of age the bonding between calves in a pair was evaluated by measuring their response to separation and the subsequent reunion in the home...... environment. The following day the social preference was evaluated in a triangular test arena where the calves could choose between the companion and an unfamiliar calf. Finally, at 6 weeks of age the response of the calves to a novel arena, alone and with the companion, was measured. During separation...

  1. Growth response of yearling buffalo male calves to different dietary energy levels

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    FAZAELI, Hassan; MAHMOUDZADEH, Homayoun


    To evaluate different levels of energy for optimum growth in Iranian regional buffalo male calves, a completely randomized study was conducted, using 27 yearling buffalo male calves with initial live weight of 201 ± 14 kg...

  2. Effect of Vitamin E-Selenium Administration during Late Gestation on Productive and Reproductive Performance in Dairy Buffaloes and on Growth Performance of their Calves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. I. Qureshi, M. Siddiq, L. A. Lodhi, G. Muhammad1 and H. Jamil


    Full Text Available The present study was planned to evaluate the efficacy of vitamin E-selenium administration during last month of gestation in improving the productive and reproductive performance of dairy buffaloes and on growth performance of their calves. For this purpose, 40 Nili-Ravi buffaloes in their last month of pregnancy were randomly divided into two groups. The buffaloes in group 1 were treated with 10 ml of vitamin E-Se (Farvet Holland, containing 50 mg of vitamin E and 0.5 mg of sodium selenite/ml intramuscularly on day 30 and 15 prior to expected date of parturition, while buffaloes in group II served as control. All the experimental buffaloes were kept under similar management and feeding conditions. The data on productive performance showed that the colostrum production was 22% higher (P0.05 in Vit E-Se treated buffaloes (706.90  314.29L as compared to control group (663.85  225.46L. Data on reproductive performance showed that vitamin E-Se administration significantly (P0.05. It was inferred that the administration of vitamin E-Se during late gestation in buffaloes have beneficial effect on colostrum production, post partum estrus rates and conception rates.

  3. An experimental study of preventing and treating acute radioactive enteritis with human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rui Wang; Wei Yuan; Qiang Zhao; Peng Song; Ji Yue; Shi-De Lin; Ting-Bao Zhao


    Objective:To test the curative effect of human umbilical cord-derived mesenchymal stem cells on rat acute radioactive enteritis and thus to provide clinical therapeutic basis for radiation sickness.Methods:Human umbilical cord-derived mesenchymal stem cells were cultivatedin vitro and the model of acute radioactive enteritis of rats was established.Then, the umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells were injected into the rats via tail vein.Visual and histopathological changes of the experimental rats were observed.Results:After the injection, the rats in the prevention group and treatment group had remarkably better survival status than those in the control group.The histological observations revealed that the former also had better intestinal mucosa structure, more regenerative cells and stronger proliferation activity than the latter.Conclusions:Human umbilical cord-derived mesenchymal stem cells have a definite therapeutic effect on acute radioactive enteritis in rats.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Objective To find out an effective therapeutic method for and observe whether there is any synergistic action or not between fetal spinal cord transplantation (FST) and methylprednisolone (MP).Methods Fifty male adult SD rats were randomly divided into group A,B,C,D and E,10 in each group.Group A was treated with both large dosage of MP and FST,group B with MP only, grop C with FST only and group D without any treatment.Group E served as blank control.Fetal spinal cord was obtained from 14-day pregnant rats .Spinal cord Somatosensory evoked potential (SSEP) examination and behavior observation were performed in 24 hours and in 8 months after treatment By the way of reduced silver staining, the condition of nerve plerosis and regeneration could be observed.Results There were significant differences in the latent period and amplitude of N1 wave in SSEP between group A and group B,C and D (P<0.05).No obvious behavior changes were found except partial sensory recovery in the left lower limbs in Group A.Histologically,more nerve fibers contacting with branches at injury area could be found in Group A than in Group B,C and D.Conclusion The combination of large dosage of MP and FST can produce synergistic effect in the recovery of the injured spinal cord.

  5. Clinical and Experimental Study on Huodan Tablet (藿丹片) inTreating Infantile Viral Myocarditis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    HDT consists of Codonopsis pilosula, Salvia miltiorrhiza, Epimedium brevicornum, Carthamus tinctorius etc, manufactured by the Scientific Research Pharmaceutical Factory, Shaanxi Provincial Academy of TCM, each tablet 0.2 g, equivalent to crude drug 1.5 g, batch No.930510. Those children less than 3 years old was given 3 tablets each time, 3+-5 years old 4 tablets each time, 5+-14 years old 5 tablets each time; the control group took Composite Salvia tablets (containing Salvia extracts, Notoginseng, Borneolum, manufactured by Guangzhou Huacheng Pharmaceutical Factory, batch No.920610), those less than 3 years old 1 tablet each time, 3+-5 years 2 tablets each time, 5+-14 years 3 tablets each time. Kids in both groups took the medicine 3 times a day before meal. Part of the inpatients (30 in the treated group, 25 in the control group) had intravenous dripping of Energy Mixture (Vitamin C, ATP, Coenzyme A, 5%-10% glucose solution), 7 days as one treatment course for the Mixture. It has some effect on those young in age and severe in condition with anorexia in promoting their recovery. Four weeks were taken as one treatment course in both groups.

  6. The effect of Fasciola hepatica infection on respiratory vaccine responsiveness in calves. (United States)

    Krump, L; Hamilton, C M; Sekiya, M; O'Neill, R; Mulcahy, G


    Fasciola hepatica is a common parasite in cattle, and bovine fasciolosis causes significant production losses, as well as being a zoonotic disease of global importance. F. hepatica has been shown to have immunoregulatory effects and the aim of this research was to establish whether F. hepatica infection influences the response to vaccination against respiratory pathogens in calves. A total of 48 calves were randomly and equally allocated to two groups. The experimental group was infected with F. hepatica, while the other group was used as a control. At week 2 and 6 after infection calves from both groups were administered a vaccine containing inactivated PI-3, BRSV and Mannheimia haemolytica, pathogens commonly associated with bovine respiratory disease. Blood samples were taken weekly over 12 weeks to measure specific antibodies against all vaccine antigens and against F. hepatica, as well as IgG1 and IgG2 isotypes for PI-3 and BRSV specific antibodies. Faecal samples were examined for F. hepatica eggs and routine haematology and liver enzyme biochemistry were performed and cytokine production in vitro measured. Liver enzymes (GGT and GLDH) and eosinophils were significantly higher in the experimental group, whereas neutrophil numbers were higher in the control group. There was no significant difference between the groups in terms of vaccine-specific total responses to PI-3, BRSV and M. haemolytica. IgG1 levels were higher in comparison to IgG2 levels in both PI-3 and BRSV specific antibodies. IL-4 levels from stimulated and unstimulated PBMC were significantly higher in the control group. IFN-γ levels were significantly higher in PBMC from the control group when cultured in medium only. No significant differences were noted in the levels of other cytokines measured. In this work, no effect of early F. hepatica infection on the antibody responses to a range of respiratory vaccine antigens in calves was shown. However, differences in cytokine responsiveness of

  7. Ethogram of Yangtze finless porpoise calves (Neophocaena phocaenoides asiaeorientalis). (United States)

    Xian, Yi-Jie; Wang, Ke-Xiong; Jiang, Wen-Hua; Zheng, Bang-You; Wang, Ding


    Underwater behavioral patterns of one Yangtze finless porpoise (Neophocaena phocaenoides asiaeorientalis) calf in captivity and those performed on the water surface by two calves in semi-natural environment were focally followed and continuously recorded until one year postpartum to construct the ethogram. The results indicate that 1) the three calves could display diverse and active behavioral patterns; 2) soon after birth, patterns critical for survival appeared first; 3) playful and social patterns predominated the ethogram; 4) most of the patterns were alike across age classes; 5) most of the patterns appeared at the calves' early life stage. It is possible that the above characteristics are adaptively shaped by the aquatic and social life of this subspecies.

  8. Lead accumulation in feathers of nestling black-crowned night-herons (Nycticorax nycticorax) experimentally treated in the field (United States)

    Golden, N.H.; Rattner, B.A.; Cohen, J.B.; Hoffman, D.J.; Russek-Cohen, E.; Ottinger, M.A.


    Although lead can attain high concentrations in feathers, interpretation of the biological significance of this phenomenon is difficult. As part of an effort to develop and validate non-invasive methods to monitor contaminant exposure in free-ranging birds, lead uptake by feathers of nestling black-crowned night-herons (Nycticorax nycticorax) was evaluated in a controlled exposure study. Four to six day-old heron nestlings (one/nest) at Chincoteague Bay, Virginia, received a single intraperitoneal injection of dosing vehicle (control; n=7) or a dose of lead nitrate in water (0.01, 0.05, or 0.25 mg Pb/g body weight of nestling; n=6 or 7/dose) chosen to yield feather lead concentrations found at low to moderately polluted sites. Nestlings were euthanized at 15 days of age. Lead accumulation in feathers was associated with concentrations in bone, kidney, and liver (r = 0.32 - 0.74, p < 0.02), but exhibited only modest dose-dependence. Blood delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase activity was inhibited by lead, although effects on other biochemical endpoints were marginal. Tarsus growth rate was inversely related to feather lead concentration. Culmen growth rate was depressed in nestlings treated with the highest dose of lead, but not correlated with feather lead concentration. These findings provide evidence that feathers of nestling herons are a sensitive indicator of lead exposure and have potential application for the extrapolation of lead concentrations in other tissues and the estimation of environmental lead exposure in birds.

  9. Effects of supplementing Leucaena leucocephala and conserved forages from natural pasture on the performance of grazing calves. (United States)

    Ojo, Victoria Olubunmi A; Aina, Ayobami B J; Fasae, Oladapo A; Oni, Adebayo O; Aderinboye, Ronke Y; Dele, Peter A; Idowu, Oluwaseun J; Adelusi, Oludotun O; Shittu, Olalekan O; Okeniyi, Funmilayo A; Jolaosho, Alaba O


    Twelve white Fulani × N'dama cross-bred calves weighing 83.79 ± 1.16 kg were used in an 84-day experiment to investigate the utilization of forage resources from natural grazing land. The experimental diets were sole grazing, grazing + hay, grazing + silage and grazing + Leucaena leucocephala leaves. The calves were divided into four groups of three animals each and were randomly assigned to the four experimental diets. Crude protein (CP) contents of the forages ranged from 59 to 171 g/kg dry matter (DM). Neutral detergent fibre (NDF) and acid detergent fibre (ADF) contents of the forages ranged from 560 to 705 g/kg DM and 363 to 440 g/kg DM, respectively. Significantly (P < 0.05) higher values in mineral contents (Ca, K, P and Mg) were recorded for L. leucocephala leaves compared to other forage resources. Variations (P < 0.05) were observed in the average daily gain. Animals on grazing + L. leucocephala leaves diet had the highest (113 g/day) average daily gain, while those on sole grazing showed the least value (26.2 g/day). Packed cell volume (PCV), total serum protein, urea and calcium concentration showed significant differences (P < 0.05). Effective utilization of forage resources from the natural pasture by the calves was attained on supplementation with conserved forages and L. leucocephala leaves without any deleterious effects on the haematological and serum parameters.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available This paper is dealing with the maternal behavior during the first week after calving. Researches were carried out during the winter season on Romanian Black and White breed dam-calf couples. The behavior of calves and their mothers was nonstop video recorded during the first, second and seventh day after calving. For a better interpretation the recorded material was divided in three periods for every 24 hours of surveillance: 07:00 to 15:00, 15:00 to 23:00, and 23:00 to 07:00. Calves received attention from their mothers in 18 to 33 grooming periods during the first day after calving. The number of grooming periods decreased to 6 – 15 periods per day in the seventh day after calving. The total length of grooming periods also decreased from the first day to the seventh day after calving from 26.5 minutes to 7.4 minutes on each 8-hour time frame. There were also contacts between mother cows and their calves that were not followed by grooming (sniffing. The number of contacts without grooming was higher during the first two days after calving and decreased on the seventh day after calving. During the first week of life calves received, 55.6 minutes per day of care from their mothers, and there were, on average, 8.1 contacts without grooming between mothers and calves.

  11. Tidal and seasonal variations in calving flux observed with passive seismology (United States)

    Bartholomaus, T.C.; Larsen, Christopher F.; West, Michael E.; O'Neel, Shad; Pettit, Erin C.; Truffer, Martin


    The seismic signatures of calving events, i.e., calving icequakes, offer an opportunity to examine calving variability with greater precision than is available with other methods. Here using observations from Yahtse Glacier, Alaska, we describe methods to detect, locate, and characterize calving icequakes. We combine these icequake records with a coincident, manually generated record of observed calving events to develop and validate a statistical model through which we can infer iceberg sizes from the properties of calving icequakes. We find that the icequake duration is the single most significant predictor of an iceberg's size. We then apply this model to 18 months of seismic recordings and find elevated iceberg calving flux during the summer and fall and a pronounced lull in calving during midwinter. Calving flux is sensitive to semidiurnal tidal stage. Large calving events are tens of percent more likely during falling and low tides than during rising and high tides, consistent with a view that deeper water has a stabilizing influence on glacier termini. Multiple factors affect the occurrence of mechanical fractures that ultimately lead to iceberg calving. At Yahtse Glacier, seismology allows us to demonstrate that variations in the rate of submarine melt are a dominant control on iceberg calving rates at seasonal timescales. On hourly to daily timescales, tidal modulation of the normal stress against the glacier terminus reveals the nonlinear glacier response to changes in the near-terminus stress field.

  12. Gastrointestinal development of dairy calves fed low- or high-starch concentrate at two milk allowances

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kosiorowska, Anna Katarzyna; Puggaard, Liselotte; Hedemann, Mette Skou;


    The objective was to study the effect of type of concentrate with varying starch and fibre content on growth and gastrointestinal development in preweaned dairy calves. Thirty-two newborn Danish Holstein male calves were allocated to four treatment groups in eight blocks of four calves. An experi...

  13. First calving date and productivity of Charolais cows in Coahuila, Mexico.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramiro López-Trujillo


    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of first calving date of Charolais cows on their productive efficiency in a cow- calf system in the southeast of Coahuila, Mexico. Ten- year records of the herd were analyzed to test such effect. Each cow (n=201 was assigned to one of the two consecutive calving groups of 42 days each, according to the date of its first calving. Cows calving early lost this trait in subsequent parturitions; calving date repeatability (Ri was 0.25, indicating that improvement of herd fertility, discarding cows that first calving was late, would be modest. Weaning age and weight of calves showed similar tendencies (p≤0.01. Ri for calf’s weaning weight and cow’s weaning efficiency were 0.11 and 0.27, respectively. Cow’s weaning weight (Ri=0.66 presented a quadratic response to parity number, but late first calving cows consistently weighed less. Cows, that first calving was at the beginning of the calving season, had better productive efficiency as a result of their performance at first calving. . Low calving date Ri indicates that this variable was sensitive to the reproductive and nutritional management of the herd.

  14. Macromolecule absorption and cortisol secretion in newborn calves derived from in vitro produced embryos

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, H; Sangild, P T; Schmidt, M


    Earlier reports indicate that calves derived from in vitro produced (IVP) embryos are more susceptible to neonatal disease than calves produced after artificial insemination (AI) or natural mating. The aims of the present study were to investigate whether calves born after IVP embryos show an alt...

  15. Intravenous immunoglobulin transfusion in colostrum-deprived dairy calves. (United States)

    Boccardo, A; Belloli, A; Biffani, S; Locatelli, V; Dall'Ara, P; Filipe, J; Restelli, I; Proverbio, D; Pravettoni, D


    Immunoglobulin transfusion is employed in the management of the failure of passive transfer (FPT). The aim of this study was to investigate the dose of immunoglobulin G (IgG) needed to reach a protective concentration (>10 g/L) in colostrum-deprived dairy calves. Twenty-eight Holstein Friesian newborn male calves were randomly assigned to either a control group (CG) or a treatment group (PG). Calves in the CG received 4 L of high quality colostrum within 12 h of birth. Calves in the PG received 62.7 ± 3.1 g of IgG IV in 2.6 ± 0.3 L of plasma within 6 h after birth. Serum immunoglobulin G (sIgG) and serum total protein (sTP) concentrations were assayed before and after (24 h, 72 h and 1 week after birth) plasma transfusion or colostrum ingestion. Serum (s) IgG and sTP concentrations increased in both groups throughout the period of observation. Mean sIgG and sTP concentrations after colostrum ingestion or plasma transfusion were higher in the CG than in the PG (P colostrum-deprived calves (>10 g/L). Calves in the CG had significantly lower morbidity and mortality rates compared to those in the PG, suggesting that plasma transfusion alone is ineffective in providing complete protection against neonatal disease.

  16. Boundary layer models for calving marine outlet glaciers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Schoof


    Full Text Available We consider the flow of marine-terminating outlet glaciers that are laterally confined in a channel of prescribed width. In that case, the drag exerted by the channel side walls on a floating ice shelf can reduce extensional stress at the grounding line. If ice flux through the grounding line increases with both ice thickness and extensional stress, then a longer shelf can reduce ice flux by decreasing extensional stress. Consequently, calving has an effect on flux through the grounding line by regulating the length of the shelf. In the absence of a shelf, it plays a similar role by controlling the above-flotation height of the calving cliff. Using two calving laws, one due to Nick et al. (2010 based on a model for crevasse propagation due to hydrofracture and the other simply asserting that calving occurs where the glacier ice becomes afloat, we pose and analyse a flowline model for a marine-terminating glacier by two methods: direct numerical solution and matched asymptotic expansions. The latter leads to a boundary layer formulation that predicts flux through the grounding line as a function of depth to bedrock, channel width, basal drag coefficient, and a calving parameter. By contrast with unbuttressed marine ice sheets, we find that flux can decrease with increasing depth to bedrock at the grounding line, reversing the usual stability criterion for steady grounding line location. Stable steady states can then have grounding lines located on retrograde slopes. We show how this anomalous behaviour relates to the strength of lateral versus basal drag on the grounded portion of the glacier and to the specifics of the calving law used.

  17. Surgical Management of Orthopedic and Musculoskeletal Diseases of Feedlot Calves. (United States)

    Anderson, David E; Miesner, Matt D


    Injuries, infections, and disorders of the musculoskeletal system are common in feedlot calves. These conditions often are amenable to surgical treatment with return of the calf to productivity. Weight gain and carcass quality are expected to be significantly adversely affected by pain and debilitation. The goal of surgical management of disorders of the joints, muscles, and feet should be resolution of the inciting cause, mitigation of pain, and restoration of form and function. If these are achieved, calves should return to acceptable, if not normal, feed intake, rate of gain, and carcass quality. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Serum immunoglobulins in newborn calves before and after colostrum feeding. (United States)

    Merriman, M J


    Pre-colostral and post-colostral sera of seven Holstein calves and colostral whey were analyzed immunoelectrophoretically. IgM, IgG(1) (fast), and IgG(2) (slow) were demonstrated while IgA was not detected in serum of new-born calves before colostrum feeding. In post-colostral serum IgG, IgM, in relatively higher levels, and IgA were present which corresponded with the classes of immunoglobulins found in whey. These observations suggest that the developing bovine fetus may be capable of independent immune response.

  19. Breed differences in calving interval in the humid Mexican tropic. (United States)

    Murillo Medina, Aída Lorena; Córdova-Izquierdo, Alejandro; Soriano Robles, Ramón; Mendoza Martínez, Germán David; Castillo-Juárez, Héctor


    The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of breed, breed and sex of the calf, farm, calving number (CN), type of calving, and their interactions on CI using records from four different beef breeds performing in the humid tropical environment of Mexico. The influence of these factors on CN was also evaluated. CI and CN varied with farm, breed of the dam, and with breed of the dam by calf breed interaction (PAngus cows, although with an apparent unexpected negative impact on CN.

  20. Marrow fat deposition and skeletal growth in caribou calves (United States)

    Adams, L.


    I evaluated rates of marrow fat deposition and skeletal growth of caribou (Rangifer tarandus granti) calves through 20 days of age at Denali National Park, Alaska, USA. Both were negatively correlated with late winter snowfall, indicating the prolonged effects of maternal undernutrition following severe winters. Using regression analyses, I found that the rates of marrow fat deposition and hindfoot growth during the 20 days following birth declined 46% and 68%, respectively, over the range of winter severity during this study. These measures of development may indicate a broader array of effects of maternal undernutrition, influencing the vulnerability of caribou calves to predation.

  1. Effects of a concentrated lidocaine solution on the acute phase stress response to dehorning in dairy calves. (United States)

    Doherty, T J; Kattesh, H G; Adcock, R J; Welborn, M G; Saxton, A M; Morrow, J L; Dailey, J W


    The objective of this study was to more fully define the surgical stress response to dehorning by heat cauterization in dairy calves by measuring behavioral, hormonal, inflammatory, and immunological markers of stress and to determine whether a nerve block of the surgical site with a concentrated solution of lidocaine (5%) reduces the degree of stress. Thirty-two 10- to 12-wk-old female Holstein calves were randomly allotted to 1 of 4 treatments: 5% lidocaine followed by dehorning, 2% lidocaine followed by dehorning, saline followed by dehorning, or 5% lidocaine followed by sham dehorning. Plasma cortisol concentration was measured in blood samples collected via a jugular catheter at -0.5, 0, 0.5, 1, 1.5, 2, 2.5, 3, 3.5, 4, 6, 9, 12, 24, 48, and 72 h. Various other blood constituents were measured in samples collected at -0.5, 12, 24, 48, and 72 h. Feeding, drinking, scratching, grooming, rubbing, licking, and inactivity behaviors were observed in the standing and recumbent positions using a 10-min scan sampling method analyzed on a time period and daily basis for 72 h following the dehorning procedure. The frequency of vocalization, kicking, and lying in the chute during the dehorning procedure were also assessed. The overall plasma cortisol concentrations were higher in calves subjected to dehorning than in control calves. Compared with the control group, the saline-treated calves had a higher cortisol concentration at 30 and 60 min postdehorning. Plasma cortisol concentrations were higher in all groups at 30 min postdehorning than at other sampling times. The percentage of circulating neutrophils and the neutrophil:lymphocyte ratio were increased in the saline and 2% lidocaine group. Total plasma protein, fibrinogen, and alpha1-acid glycoprotein concentrations were similar among treatments. The behavioral response to dehorning, as manifested by kicking while in the chute, was greater in the saline and 2% lidocaine group than in the control or 5% lidocaine

  2. Healing of periodontal defects treated with enamel matrix proteins and root surface conditioning--an experimental study in dogs. (United States)

    Sakallioğlu, Umur; Açikgöz, Gökhan; Ayas, Bülent; Kirtiloğlu, Tuğrul; Sakallioğlu, Eser


    Application of enamel matrix proteins has been introduced as an alternative method for periodontal regenerative therapy. It is claimed that this approach provides periodontal regeneration by a biological approach, i.e. creating a matrix on the root surfaces that promotes cementum, periodontal ligament (PDL) and alveolar bone regeneration, thus mimicking the events occurring during tooth development. Although there have been numerous in vitro and in vivo studies demonstrating periodontal regeneration, acellular cementum formation and clinical outcomes via enamel matrix proteins usage, their effects on the healing pattern of soft and hard periodontal tissues are not well-established and compared with root conditioning alone. In the present study, the effects of Emdogain (Biora, Malmö, Sweden), an enamel matrix derivative mainly composed of enamel matrix proteins (test), on periodontal wound healing were evaluated and compared with root surface conditioning (performed with 36% orthophosphoric acid) alone (control) histopathologically and histomorphometrically by means of the soft and hard tissue profile of periodontium. An experimental periodontitis model performed at premolar teeth of four dogs were used in the study and the healing pattern of periodontal tissues was evaluated at days 7, 14, 21, 28 (one dog at each day), respectively. At day 7, soft tissue attachment evaluated by means of connective tissue and/or epithelial attachment to the root surfaces revealed higher connective tissue attachment rate in the test group and the amount of new connective tissue proliferation in the test group was significantly greater than the control group (p0.05). A firm attachment of acellular cementum to the root dentin with functional organization of its collagen fibers was noted, and, the accumulation and organization of cellular cementum in the control group was more irregular than the cellular cementum formed in the test group. The amount of new bone was 2.41+/-0.75 mm in

  3. Excretion of antibiotic resistance genes by dairy calves fed milk replacers with varying doses of antibiotics

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    Callie H. Thames


    Full Text Available Elevated levels of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs in soil and water have been linked to livestock farms and in some cases feed antibiotics may select for antibiotic resistant gut microbiota. The purpose of this study was to examine the establishment of ARGs in the feces of calves receiving milk replacer containing no antibiotics versus subtherapeutic or therapeutic doses of tetracycline and neomycin. The effect of antibiotics on calf health was also of interest. Twenty-eight male and female dairy calves were assigned to one of the three antibiotic treatment groups at birth and fecal samples were collected at weeks 6, 7 (prior to weaning, and 12 (5 weeks after weaning. ARGs corresponding to the tetracycline (tetC, tetG, tetO, tetW, and tetX, macrolide (ermB, ermF, and sulfonamide (sul1, sul2 classes of antibiotics along with the class I integron gene, intI1, were monitored by quantitative polymerase chain reaction as potential indicators of direct selection, co-selection, or horizontal gene transfer of ARGs. Surprisingly, there was no significant effect of antibiotic treatment on the absolute abundance (gene copies/ g wet manure of any of the ARGs except ermF, which was lower in the antibiotic-treated calf manure, presumably because a significant portion of host bacterial cells carrying ermF were not resistant to tetracycline or neomycin. However, relative abundance (gene copies normalized to 16S rRNA genes of tetO was higher in calves fed the highest dose of antibiotic than in the other treatments. All genes, except tetC and intI1, were detectable in feces from 6 weeks onwards, and tetW and tetG significantly increased (P<0.10, even in control calves. Overall, the results provide new insight into the colonization of calf gut flora with ARGs in the early weeks. Although feed antibiotics exerted little effect on the ARGs monitored in this study, the fact that they also provided no health benefit suggests that the greater than conventional

  4. New insights into single-compound and binary adsorption of copper and lead ions on a treated sea mango shell: experimental and theoretical studies. (United States)

    Sellaoui, Lotfi; Edi Soetaredjo, Felycia; Ismadji, Suryadi; Cláudio Lima, Éder; Dotto, Guilherme L; Ben Lamine, Abdelmottaleb; Erto, Alessandro


    Herein, adsorption isotherms of Pb(ii) and Cu(ii) ions on treated sea mango fruit in both single-compound and binary systems were experimentally realized at different temperatures in the range of 30-50 °C. Experimental results show that adsorption of Pb(ii) was more as compared to that of Cu(ii) ions; however, for both ions, a significant reduction in the adsorption capacity was observed in the binary system as compared to that in the single-compound systems. Moreover, under all the investigated conditions, adsorption seems to be promoted by an increase in temperature. To understand and interpret the experimental evidences, the Hill and competitive Hill models developed on the basis of the grand canonical ensemble were applied for the analysis of adsorption equilibrium data. These models contain some physicochemical parameters that allow an exhaustive analysis of the dynamics of single-compound and binary adsorptions. Based on the fitting results, in particular, through the evaluation of the number of ions bonded per site (n and ni), it was found that lead and copper ions interacted by inclined and horizontal positions on treated sea mango in single-compound and binary systems, respectively. In addition, based on the same parameters, a significant interaction between ions was retrieved. A study focused on the saturation adsorption capacity in single-compound and binary systems affirmed that the adsorbent was more selective for lead than for copper. The reduction of the adsorbed capacity ratio between the binary and single-compound systems (i.e. Qb/Qs) explained and confirmed that an inhibition effect between copper and lead ions at the same receptor site occurred. Finally, based on the energetic investigations, it was deduced that the adsorption energy represented the dominant factor promoting the greater adsorption of lead than that of copper in both systems.

