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Sample records for calves experimentally treated

  1. A RIKILT yeast estrogen bioassay (REA) for estrogen residue detection in urine of calves experimentally treated with 17ß-estradiol

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Divari, S.; Maria, De R.; Cannizzo, F.T.; Spada, F.; Mulasso, C.; Bovee, T.F.H.; Capra, P.; Leporati, M.; Biolatti, B.

    2010-01-01

    17ß-Estradiol is one of the most powerful sex steroids illegally used in bovine production. The objective of this study was to evaluate the application and the specificity of the RIKILT yeast estrogen bioassay (REA) for the detection of molecules with estrogenic activities in the urine of calves

  2. Serum Protein Electrophoretic Pattern in Neonatal Calves Treated with Clinoptilolite

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    Simona Marc

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of our study was to determine the effects of clinoptilolite supplemented in colostrum on the blood serum protein electrophoretic pattern of new-born calves. Methods: Romanian Black and White new-born calves involved in the study were divided into 3 groups: the control group (C that received colostrum without clinoptilolite, and experimental groups I (E1 and II (E2 that received colostrum supplemented with 0.5% and 2% clinoptilolite, respectively. The concentration of total protein and protein fractions (albumin, α1-globulin, α2-globulin, β-globulin and γ-globulin were analyzed by electrophoresis on cellulose acetate. Results: At hour 30 after birth, concentrations of γ-globulins, β-globulin and total protein in E1 group of calves were higher than in control group by 42.11% (p < 0.05, 28.48% (p > 0.05 and 18.52% (p > 0.05, respectively, and were higher, but not significantly, in group E2 compared to the control group. This was in accordance with a significant lower albumin/globulin ratio in groups E1 and E2 (29.35%, p < 0.05 and 35.87%, p < 0.05, respectively than in control group at 30 h postpartum, which indicates an obvious increase of the globulins fraction in experimental groups. The conclusion: Clinoptilolite was effective in improving passive transfer in new-born calves, but it was more effective if added in colostrum with a dose of 0.5% than with a dose of 2%.

  3. Senecio grisebachii Baker: Pyrrolizidine alkaloids and experimental poisoning in calves

    Science.gov (United States)

    The main objectives of this study were to determine the 1,2-dehydropyrrolizidine alkaloid (DHPA) content in Senecio grisebachii Baker (Compositae), to experimentally demonstrate its toxicity in calves and to describe the main clinical and pathological findings of this toxicity. S. grisebachii plants...

  4. The effect of a fenbendazole treatment on cyst excretion and weight gain in calves experimentally infected with Giardia duodenalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geurden, Thomas; Vandenhoute, Els; Pohle, Herbert; Casaert, Stijn; De Wilde, Nathalie; Vercruysse, Jozef; Claerebout, Edwin

    2010-04-19

    A total of 28 Holstein-Friesian calves were experimentally infected with 10(5)Giardia duodenalis cysts. Eleven days later, all animals were allocated into two groups of 14 animals each, based on the average pre-treatment cyst counts. Treatment was randomly assigned to one of the two groups, and all animals in the treatment group received a daily oral dosage of 15mg fenbendazole per kg bodyweight during 3 consecutive days. The calves in the control group received a placebo (water). From 3 days after treatment onwards, cyst excretion was determined three times a week during 4 consecutive weeks. The faecal consistency and general health were recorded on a daily basis, and all animals were weighed prior to treatment and weekly thereafter. At the end of the experimental period, there was a significant (Pfenbendazole treated and untreated calves experimentally infected with G. duodenalis, although additional data need to confirm the need for treatment in natural conditions.

  5. Construction and validation of a decision tree for treating metabolic acidosis in calves with neonatal diarrhea

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    Trefz Florian M

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of the present prospective study was to investigate whether a decision tree based on basic clinical signs could be used to determine the treatment of metabolic acidosis in calves successfully without expensive laboratory equipment. A total of 121 calves with a diagnosis of neonatal diarrhea admitted to a veterinary teaching hospital were included in the study. The dosages of sodium bicarbonate administered followed simple guidelines based on the results of a previous retrospective analysis. Calves that were neither dehydrated nor assumed to be acidemic received an oral electrolyte solution. In cases in which intravenous correction of acidosis and/or dehydration was deemed necessary, the provided amount of sodium bicarbonate ranged from 250 to 750 mmol (depending on alterations in posture and infusion volumes from 1 to 6.25 liters (depending on the degree of dehydration. Individual body weights of calves were disregarded. During the 24 hour study period the investigator was blinded to all laboratory findings. Results After being lifted, many calves were able to stand despite base excess levels below −20 mmol/l. Especially in those calves, metabolic acidosis was undercorrected with the provided amount of 500 mmol sodium bicarbonate, which was intended for calves standing insecurely. In 13 calves metabolic acidosis was not treated successfully as defined by an expected treatment failure or a measured base excess value below −5 mmol/l. By contrast, 24 hours after the initiation of therapy, a metabolic alkalosis was present in 55 calves (base excess levels above +5 mmol/l. However, the clinical status was not affected significantly by the metabolic alkalosis. Conclusions Assuming re-evaluation of the calf after 24 hours, the tested decision tree can be recommended for the use in field practice with minor modifications. Calves that stand insecurely and are not able to correct their position if pushed

  6. Intravenous hypertonic saline solution (7.5%) and oral electrolytes to treat of calves with noninfectious diarrhea and metabolic acidosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leal, M L R; Fialho, S S; Cyrillo, F C; Bertagnon, H G; Ortolani, E L; Benesi, F J

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy of treating osmotic diarrhea and dehydration in calves with hypertonic saline solution (HSS) IV, isotonic electrolyte solution (IES) PO, and a combination of these 2 solutions (HSS + IES). Eighteen male calves 8-30 days of age were used to evaluate the efficacy of 3 methods of fluid therapy after induction of osmotic diarrhea and dehydration. The diarrhea and dehydration were induced by administration of saccharose, spironolactone, and hydrochlorothiazide for 48 hours. The animals were randomly divided into 3 experimental groups: Group 1: 7.2% hypertonic saline solution-HSS (5 mL/kg IV); Group 2: oral isotonic electrolyte solution IES (60 mL/kg PO); or Group 3: HSS+IES. Clinical signs and laboratory finding observed 48 hours post-induction (Time 0) included diarrhea, dehydration, lethargy, and metabolic acidosis. Calves treated with HSS + IES experienced decreases in hematocrit, total protein concentration, albumin concentration, urea nitrogen concentration, and plasma volume as well as increases in blood pH, blood bicarbonate concentration, and central venous pressure between 1 and 3 hours post-treatment. These findings also were observed in animals treated with IES, however, at a slower rate than in the HSS + IES-treated animals. Animals treated with HSS continued to display signs of dehydration, lethargy, and metabolic acidosis 24 hours post-treatment. Treatment with a combination of HSS and IES produced rapid and sustainable correction of hypovolemia and metabolic acidosis in calves with noninfections diarrhea and dehydration. Copyright © 2012 by the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  7. Effects of intravenous hyperosmotic sodium bicarbonate on arterial and cerebrospinal fluid acid-base status and cardiovascular function in calves with experimentally induced respiratory and strong ion acidosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berchtold, Joachim F; Constable, Peter D; Smith, Geoffrey W; Mathur, Sheerin M; Morin, Dawn E; Tranquilli, William J

    2005-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine the effects of hyperosmotic sodium bicarbonate (HSB) administration on arterial and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) acid-base balance and cardiovascular function in calves with experimentally induced respiratory and strong ion (metabolic) acidosis. Ten healthy male Holstein calves (30-47 kg body weight) were instrumented under halothane anesthesia to permit cardiovascular monitoring and collection of blood samples and CSE Respiratory acidosis was induced by allowing the calves to spontaneously ventilate, and strong ion acidosis was subsequently induced by i.v. administration of L-lactic acid. Calves were then randomly assigned to receive either HSB (8.4% NaHCO3; 5 ml/kg over 5 minutes, i.v.; n=5) or no treatment (controls, n=5) and monitored for 1 hour. Mixed respiratory and strong ion acidosis was accompanied by increased heart rate, cardiac index, mean arterial pressure, cardiac contractility (maximal rate of change of left ventricular pressure), and mean pulmonary artery pressure. Rapid administration of HSB immediately corrected the strong ion acidosis, transiently increased arterial partial pressure of carbon dioxide (P(CO2)), and expanded the plasma volume. The transient increase in arterial P(CO2) did not alter CSF P(CO2) or induce paradoxical CSF acidosis. Compared to untreated control calves, HSB-treated calves had higher cardiac index and contractility and a faster rate of left ventricular relaxation for 1 hour after treatment, indicating that HSB administration improved myocardial systolic function. We conclude that rapid i.v. administration of HSB provided an effective and safe method for treating strong ion acidosis in normovolemic halothane-anesthetized calves with experimentally induced respiratory and strong ion acidosis. Fear of inducing paradoxical CSF acidosis is not a valid reason for withholding HSB administration in calves with mixed respiratory and strong ion acidosis.

  8. Effects of Varying Levels of Fungal ( sp. Treated Wheat Straw as an Ingredient of Total Mixed Ration on Growth Performance and Nutrient Digestibility in Nili Ravi Buffalo Calves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Shahzad

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The study was carried out to explore the effects of replacing wheat straw with fungal treated wheat straw as an ingredient of total mixed ration (TMR on the growth performance and nutrient digestibility in Nili Ravi buffalo male calves. Fungal treated wheat straw was prepared using Arachniotus sp. Four TMRs were formulated where wheat straw was replaced with 0 (TMR1, 33 (TMR2, 67 (TMR3, and 100% (TMR4 fungal treated wheat straw in TMR. All TMRs were iso-caloric and iso-nitrogenous. The experimental TMRs were randomly assigned to four groups of male calves (n = 6 according to completely randomized design and the experiment continued for four months. The calves fed TMR2 exhibited a significant improve in dry matter intake, average daily weight gain, feed conversion ratio and feed economics compared to other groups. The same group also showed higher digestibility of dry matter, crude protein, neutral-, and acid detergent fibers than those fed on other TMRs. It is concluded that TMR with 33% fungal-treated wheat straw replacement has a potential to give an enhanced growth performance and nutrient digestibility in male Nili Ravi buffalo calves.

  9. Bovine coronavirus in naturally and experimentally exposed calves; viral shedding and the potential for transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oma, Veslemøy Sunniva; Tråvén, Madeleine; Alenius, Stefan; Myrmel, Mette; Stokstad, Maria

    2016-06-13

    Bovine coronavirus (BCoV) is a widely distributed pathogen, causing disease and economic losses in the cattle industry worldwide. Prevention of virus spread is impeded by a lack of basic knowledge concerning viral shedding and transmission potential in individual animals. The aims of the study were to investigate the duration and quantity of BCoV shedding in feces and nasal secretions related to clinical signs, the presence of virus in blood and tissues and to test the hypothesis that seropositive calves are not infectious to naïve in-contact calves three weeks after BCoV infection. A live animal experiment was conducted, with direct contact between animal groups for 24 h as challenge procedure. Four naïve calves were commingled with a group of six naturally infected calves and sequentially euthanized. Two naïve sentinel calves were commingled with the experimentally exposed group three weeks after exposure. Nasal swabs, feces, blood and tissue samples were analyzed for viral RNA by RT-qPCR, and virus isolation was performed on nasal swabs. Serum was analyzed for BCoV antibodies. The calves showed mild general signs, and the most prominent signs were from the respiratory system. The overall clinical score corresponded well with the shedding of viral RNA the first three weeks after challenge. General depression and cough were the signs that correlated best with shedding of BCoV RNA, while peak respiratory rate and peak rectal temperature appeared more than a week later than the peak shedding. Nasal shedding preceded fecal shedding, and the calves had detectable amounts of viral RNA intermittently in feces through day 35 and in nasal secretions through day 28, however virus isolation was unsuccessful from day six and day 18 from the two calves investigated. Viral RNA was not detected in blood, but was found in lymphatic tissue through day 42 after challenge. Although the calves were shedding BCoV RNA 21 days after infection the sentinel animals were not infected

  10. Increased pulmonary secretion of tumor necrosis factor-alpha in calves experimentally infected with bovine respiratory syncytial virus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rontved, C. M.; Tjørnehøj, Kirsten; Viuff, B.

    2000-01-01

    , of which 23 were experimentally infected with BRSV and five were given a mock inoculum. The presence of the cytokine tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) in the BAL fluids was detected and quantified by a capture ELISA. TNF-alpha was detected in 21 of the infected animals. The amount of TNF-alpha...... in the BAL fluid of calves killed post inoculation day (PID) 2 and 4 was at the same very low level as in the uninfected control animals. Large amounts of TNF-alpha were detected on PID 6, maximum levels of TNF-alpha were reached on PID 7, and smaller amounts of TNF-alpha were seen on PID 8. The high levels...... of TNF-alpha appeared on the days where severe lung lesions and clinical signs were obvious and the amounts of BRSV-antigen were at their greatest. Although Pasteurellaceae were isolated from some of the BRSV-infected calves, calves treated with antibiotics before and through the whole period...

  11. Upgrading of TREAT experimental capabilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dickerman, C.E.; Rose, D.; Bhattacharyya, S.K.

    1982-01-01

    The TREAT facility at the Argonne National Laboratory site in the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory is being upgraded to provide capabilities for fast-reactor-safety transient experiments not possible at any other experimental facility. Principal TREAT Upgrade (TU) goal is provision for 37-pin size experiments on energetics of core-disruptive accidents (CDA) in fast breeder reactor cores with moderate sodium void coefficients. this goal requires a significant enhancement of the capabilities of the TREAT facility, specifically including reactor control, hardened neutron spectrum incident on the test sample, and enlarged building. The upgraded facility will retain the capability for small-size experiments of the types currently being performed in TREAT. Reactor building and crane upgrading have been completed. TU schedules call for the components of the upgraded reactor system to be finished in 1984, including upgraded TREAT fuel and control system, and expanded coverage by the hodoscope fuel-motion diagnostics system

  12. FEEDING COMPLETELY MIXED RATIONS BASED ON UNTREATED, UREA OR AMMONIUM BICARBONATE TREATED WHEAT STRAW TO BUFFALO CALVES

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    Amanat Ali, M. Fatahullah Khan and Muhmmad Ayaz

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available Eight young male buffalo calves of Nili-Ravi breed, randomly divided into two groups A and B (4 animals in each with a mean initial body weight of 115.3 ± 12.4 and 117.0 ± 7.3 kg respectively, were used for this study. Three is nitrogenous and is energetic completely mixed rations based on untreated (UWSR, urea-treated (Ur- TWSR and ammonium bicarbonate treated (Am- TWSR wheat straw, were prepared. Treatment of chopped wheat straw in mud houses with either urea or ammonium bicarbonate increased its crude protein content tom 3.2 (untreated to 8.7 and 9.5% (for treated respectively. The feeding trials were conducted in the 2 phases. During the Fist phase, the animals were fed Ur- TWSR and Am- TWSR for a period of 63 days. In the 2nd phase UWSR and Ur- TWSR were compared for a period of 76 days. At the end of each experimental phase a digestion trial was conducted. The results indicated that the animals fed Ur- TWSR showed the best average daily live weight gain (0.72 kg as compared to both the UWSR (0.59 kg and Am- TWSR (0.41 kg. The performance of the animals on Am- TWSR was the poorest. No significant differences were observed in the average daily teed intake of animals fed UWSR and Ur- TWSR. The animals fed Am- TWSR consumed; significantly (P <0.05 less feed as compared to UWSR and Ur- TWSR. The best feed conversion ratio was observed for the Ur- TWSR. The apparent digestibility coefficients for dry matter, crude protein, crude fibre and ether extract measured by total collection method indicated that Ur- TWSR was significantly (P<0.05 better digestible as compared to other rations. The cost per kg live weight gain in animals fed Ur- TWSR was significantly (P <0.05 less as compared to other rations. It is concluded that buffalo calves can efficiently and. economically be raised on completely mixed urea treated wheat straw based rations.

  13. Experimental inoculation of calves with atypical Hobi-like pestivirus shows pattern similar to BVDV-1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larska, Magdalena; Polak, Mirosław P.; Uttenthal, Åse

    of experimental inoculation of European cattle with atypical pestivirus. The experiment included 4 groups of 5 calves each inoculated with: BVDV-1 (Ho916), Hobi-like pestivirus (Th/04_KhonKaen), a mixture of both viruses or EaglesMEM (control animals). Th/04_KhonKaen induced milder clinical signs than observed......, lymphocytes and granulocytes in blood on PID 2 correlated to the onset of viraemia. Animals started to seroconvert on PID 14, however the level of anti- Th/04_KhonKaen antibodies was significantly lower that the level of anti-BVDV-1 antibodies, probably due to the specificity of the test used. The experiment...... studies show that the viruses which were thought to be restricted to South America and Southeast Asia, may have reached other continents, including Europe. The pathogenesis of the infection with Hobi-like viruses has not yet been fully elucidated. The purpose of our study was to investigate the course...

  14. Evaluation of radiology as a tool to diagnose pulmonic lesions in calves, for example prior to experimental infection studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tegtmeier, Conny; Arnbjerg, J.

    2000-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate radiology as a technique to visualize pulmonary lesions in young calves, e.g. as a selection criterion for research animals in order to eliminate animals with lung lesions Drier to experimental studies of pneumonia. Five calves with acute clinical signs...... of pneumonia were included in a direct comparative study of radiological and post mortem findings. Also, a number of animals with no signs of pneumonia were included as controls. The study revealed good agreement between the radiological and post mortem findings. Thus, in conclusion, radiology should...

  15. The relationship between energy balance after calving and reproductive functions in Holstein dairy cows treated by the OVSYNCH system

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    Martina Doležalová

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to evaluate the relationship between the course and the depth of negative energy balance (NEB rated by changes of the body condition after calving and subsequent recovery of reproductive abilities of Holstein dairy cows treated by OVSYNCH. The body condition was evaluated by the BCS system one week before calving and subsequently at 30-day intervals for the period of 6 months of lactation. Recovery of ovarian functions was evaluated by the results of ultrasound examination of all the dairy cows’ ovaries in two controls after calving. The first one was performed on an average of 67 days after calving, and the second at a 60-day interval. The occurrence of individual findings - the presence of corpus luteum, ovarian cysts or ovaries without findings was evaluated as an effect of NEB on the recovery of the ovarian cycle of dairy cows and their subsequent possibility of conception. The suitable cows were treated by the OVSYNCH system after the 1st and 2nd ultrasound examination. Therefore, the insemination interval was calculated and in the case of dairy cows, pregnancy detection, also the number of services per conception and the length of open days. Twice performed hormonal treatment of 73.6% of the animals delayed the period by 50.2 days. In all, 202 dairy cows calved in the period from 29th July 2011 to 7th February 2012 were included in this observation. Significant effects of the body condition change on the ovarian activity as documented by sonographic examination and reproductive indicators appeared primarily in the second month of lactation. The best reproductive indicators were found in cows with the lowest body condition change, thus with a small decline or even increase of body condition score (−0.0 to +0.75 points, P < 0.05. On the contrary, the worst level of indicators of recovery of the reproduction functions were documented in the dairy cows with the most marked decline of BCS (P < 0.05.

  16. Efficacy of a 60Co irradiated vaccine for experimentally infected calves with dictyocaulus viviparus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zurita, Edgar; Paredes, Julio; Fernandez, Ardey

    1991-01-01

    Dictyocaulus viviparus larvae in non-infected stage (L.1) were cultured in vitro to their infective stage (L.3) and were irradiated with 40 Krad from 6 0 C o and used as a vaccine. The oral experimental vaccine dose was 1000 L.3/animal. Three groups were formed with 8 calves in each one: group No. 1 and group No. 2 were vaccinated at 10 weeks of age. Four weeks later group No. 1 was infected with non-irradiated 60 L.3/Kg. of animal weight 'challenge dose'. After four weeks of post-vaccination group No. 2 was revaccinated and 4 weeks later it was infected with the 'challenge dose' as the previous group. Eight calves constituted group No. 3, four in each group; they were infected with only the challenge dose respectively. Information data on respiratory and cardiac frequency, temperature, weight, and L.1 count/g. of feces were obtained from each animal three times a week. After five weeks of post-challenge all animals were slaughtered to observe anatomopathologic lessions in the heart and lungs; the number of adult Dictyocaulus viviparus present in the respiratory tract were search 't'. Student test was used for the statistical analysis. The weight increment difference between animals of group No. 1 related control group was 7Kg.; and 11.25 Kg/animal in group No. 2 respectively. The percentage of protection confered by the vaccine to the subjects in group No. 1 relative to the respectivecontrol group, was 83.2; that for the group No. 2 was 88.5 per cent. Post-morten examination revealed severe anatomopathologic lessions in the control groups; only few lessions were observed in group No. 1 and practically none in group No. 2

  17. Phosphorus kinetics in calves experimentally submitted to a trickle infection with Cooperia punctata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louvandini, H; Rodrigues, R R; Gennari, S M; McManus, C M; Vitti, D M S S

    2009-07-07

    Ten male Holstein calves (74.3+/-3.2 kg LW) were used for a trial with trickle infection with Cooperia punctata to evaluate phosphorus (P) kinetics. Five calves were inoculated with 10,000 L(3) stage larvae per week during 35 days, while the other group of five calves was kept as a control. On the 29th day each calf was intravenously injected with 29.6 MBq of a (32)P solution. Blood samples were taken at 24 h periods for 7 days, after which all calves were slaughtered and worms burdens. Faeces, urine and tissue samples were taken for analysis using isotopic dilution and modeling techniques. The number of eggs per gram of faeces (EPG) was 1920+/-168 on 28th day and the total number of worms burdens was 11,131+/-1500. Infected calves showed lower feed intake and live weight gain, as well as lower P intake, absorption and retention than control calves. The P flows between body compartments were lower for blood to gastrointestinal tract (TGI), TGI to blood, blood to soft tissues, bone balance and soft tissue balance in infected calves when compared to the control. The trickle infection of C. punctata affected P metabolism due to the decrease in P retained and live weight due to fall in feed intake.

  18. Mechanisms controlling the oxygen consumption in experimentally induced hypochloremic alkalosis in calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cambier, Carole; Clerbaux, Thierry; Amory, Hélène; Detry, Bruno; Florquin, Sandra; Marville, Vincent; Frans, Albert; Gustin, Pascal

    2002-01-01

    . It may be concluded that, despite reduced oxygen delivery, oxygen consumption is maintained during experimentally induced hypochloremic alkalosis in healthy 10-30 day old calves.

  19. Heat-treated (in single aliquot or batch) colostrum outperforms non-heat-treated colostrum in terms of quality and transfer of immunoglobulin G in neonatal Jersey calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kryzer, A A; Godden, S M; Schell, R

    2015-03-01

    The objective of this randomized clinical trial was to describe the effect on colostrum characteristics and passive transfer of IgG in neonatal calves when using the Perfect Udder colostrum management system (single-aliquot treatment; Dairy Tech Inc., Greeley, CO) compared with a negative control (fresh refrigerated or fresh frozen colostrum) and a positive control (batch heat-treated colostrum). First-milking Jersey colostrum was pooled to achieve 31 unique batches with a minimum of 22.8 L per batch. The batch was then divided into 4 with 3.8 L allocated to each treatment group: (1) heat-treated in Perfect Udder bag at 60°C for 60 min and then stored at -20°C (PU); (2) heat-treated in a batch pasteurizer (Dairy Tech Inc.) at 60°C for 60 min and then stored at -20°C in Perfect Udder bag (DTB; positive control); (3) fresh frozen colostrum stored at -20°C in Perfect Udder bag (FF; negative control); and (4) fresh refrigerated colostrum stored at 4°C in Perfect Udder bag (FR; negative control). Colostrum from all treatments was sampled for analysis of IgG concentration and bacterial culture immediately after batch assembly, after processing, and before feeding. Newborn Jersey calves were randomly assigned to be fed 3.8 L of colostrum from 1 of the 4 treatment groups. A prefeeding, 0-h blood sample was collected, calves were fed by esophageal tube within 2 h of birth, and then a 24-h postfeeding blood sample was collected. Paired serum samples from 0- and 24-h blood samples were analyzed for IgG concentration (mg/mL) using radial immunodiffusion analysis. The overall mean IgG concentration in colostrum was 77.9 g/L and was not affected by treatment. Prefeeding total plate counts (log10 cfu/mL) were significantly different for all 4 treatments and were lower for heat-treated colostrum (PU=4.23, DTB=3.63) compared with fresh colostrum (FF=5.68, FR=6.53). Total coliform counts (log10 cfu/mL) were also significantly different for all 4 treatments and were lower for

  20. Effects of calcium disodium EDTA and meso-2,3-dimercaptosuccinic acid on tissue concentrations of lead for use in treatment of calves with experimentally induced lead toxicosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meldrum, James B; Ko, Kam W

    2003-06-01

    To compare the efficacy of calcium disodium EDTA (CaNa2EDTA) and meso-2,3-dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) in reducing concentrations of lead in selected tissues for use in treatment of calves with experimentally induced lead toxicosis. 19 sexually intact male Holstein calves that weighed 35 to 60 kg. Calves were randomly assigned to 1 of 5 treatment groups: group 1, control calves; group 2, lead only; group 3, lead and EDTA; group 4, lead and DMSA; and group 5, lead, EDTA, and DMSA. Calves in groups 2 to 5 were dosed daily with lead (5 mg/kg, PO) for 10 days. Doses of EDTA (100 mg/kg) and DMSA (25 mg/kg) were administered IV once daily for 4 consecutive days beginning on day 11. Effects of the chelators on lead concentrations in the liver, kidneys, testes, muscles, bones, and brain were compared among the various groups. Compared with the effects of EDTA, DMSA greatly reduced lead concentrations in renal and hepatic tissues. We did not detect significant differences for the effects of EDTA or DMSA on lead concentrations in the testes; there was an adverse interaction of EDTA with DMSA that caused an increase in lead concentrations in the testes. DMSA is much more effective than EDTA in removing lead from renal and hepatic tissues in calves. Use of DMSA in calves with lead intoxication appears to be a viable treatment option. Combining DMSA and EDTA as a treatment modality in calves did not offer any advantages.