  5. The effect of 2 liquid feeds and 2 sources of protein in starter on performance and blood metabolites in Holstein neonatal calves. (United States)

    Tahmasbi, A M; Heidari Jahan Abadi, S; Naserian, A A


    The aim of present study was to investigate the effect of 2 liquid feeds and 2 protein sources in starter on the performance and blood metabolite responses of Holstein neonatal calves from birth to 6 wk of age. Calves (20 males and 20 females) based on sex were randomly assigned to 4 treatments in a 2 × 2 × 2 factorial arrangement, including soybean meal (SBM) and meat and bone meal (MB) with either fermented colostrum (or fresh milk. Although sex and liquid feed had no significant effect on feed intake, calves consumed more feed intake on the diet containing SBM (15 ± 0.2 kg) than MB (13 ± 0.2 kg) during the experimental period; also, weight gain was affected by both liquid feed and starter. Liquid feed and starter had significant effects on calf body size, including pin width, hip width, withers height, hip height, and stomach size, but no significant effects were observed on calf body size between the sexes. Plasma glucose concentration was not affected by sex, liquid feed, or starter. Plasma urea nitrogen concentration decreased in the first 3 wk and then started to increase during the last 3 wk, but it was only affected by starter and calves receiving SBM (10.18 mg/dL) had a higher concentration of plasma urea nitrogen than calves receiving MB (9.6 mg/dL) at the end of the experiment. Plasma growth hormone and insulin-like growth factor I concentrations decreased in all treatment groups from d 0 to the end of the study. No significant effects were observed on plasma growth hormone and insulin-like growth factor I concentrations between the 2 sexes, but they were significantly affected by both liquid feed and starter. Results of the present study provide useful information to apply to Holstein neonatal calves during the first 6 wk of life when liquid feed and 2 sources of protein in starter are considered.

  6. Effects of Acupressure on Fatigue and Depression in Hepatocellular Carcinoma Patients Treated with Transcatheter Arterial Chemoembolization: A Quasi-Experimental Study

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    Su-Chen Lan


    Full Text Available This study was to examine the effects of acupressure on fatigue and depression in HCC patients undergoing TACE. A quasiexperimental study design was used. Patients were evaluated at five time points: before treatment (T1 and 2, 3, 4, and 5 days after treating TACE (T2, T3, T4, and T5. Fatigue and depression were assessed by a VAS fatigue scale and a VAS depression scale at each time point. TFRS and BDI were administered at T1 and T5. Patients’ fatigue and depression were significantly higher at T5 than at T1 in two groups. Fatigue and depression increased in both the experimental and control groups’ patients over the five days of hospitalization during which TACE and chemotherapy were administered. The experimental group had significantly less fatigue than the control group, with lower subscale scores on physical, psychosocial, daily, and overall fatigue. There were no differences between the groups on depression. At posttest, the experimental group experienced lower physical, psychosocial, daily, and overall fatigue than the control group. Acupressure can improve fatigue in HCC patients during treatment with TACE but did not alleviate depression. Discharge planning should include home care for management of fatigue and depression.

  7. Anthelmintic resistance impact on tropical beef cattle productivity: effect on weight gain of weaned calves. (United States)

    Borges, Fernando A; Almeida, Gabriel D; Heckler, Rafael P; Lemes, Raul T; Onizuka, Marcel K V; Borges, Dyego G L


    The performance of grazing cattle in tropical areas is deeply influenced by parasitism, and the increasing reports of resistance are a threat to effective nematode control. The present study aimed to evaluate the effect of avermectins on the performance of weaned calves naturally infected by ivermectin-resistant gastrointestinal nematodes. The effect of four commercial endectocides (ivermectin 2.25 % + abamectin 1.25 %, ivermectin 3.15 %, doramectin 3.15 %, and doramectin 1 %) on parasitism and performance of a hundred weaned Nellore calves were evaluated during 112 days. The most effective anthelmintic showed efficacy of 84 % and resulted in an increase (P < 0.05) of live weight gain of 11.85 kg, compared to untreated group, 9.05 and 9.41 kg compared to those treated with more ineffective avermectins which showed efficacy of 0 and 48.2 %, respectively. A significant (P < 0.05) and weak negative correlation (r = -0.22) between the eggs per gram (EPG) and body weight was observed, indicating that even the low mean EPG (175 ± 150) observed at day 0 in the control group, with predominance of Haemonchus sp., was responsible for production losses. These results indicate that control of nematode parasites in beef cattle in the weaning phase may not result in increased productivity when carried out without technical criteria.

  8. Source mechanics for monochromatic icequakes produced during iceberg calving at Columbia Glacier, AK (United States)

    O'Neel, Shad; Pfeffer, W.T.


    Seismograms recorded during iceberg calving contain information pertaining to source processes during calving events. However, locally variable material properties may cause signal distortions, known as site and path effects, which must be eliminated prior to commenting on source mechanics. We applied the technique of horizontal/vertical spectral ratios to passive seismic data collected at Columbia Glacier, AK, and found no dominant site or path effects. Rather, monochromatic waveforms generated by calving appear to result from source processes. We hypothesize that a fluid-filled crack source model offers a potential mechanism for observed seismograms produced by calving, and fracture-processes preceding calving.

  9. Influence of housing conditions and calving distance on blood metabolites in water buffalo cows

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    Fabio Napolitano


    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate whether housing conditions allowing the animals to lie in the mud and performmore physical exercise can negatively affect reserve mobilization and milk production. In addition, the effect of calvingdistance on blood metabolites was assessed. The experiment was conducted on twenty-eight lactating buffalo cows,equally allocated to two treatments. Fourteen cows were group-housed in a loose open-sided barn with a concrete floorand equipped with self-locking stanchions, where they received 10 m2/head of space allowance, as in intensive systems(Group IS. Fourteen others were group-housed in a similar barn but they also had the benefit of an outdoor yard with500 m2/head as space allowance, including spontaneous vegetation and potholes for bathing and wallowing, as in traditionalsystems (Group TS. Animals were included in the experimental groups 5 days after calving. Daily milk yield, andmilk fat, protein and somatic cell content were determined 4 weeks after grouping (about 35 days after calving and thenat monthly intervals (5 recordings. Blood samples were collected from the jugular vein in vacuum tubes 10 days aftergrouping (i.e. 15 days after calving and then at 10 day intervals (17 collections. After centrifugation, plasma and serumaliquots were frozen stored until metabolite determinations (glucose, cholesterol, triglycerides, NEFA, urea, creatinine,albumins, total proteins, calcium, phosphorus, bilirubin, alkaline phosphatase, aspartate aminotransferase, alanineaminotransferase, lactate dehydrogenase and γglutamyl transferase. Treatment did not affect daily milk yield and milkfat, protein or somatic cell count content. Blood metabolite levels were not affected by treatment and interaction treatmentx time. Conversely, as expected, calving distance had an influence on most of these variables (Pparticular, in the first two months after parturition, glucose concentration decreased, whereas NEFA and

  10. Field testing of a fenbendazole treatment combined with hygienic and management measures against a natural Giardia infection in calves. (United States)

    Geurden, Thomas; Vercruysse, Jozef; Claerebout, Edwin


    The need of a combination of animal treatment and environmental measures against a natural Giardia infection in calves between the age of 1 and 6 months was emphasized and evaluated. Ten commercial farms with a total of 94 calves suffering from chronic diarrhea, ill thriving and impaired growth, were included in two subsequent studies. The first study indicated that treatment of all animals with fenbendazole at 15 mg/kg during 3 consecutive days combined with environmental measures on the final day of treatment, which were either removal of bedding, thorough cleaning and ammonia 10% disinfection or relocation of the treated animals to a Giardia free environment, resulted in a total reduction in cyst excretion for at least 2 weeks. In the second study, the immunofluorescence assay (Merifluor Cryptosporidium/Giardia; Meridian Diagnostics Inc., Cincinnati, Ohio) was used quantitatively and confirmed that the combination of treatment and environmental measures resulted in a total reduction of cyst excretion during 2 weeks and in a significant (Por=98.0%) reduction of the cyst excretion until at least 4 weeks after treatment. Furthermore, there was a noticeable improvement of the clinical symptoms in all animals towards day 28 after treatment and 4 months after treatment health in all calves was normal.

  11. Administration of Bacillus coagulans in calves: recovery from faecal samples and evaluation of functional aspects of spores. (United States)

    Ripamonti, Barbara; Agazzi, Alessandro; Baldi, Antonella; Balzaretti, Claudia; Bersani, Carla; Pirani, Silvia; Rebucci, Raffaella; Savoini, Giovanni; Stella, Simone; Stenico, Alberta; Domeneghini, Cinzia


    An investigation was carried out into the recovery from calf faeces of Bacillus coagulans spores added to the feed as probiotic. For this purpose, Bacillus coagulans spores (9 log₁₀ CFU g⁻¹) were given daily to 10 calves during the whole farming periods; another 10 calves acted as controls. Throughout the trial the faecal spore counts were significantly (P < 0.01) higher in the treated group than in the controls (averaging 2.1 x 10⁵ vs 3.7 x 10⁴ CFU g⁻¹). Bacterial cells were recovered from faecal samples and ribotyping matched the strain isolated from faecal sample to the clone administered to the animals. In addition, the recovered cells were found to maintain their functionality aspects of acid production, survival in artificial gastric juice and in the presence of bile, and attachment to human intestinal epithelial cells. The results further elucidate the fate of spore formers administered to calves, and this will help in the development of new species-specific nutritional strategies.

  12. Sites of replication of bovine respiratory syncytial virus in naturally infected calves as determined by in situ hybridization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Viuff, B.; Uttenthal, Åse; Tegtmeier, C.


    Replication of bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV) was studied in three naturally infected calves by in situ hybridization using strand-specific RNA probes. One of the calves was a 5-month-old Friesian, the other two calves were a 3-month-old and a 2-week-old Jersey. Two Jersey calves, 3 mo...

  13. Sensor data on cow activity, rumination, and ear temperature improve prediction of the start of calving in dairy cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rutten, C.J.; Kamphuis, C.; Hogeveen, H.; Huijps, K.; Nielen, M.; Steeneveld, W.


    Management during calving is important for the health and survival of dairy cows and their calves. Although the expected calving date is known, this information is imprecise and farmers still have to check a cow regularly to identify when it starts calving. A sensor system that predicts the momen

  14. Effects of short-term supplementation of clinoptilolite in colostrum and milk on the concentration of some serum minerals in neonatal dairy calves. (United States)

    Mohri, M; Seifi, H A; Maleki, M


    In recent years, the use of both natural and synthetic zeolites in animal nutrition has increased mainly to improve their performance, health, and to protect against mycotoxin intoxication. Thirty calves were used in the present study for the determination of some physiologic effects of clinoptilolite supplementation. The animals were divided equally into three groups (control, test 1, and test 2). The three groups of calves were homogeneous for parity of dams, sex, and month of birth. For group test 1, clinoptilolite in the concentration of 2% of each colostrum meal was added for 48 h, and for group test 2, clinoptilolite in the concentration of 2% was added to each colostrum and milk meal for 14 days. Blood samples were taken from all calves 12 h after birth and at the end of the first, second, third, forth, fifth, and sixth weeks of life. Calcium (Ca), phosphorus (P), magnesium (Mg), iron (Fe), sodium (Na), and potassium (K) were determined in the serum. For statistical analysis of data, a repeated measures approach using analysis of variance (ANOVA) with mixed linear models was used. Clinoptilolite supplementation had significant effect on the concentrations of calcium, phosphorus, sodium, and iron. The concentrations of Fe significantly higher in test group 2 than other trial groups (p clinoptilolite-treated than control calves (p clinoptilolite-supplemented groups than control calves (p clinoptilolite supplementation. Clinoptilolite supplementation could promote iron levels in serum and better hemopoiesis and prevent pathologic or physiologic drop of red blood cell (RBC) parameters in supplemented calves during a first few weeks of life. According to higher need and utilization of Ca in growing animals, clinoptilolite supplementation could increase available Ca. Based on the results of the present study and the importance of dietary phosphorus in many physiologic processes, the level of phosphorus in diet of neonatal dairy calves must be considered and

  15. Some alternatives to calving date and interval as measures of fertility in beef cattle. (United States)

    López de Torre, G; Brinks, J S


    Records of 594 calving dates and 493 calving intervals collected from a herd of Retinta beef cows in southwest Spain were studied. Their efficacy as reproductive measures were compared when a long breeding season was utilized. Variables used were date of present calving (DOC), date of subsequent calving (DOSC), time from start of breeding season to calving (TBSC), interval to next calving (CI), two adjustments of calving interval by subtracting the time that bulls were not available to the cow from actual CI (ACI1 and ACI2), and three scores. Period score (SCOR) measured the 20-d increment of the 220-d calving season in which the cow calved. Pair score (PAIR) was computed by subtracting the deviation of calving interval from 365 d from the average SCOR of the two calvings involved. Adjusted pair score (APAIR) was calculated in the same way as PAIR, but using ACI1 instead of CI. Heritability estimates for DOC, SCOR, and DOSC and CI were .16, .14, .13 and 0, respectively. Heritabilities of all other measures ranged from .01 to .06. Repeatability estimates for DOC, SCOR, DOSC and CI were .29, .28, .34 and .14, respectively. Repeatability values were .28, .18, .18, .23 and .32 for TBSC, ACI1, ACI2, PAIR and APAIR, respectively. Genetic and phenotypic correlations among CI and its alternative measures were very high and favorable.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  16. Growth Performances of Female and Male Holstein Calves Fed Milk and Milk Replacers

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    Tahir BAYRIL


    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to compare growth performances of male and female Holstein calves fed milk and milk replacers. A total of 60 Holstein calves were used in the study. Calves were divided into three equal groups. In each group, there were 10 female and 10 male calves. Calves were offered colostrum for 3 days after birth and were weighed at fourth day for the trial. Initial body weights of calves in dietary treatments were statistically similar. The first, second and third groups were fed milk, milk replacer-I (CP 21% and CF 16.5% and milk replacer-II (CP 24% and CF 18%, respectively. In addition to milk and milk replacers, calves were supplemented with ad libitum concentrate feed and alfalfa. Dietary treatment was significantly effective (P<0.05 on body weight of calves at 60 days of age. In conclusion, growth performances of calves increased with increasing protein content of milk replacer had better than those of calves fed milk replacer containing low-protein. Therefore, during the suckling period, in feeding of Holstein calves, milk or milk replacer containing high-protein should be preferred primarily.

  17. Context for the Recent Massive Petermann Glacier Calving Event

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Falkner, Kelly K.; Melling, Humfrey; Münchow, Andreas M.


    On 4 August 2010, about one fifth of the floating ice tongue of Petermann Glacier (also known as “Petermann Gletscher”) in northwestern Greenland calved (Figure 1). The resulting “ice island” had an area approximately 4 times that of Manhattan Island (about 253±17 square kilometers). The ice island...

  18. Biological evaluation of mechanical circulatory support systems in calves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rakhorst, G; VanDerMeer, J; Kik, C; Mihaylov, D; Havlik, P; Trinkl, J; Monties, [No Value


    Data from animal experiments with mechanical circulatory support systems (MCSS) performed in Groningen and Marseille over the past years were used to obtain normal values of hematological, coagulation, rheological and blood chemistry parameters in calves. These parameters were divided between two gr

  19. Meloxicam mediates short-term behavioral changes of castrated calves (United States)

    Castration may detrimentally affect the health and performance of weaned calves and painful procedures are increasingly a public concern. Therefore, practical pain mitigation is critical. The objective was to determine the effects of castration (by banding) with or without administration of meloxica...

  20. The transcriptomic profiles of Giardia duodenalis infected calves (United States)

    Giardia duodenalis is one of the most commonly found intestinal pathogens in humans and animals. However, little is known about the host-parasite interaction in its natural hosts. The objective of this study was to investigate the intestinal response in calves following a G. duodenalis infection, us...

  1. Legg-Calvé-Perthes disease. Current concepts and controversies. (United States)

    Thompson, G H; Salter, R B


    Legg-Calvé-Perthes disease is a common, controversial pediatric hip disorder. It is currently accepted that the disorder represents idiopathic avascular necrosis (osteonecrosis) of the capital femoral epiphysis. Treatment by conservative or surgical containment is recommended primarily for older children with extensive femoral head involvement. The results of containment treatment indicate improved results over the natural history of the disease process.

  2. Consequences of Selection for Yield Traits on Calving Ease Performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lopez de Maturana, E.; Ugarte, E.; Komen, J.; Arendonk, van J.A.M.


    The impact of different breeding goals on the genetic response for calving ease (CE) and yield traits was studied in the Basque Holstein cattle population. The economic value for CE was estimated with a bioeconomic model, using Basque production and market circumstances and taking into account the c

  3. The digestion of yeast cell wall polysaccharides in veal calves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gaillard, B.D.E.; Weerden, van E.J.


    1. The digestibility of the cell wall polysaccharides of an alkane-grown yeast in different parts of the digestive tract of two veal calves fitted with re-entrant cannulas at the end of the ileum was studied by replacing part of the skim-milk powder of their ‘normal’, milk-substitute (all-milk-prote

  4. Electrocardiographic Studies on Neonatal Period of Holstein Dairy Calves

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    Aliasghar CHALMEH


    Full Text Available Several physiological alterations may occur in cardiovascular system during fetal life to the neonatal period. Electrocardiographic studies in neonatal period may assist veterinarians to evaluate cardiovascular system in this period. Five multiparous high producing Holstein dairy cows were monitored at close-up dry period to calving. Electrocardiograms were recorded from their calves immediately and 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30 and 35 days after birth and all electrocardiographic parameters were evaluated. Durations of P, R and T waves were increased significantly from birth to the end of neonatal period (P<0.05. R and T amplitudes were significantly elevated but P amplitude declined significantly. There were significant increasing patterns in PR, RR, QT and ST intervals during neonatal period (P<0.05. Based on these findings, it may be suggested that physiological alterations of the electrocardiographic parameters occur during the neonatal period of the Holstein dairy calves at neonatal period. These data could provide a better understanding of interpretation of the electrocardiographic alterations among neonatal calves.

  5. Metabolism of orally administered (/sup 3/H)ergocalciferol and (/sup 3/H)cholecalciferol by dairy calves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sommerfeldt, J.L.; Napoli, J.L.; Littledike, E.T.; Beitz, D.C.; Horst, R.L.


    Concentrations of ergocalciferol, cholecalciferol, and their metabolites in plasma were determined after a single oral dose of (/sup 3/H)ergocalciferol or (/sup 3/H)cholecalciferol was given to 95- to 105-kg Jersey bull calves. One group (three calves) was given 365 muCi of (/sup 3/H)ergocalciferol (1.2 Ci/mmol) per calf, and the other group (three calves) was given 365 muCi of (/sup 3/H)cholecalciferol (1.2 Ci/mmol) per calf. Fourteen blood samples were taken from each calf during the 3 weeks after administration. Total plasma radioactivity was highest at 80 hours in both groups (8400 dpm/ml and 4600 dpm/ml in the (/sup 3/H)cholecalciferol- and (/sup 3/H)ergocalciferol-treated calves, respectively). For determination of the time-dependent appearance and disappearance of plasma vitamin D and vitamin D metabolites, the plasma /sup 3/H-labeled steroids were extracted and separated by high-performance liquid chromatography. In both groups, (/sup 3/H)vitamin D peaked at 24-48 hours and was the predominant radioactive form in plasma 10-15 hours after dosing. After 15 hours, 25-(/sup 3/H)hydroxyvitamin D became the predominant labeled metabolite, reaching its maximal concentration between 48 and 96 hours. Concentrations of 25-(/sup 3/H)hydroxycholecalciferol were about twice those of 25-(/sup 3/H)hydroxyergocalciferol. The appearance/disappearance profile of 25,26-(/sup 3/H)dihydroxycholecalciferol and 1,25(/sup 3/H)hydroxycholecalciferol resembled that of 25-(/sup 3/H)hydroxycholecalciferol.