  1. Lymphadenopathy and non-suppurative meningo-encephalitis in calves experimentally infected with bovine immunodeficiency-like virus (FL112).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munro, R; Lysons, R; Venables, C; Horigan, M; Jeffrey, M; Dawson, M

    1998-08-01

    In an experiment on bovine immunodeficiency-like virus (BIV), the virological and serological aspects of which were reported in an earlier paper, three groups (A, B and C) of three calves were inoculated subcutaneously with a recently isolated strain (FL112). For group B and group C, the virus was suspended in milk, and for group C (controls) the viral suspension was subjected to pasteurization before inoculation. The calves were killed for necropsy 12 months later. Clinical assessment revealed subtle ataxia in two group A calves, which took the form of an intermittent "shifting" (from one leg to another) lameness, and palpable enlargement of the pre-scapular lymph nodes in one group B animal. At necropsy, haemal lymph nodes (0.1 to 0.5 cm in diameter), occurring singly, were observed in all animals. However, in groups A and B (but not C), enlarged haemal lymph nodes (< or = 2 cm in diameter) were also seen, occurring singly and in chains; and in one group A animal they occurred in grape-like clusters. In groups A and B (but not C), histopathological examination revealed generalized hyperplastic changes in lymph nodes, especially the haemal lymph nodes. This finding was particularly striking in the two clinically ataxic animals from group A, which also showed a non-suppurative meningo-encephalitis; the latter was possibly the cause of the subtle clinical signs. This study supports previous findings on lymphadenopathy resulting from experimental infection with BIV.

  2. Marked induction of IL-6, haptoglobin and IFN gamma following experimental BRSV infection in young calves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grell, Susanne Nedergaard; Tjørnehøj, Kirsten; Larsen, Lars Erik

    2005-01-01

    Bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV) has been identified worldwide as an important pathogen associated with acute respiratory disease in calves. An infection model has been developed reflecting accurately the clinical course and die, development of pathological signs during a natural BRSV-infection....... In the experiments described in the present study, calves were infected at 13-21 weeks of age and reinfected 14 weeks later. Blood samples front the entire infection period were analysed for acute phase protein (haptoglobin) by ELISA and for expression (mRNA level in peripheral blood mononuclear cells...... to the first infection with BRSV The IFNgamma response was biphasic. with an early peak at day 1-3 post infection (p.i.) and a later increase between day 5 and 8 p.i. Reinfection also resulted in an induction of IFNgamma. but without induction of clinical signs, IL-6 and haptoglobin. These results indicate...

  3. Oxidation of nutrients in bull calves treated with beta-adrenergic agonists

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chwalibog, André; Jensen, K; Thorbek, G

    1996-01-01

    Oxidation of protein (OXP), carbohydrate (OXCHO) and fat (OXF) was investigated with 12 growing bulls treated with beta-agonist (L-644, 969) during two 6 weeks trials (Section A and B) at a mean live weight of 195 and 335 kg. Heat production and nutrient oxidation was calculated from gas exchange...

  4. Quantitative protein and fat metabolism in bull calves treated with beta-adrenergic agonist

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chwalibog, André; Jensen, K; Thorbek, G

    1996-01-01

    Protein and energy utilization and quantitative retention of protein, fat and energy was investigated with 12 Red Danish bulls during two subsequent 6 weeks trials (Sections A and B) at a mean live weight of 195 and 335 kg respectively. Treatments were control (Group 1) and beta-agonist (L-644...... matter, metabolizable energy and digestible protein was of the same magnitude for all groups. The beta-agonist had no significant effect on protein digestibility and metabolizability of energy, but daily live weight gain was significantly higher in the treated bulls. The utilization of digested protein...

  5. Interactions between levels of heat-treated soybean meal and prilled fat on growth, rumen fermentation, and blood metabolites of Holstein calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazemi-Bonchenari, M; Mirzaei, M; Jahani-Moghadam, M; Soltani, A; Mahjoubi, E; Patton, R A

    2016-10-01

    This study evaluated the interaction of RUP and fat levels on growth, rumen fermentation, and blood metabolites of Holstein calves. Forty 3-d-old calves (20 females and 20 males) with a starting BW of 40.6 ± 2.8 kg were used in a completely randomized design with a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement of treatments. Within sex treatments were: (1) high RUP and low fat (HRUP-LF); (2) low RUP and high fat (LRUP-HF); (3) high RUP and low fat (HRUP-LF); and high RUP and high fat (HRUP-HF). Low-RUP starter contained 21.5%, whereas high RUP starter contained 34.3% RUP as % of CP, whereas low fat starter contained 2.9% and high starter contained 5.8% crude fat based on DM. Isonitrogenous levels in the starter grain were maintained by replacing solvent soybean meal with heat treated soybean meal while fat levels were increased by the addition of prilled fatty acids. Calves were housed individually and had ad libitum access to water and calf starter throughout the study. All calves were weaned on d 60 of age but remained in the study until d 70 for final measurements. Overall, there was no interaction between RUP and fat levels for measured variables. Starter intake tended ( = 0.09) to be greater for calves fed low fat starter during the postweaning period, although over the whole experiment and during the preweaning period, differences in starter intake were not different. Although there were no differences for most VFA concentrations, the molar proportion of butyrate tended ( RUP ( RUP starter. However, feeding a calf starter with over 3% fat appeared to decrease starter intake as growth progressed.

  6. Experimental induction of abdominal tympany, abomasitis, and abomasal ulceration by intraruminal inoculation of Clostridium perfringens type A in neonatal calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roeder, B L; Chengappa, M M; Nagaraja, T G; Avery, T B; Kennedy, G A

    1988-02-01

    The etiologic role of Clostridum perfringens type A in the acute abdominal syndrome characterized by abomasal and rumen tympany, abomasitis, and abomasal ulceration was investigated in neonatal calves. Eight calves, 4 to 12 days old, were inoculated intraruminally with toxigenic C perfringens type A. Before and after C perfringens inoculation, blood samples were collected from all calves for blood gas and serum biochemical analysis and for determination of serum copper concentration; ruminal fluid was obtained for isolation of C perfringens. Calves were monitored daily for clinical signs of the syndrome and, depending on the severity of clinical signs, they were either euthanatized or redosed within 4 to 7 days. After necropsy, specimens obtained from the abomasum and rumen for macroscopic and microscopic examination and for anaerobic bacteriologic culture were processed in routine manner. Intraruminal inoculation of C perfringens type A into healthy calves induced anorexia, depression, bloat, diarrhea, and in some calves, death. Serum copper concentration was within normal range. Necropsy revealed variable degrees of abomasitis, petechial and ecchymotic hemorrhages, and ulcers (ranging from pinpoint to nearly perforate) in the abomasum. Seven of those calves also had multiple trichobezoars in the rumen. These necropsy findings were not seen in calves (controls) given distilled H2O only. In affected calves, acute abdominal syndrome was unrelated to copper deficiency, and C perfringens type A given intraruminally was able to induce clinical signs similar to those of the naturally acquired disease.

  7. Infusion of sodium bicarbonate in experimentally induced metabolic acidosis does not provoke cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) acidosis in calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abeysekara, Saman; Zello, Gordon A; Lohmann, Katharina L; Alcorn, Jane; Hamilton, Don L; Naylor, Jonathan M

    2012-01-01

    In a crossover study, 5 calves were made acidotic by intermittent intravenous infusion of isotonic hydrochloric acid (HCl) over approximately 24 h. This was followed by rapid (4 h) or slow (24 h) correction of blood pH with isotonic sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO(3)) to determine if rapid correction of acidemia produced paradoxical cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) acidosis. Infusion of HCl produced a marked metabolic acidosis with respiratory compensation. Venous blood pH (mean ± S(x)) was 7.362 ± 0.021 and 7.116 ± 0.032, partial pressure of carbon dioxide (Pco(2), torr) 48.8 ± 1.3 and 34.8 ± 1.4, and bicarbonate (mmol/L), 27.2 ± 1.27 and 11 ± 0.96; CSF pH was 7.344 ± 0.031 and 7.240 ± 0.039, Pco(2) 42.8 ± 2.9 and 34.5 ± 1.4, and bicarbonate 23.5 ± 0.91 and 14.2 ± 1.09 for the period before the infusion of hydrochloric acid and immediately before the start of sodium bicarbonate correction, respectively. In calves treated with rapid infusion of sodium bicarbonate, correction of venous acidemia was significantly more rapid and increases in Pco(2) and bicarbonate in CSF were also more rapid. However, there was no significant difference in CSF pH. After 4 h of correction, CSF pH was 7.238 ± 0.040 and 7.256 ± 0.050, Pco(2) 44.4 ± 2.2 and 34.2 ± 2.1, and bicarbonate 17.8 ± 1.02 and 14.6 ± 1.4 for rapid and slow correction, respectively. Under the conditions of this experiment, rapid correction of acidemia did not provoke paradoxical CSF acidosis.

  8. The effects of partial replacement of soybean meal by xylose-treated soybean meal in the starter concentrate on performance, health status, and blood metabolites of Holstein calves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Kazemi-Bonchenari

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective was to study the effects of partial replacement of soybean meal (SBM with xylose-treated SBM (XSBM as a source of rumen undegradable protein (RUP in the starter concentrate of calves on performance, health status and selected blood metabolites. Twenty-one female Holstein dairy calves (body weight=39.6±2.3 kg were randomly assigned to 3 groups (n=7 each: i starter concentrate with 25% SBM [control (CTR]; ii starter concentrate with 17.5% SBM +7.5% XSBM (7.5XSBM; and iii starter concentrate with 12.5% SBM+12.5% XSBM (12.5XSBM. Calves received 2 L of milk twice daily, with ad libitum access to starter concentrates from d 4 until weaning (d 56. Performance and health status were recorded throughout the experiment. Blood samples collected on d 4, 35 and 56 were assayed for concentrations of glucose, total protein (TP, and plasma urea nitrogen (PUN. Starter intake (560, 400, and 420 g/d for CTR, 7.5XSBM, and 12.5XSBM, respectively, average daily gain (0.67, 0.6 and 0.57 kg/d, and feed to gain ratio (0.83, 0.67, and 0.74 were affected by treatments (P<0.05. Hearth girth, height at withers, body length, rectal temperature, faecal score, and respiratory score did not differ among treatments. Mean plasma glucose and TP were not affected by treatments, whereas PUN in the 12.5XSBM group was lower than in the other groups (P<0.05. In conclusion, the present results showed that partial replacement of SBM by XSBM may improve efficiency of dietary protein utilisation in pre-weaned calves, which warrants further studies.

  9. Efficacy of florfenicol and intravenous fluid therapy for treatment of experimental salmonellosis in newborn calves Eficácia do florfenicol e da fluidoterapia parenteral no tratamento da salmonelose experimental em bezerros neonatos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.G. Silva

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The efficacy of florfenicol associated or not to intravenous fluid therapy for treatment of Salmonella Dublin-infected calves was determined. Twenty-four healthy 10 to 15-day-old Holstein calves were randomly allotted into four groups, with six animals each: control (group 1; infected with 10(8CFU Salmonella Dublin and not treated (group 2; infected with 10(8CFU Salmonella Dublin and treated with florfenicol (group 3; and infected with 10(8CFU Salmonella Dublin and treated with florfenicol associated to fluid therapy (group 4. All animals were submitted to physical examination just before inoculation and every 24 hours, during seven days after experimental infection. Rectal swabs and blood samples were collected for Salmonella Dublin isolation and pH and blood electrolytes determination. The experimental infection with Salmonella Dublin induced clinical signs of salmonellosis, such as diarrhea and fever, and caused reduction in blood concentrations of pH, sodium, potassium and chlorides. The treated calves showed good clinical recovery, and the group treated with antibiotic in combination to fluid therapy presented a faster and more efficient correction of the hydro-electrolyte balance.Avaliou-se a eficácia terapêutica do florfenicol associado ou não à fluidoterapia intravenosa no tratamento de bezerros infectados experimentalmente com Salmonella Dublin. Foram utilizados 24 bezerros sadios da raça Holandesa com 10 a 15 dias de idade, distribuídos aleatoriamente em quatro grupos experimentais, constituídos por seis animais cada: controle (grupo 1; infectado com 10(8UFC de Salmonella Dublin e não tratado (grupo 2; infectado com 10(8UFC de Salmonella Dublin e tratado com florfenicol (grupo 3; e infectado com 10(8UFC de Salmonella Dublin (grupo 4 e tratado com florfenicol associado à fluidoterapia. Todos os animais foram submetidos ao exame físico logo antes da inoculação e a cada 24 horas, durante sete dias após a infec

  10. Intravitreal Infliximab Injection to Treat Experimental Endophthalmitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ondas, Osman; Ates, Orhan; Keles, Sadullah; Yildirim, Kenan; Baykal, Orhan; Karamese, Selina Aksak; Karamese, Murat; Uslu, Hakan; Yildirim, Mustafa; Naldan, Muhammet Emin; Ates, Irem

    2017-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the use of an intravitreal injection of infliximab and of dexamethasone combined with vancomycin to treat experimental endophthalmitis induced by Staphylococcus epidermidis. The study was conducted between March 25 and April 13, 2012. Twenty-five six-month-old healthy rabbits were used, each weighing 2.5-3 kg. The rabbits were randomized into five groups with five animals per group. Endophthalmitis was induced by 0.1 mL (103 colony-forming units) S. epidermidis in all groups. In group 1, injection was not implemented after the occurrence of endophthalmitis. In groups 2, 3, and 4, the following intravitreal injections were given 24 h after the occurrence of endophthalmitis: group 2, 0.1 mg/0.1 mL vancomycin; group 3, 1 mg/0.1 mL vancomycin and 1 mg/0.1 mL dexamethasone; and group 4, 1 mg/0.1 mL vancomycin and 2 mg/0.1 mL infliximab. Group 5 was the control/uninfected group. The rabbits were clinically assessed each day for seven days. On day 9, a histopathologic evaluation was performed after enucleation. After a clinical evaluation, no statistically significant difference was found between the vancomycin+infliximab and vancomycin+dexamethasone groups (p>0.05). The difference was significant when both groups were compared with the vancomycin group (p0.05). An intravitreal injection of infliximab and of dexamethasone combined with vancomycin have similar clinical and histopathologic effects. To supplement the antibiotic treatment of endophthalmitis, infliximab in a safe dose range can be used as an alternative to dexamethasone to suppress inflammation and prevent ocular damage.

  11. OBSERVATIONS ON CLINICAL TREATMENT TRIALS OF INDUCED ESCHERICHIA COLI DIARRHOEA IN BUFFALO NEONATAL CALVES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. T. Javed, A. Khan, Abid Hussain and Babar Niaz

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The study was conducted on 24 calves of one week-age, randomly divided into four groups, of six calves each. First three groups were experimentally infected with E. coli and given treatment in various combinations, while group four was taken as uninfected untreated control. Results obtained on different parameters were, green to yellow-white diarrhoea with variable consistency from watery to semisolid. Generally in all groups during first two days, calves passed faeces around 6-10 times a day and this frequency lowered in about 2-4 days. During first 3-4 days of treatment, all calves appeared weak, dull, depressed with cold skin and wetness of the muzzle, while oral mucosa was pale and eyes were sunken. Overall mean respiration rate of treatment groups was slower (P<0.05 than control group. However, pulse rate showed no difference between treatment and control group. Overall mean rectal temperature was lower (P<0.05 in calves treated with antibiotic alone and with antibiotic + electrolytes, while body weight was higher (P<0.05 in calves treated with antibiotic but was lower along with creatinine (P<0.05 in calves treated with antibiotic + electrolytes and those treated with electrolytes alone.

  12. Temporal dynamics of 'HoBi'-like pestivirus quasispecies in persistently infected calves generated under experimental conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Matheus N; Bauermann, Fernando V; Canal, Cláudio W; Bayles, Darrell O; Neill, John D; Ridpath, Julia F

    2017-01-02

    'HoBi'-like virus is an atypical group within the Pestivirus genus that is implicated in economic losses for cattle producers due to both acute and persistent infections. Pestivirus strains exist as quasispecies (swarms of individual viruses) in infected animals and the viral populations making up the quasispecies differ widely in size and diversity in each animal. In the present study the viral quasispecies circulating in persistently infected (PI) calves, generated and maintained under experimental conditions using two different 'HoBi'-like strains, was observed over time. An increase in genetic variability and the development of certain mutations was observed over time. Mutations observed included the loss of a putative N-linked glycosylation site in the E2 region and the change of specific residues in E1/E2. It is hypothesized that these changes may be the results on continued adaption of the pestivirus to individual hosts. This is the first study characterizing variation in the viral swarms of animals persistently infected with HoBi-like viruses over time. Studies of the shifts in PI viral swarms will contribute to our understanding of the host and viral mechanisms that function in the maintenance of pestivirus persistent infections. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  13. Experimental infection of calves with a gI, gE, US9 negative bovine herpesvirus type 5

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hubner, S.O.; Oliveira, A.P.; Franco, A.C.; Rijsewijk, F.A.M.; Roehe, P.M.

    2005-01-01

    In this work, a role for the genes encoding glycoproteins I (gI) and E (gE) and the US9 protein of bovine herpesvirus type 5 (BHV-5) in neuropathogenicity and reactivation of latent infections was examined. Calves infected intranasally with a gI/gE/US9 deleted recombinant shed up to 102.85 TCID50/ml

  14. The effect of zeolite A supplementation in the dry period on blood mineral status around calving

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thilsing-Hansen, T; Jørgensen, R J; Enemark, J M

    2003-01-01

    This article summarizes the results obtained in 6 separate studies concerned with the effect of zeolite A supplementation in the dry period on blood calcium, magnesium and phosphorus status around calving. The experiments were conducted on 5 different farms, and comprised a total of 117 cows. Two...... of the experiments (exp. 5 and 6) were conducted under extensive farming conditions whereas the rest (exp. 1-4) were conducted on intensively driven farms. All cows included in the experiments had completed at least 2 lactations. The cows were allocated as either untreated control cows or zeolite treated...... experimental cows according to expected date of calving and parity. The experimental cows were fed between 0.5 and 1.0 kg of zeolite A per day during the last 2 to 4 weeks of the dry period. Blood samples were drawn on the day of calving and day one and two after calving (all experiments), three weeks before...

  15. Clinical and virological characteristics of calves experimentally infected with a Brazilian isolate of bovine viral diarrhea virus type 1a

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luana Marchi Quadros

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: To study the pathogenicity of the Brazilian bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV type 1a 241.10 isolate, four calves were intranasally inoculated with a viral suspension containing 107.2 TCID50 mL-1. One calf was left uninoculated and kept in contact with the other calves to investigate viral transmissibility. After inoculation, the animals were monitored daily for clinical signs of infection. The presence of the virus in the blood and nasal secretions was confirmed by virus isolation in cell culture. White blood cells were quantified prior to and every 3 days after infection, and the presence of antibodies was checked every 7 days, starting at day 0 until day 42 post-inoculation (pi. After infection, nasal and ocular serous secretions were observed between days 1 and 5 pi, along with a mild cough from days 2 to 4 pi; however, no severe clinical signs were present. Body temperature was slightly elevated between days 4 and 6 pi. The control calf did not develop any of the signs observed in the infected animals. Cell culture-mediated virus isolation confirmed viremia between days 4 and 8 pi and the presence of the virus in the nasal secretions between days 1 and 10 pi. All infected animals showed a decrease in white blood cell count. Antibodies could be detected from day 14 pi, and these levels remained high until day 35 pi. The control calf had no viremia, viral presence in nasal secretions, or positive serology, indicating the absence of viral transmission. Thus, isolate BVDV 1a 241.10 has low pathogenicity and transmissibility but retains immunosuppressive capacity.

  16. Accelerated Growth Programme with Polyherbal Formulations for Dairy Calves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.Hadiya

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available An experimental field study in approximately one month old, forty eight Jaffrabadi buffalo calves was carried out to evaluate efficacy of herbal formulations on growth & average daily gain. Calves were randomly divided into four groups, one control & three treatments. Treated groups were administered herbal formulations; Ruchamax, AV/DAC/16 @5gm/calf/day & Yakrifit @1 bolus/calf/day following treatment regimen of once a week per month for three consecutive months therapy. Growth related parameters were recorded for ninety days of experimental trial. It was observed that supplementation of herbal growth promoter & liver tonic products significantly improved liver function, feed assimilation & digestibility of ration ultimately leading to gain in body weight as compared to untreated control group. [Vet. World 2009; 2(2.000: 62-64

  17. Effects of lactoferrin feeding on growth, feed intake and health of calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prenner, Maria L; Prgomet, Christian; Sauerwein, Helga; Pfaffl, Michael W; Broz, Jiri; Schwarz, Frieder J

    2007-02-01

    Lactoferrin (LF) exhibits a broad spectrum of anti-microbial properties and may have regulatory functions in the immune system. In the present study, 40 calves (20 males, 20 females) were used to examine the effects of supplemental bovine LF added to colostrum and milk replacer (at 0.16%) on health, weight development and feed intake during a 70-day experimental period. The calves were allocated to a treatment group (n = 20) and a control group (n = 20); the groups were balanced in terms of sex, live weight and date of birth. Body weight and feed intake were measured at regular intervals. Blood and colostrum samples were collected to determine the content of IgG. In addition, colostrum and milk replacer samples were analysed for their LF concentrations. Significantly higher IgG values were observed in the LF treated than in the control group during the entire feeding experiment from week 2 to week 6. Calves receiving LF had less days of disease with less serious cases of diarrhoea than the control group. Body weight and feed intake were not significantly different between the treatments; in male calves LF-treated animals tended towards higher weight gains. This study indicates that LF is advantageous for health and may therefore be a beneficial supplement in the diets for neonatal calves.

  18. Economic evaluation and efficacy of strategic-selective treatment of gastrointestinal parasites in dairy calves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuly Andrea Caicedo Blanco

    Full Text Available Abstract In the Experimental Farm of the Universidade Federal de Lavras (EF-UFLA, state of Minas Gerais, Brazil, on their day of birth, female Holstein calves were randomly selected and placed into two groups containing fifteen animals each: Strategic-Selective Treatment (S-ST or Conventional Treatment (CT. In the S-ST, calves were treated after coproparasitological examinations according to criteria established previously by the researchers. Calves in the CT were treated according to the opinion of the veterinarian of EF-UFLA. For statistical analysis, the frequency (% of fecal samples with count of eggs per gram of feces (EPG ≥300, count of oocysts per gram of feces (OoPG ≥500 and fecal samples with count of cysts of Giardia spp. ≥1 were conducted. The overall average frequency of fecal samples with EPG ≥300, OoPG ≥500 and Giardia spp. cysts ≥1, respectively, was similar (p >0.05 between S-ST (20.3%; 17.3%; and 31.5% and CT (26.4%; 23.9%; and 37.3%. The effective operational cost, per animal, in 12 months, was of R$ 784.58 (US$ 241.41 and R$ 83.90 (US$ 25.81 in S-ST and CT, respectively. The S-ST requires adjustments to be used as a technically efficient and economically viable alternative for the control of gastrointestinal parasitosis in female Holstein calves.

  19. The ability of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) of Pasteurella multocida B:2 to induce clinical and pathological lesions in the nervous system of buffalo calves following experimental inoculation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marza, Ali Dhiaa; Jesse Abdullah, Faez Firdaus; Ahmed, Ihsan Muneer; Teik Chung, Eric Lim; Ibrahim, Hayder Hamzah; Zamri-Saad, Mohd; Omar, Abdul Rahman; Abu Bakar, Md Zuki; Saharee, Abdul Aziz; Haron, Abdul Wahid; Alwan, Mohammed Jwaid; Mohd Lila, Mohd Azmi

    2017-03-01

    Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) of P. multocida B:2, a causative agent of haemorrhagic septicaemia (HS) in cattle and buffaloes, is considered as the main virulence factor and contribute in the pathogenesis of the disease. Recent studies provided evidences about the involvement of the nervous system in pathogenesis of HS. However, the role of P. multocida B:2 immunogens, especially the LPS is still uncovered. Therefore, this study was designed to investigate the role of P. multocida B:2 LPS to induce pathological changes in the nervous system. Nine eight-month-old, clinically healthy buffalo calves were used and distributed into three groups. Calves of Group 1 and 2 were inoculated orally and intravenously with 10 ml of LPS broth extract represent 1 × 10 12  cfu/ml of P. multocida B:2, respectively, while calves of Group 3 were inoculated orally with 10 ml of phosphate buffer saline as a control. Significant differences were found in the mean scores for clinical signs, post mortem and histopathological changes especially in Group 2, which mainly affect different anatomic regions of the nervous system, mainly the brain. On the other hand, lower scores have been recorded for clinical signs, gross and histopathological changes in Group 1. These results provide for the first time strong evidence about the ability of P. multocida B:2 LPS to cross the blood brain barrier and induce pathological changes in the nervous system of the affected buffalo calves. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. [Legg-Calvé-Perthes disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiig, Ola; Svenningsen, Svein; Terjesen, Terje

    2011-05-20

    Legg-Calvé-Perthes disease is characterized by avascular necrosis of the head of the femur. This article deals with the epidemiology, possible causes, treatment and prognostic factors connected with the disease. The article is based on a non-systematic literature search and own clinical practice, with special emphasis on a Norwegian countrywide study of children with Legg-Calvé-Perthes disease. The incidence of Legg-Calvé-Perthes disease varies in different countries and regions. Those who are older than six years at the time of diagnosis and have over 50% femoral head necrosis have a worse prognosis than younger children where the necrosis is less extensive. Treatment has been discussed extensively over the past 100 years, and still varies considerably. The Norwegian countrywide investigation showed that the results in children who were over six years at the time of diagnosis and had more than 50% femoral head necrosis were significantly better after varus femoral osteotomy than after physiotherapy or orthosis. This agrees with the only other prospective study that has been published. Operative treatment should be considered in children who are six years old or older and have over 50% femoral head necrosis when the diagnosis Legg-Calvé-Perthes disease is made. Those who are younger than six years at the time of diagnosis or who have less than 50% femoral head necrosis should be treated symptomatically. Abduction orthosis has no place in the treatment of Legg-Calvé-Perthes disease.

  1. The motivation-based calving facility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rørvang, Maria Vilain; Herskin, Mette S.; Jensen, Margit Bak

    To ease calving and safeguard animal welfare, cows are moved to individual calving pens when calving is due. However, cows may be moved too late and disturbed, which prolongs calving and challenges welfare. Development of calving systems based on dairy cows’ pre-calving motivation to seek isolation...