  6. Veda e vermifugação como alternativas de manejo para desmama de bezerros Nelore em pastagem nativa do Pantanal Alternative management for weaned nelore calves in the Pantanal's native pastures

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    Full Text Available Entre março de 1992 e janeiro de 1993 realizou-se este estudo com o objetivo de avaliar o efeito integrado da veda do pasto nativo com o controle estratégico de nematóides gastrintestinais no desempenho corporal de bezerros Nelore pós-desmame no Pantanal da Nhecolândia, MS, Brasil. Dois lotes de animais recém-desmamados aos nove meses foram colocados em invernadas contíguas de pastagens nativas com as mesmas características fisionômicas, que foram vedadas por três meses e meio; a invernada do lote controle foi previamente pastejada por vacas com bezerro ao pé para contaminação. O lote tratado permaneceu com níveis muito baixos de ovos por grama de fezes durante todo o período experimental, e no lote controle foram diminuindo no decorrer do ensaio, terminando semelhantes. No desenvolvimento corporal, observou-se menor perda de peso do lote tratado durante a estação seca e ganho de peso compensatório do lote controle na estação chuvosa subseqüente. Os pesos médios dos dois lotes no final do experimento foram semelhantes.The aim of this study was to investigate the integrated effects of native pastures sealing with strategic control of gastrointestinal nematodes on body development of weaned Nellore calves, studied between March 1992 and January 1993 in the Pantanal region, Brazil. Two homogeneous groups of weanling calves were put on contiguous paddocks of native pastures with the same physiognomic characteristics and sealed for three and a half months. The paddock where the non-treated group was put, was previously used by cows that were rearing a calf for contamination of the pasture. The treated group remained with low levels of eggs per gram of feces (EGF during the whole experimental period. In the non-treated group, the EGF diminished during the assay, ending with similar levels of the treated group. On body development, it was observed a lower body weight loss of the treated group during the dry season and a

  7. Genetic Parameters for Milk ,Fat Yield and Age at First Calving of Chinese Holsteins in Heilongjiang

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Genetic parameters for milk,fat yield and age at first calving of Chinese Holsteins in Heilongjiang were evaluated using multiple-trait restricted maximum likelihood procedures with an animal model. Data consisted of records of 2496 Chinese Holsteins first lactation cows collected from 1989 to 2000. The model included 21herd effects, four calving season effects, nine age at first calving effects, 6697 animal effects. (Co)variance components of milk yield ,fat yield and age at first calving were estimated with the software package for variance component estimation(VCE) by an animal model. The heritabilities were 0. 14.0. 21,0. 38 for milk yield ,fat yield and age at first calving ,respectively. ihe estimates of genetic correlation between milk yield and fat yield,age at first calving were 0. 96,-0.29.respectively. The estimate of genetic correlation between fat yield and age at first calving was-0.28.

  8. Upper and Lower Bounds on the Stability of Calving Glaciers (United States)

    Ma, Y.; Bassis, J. N.


    Iceberg calving is responsible for nearly half of the mass lost from ice sheets to the oceans. However, a lack of a well-parameterized calving model leaves most numerical ice sheet models incomplete. Previous studies have sought to parameterize iceberg calving assuming that calving occurs when a surface crevasse intersects with a basal one. Although a variety of models have successfully reproduced patterns of glacier retreat, they are frequently tuned by adding melt water into surface crevasses until glacier behavior matches observations, which is puzzling because calving also occurs during winter when no melt water is available. Here we examine crevasse propagation using a 2D full-Stokes finite element model along the center flow of an idealized glacier terminating in ocean to see when water-free surface crevasses intersect with water-filled basal crevasses on a lubricated bed. Crevasse propagation is computed using the Nye zero-stress-model, assuming they have a negligible effect on the stress field of the glacier. We find that for a given water depth, simulated glaciers evolve to a state where either basal and surface crevasses intersect or the glacier begins to float. This allows us to map out a stability threshold that predicts for a given water depth if certain ice thicknesses will result in full thickness failure. Assuming seeds for crevasses are present everywhere, this threshold poses an upper limit on ice thickness: as the thickness decreases full thickness penetration is increasingly likely. Comparing our theoretical stability threshold with observational data deduced from Operation IceBridge, we find that most tidewater glaciers have water depth and ice thickness combinations fall in a narrow region above our predicted threshold and below buoyancy. The agreement between observations and our simulations suggests that glaciers evolve until they approach a critical stability threshold where small perturbations can trigger calving events. The stability

  9. Effect of adding herbs (Ziziphora clinopodioides, Mentha spicata and Mentha pulegium in milk on performance, blood metabolites and fecal microbial population on Holstein calves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    narges ghahhari


    chemical composition of plants used for food such as dry matter, crude protein and ether extracts, from conventional laboratory methods AOAC (2005 were used. sixteen Holstein calves with mean of 42.18± 0.71 Kg birth weight, aged 5± 3 day allocated to treats: 1 control (milk without additive, 2 milk contains powder Ziziphora clinipodioides, 3 milk contains powder Mentha spicata, 4 milk contains powder Mentha pulegium. The herbs added to milk in each treatment was 20 g daily. Duration the experimental period was 25 days. Dry matter intake, water intake and fecal score measured daily. Body weight monitored every 5 days, and blood sampling conducted twice, once one day before the start of the period (day zero and once final day. Samples for culture prepared in three phases beginning, middle and end of the period. Results and Discussion The major component in Ziziphora clinopodioies was pulegone (38.34%, major component in Mentha spicata and Mentha pulegium was carvone (61.93% and piperitone oxide (43.09%, respectively. The dry matter of three plant, Ziziphora clinopodioies, Mentha spicata and Mentha pulegium were 92.70, 93.25 and 94.01, crude protein were 8.57, 20.47 and 17.32, and also ether extracts were 3.20, 2.15 and 2.50 percent, respectively. Based on the obtained results, adding of Mentha pulegium to milk reduces dry matter intake during starter period and total dry matter intake in treatment Ziziphora clinopodioides was significantly higher than treatment control. Calves treated with Ziziphora clinopodioides, Mentha pulegium and Mentha spicata consumed statistically more water than control group. Dry matter digestibility significantly decreased in treatments Ziziphora clinopodioides and Menthe spicata compared to control. Daily gain, feed conversion ratio, blood parameter and immune respones were not affected by treatment trials. There were no significant differences between treatments for fecal score and day of diarrhea. Ziziphora clinopodioies, Mentha spicata and

  10. Hydration in non-suckling neonatal Brahman-cross calves. (United States)

    Fordyce, G; Olchowy, T W J; Anderson, A


    To identify measures that most closely relate to hydration in healthy Brahman-cross neonatal calves that experience milk deprivation. In a dry tropical environment, eight neonatal Brahman-cross calves were prevented from suckling for 2-3 days during which measurements were performed twice daily. Mean body water, as estimated by the mean urea space, was 74±3% of body weight at full hydration. The mean decrease in hydration was 7.3±1.1% per day. The rate of decrease was more than three-fold higher during the day than at night. At an ambient temperature of 39°C, the decrease in hydration averaged 1.1% hourly. Measures that were most useful in predicting the degree of hydration in both simple and multiple-regression prediction models were body weight, hindleg length, girth, ambient and oral temperatures, eyelid tenting, alertness score and plasma sodium. These parameters are different to those recommended for assessing calves with diarrhoea. Single-measure predictions had a standard error of at least 5%, which reduced to 3-4% if multiple measures were used. We conclude that simple assessment of non-suckling Brahman-cross neonatal calves can estimate the severity of dehydration, but the estimates are imprecise. Dehydration in healthy neonatal calves that do not have access to milk can exceed 20% (>15% weight loss) in 1-3 days under tropical conditions and at this point some are unable to recover without clinical intervention. © 2015 Australian Veterinary Association.

  11. Involuntary reduction in vigour of calves born from sexed semen. (United States)

    Djedović, Radica; Bogdanović, Vladan; Stanojević, Dragan; Nemes, Zsolt; Gáspárdy, András; Cseh, Sándor


    The objective of this study was to compare the reproductive traits of heifers and the development characteristics of their calves following artificial insemination (AI) with sexed and non-sexed semen. The analysed characteristics included conception rate, gestation length, calf birth weight, calf vigour, stillbirth rate, and twinning rate. Data of 530 calves produced with sexed and 1,163 calves produced with non-sexed semen were analysed. The General Linear Model (GLM) was applied to assess the influence of semen type, farm, season of insemination, the calf's sex and the inseminating sire on gestation length and calf birth weight. With the exception of gestation length (P > 0.05), all other traits studied were significantly (P gestation length was 274.6 and 274.9 days, respectively. The mean calf birth weight was 37.47 kg for non-sexed and 36.75 kg for sexed semen. The stillbirth rate was 6.19% for conventional and 7.54% for sexed semen, while the twinning rate was 3.78% for conventional and 1.13% for sexed semen. The calves produced with non-sexed and sexed semen differed significantly in viability (P 0.05); however, artificial insemination with X-sorted sexed semen significantly altered the sex ratio of calves (85.1:14.9%, P < 0.01). The results obtained in this investigation are in agreement with the majority of studies which compared the fertility traits, sex ratio and calf characteristics depending on the application of artificial insemination with sexed or conventional semen.

  12. Causes of variation in growth rate of reindeer calves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. J. Petersson


    Full Text Available Weights of individual reindeer calves were registered on 3 or 4 occasions from the July roundup to the last slaughter roundup in January during each of four consecutive years (1986 to 1989. The observations were made in a tagged herd located in the southern part of the reindeer area in Sweden (63°N, 12°E. A total of 10 400 live-weight measurements were made, and the relationship between pre-slaughter weight and carcass weight was estimated using data from 109 individuals. Variation in weight and weight gain between weighing occasions was related to sex, number of days in the corral, scale and year. Non-linear growth curves were fit to the adjusted weights. For each sex, smoothed average weights and dispersions, both within and between year, as well as the coefficient of variation were calculated from data generated from the estimated functions. Individual calf weights were shown to be influenced by sex, weighing day within occasion, and by year. Reindeer calves gained between 20 and 25 kg in live body weight from two to 6-8 months of age. Male calves were heavier than female calves over the whole period and they gained in live weight on average 10 g/day more than female calves. Between year coefficient of variation was between 1.5 and 7% with the largest variation between years for July and January weights and the lowest variation for September weights. The growth curves showed that the major increase in weight was between July and September. From September to December/January the additional increase was only 5%. Dressing-percentage was influenced by live weight prior to slaughter. A positive relationship between live weight and dressing percentage was shown.


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    A. IDRIS


    Full Text Available This study was conducted in Western Sudan to evaluate the effects of supplementation on productive performance of Fuja dairy cows (local breed and their calves. Forty lactating Fuja cows and their calves were selected on the basis of approximate similarity in age and live weight, the cows and their calves were randomly assigned into four groups (each group consisting of 10 cows. The diets were also randomly assigned to each of the four groups of the animals. The rations were fed after grazing at the rate of 2 kg per cow per day, during adaptation period of two weeks followed by the experimental period. Data collection of body condition score (BCS, milk yield and body measurements were carried out monthly for each new born calf to assess chance in body weight (BWT, body height (BH, body length (BL and heart girth (HG. The results of the study indicated that milk yield was improved by supplementation, body condition score and parity number had significant (P< 0.05 effect on lactation curve. Body measurements were also affected by the sex of the calf. Strategic supplementary feeding of Fuja dairy cows increased milk yield. The treatment also reduced cows body condition loss (P<0.05 and caused no cows mortality. Therefore from the study result, it was possible to concluded that supplementation with molasses are essential for improving Fuja dairy cows and their calves’ performance in range land of Western Sudan.

  14. Effects of different levels of sunflower residue silage replacement with alfalfa hay on Azari male buffalo calves fattening performance

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    S. Razzagzadeh


    Full Text Available An experiment was conducted to study the effects of replacing alfalfa hay with different levels of sunflower residual silage (SRS on fattening performance of Azari male buffalo calves. Thirty calves with 138.33 Kg of BW fed experimental diets in a completely randomized design with 5 groups and 6 replicates. The five groups (1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 included 0 (control, 25, 50, 75 and 100 percent replacement of alfalfa hay with SRS, respectively in basal diet. The results showed that dry matter intake (DMI was significantly different between the groups (p<0.05. The highest and the lowest DMI were shown at the groups 1 and 5, respectively, however there was no significant difference between the groups 2, 3, and 4 with control. Daily weight gain (DWG was significantly different between the groups (p<0.05. Group 5 had significantly lower DWG than groups 1, 2 and 3, furthermore there were no significant difference between groups 1, 2, 3 and 4. Feed conversion ratio (FCR was significantly different among the groups (p<0.05. There was no significant difference among the groups 1, 2, 3 and 4. But these groups had significantly better FCR than the group 5. The best FCR was obtained for group3. It may conclude that alfalfa hay can be substituted with SRS at 50 % level with no negative effects on Azari male buffalo calves fattening performance.

  15. Comparison of 1% cyclosporine eye drops in olive oil and in linseed oil to treat experimentally-induced keratoconjunctivitis sicca in rabbits. (United States)

    Parrilha, Leticia Rodrigues; Nai, Gisele Alborghetti; Giuffrida, Rogério; Barbero, Rafael Cabral; Padovani, Leticia Dias Fabris; Pereira, Ricardo Henrique Zaquir; Silva, Danielle Alves; Silva, Mariele Catherine Alves; Diniz, Miriely Stein; Andrade, Silvia Franco


    To evaluate the effectiveness of topical 1% cyclosporine eye drops diluted in either of the two vehicles-olive and linseed oil-and that of the oils themselves in treating experimentally-induced keratoconjunctivitis sicca (KCS) in rabbits. KCS was induced in 25 New Zealand rabbits using 1% atropine sulfate eye drops for 7 days before treatment and throughout the treatment period (12 weeks). The rabbits were divided into five groups: one control (C) group without KCS induction and four treatment groups in which KCS was induced and treated topically with olive oil (O), linseed oil (L), cyclosporine in olive oil (CO), and cyclosporine in linseed oil (CL). The animals were evaluated using Schirmer tear test 1 (STT), the fluorescein test (FT), tear-film break-up time (TBUT), the rose bengal test (RBT), and histopathological analysis. Values of STT and TBUT significantly decreased 1 week post-induction (poil or linseed oil was effective in the treatment of KCS, although it had better efficacy when diluted in linseed oil. Linseed oil presented better effectiveness, whether associated or not, than olive oil. These results may contribute to the creation of novel topical ophthalmic formulations for KCS treatment in future.

  16. Changes in blood sugar levels of rats experimentally infected withTrypanosoma brucei and treated with imidocarb dipropionate and diminazene aceturate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nwoha Rosemary Ijeoma Ogechi; Omamegbe Joseph Omalathebu


    Objective:To determine the effect ofTrypanosoma brucei (T. brucei) on blood sugar level of infected rats. Methods: The experiment was done with 42 albino rats grouped into 3 groups of 14 members each. Group A was uninfected (control group), Group B was infected withT. brucei and treated with diminazene aceturate, and Group C was infected withT. brucei and treated with imidocarb dipropionate. Blood samples were collected from the media canthus of the experimental rats on Days 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10 for the assessment of change in blood sugar levels. The blood sugar levels were determined with a glucometer (Accu-chek active serialNo.GN:10023338). Results: By 4 to 5 days post infection, there was a significant increase (P 0.05) was observed in the groups when compared with the control group till Day 12 of the experiment. Conclusions:T. brucei caused a significant increase in blood sugar of infected rats.

  17. Circulating immune cell subpopulations in pestivirus persistently infected calves and non-infected calves varying in immune status [Abstract (United States)

    The circulating immune cell subpopulations in cattle representing varying stages of immune status categorized as; colostrum deprived (CD), receiving colostrum (COL), colostrum plus vaccination (VAC) and persistently infected with a pestivirus (PI) were compared. The PI calves were infected with a H...

  18. Circulating immune cell subpopulations in pestivirus persistently infected calves and non-infected calves varying in immune status. (United States)

    Circulating immune cell subpopulations in cattle representing varying stages of immune status categorized as; colostrum deprived (CD), receiving colostrum (COL), colostrum plus vaccination (VAC) and persistently infected with a pestivirus (PI) were compared. The PI calves were infected with a HoBi-...

  19. Supplementation of female calves in creep feeding system and productive and nutritional parameters of beef cows on tropical pasture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lívia Vieira de Barros


    Full Text Available The performance of female calves in creep-feeding system receiving only mineral mixture or multiple supplements; and milk production and pasture intake and digestibility of beef cows on Urochloa decumbens pastures, were assessed. Forty-eight suckling female calves aged 5 months on average, with an initial weight of 125.4 ± 1.34 kg, and their respective mothers initially weighing 435.2 ± 10.3 kg, were used. The experimental design was completely randomized. Supplements contained approximately 25% crude protein (CP and a progressive substitution of soybean meal (SM by cottonseed meal 38% protein (CM at the levels of 0, 33, 67 and 100% for treatments CM0, CM33, CM67 and CM100, respectively. Urea was added to supplements in order to adjust the protein content of the supplements .In the control-group (MM animals were fed only mineral mixture, ad libitum. The average daily gain (in g was 687.8, 733.2, 820.0, 760.6 and 764.5, respectively, for treatments MM, CM0, CM33, CM67 and CM100. Female calves supplemented with multiple supplements showed highest weight gain. No effect of CM levels in the multiple supplement were verified (P>0.10 on average daily gain. The intakes in kg/day of dry matter (DM, organic matter (OM, crude protein (CP, non-fibrous carbohydrates (NFC, digested DM and total digestible nutrients were superior (P0.10. As a conclusion, utilizing multiple supplements in the pre-weaning period provides highest weight gain to female calves.

  20. Age-dependent differences in cytokine and antibody responses after experimental RSV infection in a bovine model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grell, S.N.; Riber, Ulla; Tjørnehøj, Kirsten


    Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) causes severe respiratory disease in both infants and calves. As in humans, bovine RSV (BRSV) infections are most severe in the first 6 months of life. In this study, experimental infection with BRSV was performed in calves aged 1-5, 9-16 or 32-37 weeks. Compared...

  1. Epiphysiodesis of the greater trochanter in Legg-Calvé-Perthes disease: The importance of timing. (United States)

    Van Tongel, Alexander; Fabry, Guy


    Patients with Legg-Calvé-Perthes disease (LCP) often exhibit relative overgrowth of the greater trochanter and shortening of the femoral neck. Biomechanically, this corresponds to a shorter lever arm and a decreased muscle tension which may result in a Trendelenburg gait and pelvic instability. This is a retrospective study of 31 patients (32 hips) with LCP disease and relative overgrowth of the greater trochanter who were treated with an epiphyseodesis. The average age at operation was 10 years and 6 months. We evaluated the patients clinically with the Trendelenburg sign and analysed on radiographs the growth of the greater trochanter and the neck-shaft angle of the normal hip and the pre- and postoperative growth and angle of the involved hip. We did not find any significant differences between the pre- and postoperative values. After a mean follow-up of 4 years and 2 months, however, 27 patients presented with a negative Trendelenburg sign (versus 14 patients preoperatively).

  2. Risk factors for osteoarthritis and total hip replacement in Legg-Calvé-Perthes disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Froberg, Lonnie; Christensen, Finn; Pedersen, Niels Wisbech


    replacement (THR) compared with a sex- and age-matched control group. From 1941 to 1962, 167 patients (191 hips) with LCP presented to The Community of Disabled in Kolding, Denmark. All hips were treated conservatively by a Thomas splint. At follow-up weight-bearing AP pelvis radiographs were obtained......This study has three purposes A) to determine if Legg-Calvé-Perthes disease (LCP) is a risk factor for developing secondary hip osteoarthritis (OA), B) to determine the inter-relationship between Stulberg class and radiographic OA and C) to investigate the risk for insertion of total hip...... and patients with previous operation at pelvis/lower limbs. Fifty-two patients (55 hips) were enrolled in the study. The follow-up period was 47 years. In study C emigrated persons, persons lost to follow-up and patients with previous operation at pelvis/lower limb were excluded. 135 patients (156 hips) were...

  3. Ocean-driven thinning enhances iceberg calving and retreat of Antarctic ice shelves. (United States)

    Liu, Yan; Moore, John C; Cheng, Xiao; Gladstone, Rupert M; Bassis, Jeremy N; Liu, Hongxing; Wen, Jiahong; Hui, Fengming


    Iceberg calving from all Antarctic ice shelves has never been directly measured, despite playing a crucial role in ice sheet mass balance. Rapid changes to iceberg calving naturally arise from the sporadic detachment of large tabular bergs but can also be triggered by climate forcing. Here we provide a direct empirical estimate of mass loss due to iceberg calving and melting from Antarctic ice shelves. We find that between 2005 and 2011, the total mass loss due to iceberg calving of 755 ± 24 gigatonnes per year (Gt/y) is only half the total loss due to basal melt of 1516 ± 106 Gt/y. However, we observe widespread retreat of ice shelves that are currently thinning. Net mass loss due to iceberg calving for these ice shelves (302 ± 27 Gt/y) is comparable in magnitude to net mass loss due to basal melt (312 ± 14 Gt/y). Moreover, we find that iceberg calving from these decaying ice shelves is dominated by frequent calving events, which are distinct from the less frequent detachment of isolated tabular icebergs associated with ice shelves in neutral or positive mass balance regimes. Our results suggest that thinning associated with ocean-driven increased basal melt can trigger increased iceberg calving, implying that iceberg calving may play an overlooked role in the demise of shrinking ice shelves, and is more sensitive to ocean forcing than expected from steady state calving estimates.

  4. Calving Performance in the Endangered Murboden Cattle Breed: Genetic Parameters and Inbreeding Depression

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    Sophie A.e. Eaglen


    Full Text Available Calving is a key event on any cattle farm, with both economic and animal welfare consequences when complications arise. Although mostly reported in highly selected breeds, problematic calving performance is also a worry to the unselected dualpurpose Murboden breed, local to Austria. This study presents genetic parameter estimates for calving ease and stillbirth in Murboden cattle. Furthermore, a potential effect of inbreeding on the breeds’ calving performance is evaluated. Results show a moderate direct and maternal heritability (0.18±0.04; 0.11±0.02 and a significant negative direct-maternal genetic correlation for calving ease (-0.41±0.10. Heritabilities of stillbirth are low yet significant (0.048±0.01; 0.018±0.007. A significant effect of inbreeding was detected on maternal calving ease i.e. the ease with which a dam calves. By categorizing the inbreeding coefficients of the dam in six ascending classes it was shown that calving ease worsens as inbreeding coefficients become larger. Results of this study reveal significant genetic variation in calving performance of the Murboden breed which opens doors for genetic selection. An additional important aspect of this study is that its result on inbreeding depression gives counterweight to the general intuitive notion in literature that high selection for production traits is the major contributor to calving difficulty in dairy and beef cattle breeds worldwide.