  2. Egg yolk IgY: protection against rotavirus induced diarrhea and modulatory effect on the systemic and mucosal antibody responses in newborn calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vega, C; Bok, M; Chacana, P; Saif, L; Fernandez, F; Parreño, V

    2011-08-15

    Bovine rotavirus (BRV) is an important cause of diarrhea in newborn calves. Local passive immunity is the most efficient protective strategy to control the disease. IgY technology (the use of chicken egg yolk immunoglobulins) is an economic and practical alternative to prevent BRV diarrhea in dairy calves. The aim of this study was to evaluate the protection and immunomodulation induced by the oral administration of egg yolk enriched in BRV specific IgY to experimentally BRV infected calves. All calves in groups Gp 1, 2 and 3 received control colostrum (CC; BRV virus neutralization Ab titer - VN=65,536; ELISA BRV IgG(1)=16,384) prior to gut closure. After gut closure, calves received milk supplemented with 6% BRV-immune egg yolk [(Gp 1) VN=2048; ELISA IgY Ab titer=4096] or non-immune control egg yolk [(Gp 2) VNcontrols (Gp 3 and 4, respectively). Calves were inoculated with 10(5.85)focus forming units (FFU) of virulent BRV IND at 2 days of age. Control calves (Gp 3 and 4) and calves fed control IgY (Gp 2) were infected and developed severe diarrhea. Around 80% calves in Gp 1 (IgY 4096) were infected, but they showed 80% (4/5) protection against BRV diarrhea. Bovine RV-specific IgY Ab were detected in the feces of calves in Gp 1, indicating that avian antibodies (Abs) remained intact after passage through the gastrointestinal tract. At post infection day 21, the duodenum was the major site of BRV specific antibody secreting cells (ASC) in all experimental groups. Mucosal ASC responses of all isotypes were significantly higher in the IgY treated groups, independently of the specificity of the treatment, indicating that egg yolk components modulated the immune response against BRV infection at the mucosal level. These results indicate that supplementing newborn calves' diets for the first 14 days of life with egg yolk enriched in BRV-specific IgY represents a promising strategy to prevent BRV diarrhea. Moreover a strong active ASC immune response is induced in the

  3. Targeting miR-155 to Treat Experimental Scleroderma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Qingran; Chen, Jie; Li, Wei; Bao, Chunde; Fu, Qiong

    2016-02-01

    Scleroderma is a refractory autoimmune skin fibrotic disorder. Alterations of microRNAs in lesional skin could be a new approach to treating the disease. Here, we found that expression of miR-155 was up regulated in lesional skin tissue from patients with either systemic or localized scleroderma, and correlated with fibrosis area. Then we demonstrated the potential of miR-155 as a therapeutic target in pre-clinical scleroderma models. MiR-155(-/-) mice were resistant to bleomycin induced skin fibrosis. Moreover, topical antagomiR-155 could effectively treat mice primed with subcutaneous bleomycin. In primary skin fibroblast, miR-155 silencing could inhibit collagen synthesis function, as well as signaling intensity of two pro-fibrotic pathways, Wnt/β-catenin and Akt, simultaneously. We further showed that miR-155 could regulate the two pathways via directly targeting casein kinase 1α (CK1α) and Src homology 2-containing inositol phosphatase-1 (SHIP-1), as previous reports. Mice with miR-155 knockout or topical antagomir-155 treatment showed inhibited Wnt/β-catenin and Akt signaling in skin upon bleomycin challenge. Together, our data suggest the potential of miR-155 silencing as a promising treatment for dermal fibrosis, especially in topical applications.

  4. Pathogen translocation and histopathological lesions in an experimental model of Salmonella Dublin infection in calves receiving lactic acid bacteria and lactose supplements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zbrun, María V.; Soto, Lorena P.; Bertozzi, Ezequiel; Sequeira, Gabriel J.; Marti, Luis E.; Signorini, Marcelo L.; Armesto, Roberto Rodríguez; Rosmini, Marcelo R.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the capacity of a lactic acid bacteria (LAB) inoculum to protect calves with or without lactose supplements against Salmonella Dublin infection by evaluating histopathological lesions and pathogen translocation. Fifteen calves were divided into three groups [control group (C-G), a group inoculated with LAB (LAB-G), and a group inoculated with LAB and given lactose supplements (L-LAB-G)] with five, six, and four animals, respectively. The inoculum, composed of Lactobacillus (L.) casei DSPV 318T, L. salivarius DSPV 315T, and Pediococcus acidilactici DSPV 006T, was administered with milk replacer. The LAB-G and L-LAB-G received a daily dose of 109 CFU/kg body weight of each strain throughout the experiment. Lactose was provided to the L-LAB-G in doses of 100 g/day. Salmonella Dublin (2 × 1010 CFU) was orally administered to all animals on day 11 of the experiment. The microscopic lesion index values in target organs were 83%, 70%, and 64.3% (p < 0.05) for the C-G, LAB-G, and L-LAB-G, respectively. Administration of the probiotic inoculum was not fully effective against infection caused by Salmonella. Although probiotic treatment was unable to delay the arrival of pathogen to target organs, it was evident that the inoculum altered the response of animals against pathogen infection. PMID:23000583

  5. Effect of acetate Ringer's solution with or without 5% dextrose administered intravenously to diarrheic calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsukano, Kenji; Kato, Satoko; Sarashina, Shinya; Abe, Izumi; Ajito, Tadaharu; Ohtsuka, Hiromichi; Suzuki, Kazuyuki

    2017-04-20

    The objectives of this study were to evaluate the effects of intravenous acetate Ringer's solution, with or without dextrose, on diarrheic calves with either experimentally induced or spontaneous diarrhea. In the experimental model, diarrhea was induced in nine healthy calves by administering cold milk (below 4°C) twice a day for 2 days. The calves were randomly assigned to the isotonic saline (ISS), acetated Ringer's (AR) or acetated Ringer's with 5% dextrose (ARD) groups, with three calves assigned to each group. The calves received 80 ml/kg of their designated solution, at a flow rate of 20 ml/kg/hr. Infusion of ISS, AR and ARD were all found to be safe and effective in increasing plasma volume. Intravenous (IV) infusion of ISS resulted in the acidification secondary to dilution, while AR and ARD infusion inhibited acidification. In addition, prevention of catabolism was observed only with IV infusion of ARD. Sixteen calves with spontaneous diarrhea were enrolled in the clinical study. The calves were randomly assigned to the AR or ARD groups, with eight calves being assigned to each group. The calves received 100 ml/kg of their designated solution, at a flow rate of 25 ml/kg/hr. Intravenous infusion of AR and ARD was found to be effective in increasing plasma volume and inhibiting acidification. Only infusion of ARD prevented catabolism, but it also led to hyperglycemia. Our results suggest that a solution containing dextrose may be beneficial for wasting diarrheic calves.

  6. Ingestion of colostrum from specific cows induces Bovine Neonatal Pancytopenia (BNP in some calves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlin Annette

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Since 2006, cases of haemorrhagic diathesis in young calves have been observed with a much higher incidence than previously known. The syndrome, now uniformly called Bovine Neonatal Pancytopenia (BNP, is characterized by multiple (external and internal haemorrhages, thrombocytopenia, leukocytopenia, and bone marrow depletion. Although various infectious and toxicological causes of bleeding disorders in calves have been ruled out, the aetiology of BNP remains unknown. However, field observations have led to the hypothesis that the aetiological principle may be transmitted to calves via colostrum. The objective of the present study was to verify whether ingestion of colostrum from dams of known BNP calves can elicit signs of BNP and typical haematological findings in conveniently selected neonatal calves. Six such calves received one feeding of colostrum (or a mixture of colostrum batches from dams of known BNP calves. As controls, another six conveniently selected calves from herds which had never had a BNP case received one feeding of colostrum from their own dams. Haematological and clinical parameters were monitored. Results One of the six experimental calves never showed any haematological, clinical or pathological evidence of BNP. In the other five calves, thrombocyte and leukocyte counts dropped within a few hours following ingestion of colostrum. Of those, three calves developed clinical signs of BNP, their post-mortem examination revealed bone marrow depletion. Of the remaining two calves, a pair of mixed twins, marked thrombocytopenia and recurrent leukocytopenia was evident in one, in which only slight changes in the bone marrow were detected, while in the other thrombocyte counts dropped, but rebounded later, and no bone marrow changes were noted. Thrombocyte counts of the experimental calves were statistically significantly lower than those of the control calves at 2 hours post ingestion of colostrum and at every

  7. Efficacy of a sup 6 0 sup C o irradiated vaccine for experimentally infected calves with dictyocaulus viviparus. Eficacia de una vacuna irradiada con sup 6 0 sup C o en terneros infectados experimentalmente con Dictyocaulus viviparus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zurita, Edgar [Comision Ecuatoriana de Energia Atomica, Quito (Ecuador); Paredes, Julio; Fernandez, Ardey [Facultad de Medicina Veterinaria y Zootecnica, Universidad Central del Ecuador (Ecuador)

    1991-07-01

    Dictyocaulus viviparus larvae in non-infected stage (L.1) were cultured in vitro to their infective stage (L.3) and were irradiated with 40 Krad from {sup 6}0{sup C}o and used as a vaccine. The oral experimental vaccine dose was 1000 L.3/animal. Three groups were formed with 8 calves in each one: group No. 1 and group No. 2 were vaccinated at 10 weeks of age. Four weeks later group No. 1 was infected with non-irradiated 60 L.3/Kg. of animal weight 'challenge dose'. After four weeks of post-vaccination group No. 2 was revaccinated and 4 weeks later it was infected with the 'challenge dose' as the previous group. Eight calves constituted group No. 3, four in each group; they were infected with only the challenge dose respectively. Information data on respiratory and cardiac frequency, temperature, weight, and L.1 count/g. of feces were obtained from each animal three times a week. After five weeks of post-challenge all animals were slaughtered to observe anatomopathologic lessions in the heart and lungs; the number of adult Dictyocaulus viviparus present in the respiratory tract were search 't'. Student test was used for the statistical analysis. The weight increment difference between animals of group No. 1 related control group was 7Kg.; and 11.25 Kg/animal in group No. 2 respectively. The percentage of protection confered by the vaccine to the subjects in group No. 1 relative to the respectivecontrol group, was 83.2; that for the group No. 2 was 88.5 per cent. Post-morten examination revealed severe anatomopathologic lessions in the control groups; only few lessions were observed in group No. 1 and practically none in group No. 2.

  8. Experimental and modelling studies on a laboratory scale anaerobic bioreactor treating mechanically biologically treated municipal solid waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakshmikanthan, P; Sughosh, P; White, James; Sivakumar Babu, G L

    2017-07-01

    The performance of an anaerobic bioreactor in treating mechanically biologically treated municipal solid waste was investigated using experimental and modelling techniques. The key parameters measured during the experimental test period included the gas yield, leachate generation and settlement under applied load. Modelling of the anaerobic bioreactor was carried out using the University of Southampton landfill degradation and transport model. The model was used to simulate the actual gas production and settlement. A sensitivity analysis showed that the most influential model parameters are the monod growth rate and moisture. In this case, pH had no effect on the total gas production and waste settlement, and only a small variation in the gas production was observed when the heat transfer coefficient of waste was varied from 20 to 100 kJ/(m d K) -1 . The anaerobic bioreactor contained 1.9 kg (dry) of mechanically biologically treated waste producing 10 L of landfill gas over 125 days.

  9. Effect of Enterococcus faecium SF68 on growth performance and in vivo digestibility in buffalo calves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Proto

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The effect of dietary supplementation with Enterococcus faecium strain SF68 on growth performance, faecal consistency and in vivo digestibility in buffalo (Bubalus bubalis calves was evaluated. Forty calves were randomly assigned at 10 d of age to one of four treatments: (A milk replacer with no additive, (B milk replacer supplemented with 0.17 g/l of viable (2 x l09 cfu/g E. faecium bacteria daily for 3 days with an interval of 7 days throughout 11 weeks, (C milk replacer supplemented with E. faecium daily for 4 weeks, (D milk replacer supplemented with E. faecium daily for 11 weeks. A total mixed ration was offered ad libitum from 5th week of the experimental period. Faecal score was significantly better in E. faecium-treated calves than control ones. The use of E. faecium had no effect on average daily gain at any stage, total body weight (BW gain, dry matter intake or total tract digestibility. Therefore, E. faecium supplementation may be able to act favourably on the health of the gastrointestinal tract.

  10. Lead poisoning in calves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reeves, J E

    1964-01-01

    Over a three-year period a farmer lost seven calves in their second month of age. One year ago a tentative diagnosis of rabies was given and a brain was submitted to the Health of Animals Division for examination. No Negri bodies were found. The owner stated that the calves first appeared listless and later exhibited severe nervous signs. Deaths occurred in from one to 24 hours after onset of signs. Appetite and bowel movements were normal. There was no increase in temperature. The calf would lie quietly for an interval, then rise, run down the alley, press against a wall, and go into a convulsion. It acted as if it were in severe pain and during one of the intermittent convulsions, it jumped over a three-foot partition. This calf was sent to the Regional Veterinary Laboratory at Brighton for necropsy. The calf had been dead for 72 hours when submitted to the laboratory. The only gross findings were of mild pleurisy and hemorrhage on the kidney. A tentative diagnosis of lead poisoning was offered and specimens sent to the Division of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Ontario Veterinary College.

  11. The effects of maternal calving date and calving interval on growth ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was undertaken to investigate the growth performance of calves born to dams with different calving dates and calving intervals. Early calving dams produced calves with the lowest birth weights, the highest actual weaning weights and the highest pre-breeding heifer weights. The higher weaning weights of early ...

  12. Supplementation of suckling beef calves with different levels of crude protein on tropical pasture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Sidnei Antonio; Paulino, Mário Fonseca; Detmann, Edenio; de Campos Valadares Filho, Sebastião; Valente, Eriton Egídio Lisboa; Barros, Lívia Vieira; Cardenas, Javier Enrique Garces; Almeida, Daniel Mageste; Martins, Leandro Soares; Silva, Aline Gomes

    2014-02-01

    The effects of supplementation with different levels of crude protein on performance, intake and nutrient digestibility and efficiency of microbial protein synthesis in suckling beef calves on pasture were assessed. Fifty-five calves, with an average age of 100 days and an initial average body weight of 110 ± 7.5 kg and their respective dams, were used. The experimental design was completely randomised with five treatments and 11 replications. The experimental treatments for calves were as follows: control = calves received only mineral mixture; supplementation levels = calves received supplement containing 8, 19, 30 or 41% of crude protein (CP, at a rate of 0.5% of body weight (BW)). The cows received only mineral mixture ad libitum. Supplemented calves had higher (P calves. There was no difference in total dry matter (DM) intake (P > 0.1). However, intake of dry matter forage (DMF) presented cubic profiles (P calves on creep feeding. The intake of supplements with CP levels between 8 and 30% partially replaces of the pasture ingested by calves and increases the digestibility of the diet.

  13. Association between birth conditions and glucose and cortisol profiles of periparturient dairy cows and neonatal calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vannucchi, C I; Rodrigues, J A; Silva, L C G; Lúcio, C F; Veiga, G A L; Furtado, P V; Oliveira, C A; Nichi, M

    2015-04-04

    Parturition in cattle is a stressful event for both the dam and the offspring. Stress and pain can alter the energy profile of calves and calving cows, producing a metabolic imbalance at birth. This study aimed to assess the effects of dystocia and oxytocin and calcium infusion on metabolic homeostasis in dairy cows and calves. Thirty Holstein cows and their calves were divided into three groups: an eutocia group (n=10), in which no calving assistance was needed; a dystocia group, which required mild-to-severe obstetric assistance (n=10); and a uterine inertia group, which was treated with oxytocin and calcium (n=10). To assess serum cortisol and blood glucose levels, blood samples were collected during the peripartum period from cows and during the first hour since birth from calves. All groups were hyperglycaemic following parturition. Infusion of oxytocin and calcium resulted in lower maternal glucose concentrations and lower levels of stress than in cows in the dystocia group. Birth condition was significantly associated with blood glucose and cortisol concentrations in calves. Glucose concentration was lower in calves born with oxytocin and calcium infusion than those born with fetal extraction. In conclusion, assisted calving with fetal extraction causes important metabolic changes for the dam and calf. Conversely, the practice of oxytocin and calcium infusion for hypotonic cows has no harmful effects on metabolic balance and can be safely employed as a medical treatment. British Veterinary Association.

  14. The susceptibility differences of buffalo and Ongole calves against trickle infection with Fasciola gigantica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ening Wiedosari

    1998-03-01

    Full Text Available A pen trial was carried out in order to determine the susceptibility differences of a trickle infection with Fasciola gigantica in buffalo and Ongole calves. Treated animals were infected orally with 15 metacercariae of F. gigantica twice weekly for 32 weeks and were slaughtered at 36 weeks. The results showed that buffalo calves had significantly lower fluke burdens than Ongole calves (P<0 .01 . All of the infected Ongole calves had fasciola eggs in their faeces 18 weeks after the commencement of infection. In contrast, eggs were detected only in 3 out of 7 infected buffalo calves at week 20, in 4 at week 28 and in 6 at week 30. Faeces of the seventh buffalo remained free of eggs until week 36. Rates of growth were reduced by 25%and 10,3% in infected Ongole and buffalo calves respectively . Circulating blood eosinophilia ofboth hosts, ahallmark of helminth infections, increased following infection, but values in buffaloes was greater than Ongole calves mainly in week 4 and 8 after infection (P<0.01. These results might be concluded that the susceptibility of buffalo calves to trickle infection with F. gigantica was lower compared to Ongole calves.

  15. Intestinal infection following aerosol challenge of calves with Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eisenberg Susanne WF

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A challenge experiment was performed to investigate whether administration of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP via the respiratory route leads to MAP infection in calves. Eighteen calves from test negative dams were randomly allocated to four groups. Six calves were challenged with MAP nasally and six calves were challenged by transtracheal injection; three orally challenged calves served as positive controls, and three non challenged calves as negative controls. The challenge was performed as a nine-fold trickle dose, 107 CFU in total. Blood and faecal samples were collected frequently. Calves were euthanized three months post-challenge and extensively sampled. Blood samples were tested for the presence of antibodies and interferon gamma producing cells by ELISA. Faecal and tissue samples were cultured in a liquid culture system and the presence of MAP was confirmed by IS900 realtime PCR. Fourteen out of fifteen calves had no MAP antibody response. The negative controls remained negative; all positive controls became infected. Two nasally challenged calves showed a Purified Protein Derivative Avian (PPDA specific interferon gamma response. In all nasally challenged calves, MAP positive intestinal samples were detected. In three calves of the nasal group MAP positive retropharyngeal lymph nodes or tonsils were detected. In all calves of the transtracheal group MAP positive intestinal tissues were detected as well and three had a MAP positive tracheobronchial lymph node. These findings indicate that inhalation of MAP aerosols can result in infection. These experimental results may be relevant for transmission under field conditions since viable MAP has been detected in dust on commercial dairy farms.

  16. Liquid nitrogen-treated autogenous dentin as bone substitute: an experimental study in a rabbit model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atiya, Basim K; Shanmuhasuntharam, Palasuntharam; Huat, Siar; Abdulrazzak, Shurooq; Oon, Ha

    2014-01-01

    Different forms of dentin, including untreated, undemineralized, demineralized, boiled, or mixed with other materials, have been evaluated for efficacy as bone substitutes. However, the effects of application of liquid nitrogen-treated dentin for bone grafting remain unknown. The objective of this study was to chronologically evaluate bone healing following grafting with liquid nitrogen-treated dentin in a rabbit model. Autogenous dentin treated with liquid nitrogen at -196°C for 20 minutes was used. In 16 New Zealand White rabbits, a bone defect (5 mm in diameter) was created in each femur and randomly grafted with either autogenous dentin (experimental group) or autogenous bone grafts (positive control). In another four rabbits (negative control), a similar defect in each femur was left empty. The rabbits were sacrificed at 2, 4, 8, and 12 weeks. Explants of grafted sites were harvested for histologic and histomorphometric analysis. At 2 and 4 weeks in both the experimental and positive control groups, accelerated formation of new bone was observed, which was undergoing remodeling at 8 and 12 weeks. The mean new bone score was higher in the experimental than in the negative control groups, but this was not statistically significant. The present results demonstrated that liquid nitrogen-treated autogenous dentin has both osteoconductive and osteoinductive properties and therefore has potential as a bone substitute.

  17. The use of the normalized residual in averaging experimental data and in treating outliers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    James, M.F.; Mills, R.W.; Weaver, D.R.

    1992-01-01

    In comparing and averaging different measurements of a particular quantity, the problem frequently arises of treating discrepant data. Ideally the evaluator should then study the experimental methods in detail, to try to resolve the discrepancies. This however is often either impractical or unsuccessful. An alternative statistical approach is outlined here, using the ''normalized residual''. The theoretical probability distribution of this quantity is compared with that observed for fission chain yield data from a recent evaluation by the authors. The use of the normalized residual in treating discrepant data is explained and compared with alternative methods. (author)

  18. Significance of Timing on Effect of Metaphylactic Toltrazuril Treatment against Eimeriosis in Calves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enemark, Heidi; Dahl, Jan; Enemark, Jörg Matthias Dehn

    2015-01-01

    of Eimeria bovis and Eimeria zuernii. Three commercial herds and a total of 71 calves, aged 48 – 135 days, were included. Treatment with a single oral dose of toltrazuril (15 mg/kg) was given after relocation to common pens and one week before expected outbreak of eimeriosis. The effect of treatment...... was followed by weekly faecal sampling and weighing initially and at the end of a study period of 8 weeks. In Herd 2 and 3 toltrazuril treated calves gained on average 7.95 kg more than placebo treated calves (p = 0.007), and both oocyst excretion and prevalence of Eimeria spp. were significantly reduced...

  19. Treating experimental data of inverse kinetic method by unitary linear regression analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Yusen; Chen Xiaoliang

    2009-01-01

    The theory of treating experimental data of inverse kinetic method by unitary linear regression analysis was described. Not only the reactivity, but also the effective neutron source intensity could be calculated by this method. Computer code was compiled base on the inverse kinetic method and unitary linear regression analysis. The data of zero power facility BFS-1 in Russia were processed and the results were compared. The results show that the reactivity and the effective neutron source intensity can be obtained correctly by treating experimental data of inverse kinetic method using unitary linear regression analysis and the precision of reactivity measurement is improved. The central element efficiency can be calculated by using the reactivity. The result also shows that the effect to reactivity measurement caused by external neutron source should be considered when the reactor power is low and the intensity of external neutron source is strong. (authors)

  20. Effect of halofuginone lactate on the occurrence of Cryptosporidium parvum and growth of neonatal dairy calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarvie, B D; Trotz-Williams, L A; McKnight, D R; Leslie, K E; Wallace, M M; Todd, C G; Sharpe, P H; Peregrine, A S

    2005-05-01

    Thirty-one Holstein bull calves were purchased at birth from 3 dairy farms in Eastern Ontario. Each calf was assigned at random to oral treatment with either 5 mg of halofuginone lactate in 10.0 mL of aqueous carrier solution (Halocur, base comprised 10 mg of benzoic acid, 100 mg of lactic acid, and 0.3 mg of tartrazine) or 10 mL of placebo (Halocur base minus the active ingredient, halofuginone lactate) administered 15 to 30 min after morning milk feeding for the first 7 d of life. Intakes of milk, calf starter, and water, and fecal consistency score were recorded daily for 56 d. Calf weights were recorded weekly for 56 d. Fecal samples were taken from all calves at approximately 2, 7, 14, 21, and 28 d of age for isolation of Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts. Logistic and linear regression analyses were used to assess the effect of treatment on the incidence of diarrhea and C. parvum infection status. The odds of C. parvum shedding among calves in the halofuginone lactate-treated group was 70% lower than the odds of shedding among calves in the placebo group. In calves treated with halofuginone lactate, no oocyst shedding occurred until 2 wk of age, whereas 12.5% of calves in the placebo group began shedding oocysts during wk 1. From all ages of placebo-treated calves, 31 of 73 samples (42.5%) were positive for C. parvum, whereas only 15 of 67 samples (22.4%) from all ages of halofuginone lactate-treated calves tested positive. The largest number of C. parvum-positive samples occurred in the third week of life. There was a significant delay of 3.1 d in the incidence of diarrhea among calves treated with halofuginone lactate. Intake of milk and starter, body weight gains, and age at weaning were not significantly different between treatment groups.

  1. Passive immunity transfer and serum constituents of crossbred calves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thaís G. Rocha

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Passive immunity transfer (PIT evaluation is an essential tool for the maintenance of healthy calves during the first months of life. Since lactation number and breed have been proven to influence immunoglobulin levels in colostrum, the aim of this study was to evaluate PIT from primiparous and multiparous Canchim cows to their calves. Blood samples were collected from the calves before colostrum intake and 1, 2, 7, 15 and 30 days thereafter, while colostrum samples from the cows were taken immediately after parturition. Activities of gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT, alkaline phosphatase (ALP, and concentrations of total protein, albumin, globulins, immunoglobulin A (IgA, immunoglobulin G (IgG, total and ionized calcium, inorganic phosphorus, magnesium, sodium and potassium were evaluated in calves' serum and activities of GGT and ALP and concentrations of total protein, IgA and IgG were assessed in cow's colostrum whey. Immunoglobulins concentrations were evaluated by electrophoresis in polyacrylamide gels. Serum biochemistry evaluations revealed an increase in gamma-glutamyl transferase and alkaline phosphatase activities and in total protein, globulins, immunoglobulin A and immunoglobulin G levels in calves' serum after colostrum intake. Only total protein and light chain immunoglobulin G levels in colostrum whey were affected by the cows' lactation number. Phosphorus and magnesium levels in blood serum increased after colostrum intake, while sodium and potassium levels oscillated in the experimental period. PIT was influenced by the cows' lactation number but was efficient in both groups.

  2. The effect of yeast culture addition on utility of calves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petr Doležal

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, examined was the effect of a yeast culture (Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Strain 47 on performance (especially on daily gains, feed conversion and condition in an experiment with a group of Holstein calves within the period of plant nutrition. Animals received a diet consisting of 3 kg of good maize silage, 5.5 kg of grass haylage, 1 kg of meadow hay and 1.6 kg of supplementary starter feed mixture ČOT B. The yeast culture was added to the starter in the dose of 1 g.kg–1. This means that each experimental calf received 1.6 g of yeast culture per day. The supplement of yeast culture showed a positive effect on daily gains and on the final body weight of calves; however, the differences were statistically not significant (P>0.05. In control and experimental groups, the mean conversion rates of concentrate were 2.19 kg and 2.13 kg, respectively. There was no difference in feed intake and feed conversion efficiency. The difference in final live body weights of calves in the control and experimental groups was also not significant. However, the condition of calves in the experimental group was much better and the scours were in general less frequent.

  3. Atypical pestivirus and severe respiratory disease in calves, Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decaro, Nicola; Lucente, Maria Stella; Mari, Viviana; Cirone, Francesco; Cordioli, Paolo; Camero, Michele; Sciarretta, Rossana; Losurdo, Michele; Lorusso, Eleonora; Buonavoglia, Canio

    2011-08-01

    In 2010, a HoBi-like pestivirus was isolated from clinically affected calves in Italy. This European virus reproduced a milder form of disease under experimental conditions and was genetically related to previously reported HoBi-like strains. Isolation of this novel virus from a clinical outbreak may have implications for cattle health and prophylactic programs.

  4. EFFECT OF PREPARTUM TREATMENT OF VITAMIN E-SELENIUM ON POSTPARTUM REPRODUCTIVE AND PRODUCTIVE PERFORMANCE OF EXOTIC COWS AND THEIR CALVES UNDER SUBTROPICAL CONDITIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. SATTAR, R. H. MIRZA1 AND S. M. I. HUSSAIN2

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out at the Livestock Experiment Station, Bhunikey (Pattoki, District Kasur, Pakistan. Forty exotic cows (20 each of Holstein Friesian and Jersey breed in their last trimester of pregnancy were randomly selected. These cows were divided into two equal groups. Animals of group-I served as control and were injected with 20 ml sterile normal saline intramuscularly, while each cow in group-II was treated with vitamin E-selenium (vitamin E acetate 50.0 mg and sodium selenite 0.5 mg/ml twice (20 ml at each time with one-week interval. First injection was given at about 40-60 days prior to the expected date of calving. Calves born to the experimental cows were monitored to study the carry over effect of treatment, if any, from dams to the calves. The reproductive parameters, viz. placental expulsion period, uterine involution period, postpartum insemination interval, service period and number of services per conception in the cows of treated group were significantly (P<0.05 lesser compared with those of the control group. However, the differences in production parameters, i.e., lactation milk yield, lactation length and wet average between the two groups were statistically non significant. The same was true for birth weight, weaning weight and growth rate upto weaning between calves of the two groups. In conclusion, it appears that administration of vitamin E-selenium before calving may be beneficial in improving the postpartum reproductive parameters in exotic cows. However, number of animals used in each group was too small to draw any definite conclusion.

  5. Ferrokinetic studies in normal and iron deficiency anemic calves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moellerberg, L.; Ekman, L.; Jacobsson, S.-O.

    1975-01-01

    inetic studies were performed on control calves and on calves with experimentallally induced iron deficiency anemia, all 15 weeks old. The plasma iron clearance half time was about 4 times shorter in the experimental than in the control group. The low plasma iron concentration in the anemic calves was partially compensated by a more rapid plasma iron disappearance. Therefore the difference in the plasma iron turnover rate was reduced. The mean value of plasma iron renewal rate was about 3 times higher in the experimental than in the control group. The maximum uptake of injected 59 Fe into blood cells was reached 14 to 16 days after injection. The uptake of 59 Fe was about 10 % higher in the control than in the experimental group. Using the values from the ferrokinetietic study, the iron need for calves could be estimated. The requirement of iron to maintain a normal and constant Hb in a calf weighing 100 kg at a growth rate of 1 kg/daily was estimated as being 17.5 mg/day. Based on information in the literature and assuming a retention of dietary Fe of 25 %, the total daily iron need for such a calf gaining 1 kg/day would be 160-180 mg. (author)

  6. Chronic lead intoxication in calves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wagenaar, G

    1963-01-01

    Four calves born in the winter of 1961-1962 died on a farm after a disease which had run its course for periods ranging from six weeks to a few months. A calf had also died showing similar symptoms during the previous year. All calves showed identical symptoms. Initially, their liveliness diminished; subsequently, they drank less and showed signs of pica. They finally died after the disease had run its course for about six weeks. The last calf, born late in February 1962, was in poor health as early as May, improved slightly when it had been sent out to grass but died in September, having fallen ill again in August. Autopsy was performed on three calves; all three were affected with chronic interstitial nephritis and uraemic endocarditis of the left auricle was present as well. The results obtained on toxicological investigation were indicative of lead poisoning. The liver of the calf was found to contain two mg of lead per kg, the cortex of the kidney containing twenty-five mg of lead per kg. These figures did not provide direct evidence of lead poisoning, but in evaluating these figures the fact was taken into account that the calf had no longer been able to ingest any lead for several months. Meanwhile, it was found that the stock-owner had fitted an old painted door in the calf-shed, which door was constantly being licked by the calves. The paint contained 18.6% of lead. This finding was followed by examination of the liver of a calf that had died previously. It was found to contain 49.7 mg of lead per kg. Accordingly, the calves had been affected with a form of lead poisoning running a relatively slow course, as a result of which the animals had developed chronic interstitial nephritis. The calves eventually died from uraemia. 4 references.

  7. Effect of drinking water temperature on water intake and performance of dairy calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huuskonen, A; Tuomisto, L; Kauppinen, R

    2011-05-01

    Very limited information is available on the effects of drinking water temperature on dairy calves. Therefore, the present experiment was designed to study the effects on performance, health, and water consumption of dairy calves offered drinking water either warm (16 to 18 °C) or cold (6 to 8 °C). The calves (60 calves/treatment) were housed in an insulated barn in pens (3.0 × 3.5m; 5 calves in each) providing 2.1m(2)/calf. During the experimental period (20 to 195 d of age), the calves had free access to water from an open water bowl (depth 80 mm, diameter 220 mm, 2-L capacity, 1 bowl/pen). During the preweaning period (20 to 75 d of age), all calves received milk replacer (7.5L/calf daily) and had free access to commercial starter, grass silage, and hay. During the postweaning period (75 to 195 d), the weaned calves had free access to grass silage and hay and were given 3 kg/d (air-dry basis) of a commercial concentrate mixture. During the preweaning period, the water intake of the calves offered warm water was 47% higher than that of the calves offered cold water. Water intake in both treatments increased rapidly during weaning and for a few days following weaning. At 180 to 195 d of age, the calves consumed approximately 18 to 20 L of water daily. Calves offered warm water drank 7 and 8% more water during the postweaning period and overall during the experimental period, respectively, compared with those offered cold water. No treatment differences were observed in dry matter or energy intakes, body weight gains, or feed conversion rates. Furthermore, total serum IgG concentrations of the calves did not differ during the preweaning or postweaning periods. Dairy calves consumed more warm than cold water, but the increase in water intake did not influence feed intake, body weight gain, or health parameters. Copyright © 2011 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Changes in vascularization of internal organs in rabbits with experimental atherosclerosis, treated with protein hydrolysate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demireva, K.; Popdimitrov, I.

    1979-01-01

    The vascularization of the internal organs of rabbits with experimental atherosclerosis was studied by the method of Sapirstein with 86 rubidium. Experiments were carried out on male Chinchilla rabbits, fed cholesterol in a dose of 0,2 g/kg of body weight daily for a period of 90 days. Part of the animals were treated with protein hydrolysate in a dose of 5 ml/kg of body weight subcutaneously and the remaining - with physiologic saline. There was reduced vascularization in the heart, kidneys, intestines, liver, adrenals, pancreas and other internal organs in rabbits fed cholestrol and treated with physiologic saline. Administration of protein hydrolysate had protective effect on organ vascularization. Accumulation of 86 rubidium in a large part of the animals was greater than in control group. It is shown that protein hydrolysate amino acids stabilize the endothelial cells and stimulate the local vascularization. (author)

  9. Lactobacillus rhamnosus strain GG is a potential probiotic for calves

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    Abstract Diarrhea is a common occurrence in neonatal calves. Several veterinary probiotics claiming to prevent or treat calf diarrhea are available, but have not been well studied. This study assessed the capability of Lactobacillus rhamnosus strain GG (LGG) to maintain viability in the gastrointestinal tract of calves. We also determined whether LGG can be administered in an oral rehydration solution (ORS) without compromising the efficacy of the ORS or the viability of LGG, and whether LGG produces D-lactate or not. To investigate the intestinal survival of LGG, 15 calves were randomized into 3 groups and LGG was administered orally with their morning milk feeding on 3 consecutive days at a low (LD), medium (MD), or high (HD) dosage. Fecal samples were collected on days 0 (control), 1, 2, 3, 5, and 7 and incubated for 72 h on deMan, Rogosa, Sharpe agar. Twenty-four hours after the 1st feeding, LGG was recovered from 1 out of 5 calves in the LD group, 4 out of 5 calves in the MD group, and 5 out of 5 calves in the HD group. To determine if LGG caused the glucose levels in the ORS to drop below effective levels, 1.5 L of the ORS was incubated with LGG for 2 h at 37°C and the glucose concentration was measured every 20 min using a glucose meter. This ORS was then further incubated for 10 h and aliquots analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography to determine if D-lactate was produced by LGG. Glucose concentrations did not change over the 2 h of incubation, and no D-lactate was produced after 48 h. The LGG maintained viability in ORS. Therefore, this study demonstrated that LGG survives intestinal transit in the young calf, produces no D-lactate, and can be administered in an ORS. PMID:15581218

  10. Hepatic Lipodystrophy in Galloway Calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wieland, M; Mann, S; Hafner-Marx, A; Ignatius, A; Metzner, M

    2017-05-01

    Hepatic lipodystrophy in Galloway calves is a fatal liver disease affecting a small proportion of the Galloway breed described in different parts of Europe and North America during the past decades. The clinical findings include a diversity of neurological signs. Clinical pathology findings frequently indicate hepatobiliary disease. Postmortem examination reveals an enlarged, pale yellow, and firm liver. Histologic lesions include hepatic fibrosis, hepatic lipidosis, and bile duct hyperplasia. To date, the etiopathogenesis remains obscure. Infectious causes, intoxications, and a hereditary origin have been considered. We describe hepatic lipodystrophy in Galloway calves from an extensively farmed cow-calf operation in southern Germany. Main clinical findings in 6 calves were consistent with hepatic encephalopathy. Clinical pathology findings in 5 of 6 tested animals revealed increased concentration of total bilirubin (maximum value [MV], 54 μmol/l; reference range [RR], 250 U/g Hb). Postmortem examination in 6 calves revealed a firm, diffusely enlarged yellow liver with a finely nodular surface. Histologic lesions included hepatic fibrosis, hepatic lipidosis, and bile duct hyperplasia. Our findings add to the existing data on hepatic lipodystrophy in the Galloway breed and outline a protocol to aid in the diagnosis of this disorder.

  11. The study on the immunity restoring function of cWPROL in treating experimental radiation esophagitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen Li; Shan Baoen; Zhang Li; Lu Fuhe; Guo Xiujuan

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To study the restorative function of compound white peony root oral liquids (cWPROL) in treating rats' experimental acute radiation-induced esophagitis from the aspect of immunodeficiency. Methods: 128 Wistar rats were divided into eight groups. The radiation esophagitis was induced by 43 Gy 60 Co. Then the rats were treated with medicine in different ways. On every experimental point the absolute number and percentage of T lymphocyte subsets were analyzed by flow cytometry. The changes of the leukocyte in number and differential count were detected by haemocyte counting instrument. IgG and C3 in rats' serum were analyzed by immunological turbidimetry. Results: Radiation brought on decrease of experimental rats 'leukocyte count, the lymphocyte differential count, absolute count and absolute T lymphocyte subsets in the blood and the content of IgG and C3 with radiation esophagitis. cWPROL could increase the lymphocyte percentage compared that in with the radiated group 2. The preventive (high dose) could increase lymphocyte count while Western medicine decreased rats' leukocyte count, lymphocyte percentage and absolute count (P<0.05). The absolute T lymphocyte subsets in rats' peripheral blood increased in the group infused with cWPROL (high dose) (P<0.001). Compared with the radiated group 2 the absolute T lymphocyte subsets decreased significantly(P<0.001), and the content of complement C3 increased in the group infused with cWPROL (high dose) (P<0.05) but decreased in the group infused with Western medicine (P<0.01). Conclusion: cWPROL plays the role of restoring the cytoimmunity and immunity damaged by radiation in rats with radiation esophagitis. (authors)

  12. Alleviation of Oxidative Stress by Using Olive Pomace in Crossbred (Brown Swiss X Baladi) Calves Under Hot Environmental Conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdalla, E.B.; Khalil, F.K.; El - Masry, K.A.; Teama, F.E.; Emara, S.S.

    2015-01-01

    Ten female crossbred (Brown Swiss X Baladi) calves , 8 – 10 months old with average live body weight of 112 kg at the be ginning of experimental period were used to investigate the effect of olive pomace (OP) supplementation which contains phenolic compounds on oxidant and antioxidant agents and some blood constituents, and its relation with growth performance in heat stressed calves. The animals were maintained under hot summer environmental conditions, where, ambient temperature and relative humidity average d 37.48°C ± 0.32 and 64.58 % ± 0.77 , (equivalent to THI 91) during day, and 28.38 °C ± 0.22 and 78.23 % ± 0.69 , (equivalent to THI 80) during night, respectively. The animals were divided into two equal groups (5 calves each). The first group control (received 0 % OP of the concentrate mixture, while the second group) treated received 15 % OP of the concentrate mixture, for two months. Body weight o f calves was recorded twice at the beginning and at the end of experimental period, and daily gain was calculated for each animal. Blood samples were taken from each animal at the end of experimental period to determine antioxidant and oxidant indices, some blood constituents and T 3 concentration. Our results showed that supplementation of OP significantly increased antioxidant status including catalase enzyme activity, total antioxidant capacity, uric acid as a non-enzymatic antioxidant and copper as a specific antioxidant protecting macromolecules. More over, OP significantly reduced serum malondialdehyde as a lipid peroxidation marker, iron concentration which act as a pro-oxidant, lipids profile including total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein (LDL – cholesterol), very low density lipoprotein (VLDL – cholesterol), triglycerides and phospholipids. Also, OP caused a significant decrease in serum creatinine and urea- N concentrations as well as AST activity. However, OP significantly elevated T3 level, and improved feed efficiency and daily

  13. Amelioration of salmonellosis in pre-weaned dairy calves fed Saccharomyces cerevisiae fermentation products in feed and milk replacer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewer, Matthew T; Anderson, Kristi L; Yoon, Ilkyu; Scott, Mark F; Carlson, Steve A

    2014-08-06

    Salmonellosis is an insidious and potentially epidemic problem in pre-weaned dairy calves. Managing this disease, or any other diarrheal disease, is a financial burden to producers. Calf mortalities and medicinal treatments are overt costs of salmonellosis, while hidden costs include hampered weight gains and persistent intestinal colonization of the pathogen. In this study, we examined the anti-Salmonella effects of Saccharomyces cerevisiae fermentation products (SCFP) incorporated into both the milk replacer and the starter grain. In a blinded study, 2-8 day-old calves were fed SCFP (n=20 calves) or an SCFP-free Control (n=20 calves) for two weeks before and three weeks after experimental challenge with Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium. Following the challenge, calves were monitored for clinical signs and parameters associated with salmonellosis. Calves were then euthanized and examined for rumen development and intestinal Salmonella colonization. When compared to calves that received milk replacer and feed lacking SCFP, calves fed SCFP had fewer bouts of diarrhea and fever. Rumens from these calves were more developed, as measured by the length of papillae, which is consistent with the enhanced weight gain observed in this treatment group. Additionally, Salmonella intestinal colonization was reduced in SCFP-fed calves and Salmonella fecal shedding disappeared at an earlier stage in these calves. This study revealed that the combination of two proprietary S. cerevisiae fermentation products provide marked benefit for preventing the negative effects of salmonellosis in pre-weaned dairy calves, while also boosting productivity. The mechanism of action needs to be clarified, but it may be related to the observed decrease in colonization by the pathogen and increase in rumen development. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. TREAT experimental data base regarding fuel dispersals in LMFBR loss-of-flow accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simms, R.; Fink, C.L.; Stanford, G.S.; Regis, J.P.

    1981-01-01

    The reactivity feedback from fuel relocation is a central issue in the analysis of loss-of-flow (LOF) accidents in LMFBRs. Fuel relocation has been studied in a number of LOF simulations in the TREAT reactor. In this paper the results of these tests are analyzed, using, as the principal figure of merit, the changes in equivalent fuel worth associated with the fuel motion. The equivalent fuel worth was calculated from the measured axial fuel distributions by weighting the data with a typical LMFBR fuel-worth function. At nominal power, the initial fuel relocation resulted in increases in equivalent fuel worth. Above nominal power the fuel motion was dispersive, but the dispersive driving forces could not unequivocally be identified from the experimental data

  15. Effect of Milk Fermented with Lactic Acid Bacteria on Diarrheal Incidence, Growth Performance and Microbiological and Blood Profiles of Newborn Dairy Calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maldonado, N C; Chiaraviglio, J; Bru, E; De Chazal, L; Santos, V; Nader-Macías, M E F

    2017-08-02

    The effect of the administration of milk fermented with lactic acid bacteria to calves was evaluated. The strains included were: Lactobacillus murinus CRL1695, Lact. mucosae CRL1696, Lact. johnsonii CRL1693, and Lact. salivarius CRL1702, which were selected for their beneficial and functional properties and isolated from healthy calves in the northwestern region of Argentina. The trial was conducted on a dairy farm located in Tucumán (Holando-Argentino calves). A randomized controlled trial was performed in which 56 new-born animals were divided into two groups: the treated group (T) received the fermented milk for 60 days and the control group (C) only milk. The animals were fed a solid diet ad libitum. The treated group was given a daily dose of 1 × 10 9 CFU of the probiotic fermented milk while the control group was fed milk. Body weight and biometrical parameters were recorded between 15 and 60 days of age, and average daily gain was calculated with three samplings per animal throughout the trial. Rectal swabs and fecal and blood samples were also collected. Results showed the efficacy of the probiotic: lower morbidity and mortality of calves (morbidity was 69.20% in animals without the probiotic, and 46.15% in probiotic-treated animals, with P = 0.09; mortality in C was 34.61 and 7.69% in animals fed with ferment milk; P = 0.02).The calves fed with probiotic evidenced an improvement in nutritional parameters, body condition and weight gain (health index P = 0.01; average daily gain P = 0.03).Viable bacterial numbers showed no differences between the two experimental groups. Hematological parameters and serum proteins were not modified by the treatment. The results suggest that the fermented milk containing lactic acid bacteria can be a viable veterinary product for young calves due to its beneficial effects on health and growth.

  16. Comparisons of housing, bedding, and cooling options for dairy calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, T M; Bateman, H G; Aldrich, J M; Schlotterbeck, R L

    2011-04-01

    Housing, bedding, and summer cooling were management options evaluated. Holstein calves (42±2 kg of body weight) initially 2 to 5 d of age were managed in southwest Ohio in poly hutches or wire mesh pens in a curtain-sided nursery with no supplemental heat. Calves were fed milk replacer (27% crude protein, 17% fat fed at 0.657 kg of dry matter per calf daily), starter (20% crude protein dry matter, textured, fed free-choice), and water (free-choice). Measurements were for 56 d. In trial 1, 28 calves per treatment were bedded with straw and housed in either hutches or nursery pens. This trial was conducted from September to March; the average temperature was 8°C and ranged from -17 to 31°C. In trial 2a, 16 calves per treatment were managed in nursery pens bedded with straw, in nursery pens bedded with sand, or in hutches bedded with sand. This trial was conducted from May to September; the average temperature was 21°C and ranged from 7 to 33°C. In trial 2b, 26 calves per treatment were housed in nursery pens and bedded with straw. This trial was conducted from May to September; the average temperature was 22°C and ranged from 8 to 34°C. One treatment was cooled with fans between 0800 and 1700 h and the other was not. Data were analyzed as repeated measures in a completely randomized block design by trial, with calf as the experimental unit. In trial 3, air in the nursery and calf hutches used above was sampled 35 d apart for calves aged 5 and 40 d. Air in individual hutches on 2 commercial farms was sampled for 5- and 40-d-old calves for 2 hutch types. Air in the multi-calf hutches was sampled for calves of 75 and 110 d of age. Bacterial concentrations of air samples were analyzed (log10) as odds ratios by Proc Logistic in SAS software (SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC); differences were declared at Pbedding were greater and scouring was less than that in calves bedded with sand in the nursery or hutches. The relative humidity was greater in the hutches than in

  17. Creep feeding nursing beef calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lardy, Gregory P; Maddock, Travis D

    2007-03-01

    Creep feeding can be used to increase calf weaning weights. However, the gain efficiency of free-choice, energy-based creep feeds is relatively poor. Generally, limit-feeding, high-protein creep feeds are more efficient, and gains may be similar to those produced by creep feeds offered free choice. Creep feeding can increase total organic matter intake and improve the overall energy status of the animal. Creep-fed calves tend to acclimate to the feedlot more smoothly than unsupplemented calves. Furthermore, provision of a high-starch creep feed may have a positive influence on subsequent carcass quality traits. Creep feeding can be applied to numerous environmental situations to maximize calf performance; however, beef cattle producers should consider their individual situations carefully before making the decision to creep feed.

  18. Improving growth performance in calves under hot weather conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emara, S.S.M.

    2009-01-01

    The main objectives of the present study were to evaluate the effect of some supplement such as dried live yeast DLY (Saccharomyces cerevisiae), DLY + vitamin E and / or dried whey milk (DWM) on blood constituents and thyroid activity in relation to some immune indices and growth performance of calves under hot weather conditions. The ambient temperature and relative humidity averaged 36.9±4 degree C and 43-58 % during day and 29±4 degree C and 60-68 % during night, respectively, which were equivalent to temperature humidity index of 86-89 during day and 78-80 during night . The present study included three experiments as follows. Experiment 1 : Six female bovine Baladi calves of 8-10 months old and 100 kg initial body weight (IBW) were used during two periods. In the first period, the calves were offered the basal diet for one month and considered as a control period. In the second period, the same calves were fed the same basal diet which supplemented with 15 g / calf/ day DLY for one month and considered as treated period. The obtained results indicated that supplementation of DLY reduced significantly the respiration rate (RR) and rectal temperature (RT) as well as serum lipids profile including total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein (LDL- cholesterol) very low density lipoprotein (VLDL-cholesterol) triglycerides and phospholipids.The second and third experiments were carried out for improving growth performance of heat-stressed bovine baladi calves by adding DLY and vitamine E (alpha-tocopherol) to their diet in experiment 2 and dried whey milk (DWM) in experiment 3.

  19. [Diprosopus in calves of different breeds].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bähr, C; Beineke, A; Drögemüller, C; Distl, O

    2004-04-01

    Three calves of the breeds German Holstein, German Angus and German Fleckvieh from three farms were born showing different forms of facial duplication. Two calves were classified as diprosopus with tetraophthalmus and in one calf a partial duplication of the forehead with a third nostril was observed. Further relatives of these affected calves or animals in the same herds were not affected by diprosopus. The calves with diprosopus were examined by means of clinical and pathological-anatomical methods. The increased occurrence of twin births and inbreeding could be of importance for the observed congenital anomaly, whereas conception early in life and conception during the winter months of the mothers of the affected calves are unlikely as reasons for the observed congenital anomaly of these calves. Even if the cases of diprosopus showed no increased frequency by paternal half sib groups, it is likely that diprosopus is genetically influenced and a larger number of genes may determine the phenotype.

  20. Effect of Moringa oleifera on hematological parameters of calves reared in industrial fluorotic area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kruti Debnath Mandal

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The present study was undertaken to evaluate the ameliorative potential of dried Moringa oleifera fruit powder in fluorosis affected calves reared around the vicinity of aluminium smelter plant. Materials and Methods: Total 107 calves were screened on the basis of clinical signs and higher plasma fluoride (more than 0.2 ppm level for evidence of fluorosis. Out of that, 90 samples found positive and from them 18 calves of 6-12 months age group were selected and divided equally into three groups named as Group II, III, and IV. Group II remained as disease control group whereas Group III calves were supplemented with dried M. oleifera fruit powder of 25 g/calve for 60 days. Group IV calves were supplemented with calcium carbonate at 100 mg/kg body weight and boric acid at 10 mg/kg for the same experimental period. Group I consisted of six numbers of healthy calves taken from the non-fluorotic zone, i.e. Bhubaneswar. Plasma fluoride level, hemoglobin (Hb, packed cell volume (PCV, total leukocyte count (TLC, differential count (DC, total erythrocyte count, mean corpuscular volume (MCV, mean corpuscular Hb (MCH, and MCH concentration (MCHC were estimated on day 0, 30, and 60 of the experiment. Results: Supplementation of dried M. oleifera fruit powder to fluorosis affected calves resulted in significant reduction in plasma fluoride level and increase in Hb%, PCV, TLC and altered DC. Similar results were also recorded in calcium+boron group, except PCV and Hb. No significant changes were observed in MCV, MCH, and MCHC values. Conclusion: The present study concluded that supplementation of dried M. oleifera fruit powder daily for 60 days has shown protection against chronic fluoride toxicity in calves.

  1. Potency of fiber rumen bacterial isolates from local buffalo inoculated into Frisian Holstein calves during preweaning period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iwan Prihantoro

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Fiber-digesting bacteria are the main rumen bacteria that play an important role in digesting feed. These bacteria are adapted to low quality forage from agricultural byproduct. The aim of these study was to determine the potency of fiber-digesting bacteria consortium obtained from buffalo rumen inoculated to Frisian Holstein calves during preweaning on feed consumption, utilization, mineral uptake and physiological status. This study used 14 isolates of bacteria obtained from collection of Faculty of Animal Science, Bogor Agricultural University. The experimental unit consisted of six Frisian Holstein calves at two week old with the average body weight of 38.00 ± 6.23 kg. Calves were inoculated by 20 ml of fiber-digesting rumen bacterial isolates [4.56 x 109 cfu/ml] every morning for four weeks. Experimental design used was based on a completly randomized design with three calves received the respective inoculation (treatment group and three calves without any inoculation (control group. Data were analyzed statistically using t-test method with α = 0.05 and 0.01. The results showed that fiber-digesting bacteria (FDB from rumen buffalo have adapted in the calves rumen since preweaning periode. Inoculation FDB increased the number of rumen bacteria, digestibility of protein and P uptake calves at eight weeks old. Increased feed intake, uptake of Mg and cobalt calves at 14 weeks old. Without causing any negative effects on ADG, physiological status and rumen fermentability.