  5. Effect of restricted feed intake of dams and heat stress on mineral status of newborn calves. (United States)

    Kume, S; Toharmat, T; Kobayashi, N


    To clarify the effects of restricted feed intake, heat stress, and parity on the mineral status of cows and heifers around parturition and on the mineral status of their calves during 1 wk of age, data were collected from 66 Holstein cows and heifers and their calves. In Experiment 1, 36 heifers and mature cows that calved during hot or cool weather were fed to meet requirements for total digestible nutrients (TDN), protein, and minerals. In Experiment 2, 15 mature cows that calved during hot or cool weather were fed to meet maintenance requirements for TDN plus requirements for TDN for the last 2 mo of gestation, and 15 heifers were fed to meet TDN requirements. Heat stress increased rectal temperatures of newborn calves. Blood hematocrit and hemoglobin of heifers around parturition were higher than those of mature cows, but blood hematocrit and hemoglobin of calves born from heifers were lower. The restricted feed intake of dams decreased blood hematocrit and hemoglobin as well as plasma Fe of calves in hot and cool weather. Plasma Ca, inorganic P, and alkaline phosphatase as well as colostral Ca, P, Mg, and Zn of heifers were higher than those of mature cows, but plasma Mg of heifers was lower. Plasma Mg of calves and their dams was lower in hot weather than in cool weather, and restricted feed intake accelerated the reduction in plasma Mg of calves and their dams during hot weather. Plasma Na of calves and their dams was higher in hot weather than in cool weather. Heat stress increased plasma K of heifers and their calves. Heat stress increased Ca concentration in meconium of calves born from cows, and the restricted feed intake increased P concentrations in meconium. These results suggest that the maintenance of optimum erythropoiesis and mineral status in heatstressed periparturient cows and heifers and their calves must be met by dietary energy and minerals that are fed at maintenance concentrations plus excess requirements necessary during the gestation

  6. The effect of housing on calving behavior and calf vitality in Holstein and Jersey dairy cows. (United States)

    Campler, M; Munksgaard, L; Jensen, M B


    The present study investigated how calving behavior and calf vitality in Holstein and Jersey dairy cows were affected by housing during the final 4 wk precalving. One hundred twenty-one cows (36 primiparous and 85 multiparous) were moved either to a group pen with deep straw bedding or into freestall housing 4 wk before the expected calving date. Individual straw-bedded maternity pens were placed adjacent to the straw-bedded group pens, and cows were moved to the maternity pens before calving. Cows that spent more than 12 h in the maternity pen before calving and calved unassisted were included in this study (39 multiparous cows and 15 primiparous cows). Dams were observed from 6 h before calving until 6 h after calving. The time from the onset of rhythmical abdominal contractions (defined as the onset of stage II labor), the time from a visible amniotic sac, and the time from visible calf feet until the birth of the calf were recorded. Furthermore, the cows' latency to stand up after birth was recorded. Calves were observed during the first 6 h after birth and the latency to first standing attempt, to first successful standing, to first suckle attempt, and to first successful suckling were recorded. Cows previously housed in straw pens expelled the calf faster once the calves' feet were visible compared with cows previously housed in freestalls. Multiparous cows stood sooner and licked their calf sooner after birth compared with primiparous cows. Jersey calves of cows previously housed in straw pens also stood up and suckled their dams sooner compared with Jersey calves of cows previously housed in freestalls. Holstein cows previously housed in straw pens tended to stand up sooner compared with Holstein cows previously housed in freestalls. These results suggest that a longer period of housing on deep-bedded straw compared with freestalls with mattresses before calving may facilitate the calving process, whereas the effect on calf vitality needs further

  7. Effect of enhanced whole-milk feeding in calves on subsequent first-lactation performance. (United States)

    Kiezebrink, D J; Edwards, A M; Wright, T C; Cant, J P; Osborne, V R


    The objective of this study was to determine the effect of enhanced whole-milk (WM) feeding systems in calves from birth to 8wk of age on subsequent first-lactation performance. The experiment was conducted as a completely randomized design consisting of 2 treatment groups. At birth, 152 Holstein heifer calves were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 treatments: (i) 4L of WM/d or (ii) 8L of WM/d. The calves were bucket fed 2 or 4L of WM twice daily at 0700 and 1600h. Each calf was housed individually in temperature-controlled nurseries and had ad libitum access to water and textured calf starter daily. Calves consumed greater volumes of textured calf starter when fed 4 versus 8L of WM/d. Water intakes mirrored starter intakes, leading to greater water consumption at weaning. Calves reared on 8L of WM/d were heavier at d 56 than calves reared on 4L of WM/d. The average daily gain of the calves offered 8L of WM/d from d 0 to 56 was greater than that of calves offered 4L of WM/d. Structural measurements were significantly greater for calves that consumed 8L of WM/d. The differences observed in withers height and live BW due to WM feeding level were not apparent by 3 and 12mo of age, respectively. Rumen pH was higher in calves that consumed 8L of WM/d than in calves that consumed 4L of WM/d. Whole-milk feeding level did not affect age at first calving or milk-production parameters. These results suggest that enhanced WM feeding improved growth performance until 3mo of age. However, first-lactation results indicated no lactation-performance benefits of increased nutrition and growth performance during the milk-fed period in dairy calves.

  8. Productive effects of whole milk and milk replacement formula in calves feeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivana Klarić


    Full Text Available Determination of correct feeding regimes for calves is very important as it directly influences calves’ productive and reproductive traits, as well as duration of adult animal exploitation period. As the liquid feed is the most expensive component, its importance also has an economic aspect in calves rearing. The experiment was carried out on 30 Holstein calves with the aim to determine productive, economic and health effects of feeding calves with whole milk in different periods. Calves were divided into three equal groups (10 calves in each group. Experiment was carried out in the period from calving up to the 60th day of calf ’s age. All groups were given whole milk, however, duration of whole milk feeding differed among groups. Group 1 consumed whole milk from birth up to the 30th day of age, group 2 from birth up to the 20th day of age and group 3 from birth up to the 10th day of age. Afterwards, all groups were fed with milk replacement formula up to the 60th day of age. Suggested technological solutions in calves feeding within this experiment were analyzed through evaluation of basic fattening characteristics, monitoring of diarrhea occurrences and calculating costs per kg of weight gain per each group. Statistical analysis referring to calves body weight, daily gain and liquid feed conversion during the 1st month of experiment proved the best values for group 1, which were statistically highly significant (P<0.01 if compared to other groups. Examination of health status of calves determined that diarrhea occurred less frequently in group 1, which led to conclusion that feeding whole milk to calves should be given priority with respect to its nutritive and health benefits. By analyzing economic aspect of feeding whole milk to calves in their 1st month of age, the lowest costs were obtained for group 1, which supports the fact that feeding calves with whole milk is cost effective.

  9. Efficacy and productive performance of moxidectin in feedlot calves infected with nematodes resistant to ivermectin. (United States)

    Fazzio, L E; Streitenberger, N; Galvan, W R; Sánchez, R O; Gimeno, E J; Sanabria, R E F


    Anthelmintic resistance (AR) of gastrointestinal nematodes to macrocyclic lactones is an increasingly common worldwide phenomenon limiting cattle production. This has motivated the search for alternatives, such as new active compounds, added drug synergisms, different doses, and alternate administration routes. The aim of this study was the assessment of moxidectin (MXD) performance in feedlot calves with a history of AR to ivermectin (IVM). Crossbred female calves aged 6-7 months and weighing 163kg (SD=34kg) were divided into 3 groups of 35 animals each. They were assigned to the following antiparasitic treatment groups: IVM group (0.2mg/kg IVM); MXD group (0.2mg/kg MXD), and ricobendazole+levamisole (RBZ+LEV) group (7.5mg/kg RBZ+8mg/kg LEV). On days 0, 26, and 47, fecal samples were taken and the weight of each animal was registered. Anthelmintic efficacy (by fecal egg count reduction), total weight gain (TWG) and average daily weight gain (AWG) were compared between the groups. A mixed SAS procedure was used for statistical analysis. Fecal egg count reduction 26 days post-treatment (PT) was calculated at 28% for the IVM group, 85% for the MXD group, and 99% for the RBZ+LEV group. AWGs (Standard Error) of 1.095g (56), 1.264g (49), and 1.340g (52) were registered for the IVM, MXD, and RBZ+LEV groups, respectively (p<0.05). Coprocultures revealed that MXD more effectively reduced Haemonchus spp. and Cooperia spp. egg counts than IVM. This resulted in higher AWGs and TWGs for this group; similar results were seen for the RBZ+LEV group as well. In this study, animals treated with MXD gained about 160 more g/day than animals treated with IVM. This represents a gain of 16 USD per animal over the 47 day trial.

  10. Effects of injectable trace minerals on humoral and cell-mediated immune responses to Bovine viral diarrhea virus, Bovine herpes virus 1 and Bovine respiratory syncytial virus following administration of a modified-live virus vaccine in dairy calves. (United States)

    Palomares, R A; Hurley, D J; Bittar, J H J; Saliki, J T; Woolums, A R; Moliere, F; Havenga, L J; Norton, N A; Clifton, S J; Sigmund, A B; Barber, C E; Berger, M L; Clark, M J; Fratto, M A


    Our objective was to evaluate the effect of an injectable trace mineral (ITM) supplement containing zinc, manganese, selenium, and copper on the humoral and cell mediated immune (CMI) responses to vaccine antigens in dairy calves receiving a modified-live viral (MLV) vaccine containing BVDV, BHV1, PI3V and BRSV. A total of 30 dairy calves (3.5 months of age) were administered a priming dose of the MLV vaccine containing BHV1, BVDV1 & 2, BRSV, PI3V, and an attenuated-live Mannheimia-Pasteurella bacterin subcutaneously (SQ). Calves were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 groups: (1) administration of ITM SQ (ITM, n=15) or (2) injection of sterile saline SQ (Control; n=15). Three weeks later, calves received a booster of the same vaccine combination SQ, and a second administration of ITM, or sterile saline, according to the treatment group. Blood samples were collected on days 0, 7, 14, 21, 28, 42, 56, and 90 post-vaccination for determination of antibody titer, viral recall antigen-induced IFN-γ production, and viral antigen-induced proliferation by peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). Administration of ITM concurrently with MLV vaccination resulted in higher antibody titers to BVDV1 on day 28 after priming vaccination compared to the control group (P=0.03). Calves treated with ITM showed an earlier enhancement in PBMC proliferation to BVDV1 following vaccination compared to the control group. Proliferation of PBMC after BVDV stimulation tended to be higher on day 14 after priming vaccination in calves treated with ITM than in the control group (P=0.08). Calves that received ITM showed higher PBMC proliferation to BRSV stimulation on day 7 after priming vaccination compared to the control group (P=0.01). Moreover, calves in the ITM group also had an enhanced production IFN-γ by PBMC after stimulation with BRSV on day 21 after priming vaccination compared to day 0 (P<0.01). In conclusion, administration of ITM concurrently with MLV vaccination in dairy calves

  11. Comparison of 1% cyclosporine eye drops in olive oil and in linseed oil to treat experimentally-induced keratoconjunctivitis sicca in rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leticia Rodrigues Parrilha


    Full Text Available ABSTRACTPurpose:To evaluate the effectiveness of topical 1% cyclosporine eye drops diluted in either of the two vehicles-olive and linseed oil-and that of the oils themselves in treating experimentally-induced keratoconjunctivitis sicca (KCS in rabbits.Methods:KCS was induced in 25 New Zealand rabbits using 1% atropine sulfate eye drops for 7 days before treatment and throughout the treatment period (12 weeks. The rabbits were divided into five groups: one control (C group without KCS induction and four treatment groups in which KCS was induced and treated topically with olive oil (O, linseed oil (L, cyclosporine in olive oil (CO, and cyclosporine in linseed oil (CL. The animals were evaluated using Schirmer tear test 1 (STT, the fluorescein test (FT, tear-film break-up time (TBUT, the rose bengal test (RBT, and histopathological analysis.Results:Values of STT and TBUT significantly decreased 1 week post-induction (p<0.05 and were similar to initial values after the 4th week of treatment, in all groups. After KCS induction, there was significantly less corneal damage in group L than in group CL, as assessed FT and RBT. Histopathology demonstrated that Groups L and CL presented less edema and corneal congestion. There was no significant difference in the goblet cell density (cells/mm2 between the groups (p=0.147.Conclusion:Cyclosporine diluted in olive oil or linseed oil was effective in the treatment of KCS, although it had better efficacy when diluted in linseed oil. Linseed oil presented better effectiveness, whether associated or not, than olive oil. These results may contribute to the creation of novel topical ophthalmic formulations for KCS treatment in future.

  12. Down-regulation of transforming growth factor beta-2 expression is associated with the reduction of cyclosporin induced gingival overgrowth in rats treated with roxithromycin: an experimental study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aarestrup Fernando


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Gingival overgrowth (GO is a common side effect of the chronic use of cyclosporine (CsA, an immunosuppressant widely used to prevent rejection in transplant patients. Recent studies have reported elevated levels of specific cytokines in gingival overgrowth tissue, particularly TGF-beta, suggesting that this growth factor plays a role in the accumulation of extracellular matrix materials. The effectiveness of azithromycin, a macrolide antibiotic, in the regression of this undesirable side effect has also been demonstrated. Methods In this study, we created an experimental model for assessing the therapeutic effect of roxithromycin in GO and the expression of transforming growth factor beta (TGF-beta2 through immunohistochemistry. We used four groups of rats totaling 32 individuals. GO was induced during five weeks and drug treatment was given on the 6th week as follows: group 1 received saline; group 2 received CsA and was treated with saline on the 6th week; group 3 received CsA and, on the 6th week, ampicilin; and group 4 received CsA during 5 weeks and, on the 6th week, was treated with roxithromycin. Results The results demonstrated that roxithromycin treatment was effective in reducing cyclosporine-induced GO in rats. Both epithelial and connective tissue showed a decrease in thickness and a significant reduction in TGF-beta2 expression, with a lower number of fibroblasts, reduction in fibrotic areas and decrease in inflammatory infiltrate. Conclusion The present data suggest that the down-regulation of TGF-beta2 expression may be an important mechanism of action by which roxithromycin inhibits GO.

  13. Is rumen development in newborn calves affected by different liquid feeds and small intestine development? (United States)

    Górka, P; Kowalski, Z M; Pietrzak, P; Kotunia, A; Jagusiak, W; Zabielski, R


    The objective of the study was to determine the effect of different liquid feeds on calf small intestine and rumen development. Twenty-one bull calves (5 ± 1 d old) were randomly allocated to 3 groups and fed whole milk (WM), milk replacer (MR; 22% CP and 17.5% fat), or MR supplemented with sodium butyrate (MR+SB; 0.3% as fed). Liquid feed dry matter intake was equal between treatments and amounted to 1% of BW at the beginning of the trial. Starter diet was offered ad libitum. Animals were slaughtered at 26 (± 1) d of age. Calves fed WM had higher average daily gain in the whole trial and higher starter diet dry matter intake between d 15 to 21 of the trial as compared with calves fed MR and MR+SB. Calves fed MR lost on average 1.4 kg of BW within first 14 d of the trial and their BW tended to be lower at d 7, 14, and 21 of the study as compared with calves fed MR+SB. The empty jejunum and ileum weight, crypt depth, mitotic index in the middle jejunum were higher, and apoptotic index tended to be lower in calves fed WM as compared with calves fed MR and MR+SB. Calves fed WM also had higher aminopeptidase N activity in the middle jejunum and tended to have higher maltase activity in the distal jejunum as compared with calves fed MR and MR+SB. The mitotic index was higher and apoptotic index was lower in the middle jejunum, and aminopeptidase A activity tended to be higher in the distal jejunum of calves fed MR+SB as compared with those fed MR. Calves fed WM had greater papillae length and width, and tended to have greater muscle layer thickness as compared with calves fed MR and MR+SB. Reticulorumen weight, reticulorumen weight expressed as percent of whole stomach weight, and papillae length and width were higher in calves fed MR+SB as compared with those fed MR. Additionally, calves fed WM had higher plasma glucose and urea in the whole trial period as compared with calves fed MR and MR+SB, and plasma glucose was higher in calves fed MR+SB as compared with those

  14. High-frequency Surface Wave Measurements of Micro-tunamis generated by Glacier Calving (United States)

    Minowa, Masahiro; Sugiyama, Shin; Sakakibara, Daiki; Podolskiy, Evgeny; Ohashi, Yoshihiko; Skvarca, Pedro


    Calving plays a key role in recent rapid retreat of glaciers in Greenland, Alaska and Patagonia. However, processes related to calving are poorly understood since direct observations are difficult. When calving occurred at the glacier front, ice hits water surface and generates surface wave or micro-tsunami. Because characteristics of the micro-tsunami are dependent on the impact on water, it is expected that analysis of the wave provides useful information on the size and type of calving. To study the calving processes from surface wave, we performed field observations at Glaciar Perito Moreno, a freshwater calving glacier in the Southern Patagonia Icefield. We measured the surface level by recording water pressure every 2 s (0.5 Hz), using a sensor installed in a lake 300 m from the calving front. Spectral and statistical analyses were performed on the wave data. We also carried out time-lapse photography, ice speed and water temperature measurements. The time-lapse photographs were used to identify the types of observed calving events (1. Subaqueous, 2. Topple, 3. Drop, 4. Small serac failure). During summer (15 December 2013-4 January 2014) and spring (6-20 October 2014) field campaigns, 640 (30 events d-1) and 195 (12 events d-1) calving events were recorded by the pressure sensor, respectively. The number of calving events varied in time (from 0 to 6 events h-1) and this variation correlates well with lakewater temperature. Subaqueous calving account for only 2.4 % of calving events recorded during the field campaigns (7 out of 364 events). These results imply importance of melting at/under water surface as a triggering mechanism of calving. Waves generated by subaerial calving events (type 2, 3 and 4) showed similar frequency spectrums, whereas those by subaqueous calving had smaller power in frequency range between 0.12-0.25 Hz. The amplitude of the surface waves increased with size of calving, which was quantified by the time-lapse photographs. Our results

  15. Influence of calving season and stocking rate on birth weight and weaning weight of Simmental-sired calves from Brahman-Hereford F1 dams. (United States)

    Gaertner, S J; Rouquette, F M; Long, C R; Turner, J W


    Braham-Hereford F1 dams have been used to evaluate the influence of grazing pressure on forage attributes and animal performance at the Texas A&M University Agricultural Research Center at Overton. Data for this study were compiled from 1,909 records of Simmental-sired calves born to Braham-Hereford F1 cows from 1975 to 1990. Birth weight and weaning weight were analyzed independently to estimate the influence of year, season of birth, dam age, weaning age, and sex of calf. The effect of stocking rate as represented by levels of forage availability on weaning weights and subsequent birth weights was measured. Within the fall and winter calving seasons, lactating dams grazing at a high stocking rate produced calves with the lowest subsequent birth weights. Lactating dams assigned to creep-fed treatments had calves with the heaviest subsequent birth weights. Although dams that were less than 3.5 yr of age had calves with the lightest birth weights, there was no apparent decline in birth weight of calves from dams 12 to 17 yr old. Year, sex of calf, age of dam, stocking rate, season of birth, age at weaning, and birth weight were significant factors affecting weaning weight (P less than .01). Fall-born calves grazing cool-season annual pastures were heavier at weaning (267.6 kg) than either winter- (252.0 kg) or spring-born calves (240.9 kg). A stocking rate x season-of-birth interaction was observed for birth weight and weaning weight (P less than .05). Differences in weaning weight from low- vs high-stocked pastures were greater for fall-born calves (61.6 kg) than for winter-born calves (48.7).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  16. Safety of Ketoprofen in Cow calves following repeated intravenous administration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. D. Singh


    Full Text Available Ketoprofen is a non steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID used for its anti-inflammatory,analgesic and antipyretic properties in Veterinary Medicine. The present study was planned to assess safety of ketoprofen (3 after repeated intravenous administration at 24 hours interval for five days in six crossbred cow calves (6-12 months age and weighing between 60-122 kg. Ketoprofen in calves was found safe based on evaluation of haematological (Hb, PCV, TLC and DLC, blood biochemical (AKP, ACP, AST, ALT, LDH, Total bilirubin, Serum Creatinine, BUN, Serum total protein, Serum albumin and Blood glucose parameters. [Vet. World 2009; 2(3.000: 105-107

  17. Aerosol challenge of calves with Haemophilus somnus and Mycoplasma dispar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tegtmeier, C.; Angen, Øystein; Grell, S.N.


    investigated by recording clinical data, cytokine expression of peripheral blood cells and pathology. Twelve calves were included in the study: Three animals were exposed to H. somnus only, and two to M. dispar only, whereas five were challenged to M. dispar followed by exposure to H. somnus 11-14 days later......, the ability of H. somnus and M. dispar to act as primary pathogens under these conditions were minimal and inconsistent. However, a transient rise in body temperature, a marked granulocytosis and increased levels of interleukin-8 in peripheral blood after inoculation with H. somnus indicated a clear systemic...... response, probably as a consequence of the natural non-specific local and systemic defence mechanisms acting in healthy calves....


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. D’Orio


    Full Text Available During 2006 one hundred and three white veal calves slaughtered at an abattoir in Isernia (Italy were examined for E. coli O157 intestinal carriage and carcass contamination, using Immuno-Magnetic Separation (IMS and multiplex PCR. Faecal material before slaughtering and carcass samples, using sponge-bag, were collected. E. coli O157 isolates were found in 10 (9,71% faecal and 9 (8,7% carcass samples. PCR analysis showed that all the strains from faecal and from carcass samples carried eaeA, hlyA and stx2 genes, while five strains stx1 gene. The results confirm that the slaughter practices can largely influence the rate of E. coli O157 carcasses contamination and suggest that white veal calves meat could be an important risk for human health.

  19. The use of crossbreeding with beef bulls in dairy herds: effects on calving difficulty and gestation length. (United States)

    Fouz, R; Gandoy, F; Sanjuán, M L; Yus, E; Diéguez, F J


    This study was designed to analyse the evolution in the use of beef bull semen for dairy cattle insemination and, mainly, to assess calving difficulty, gestation length and proportion of stillbirths after breeding pure Holsteins or crossbreeding. Data were collected during 2004 to 2011 for 552 571 Holstein calvings (457 070 Holstein × Holstein, 43 384 Holstein × Limousine, 32 174 Holstein × Belgian Blue and 19 943 Holstein × Galician Blonde). The highest calving difficulty, compared with pure Holsteins was for crosses with Belgian Blue followed by Limousine and Galician Blonde. The Holstein × Limousine and Holstein × Galician Blonde crossbred calves had significantly longer gestation lengths than Holstein × Holstein and Holstein × Belgian Blue calves. Between the latter two, pure Holstein had the shortest gestation length. Calving difficulty and gestation length decreased as the age of the dam advanced. The most difficult calvings were observed in twin calvings, followed by the calvings of male calves and female calves. The gestations leading to the birth of male calves were longer than those leading to female calves and twin calves. Stillbirths were not related to the breed used for mating. Through examining these parameters, sire breed should be considered when selecting a beef breed for the insemination of milk-producing dams.

  20. Evaluation of Atropine-Xylazine as a Sedative in Buffalo Calves (Bubalus bubalis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Singh


    Full Text Available Twelve experimental trials were undertaken on clinically healthy male buffalo calves. Atropine was administered @ 0.04 mg/kg, IM and xylazine was administered @ 0.04 mg/kg, IM. Following atropine-xylazine administration, a decrease in spontaneous activity was seen in all the animals. Lowering of head was observed in three animals. Haemoglobin reduced significantly at 15 minute after xylazine administration. A significant reduction in mean arterial pressure (MAP was also seen at 30 and 45 minute after xylazine administration. The pulse pressure increased significantly after 5 minute of xylazine administration. The central venous pressure (CVP increased significantly at 30 minute and 45 minute of xylazine administration.

  1. Clinical hypersensitivity to specific aerosol challenge in parenterally immunized calves.


    Taylor, F G; Jones, C D; Bourne, J


    This paper reports an experiment designed to demonstrate that the calf lung can be sensitized to a specific respirable challenge following parenteral immunization with a nonliving antigen (human serum albumin). The possibility that immune-mediated injury could subsequently interfere with nonspecific mucosal defenses was also investigated by infecting calves with Pasteurella haemolytica after the antigen challenge and assessing pulmonary clearance of the organism. The results indicated that sp...

  2. Sugar supplementation stimulates growth performance in calves with growth retardation. (United States)

    Sato, Tomohiro; Hidaka, Yuichi; Kamimura, Shunichi


    The growth effect of sugar supplementation was determined in 49 retarded growth calves. Calves were supplemented with sugar at 1 g/kg BW 2 times weekly for 8 weeks. Glucose tolerance tests prior to the experiment showed no difference between the retarded growth calves and normal growth controls. After sugar supplementation, the calves were classified into 4 groups characterized by high (H) or low (L) periodic changes in daily weight gain (DG) with a breakpoint of 0.8 kg/d in three periods, birth to sugar supplementation (Birth-Pre), the 8 weeks during supplementation (Pre-Post) and after feeding to delivery to market (Post-Market). The periodic DG showed a marked increase after supplementation in Pre-Post and Post-Market compared with before supplementation during Birth-Pre in 2 groups (0.93 and 1.11 vs. 0.51 kg/day for L-H-H [n=19], 0.66 and 1.19 vs. 0.42 kg/day for L-L-H [n=24]), but no difference was observed in L-H-L (n=3) and L-L-L (n=3). Peripheral blood was collected on the day before supplementation (Pre), 8 weeks after supplementation (Post) and eight weeks after cease of supplementation. The blood concentrations of both insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) and glucose showed significant increases in L-H-H and L-L-H, but decreases in non-esterified fatty acid were observed in L-H-H and L-L-L on day Post compared with day Pre, respectively (pcalves had body weights similar to the market average. The growth effect of sugar supplementation could be stimulated through rumen papillae development induce by sucrose, the main component of table sugar.

  3. High Prevalence of Natural Chlamydophila Species Infection in Calves


    Jee, JunBae; DeGraves, Fred J.; Kim, TeaYoun; Kaltenboeck, Bernhard


    We investigated the acquisition and prevalence of Chlamydophila sp. infection in calves. Specimens were collected at weekly intervals from birth to week 12 postpartum from 40 female Holstein calf-dam pairs in a dairy herd. Real-time PCR detected, quantified, and differentiated Chlamydophila 23S rRNA gene DNA from vaginal cytobrush swabs and milk samples. Chemiluminescence enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay with lysed Chlamydophila abortus or Chlamydophila pecorum elementary body antigens quant...