  2. Hematology reference intervals for neonatal Holstein calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panousis, Nikolaos; Siachos, Nektarios; Kitkas, Georgios; Kalaitzakis, Emmanouil; Kritsepi-Konstantinou, Maria; Valergakis, Georgios E

    2018-01-09

    Data regarding hematologic reference intervals (RI) for neonatal calves have not been published yet. The aims of this study were: a) to establish hematology RIs for neonatal Holstein calves, b) to compare them with the RIs for lactating cows, and c) to investigate the relationship of age and gender with the hematologic profile of calves. Two-hundred and fifty-four clinically healthy Holstein calves (1-9days old, from 30 farms) and 82 healthy Holstein cows (between 30 and 150days in milk, from 10 farms) were blood sampled once for a complete blood count evaluation, using the ADVIA 120 hematology analyzer. An additional blood sample was collected from each calf for serum total protein concentration measurement. RIs and age-related RIs were calculated with the Reference Value Advisor freeware. Comparisons between calves and cows and between male and female calves were performed with t-test or Mann-Whitney test. Red blood cell count (RBC), white blood cell count (WBC), neutrophil, lymphocyte and platelet counts in calves were higher, while mean corpuscular volume (MCV), mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH) and mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC) were lower than in cows. Lymphocyte and platelets showed a notable increase through age. Finally, female calves had higher RBC, hematocrit and hemoglobin concentration than males. Age-specific RIs should be used for the interpretation of the complete blood count in Holstein calves. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Methylene Blue to Treat Protamine-induced Anaphylaxis Reactions. An Experimental Study in Pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnes Afrodite S. Albuquerque

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: To examine if methylene blue (MB can counteract or prevent protamine (P cardiovascular effects. Methods: The protocol included five heparinized pig groups: Group Sham -without any drug; Group MB - MB 3 mg/kg infusion; Group P - protamine; Group P/MB - MB after protamine; Group MB/P - MB before protamine. Nitric oxide levels were obtained by the nitric oxide/ozone chemiluminescence method, performed using the Nitric Oxide Analizer 280i (Sievers, Boulder, CO, USA. Malondialdehyde plasma levels were estimated using the thiobarbiturate technique. Results: 1 Groups Sham and MB presented unchanged parameters; 2 Group P - a Intravenous protamine infusion caused mean arterial pressure decrease and recovery trend after 25-30 minutes, b Cardiac output decreased and remained stable until the end of protamine injection, and c Sustained systemic vascular resistance increased until the end of protamine injection; 3 Methylene blue infusion after protamine (Group P/MB - a Marked mean arterial pressure decreased after protamine, but recovery after methylene blue injection, b Cardiac output decreased after protamine infusion, recovering after methylene blue infusion, and c Sustained systemic vascular resistance increased after protamine infusion and methylene blue injections; 4 Methylene blue infusion before protamine (Group MB/P - a Mean arterial pressure decrease was less severe with rapid recovery, b After methylene blue, there was a progressive cardiac output increase up to protamine injection, when cardiac output decreased, and c Sustained systemic vascular resistance decreased after protamine, followed by immediate Sustained systemic vascular resistance increase; 5 Plasma nitrite/nitrate and malondialdehyde values did not differ among the experimental groups. Conclusion: Reviewing these experimental results and our clinical experience, we suggest methylene blue safely prevents and treats hemodynamic protamine complications, from the

  4. Effect of hay on performance of Holstein calves at suckling and post-weaning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robson Kyoshi Ueno

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the performance of Holstein calves in suckling and post-weaning phases, intensively managed during suckling in the absence or presence of hay. Twenty-four male Holstein calves, at an average age of 15 days and initial weight of 43 kg were used in the experiment. The experimental design was completely randomized, consisting of two treatments and six replications. The treatments were as follows: 1 suckling with milk substitute + initial concentrate for calves, ad libitum + temperate grass hay (oat/ryegrass, ad libitum; 2 suckling with milk substitute + initial concentrate for calves, ad libitum. No significant difference was found between treatments for weight gain and feed conversion. However, the supply of hay caused an increase in daily dry matter intake (2.127 vs 1.894 kg. The intake of hay promoted greater stimulus to consumption of concentrate and greater weight at weaning.

  5. Experimental poisoning by Senecio brasiliensis in calves: quantitative and semi-quantitative study on changes in the hepatic extracellular matrix and sinusoidal cells Intoxicação experimental por Senecio brasiliensis em bovinos: estudo quantitativo e semi-quantitativo da matrix extracelular e de células sinusoidais do fígado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcia Bersane A.M. Torres

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Extracellular matrix plays an important role in chronic hepatic lesions and has been studied in experimental intoxication models. However in cattle, studies on chronic disease have focused on the hepatocellular damage and extracellular matrix (ECM changes are usually overlooked. There are no specific studies on the hepatic ECM in either normal or chronically damaged bovine liver. Thus an experimental model of hepatic toxicity model using Senecio brasiliensis poisoned calves was designed. Senecio brasiliensis contains pyrrolizidine alkaloids which cause either acute or chronic progressive dose dependent liver damage. Five calves were orally fed with 0.38g of dry leaves of S. brasiliensis/kg/day for 24 days. Liver needle biopsy specimens were obtained every 15 days for 60 days. Clinical signs of digestive complications appeared at 3rd week. One calf died on 45th day and four were evaluated up to 60th day. Biopsy samples were processed for routine light microscopy, immuno-histochemistry and transmission electron microscopy. From 30th day on progressive liver damage characterized by hepatocellular ballooning, necrosis, apoptosis and megalocytosis, centrilobular, pericellular and portal fibrosis were seen by light microscopy. Quantitative and semi-quantitative measurements of hepatic ECM components were performed before and after the onset of lesions. Morphometric analysis of total collagen and elastic fiber system was conducted. Total collagen and I and III collagen types progressively increased in throughout the liver of affected calves. Changes in location, amount and disposition of the elastic fiber system were also observed. Then numbers of Kupffer cells were significantly increased at 30th day and total numbers of sinusoidal cells were significantly increased at 45th and 60th days. Liver damage was progressive and irreversible even after the exposure to the plant was discontinued. Severe fibrotic lesions occurred mainly in portal tracts

  6. Early pair housing increases solid feed intake and weight gains in dairy calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, J H C; Meagher, R K; von Keyserlingk, M A G; Weary, D M

    2015-09-01

    Dairy calves have traditionally been kept in individual pens throughout the milk-feeding period. Social rearing is associated with increased solid feed intake and, hence, higher weight gains before and after weaning. Little is known about the effect of the age at which social housing begins. The aim of this study was to assess the effects of early versus late pairing on feeding behavior and weight gain before and after weaning. Holstein bull calves were reared individually (n=8 calves) or paired with another calf at 6±3 d (n=8 pairs) or 43±3 d of age (n=8 pairs). All calves were fed 8 L of milk/d for 4 wk, 6 L/d from 4 to 7 wk, and then milk was reduced by 20%/d until calves were completely weaned at 8 wk of age. Calves were provided ad libitumaccess to calf starter and a total mixed ration (TMR). Body weight and feed intake were measured weekly from 3 to 10 wk of age.Intake of calf starter was significantly higher for the early-paired calves than for individually reared and late-paired calves throughout the experimental period. At 10 wk of age, starter dry matter intake averaged 2.20±0.22, 1.09±0.25, and 1.26±0.33kg/d for early-paired, late-paired, and individually housed calves, respectively. Intake of TMR did not differ among treatments, TMR dry matter intake averaged 3.27±0.72, 3.08±0.46, and 2.89±0.54kg/d for the same 3 treatments. Calves in the early paired treatment also showed significantly higher average daily gain over the experimental period (0.89±0.04 vs. 0.76±0.04 and 0.73±0.04kg/d for the early-paired, individual, and late-paired calves, respectively). These results indicate that social housing soon after birth can increase weight gains and intake of solid feed. Copyright © 2015 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Effect of Imidocarb dipropionate on the immune response to Foot and Mouth Disease vaccine in healthy and anaplasmosis-infected calves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. A. Afifi

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim: This work was performed to investigate the effect of a potent anti-protozoan drug, Imidocarb on the cell mediated and humoral immune response to foot and mouth disease vaccine (FMDV, O1 strain in normal and Anaplasmosis-infected calves. Materials and Methods: A total of 55 male mixed bred calves were used and divided into two main groups of 25 calves each. The first group was healthy and the second was Anaplasma - infected calves. FMDV was administered in both groups. Calves of the first and second groups were subdivided into equal five subgroups of 5 calves each. The first subgroup was vaccinated control. The treated subgroups were each given 3 mg / kg body weight Imidocarb dipropionate in a single intramuscular dose at one week before vaccination, at time of vaccination, one week and two weeks post vaccination with FMDV (O1, respectively. The cellular immune response in the different groups was evaluated weekly, however antibody titers were measured by ELISA and serum neutralization test Results: Imidocarb increased rate of erythrocyte rosette forming lymphocytes when it was administered one week before vaccination, at time of vaccination and one week post vaccination. Imidocarb increased antibody titre of FMDV in both normal and anaplasmosis-infected calves. The protection rate due to challenge with virulent FMDV was high in treated calves as compared with the vaccinated control. Conclusion: The best immunopotentiating effect of Imidocarb is achieved by dosing one week before vaccinating calves with FMD vaccine.

  8. Does temperament affect learning in calves?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Webb, Laura E.; van Reenen, Cornelis G.; Jensen, Margit Bak

    2015-01-01

    challenge tests, may affect learning an operant conditioning task in calves. Understanding how temperament affects learning in calves can help with the training of calves on novel automated feeding apparatuses or on novel feed components, and can thus help improve calf health and welfare.......The aim of the study was to investigate how temperament affects learning ability in calves. Nine two-month-old Holstein-Friesian bull calves were subjected to four challenge tests: novel object (NOT), novel environment (NET), social isolation (SIT), and social isolation with a novel environmental...... cue (SI/E). During these tests, hypothesised temperament variables were recorded. Hypothesised learning variables were recorded during training on an operant task. Principal component analysis (PCA) was conducted on temperament variables and learning variables separately. Principal components (PCs...

  9. Antigen-presenting cells transfected with Hsp65 messenger RNA fail to treat experimental tuberculosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rocha, C.D.; Trombone, A.P.F.; Lorenzi, J.C.C.; Almeida, L.P.; Gembre, A.F.; Padilha, E. [Departamento de Bioquímica e Imunologia, Faculdade de Medicina de Ribeirão Preto, Universidade de São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, SP (Brazil); Ramos, S.G. [Departamento de Patologia, Faculdade de Medicina de Ribeirão Preto, Universidade de São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, SP (Brazil); Silva, C.L.; Coelho-Castelo, A.A.M. [Departamento de Bioquímica e Imunologia, Faculdade de Medicina de Ribeirão Preto, Universidade de São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, SP (Brazil)

    2012-09-21

    In the last several years, the use of dendritic cells has been studied as a therapeutic strategy against tumors. Dendritic cells can be pulsed with peptides or full-length protein, or they can be transfected with DNA or RNA. However, comparative studies suggest that transfecting dendritic cells with messenger RNA (mRNA) is superior to other antigen-loading techniques in generating immunocompetent dendritic cells. In the present study, we evaluated a new therapeutic strategy to fight tuberculosis using dendritic cells and macrophages transfected with Hsp65 mRNA. First, we demonstrated that antigen-presenting cells transfected with Hsp65 mRNA exhibit a higher level of expression of co-stimulatory molecules, suggesting that Hsp65 mRNA has immunostimulatory properties. We also demonstrated that spleen cells obtained from animals immunized with mock and Hsp65 mRNA-transfected dendritic cells were able to generate a mixed Th1/Th2 response with production not only of IFN-γ but also of IL-5 and IL-10. In contrast, cells recovered from mice immunized with Hsp65 mRNA-transfected macrophages were able to produce only IL-5. When mice were infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis and treated with antigen-presenting cells transfected with Hsp65 mRNA (therapeutic immunization), we did not detect any decrease in the lung bacterial load or any preservation of the lung parenchyma, indicating the inability of transfected cells to confer curative effects against tuberculosis. In spite of the lack of therapeutic efficacy, this study reports for the first time the use of antigen-presenting cells transfected with mRNA in experimental tuberculosis.

  10. Proinflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines present in the acute phase of experimental colitis treated with Saccharomyces boulardii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grijó, Nathália Nahas; Borra, Ricardo Carneiro; Sdepanian, Vera Lucia

    2010-09-01

    To study the proinflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines present in the acute phase of trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS)-induced experimental colitis treated with Saccharomyces boulardii. Thirty male Wistar rats were divided into three groups: (1) treated group--received Saccharomyces boulardii for 14 days; (2) non-treated group--received sodium chloride solution for 14 days; (3) control group. Colitis was induced on the seventh day of the study in the treated and the non-treated groups using TNBS (10 mg) dissolved in 50% ethanol. Quantification of cytokines, including interleukin (IL)-1beta (IL-1beta), IL-6, transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta), IL-10 and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), in the serum and colonic tissue collected on day 14 were carried out using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The mean concentrations of TGF-beta in both the serum and the colonic tissue of the treated group were statistically higher than that of the control group. The mean concentration of TGF-beta in the colonic tissue of the non-treated group was also statistically higher than the control group. The group treated with Saccharomyces boulardii showed increased amounts of TGF-beta, an anti-inflammatory cytokine, during the acute phase of colitis. There were no differences in the amount of TNF-alpha, IL-1beta, IL-6, and IL-10 between the treated and the non-treated or the control groups during the acute phase of experimental colitis induced by TNBS.

  11. Differences in monocarboxylic acid transporter type 1 expression in rumen epithelium of newborn calves due to age and milk or milk replacer feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flaga, J; Górka, P; Zabielski, R; Kowalski, Z M

    2015-06-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate whether besides age and solid feed intake, monocarboxylic acid transporter type 1 (MCT1) expression in the rumen epithelium of calves is affected by liquid feed type [whole milk (WM) or milk replacer (MR)]. Thirty bull calves at the mean age of 5 days were randomly allocated to five experimental groups (six calves/group). Six calves were slaughtered immediately after allocation to the trial (5 days of life), eighteen calves were fed MR and slaughtered at week intervals (on 12, 19, 26 days of life respectively), and six calves were fed WM and slaughtered at the 26 days of life. MCT1 protein abundance and the MCT1 mRNA level were investigated in the dorsal and ventral sack of the rumen. Solid feed intake and short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) concentration in the rumen fluid increased linearly with calves' age. The amount of the MCT1 protein and mRNA in the dorsal sac of rumen as well as the amount of MCT1 protein in the cranial ventral sac of rumen also increased linearly with calves' age. Calves fed WM had greater solid feed intake in the last week of the study as compared to calves fed MR, but SCFA concentration in the rumen fluid was not different. MCT1 mRNA expression in the cranial dorsal sac of rumen and protein MCT1 expression in both dorsal and ventral cranial sack of the rumen were higher in calves fed WM as compared to calves fed MR. This study confirmed age-dependent changes of MCT1 expression in the rumen epithelium of newborn calves and showed that its expression might be affected by liquid feed type. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2014 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  12. Effects of Supplemental Mannanoligosaccharides on Growth Performance, Faecal Characteristics and Health in Dairy Calves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cagdas Kara

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Twenty Holstein calves were used to investigate the effects of mannanoligosaccharides (MOS supplementation in the whole milk on growth performance, faecal score, faecal pH, selected faecal bacterial populations and health during the preweaning period. Healthy calves selected by clinical examination were allocated to one of the two groups (control [CG] and experimental [EG] at 5 days old. Each group consisted of 5 male and 5 female calves. Each calf in EG was supplemented with 7 g/d of a MOS product (Celmanax from 5 days to 56 days of age. MOS supplement was mixed with the whole milk once in the morning and administered to the calves in EG via nipple bottle, whereas the calves in CG were fed the whole milk without MOS. Calves were weaned at 56 days of age. The final body weight, average daily weight gain (ADG and average daily feed intake (ADFI were statistically similar (p>0.05 but were higher by 3.70%, 6.66%, and 10.97%, respectively, in MOS than in control calves. Feed efficiency (ADG/ADFI was also similar in two calves group. While faecal scores did not differ on day 5, 7, 14, 21, 28, 42, 49, and 56 between groups, EG had a higher faecal score (p = 0.05 than CG on day 35. Faecal concentration of Lactobacillus was lower (p0.05 in faecal concentrations of Bifidobacterium, Clostridium perfringens, and Escherichia coli were found between groups. Although there were no significant differences (p>0.05 in the incidence of diarrhoea, treatment days for diarrhoea and the costs associated with diarrhoea treatments between groups, collectively, the observed reductions in treatment days and the cost of diarrhoea treatments accompanying increases in final body weight, ADG and ADFI for EG may indicate potential benefit of MOS in treatment of diarrhoea.

  13. Changes in leukocyte populations of cows with milk fever or displaced abomasum after calving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohtsuka, Hiromichi; Fukuda, Shigeo; Kudo, Katsunori; Tomioka, Michiko; Koiwa, Masateru; Kimura, Kayoko

    2013-07-01

    Most of the metabolic diseases of dairy cows occur within the first 2 wk after calving, and cows with a metabolic disease are prone to infectious diseases. Although metabolic diseases are generally recognized as a risk factor for infectious diseases owing to the associated decrease in immune function, the difference in immune status between cows with milk fever (MF) or displaced abomasum (DA) during the lactation period has not been clarified. Therefore, the peripheral blood leukocyte populations in 38 multiparous Holstein cows from 1 herd were analyzed after calving. The cows were divided into 3 groups according to health: 21 cows that remained clinically healthy throughout the experimental period (control group), 9 cows that had MF on the day of calving, and 8 cows with an onset of DA within 4 wk after calving. The T- and B-cell numbers were lowest at week 0, and they increased gradually after calving. There was no significant difference between the 3 groups in the number of each subset of leukocytes on the day of calving, but the number of CD8⁺ T-cells was significantly lower in the MF and DA groups than in the control group at week 1. The numbers of CD4⁺, CD8⁺, and WC1⁺ T-cells tended to be lower in the DA group than in control group from weeks 4 to 12, a tendency not observed in the MF group. These data suggest that when cows have DA around the time of calving, their lymphocyte numbers remain lower until 12 wk after calving.

  14. Veal Calves Produce Less Antibodies against C. Perfringens Alpha Toxin Compared to Beef Calves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bonnie R. Valgaeren

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Enterotoxaemia is a disease with a high associated mortality rate, affecting beef and veal calves worldwide, caused by C. perfringens alpha toxin and perfringolysin. A longitudinal study was conducted to determine the dynamics of antibodies against these toxins in 528 calves on 4 beef and 15 veal farms. The second study aimed to determine the effect of solid feed intake on the production of antibodies against alpha toxin and perfringolysin. The control group only received milk replacer, whereas in the test group solid feed was provided. Maternal antibodies for alpha toxin were present in 45% of the veal calves and 66% of the beef calves. In beef calves a fluent transition from maternal to active immunity was observed for alpha toxin, whereas almost no veal calves developed active immunity. Perfringolysin antibodies significantly declined both in veal and beef calves. In the second study all calves were seropositive for alpha toxin throughout the experiment and solid feed intake did not alter the dynamics of alpha and perfringolysin antibodies. In conclusion, the present study showed that veal calves on a traditional milk replacer diet had significantly lower alpha toxin antibodies compared to beef calves in the risk period for enterotoxaemia, whereas no differences were noticed for perfringolysin.

  15. Veal Calves Produce Less Antibodies against C. Perfringens Alpha Toxin Compared to Beef Calves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valgaeren, Bonnie R.; Pardon, Bart; Goossens, Evy; Verherstraeten, Stefanie; Roelandt, Sophie; Timbermont, Leen; Van Der Vekens, Nicky; Stuyvaert, Sabrina; Gille, Linde; Van Driessche, Laura; Haesebrouck, Freddy; Ducatelle, Richard; Van Immerseel, Filip; Deprez, Piet

    2015-01-01

    Enterotoxaemia is a disease with a high associated mortality rate, affecting beef and veal calves worldwide, caused by C. perfringens alpha toxin and perfringolysin. A longitudinal study was conducted to determine the dynamics of antibodies against these toxins in 528 calves on 4 beef and 15 veal farms. The second study aimed to determine the effect of solid feed intake on the production of antibodies against alpha toxin and perfringolysin. The control group only received milk replacer, whereas in the test group solid feed was provided. Maternal antibodies for alpha toxin were present in 45% of the veal calves and 66% of the beef calves. In beef calves a fluent transition from maternal to active immunity was observed for alpha toxin, whereas almost no veal calves developed active immunity. Perfringolysin antibodies significantly declined both in veal and beef calves. In the second study all calves were seropositive for alpha toxin throughout the experiment and solid feed intake did not alter the dynamics of alpha and perfringolysin antibodies. In conclusion, the present study showed that veal calves on a traditional milk replacer diet had significantly lower alpha toxin antibodies compared to beef calves in the risk period for enterotoxaemia, whereas no differences were noticed for perfringolysin. PMID:26184311

  16. Veal Calves Produce Less Antibodies against C. Perfringens Alpha Toxin Compared to Beef Calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valgaeren, Bonnie R; Pardon, Bart; Goossens, Evy; Verherstraeten, Stefanie; Roelandt, Sophie; Timbermont, Leen; Van Der Vekens, Nicky; Stuyvaert, Sabrina; Gille, Linde; Van Driessche, Laura; Haesebrouck, Freddy; Ducatelle, Richard; Van Immerseel, Filip; Deprez, Piet

    2015-07-10

    Enterotoxaemia is a disease with a high associated mortality rate, affecting beef and veal calves worldwide, caused by C. perfringens alpha toxin and perfringolysin. A longitudinal study was conducted to determine the dynamics of antibodies against these toxins in 528 calves on 4 beef and 15 veal farms. The second study aimed to determine the effect of solid feed intake on the production of antibodies against alpha toxin and perfringolysin. The control group only received milk replacer, whereas in the test group solid feed was provided. Maternal antibodies for alpha toxin were present in 45% of the veal calves and 66% of the beef calves. In beef calves a fluent transition from maternal to active immunity was observed for alpha toxin, whereas almost no veal calves developed active immunity. Perfringolysin antibodies significantly declined both in veal and beef calves. In the second study all calves were seropositive for alpha toxin throughout the experiment and solid feed intake did not alter the dynamics of alpha and perfringolysin antibodies. In conclusion, the present study showed that veal calves on a traditional milk replacer diet had significantly lower alpha toxin antibodies compared to beef calves in the risk period for enterotoxaemia, whereas no differences were noticed for perfringolysin.

  17. The effect of beta-hydroxy-beta-methylbutyrate (HMB) on selected parameters of humoral immunity in calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wójcik, R; Małaczewska, J; Siwicki, A K; Miciński, J; Zwierzchowski, G

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of HMB on selected parameters of the humoral immunity in calves. The experiment was performed on 14 calves aged 30 +/- 2 days, divided into two equal groups of control (group K) and experimental (group H) animals. The feed administered to the experimental calves was supplemented with HMB at 40 mg/kg BW, whereas the control calves were administered standard farm-made feed without supplementation. Blood was sampled from the jugular vein immediately before the experiment (day 0) and on experimental days 15, 30 and 60 to determine the following immunological parameters: total protein levels, gammaglobulin levels, lysozyme activity and ceruloplasmin activity. An analysis of the results obtained revealed a significant increase (p HMB as compared to those found in the control group.

  18. Best management practices for newly weaned calves for improved health and well-being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, B K; Richards, C J; Step, D L; Krehbiel, C R

    2017-05-01

    Morbidity and mortality in newly weaned calves resulting from bovine respiratory disease (BRD) continue to be the most significant problems facing the beef industry. Morbidity attributed to BRD accounts for approximately 75% of total feedlot morbidity. Several experiments have documented the economic impacts of BRD. Direct costs attributable to BRD include death loss, treatment and labor costs, and prevention costs, while indirect costs associated with BRD include decreased growth performance and feed efficiency, increased days on feed, and decreased carcass merit and market value. In recent years, cattle treated for BRD have returned $50 to $250 less per head at harvest than cattle never treated for BRD. Best management practices for newly weaned calves vary depending on a multitude of factors including: season of year calves are purchased, calf genetics, length of time in the marketing and transport channels, previous management and vaccination programs, and other factors. In general, calves purchased directly from a ranch have fewer health problems than calves purchased through auction markets. The longer a calf is in the marketing chain, the more likely health problems will be encountered. Calves that have spent several days in the marketing chain may develop clinical BRD before or very soon after arrival, whereas cattle with less time in the marketing chain may get sick later (2 to 4 wk), due to the length of time it takes for BRD to develop. On or before arrival, calves should be given a risk score (high, medium, or low) that relates to the quantity and magnitude of stress they have encountered and the probability they will develop BRD. High-risk calves typically will have been recently weaned, received no vaccinations, not been castrated or dehorned, been commingled, and moved through an auction market. Low-risk calves will often originate from a single source and will have gone through a preconditioning program that includes vaccination, castration

  19. Synthetic sex pheromone attracts the leishmaniasis vector Lutzomyia longipalpis to experimental chicken sheds treated with insecticide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brazil Reginaldo P

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Current strategies for controlling American visceral leishmaniasis (AVL have been unable to prevent the spread of the disease across Brazil. With no effective vaccine and culling of infected dogs an unpopular and unsuccessful alternative, new tools are urgently needed to manage populations of the sand fly vector, Lutzomyia longipalpis Lutz and Neiva (Diptera: Psychodidae. Here, we test two potential strategies for improving L. longipalpis control using the synthetic sand fly pheromone (±-9-methylgermacrene-B: the first in conjunction with spraying of animal houses with insecticide, the second using coloured sticky traps. Results Addition of synthetic pheromone resulted in greater numbers of male and female sand flies being caught and killed at experimental chicken sheds sprayed with insecticide, compared to pheromone-less controls. Furthermore, a ten-fold increase in the amount of sex pheromone released from test sheds increased the number of females attracted and subsequently killed. Treating sheds with insecticide alone resulted in a significant decrease in numbers of males attracted to sheds (compared to pre-spraying levels, and a near significant decrease in numbers of females. However, this effect was reversed through addition of synthetic pheromone at the time of insecticide spraying, leading to an increase in number of flies attracted post-treatment. In field trials of commercially available different coloured sticky traps, yellow traps caught more males than blue traps when placed in chicken sheds. In addition, yellow traps fitted with 10 pheromone lures caught significantly more males than pheromone-less controls. However, while female sand flies showed a preference for both blue and yellow pheromone traps sticky traps over white traps in the laboratory, neither colour caught significant numbers of females in chicken sheds, either with or without pheromone. Conclusions We conclude that synthetic pheromone could

  20. Charge effect of a liposomal delivery system encapsulating simvastatin to treat experimental ischemic stroke in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Campos-Martorell M

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Mireia Campos-Martorell,1 Mary Cano-Sarabia,2 Alba Simats,1 Mar Hernández-Guillamon,1 Anna Rosell,1 Daniel Maspoch,2,3 Joan Montaner1,4 1Neurovascular Research Laboratory, Institut de Recerca Vall d’Hebron, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Barcelona, 2Catalan Institute of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology (ICN2, CSIC and The Barcelona Institute of Science and Technology, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Barcelona, 3Institució Catalana de Recerca i Estudis Avançats (ICREA, 4Neurovascular Unit, Department of Neurology, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Hospital Vall d’Hebron, Barcelona, Spain Background and aims: Although the beneficial effects of statins on stroke have been widely demonstrated both in experimental studies and in clinical trials, the aim of this study is to prepare and characterize a new liposomal delivery system that encapsulates simvastatin to improve its delivery into the brain. Materials and methods: In order to select the optimal liposome lipid composition with the highest capacity to reach the brain, male Wistar rats were submitted to sham or transitory middle cerebral arterial occlusion (MCAOt surgery and treated (intravenous [IV] with fluorescent-labeled liposomes with different net surface charges. Ninety minutes after the administration of liposomes, the brain, blood, liver, lungs, spleen, and kidneys were evaluated ex vivo using the Xenogen IVIS® Spectrum imaging system to detect the load of fluorescent liposomes. In a second substudy, simvastatin was assessed upon reaching the brain, comparing free and encapsulated simvastatin (IV administration. For this purpose, simvastatin levels in brain homogenates from sham or MCAOt rats at 2 hours or 4 hours after receiving the treatment were detected through ultra-high-protein liquid chromatography. Results: Whereas positively charged liposomes were not detected in brain or plasma 90 minutes after their administration, neutral and negatively charged liposomes

  1. Dairy cows with prolonged calving seek additional isolation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rørvang, Maria Vilain; Herskin, Mette S.; Jensen, Margit Bak

    2017-01-01

    and management practices that better align with the motivations of the cow. This study examined dairy cow preferences for individual calving pens by offering 3 different levels of isolation (tall and narrow, low and wide, and tall and wide) by analyzing the association between precalving behavior, choice...... preference between degrees of isolation or difference in calving behavior in the different calving pens was found. However, cows experiencing a longer calving duration chose to calve in the most secluded calving pen (tall and wide). These results cannot determine cause and effect, but may suggest...... that interactions between motivation for isolation seeking and calving behavior exist....