  4. Evaluation of the transfer of immunoglobulin from colostrum anaerobic fermentation (colostrum silage) to newborn calves. (United States)

    Saalfeld, Mara H; Pereira, Daniela I B; Borchardt, Jessica L; Sturbelle, Regis T; Rosa, Matheus C; Guedes, Marcio C; Gularte, Marcia A; Leite, Fábio P Leivas


    Colostrum silage is an anaerobic fermentation methodology of excess farm colostrum used to conserve and provide as milk replacement for calves. The present study aimed to evaluate the levels of immunoglobulins present in bovine colostrum silage and its absorption by newborn calves. The concentration of immunoglobulins was determined in fresh colostrum and colostrum silage stored for 12 months. The absorption of immunoglobulins by calves was assessed immediately after birth and 24 h after colostrum silage intake. The immunoglobulin levels were evaluated by ELISA. The results highlighted that colostrum silage kept similar levels of immunoglobulins as the ones in colostrum in natura, and can be transferred to newborn calves with similar amounts to calves fed with colostrum in natura. It is concluded that colostrum silage keeps viable immunoglobulins, and is able to transfer passive immunity to newborn calves.

  5. Immune response and disease resistance of calves fed chromium nicotinic acid complex or chromium chloride. (United States)

    Kegley, E B; Spears, J W; Brown, T T


    Twenty-one Holstein bull calves (skinfold thickness after an intradermal injection of phytohemagglutinin were measured to evaluate cell-mediated immune response. Calves supplemented with Cr-nicotinic acid complex had a greater response than did controls at 6, 12, 24, and 48 h after injection. Calves supplemented with CrCl3 had a greater response than did controls at 24 and 48 h after injection. In vitro blastogenic responses of lymphocytes to phytohemagglutinin or pokeweed mitogen and antibody response to porcine red blood cells were not affected by treatment. Following a disease challenge with an intranasal dose of infectious bovine rhinotracheitis on d 75, body temperature tended to be lower for calves supplemented with Cr-nicotinic acid complex than for control calves. Calves supplemented with either Cr source had lower serum cortisol concentrations at 5 d after challenge. Chromium supplementation enhanced cell-mediated immune function.

  6. Numerical modelling of iceberg calving force responsible for glacial earthquakes (United States)

    Sergeant, Amandine; Yastrebov, Vladislav; Castelnau, Olivier; Mangeney, Anne; Stutzmann, Eleonore; Montagner, Jean-Paul


    Glacial earthquakes is a class of seismic events of magnitude up to 5, occurring primarily in Greenland, in the margins of large marine-terminated glaciers with near-grounded termini. They are caused by calving of cubic-kilometer scale unstable icebergs which penetrate the full-glacier thickness and, driven by the buoyancy forces, capsize against the calving front. These phenomena produce seismic energy including surface waves with dominant energy between 10-150 s of period whose seismogenic source is compatible with the contact force exerted on the terminus by the iceberg while it capsizes. A reverse motion and posterior rebound of the terminus have also been measured and associated with the fluctuation of this contact force. Using a finite element model of iceberg and glacier terminus coupled with simplified fluid-structure interaction model, we simulate calving and capsize of icebergs. Contact and frictional forces are measured on the terminus and compared with laboratory experiments. We also study the influence of geometric factors on the force history, amplitude and duration at the laboratory and field scales. We show first insights into the force and the generated seismic waves exploring different scenarios for iceberg capsizing.

  7. Growth rates and morphological measurements of Porcupine caribou calves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine L. Parker


    Full Text Available Body weights, leg lengths, and surface area were monitored for bottle-raised barren-ground caribou calves (Rangifer tarandus granti from the Porcupine herd up to 1 year of age. Body weights were compared with maternally-raised calves from the same cohort in the wild and from the Delta herd. A successful feeding regime for bottle-raising caribou calves is presented.Veksthastigheter og morfologiske mål hos Porcupine karibu-kalver.Abstract in Norwegian / Sammendrag: Kroppsvekter, visse knokkel-lengder og kropps-overflate areal ble målt hos flaske-oppfødde kalver av barren-ground karibu (Rangifer tarandus granti fra Porcupine-stammen opp til 1 års alder. Kroppsvekter ble sammelignet med normalt oppfødde kalver av samme type i det fri og fra Delta-stam-men. Det presenteres et vellykket system for flaske-oppforing av karibu-kalver.Porcupine-lauman karibuvasojen kasvunopeus ja morfologiset mitat.Abstract in Finnish / Yhteenveto: Porcupine -lauman pulloruokinnalla olleiden tundrakaribuvasojen ruumiinpainot, jalanpituu-det ja ruumiin pinta-alat mitattiin 1 vuoden ikäään saakka. Ruumiinpainoja verrattiin vastaaviin luonnon-oloissa kasvaneisiin saman lauman ja Delta -lauman vasoihin. Tutkimus kuvaa toimivan vasojen pulloruo-kintamenetelmän.

  8. Pharmacokinetics of intravenous and oral meloxicam in ruminant calves. (United States)

    Coetzee, Johann F; KuKanich, Butch; Mosher, Ruby; Allen, Portia S


    The purpose of this study was to investigate the pharmacokinetics and oral bioavailability of meloxicam in ruminant calves. Six Holstein calves (145 to 170 kg) received meloxicam at 0.5 mg/kg IV or 1 mg/kg PO in a randomized crossover design with a 10-day washout period. Plasma samples collected up to 96 hours after administration were analyzed by liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry followed by noncompartmental pharmacokinetic analysis. A mean peak plasma concentration of 3.10 microg/ml (range, 2.64 to 3.79 microg/ml) was recorded at 11.64 hours (range, 10 to 12 hours) with a half-life of 27.54 hours (range, 19.97 to 43.29 hours) after oral meloxicam administration. The bioavailability of oral meloxicam corrected for dose was 1.00 (range, 0.64 to 1.66). These findings indicate that oral meloxicam administration might be an effective and convenient means of providing long-lasting analgesia to ruminant calves.

  9. Minimising the stress of weaning of beef calves: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ungerfeld Rodolfo


    Full Text Available Abstract Weaning of beef calves is usually done abruptly and early compared to the natural weaning of the species, and is associated with simultaneous exposure of calves to a range of social and environmental stressors. Behavioural and physiological responses to weaning indicate detrimental effects on the welfare of these animals. The development and assessment of weaning methods aiming at reducing or avoiding this problem must be supported by scientific knowledge of the morphological, physiological and psychological mechanisms involved in the establishment, maintenance and braking of the cow-calf bond. Solutions also depend on the understanding of the various stressors associated with weaning, among which are the change in diet, cessation of nursing, separation from the dam, the change to a new spatial environment and the need for social reorganization following removal of the adults from the group. This review discusses these issues and assesses the effectiveness of the methods so far proposed for improving the welfare of beef calves during the weaning period.

  10. Meat quality of calves obtained from organic and conventional farming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Schiavon


    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to compare meat quality of organically and conventionally raised Simmental calves. Fifteen organic and fourteen conventional carcasses were considered, 8th rib and M. Longissimus thoracis were sampled on each carcass. Different tissues percentage of 8th rib were evaluated and meat colour, chemical and fatty acids composition of M. Longissimus thoracis were analysed. Fat percentage of 8th rib of organic calves was lower (P<0.01 than conventional ones. Cooking weight losses were lower (P<0.001 in organic meat compared to the conventional ones and red index was higher in organic calves due to the high content of heminic iron (P<0.001. Ether extract (P<0.001 and cholesterol content (P<0.05 was lower in organic meat with respect to conventional one. Positive value, from a nutritional point of view, were found in organic veal about n-3 fatty acids, n-6/n-3 ratio and CLA content.

  11. Efficacy of intrapalpebral and intramuscular application of oxytetracycline in a natural outbreak of infectious bovine kertoconjunctivitis (IBK) in calves. (United States)

    Starke, A; Eule, C; Meyer, H; Im Winkel, C; Verspohl, J; Rehage, J


    In a herd of 70 bull calves (4-5 months of age) kept on pasture, 56 (80%) animals showed, after natural infection with Moraxella bovis (M. bovis), typical clinical signs of infectious bovine keratoconjunctivitis (IBK). Eyes with epiphora, photophobia, blepharospasm and/or a corneal ulcer with a diameter of less than 5 mm were considered as moderately affected. Those with a corneal ulcer > 5 mm diameter and/or even more profound findings were considered as severely affected. The objective was to study in IBK affected calves in a prospective randomized case control study the therapeutic efficacy of intrapalpebral (i.p.) injections of oxytetracycline (OTC) (200 mg OTC-hydrochloride 10% in the upper eyelid of moderately affected and in both eyelids of severely affected eyes) and intramuscular (i.m.) treatment (long-acting OTC-dihydrate; 20 mg/kg body weight for both moderately and severely affected patients). 29 animals (20 moderately affected, 9 severely affected) were treated i.p. and 27 animals (19 moderately, 8 severely affected) were treated i.m.. For fly control, deltamethrin was applied to all bulls at d 0. The OTC-treatment was repeated at intervals of 3 - 8 d until recovery. All animals recovered within 42 days. The mean number of treatments per animal and the interval between diagnosis and assessment of healing were not affected by the method of OTC administration; the latter averaged out at about 10 d for moderately affected and 17 d for severely affected eyes. Significantly less medication was required per animal for i.p. than for i.m. treatments (moderately affected: 281 vs. 2033 mg; severely affected: 1156 vs. 3982 mg). In conclusion, both methods of OTC administration were found to be similarly effective for the treatment of IBK in calves.

  12. Influence of milk feeding methods on the welfare of dairy calves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lidfors, L.; Loberg, J.; Nielsen, P. P.;


    Problems occur in raising dairy calves during the milk feeding period due to the occurrence of abnormal behaviours and health problems. Offering calves an artificial teat to suck the milk from, with a low flow of milk and access to the teat at all times reduces cross-sucking between calves. In co...... to their behavioural needs. © Wageningen Academic Publishers The Netherlands, 2009. All rights are reserved....

  13. The effect of unrestricted milk feeding on the growth and health of Jersey calves. (United States)

    Uys, J L; Lourens, D C; Thompson, P N


    This study was conducted to determine the effect of feeding high milk volumes on the growth rate, health and cross-sucking behaviour in group-fed Jersey calves. Three-day-old heifers (n = 120) in a seasonal calving dairy herd were randomly assigned to one of 6 treatment groups. Three groups received high milk volumes (HMV), consisting of ad libitum milk or milk replacer feeding twice a day, while 3 groups received restricted milk volumes (RMV), consisting of 2 l twice daily, during the pre-weaning period. After a pre-weaning period during which feeding was reduced to once daily, all calves were weaned at 42 days and monitored until 60 days of age. Adjusting for birth mass, birth date, dam parity and sire, average daily mass gain (ADG), both pre-weaning (days 0-42) and overall (days 0-60), was higher in HMV than in RMV calves (P calves maintained a 6.74 kg advantage in mean body mass (P feed was higher in RMV than in HMV calves. Overall feed conversion rate of HMV calves was 9.6 % better than RMV calves. However, the variable cost per kg mass gain was 12 % higher for HMV calves. In the RMV groups 75 % of calves showed cross-sucking behaviour pre-weaning and 18 % post-weaning, whereas in HMV calves the proportions were 2 % and 7 %, respectively. There was no significant effect of milk volume on the incidence of diarrhoea. We conclude that the feeding of high volumes of milk to Jersey calves has a positive effect on growth rate, without compromising health or reducing solid feed intake after weaning. However, the higher cost of such a feeding system may limit its implementation.

  14. The early behaviour of cow and calf in an individual calving pen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Margit Bak


    The aim was to investigate the early behaviour in dairy cows and their calves. Thirty-eight multiparous Danish Holstein Frisian cows and their calves were housed in individual calving pens during the first twelve days post-partum and their behaviour was observed during 24 h on days 3, 7 and 11...... studied (P pens during 3 h and subsequently reintroducing them. Behavioural observations during 3 h after reintroduction showed...

  15. The effect of housing on calving behavior and calf vitality in Holstein and Jersey dairy cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Campler, Magnus Robert Bertil; Munksgaard, Lene; Jensen, Margit Bak


    The present study investigated how calving behavior and calf vitality in Holstein and Jersey dairy cows were affected by housing during the final 4 wk precalving. One hundred twenty-one cows (36 primiparous and 85 multiparous) were moved either to a group pen with deep straw bedding or into frees...... that a longer period of housing on deep-bedded straw compared with freestalls with mattresses before calving may facilitate the calving process, whereas the effect on calf vitality needs further investigation....

  16. Effects of Bacillus subtilis natto on performance and immune function of preweaning calves. (United States)

    Sun, P; Wang, J Q; Zhang, H T


    The effects of Bacillus subtilis natto on performance and immune function of dairy calves during the preweaning phase were investigated in this study. Twelve Holstein male calves 7 ± 1 d of age were randomly allotted to 2 treatments of 6 calves. The Bacillus subtilis natto was mixed with milk and fed directly to the calves. The calves were weaned when their starter intake reached 2% of their weight. Blood was collected and IgA, IgE, IgG, IgM, and cytokine levels in the serum of all the calves were determined. The results showed that Bacillus subtilis natto increased general performance by improving the average daily gain and feed efficiency and advanced the weaning age of the calves. No difference was observed in serum IgE, IgA, and IgM, whereas serum IgG was higher in the Bacillus subtilis natto-supplemented calves than in the control calves. Furthermore, calves fed with Bacillus subtilis natto were found to secrete more IFN-γ, but tended to produce less IL-4 than did the control calves, although serum IL-6 and IL-10 were not affected. This study demonstrated that Bacillus subtilis natto did not stimulate IgE-mediated allergic reactions, but increased serum IgG and IFN-γ levels in the probiotic-fed calves. We propose that the viable probiotic characteristics of Bacillus subtilis natto benefit calf immune function. Copyright © 2010 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Effect of feeding processed sweet sorghum (Sorghum bicolour (L moench crushed residue based complete ration on growth performance and feeding behavior of murrah buffalo calves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Ramana Reddy


    Full Text Available Aim: The objective of the present study is to know the effect of feeding processed sweet sorghum (Sorghum bicolour (L moench crushed residue (SSCR based complete ration on growth, feeding behavior and cost of gain in Murrah buffalo calves in order to compare the feeding value of SSCR with sorghum straw (SS and also find out the efficient way of utilization of SSCR in the diets of growing buffalo calves. Materials and Methods: Experimental complete rations were formulated with SSCR and concentrate in 50:50 ratio and processed in to SSCR chopped and concentrate (SSCRC, mash (SSCRM and expander extruder pellets (SSCRP. The control ration was SS based complete feed processed in to mash (SSM. 24 Murrah buffalo calves (Average 137 kg body weight and aged 1 year 2 months were randomly distributed into 4 experimental groups of 6 animals each in a completely randomized design and the experimental rations were offered to 4 groups randomly for a period of 150 days. A 7 day digestion trial was conducted at the end of 150 day growth trial to find out the nutrient digestibility of experimental rations. Eating and ruminating activities were noted every 5 minutes, and each activity was assumed to persist for the entire 5 minutes. Sorting behavior in the calves was observed physically at the time of feeding. The cost of the rations was calculated on the basis of processing cost and the prevailing market prices of the feed ingredients. Results: The DM intake (g/d, digestibilities of DM, organic matter, crude protein and nitrogen free extract and nitrogen (N balance were higher (P<0.05 in buffalo calves fed SSCRP ration but, comparable among SSCRC, SSCRM and SSM rations. Higher (P<0.01 average daily gain (g, lower feed conversion ratio (FCR was observed in calves fed SSCRP ration, while comparable among SSCRC, SSCRM and SSM rations. Eating, rumination and total chewing time (minutes/d,minutes/kg DMI and minutes/kg NDFI and number of chews for eating, rumination

  18. Comparative study of obstructive urolithiasis and its sequelae in buffalo calves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasmin H. Bayoumi


    Full Text Available Aim: The present work was designed to study the incidence of obstructive urolithiasis and to apply comparative diagnosis to urine retention cases. Materials and Methods: A total of 78 non-castrated buffalo calves aging 3-11 months were included in this study, 68 calves were admitted to the Veterinary Teaching Hospital, Zagazig University, Egypt, during the study period with a history of anuria, and they were classified into three groups; intact bladder group (19 calves, uroperitoneum group (45 calves, and ruptured urethra group (4 calves. 10 apparently healthy calves were used for comparison. On the basis of history, clinical, laboratory, and ultrasonographic findings diagnosis was achieved. Results: There was a marked increase in the incidence of obstructive urolithiasis in winter season, especially in winter months of 2016. Calves within the age of 3-4 months and 6-8 months were mostly affected. Inappetence to anorexia, restlessness or depression, and abdominal distension were the most observed signs in the diseased calves. Laboratory findings revealed hemoconcentration and a significant increase in blood urea nitrogen and serum creatinine levels in all diseased groups. Hyperproteinemia, hypocalcemia, and hyperphosphatemia with electrolytes imbalance were recorded in the uroperitoneum group. Ultrasonographically, distended urinary bladder with distal acoustic enhancement revealed obstructive urolithiasis with intact bladder while anechoic fluid in abdominal cavity indicates uroperitoneum. Conclusion: On the basis of all findings, calves with intact bladder were in superior condition than those with a ruptured urethra and both were better than those with uroperitoneum.

  19. Effects of supplemental shade on thermoregulatory response of calves to heat challenge in a hutch environment. (United States)

    Spain, J N; Spiers, D E


    Holstein (n = 12) and Guernsey (n = 6) calves, housed in hutches, were used to evaluate the complex relationships among external environment, housing microclimate, and thermal status of calves. The study was conducted during the summer; 9 calves were housed in hutches under supplemental shade, and 9 calves were maintained in hutches under direct sunlight. Environmental and calf temperatures were measured twice daily at 0700 and 1500 h, which included determinations of air temperature, inner and outer surface temperatures of the hutch, rectal and skin temperatures of the calf, and respiration rate. Outer and inner surface temperatures of the hutch were lower under supplemental shade. Hutch air temperature was highly correlated with inner surface temperature and therefore was lower in the shaded environment. During the p.m. period, when heat stress was highest, calves housed in a shaded hutch environment had lower skin temperatures and respiration rates than did unshaded calves. Body temperature and respiration rates increased less for calves in shade than for calves in sun. These data define the relationship between the calf and the environment. Supplemental shade diminished the severity of heat stress experienced by calves that were housed in hutches during the summer.

  20. Characteristics of calves produced with sperm sexed by flow cytometry/cell sorting. (United States)

    Tubman, L M; Brink, Z; Suh, T K; Seidel, G E


    The objectives of this study were to determine whether calves produced by sexed sperm differed from controls and to what extent the sex ratio of calves was altered by the sexing procedure. Data were collected from 1,169 calves produced from sperm sexed by flow cytometry/cell sorting after staining with Hoechst 33342, and 793 calves produced from control sperm during breeding trials between 1997 and 2001. Least squares ANOVA were completed using factors of treatment (sexed vs. control sperm), 19 management groups from 13 field trials, and calf sex. Responses analyzed include gestation length, birth weight, calving ease, calf vigor, weaning weight, abortion rate, and death rates (neonatal and through weaning). No significant difference was observed for any response due to treatment or treatment interactions (P > 0.10). Therefore, calves produced from sexed sperm grew and developed normally both pre- and postnatally. A neurological disorder was observed in four control calves and one sexed calf from one farm. No gross anatomical abnormalities were reported for any calves in the study. Differences were observed for all responses among management groups (P Flow cytometry/cell sorting can be used to preselect sex of calves safely with approximately 90% accuracy.

  1. How milk-fed dairy calves perform in stable versus dynamic groups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Rikke Engelbrecht; Sørensen, Jan Tind; Skjøth, F;


    The objective of the present field trial was to compare calf performance among pre-weaned calves in two different group housing systems, stable groups ("all in-all out") and dynamic groups (continuous introduction). Performance data was collected from 484 calves randomly assigned to the two systems...... at six large (230-450 cows) commercial Danish dairy herds. All six farms had both systems simultaneously in the same stall, and under identical management and feeding regimes. Calves in stable groups had significantly higher daily live weight gain than calves in dynamic groups (870 vs. 810 g...

  2. Clinical and Experimental Study on Zhixie BuyeMixture (止泻补液合剂) in Treating Infantile DiarrheaComplicated with Dehydration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    At the present, the program of ORS recommended by WHO is largely adopted in the treatment of mild or moderate dehydration. But many problems have been raised by using ORS in treating patients of the intestinal multivalent nutrition under diarrheal state, intestinal tract infection and enterotoxin, etc. Also it tastes really bad. These problems have not been solved so far. Scientists all over the world have made a great deal of study to improve ORS, but in our country, such reports are few, and the studies using Chinese medicinal herbs to supplement the body fluid and relieve diarrhea are even less.  In traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), it is considered that diarrhea accompanied by dehydration, on the one hand, may lead to the Yin-fluid insufficiency owing to the huge loss of body fluid; on the other hand, may lead to the damage of Spleen-Stomach. The Spleen-Stomach is the source of nutrients for the growth and development, if the function of growth and development is normal, the essential substances and the essential fluid derived from digestion are sufficient. Hence, besides aiming at pathogenic factors, one should stress on invigorating Spleen and nourishing Stomach, replenishing the body fluid and stopping the diarrhea. In order to save the Yin, large dosages should be used frequently.  Based on above-mentioned TCM theory and modern scientific research achievement, the treating principle of invigorating Spleen and nourishing the Stomach, replenishing the body fluid and stopping diarrhea was adopted. Pueraria, Portulaca, sodium chloride and glucose were selected and formulated as ZXBYM in treating infantile diarrhea complicated with mild or moderate dehydration. Among them, the Pueraria elevates the Yang-Qi and replenishes body fluid, encourages the Spleen-Stomach Qi, which is the main ingredient of the famous “Gegen Qinlian decoction” and “Qiwei Baishu powder” for treating diarrhea; Portulaca is sour in taste and cold in nature, which could

  3. Fator V de Leiden na doença de Legg-Calvé-Perthes Leiden's V-factor in Legg-Calvé-Perthes disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lia Lira Olivier Sanders


    Full Text Available Trobofilias hereditárias têm sido implicadas na patogênese da doenca de Legg-Calvé-Perthes. Uma investigação do fator de risco hereditário mais comum para hipercoagulabilidade - a mutação no gene do fator V (fator V de Leiden - foi conduzida em 20 pacientes com Legg-Calvé-Perthes e 214 controles sadios. A prevalência do fator V de Leiden foi maior nos pacientes com Legg-Calvé-Perthes que no grupo controle (30 vs. 1,87%. A razão de chances (odds ratio para o desenvolvimento de Legg-Calvé-Perthes foi de 22,5 (pInherited tendency to hypercoagulability has been suggested as a cause of vascular thrombosis resulting in Legg-Calvé-Perthes disease. An investigation of the most common inherited risk factor for hypercoagulability - the mutation in the V-factor gene (Leiden's V-factor - was carried out among 20 Patients diagnosed with Legg- Calvé-Perthes disease. Patients were compared with 214 healthy controls. The prevalence of the Leiden's V-factor was higher in patients with Legg-Calvé-Perthes disease than in controls (30% vs. 1,87%. The odds ratio for the development of Legg-Calvé-Perthes disease in the presence of the Leiden's V-factor mutation was 22,5 (p<0,05; confidence interval: 5,68-89.07. These data suggest the Leiden's V-factor as an inherited risk factor for hypercoagulability associated with the development of Legg-Calvé-Perthes disease.

  4. Facial symmetry evaluation after experimentally displaced condylar process fracture in methotrexate treated rats Avaliação da simetria facial após fratura experimental com desvio do processo condilar em ratos tratados com metotrexato

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samantha Cristine Santos Xisto Braga Cavalcanti


    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To investigate the facial symmetry of high and low dose methotrexate (MTX treated rats submitted to experimentally displaced mandibular condyle fracture through the recording of cephalometric measurements. METHODS: One hundred male Wistar rats underwent surgery using an experimental model of right condylar fracture. Animals were divided into four groups: A - saline solution (1mL/week; B - dexamethasone (DEX (0,15mg/Kg; C - MTX low dose (3 mg/Kg/week; D - MTX high dose (30 mg/Kg. Animals were sacrificed at 1, 7, 15, 30 and 90 days postoperatively (n=5. Body weight was recorded. Specimens were submitted to axial radiographic incidence, and cephalometric mensurations were made using a computer system. Linear measurements of skull and mandible, as well as angular measurements of mandibular deviation were taken. Data were subjected to statistical analyses among the groups, periods of sacrifice and between the sides in each group (α=0.05. RESULTS: Animals regained body weight over time, except in group D. There was reduction in the mandibular length and also changes in the maxilla as well as progressive deviation in the mandible in relation to the skull basis in group D. CONCLUSION: Treatment with high dose methotrexate had deleterious effect on facial symmetry of rats submitted to experimentally displaced condylar process fracture.OBJETIVO: Avaliar a simetria facial de ratos tratados com metotrexato (MTX, em dose alta e baixa, submetidos à fratura experimental do processo condilar com desvio por meio de mensurações cefalométricas. MÉTODOS: Cem ratos Wistar machos foram submetidos a procedimento cirúrgico utilizando modelo experimental de fratura de côndilo do lado direito. Os animais foram distribuídos em quatro grupos: A - soro fisiológico (1mL/semana; B - dexametasona (DEX (0,15mg/Kg; C - MTX baixa dose (3mg/Kg/semana; D - MTX alta dose (30mg/Kg. Os períodos de sacrifício foram de 1, 7, 15, 30 e 90 dias de pós-operatório (n=5

  5. Causes of Stillbirth and Time of Death in Swedish Holstein Calves Examined Post Mortem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elvander M


    Full Text Available This study was initiated due to the observation of increasing and rather high levels of stillbirths, especially in first-calving Swedish Holstein cows (10.3%, 2002. Seventy-six Swedish Holstein calves born to heifers at 41 different farms were post mortem examined in order to investigate possible reasons for stillbirth and at what time in relation to full-term gestation they had occurred. The definition of a stillborn calf was dead at birth or within 24 h after birth after at least 260 days of gestation. Eight calves were considered as having died already in uterus. Slightly less than half of the examined calves (46.1% were classified as having died due to a difficult calving. Four calves (5.3% had different kinds of malformations (heart defects, enlarged thymus, urine bladder defect. Approximately one third of the calves (31.6% were clinically normal at full-term with no signs of malformation and born with no indication of difficulties at parturition or any other reason that could explain the stillbirth. The numbers of male and female calves were rather equally distributed within the groups. A wide variation in post mortem weights was seen in all groups, although a number of the calves in the group of clinically normal calves with unexplained reason of death were rather small and, compared with e.g. those calves categorised as having died due to a difficult calving, their average birth weight was 6 kg lower (39.9 ± 1.7 kg vs. 45.9 ± 1.5 kg, p ≤ 0.01. It was concluded that the cause of stillbirth with a non-infectious aetiology is likely to be multifactorial and difficult calving may explain only about half of the stillbirths. As much as one third of the calves seemed clinically normal with no obvious reason for death. This is a target group of calves that warrants a more thorough investigation in further studies.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M, Azam. M. M, Siddiqui and G. Habib


    Full Text Available Prevalence of ecto and endo-parasites of buffalo calves was investigated in 50 buffalo farms in Khadagzai area of district Dir. N.W.F.P. Province. Faecal examination of calves (n = 118: age ≤ 1 year revealed that 64.41% of the calves were positive for internal parasites. The worm load significantly varied (P<0.05 among the farms and was the highest (1600-3600 EPG in 2%, moderate (800-1600 EPG in 22%, low (200-800 EPG in 34% and negligible (less than 200 EPG in 42% farms. Among the calves examined 50.84% had the worm load of 200-800 EPG and 13.56% calves showed the worm load of 800-1600 EPG. , The highest worm load (1600-3600 EPG was observed only in 0.85% of the calves. Six species of nematodes and one specie of trematodes were identified. No cestode infection was encountered during the study. The incidence of Trichostrongylus species was 21.19% followed by Trichuris (9.32%. Haemonchus (8.47%, Strongyloides papillosus (5.93%, Ostertagia (5.08%. Toxocara vitulurum (1 .70%. Fasciola (5.93% and mixed infections (6.78%. Intestinal protozoan infection was recorded in 72% of the calves. Majority of the calves (85% had mixed infection of Coccidia and Amoeba and the remaining 15% calves were found infected with Coccidia only. A total of 5.93% of the calves studied were found positive for ecto-parasites. The prevalence of ticks, lice, mites and mixed infection was 5.08, 34.75, 11.86 and 4.24% respectively in the surveyed calves.

  7. Utilização da veia glicerolada na regeneração neural: Estudo experimental em ratos The use of glycerol-treated venous graft in damaged nerves repair: an experimental study in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armando dos Santos Cunha


    Full Text Available A auto-enxertia de nervo é o tratamento de escolha para grandes perdas de tecido neural que não podem ser reparadas por meio de rafia primária. A utilização do enxerto venoso previamente conservado em glicerol seria uma alternativa para diminuir o tempo operatório e a morbidade cirúrgica nesses casos. Os vasos preservados em glicerol não apresentam destruição de sua estrutura, o que permite seu uso na microcirurgia vascular, tendo a vantagem de diminuir a imunogenicidade do enxerto. O objetivo deste trabalho experimental foi comparar o grau de reparação nervosa, utilizando análise histológica, contagem do número de axônios mielinizados regenerados e análise funcional, obtida com a interposição de enxerto autógeno (grupo A e de tubo de veia glicerolada (grupo B em defeitos de 5 mm no nervo fibular de ratos Wistar. Somente no grupo A foi observado a formação de neuroma. O grupo B apresentou padrões histológicos compatíveis com diminuição quantitativa do número de axônios mielinizados regenerados em menor número em relação ao grupo A (controle. Na recuperação funcional, não houve diferença estatisticamente significativa entre os dois grupos.Autografting is the treatment of choice for cases of major nervous tissue loss where the ruptured nerve ends cannot be reduced. The use of a venous autograft previously treated with glycerol may be an alternative treatment, as it reduces surgery time duration and level of morbidity. Blood vessel explants, used in vascular microsurgery, kept in glycerol maintain their original biological structure, and when used in autografting, present reduced levels of patient's immune response. The aim of this study was to compare the level of nervous tissue regeneration by using histological analysis, regenerated myelinized axons counts, and functional analysis, obtained with the interposition of autologous graft (group A and glycerol-treated vein tube (group B in 5-mm defects on Wistar

  8. Use of three-dimensional accelerometers to evaluate behavioral changes in cattle experimentally infected with bovine viral diarrhea virus. (United States)

    Bayne, Jenna E; Walz, Paul H; Passler, Thomas; White, Brad J; Theurer, Miles E; van Santen, Edzard


    OBJECTIVE To assess the use of 3-D accelerometers to evaluate behavioral changes in cattle experimentally infected with a low-virulent strain of bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV). ANIMALS 20 beef steers (mean weight, 238 kg). PROCEDURES Calves were allocated to a BVDV (n = 10) or control (10) group. On day 0, calves in the BVDV group were inoculated with a low-virulent strain of BVDV (4 × 10(6) TCID50, intranasally), and calves in the control group were sham inoculated with BVDV-free medium (4 mL; intranasally). An accelerometer was affixed to the right hind limb of each calf on day -7 to record activity (lying, walking, and standing) continuously until 35 days after inoculation. Baseline was defined as days -7 to -1. Blood samples were collected at predetermined times for CBC, serum biochemical analysis, virus isolation, and determination of anti-BVDV antibody titers. RESULTS All calves in the BVDV group developed viremia and anti-BVDV antibodies but developed only subclinical or mild disease. Calves in the control group did not develop viremia or anti-BVDV antibodies. Mean time allocated to each activity did not differ significantly between the BVDV and control groups on any day except day 8, when calves in the BVDV group spent less time standing than the calves in the control group. Following inoculation, calves in both groups tended to spend more time lying and less time walking and standing than they did during baseline. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results indicated that behavioral data obtained by accelerometers could not distinguish calves subclinically infected with BVDV from healthy control calves. However, subtle changes in the behavior of the BVDV-infected calves were detected and warrant further investigation.

  9. Molecular epidemiology of Pasteurella multocida in dairy and beef calves. (United States)

    Hotchkiss, E J; Hodgson, J C; Schmitt-van de Leemput, E; Dagleish, M P; Zadoks, R N


    The molecular epidemiology of Pasteurella multocida has rarely been studied at the farm level in cattle. The aim of this study was to determine whether single or multiple strains of P. multocida tend to exist within farms. Molecular characterisation was carried out on isolates obtained from nasal swabs from 105 calves from 32 randomly selected beef and dairy farms located throughout Scotland, and from 131 calves from 20 farms in the Mayenne region of France, where sampling occurred in response to respiratory disease outbreaks. P. multocida isolates were characterised by random-amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) typing and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) using restriction enzyme ApaI. In addition, isolates representative of each farm/RAPD profile combination were typed by multilocus sequence typing (MLST). Among 105 Scottish isolates, 15 RAPD profiles were distinguished. The majority of farms (27/32) had indistinguishable profiles in all positive animals. Five farms had two profiles. Among 140 French isolates, 23 RAPD profiles were distinguished. More within-farm heterogeneity was observed although 10/20 farms had just one profile (E4) in sampled calves. Profile E4 accounted for 60% (84/140) of French isolates. PFGE was more discriminatory than RAPD but confirmed results with respect to within farm homogeneity or heterogeneity of strains, whereas MLST was not discriminatory enough for farm level epidemiology. As in other host species, either several strains or one dominant strain of P. multocida may exist within farms, with evidence for a role of management factors such as movements onto the farm in the number of strains detected.

  10. The pharmacokinetics of transdermal flunixin meglumine in Holstein calves. (United States)

    Kleinhenz, M D; Van Engen, N K; Gorden, P J; KuKanich, B; Rajewski, S M; Walsh, P; Coetzee, J F


    This study describes the pharmacokinetics of topical and intravenous (IV) flunixin meglumine in Holstein calves. Eight male Holsteins calves, aged 6 to 8 weeks, were administered flunixin at a dose of 2.2 mg/kg intravenously. Following a 10-day washout period, calves were dosed with flunixin at 3.33 mg/kg topically (transdermal). Blood samples were collected at predetermined times from 0 to 48 h for the intravenous portions and 0 to 72 h following topical dosing. Plasma drug concentrations were determined using liquid chromatography with mass spectroscopy. Pharmacokinetic analysis was completed using noncompartmental methods. The mean bioavailability of topical flunixin was calculated to be 48%. The mean AUC for flunixin was determined to be 13.9 h × ug/mL for IV administration and 10.1 h × ug/mL for topical administration. The mean half-life for topical flunixin was 6.42 h and 4.99 h for the intravenous route. The Cmax following topical application of flunixin was 1.17 μg/mL. The time to maximum concentration was 2.14 h. Mean residence time (MRT) following IV injection was 4.38 h and 8.36 h after topical administration. In conclusion, flunixin when administered as a topical preparation is rapidly absorbed and has longer half-life compared to IV administration.

  11. Social isolation may influence responsiveness to infection with bovine herpesvirus 1 in veal calves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reenen, van C.G.; Mars, M.H.; Leushuis, I.E.; Rijsewijk, F.A.M.; Oirschot, van J.T.; Blokhuis, H.J.


    An experiment was performed to develop a model to study the impact of stress on responsiveness to infection with bovine herpesvirus 1 (BHV1) in veal calves. Social isolation after previous group-housing was used as a putatively stressful treatment. Group-housed specific pathogen-free veal calves (n=

  12. The variability of tidewater-glacier calving: origin of event-size and interval distributions

    CERN Document Server

    Chapuis, Anne


    Calving activity at the front of tidewater glaciers is characterized by a large variability in iceberg sizes and inter-event intervals. We present calving-event data obtained from continuous observations of the fronts of two tidewater glaciers on Svalbard, and show that the distributions of event sizes and inter-event intervals can be reproduced by a simple calving model focusing on the mutual interplay between calving and the destabilization of the glacier front. The event-size distributions of both the field and the model data extend over several orders of magnitude and resemble power laws. The distributions of inter-event intervals are broad, but have a less pronounced tail. In the model, the width of the size distribution increases with the calving susceptibility of the glacier front, a parameter measuring the effect of calving on the stress in the local neighborhood of the calving region. Inter-event interval distributions, in contrast, are insensitive to the calving susceptibility. Above a critical susc...

  13. Determination of energy and protein requirements for crossbred Holstein × Gyr preweaned dairy calves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Silva, A.L.; Marcondes, M.I.; Detmann, E.; Campos, M.M.; Machado, F.S.; Filho, S.C.V.; Castro, M.M.D.; Dijkstra, J.


    The objective was to quantify the energy and protein nutritional requirements of Holstein × Gyr crossbred preweaned dairy calves until 64 d of age. Thirty-nine Holstein × Gyr crossbred male calves with an average initial live weight (mean ± SEM; for all next values) of 36 ± 1.0 kg were used. Five

  14. Effect of protein provision via milk replacer or solid feed on protein metabolism in veal calves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berends, H.; Borne, van den J.J.G.C.; Røjen, B.A.; Hendriks, W.H.; Gerrits, W.J.J.


    The current study evaluated the effects of protein provision to calves fed a combination of solid feed (SF) and milk replacer (MR) at equal total N intake on urea recycling and N retention. Nitrogen balance traits and [15N2]urea kinetics were measured in 30 calves (23 wk of age, 180 ± 3.7 kg of body

  15. 9 CFR 311.28 - Carcasses of young calves, pigs, kids, lambs, and foals. (United States)


    ..., lambs, and foals. 311.28 Section 311.28 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE... PARTS § 311.28 Carcasses of young calves, pigs, kids, lambs, and foals. Carcasses of young calves, pigs, kids, lambs, and foals are unwholesome and shall be condemned if (a) the meat has the appearance...

  16. Transmission and quantification of verocytotoxin-producing Escherichia coli O157 in dairy cattle and calves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schouten, J.M.; Graat, E.A.M.; Frankena, K.; Zijderveld, van F.G.; Jong, de M.C.M.


    Data from a field study of 14 months duration in a naturally colonized dairy herd and data from an experiment with calves were used to quantify transmission of verocytotoxin-producing Escherichia coli (VTEC O157) in cattle. For the latter, two groups of 10 calves were randomly assigned and put out

  17. Buschke-Ollendorff syndrom i to generationer imiterende Legg Calvé Perthes sygdom

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ali, Nebras; Fast, Sanne; Poulsen, Mette Ramsdal


    diagnosed earlier with Calvé-Legg-Perthes disease, which on revision most likely represented Buschke-Ollendorff syndrome. Buschke-Ollendorff syndrome may imitate Calvé-Legg-Perthes disease. Skin signs may be the clue to diagnosis. Main differentials are sclerotic bone metastases and osteoma....

  18. Breed x sex effects on birth weight in Brahman-Simmental embryo transfer calves (United States)

    Brahman cross calves exhibit unusual inheritance of birth weight: Brahman-sired crossbreds out of Bos taurus females are heavier with greater difference between sexes than calves of the reciprocal cross. The objective of this work was to compare birth weight in various crosses of Brahman, Simmenta...

  19. Determination of energy and protein requirements for crossbred Holstein × Gyr preweaned dairy calves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Silva, A.L.; Marcondes, M.I.; Detmann, E.; Campos, M.M.; Machado, F.S.; Filho, S.C.V.; Castro, M.M.D.; Dijkstra, J.


    The objective was to quantify the energy and protein nutritional requirements of Holstein × Gyr crossbred preweaned dairy calves until 64 d of age. Thirty-nine Holstein × Gyr crossbred male calves with an average initial live weight (mean ± SEM; for all next values) of 36 ± 1.0 kg were used. Five

  20. Effect of method of delivery of sodium butyrate on rumen development in newborn calves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Górka, P; Kowalski, Z M; Pietrzak, P


    The effect of sodium butyrate (SB) supplementation in milk replacer (MR) or in starter mixture (SM) or in both MR and SM on performance, selected blood parameters, and rumen development in newborn calves was determined. Twenty-eight male calves with a mean age of 5 (±1) d were randomly allocated...

  1. Calving Signature in Ocean Waves: Helheim Glacier and Sermilik Fjord Dynamics (United States)

    Vankova, I.; Holland, D.


    In this work, we investigate the characteristics of calving on Helheim glacier from data recorded on an array of five high frequency pressure meters placed along Sermilik fjord. Calving generated tsunami waves were recorded and used to construct a calving event catalog and to characterize the post-calving ocean state. Calving on Helheim is highly seasonal: it onsets after months of inactivity in early spring, immediately following the rise of daily average temperatures above freezing point, which indicates the potentially dominant role of meltwater in the calving mechanism. Tidal phase and amplitude, ocean temperature variations or surges did not seem to be significant calving factors. In the ocean spectra, we observe discrete peaks between 0.4 to 6 mHz associated with calving events. These peak frequencies are consistent among all the events and they travel as propagating modes up and down the fjord for several hours while being slowly radiated away to the open ocean, an observation which we support with a model. Large part of the spectrum is trapped in evanescent modes or is quickly dissipated. These observations are relevant for our understanding of the time scale and rate of mixing in glacier fjords, and eventually for improving boundary conditions for ocean models.

  2. The benzodiazepine brotizolam reduces fear in calves exposed to a novel object test

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reenen, van C.G.; Hopster, H.; Werf, van der J.T.N.; Engel, B.; Buist, W.G.; Jones, R.B.; Blokhuis, H.J.; Korte, S.M.


    The present study examined the effects of the intravenous administration of the anxiolytic drug brotizolam on the behavioral and physiological responsiveness of calves to novelty in a dose response fashion. Holstein Friesian heifer calves (39¿41 weeks of age; body weight 200¿300 kg) received an intr

  3. Feeding of reindeer calves for slaughtering in the autumn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Endre Jacobsen


    Full Text Available Experiments have been carried out for testing the profit of feeding reindeer calves to slaughter maturity in the autumn. The calves were fed a special reindeer calf feed KF-71 (see Table 1 & 2. 16 male calves were fed from September 9th to November 7th. The feed consumption per kg gain in dressed weight was 14,2 kg (estimated to 12,8 fattening feed units. The gain in dressed weight in the period was 5,8 kg per animal. Using the today price of reindeer feed and reindeer meat the feeding in this trial has not been profitable. Some other circumstances which are of importance in estimating the economy by feeding of reindeer calves for slaughter are discussed.Teurastettavien poronvasojen ruokinta syksylla.Abstract in Finnish / Ybteenveto: Poronvasojen ruokinnan kannattavuutta teurastusta silmallapitaen om selvitetty kokeellisesti erityisella tahan tarkoitukseen valmistetulla vakirehulla (taulukot 1 ja 2. Kokeissa ruokittiin 16 vasaa syyskuun 9. ja marraskuun 7. paivan valisena aikana. Rehun kulutus teuraspainon lisayksena saavutettua kiloa kohti oli 14,2 kg. Ruokintajakson aikana teuraspaino lisaantyi elainta kohti 5,8 kg. Kun huomioidaan ruokinnassa kaytetyn rehun hinta ja toisaalta vasanlihan hinta ei ruokinta ollut kannattavaa. Kirjoituksessa pohditaan myos muita suhteita, joilla on merkitysta arvioitaessa teurastettavien poronvasojen ruokinnan taloudellisuutta.Oppforing av reinkalver for slakting om høsten.Abstract in Norwegian / Sammendrag: Det er gjort forsøk for å belyse lønnsomheten ved oppforing av reinkalver til slakt om høsten med et kraftfor laget til dette formål (se Tabell 1og 2. 16 oksekalver ble foret i tidsrommet 9/9 til 7/11. Forforbruket pr. kg tilvekst i slaktevekt var 14,2 kg(beregnet til 12,8 f.f.e.. Tilveksten i slaktevekt i perioden er beregnet til 5,8 kg pr. dyr. Med de priser vi idag har på reinkalvfor og på kalvekjøtt har denne foringen ikke vært regningssvarende. Det er diskutert andre forhold som har betydning

  4. Enfermedad de Legg-Calvé-Perthes: conceptos actuales


    Mínguez Rey, María Fe; Salom Taverner, M.


    La enfermedad de Legg-Calvé-Perthes es una osteonecrosis idiopática de la cabeza femoral que puede evolucionar a una deformidad de la extremidad superior del fémur y a una artritis. La clasificación más ampliamente utilizada en la actualidad es la clasificación de Herring que está basada en la altura del pilar lateral. El objetivo del tratamiento es evitar la deformidad siguiendo el clásico principio de la contención. Sin embargo, no hay un claro consenso sobre qué tratamiento es ...

  5. Echocardiography for the Assessment of Congenital Heart Defects in Calves. (United States)

    Mitchell, Katharyn Jean; Schwarzwald, Colin Claudio


    Congenital heart disease should be considered when evaluating calves with chronic respiratory signs, failure to thrive, poor growth, or if a murmur is heard on physical examination. Echocardiography is currently the gold standard for diagnosing congenital heart defects. A wide variety of defects, either alone or in combination with a ventricular septal defect, are possible. A standardized approach using sequential segmental analysis is required to fully appreciate the nature and severity of more complex malformations. The prognosis for survival varies from guarded to poor and depends on the hemodynamic relevance of the defects and the degree of cardiac compensation.

  6. Evaluation of DNA extraction protocols for Brucella abortus pcr detection in aborted fetuses or calves born from cows experimentally infected with strain 2308 Avaliação de diferentes protocolos de extração de DNA para detecção de Brucella abortus a partir de abortos ou de bezerros nascidos de vacas experimentalmente infectadas com estirpe 2308

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Matrone


    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to improve the detection of B. abortus by PCR in organs of aborted fetuses from infected cows, an important mechanism to find infected herds on the eradication phase of the program. So, different DNA extraction protocols were compared, focusing the PCR detection of B. abortus in clinical samples collected from aborted fetuses or calves born from cows challenged with the 2308 B. abortus strain. Therefore, two gold standard groups were built based on classical bacteriology, formed from: 32 lungs (17 positives, 26 spleens (11 positives, 23 livers (8 positives and 22 bronchial lymph nodes (7 positives. All samples were submitted to three DNA extraction protocols, followed by the same amplification process with the primers B4 and B5. From the accumulated results for organ, the proportion of positives for the lungs was higher than the livers (p=0.04 or bronchial lymph nodes (p=0.004 and equal to the spleens (p=0.18. From the accumulated results for DNA extraction protocol, the proportion of positives for the Boom protocol was bigger than the PK (pO objetivo do presente estudo foi aperfeiçoar a detecção de Brucella abortus pela PCR em homogeneizados de órgãos de fetos abortados por vacas infectadas, importante mecanismo para descobrir focos da doença na fase de erradicação. Assim, foram comparados diferentes protocolos de extração de DNA, visando à detecção de B. abortus pela PCR em amostras clínicas colhidas de abortos ou de bezerros oriundos de vacas desafiadas com a estirpe 2308 de B. abortus. Para tanto, foram construídos dois grupos padrão ouro com base na bacteriologia clássica, constituídos por: 32 pulmões (17 positivos, 26 baços (11 positivos, 23 fígados (8 positivos e 22 linfonodos bronquiais (7 positivos. Todas essas amostras foram submetidas a três protocolos de extração de DNA, seguidos do mesmo processo de amplificação com os primers B4 e B5. Nos resultados acumulados por

  7. Emprego da RT-PCR em tempo real para a quantificação da expressão de genes associados à resposta imune em bezerros bovinos experimentalmente infectados por Neospora caninum Use of the real time RT-PCR for immune related gene expression quantitation in experimentally infected Neospora caninum bovine calves

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    Sandra Mayumi Nishi


    Full Text Available Neospora caninum é um dos principais agentes causadores de abortamentos e natimortalidade em bovinos. A defesa imune do hospedeiro é capaz de inibir a atividade dos taquizoítos na fase aguda da infecção, mas não age sobre os bradizoítos nos cistos teciduais. A ativação e a modulação dessa resposta de defesa são controladas por mediadores celulares. A técnica do RT-PCR em tempo real foi empregada para a detecção de alguns desses mediadores durante a infecção pelo N. caninum. Foram analisadas amostras de linfonodos poplíteos, fígado e córtex cerebral de bezerros Holandeses e Nelores infectados com taquizoítos por via intramuscular e controles não-infectados, abatidos no sexto dia pós-inoculação. A RT-PCR em tempo real detectou a expressão dos genes em todos os tecidos analisados. Não houve variação significativa na expressão do gene GADPH entre os grupos, a eficiência de amplificação desse foi similar aos demais genes testados e foi empregado como controle endógeno na análise. A comparação entre infectados e não-infectados permitiu a quantificação relativa da expressão gênica. A expressão dos genes IFN-γ e TNF-α apresentou elevação significante em algumas amostras. Os genes iNOS e TGF-β1 apresentaram algumas variações não-significativas e os valores de IL-4 e IL-10 permaneceram praticamente inalterados.Neospora caninum is one of the main causes of abortion and natimortality in cattle. Host immune defense is capable to inhibit tachyzoite activity during acute infection, but there is no action against bradyzoites in tissue cysts. Activation and modulation of this response is controlled by cell mediators. The real-time RT-PCR technique was employed to detect some of those mediators during N. caninum infection. Holstein and Nelore calves intramuscularly infected with tachyzoites and uninfected controls were slaughtered at the sixth day post-infection and popliteal lymph node, liver and brain cortex

  8. Fat digestion in veal calves fed milk replacers low or high in calcium and containing either casein or soy protein isolate. (United States)

    Yuangklang, C; Wensing, Th; Van den Broek, L; Jittakhot, S; Beynen, A C


    The hypothesis tested was that the inhibitory effect of dietary soy protein versus casein on fat digestion in veal calves would be smaller when diets were fed with high instead of low calcium content. Male calves, 1 wk of age, were fed 1 of 4 experimental milk replacers in a 2 x 2 factorial design. There were 19 animals per dietary group. The milk replacers contained either casein or soy protein isolate as variable protein source and were either low or high in calcium. Body weight gain was not significantly affected by the experimental diets. Soy protein isolate versus casein significantly reduced apparent fat digestibility. High versus low calcium intake also depressed fat digestion. The protein effect was smaller (2.9% units) for the high than the low calcium diets (3.6% units), but the interaction did not reach statistical significance. Soy protein isolate versus casein raised fecal bile acid excretion and so did high versus low calcium intake. The difference in bile acid excretion between the soy and casein containing diets was significantly greater for the high than low calcium diets. The absorption of phosphorus, calcium, and magnesium was higher for the casein diets than for the soy-containing diets. This study shows for the first time that soy protein isolate versus casein depressed fat digestion and raised fecal bile acid excretion in veal calves.