  2. Effect of Cobalt Supplementation on Performance of growing Calves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.Nagabhushana

    Full Text Available The experiment was conducted to study the effect of critical supplementation of wheat straw with cobalt on fibre utilization and nutrient utilization in growing cross-bred male calves. Twenty-one crossbred (HF X Local male growing calves of 3-4 months age were fed with wheat straw based diet consisting without (Co0 and with 1 (Co1 and 6 (Co6 ppm cobalt as cobaltous chloride. There was no significant difference in intake of wheat straw, concentrate and DMI between the three groups and the ratio between concentrate and wheat straw was maintained at 40:60 irrespective of dietary level of cobalt. Similarly, average cumulative body weight, net gain in body weight or feed efficiency did not differ significantly between treatments. No significant effect was observed on the digestibility of dry matter, organic matter, crude protein, ether extract and fibre constituents like NDF, ADF, hemicellulose or cellulose by supplementation of 1 and 6 ppm Co to the diet of growing calves. Balance of nutrients such as Nitrogen, Calcium and Phosphorus was similar and positive in all the treatment groups. TDN and DCP values of the experimental diets remained almost similar irrespective of dietary level of cobalt. [Veterinary World 2008; 1(10.000: 299-302

  3. How to Start Growing Beef Calves on Feed

    OpenAIRE

    ZoBell, Dale R

    2003-01-01

    Starting calves on feed takes time and effort because of the stress young calves are susceptible to at this point in their lives. The reduction of stress will result in calves consuming more feed, thus remaining healthier. To successfully start calves on feed, dry matter intake must be maximized while minimizing health problems. The following is a 5-step applied method for starting calves on a silage-based ration.

  4. The motivation-based calving facility: Social and cognitive factors influence isolation seeking behaviour of Holstein dairy cows at calving

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rørvang, Maria Vilain; Herskin, Mette S.; Jensen, Margit Bak

    2018-01-01

    solution may be to allow the cow to seek isolation prior to calving. This study examined whether pre-parturient dairy cows will isolate in an individual calving pen placed in a group calving setting and whether a closing gate in this individual calving pen will cause more cows to isolate prior to calving....... Danish Holstein cows (n = 66) were housed in groups of six in a group pen with access to six individual calving pens connected to the group area. Cows were trained to use one of two isolation opportunities i.e. individual calving pens with functional closing gates (n = 35) allowing only one cow access...... at a time, or individual calving pens with permanently open gates allowing free cow traffic between group area and individual pen (n = 31). The response variables were calving site, calving behaviour and social behaviour. Unexpectedly, a functional gate did not facilitate isolation seeking, perhaps because...

  5. Comparison of daily weight gain and fattening characteristics between buffalo and Holstein male calves with different diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Yousef-Elahi

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available This experiment was carried out over 180 days for comparison of daily weight gain and carcass characteristics of male buffalo (BW=200.8±8.00 Kg, days from birth day=360±28 calves to Holstein male calves (BW=195.2± 10 Kg, days from birth day= 240± 22 with different diets. The 27 male buffalo calves and 27 Holstein male calves after an adaptation period and health treatment (3 weeks allotted in factorial design (2×3 based on completely randomized design with 18 treatments. Experimental diets used to applying three treatments (three levels of NDF, including low NDF (LNDF, medium NDF (MNDF and high NDF (HNDF, so that final prices of these diets were different. All of these experimental calves weighted by 21 days intervals after a fasting for 12h and fed twice daily at 09.00 and 21.00 with Total Mix Ration (TMR ad-libitum. At the end of this experiment, three replicate from each treatment were slaughtered and used for carcass analysis. The result from this experiment shows that: There was no significant difference in initial body weight in the treatments of buffalo and Holstein male calves. Both Holstein and buffalo calves have the higher FBV and best FC in LNDF diet. There was no significant difference between MNDF and HNDF in buffalo calves treatments. The proportion of abdominal fat and fat of carcass in LNDF treatment was higher. The carcass efficiency and cost of meat production in better quality per Kg was higher and lower in buffalo calves respectively especially in treatments with higher NDF.

  6. Experimental Investigation and Analysis of Mercerized and Citric Acid Surface Treated Bamboo Fiber Reinforced Composite

    Science.gov (United States)

    De, Jyotiraman; Baxi, R. N., Dr.

    2017-08-01

    Mercerization or NaOH fiber surface treatment is one of the most popular surface treatment processes to make the natural fibers such as bamboo fibers compatible for use as reinforcing material in composites. But NaOH being a chemical is hazardous and polluting to the nature. This paper explores the possibility of use of naturally derived citric acid for bamboo fiber surface treatment and its comparison with NaOH treated Bamboo Fiber Composites. Untreated, 2.5 wt% NaOH treated and 5 wt% citric acid treated Bamboo Fiber Composites with 5 wt% fiber content were developed by Hand Lay process. Bamboo mats made of bamboo slivers were used as reinforcing material. Mechanical and physical characterization was done to compare the effects of NaOH and citric acid bamboo fiber surface treatment on mechanical and physical properties of Bamboo Fiber Composite. The experiment data reveals that the tensile and flexural strength was found to be highest for citric acid and NaOH treated Bamboo Fiber Composite respectively. Water absorption tendency was found more than the NaOH treated Bamboo Fiber Composites. SEM micrographs used to analyze the morphology of fracture surface of tensile test specimens confirm improvement in fiber-matrix interface bonding due to surface treatment of bamboo fibers.

  7. Predictors and impacts of colostrum consumption by 4h after birth in newborn beef calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homerosky, E R; Timsit, E; Pajor, E A; Kastelic, J P; Windeyer, M C

    2017-10-01

    Newborn beef calf vigor is a vital survival characteristic that promotes timely colostrum consumption. Modified APGAR scores intended to identify compromised calves are not widely adopted due to impracticality, inconsistent associations with blood gas disturbances, and unclear recommendations for intervention. The objectives were to: (1) determine differences in at-birth blood parameters between calves that were successful in colostrum consumption by 4h (CC4) compared to those that failed; (2) develop a Beef Calf Vigor Assessment by determining calving characteristics and clinical examination parameters associated with CC4; and (3) evaluate impacts of failed CC4 on transfer of passive immunity and treatment risk. As a predictor for CC4, suckle reflex had the highest specificity (98%), whereas calving ease had the highest sensitivity (89%). Calves with a weak suckle reflex had 41.6 (95% CI: 7.4-787.5) times greater odds of failed CC4 compared to calves with a strong suckle reflex (P24g/L serum IgG; OR=6.4, 95% CI: 1.2-34.4; P=0.02), and higher odds of being treated (OR=2.8, 95% CI: 1.1-7.4; P=0.03) than those that succeeded. Measuring suckle reflex in combination with calving ease was a quick and easy method to assess newborn beef calf vigor. The value of this Beef Calf Vigor Assessment was further emphasized by the negative impacts of failed CC4 on transfer of passive immunity and pre-weaning health. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Laboratory experiments inform iceberg-calving forces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cathles, L. M.; Burton, J. C.

    2013-12-01

    Globally detected glacial earthquakes are produced during cubic-kilometer scale calving events. The mechanism producing these earthquakes and the dependence of the seismic moment on iceberg size and glacial calving front geometry are not well established. We use a laboratory-scale model of the post-fracture calving process to measure aspects of the calving process not observable in nature. In our experiments, buoyant plastic blocks rest against against a force plate (glacial terminus) which measures both the total force and the torque exerted during the calving process. The blocks are gravitationally unstable, so that they will spontaneously capsize and rotate away from the terminus. We find that hydrodynamics are crucial when considering the coupling between the calving process and the solid earth. There is both a pushing contact force and a simultaneous pulling hydrodynamic force created by a reduced pressure along the terminus face. This suggests that a single couple force mechanism is a more appropriate mode for glacial earthquakes than the commonly used centroid single force model.

  9. The motivation-based calving facility: Social and cognitive factors influence isolation seeking behaviour of Holstein dairy cows at calving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rørvang, Maria Vilain; Herskin, Mette S; Jensen, Margit Bak

    2018-01-01

    In order to improve animal welfare it is recommended that dairy farmers move calving cows from the herd to individual pens when calving is imminent. However, the practicality of moving cows has proven a challenge and may lead to disturbance of the cows rather than easing the process of calving. One solution may be to allow the cow to seek isolation prior to calving. This study examined whether pre-parturient dairy cows will isolate in an individual calving pen placed in a group calving setting and whether a closing gate in this individual calving pen will cause more cows to isolate prior to calving. Danish Holstein cows (n = 66) were housed in groups of six in a group pen with access to six individual calving pens connected to the group area. Cows were trained to use one of two isolation opportunities i.e. individual calving pens with functional closing gates (n = 35) allowing only one cow access at a time, or individual calving pens with permanently open gates allowing free cow traffic between group area and individual pen (n = 31). The response variables were calving site, calving behaviour and social behaviour. Unexpectedly, a functional gate did not facilitate isolation seeking, perhaps because the cows were not able to combine a learnt response with the motivation to isolate. Dominant cows had the highest chance of calving in an individual calving pen. If an alien calf was present in the group pen or any of the individual pens, cows were less likely to calve in an individual calving pen. Future studies should allow cows easy access to an individual calving pen and explore what motivates pre-parturient cows to seek isolation in order to facilitate voluntary use of individual calving pens.

  10. The motivation-based calving facility: Social and cognitive factors influence isolation seeking behaviour of Holstein dairy cows at calving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herskin, Mette S.; Jensen, Margit Bak

    2018-01-01

    In order to improve animal welfare it is recommended that dairy farmers move calving cows from the herd to individual pens when calving is imminent. However, the practicality of moving cows has proven a challenge and may lead to disturbance of the cows rather than easing the process of calving. One solution may be to allow the cow to seek isolation prior to calving. This study examined whether pre-parturient dairy cows will isolate in an individual calving pen placed in a group calving setting and whether a closing gate in this individual calving pen will cause more cows to isolate prior to calving. Danish Holstein cows (n = 66) were housed in groups of six in a group pen with access to six individual calving pens connected to the group area. Cows were trained to use one of two isolation opportunities i.e. individual calving pens with functional closing gates (n = 35) allowing only one cow access at a time, or individual calving pens with permanently open gates allowing free cow traffic between group area and individual pen (n = 31). The response variables were calving site, calving behaviour and social behaviour. Unexpectedly, a functional gate did not facilitate isolation seeking, perhaps because the cows were not able to combine a learnt response with the motivation to isolate. Dominant cows had the highest chance of calving in an individual calving pen. If an alien calf was present in the group pen or any of the individual pens, cows were less likely to calve in an individual calving pen. Future studies should allow cows easy access to an individual calving pen and explore what motivates pre-parturient cows to seek isolation in order to facilitate voluntary use of individual calving pens. PMID:29346399

  11. Preparation, Characterization of Coal Ash Adsorbent and Orthogonal Experimental Rsearch on Treating Printing and Dyeing Wastewater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qingyu; He, Lingfeng; Shi, Liang; Chen, Xiaogang; Chen, Xin; Xu, Zizhen; Zhang, Yongli

    2018-03-01

    Using high temperature activated sodium flying ash and carboxymethyl chitosan as raw material to prepare carboxymethylchitosan wrapping fly-ash adsorbent (CWF), combined with iron-carbon micro-electrolysis treatment of simulated and actual printing and dyeing wastewater. The conditions for obtaining are from the literature: the best condition for CWF to treat simulated printing and dyeing wastewater pretreated with iron-carbon micro-electrolysis is that the mixing time is 10min, the resting time is 30 min, pH=6, and the adsorbent dosage is 0.75 g/L. The results showed that COD removal efficiency and decoloration rate were above 97 %, and turbidity removal rate was over 90 %. The optimum dyeing conditions were used to treat the dyeing wastewater. The decolorization rate was 97.30 %, the removal efficiency of COD was 92.44 %, and the turbidity removal rate was 90.37 %.

  12. POSSIBILITIES OF USING UNCONVENTIONAL METHODS AND DIETARY SUPPLEMENTS TO AFFECT WEIGHT GAINS OF CALVES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lubo Zbransk

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Healthy and strong individuals are fundamental in every cattle breeding. The aim of this study was to find out which of these given supplement had the best influence on calf weight gain in the early period after weaning to milk nutrition. This research was carried out in cooperation with the farm in Haklovy Dvory. Calves were studied from March 2012 to February 2013. They were weaned into outdoor individual box after birth. There were added supplements into their ration in the first two weeks of life. Calves were partitioned according to the added supplement into three experimental groups and one control group. The first weight control of calves was after birth and the second weight control was at the age of thirty days. The average weight gain was calculated from the differences in these values. The best demonstrable effect was in the experimental Homeopathy and Prebiotics (Biopolym groups with the average increment of 26.9 kilograms, then in the experimental Probiotics (Lactovita group with the average increment of 26.1 kilograms. The last group was the Control one, there was not any change in the calves ration and their average increment was 23.5 kilograms. The results of the statistical evaluation was p = 0.0572 in the Biopolym group, p = 0.2570 in the Lactovita group and p = 0.2124 in the Homeopathy group versus the Control group. It can be concluded from the results of this study that calves had a positive reaction on the supplements added in the first days of life and these had a favourable effect on diarrhoea prevention. Prebiotics, homeopathic drugs and probiotics beneficially stimulate calvesdigestive system and, in general, they have a positive effect on the calves physiological condition.

  13. Experimental datasets on engineering properties of expansive soil treated with common salt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taiwo O. Durotoye

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Construction of highway pavements or high rise structures over the expansive soils are always problematic due to failures of volume change or swelling characteristic experienced in the water permeability of the soil. The data in this article represented summary of (Durotoye et al., 2016; Durotoye, 2016 [1,2]. The data explored different percentages of sodium chloride as additive in stabilizing the engineering properties of expansive soil compared with other available stabilizer previously worked on. Experimental procedures carried out on expansive soil include: (Liquid limit, Plastic limit, Plasticity index, Shrinkage limit, Specific gravity Free swell index and Optimum water content to determine the swelling parameters and (maximum dry density, California bearing ratio and unconfined compressive strength to determine the strength parameters. The results of the experiment were presented in pie charts. Keywords: Common salt, Expansive soil, Experimental procedure, Strength parameters, Swelling parameters

  14. Level of cortisol and reactivity of adrenal cortex to exogenous ACTH at neonatal period in calves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friedrich, M.

    1992-01-01

    The studies were carried out on calves from 1st to 21st day of life. Cortisol level and reactivity of adrenal cortex to exogenous ACTH were analysed. The highest level of cortisol in blood was observed in first days of life in the calves. Then the level became considerably decreased. In the experimental group two subgroups differing in cortisol level were distinguished. High or low level occurred on the first day and the difference kept over two weeks of their life. Adrenal cortex just on the day of birth showed full functional maturity of molecular receptors binding ACTH. (author). 15 refs

  15. Health and growth of veal calves fed milk replacers with or without probiotics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Timmerman, H.M.; Mulder, L.; Everts, H.; Espen, van D.C.; Wal, van der E.; Klaassen, G.; Rouwers, S.M.G.; Hartemink, R.; Rombouts, F.M.; Beynen, A.C.

    2005-01-01

    Four experiments with 1-wk-old veal calves were conducted to assess the influence of probiotics on growth and health indicators. In experiments 1 and 2, the liquid probiotic supplements were administered daily from experimental d 1 to 15. The treatment period in experiments 3 and 4 was extended to

  16. Short communication: Flooring preferences of dairy cows at calving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campler, M; Munksgaard, L; Jensen, M B; Weary, D M; von Keyserlingk, M A G

    2014-02-01

    The present study investigated the flooring preference during the 30 h before parturition in Holstein dairy cows housed individually in a maternity pen. Seventeen multiparous cows were moved, on average, 2 d before expected calving date into an individual maternity pen with 3 different flooring surfaces: 10 cm of sand, pebble-top rubber mats, or concrete flooring, each covered with 15 cm of straw. Calving location, lying time, and total time and number of lying bouts on each of the floor types were recorded during 2 periods: precalving (24 to 29 h before calving) and at calving (0 to 5h before calving). Ten cows calved on sand, 6 on concrete, and 1 on the rubber mat. Lying bouts increased during the hours closest to calving, regardless of flooring. The number of lying bouts did not differ between flooring types precalving but cows had more lying bouts on sand and concrete compared with rubber at calving. Cows spent more time lying down on sand and concrete compared with rubber precalving, but lying times did not differ between treatments at calving. Cows that calved on sand spent more time lying on sand at calving compared with the other 2 flooring types. Cows that calved on concrete did not show a flooring preference at calving. These results indicate that rubber mats are the least preferred by dairy cows in the maternity pens, even when covered with a deep layer of straw. Copyright © 2014 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. CALVING ANALYSIS IN COWS OF CHAROLAIS BREED AT SELECTED FARM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KLÁRA VAVRIŠÍNOVÁ

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available At our work we have analysed the organisation of calving in Charolais breed during the years from 1998 to 2001 at selected farm. Our monitoring of calving during winter season (from January to February shows the percentage of calving was in particular years ranged from 43.2 to 71.1. The most calves were born in February. We found out (total all years diffi cult calving (value 3 in 2 cases in April (1998 and 1999 and 1 case in February (1998 and 1 in March (1999. Calving marked with value 2 (total of all years we found out in January (2 cases, February (3 cases, March (4 cases and from September to December past one case. From 18 cases of diffi cult calving what we found out, 11 calves (61.11 % come from CHV 529 bull. In calves born by normal calving was found out average weight 34.75 kg, in ones born by calving with level 2 of diffi culty 36.36 kg, and in calves born by calving with diffi culty 3 was recorded average weight 41.5 kg. Recorded weight at 210 days of age in mostly cases was similar like in published breed standard.

  18. Clinical and hematological alterations in dogs during experimental envenomation with Crotalus durissus terrificus venom and treated with antiophidic serum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. M. B. Nogueira

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available The present work aimed to evaluate the clinical and hematological aspects during experimental envenomation by Crotalus durissus terrificus in dogs treated with different antiophidic serum doses. Sixteen dogs were divided into two groups of eight animals each. Group I received 1mg/kg venom subcutaneously and 30mg antiophidic serum intravenously; Group II received 1mg/kg venom subcutaneously and 60mg antiophidic serum intravenously. In the clinical evaluation, we observed ataxia, moderate sedation, dilated pupils, sialorrhea, flaccid paralysis of mandibular muscles, and discreet edema at the site of venom inoculation. Evaluating red and white blood cells, we observed a decrease of hemoglobins, globular volume and erythrocytes, and an increase of plasmatic proteins, leukocytes, neutrophils, monocytes and lymphocytes. Clotting time increased and there was blood incoagulability with return to normal clotting time six hours after antiophidic serum administration. Animals treated with six antiophidic serum flasks had a faster recovery than the animals that received three serum flasks.

  19. In vivo Efficacy of Vernonia amygdalina (Compositae Against Natural Helminth Infection in Bunaji (Bos indicus Calves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. B. I. Alawa ab*, A. M. Adamu, J. O. Gefub, O. J. Ajanusic, P. A. Abdud and N. P. Chiezeyb

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Fifteen Bunaji calves (Bos indicus averaging 105±12.5 Kg liveweight and approximately nine months of age with natural helminth infection were distributed into three treatment groups of five animals each. Animals were either treated orally with aqueous extract of Vernonia amygdalina at a dose concentration of 1.1g/Kg body weight, a conventional anthelmintic or left untreated. V. amygdalina treatment produced 59.5% reduction in eggs per gram (EPG of faeces which was significantly different (P<0.001 from the untreated control (-17.24%, whereas levamisol hydrochloride treatment produced 100% reduction in EPG. A total of six genera of helminths were recovered from the gastrointestinal tracts and liver of experimental animals. These were Haemonchus contortus, Trichostrongylus spp, Bunostomum spp, Oesophagostomum spp, Fasciola spp and Dicrocoelium spp. There was significant difference (P<0.001 in worm load between the different treatment groups. Except for Haemonchus spp, animals in the untreated group had significantly (P<0.001 higher worm load for all the genera of helminth recovered than those of the V. amygdalina treated group, indicating that V. amygdalina had no effect on Haemonchus contortus.

  20. Experimental datasets on engineering properties of expansive soil treated with common salt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durotoye, Taiwo O; Akinmusuru, Joseph O; Ogundipe, Kunle E

    2018-06-01

    Construction of highway pavements or high rise structures over the expansive soils are always problematic due to failures of volume change or swelling characteristic experienced in the water permeability of the soil. The data in this article represented summary of (Durotoye et al., 2016; Durotoye, 2016) [1], [2]. The data explored different percentages of sodium chloride as additive in stabilizing the engineering properties of expansive soil compared with other available stabilizer previously worked on. Experimental procedures carried out on expansive soil include: (Liquid limit, Plastic limit, Plasticity index, Shrinkage limit, Specific gravity Free swell index and Optimum water content) to determine the swelling parameters and (maximum dry density, California bearing ratio and unconfined compressive strength) to determine the strength parameters. The results of the experiment were presented in pie charts.

  1. An Experimental Investigation on Hardness and Microstructure of Heat Treated EN 9 Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswas, Palash; Kundu, Arnab; Mondal, Dhiraj

    2017-08-01

    In the modern engineering world, extensive research has led to the development of some special grades of steel, often suited for enhanced functions. EN 9 steel is one such grade, having major applications in power plants, automobile and aerospace industry. Different heat treatment processes are employed to achieve high hardness and high wear resistance, but machinability subsequently decreases. Existing literature is not sufficient to achieve a balance between hardness and machinability. The aim of this experimental work is to determine the hardness values and observe microstructural changes in EN9 steel, when it is subjected to annealing, normalizing and quenching. Finally, the effects of tempering after each of these heat treatments on hardness and microstructure have also been shown. It is seen that the tempering after normalizing the specimen achieved satisfactory results. The microstructure was also observed to be consisting of fine grains.

  2. Effect of weaning stress, housing system and probiotics supplementation on cortisol, thyroid activity and productive performance of sucker camel calves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdel-Fattah, M.S.; Hashem, A.L.S.; Azamel, A.A.; Farghaly, H.A.M.

    2011-01-01

    The weaning process has been identified as associated with potential psychological, nutritional and physiological stressors on both dam and her young. These stressors are often stressful for the young. Ten sucker camel calves were weaned using calf-dam on and suckling off weaning system (calves were kept with their dams at all times during weaning process and prevented from suckling) under two housing systems, 6 calves in group housing system (G) and 4 calves in individually housing system (I). Half of calves in each housing system were supplemented with probiotics (treated, P), while the other was not-supplemented with probiotics (control, C). This study was carried out at Maryout Research Station of the Desert Research Center, 35 km to southwest of Alexandria, Egypt. Calves were weaned at 280 days of age with initial live body weight (LBW) of 236.76±0.224 kg. The duration of the study was 35 days and divided into five weeks; one week served as pre-weaning followed by four weeks served as post-weaning period (calves were in treatments). Calves and their dams were used to estimate the effects of weaning stress, housing systems (group, G vs. individually, I) and probiotics supplementation on the productive performance, cortisol (COR) and thyroid hormones (T 3 and T 4 ) concentrations of camel calves (Camelus dromedaries). No measurements were done on the dams. The results indicated that, regardless the effect of housing system and Abdel-Fattah et al., J. Rad. Res. Appl. Sci., Vol. 4, No. 4(B) (2011) 1292 probiotics supplementation, weaning stress declined LBW -0.89% at d 7 post weaning. Concerned housing system effect, group-housed calves and individually-housed calves lost -0.36 and -1.43% of their body weights, respectively on d 7 post-weaning and they recovered their weaning weight (d 0 ) on d 14 post-weaning period (2.45 and 0.57%). Neither group housing system nor probiotics supplementation prevented the weight lost resulted by weaning stress during the first

  3. Factors secreted from dental pulp stem cells show multifaceted benefits for treating experimental rheumatoid arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishikawa, Jun; Takahashi, Nobunori; Matsumoto, Takuya; Yoshioka, Yutaka; Yamamoto, Noriyuki; Nishikawa, Masaya; Hibi, Hideharu; Ishigro, Naoki; Ueda, Minoru; Furukawa, Koichi; Yamamoto, Akihito

    2016-02-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is an autoimmune disease characterized by synovial hyperplasia and chronic inflammation, which lead to the progressive destruction of cartilage and bone in the joints. Numerous studies have reported that administrations of various types of MSCs improve arthritis symptoms in animal models, by paracrine mechanisms. However, the therapeutic effects of the secreted factors alone, without the cell graft, have been uncertain. Here, we show that a single intravenous administration of serum-free conditioned medium (CM) from human deciduous dental pulp stem cells (SHED-CM) into anti-collagen type II antibody-induced arthritis (CAIA), a mouse model of rheumatoid arthritis (RA), markedly improved the arthritis symptoms and joint destruction. The therapeutic efficacy of SHED-CM was associated with an induction of anti-inflammatory M2 macrophages in the CAIA joints and the abrogation of RANKL expression. SHED-CM specifically depleted of an M2 macrophage inducer, the secreted ectodomain of sialic acid-binding Ig-like lectin-9 (ED-Siglec-9), exhibited a reduced ability to induce M2-related gene expression and attenuate CAIA. SHED-CM also inhibited the RANKL-induced osteoclastogenesis in vitro. Collectively, our findings suggest that SHED-CM provides multifaceted therapeutic effects for treating CAIA, including the ED-Siglec-9-dependent induction of M2 macrophage polarization and inhibition of osteoclastogenesis. Thus, SHED-CM may represent a novel anti-inflammatory and reparative therapy for RA. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Osteogenesis imperfecta in Holstein-Friesian calves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agerholm, J.S.; Lund, A.M.; Bloch, B.; Reibel, J.; Basse, A.; Arnbjerg, J.