  9. New insights on ill-thriftiness in early-weaned buffalo calves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasr-Eldin M. Aref


    Full Text Available Aim: The present study was designed to: (1 Investigate the effect of weaning time on various metabolic indices and growth pattern in buffalo calves compared to cow calves under field condition and (2 Shed light on the potential relationship between early weaning, growth metabolites, and suboptimal growth (ill-thrift in buffalo calves. Materials and Methods: A total number of 18 neonatal calves of both sexes and species (cattle and buffalo were included in the study. Animals were divided into three groups according to their age at weaning as following: Cow calves (n=8 weaned at 4.5 months, buffalo calves (n=6 weaned at 3.5 months (early-weaned, and buffalo calves (n=4 weaned at 5.5 months (late-weaned. Morphological traits, growth metabolites, and hormonal profile were measured at monthly interval over the period of the study and around the time of weaning (2 weeks pre- and post-weaning. Results: The obtained results showed that the trend of growth pattern was significantly increased in a linear pattern in cow calves and late-weaned buffalo calves, whereas early-weaned buffalo calves showed sharp decline in their body weight (BW post-weaning. By the end of the study, early-weaned buffalo calves showed the lowest BW gain (ill-thrift. There is a positive association between the morphological traits and various growth metabolites and hormonal indices. A significant decrease (p<0.05 in the concentrations of growth hormones (insulin-like growth factor-1 [IGF-1] and insulin and other metabolites were reported in early-weaned buffalo calves compared to other animals. There is no association between stress indices (cortisol level and neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio and growth rate. Conclusion: Suboptimal growth rate (ill-thriftiness is common in early-weaned buffalo calves and is attributed to low blood levels of growth metabolites, in particularly, IGF-1. In addition, the strong positive associations between concentrations of IGF-1 and morphological

  10. The crucial influence of different material models on ice shelf calving (United States)

    Christmann, Julia; Müller, Ralf; Humbert, Angelika


    The aim of this study is to investigate the position and rate of small scale calving from Antarctic ice shelves. Thereby small scale calving happens on rather continuous timescales of several days to few years and contribute to the mass balance of an ice shelf. For a better understanding of the calving behavior, the stress and deformation states at the ice front are analyzed. The influence of geometry, material parameters and some model assumptions are discussed. The ice shelf is modeled as a two, respectively three, dimensional body loaded by gravity and water pressure. There are two responses of ice to load: on long time scales ice reacts like a viscous fluid, and on short time scale like an elastic solid. Until now it is not obviously verified, if small scale calving is related to a purely elastic, a viscous or a visco-elastic material behavior. Therefore, the stresses and deformations due to these material models and their applicability on ice shelf calving are demonstrated. The maximum tensile stress respectively strain serve as a calving criterion, namely if one of these values exceed a critical bound at some point, a crack originates and the position of calving is determined. The position of calving for a linear elastic material is unique, due to an instantaneous time-independent answer on the load situation. In this case, the determination of a calving rate is only possible, if a rate dependent geometry, loading or boundary conditions exist. Directly after a calving event the ice front is nearly vertical, however after a certain time interval the exposure, due to melting, waves and water flow, leads to time-dependent geometry variations whose influences on position and calving rate is indicated. Also the analysis of calving with a rate dependent material model leads to a calving rate, incorporating the position of maximum stress, detachment time and flow velocity of the ice shelf. The comparison of these results are established and the advantages and

  11. Effect of Calving Interval on Milk Yield and Quality Lactation in Dairy Cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona Baul


    Full Text Available Researches were made on 125 lactations from Romanian Black Spotted cows, aimed at studying the evolution of the interval between calving on milk quantity and quality. Data were recorded and statistically analyzed by means of ANOVA / MANOVA determining the average values and dispersion indices. Based on averages parameters of lactation curves were calculated using the mathematical model proposed by Wood, called the incomplete gamma function. The interval between calving significantly influenced (p < 0.05 lactation curve aspect for the percentage of dry defatted from milk for the daily growth rate (parameter c between calving interval 351 to 450 days and of over 450 days (0.00008. Also we’ve met significant differences (p < 0.05 for the initial concentration of the percentage of total solids in milk for parameter a from the interval between calving up to 350 days and calving interval 351-450 days (0.80101.

  12. Predatory behavior of grizzly bears feeding on elk calves in Yellowstone National Park (United States)

    French, Steven P.; French, Marilynn G.


    Grizzly bears (Ursus arctos horribilis) were observed preying on elk calves (Cervus elaphus) on 60 occasions in Yellowstone National Park, with 29 confirmed kills. Some bears were deliberate predators and effectively preyed on elk calves for short periods each spring, killing up to 1 calf daily. Primary hunting techniques were searching and chasing although some bears used a variety of techniques during a single hunt. They hunted both day and night and preyed on calves in the open and in the woods. Excess killing occurred when circumstances permitted. One bear caught 5 calves in a 15-minute interval. Elk used a variety of antipredator defenses and occasionally attacked predacious bears. The current level of this feeding behavior appears to be greater than previously reported. This is probably related to the increased availability of calves providing a greater opportunity for learning, and the adaptation of a more predatory behavior by some grizzly bears in Yellowstone.

  13. Carcass physical composition and meat quality of holstein calves, terminated in different finishing systems and slaughter weights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priscila Vincenzi dos Santos


    Full Text Available The Brazil sacrifices many dairy calves at birth, which can become a very serious problem merchandising. The objective of this experiment was to evaluate the physical carcass composition and meat quality characteristics of Holstein calves in feedlot or pasture with supplementation, slaughtered at 140, 180, 220 or 260 kg body weight. In the early termination calves had on average 57 kg and 58 days of age. The confined animals were fed forage (corn and concentrated, in the ratio of 40:60 and concentrated pasture supplemented with 1% body weight. The experimental design was completely randomized in a factorial 2 x 4 (two feeding systems x four slaughter weights. It was observed a significant interaction between slaughter weight and finishing system only for the texture of the meat. The finished animals on pasture showed improved texture with increased weight, whereas the confined animals did not affect the weight. Animals finished on pasture had higher muscle percentage (69.48% vs 66.57%, and lower fat percentage (9.58% and 9.75 kg vs 13.20% and 13.08 kg compared to confined animals. There was a linear increase in the total amount of muscle, bone and fat, muscle / bone ratio, compared edible portion / bone, palatability and juiciness when increased slaughter weight. The percentage of bone and meat coloring decreased linearly with the increase of slaughter weight. The proportion of muscle and fat, showed quadratic behavior. The animals of dairy breeds are excellent producers of lean meat, with good smoothness, flavor and juiciness.

  14. Treating Infertility (United States)

    ... Education & Events Advocacy For Patients About ACOG Treating Infertility Home For Patients Search FAQs Treating Infertility Page ... Treating Infertility FAQ137, March 2015 PDF Format Treating Infertility Gynecologic Problems What is infertility? What treatment options ...

  15. Reverse glacier motion during iceberg calving and the cause of glacial earthquakes (United States)

    Murray, T.; Nettles, M.; Selmes, N.; Cathles, M.; Burton, J. C.; James, T.; Edwards, S.; Martin, I.; O'Farrell, T.; Aspey, R. A.; Rutt, I. C.; Bauge, T.


    About half Greenland's mass loss results from iceberg calving, but the physical mechanisms of calving are poorly known and in situobservations are sparse. Glacial earthquakes, globally detectable seismic events, are associated with calving and are occurring at increasing numbers of outlet glaciers in Greenland and Antarctica. However, the processes causing them have not been clear. We installed a wireless network of on-ice GPS sensors at the calving margin of Helheim Glacier for 55 days during summer 2013. The glacier is a major SE Greenland tidewater outlet and during our observations retreated ~1.5 km in a series of calving events. Our GPS sensors captured glacier motion with cm-level accuracy at locations very close to the calving front with a high temporal sampling rate. Calving causes a minutes-long reversal of the glacier's horizontal flow and a downward deflection of its terminus seen on multiple GPS sensors. Each major calving event is associated with a glacial earthquake. For example, a glacial earthquake / calving event on day 206 produced an iceberg of volume 0.36 km3and aspect ratio 0.23. A GPS sensor close to the front showed a pre-earthquake speed of 29 m/day. Immediately prior to the earthquake centroid time, the sensor reversed its direction and moved upglacier at ~40 m/day and downward 10 cm. The reversed motion was sustained for ~200 s and was followed by downglacier rebound and upward movement. The reverse motion of the glacier results from the horizontal force caused by iceberg capsize and acceleration away from the front. We use analog laboratory experiments to demonstrate that the downward motion results from hydrodynamic pressure drop behind the capsizing berg, which also causes an upward force on the solid Earth. We show that these horizontal and vertical forces are the source of glacial earthquakes. Proper interpretation of the earthquake events should allow remote sensing of calving processes at the margins of Greenland and Antarctic

  16. Effect of early postpartum PGF2α treatment on reproductive performance in dairy cows with calving and puerperal traits. (United States)

    Salasel, B; Mokhtari, A


    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of early postpartum PGF two alpha treatment on reproductive performance in dairy cows with calving and puerperal traits. A total of 363 Holstein cows (128 primiparous and 235 multiparous) were selected based on the presence of at least one of calving and puerperal traits (dystocia, retained placenta, twin, abortion, and postpartum uterine infections) and were assigned to two groups (treatment and control) irrespective of presence or absence of luteal tissue. Cows in the treatment group were treated twice with 25 mg dinoprost 8 h apart on day 20 postpartum, and for the control group saline placebo was administered. As it was speculated that the timing of a second dose would mimic the release of endogenous PGF2α from the uterus, our hypothesis was that two doses of PGF2α 8 h apart may increase the duration of elevated plasma prostaglandin F2α metabolite concentration in these cows. Recorded reproductive variables included days to first estrus, days to first AI, first service conception rate, pregnancy by 150 days in milk, service per conception, open days, and the percentage of repeat breeder animals. The data were analyzed using SPSS (Version 15) (IBM North America, New York, NY, USA) and Minitab (Version 14) (Minitab, State College, PA, USA). Although early postpartum PGF2α treatment had no effect on days to first estrus (36.7 days vs. 34.9 days, P = 0.056) and days to first AI (70.5 days vs. 72.2 days, P = 0.537), it increased first service conception rate (47.1% vs. 27.6%, P remarkable in primiparous cows (64.7% vs. 25%, P service per conception (1.92 vs. 2.72, P < 0.001) and the mean open days (112 days vs. 144 days, P < 0.001), and increased pregnancy by 150 days in milk (DIM) (80% vs. 66%, P = 0.004). The prevalence of repeat breeder syndrome in cows with calving and puerperal traits was reduced by PGF2α treatment (10% vs. 29.8%, P < 0.001). In conclusion, treatment of cows with calving and puerperal

  17. Experimental rhegmatogenous retinal detachment treated with amniotic homogenate%羊膜匀浆治疗实验性孔源性视网膜脱离

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郝玉华; 马景学; 修贺明


    ,retinectomy,and fluid-air exchange.The surface of the breaks was treated with 0.1 ml amniotic homogenate in experimental groups and 0.1 ml PBS in control groups.At the end of operation,20% SF6 was tamponaded and the retina reattaced.The animals were executed 14 (group A and B) and 28 days (group C and D) after the surgery.The tissue sections were observed by light microscope,electron microscope and immunocytochemistry method.Results Fourteen days after the surgery,the retina reattached in 6 eyes in group A (60%) and 2 eyes in group B (20%) (P=0.021),Twenty-eight days after the surgery,the retina reattached in 8 eyes in group C (80%) and 3 eyes in group D (30%) (P=0.046).The difference of the rate of retinal reattachment among the 4 groups were statistical significant (P<0.05).Light postoperative inflammation of ocular anterior segment was observed,which was controlled 3-5 days after treated with topical steroids.The result of light microscopy showed that the eyes in treatment groups had multilayer of fibroblast like cells around the retinal breaks,adhering to the choroid and retinal pigment epithelial cells.The proliferative cells around the retinal breaks obvious less in control groups than that in the treatment groups,and the retina could not adhere to the choroid.The results of electron microscopy were the same as that of light microscopy.Immunohistochemistry staining of the fibroblast-like cells revealed positve glial fibrillary acidic protein,which suggested that the proliferative cells around the retinal breaks were retinal glial cells.Conclusions Amniotic homogenate helps to seal retinal breaks and promote retinal reattachment by stimulating the proliferation of retinal glial cells around the breaks.

  18. Renal cortex copper concentration in acute copper poisoning in calves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis E. Fazzio


    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to estimate the diagnostic value of renal cortex copper (Cu concentration in clinical cases of acute copper poisoning (ACP. A total of 97 calves that died due to subcutaneous copper administration were compiled in eleven farms. At least, one necropsy was conducted on each farm and samples for complementary analysis were taken. The degree of autolysis in each necropsy was evaluated. The cases appeared on extensive grazing calf breeding and intensive feedlot farms, in calves of 60 to 200 kg body weight. Mortality varied from 0.86 to 6.96 %, on the farms studied. The first succumbed calf was found on the farms between 6 and 72 hours after the susbcutaneous Cu administration. As discrepancies regarding the reference value arose, the local value (19.9 parts per million was used, confirming the diagnosis of acute copper poisoning in 93% of the analyzed kidney samples. These results confirm the value of analysis of the cortical kidney Cu concentration for the diagnosis of acute copper poisoning.

  19. Serum chemical values in hypothermic and rewarmed young calves. (United States)

    Olson, D P; South, P J; Hendrix, K


    Serum chemical values were determined in cold-stressed Holstein bull calves ranging from 1 to 7 days of age. The animals were anesthetized and cold-stressed until their core body temperature (colonic) was lowered 10 C. Animals were then rewarmed in warm water, with heat pads or heat lamps, or were allowed to recover naturally (unassisted) at room temperature. Blood samples were collected at selected intervals during cooling and recovery. Increases (P less than 0.05) were observed in the concentrations of glucose, calcium, phosphorus, iron, alkaline phosphatase, aspartate aminotransferase, lactate dehydrogenase, total protein, albumin, total globulin, serum urea nitrogen, uric acid, total bilirubin, indirect bilirubin, and cholesterol in the cold-stressed calves during cooling. Concentrations of chloride and insulin decreased (P less than 0.05) during the same period. Changes observed in many of the serum chemical values during rewarming were generally the reverse of the respective changes that occurred during cooling, although insulin values became exceedingly high in some cases midway or near the end of recovery. Serum enzyme values also remained high during most of recovery. Data did not indicate a clear advantage of one method of rewarming over the other methods used in terms of return of the serum chemical values to normal.

  20. Intranuclear coccidiosis caused by Cyclospora spp. in calves. (United States)

    Yamada, Minako; Hatama, Shinichi; Ishikawa, Yoshiharu; Kadota, Koichi


    Intranuclear coccidiosis in 3 calves is described. Two calves with no genetic relationship were kept in the same pen, and the third calf was on another farm. The animals suffered from watery diarrhea or severe emaciation. Histologic examination showed epithelial desquamation (cases 1 and 2) or atrophy (case 3) of the jejunal villi. Coccidial meronts or merozoites were present in the nuclei of the majority of villus epithelial cells. There were rare intranuclear macrogametocytes, macrogametes, microgametocytes, microgametes, and oocysts in cases 1 and 2, but these were more easily observed in case 3. Parasite 18S ribosomal RNA sequences from case 1 showed 99.5% sequence identity with Cyclospora sp. Guangzhou 1, which has been found in fecal samples of cattle from China. In addition to the molecular results in one of the cases, the fact that the microgametocytes and oocysts were noticeably smaller in size than those of Eimeria alabamensis in all cases indicates the close association between Cyclospora and the 3 cases described herein. © 2014 The Author(s).

  1. A genetic Study of Mortality in Danish Jersey Heifer Calves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Norberg, Elise; Pryce, Jennie; Pedersen, Jørn


    . The mortality traits included in the analysis were defined as mortality in 8 different periods from 24h after birth to age 180d (d 1–14, d 15–30, d 31–60, d 61–90, d 91–120, d 121–150, and d 151–180) and mortality over the entire period. A linear model was used for estimation of genetic parameters, breeding......The aim of this study was to estimate genetic parameters for mortality of Jersey heifer calves during the first 6mo after birth, calculate the genetic trend of the trait, and estimate breeding values of widely used Jersey sires. More than 260,000 heifer calves were included in the study...... values of sires, and genetic trend. Fixed effects included in the model were herd-year class, month of birth, parity of mother, and whether the calf was sold to another farm in the first 6mo. Both direct and maternal genetic effects were included in the model; however, the maternal genetic effect...

  2. Providing supplementary milk to suckling dairy calves improves performance at separation and weaning. (United States)

    Johnsen, J F; Beaver, A; Mejdell, C M; Rushen, J; de Passillé, A M; Weary, D M


    Dam rearing can provide health and welfare benefits, but separation and weaning are major welfare challenges. We investigated whether access to an additional source of milk from an automatic milk feeder (AMF) would improve weight gains after separation and weaning. During the first 6wk of life (dam phase), calves were assigned to 1 of 3 treatments using a parallel group design with repeated measures: nursing (n=10) and combined (n=10) calves could suckle from their dams at night (between 2000 and 0800h), and combined calves also had access to 12 L of milk/d accessible 24h/d from an AMF. Milk feeder calves (n=10) also had access to an AMF 24h/d and were housed with the dam at night but were prevented from suckling by an udder net. Separation from the dam occurred after 6wk in 2 phases with decreasing contact between cow and calf: partial separation (duration 4d) and total separation (duration 3d). At separation, all calves were granted access to 12 L of milk 24h/d from the AMF until weaning began at 7wk of age. We hypothesized that access to an AMF during the dam phase would result in less weight loss at separation and weaning compared with calves that had been nutritionally dependent upon the cow (i.e., nursing calves). Calf weight gain during the dam phase averaged (±SD) 1.1±0.26kg/d and did not vary with treatment. Combined calves drank less milk from the AMF compared with milk feeder calves during the dam phase (mean ± SEM daily milk intake: 1.1±0.38 vs. 8.2±0.34 L/d) and tended to drink less during partial separation (6.7±1.28 vs. 9.8±1.02 L/d), but milk intake from the AMF did not differ between these treatments in the later phases. During the same phases, nursing calves consumed less milk from the AMF than the other treatments; of the 10 calves, 6 did not use the AMF (consuming separation, nursing calves gained less weight than calves in both the milk feeder and combined treatments (0.8±0.16 vs. 1.2±0.08kg/d). Calves using the AMF after separation (n

  3. The effect of dietary calcium and phosphorus supplementation in zeolite A treated dry cows on periparturient calcium and phosphorus homeostasis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thilsing, Trine; Larsen, T.; Jørgensen, Rolf Jess


    Ca and/or P to zeolite A treated dry cows. Twenty-one pregnant dry cows were assigned to four experimental groups receiving a dry cow ration unsupplemented or supplemented with extra Ca and/or P. During the last 2 weeks of the dry period all cows additionally received 600 g of zeolite A per day....... A high level of dietary P prepartum significantly decreased the plasma Ca concentration before as well as immediately after calving (day 0-3). Conversely, the plasma inorganic phosphate concentration was higher among these cows than among cows receiving no supplemental P. The prepartum dietary Ca level...... significantly affected the serum 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D concentration during zeolite supplementation, whereas the periparturient plasma Ca concentration was apparently not affected by the dietary Ca level. During zeolite A supplementation plasma parathyroid hormone was significantly higher among cows receiving...

  4. Salter pelvic osteotomy in the treatment of Legg-Calve-Perthes disease: the medium-term results. (United States)

    Bulut, Mehmet; Demirtş, Abdullah; Uçar, Bekir Yavuz; Azboy, Ibrahim; Alemdar, Celil; Karakurt, Lokman


    In this study, clinical and radiological results were evaluated in patients with Legg-Calve-Perthes disease treated with Salter pelvic osteotomy. Between 2004 and 2008, 16 patients underwent a Salter osteotomy as treatment for Legg-Calve-Perthes disease (15 male, 1 female; 10 right hip, 6 left hip). The mean age at the time of surgery was 8.1 +/- 1.4 (range: 6 to 10) years. Surgical indications were : age between 6-10 years at the onset of the disease; Herring classification type B, B/C, or C; and at least one risk sign. 6-8 year old patients were classified as group I and 9-10 year olds were classified as group II. We investigated the effects of age and Herring classification on radiological outcomes. The final radiographic evaluation according to the Stulberg classification showed nine hips (56.25%) classified as good (Stulberg I/II), five (31.25%) as fair (Stulberg III); and two (12.5%) as poor (Stulberg IV). In group I, 7 patients (70%) had good results, while only 2 (33.3%) in group II. The results in group I were statistically better than group II (p Salter pelvic osteotomy is an effective method of surgical treatment for Legg-Cave-Perthes in patients between 6-8 years of age.

  5. Ostertagia ostertagi in calves: growth, nitrogen balance and digestibility studies conducted during winter feeding following different fenbendazole therapy programmes. (United States)

    Parkins, J J; Bairden, K; Armour, J


    Observations of growth, nitrogen (N) balance and digestibility were made during the first winter housing period upon three groups of calves which had previously been naturally infected with Ostertagia ostertagi and which were left either untreated (A) or treated with fenbendazole on three occasions (B) or every two weeks during the entire grazing season (C). The diet given contained sufficient metabolisable energy but only about 60 per cent of the recommended crude protein to sustain a daily growth rate of 0.5 kg. Growth rates were only 50 per cent of that expected on a basis of metabolisable energy input with untreated calves A being poorest. Water intake and output was greatest in group A. There were no significant differences in digestibility between groups although group A had the lowest apparent crude protein digestibility. N balance was always lowest in group A and highest in group C but group B demonstrated a marked increase in N retention with time after housing. Differences in N retention were mainly accounted for by increased urinary N excretion. It is concluded that, under conditions of suboptimal protein intake, nematode infection in the growing calf can markedly affect production even after efficient anthelmintic treatment.