    1994-01-01

    Eight calves with osteogenesis imperfecta were born in a Danish Holstein-Friesian herd during a two-year period. In total 92 calves were born (84 normal), and all were sired by a clinically normal Holstein-Friesian bull. The defect was probably due to a de novo dominant mutation present as a gonadal mosaicism in the bull. Affected calves were characterised by multiple fractures, congenital bone deformations, generaljoint laxity, dentinogenesis imperfecta, and light blue sclerae. The skin seemed normal. Electron microscopical studies revealed slightly decreased average diameter of cutaneous collagen fibrils, while the diameter of collagen fibrils in tendons and ligaments was severely reduced. Abnormalities of collagen type I from skin and compact bone were not detected by biochemical analyses

  5. Behaviour around the time of calving in dairy cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Margit Bak

    2012-01-01

    . Within minutes after calving cows stood up and licked their calves; second parity cows had a longer latency to stand than later parity cows. Sniffing and licking the calf peaked during the first hour after calving and decreased during the five successive hours, while calves’ sniffing the cow peaked...

  6. Wolf predation on caribou calves in Denali National Park, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Layne G.; Dale, B.; Mech, L. David; Carbyn, Ludwig N.; Fritts, Steven H.; Seip, Dale R.

    1995-01-01

    During 1987-1991, 29 to 45 radio-collared caribou cows were monitored daily during calving each year and their calves were radio-collared (n = 147 calves) to investigate calf production and survival. We determined characteristics of wolf predation on caribou calves and, utilizing information from a companion wolf study, evaluated the role of spacing by caribou cows in minimizing wolf predation on neonates (calves wolf abundance doubled. On average, 49% of the neonates died, ranging from 30% in 1987 to 71% in 1991. Overall, wolves killed 22% of the neonates produced and were the most important mortality agent. Wolves preyed on calves primarily during six days following the peak of calving and usually killed calves five to 15 days old. The mortality rate for neonates was strongly inversely correlated with average birthweight. Neonatal losses to wolves were also correlated with birthweight but not spring wolf density or mean calving elevation. Caribou concentrated on a calving ground when spring snow conditions allowed and adjusted their distribution on the calving ground depending on snow conditions and wolf distribution and abundance. Even though the wolf population doubled, the exposure of caribou calves to wolf predation did not increase, when spacing by caribou at the wolf pack territory scale was accounted for.

  7. Cryptosporidium and Cryptosporidiosis in Calves at Jos, Northern ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cryptosporidium and Cryptosporidiosis in Calves at Jos, Northern Nigeria. VA Pam, DA Dakul, COE Onwuliri. Abstract. This study investigated the occurrence of cryptosporidium and cryptosporidiosis in calves from Jos, Northern Nigeria. Two hundred fecal samples were collected from the calves, recruited for an all year ...

  8. Pulmonary clearance of {sup 99m}Tc-DTPA in experimental surfactant dysfunction treated with surfactant installation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nilsson, K.; John, J.; Lachmann, B.; Robertson, B.; Wollmer, P.

    1997-02-01

    Background: Breakdown of the alveolo-capillary barrier is a characteristic feature of respiratory distress syndrome. Restoration of alveolo-capillary barrier function may be an important aspect of surfactant replacement therapy. We examined the effect of surfactant installation on alveolo-capillary barrier function in an experimental model of surfactant dysfunction by measuring pulmonary clearance of {sup 99m}Tc-DTPA. Methods: Nineteen rabbits were tracheotomized and mechanically ventilated. Surfactant dysfunction was induced by administration of a synthetic detergent in aerosol form. Detergent was given to 13 rabbits; seven rabbits were then treated with installation of natural surfactant, whereas six rabbits received saline. Six rabbits were used as untreated controls. An aerosol of {sup 99m}Tc-DTPA was administered to all animals and the pulmonary clearance was measured with a gamma camera. Results: {sup 99m}Tc-DTPA cleared from the lungs with a half-life of 71{+-}22 min in the control animals, 21.4{+-}7.4 min in the surfactant-treated animals and 5.8{+-}1.5 min in the saline-treated animals. The difference in half-life between groups was highly significant (P<0.001). There was no change in arterial oxygenation or compliance in controls or in animals treated with saline. In animals treated with surfactant, a small transient reduction in arterial oxygen tension and a more long-standing reduction in compliance were observed. Conclusion: Surfactant treatment thus significantly attenuated the effect of detergent treatment but did not restore alveolo-capillary transfer of {sup 99m}Tc-DTPA to normal. (AU) 26 refs.

  9. Evaluation of Biochemical Changes in Experimental Animals Treated with Some Anticancer and Radiosynthetizers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    EL-Shawy, O.E.M.

    2009-01-01

    Cancer constitutes the largest cause of mortality in the world and claims over 6 million lives every year (Abdullaev et al. 2000).It is a disease in which cellular growth regulatory networks are disrupted(Chen et al.2003). An extremely promising strategy for cancer prevention today is chemo prevention, which is defined as the use of synthetic or natural agents (alone or in combination) to block the development of cancer in humans (Gupta et al. 2004). Most of anticancer drugs have side effects on human normal cells when they were used to treat tumor cells (Bi and Jiang ,2006).Therefore cancer drugs development has moved from conventional cytotoxic chemotherapeutics to a more mechanism-based targeted approach towards the common goal of tumor growth arrest (McLaughlin and La Thangue 2004). Histones are a family of nuclear proteins that interact with DNA, resulting in DNA being wrapped around a core of histone octamer within the nucleosome (Rasheed et al. 2008).They may act through the transcriptional reactivation of dormant tumor suppressor genes and they also modulate expression of several other genes related to cell cycle, apoptosis, and angiogenesis (Shankar ans Srivastava, 2008). Histone acetylation is a reversible process: histone acetyl transferases (HAT) transfer the acetyl moiety from acetyl coenzyme A to the lysine, and histone de acetylases (HDAC) remove the acetyl groups reestablishing the positive charge in the histones (Fang, 2005).In particular, imbalance in histone acetylation can lead to changes in chromatin structure and transcriptional dysregulation of genes that are involved in the control of proliferation, cell-cycle progression, differentiation and/or apoptosis

  10. Perioperative management of calves undergoing implantation of a left ventricular assist device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, D V; Kantrowitz, A; Pacholewicz, J; Salat, O; Paules, B R; Zhou, Y; Dawe, E J

    2000-01-01

    To describe perioperative management of calves that underwent left lateral thoracotomy, aortic cross-clamping, partial left heart bypass and implantation of a left ventricular assist device. A total of 43 healthy castrated male calves, weighing 121 +/- 24 kg. Diazepam (mean +/- SD, 0.26 +/- 0.07 mg/kg), ketamine (5.9 +/- 2.17 mg/kg) and isoflurane were used in the anesthetic management of calves undergoing implantation of a left ventricular assist device in the descending thoracic aorta. Other adjunctive agents administered were fentanyl (11 +/- 5.4 microg/kg), lidocaine (4.9 +/- 3.19 mg/kg), bupivacaine (0.75%) and butorphanol (0.49 +/- 0.13 mg/kg). None of the calves regurgitated at induction or during intubation. A tube was used to drain the rumen and prevent bloat during the procedure. Partial left heart bypass was used to perfuse the caudal half of the body during the period of aortic cross clamp and device implantation. Initial mean systemic blood pressure was 96 +/- 25 mm Hg, and pressures measured in the auricular artery increased during aortic cross-clamping and bypass. Vasoconstrictor therapy was required to treat caudal arterial hypotension during the procedure in 9 calves. Mean systemic arterial pressures returned to baseline values by the end of the anesthetic period. Initial mean pulmonary arterial pressures (PAP) were 22 +/- 3 mm Hg. A significant but transient increase in pulmonary arterial pressure occurred after both heparin and protamine administration. The described anesthetic protocol was effective for thoracotomy and implantation of an intra-aortic left ventricular assist device in normal calves. Partial left ventricular bypass was a useful adjunct during the period of aortic cross clamp. The doses of heparin and protamine administered were effective. Responsibility to monitor oxygenation of the cranial half of the animal continues during the bypass period as hypoxemia due to pulmonary dysfunction will not be detected by the perfusionist.

  11. [Experimental study on vascular bundle implantation combined with cellular transplantation in treating rabbit femoral head necrosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shuang-Tao; Zhang, Wei-Ping; Liu, Chang-An; Wang, Jun-Jiang; Song, Heng-Yi; Chai, Zhi-wen

    2013-03-01

    To discuss the feasibility of vascular bundle implantation combined with allogeneic bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) transplantation in treating rabbit femoral head osteonecrosis and bone defect, in order to explore a new method for the treatment of femoral head necrosis. Thirty-six New Zealand rabbits were randomly divided into three groups,with 12 rabbits in each group. Bilateral femoral heads of the rabbits were studied in the experiment. The models were made by liquid nitrogen frozen, and the femoral heads were drilled to cause bone defect. Group A was the control group,group B was stem cells transplantaion group of allograft marrow stromal,and group C was stem cells transplantation group of allograft marrow stromal combined with vascular bundle implantation. Three rabbits of each group were sacrificed respectively at 2, 4, 8, 12 weeks after operation. All specimens of the femoral heads were sliced for HE staining. Furthermore ,vascular density and the percentage of new bone trabecula of femoral head coronary section in defect area were measured and analyzed statistically. In group C,new bone trabecula and original micrangium formed at the 2nd week after operation; new bone trabecula was lamellar and interlaced with abundant micrangium at the 8th week;at the 12th week,the broadened,coarsened bone trabecula lined up regularly,and the mature bone trabecula and new marrow were visible. At the 2nd week after operation,there was no statistical significance in the percentage of new bone trabecula of femoral head coronary section in defect area between group B and C. While at 4, 8, 12 week after operation, vascular density and the percentage of new bone trabecula of femoral head coronary section in defect area of group C was higher than that of group B. Allogeneic bone marrow stromal cells cultured in vivo can form new bone trabecula, and can be applied to allotransplant. Vascular bundle implanted into the bone defect area of femoral head necrosis could improve blood

  12. [Intraoperative lactic acidosis, can it be treated? Clinico-experimental, prospective, sequential study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietropaoli, P; Caporelli, S; De Pace, F; Donati, A; Adrario, E; Luzi, A; Munch, C; Giovannini, C; Frezzotti, A R

    1994-12-01

    To verify the efficacy and absence of risk attributable to therapy with alkaline solutions for correction of lactic acidosis and to demonstrate the usefulness of L-carnitine in converting lactate into pyruvate in conditions of good blood oxygenation. Prospective study on a consecutive series of patients subdivided into three groups following the use of: alkalinizing therapy (group I), L-carnitine (group II), or saline solution (group III). Groups 1 and 2 were further subdivided into subgroups "a" and "b" according to the type of alkalinizing agent and of L-carnitine somministration. Teaching Hospital-Torrette di Ancona. 65 patients submitted to major vascular surgery with aortic clamping in the time period between January 1992 and August 1993. During aortic clamping patients of: group I received 2 mEq:kg of bicarbonate or tromentamolo according to the specific subgroup. Group II received a bolus of 2 g of L-carnitine, patients of group IIb received further 2 g of carnitine in continuous perfusion until the end of surgery. Group III received no pharmacological intervention. HR BP, arterial blood gases and lactic acid levels were measured at 12 pre-determined times. Only a neutralizing effect of alkalinizing therapy was observed, whereas the lactic acid measurements demonstrated no significant differences between the different groups. These results confirm the data of other Authors concerning the good compliance of alkalinizing therapy, however, there was demonstrated no clear evidence of its effective usefulness. No metabolic stimulation due to L-canitina could be demonstrated in our experimental conditions.

  13. Leaching of PAHs from agricultural soils treated with oil shale combustion ash: an experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jefimova, Jekaterina; Adamson, Jasper; Reinik, Janek; Irha, Natalya

    2016-10-01

    The present study focuses on the fate of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in soils amended with oil shale ash (OSA). Leachability studies to assess the release of PAHs to the environment are essential before the application of OSA in agriculture. A quantitative estimation of the leaching of PAHs from two types of soil and two types of OSA was undertaken in this study. Two leaching approaches were chosen: (1) a traditional one step leaching scheme and (2) a leaching scheme with pretreatment, i.e.., incubation of the material in wet conditions imitating the field conditions, followed by a traditional leaching procedure keeping the total amount of water constant. The total amount of PAHs leached from soil/OSA mixtures was in the range of 15 to 48 μg/kg. The amount of total PAHs leached was higher for the incubation method, compared to the traditional leaching method, particularly for Podzolic Gleysols soil. This suggests that for the incubation method, the content of organic matter and clay minerals of the soil influence the fate of PAHs more strongly compared to the traditional leaching scheme. The amount of PAHs leached from OSA samples is higher than from soil/OSA mixtures, which suggests soils to inhibit the release of PAHs. Calculated amount of PAHs from experimental soil and OSA leaching experiments differed considerably from real values. Thus, it is not possible to estimate the amount of PAHs leached from soil/OSA mixtures based on the knowledge of the amount of PAHs leached from soil and OSA samples separately.

  14. Treating a 20 mm Hg gradient alleviates myocardial hypertrophy in experimental aortic coarctation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wendell, David C; Friehs, Ingeborg; Samyn, Margaret M; Harmann, Leanne M; LaDisa, John F

    2017-10-01

    Children with coarctation of the aorta (CoA) can have a hyperdynamic and remodeled left ventricle (LV) from increased afterload. Literature from an experimental model suggests the putative 20 mm Hg blood pressure gradient (BPG) treatment guideline frequently implemented in CoA studies may permit irreversible vascular changes. LV remodeling from pressure overload has been studied, but data are limited following correction and using a clinically representative BPG. Rabbits underwent CoA at 10 weeks to induce a 20 mm Hg BPG using permanent or dissolvable suture thereby replicating untreated and corrected CoA, respectively. Cardiac function was evaluated at 32 weeks by magnetic resonance imaging using a spoiled cine GRE sequence (TR/TE/FA 8/2.9/20), 14 × 14-cm FOV, and 3-mm slice thickness. Images (20 frames/cycle) were acquired in 6-8 short axis views from the apex to the mitral valve annulus. LV volume, ejection fraction (EF), and mass were quantified. LV mass was elevated for CoA (5.2 ± 0.55 g) versus control (3.6 ± 0.16 g) and corrected (4.0 ± 0.44 g) rabbits, resulting in increased LV mass/volume ratio for CoA rabbits. A trend toward increased EF and stroke volume was observed but did not reach significance. Elevated EF by volumetric analysis in CoA rabbits was supported by concomitant increases in total aortic flow by phase-contrast magnetic resonance imaging. The indices quantified trended toward a persistent hyperdynamic LV despite correction, but differences were not statistically significant versus control rabbits. These findings suggest the current putative 20 mm Hg BPG for treatment may be reasonable from the LV's perspective. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Expression of β-nerve growth factor and homeobox A10 in experimental cryptorchidism treated with exogenous nerve growth factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xian, Hua; Xian, Yun; Liu, Lili; Wang, Yongjun; He, Jianghong; Huang, Jianfei

    2015-04-01

    With the exception of standard inguinal orchidopexy, treatment of cryptorchidism with human chorionic gonadotropin has been performed for several years; however, its side effects have limited its application. The β‑nerve growth factor (NGF) and homeobox A10 (HoxA10) genes are closely associated with the development of the testes. To the best of our knowledge, whether exogenous NGF alters the endogenous levels of NGF and HoxA10 in cryptorchidism in rats remains to be elucidated. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the gene and protein expression of NGF and HoxA10 in experimental cryptorchidism following treatment with exogenous NGF. A unilateral mechanical cryptorchidism model in Sprague-Dawley rats was established and different concentrations of exogenous NGF were administered to observe the effects of NGF on cryptorchidism. Changes in the gene and protein expression levels of NGF and HoxA10 in the cryptorchid tissues of each group were identified using one step reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction, in situ hybridization with digoxigenin‑labeled‑β‑NGF RNA probes, immunofluorescence and immunohistochemistry, respectively. The expression levels of NGF and HoxA10 were markedly higher in the group treated with a high dose of exogenous NGF compared with the group treated with a low dose of exogenous NGF and the group treated with human chorionic gonadotropin. These results confirmed the potential therapeutic effect of exogenous NGF in human cryptorchidism.

  16. Calving interval and survival breeding values as measure of cow fertility in a pasture based production system with seasonal calving

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Olori, V.; Meuwissen, T.H.E.; Veerkamp, R.F.

    2001-01-01

    In a grass-based production system with seasonal calving, fertility is of major economic importance. A delay in conception due to poor fertility prolongs intercalving interval and causes a shift in calving pattern, which can lead to culling. Calving interval (CIV) information is readily available

  17. Short communication: Calving site selection of multiparous, group-housed dairy cows is influenced by site of a previous calving

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rørvang, Maria Vilain; Nielsen, B.L.; Herskin, Mette S.

    2017-01-01

    A calving cow and her newborn calf appear to have an attracting effect on periparturient cows, which may potentially influence the functionality of future motivation-based calving pen designs. In this pilot study we examined whether calving site selection of group-housed Holstein dairy cows...

  18. Forage and sugar in dairy calves' starter diet and their interaction on performance, weaning age and rumen fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beiranvand, H; Ghorbani, G R; Khorvash, M; Kazemi-Bonchenari, M

    2014-06-01

    The effects of sugar and forage inclusion in calves' starter and their interaction on animal performance and rumen fermentation parameters were investigated. Twenty-eight neonatal Holstein male calves 3 days of age with average body weights of 42 ± 4 kg were allocated to four different treatments. All calves were fed a similar basal diet consisting of milk and concentrate. The experimental treatments were: (i) basal diet with no supplementation (Control, hereafter designated by C), (ii) basal diet plus 5% granular sugar cane (Sugar, designated by S), (iii) basal diet plus 5% forage (Forage, designated by F) and (iv) basal diet plus 5% forage with 5% granular sugar cane (F × S). Supplement ingredients were used on a dry matter (DM) basis. Rumen fluid parameters were measured twice on days 35 and 70 of the study period. The calves were weaned when they could consume 1 kg of starter for three consecutive days. The results show that starter intake was not affected by treatment; however, the lowest ADG was observed with calves in the sugar treatment. Weaning age was affected by treatments, and forage showed to reduce milk consumption period down to its shortest. Forage-sugar interaction was found to have no effects on animal performance. The structural body indices as well as the health status of the calves were similar in different treatments. Rumen pH did not differ among the treatment groups. Among the rumen parameters, total VFA concentration and molar proportions of butyrate and propionate did not exhibit any significant differences among the treatments. However, ruminal acetate concentration decreased in calves that fed sugar cane during the early weeks of the study period. Comparison of forage and sugar included in the starter diets revealed that forage reduced weaning age, while sugar cane had a negative effect on calves' performance. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2013 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  19. Effect of physical form and protein source of starter feed on growth and development of dairy calves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Yavuz

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. The objective of this paper was to review the literature on effects of different methods of processing of grain fraction of the starter feeds for young dairy calves, as well as providing another part of starter which is a source of protein, minerals and vitamins in different physical forms. The second aim was to discus the impact of the main protein sources for starter feeds on performance of preweaning and posteweaning dairy calves. The main criteria for assessment of physical form effect and sources of protein in the starter feeds were intake of dry feeds, daily live weight gain and frame size growth of calves, morphological and functional development of forestomachs, digestibility of feeds and health status of young calves. Data show big variations and lack of consistency of experimental results. Good results were achieved when calves were fed whole, ground, dry-rolled, pelleted and steam-flaked grains. It seemed that fineness of grinding and quantities of fine fraction were important for starter intake. Steam-flaking and grinding improved digestibility to the same extent, but whole grain stimulated chewing and improved rumen environment for bacteria growth. Soybean meal was the most palatable and ensured best performance of calves. Evidently, it is possible to replace soybean meal with rape seed, canola type meal, dry distillers grain with solubles (DDGS and other protein sources which contain more fiber and are less digestible. However, it is difficult to appraise how much and at what conditions is it possible to replace completely or a maximum possible portion of soybean meal. Additional studies are needed to clarify interactions between physical form of starters, rumen fermentation environments and age of calves. Information for composition of diets is needed allowing inclusion of maximum amounts of canola meal, DDGS and sunflower meal, which are produced locally and are cheaper than soybean meal, without decreasing live weight

  20. Veal calves produce less antibodies against C. perfringens alpha toxin compared to beef calves

    OpenAIRE

    Valgaeren, Bonnie; Pardon, Bart; Goossens, Evy; Verherstraeten, Stefanie; Roelandt, Sophie; Timbermont, Leen; Van Der Vekens, Nicky; Stuyvaert, Sabrina; Gille, Linde; Van Driessche, Laura; Haesebrouck, Freddy; Ducatelle, Richard; Van Immerseel, Filip; Deprez, Piet

    2015-01-01

    Enterotoxaemia is a disease with a high associated mortality rate, affecting beef and veal calves worldwide, caused by C. perfringens alpha toxin and perfringolysin. A longitudinal study was conducted to determine the dynamics of antibodies against these toxins in 528 calves on 4 beef and 15 veal farms. The second study aimed to determine the effect of solid feed intake on the production of antibodies against alpha toxin and perfringolysin. The control group only received milk replacer, wher...

  1. Pneumonia outbreaks in calves and finishers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-19

    Pneumonia in calves and finishers. Ovarian tumour in a calf . Abortion associated with bovine herpesvirus 1 in a suckler herd. Parasitic gastroenteritis causing illthrift and death in sheep. Outbreaks of acute fasciolosis in sheep. These are among matters discussed in the disease surveillance report for December 2015 from SAC Consulting: Veterinary Services (SAC C VS). British Veterinary Association.

  2. Rumen development in veal (preruminant) calves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Suárez, B.J.

    2006-01-01

    Historically, veal calves were fed until slaughter weight with only milk replacer and, in absence of solid feed the physiological development of the forestomachs was limited. In 1997, a new EU legislation stipulated that a minimum amount of solid feed (fiber) has to be provided for the welfare of

  3. Effects of medetomidine on serum glucose in cattle calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tariq, Muhammad; Kalhoro, Amir Bukhsh; Sarwar, Mian Saeed; Khan, Hamayun; Ahmad, Shakoor; Hassan, Sayed Mubashir; Zahoor, Arshad

    2016-05-01

    An experimental study was carried out to compare physiological effects (serum glucose level) of medetomidine in Red Sindhi cattle calves at three different doses i.e. 8, 10 and 12µg/kg body weight intravenously. Medetomidine produced a dose dependent significant (P<0.01) increase in serum glucose level with a maximum increase observed at 30 minutes with 8µg/kg, 10μg/kg and 12μg/kg body weight respectively. Start of sedation, degree of sedation and total duration of sedation were all dose dependent and the values obtained were significantly (P<0.01) different from each other. It was observed that the sedation was rapid, deep and longer with the higher doses of medetomidine i.e. 12μg/kg. The results of the present study shows that medetomidine is a very effective and safest drug use as sedative for calves which in lower doses (8μg/kg) can be used as a pre-anesthetic and for restraining of the animal, while higher calculated doses (10μg/kg, 12μg/kg) can be used to execute the minor surgical procedures.

  4. Experimental envenomation with Crotalus durissus terrificus venom in dogs treated with antiophidic serum - part II: laboratory aspects, electrocardiogram and histopathology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. M. B. Nogueira

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The present work shows laboratory aspects, electrocardiogram and histopathology results during experimental envenomation by Crotalus durissus terrificus in dogs treated with antiophidic serum. Twenty-one dogs were divided into three groups of seven animals each. Group I received 1mg/kg venom (sc; Group II received 1mg/kg venom (sc, 50mg antiophidic serum (iv and fluid therapy including 0.9% NaCl solution (iv; and Group III received 1mg/kg venom (sc, 50mg antiophidic serum (iv and fluid therapy including 0.9% NaCl solution containing sodium bicarbonate diluted to the dose of 4mEq/kg. Urinalysis showed brown urine, proteinuria, occult blood and myoglobinuria. Respiratory acidosis and hypotension were also observed. At the venom inoculation site, there was discreet edema, popliteal lymph node response, musculature presenting whitish areas and necrotic myositis with myoregenerative activity. There was not evidence of electrocardiographical and biochemical alterations.

  5. Changes in blood sugar levels of rats experimentally infected with Trypanosoma brucei and treated with imidocarb dipropionate and diminazene aceturate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nwoha Rosemary Ijeoma Ogechi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine the effect of Trypanosoma brucei (T. brucei on blood sugar level of infected rats. Methods: The experiment was done with 42 albino rats grouped into 3 groups of 14 members each. Group A was uninfected (control group, Group B was infected with T. brucei and treated with diminazene aceturate, and Group C was infected with T. brucei and treated with imidocarb dipropionate. Blood samples were collected from the media canthus of the experimental rats on Days 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10 for the assessment of change in blood sugar levels. The blood sugar levels were determined with a glucometer (Accu-chek active serial No. GN: 10023338. Results: By 4 to 5 days post infection, there was a significant increase (P 0.05 was observed in the groups when compared with the control group till Day 12 of the experiment. Conclusions: T. brucei caused a significant increase in blood sugar of infected rats.

  6. Antimicrobial resistance in E. coli and Salmonella spp. isolates from calves in southern Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Hervé-Claude

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Description of antimicrobial resistance in E. coli and Salmonella spp. isolates from calves <30 days of age from southern Chile. Material and methods: Necropsy and microbiology reports of 107 calves <30 days of age received at the Animal Pathology Institute between 2002 and 2015 were considered. Additionally, an antimicrobial resistance score was generated to allow comparisons among isolates with different antimicrobial susceptibility profiles. Results: There was no clear trend in antimicrobial resistance during the study period, with similar levels of resistance for E. coli, β-hemolytic E. coli and Salmonella spp. Approximately 50% of isolates were sensitive to antimicrobials, and between 19 and 36% of samples showed possible extended- or pan- drug resistance. Multiple different antimicrobial resistance patterns were found, including 32 for E. coli, 17 for β-hemolytic E. coli and 10 for Salmonella spp. Conclusions: Overall, E. coli samples were most sensitive to ceftriaxone; β-hemolytic E. coli to florfenicol; and Salmonella spp. to gentamicin. In contrast, these agents were resistant to amoxicillin, ampicillin and oxytetracycline respectively. This study is unique in its approach and provides useful information for veterinarians and producers on the antibiotic resistance patterns of bacteria posing a serious threat to calves. These results can help field veterinarians to control and treat bacterial diarrhea in calves.