  6. IgM, IgA, IgG1 and IgG2 specific responses in blood and gut secretion of calves fed soyabean products. (United States)

    Dréau, D; Lallès, J P; Salmon, H; Toullec, R


    Calves fed soya proteins may develop severe gastrointestinal disorders. Whether these are predominantly associated with particular Ig subclasses and (or) dietary proteins remains unclear. Therefore, antibody responses to soyabean protein were analysed by dot- and blot-immunobinding in plasma and intestinal mucous secretions. One-month-old calves were fed for 2.5 months liquid diets based on skim milk powder (SMP) or a mixture (2:3, protein basis) of whey and soyabean products including a low antigenic hydrolysed soya protein isolate (HSPI) and a highly antigenic heated soya flour (HSF). Specific antibodies (Abs) of the main isotypes (IgM, IgA, IgG1, IgG2) were characterised by immunostaining of samples which had been previously incubated with nitrocellulose sheets coated with SMP, HSPI or HSF extracts. Plasma collected before feeding experimental diets showed very little specific Abs. By contrast, 2.5 months later, a three-fold increase (P IgA titres against HSF antigens was observed in calves fed HSF compared with those fed the control or HSPI diet. IgG1 immunoblotting revealed many protein bands from soya in the molecular range of 22-32 and 38-42 kDa. Immunorecognition of specific proteins from SMP and HSPI remained low and similar among animal groups. Specific IgM, IgA and IgG1 titres against HSF, and to a lesser extent HSPI, were significantly higher (P IgA and IgG1. By contrast, only weak bands were found for IgM and IgG2 in all groups of calves. Thus, calves fed antigenic HSF do present specific Abs including IgG1 and IgA isotypes, both systemically and locally. Therefore, IgG1 and (or) IgA rather than IgM and IgG2 Abs may be preferred for assessing the immunogenicity of soyabean products in calves. Interestingly, soyabean immunogenicity was drastically reduced by adequate proteolysis.

  7. Interaction between milk allowance and fat content of the starter feed on performance of Holstein calves. (United States)

    Araujo, G; Terré, M; Bach, A


    Sixty-six Holstein male calves [42 ± 6.0 kg of body weight (BW) and 12 ± 3.1 d of age] were housed individually and allocated to 1 of 4 treatments following a 2 × 2 factorial complete randomized design to assess the potential interaction between milk replacer (MR) allowance and fat content in the starter feed. Thus, 4 treatments were evaluated: a low-fat (4.1% fat; LF) starter feed offered along with 4 L/d of MR (4 LF), a high-fat (11.2% fat; HF) starter feed plus 4 L/d of MR (4 HF), a LF starter feed offered with 6 L/d of MR (6LF), and an HF starter feed offered with 6 L/d of MR (6 HF). Calves were fed either 4 or 6 L/d of MR (25% crude protein and 19.2% fat) in 2 offers (0800 and 1630 h) and had ad libitum access to either an LF or an HF starter feed (21.4 and 22.3% crude protein). Calves were weaned at wk 6 of study by halving the daily MR allowance for 1 wk. Individual MR and starter feed intakes were recorded daily and BW was determined weekly. A glucose tolerance test was performed on d 30 of study to evaluate the effects of increased energy provision on glucose metabolism. Apparent feed digestibility was measured for the last 5 d of study. Overall, fat content of starter feed had no effect on solid feed intake. However, during wk 8 of study (after weaning), calves in the LF treatment had greater starter feed intake than HF calves. Calves on 6 L/d of MR had greater BW than calves fed 4 L/d from the second week of study until weaning. After weaning, 6 LF calves had lesser BW than 6 HF calves. Calves on 6 L/d of MR had greater average daily gain than calves fed 4 L/d, and 6 HF calves tended to have the greatest average daily gain. Glucose clearance rate tended to be lesser for HF than for LF calves. In conclusion, offering 6 L/d of MR increased growth performance before weaning and, when offering 6 L/d of MR, feeding a high-fat starter feed resulted in the greatest BW after weaning. Copyright © 2014 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier

  8. Short communication: ultrasonographic assessment of the thorax as a fast technique to assess pulmonary lesions in dairy calves with bovine respiratory disease. (United States)

    Buczinski, S; Forté, G; Bélanger, A M


    The aim of this study was to assess inter- and intraoperator agreement when assessing lung consolidation secondary to bovine respiratory disease (BRD) by thoracic ultrasonography. Ten calves were blindly assessed by 3 operators with varying expertise in thoracic ultrasound to look for lung consolidation and the presence of comet-tail artifacts (COMT). Systematic ultrasonography of the thorax was performed using an 18-site per side assessment with a linear 8.5-MHz probe. The status of the calves [healthy (n=4) vs. treated for BRD (n=6)] was not known by the operators. The interoperator kappa agreement for detecting consolidation was moderate to almost perfect (from 0.6 to 1.0) depending on the operator's experience (diagnosis of consolidation if depth ≥1cm). The intraclass correlation coefficient for consistency was 0.71 for a single measurement and 0.88 for average measurement. The intraclass correlation coefficient for agreement was 0.73 for single measurements and 0.89 for average measurements. These values were considered good for single measurements and excellent for average measurements. Systematic ultrasonography of the thorax can be used routinely to assess lung consolidation in dairy calves and can therefore be of importance, especially for assessment of subclinical BRD. Copyright © 2013 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Treatment of naturally occurring bovine respiratory disease in juvenile calves with a single administration of a florfenicol plus flunixin meglumine formulation. (United States)

    Thiry, J; González-Martín, J V; Elvira, L; Pagot, E; Voisin, F; Lequeux, G; Weingarten, A; de Haas, V


    The efficacy and safety of a florfenicol plus flunixin meglumine formulation in the treatment of respiratory disease was evaluated in calves less than six weeks of age, compared with a positive control group treated with a well-established florfenicol formulation. A total of 210 calves, selected from nine sites in Belgium, France and Spain, showing severe signs of respiratory disease, were randomly assigned to treatment with either florfenicol plus flunixin meglumine (Resflor; MSD Animal Health) or florfenicol (Nuflor; MSD Animal Health), both administered subcutaneously once. Animals were clinically observed daily for 10 days following treatment initiation. The predominant respiratory pathogens were Pasteurella multocida, Mycoplasma bovis, Mannheimia haemolytica and Histophilus somni. All isolates were subject to in vitro sensitivity testing and found susceptible to florfenicol. In both groups, rectal temperature dropped and clinical index (depression and respiratory signs) significantly improved after treatment. Specifically, for the change in rectal temperature from pretreatment to six hours post-treatment, the florfenicol-flunixin formulation was found significantly superior to florfenicol. Moreover, the florfenicol-flunixin formulation alleviated the clinical signs of disease more rapidly, and was demonstrated to be non-inferior to florfenicol on days 4 and 10. The use of the product combining florfenicol and flunixin in calves is safe and efficacious in the treatment of outbreaks of bovine respiratory disease.

  10. Growth performance, health and behavioural characteristics of Brown Swiss calves fed a limited amount of acidified whole milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jale Metin


    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to compare performances of 27 Brown Swiss calves (13 male, 14 female fed acidified whole milk (AM or sweet whole milk (SM at 8% of birth weight during 35 days. Daily body weight gains of calves that consumed AM were similar to those for calves fed SM. Overall feed efficiency ratio of AM-fed calves was also similar to those of SM-fed calves. Calf faecal consistency score and percent days with scours (P<0.01 of calves that consumed AM were significantly lower than those offered SM. Some of the behavioural traits such as frequency of daily meals of milk and total time spent consuming milk of calves consuming AM were significantly (P<0.05 higher than those of calves fed SM. On the other hand, number of days that assistance was needed to drink milk from open pail for AM-fed calves was higher (P<0.01 than that of calves that consumed SM. The results obtained in this study suggested that feeding AM decreased incidence of scours in young Brown Swiss calves without decreasing growth and feed efficiency.

  11. Effects of longkui Suppository treating experimental chronic prostatitis rats%龙葵栓对慢性前列腺炎大鼠的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许海英; 孔令霞; 倪广林


    目的:从实验角度探讨龙葵栓治疗慢性前列腺炎的作用机制,为临床应用提供理论依据。方法将40只雄性Wister大鼠随机分为5组,即正常对照组、模型对照组、龙葵栓大剂量组、龙葵栓小剂量组及阳性对照组,每组各8只。除正常对照组外,其余各组大鼠采用前列腺内注射消痔灵方法复制前列腺炎模型。造模成功后,各组大鼠给药前12 h禁食,予相应药肛门栓塞,连续给药20 d。于末次给药24 h后断头处死各组大鼠,剖腹取前列腺称湿质量后,取前列腺液进行白细胞及卵磷脂小体检查。结果模型对照组大鼠前列腺湿质量较正常对照组明显增加(P<0.01),卵磷脂小体密度下降(P<0.05),白细胞计数升高(P<0.01);而龙葵栓大、小剂量组及阳性对照组与模型对照组比较前列腺湿质量下降(P<0.05),卵磷脂小体密度升高(P<0.05),白细胞计数下降(P<0.01)。结论龙葵栓可提高前列腺液中卵磷脂小体密度,降低白细胞计数,促进损伤上皮组织的修复,恢复前列腺的分泌功能。%Objective To explore the mechanism of longkui Suppository on treating experimental chronic prostatitis ( CP) rats.Methods 40 rats were randomly divided into five groups ,blank control group ,model control group,high-dose longkui Suppository group ,low-dose longkui Suppository group and positive control group .In addi-tion to the blank control group ,CC rats in the other groups were made by adopting the method of prostate injection of hemorrhoid injection .Groups of rats for 12 h before fasting received the corresponding medicine anal embolism ,contin-uous dosing 20 d.The broken ends in the last 24 h after dosing to death between groups of rats ,the quality of the pros-tate,prostate fluid for white blood cells and lecithin corpuscle were recorded .Results Rat prostate wet quality in model control group

  12. The effects of social contact and milk allowance on responses to handling, play, and social behavior in young dairy calves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duve, Linda Rosager; Weary, D.M.; Halekoh, Ulrich


    responses to restraint and increased play and competitive success. The high milk allowance increased play but reduced competitive success after grouping. Lower responses to restraint indicated less responsiveness to stress. Play is considered an indicator of positive welfare, and competitive success helps......The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of social contact and milk allowance on social behavior, play behavior, and responses to handling in dairy calves. Forty test calves and 16 companion calves were allocated to 1 of 5 treatments from birth to 4 wk of age: (1) housed singly and fed...... with the dam, and pair-housed calves struggled at an intermediate level. Play behavior was recorded for 20 min/wk after the provision of fresh straw; calves housed singly and fed a low milk allowance spent less time playing than did calves in all other treatments. Three days after grouping, calves were...

  13. Social behavior of young dairy calves housed with limited or full social contact with a peer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duve, Linda Rosager; Jensen, Margit Bak


    This study compared the effect of individual and pair housing and age at pair housing on the social behavior of young dairy calves. Twenty-seven pairs of calves were reared from birth until 6 wk either individually (limited social contact between bars; L calves), in pairs (full social contact; F......, and 34 (age of the youngest calf in a pair) and from the group pens on d 44 and 49 (age of the youngest calf in the group). Behavioral recordings were performed using instantaneous recording at 5-min intervals on d 2, 22, and 34 over 16h to investigate overall activity and social activity of the pairs...... sniffing and licking another calf more than were the L calves. No difference was found in duration of lying down in body contact with another calf between F and LF calves on d 22; however, on d 34, LF calves performed more of this behavior than did F calves. Continuous recordings of social behavior were...

  14. Electronic feeding behavioural data as indicators of health status in dairy calves

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    Johnston D.


    Full Text Available The objectives of this study were (i to characterise clinical health in dairy calves on an Irish research farm during the artificial calf-rearing period and (ii to determine whether calves’ pre-weaning intakes and feeding behaviour, recorded by electronic calf feeders, changes in response to incidents of bovine respiratory disease (BRD. Holstein-Friesian (H-F and Jersey (J calves were fed by automatic milk replacer (MR and concentrate feeders. Feeding behaviour, including MR consumption, drinking speed, number of rewarded and unrewarded visits to the feeder as well as concentrate consumption, was recorded by the feeders. A modified version of the Wisconsin calf health scoring criteria chart was used to score calves’ clinical measurements and identify incidences of BRD. Thus, 40% of calves were found to have at least one incident of BRD. Feeding behaviour was altered during incidents of BRD. The number of unrewarded visits to the feeder was reduced, by approximately four visits, for calves with BRD during the 3 d prior to the identification of BRD (P < 0.05 and tended to be reduced during the 7 d following the identification of BRD (P = 0.05, compared with healthy calves. Additionally, calves with BRD had a tendency for reduced net energy intake (approximately 8% during the 3 d prior to the identification of BRD, compared with healthy calves. Therefore, calf feeding behavioural data, recorded by electronic feeders during the pre-weaning period, can indicate cases of BRD.

  15. Effect of Topically Applied Anaesthetic Formulation on the Sensitivity of Scoop Dehorning Wounds in Calves (United States)

    McCarthy, Dominique; Windsor, Peter Andrew; Harris, Charissa; Lomax, Sabrina; White, Peter John


    The post-operative effects of three formulations of topical anaesthetic and a cornual nerve block on the sensitivity of scoop dehorning wounds in calves were compared in two trials. In Trial 1, 21 female Holstein dairy calves aged 8 to 24 weeks were randomly allocated to two groups: (1) scoop dehorning with a post-operative application of a novel topical anaesthetic powder (DTAP, n = 10); and (2) scoop dehorning with a post-operative application of a novel topical anaesthetic ethanol liquid (DTAE, n = 11). In Trial 2, 18 castrated male and 18 female Hereford beef calves aged 16 to 20 weeks were randomly allocated to four groups: (1) scoop dehorning with a pre-operative cornual nerve block of lignocaine (DCB, n = 9); (2) scoop dehorning with a post-operative application of the novel topical anaesthetic ethanol liquid from Trial 1 (DTAE, n = 9); (3) scoop dehorning with a post-operative application of a topical anaesthetic gel (DTAG, n = 9); and (4) sham dehorning (CON, n = 9). Sensitivity was assessed by scoring the behavioural response of calves to stimulation of the wound or skin at time points before and after treatment. In Trial 1, DTAP calves had a greater probability of displaying more severe responses than DTAE calves at 90 and 180 min (P wound following scoop dehorning in calves and may provide a practical option for pain relief on-farm. PMID:27648948

  16. Pathogenicity and immunogenicity of piliated and nonpiliated phases of Moraxella bovis in calves. (United States)

    Jayappa, H G; Lehr, C


    Pathogenicity evaluations of Moraxella bovis strain EPP 63 grown in the piliated and nonpiliated phase indicated that the organism grown in the piliated phase induced clinical keratoconjunctivitis, whereas the organism grown in the nonpiliated phase did not induce disease under identical challenge conditions. Calves inoculated with culture grown in the piliated phase developed significantly (P less than 0.01) higher lesion scores than did calves inoculated with culture grown in the nonpiliated phase. Vaccination/challenge exposure evaluations indicated that calves immunized with vaccine prepared from piliated culture had significantly lower lesion scores than did control calves (P less than 0.001) or calves immunized with vaccine prepared from nonpiliated culture (P less than 0.05). Similarly, calves immunized with piliated vaccine developed a significantly higher antibody titer against purified pili. Nonvaccinated controls and calves immunized with nonpiliated vaccine did not develop a significant increase in antibody titer. The results indicate that M bovis pili constitute an important factor in the pathogenicity of keratoconjunctivitis and may be used as a vaccine in the control of keratoconjunctivitis in cattle.

  17. Genetic analysis on accumulated productivity and calving intervals in Nelore cattle. (United States)

    Grossi, Daniela do Amaral; Berton, Mariana Piatto; Buzanskas, Marcos Eli; Chud, Tatiane Cristina Seleguim; Grupioni, Natália Vinhal; de Paz, Claudia Cristina Paro; Lôbo, Raysildo Barbosa; Munari, Danísio Prado


    The aim of this study was to estimate genetic parameters for accumulated productivity (ACP), first calving interval (CI1), second calving interval (CI2), and mean calving interval (MCI) in Nelore beef cattle. The ACP trait is a reproduction index and comprises the total number of calves born per dam, weight of weaned calves, and age of the dam at calving. Genetic parameters were estimated by the average information restricted maximum likelihood method in two-trait analyses. The average heritability estimate for ACP was 0.17 (0.03). For CI1, CI2, and MCI, the heritability estimates were 0.02, 0.02, and 0.06, respectively. Genetic correlations between ACP with CI1, CI2, and MCI were -0.16 ± 0.47, -0.29 ± 0.53, and -0.40 ± 0.27, respectively. Despite of the low heritability estimates obtained in our study, reproduction traits should be further studied and their inclusion in the selection criteria must be evaluated in order to improve the performance of females because these traits are of great economic importance in beef cattle. Accumulated productivity could contribute to decrease the mean calving interval in Nelore cattle.

  18. Seasonal effects of supplemental fat or undegradable protein on the growth and metabolism of Holstein calves. (United States)

    Bunting, L D; Fernandez, J M; Fornea, R J; White, T W; Froetschel, M A; Stone, J D; Ingawa, K


    One summer (heat stress) and one winter (neutral conditions) trial were conducted to assess the effects of varied amounts of RUP and fat on the growth and metabolic responses of calves. In each trial, 190-kg Holstein calves (n = 45) were fed a basal diet of corn and cottonseed hulls supplemented with soybean meal (control) or supplemented with raw or roasted whole soybeans or the basal ration plus prilled hydrogenated tallow either with or without a mixture of feather meal and blood meal. Prilled tallow was more detrimental to fiber digestion and growth performance than were whole soybeans, especially during summer. During winter, calves fed a high (49%) percentage of the dietary CP as RUP had similar BW gain and efficiency of feed usage as did calves fed a moderate percentage (39%), but, during summer, calves fed the high percentage of RUP had greater BW gain and efficiency than did calves fed moderate percentages of RUP. Ruminal concentrations of VFA were parallel to digestibilities of fiber in the total tract. Ruminal concentrations of ammonia or blood concentrations of urea were not consistent with the concentrations of RDP fed. Concentrations of glucose, NEFA, insulin, and thyroid hormones in the blood were primarily affected by season. Data suggested that a higher percentage and AA quality of RUP improved the growth of calves during summer but not during winter.

  19. Effect of pre- and postweaning management system on the performance on Brahman crossbred feeder calves. (United States)

    Phillips, W A; Holloway, J W; Coleman, S W


    During a 3-yr period (1986 through 1988), 117 calves (57 steers and 60 heifers) from the same genetic base and reared under four distinct preweaning management systems were weaned in the fall and transported from Uvalde, TX to El Reno, OK (800 km). Weaning weight and transportation shrink varied more from year to year than among preweaning treatments. Postweaning performance was not affected by preweaning treatment. After a 28- to 32-d receiving period the calves were blocked by sex and previous preweaning treatment, then randomly assigned within block to graze winter wheat forage (WHEAT) or dormant tall-grass native range (GRASS). The WHEAT group gained more (P less than .01) weight than the GRASS group during the winter (November to March), but when both groups were allowed to graze spring wheat pasture (March to June) the GRASS group gained more (P less than .01) weight than the WHEAT calves. During the subsequent finishing phase the GRASS calves were more (P less than .01) efficient than the WHEAT calves in converting DM to gain. Because cattle were slaughtered at the same degree of finish, no differences were noted in carcass characteristics among the pre- or postweaning treatments. Feeder calves exposed to a restrictive period of growth during the postweaning period gained weight more rapidly in a subsequent forage-based stockering system and were more efficient in a grain-based finishing system than nonrestricted calves.

  20. Training dairy bull calves to stay within light-built electric fences (Research Note

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    Full Text Available Training cattle to avoid electric fences before turnout to grazing reduces the risk of the animals breaking out from their paddock. We investigated the time needed for dairy bull calves to learn to avoid a light-built electric fence. Nineteen dairy bull calves were trained to an electric fence in a training yard during seven days. The number of electric shocks the animals received from the training fence was recorded continuously. After the training period, the calves were turned to pasture. Nine of the animals were also grazed the following summer as yearlings, and observed before turnout in a smaller enclosure. The calves got more shocks from the fence during training hour 1 than during any of the following seven hours. The number of shocks the calves received from the fence also declined from training day 1 to 2 and from training day 3 to 4. The results indicate that the dairy bull calves learned to avoid an electric fence quickly, even within an hour from release into the training yard. A simple training procedure was sufficient to ensure that the animals could be grazed in and would avoid a light-built electric fencing system as calves and, even after a winter-housing period, as bulls.;

  1. Fornecimento de volumoso para bezerros pré-ruminantes Roughage for pre-ruminant calves

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    Rosane Scatamburlo Lizieire


    Full Text Available O presente trabalho avaliou a performance de bezerros mestiços HolandêsxZebu, do nascimento aos 90 dias de idade, desaleitados aos 56 dias, com acesso ou não a volumoso. O ensaio foi conduzido na Estação Experimental de Itaguaí da PESAGRO-RIO, em Seropédica, RJ, no período de janeiro a abril de 2000. Foram utilizados 27 bezerros, distribuídos em blocos ao acaso, de acordo com o peso ao nascer e com o sexo, nos seguintes tratamentos experimentais: (1 Concentrado; (2 Concentrado+pasto de capim-estrela (Cynodon nhenfluensis, e (3 Concentrado+feno de alfafa (Medicago sativa. Os animais foram separados das mães 24 horas após o nascimento e mantidos em baias individuais. Todos os animais receberam colostro até o 3º dia de vida e, a partir daí, quatro litros de leite integral/animal/dia, além de concentrado comercial (18%PB, até o máximo de 2,0kg/animal/dia, a partir da segunda semana de vida. Os animais do tratamento 2 tiveram acesso aos piquetes, manejados em rodízio, a partir do 15º dia de vida, no período das 8h às 14h, e aqueles do tratamento 3 receberam feno de alfafa (18%PB picado, à vontade, a partir do 8º dia de vida. Não houve diferença (P>0,05 entre os tratamentos 1 e 3; entretanto, aqueles submetidos ao tratamento 2 consumiram menor (P0,05 para consumo total de matéria seca e eficiência alimentar entre os tratamentos 1 e 3 e para ganho de peso médio diário, perímetros abdominal e torácico, incidência de diarréias e corrimento nasal entre os três tratamentos. O fornecimento de volumoso para bezerros pode ser feito a partir da 8ª semana de idade, sem prejuízos para o seu desenvolvimento, desde que os animais tenham à sua disposição concentrado inicial desde a segunda semana de idade.This experiment aimed to evaluate the growth of Holstein Zebu crossbred calves, from birth to 90 days of age, early weaned, with or without available roughage from the second week of age on. The trial was carried out at the

  2. Effect of daily concentrate intake at weaning on performance of Belgian Blue double-muscled rearing calves. (United States)

    Fiems, Leo; De Boever, Johan; De Campeneere, Sam; Vanacker, José; De Brabander, Daniël


    Weaning at a different daily concentrate intake was investigated during a 140-d experimental period, using 54 male and 68 female newborn Belgian Blue double-muscled animals. They were divided into three comparable groups and received milk at 10% of their birth weight up to weaning. Concentrate was levelled off at a maximum daily intake of 3 kg, while grass hay was freely available. Weaning occurred at a daily concentrate intake level (CL) of 0.5, 0.75 and 1.0 kg, respectively. Weaning at an increased CL prolonged the milk-feeding period by 13.1 and 14.6 days, and resulted in a higher pre- and post-weaning growth rate (p calves tended to have a higher intake and a faster growth rate than females. It can be concluded that weaning should be delayed until Belgian Blue double-muscled calves consume at least 0.75 kg per day or more for reasons of welfare, although performance was hardly improved by weaning at a daily concentrate intake of more than 0.5 kg per day.

  3. Comparison of Thoracic Radiography and Computed Tomography in Calves with Naturally Occurring Respiratory Disease

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    Jennifer Fowler


    Full Text Available ObjectiveTo evaluate the severity and extent of lung disease using thoracic computed radiography (CR compared to contrast-enhanced multi-detector computed tomography (MDCT of the thorax in calves with naturally occurring respiratory disease and to evaluate the feasibility and safety of performing contrast-enhanced thoracic multi-detector MDCT examinations in sedated calves. Furthermore, to evaluate if combining CR or MDCT with respiratory scoring factors will improve prediction of the chronicity of pulmonary disease in calves.AnimalsThirty Jersey heifer calves ranging in age between 25 and 89 days with naturally occurring respiratory disease.ProceduresAll calves were evaluated via thoracic CR and contrast-enhanced MDCT. A