  7. Technical note: ruminal cannulation technique in young Holstein calves: effects of cannulation on feed intake, body weight gain, and ruminal development at six weeks of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristensen, N B; Engbaek, M; Vestergaard, M; Harmon, D L

    2010-02-01

    Ruminal cannulation techniques are frequently used to study fermentation in the ruminant forestomach. Unsatisfactory results with the traditionally applied procedure for cannulation of young calves stimulated the development of a simpler and more robust procedure; this procedure was tested for effects on performance traits and gross anatomy of the gastrointestinal tract compared with a control group not undergoing surgery. Five calves were ruminally cannulated at approximately 10 d of age and 5 matching calves were used as controls. All calves were fed milk replacer and a diet based on clover grass silage and sodium hydroxide-treated wheat. Ruminal fluid was collected from cannulated calves once weekly for 3 consecutive weeks. All calves were euthanized at 43+/-3 d of age. No apparent adverse effects of cannulation were observed. Feed intake, BW gain, and gross anatomy of the gastrointestinal tract were not affected by cannulation. Minimum ruminal pH increased with sampling week, but average ruminal pH, total volatile fatty acids concentration, and volatile fatty acids proportions were not affected by sampling week. In conclusion, the implemented surgical technique was found to have no major effect on apparent animal health and performance traits, and the cannula proved useful for multiple samplings of ruminal contents in young calves. Copyright 2010 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Physiological And Blood Biochemical Responses To Dried Live Yeast Plus Vitamin E As A Dietary Supplement To Bovine Baladi Calves Under Hot Summer Conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ABDALLA, E.B.; EL-MASRY, K.A.; TEAMA, F.E.; EMARA, S.S.

    2009-01-01

    The experiment was designed to study the effect of supplemented dried live yeast (DLY) + vitamin E to the diet of growing calves under hot summer conditions in Egypt. Six bovine Baladi calves with 115 kg initial body weight and 8-10 months old were used during two periods. In the first period, the calves were offered the concentrated basal diet only for one month and considered as a control period. In the second period, the calves were fed the same basal diet which supplemented with 15 g dried live yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) + 600 IU vitamin E (alpha- tocopherol) per calf daily for one month and considered as a treated period. Body weight was recorded at the beginning and the end of each period, and daily gain was calculated for each animal. Blood samples were collected from each animal at the end of each period to determine some blood biochemical parameters and T 3 and T 4 concentrations as well as some immunological indices.The results showed that supplementation of DLY + 600 IU vitamin E to the diet of calves reduced significantly (P 3 and T 4 levels and improved feed efficiency and daily gain. It is concluded that supplementation of growing calves with 15 g DLY + 600 IU vitamin E / calf / day under Egyptian hot summer conditions reduced the effect of heat stress as shown by a decline in RT and modified most blood constituents and thyroid function which leads to an improvement in growing calves

  9. Growth, ruminal measurements, and health characteristics of Holstein bull calves fed an Aspergillus oryzae fermentation extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yohe, T T; O'Diam, K M; Daniels, K M

    2015-09-01

    calves were treated for respiratory ailments and respiratory treatment cost was lower for AMF compared with control. Several factors may have contributed to an overall lack of observed treatment effect in this study, including include the use of a low-forage (compared with concentrate) diet, immunocompetent calves, and the selected product dose and routes of delivery. Dietary inclusion (2 g/d) of an extract of A. oryzae did not affect calf growth, intake, and ruminal or health measurements. Copyright © 2015 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Efficiency of use of supplementary lighting in rearing of dairy calves during milk feeding stage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gledson L. P. de Almeida

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTThe objective of this study was to evaluate programs of supplementary lighting for calves in individual shelters with different roof materials, as a strategy to stimulate concentrate consumption and the reduction of the milk feeding period and increase financial viability. Twenty seven dairy crossed Holstein × Gir female calves were randomly distributed in individual shelters with three different roofing materials (cement fiber tile, recycled tile and thatched roofs, associated with three different light duration (12, 16 and 20 h and with three repetitions. The experimental design was completely randomized in 3 × 3 factorial arrangement. There was no interaction between the types of roofs × supplemental light; also, there was no significant effect of the covering types on the average consumption of concentrate and occurance of diarrhea in calves. On the other hand 20 h of lighting stimulated the consumption of concentrate and allowed weaning of calves at 55 days of age and 20% reduction in the cost of rearing animals during milk feeding stage.

  11. Comparison of cephalonium alone and in combination with an internal teat sealant for dry cow therapy in seasonally calving dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bates, A J; Chambers, G; Laven, R A

    2016-03-01

    To assess the effect of combining an internal teat sealant (ITS) and a long-acting cephalonium-based dry cow therapy (DCT) on the prevalence of cows with a somatic cell count (SCC) >150,000 cells/mL 60-80 days after calving, and the incidence of clinical mastitis diagnosed by farm staff in the first 100 days after calving. Cows from a spring-calving, pasture-based, dairy farm in the South Canterbury region of New Zealand were randomly allocated to receive cephalonium DCT (n=289) or cephalonium and internal teat sealant (n=304) at the end of lactation. Cows were inspected twice daily by farm staff during the dry period and following calving for signs of mastitis. Individual SCC were determined from herd tests conducted in the previous lactation and following calving. Logistic regression models were used to determine relationships with the prevalence of cows with a SCC >150,000 cells/mL after calving, and survival analysis was used to model time to the first case of clinical mastitis following calving at the cow and quarter level. The OR for a cow with a SCC >150,000 cells/mL after calving, including age and individual SCC in the preceding lactation in the model, was 0.53 (95% CI=0.32-0.89) for cows treated with combination therapy compared to cows receiving cephalonium (p=0.017). At the cow level, including age and preceding SCC in the model, the hazard ratio for diagnosis of clinical mastitis by farm staff in the first 100 days of lactation was 0.60 (95% CI=0.39-0.98) for cows treated with combination therapy compared to cows receiving cephalonium (p=0.04). At the quarter level, the hazard ratio for diagnosis of clinical mastitis, with age included in the model, was 0.41 (95% CI=0.23-0.74) for the combination therapy compared to cephalonium alone (pmastitis diagnosed by farm staff in the 100 days after calving, and the prevalence of cows with a SCC >150,000 cells/mL 60-80 days after calving. This study adds to the evidence that the prevention of intra mammary

  12. Effect of sample pre-treatment on the determination of steroid esters in hair of bovine calves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aqai, P.; Stolker, A.A.M.; Lasaroms, J.J.P.

    2009-01-01

    The effect of three sample pre-treatment steps, washing, cutting and grinding on the determination of steroid esters in hair is studied. The study is performed by using hair samples obtained after pour-on application of steroid esters to bovine calves. After sample pre-treatment the hair is treated

  13. Technical note: Ruminal cannulation technique in young Holstein calves:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Niels Bastian; Engbæk, Marie; Vestergaard, Mogens

    2010-01-01

    Ruminal cannulation techniques are frequently used to study fermentation in the ruminant forestomach. Unsatisfactory results with the traditionally applied procedure for cannulation of young calves stimulated the development of a simpler and more robust procedure; this procedure was tested for ef...... no major effect on apparent animal health and performance traits, and the cannula proved useful for multiple samplings of ruminal contents in young calves.......Ruminal cannulation techniques are frequently used to study fermentation in the ruminant forestomach. Unsatisfactory results with the traditionally applied procedure for cannulation of young calves stimulated the development of a simpler and more robust procedure; this procedure was tested...... for effects on performance traits and gross anatomy of the gastrointestinal tract compared with a control group not undergoing surgery. Five calves were ruminally cannulated at approximately 10 d of age and 5 matching calves were used as controls. All calves were fed milk replacer and a diet based on clover...

  14. Epidemiological investigation of rotavirus infection in buffalo calves in Bangladesh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samad, M.A.; Ahmed, M.W.

    1990-01-01

    A study on rotavirus infection in buffalo calves in Bangladesh was carried out to detect its association with diarrhoea. An overall 28% incidence of diarrhoeal diseases was recorded in rural buffalo calves. Rotavirus was detected in faecal samples from both diarrhoeic (12%) and non-diarrhoeic (3%) calves by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay. An association between diarrhoea and rotavirus infection was recorded in buffalo calves below 1 month of age in both diarrhoeic (27%) and non-diarrhoeic (7%) calves. Rotavirus infection in diarrhoeic buffalo calves was found to be highest in winter (16.7%), followed by summer (9.1%) and lowest in the rainy season (7.7%). Further studies on the epidemiological and prophylactic aspects of rotavirus infection should be conducted to control this infection in Bangladesh. (author). 21 refs, 2 tabs

  15. Intrapulmonary concentration of enrofloxacin in healthy calves

    Science.gov (United States)

    OTOMARU, Konosuke; HIRATA, Masaya; IKEDO, Tomonobu; HORINOUCHI, Chie; NOGUCHI, Michiko; ISHIKAWA, Shingo; NAGATA, Shun-ichi; HOBO, Seiji

    2015-01-01

    To determine the intrapulmonary concentration of enrofloxacin (ERFX) in calves, plasma, bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) and alveolar cells samples were obtained from clinically healthy calves. Four clinically healthy calves were administered a single dose of ERFX (5 mg/kg) by subcutaneous injection. Samples of plasma were obtained for each subjects at 0 (before administration), 1 and 2 hr after administration of ERFX. Samples of BALF were obtained from each subject at 0, 1 and 2 hr after administration of ERFX. This examination was conducted two times, one week apart. The mean EFRX concentrations in plasma at 1 and 2 hr after administration were l.23 and 1.29 µg/ml, respectively. The mean EFRX concentrations in pulmonary epithelial lining fluid (ELF) at 1 and 2 hr after administration 8.53 µg/ml and 9.42 µg/ml, respectively. The mean ERFX concentrations of alveolar cells in BALF at 1 and 2 hr after administration were 4.04 µg/ml and 5.19 µg/ml, respectively. These results suggest that the ERFX concentrations in ELF and alveolar cells concentrations in BALF at 1 and 2 hr after administration were higher than the plasma concentrations. PMID:26668174

  16. FINANCIAL FEASIBILITY ANALYSIS OF PARASITIASIS CALVES TREATMENT ON CATTLE BREEDING OF SMALLHOLDER IN MAGELANG REGENCY CENTRAL JAVA PROVINCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Purwaningsih Purwaningsih

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This research was aimed to identify the financial feasibility of parasitiasis treatment for calves in the small holder breeding farm in Piji Subdistrict, Podosoko Village, Magelang Regency. Farmer was taken purposively, considering their objective of keeping cattle (breeding. Eight calves naturally infected gastrointestinal parasites were selected based on consideration of the uniformity of the age (4 months breeds of Limousin-PO (LimPO male 120-125 kg of body weight. They were divided into two groups, consisting of four calves for each group (Group I without treatment and Group II with improved health management. Farmers income was calculated based on the input and output data gathered from interview. The data were compared between Group I and II. Result showed that the value of additional revenue of the calves was IDR 4,230,000 and the selling price of one head of the treated antiparasitic calf was IDR 6,047,000. The calves net benefit in Group II was IDR 142,661/head/year, while group with improved health management (Group II achieved the net income of IDR 283,621/head/year.

  17. A comparison of surgical outcomes of perineal urethrostomy plus penile resection and perineal urethrostomy in twelve calves with perineal or prescrotal urethral dilatation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A. Marzok

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The clinical diagnosis, ultrasonographic findings, surgical management, outcome, and survival rate of perineal or prescrotal urethral dilatation in 12 male calves are described. All calves were crossbred and intact males. The most noticeable clinical presentations were perineal (n= 10 or prescrotal (n= 2 swellings and micturition problems. The main ultrasonographic findings were oval shaped dilatation of the urethra in all animals with dimensions of 40-75 X 30-62 mm. The calves with perineal urethral dilatation were treated by perineal urethrostomy (n= 4 and partial penile transection including the dilated urethra and urethral fistulation (n= 6. Prescrotal urethral dilatations were treated by penile transection proximal to the dilatation site (n= 2. Cystitis and stricture of the urethra were recorded postoperatively for two of the calves that underwent perineal urethrostomy. Nine animals were slaughtered at normal body weight approximately 6-8 months after the surgical treatment. Three animals were slaughtered after approximately three to four months, two of them having gained insufficient body weight. Our study shows that ultrasonography is a useful tool for the diagnosis of urethral dilatation in bovine calves. Our study also shows that the partial penile transection may be a suitable and satisfactory choice of surgical treatment for correcting the urethral dilatation in bovine calves.

  18. Impact of carprofen administration on stress and nociception responses of calves to cautery dehorning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stock, M L; Barth, L A; Van Engen, N K; Millman, S T; Gehring, R; Wang, C; Voris, E A; Wulf, L W; Labeur, Léa; Hsu, W H; Coetzee, J F

    2016-02-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of carprofen administered immediately before cautery dehorning on nociception and stress. Forty Holstein calves aged approximately 6 to 8 wk old were either placebo treated and sham dehorned ( = 10) or cautery dehorned following administration of carprofen (1.4 mg/kg) subcutaneously ( = 10) or orally ( = 10) or a subcutaneous and oral placebo ( = 10) in a randomized, controlled trial. All animals were given a cornual nerve block using lidocaine before dehorning. Response variables including mechanical nociception threshold, ocular temperature, heart rate, and respiratory rate were measured before and following cautery dehorning for 96 h. Blood samples were also collected over 96 h following dehorning and analyzed for plasma cortisol and substance P concentrations by RIA. Plasma carprofen concentration and ex vivo PGE concentrations were also determined for this time period. Average daily gain was calculated for 7 d after dehorning. Data were analyzed using a linear mixed effects model with repeated measures, controlling for baseline values by their inclusion as a covariate in addition to planned contrasts. Dehorning was associated with decreased nociception thresholds throughout the study and a stress response immediately after dehorning, following the loss of local anesthesia, and 48 h after dehorning compared with sham-dehorned calves. Carprofen was well absorbed after administration and reached concentrations that inhibited ex vivo PGE concentrations for 72 h (subcutaneous) and 96 h (oral) compared with placebo-treated calves ( Carprofen-treated calves tended to be less sensitive ( = 0.097) to nociceptive threshold tests. Overall, at the dosing regimen studied, the effect of carprofen on sensitivity and stress following cautery dehorning was minimal. Consideration of route of administration and dose determination studies may be warranted.

  19. FULL SCIENTIFIC REPORTS - Complex vertebral malformation in Holstein calves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agerholm, Jørgen S.; Bendixen, Christian; Andersen, Ole

    2001-01-01

    A recently observed lethal congenital defect of purebred Holstein calves is reported. Eighteen genetically related calves were necropsied. One calf had been aborted on gestation day 159, and the others were delivered between day 250 and day 285. Birth weights were reduced. The defect was characte......A recently observed lethal congenital defect of purebred Holstein calves is reported. Eighteen genetically related calves were necropsied. One calf had been aborted on gestation day 159, and the others were delivered between day 250 and day 285. Birth weights were reduced. The defect...

  20. Improving the sweeping efficiency of permanganate into low permeable zones to treat TCE: experimental results and model development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chokejaroenrat, Chanat; Kananizadeh, Negin; Sakulthaew, Chainarong; Comfort, Steve; Li, Yusong

    2013-11-19

    The residual buildup and treatment of dissolved contaminants in low permeable zones (LPZs) is a particularly challenging issue for injection-based remedial treatments. Our objective was to improve the sweeping efficiency of permanganate into LPZs to treat dissolved-phase TCE. This was accomplished by conducting transport experiments that quantified the ability of xanthan-MnO4(-) solutions to penetrate and cover (i.e., sweep) an LPZ that was surrounded by transmissive sands. By incorporating the non-Newtonian fluid xanthan with MnO4(-), penetration of MnO4(-) into the LPZ improved dramatically and sweeping efficiency reached 100% in fewer pore volumes. To quantify how xanthan improved TCE removal, we spiked the LPZ and surrounding sands with (14)C-lableled TCE and used a multistep flooding procedure that quantified the mass of (14)C-TCE oxidized and bypassed during treatment. Results showed that TCE mass removal was 1.4 times greater in experiments where xanthan was employed. Combining xanthan with MnO4(-) also reduced the mass of TCE in the LPZ that was potentially available for rebound. By coupling a multiple species reactive transport model with the Brinkman equation for non-Newtonian flow, the simulated amount of (14)C-TCE oxidized during transport matched experimental results. These observations support the use of xanthan as a means of enhancing MnO4(-) delivery into LPZs for the treatment of dissolved-phase TCE.

  1. Effects of amount of colostrum replacer, amount of milk replacer, and housing cleanliness on health, growth, and intake of Holstein calves to 8 weeks of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quigley, J D; Hill, T M; Deikun, L L; Schlotterbeck, R L

    2017-11-01

    Newborn Holstein bull calves (n = 96) were assigned randomly at birth to receive 150 g (C150) or 450 g (C450) of IgG in the first 24 h of life from a lacteal-based colostrum replacer in 2 trials. Mass of product fed was 500 and 1,500 g, respectively. Replacer was reconstituted with warm water and administered by esophageal feeder at approximately 1, 6, and 12 h of age. Thereafter, calves were fed 2 L of whole milk twice daily at approximately 0700 and 1700 h until transported to the experimental facility at 2 to 3 d of age. Calves fed C450 had greater serum total protein and IgG concentrations at 2 to 3 d of age. Failure of passive transfer of immunity (serum IgG calves fed C150 and C450, respectively. Calves (n = 48) in trial 1 were assigned randomly within colostrum group to receive 0.68 kg/d of milk replacer (MR) for 42 d, and then 0.34 kg/d for 7 d (moderate MR, MMR) or 1 kg/d of MR for 5 d, 1.36 kg/d for 37 d, and 0.68 kg/d for 7 d (high MR, HMR). Starter and water were available for ad libitum consumption. Calves fed HMR had greater average daily gain, higher average fecal scores, more days with abnormal fecal scores, and more medical days than calves fed MMR. Calves fed HMR also had lower starter intake and tended to have lower gain-to-feed ratio than calves fed MMR. Calves fed C450 and MMR began eating calf starter earlier and ate more starter than other groups from 3 wk. In trial 2, calves (n = 48) were assigned randomly within colostrum group to housing in nursery pens bedded with clean, dry straw (clean bedding) or soiled straw used in previous studies (dirty bedding). Milk replacer was fed at 0.68 kg/d for 39 d, and then 0.34 kg/d for 3 d along with free-choice texturized starter and water. Calves fed C450 had fewer days with abnormal fecal scores and days with medical treatments compared with calves fed C150. Calves housed in dirty bedding tended to grow more slowly and have lower gain-to-feed ratio than calves housed with clean bedding. Temporal

  2. Innate immune responses of calves during transient infection with a noncytopathic strain of bovine viral diarrhea virus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Muller-Doblies, D.; Arquint, A.; Schaller, P.

    2004-01-01

    In this study, six immunocompetent calves were experimentally infected with a noncytopathic strain of bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV), and the effects of the viral infection on parameters of the innate immune response of the host were analyzed. Clinical and virological data were compared...

  3. Administration of high amounts of two solid feeds to veal calves: effects on growth performance and slaughter traits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flaviana Gottardo

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The study aimed at assessing the effects on growth performance and slaughter traits of two type of solid feeds (Maize grain vs. Mix administrated to veal calves in amounts exceeding the minimum recommended by the welfare legislation. Fifty Polish Friesian calves, housed in 5 group pens per each experimental treatment, were fed the same milk replacer diett twice a day. After milk distribution a growing amount of solid feed was distributed through the fattening period. The type of solid feed did not affect calves final body weight and average daily gain although intake of solid feed was higher innnnnnnnnnnnncalves fed the Mix diet. Carcass weight and dressing percentage were no significantly affected by the two diets. Despite the higher haemoglobin level resulted with the Mix diet, no relevant differences between the two feeding treatments were observed regarding carcass colour parameters that were suitable for the meat market.

  4. An observational cohort study on persistency of internal teat sealant residues in milk after calving in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabera, Fidèle; Dufour, Simon; Keefe, Greg; Roy, Jean-Philippe

    2018-04-04

    Our objectives were to evaluate the prevalence of quarters with an observable internal teat sealant (ITS) plug at first milking following calving and investigate persistency of ITS residues in milk after calving. An observational cohort study was carried out on 557 quarters of 156 cows treated with ITS in 6 farms in Quebec, Canada. The presence of an ITS plug at first milking and ITS residues in milk at each milking were observed by producers. The effects of various factors on the odds of observing an ITS plug and persistency of ITS residues in milk were studied using generalized logistic mixed and generalized negative binomial mixed models, respectively. Milk samples were taken on the day before dry-off and on 2 occasions after calving for bacterial identification to detect intramammary infection (IMI) using bacteriological culture followed by MALDI-TOF identification. The association between the absence of an ITS plug and the presence of new IMI was assessed using a mixed logistic regression model. Internal teat sealant plugs after calving were more often observed in rear quarters and in quarters receiving ITS alone at drying-off versus antimicrobial and ITS. We observed an average (standard deviation) persistency of 4.0 d (2.3 d). When an ITS plug was still present at first milking (83% of quarters), the elimination of ITS residues in milk after calving was significantly longer (4.5 d, on average) compared with 1.2 d when an ITS plug was absent. In cows with an ITS plug at calving, we observed a higher number of days of excretion in older cows. When a plug could not be observed, rear quarters, older cows, and cows with a long dry period duration excreted ITS residues for a significantly longer period. The lack of a significant association between the absence of a plug and the odds of new IMI at calving suggests that despite the loss of the plug, cows were still protected against new IMI. Although we were able to highlight some statistically significant risk

  5. Metabolic Disorders in Dairy Calves in Postpartum Period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Podhorský

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was, in terms of analysis of causes of disorders in calves on dairy farms, to evaluate occurrence of metabolic disorders in their postnatal period. In 23 agricultural farms (14 farms with the incidence of clinical forms of disease in calves during milk nutrition period - group D; 9 farms with no clinical disease - group H clinical examination was performed, blood samples were collected and data concerning the provision of permanent day and night care for calves (PDC during delivery and in early postpartum period were collected. The samples were taken from 3 - 5 calves in every farm (totally 97, H - 38, D - 59. Biochemical indicators that have some relations to the quality of colostral nutrition were determined (the concentrations of immunoglobulins - Ig, total protein - TP, albumin - A, globulins - G, vitamin E and A, the activity of gammaglutamyl transferase - GMT and to the microelement metabolism (the activities of glutathione peroxidase - GSH-Px for evaluation of selenium (Se status, the concentrations of copper (Cu and zinc (Zn. While evaluating the entire group of examined calves, we found a high occurrence of metabolic disorders in calves connected with colostral nutrition and also high occurrence of microelement deficiencies. The decrease in TP was diagnosed in 80%, the decrease in G in 78%, the decrease in concentration of Ig in 78% and 74% of calves had higher A/G ratio. Insufficient intake of colostrum showed also lower activities of GMT in 76% of calves. Hypovitaminosis E was diagnosed in 67% of calves and hypovitaminosis A in 19% of calves. Microelement deficiencies were found in 77% (Cu, 39% (Se, and 10% (Zn of calves. While comparing the results for calves in groups H and D, in the group of calves from farms with no clinical disease (H a significantly higher (p p p p < 0.01 A/G ratio, which proves a higher-quality colostral nutrition. The results thus prove that the incidence of metabolic disorders in dairy

  6. Management practices for male calves on Canadian dairy farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renaud, D L; Duffield, T F; LeBlanc, S J; Haley, D B; Kelton, D F

    2017-08-01

    Morbidity, mortality, and antimicrobial use and resistance are major concerns in the rearing of male dairy calves, so information to support disease prevention is important. The objective of this cross-sectional study was to describe management practices associated with the care of male calves during their first days of life on Canadian dairy farms. A survey was completed by dairy producers across Canada between March 1 and April 30, 2015. The survey included 192 questions covering producer background, farm characteristics, biosecurity practices, disease prevalence, calf health, animal welfare, lameness, milking hygiene, reproduction, and Internet and social media use. A total of 1,025 surveys were completed online, by telephone, or by mail, representing 9% of all dairy farms in Canada. Five percent of respondents (n = 49) answered that they had euthanized at least 1 male calf at birth in the previous year, and blunt force trauma was commonly used in these cases. The majority of respondents always fed colostrum to male calves; however, 9% (n = 80) did not always feed colostrum. Almost 40% (n = 418) of respondents reported always dipping the navels of male calves, 12% (n = 123) vaccinated male calves, and 17% (n = 180) did not provide the same quantity of feed to male calves as heifer calves. The care of male calves differed greatly depending on the geographical region of the respondents. However, some regional effects may be confounded by economic conditions and the logistics of marketing male dairy calves in different parts of the country. Herd size was another important variable in many aspects of the management of male calves on dairy farms. Larger herd sizes were more likely to use an appropriate method of euthanasia at birth but were less likely to always feed colostrum to their male calves or feed them the same as female calves. Familiarity with the Code of Practice for the Care and Handling of Dairy Cattle (National Farm Animal Care Council) by respondents

  7. Improved Discretization of Grounding Lines and Calving Fronts using an Embedded-Boundary Approach in BISICLES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, D. F.; Cornford, S. L.; Schwartz, P.; Bhalla, A.; Johansen, H.; Ng, E.

    2017-12-01

    Correctly representing grounding line and calving-front dynamics is of fundamental importance in modeling marine ice sheets, since the configuration of these interfaces exerts a controlling influence on the dynamics of the ice sheet. Traditional ice sheet models have struggled to correctly represent these regions without very high spatial resolution. We have developed a front-tracking discretization for grounding lines and calving fronts based on the Chombo embedded-boundary cut-cell framework. This promises better representation of these interfaces vs. a traditional stair-step discretization on Cartesian meshes like those currently used in the block-structured AMR BISICLES code. The dynamic adaptivity of the BISICLES model complements the subgrid-scale discretizations of this scheme, producing a robust approach for tracking the evolution of these interfaces. Also, the fundamental discontinuous nature of flow across grounding lines is respected by mathematically treating it as a material phase change. We present examples of this approach to demonstrate its effectiveness.

  8. Using Nigella sativa meal as a substitute source for vegetable protein in rations of native growing calves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. K. Nasser

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was carried out on 15 growing local bull calves of about 150-200 kg, live body weight and 10-12 months old to investigate the effect of substituting soyabean meal as concentrate feed mixture protein by Nigella sativa meal (NSM at 0 , 60 and 100%. Animals were divided into 3 groups of 5 calves each, according to their live body weight for performing feeding trials. All groups of animals were fed iso-nitrogen (15% CP and iso-caloric (2.7 Mcal/kg. ME diets. Experimental rations were offered at 2.5% of live body weight with 1% of wheat straw. At the end of the feeding trial, which lasted for 105 days, blood samples were collected from all calves to estimate the total protein, albumin, globulin, triglyceride and cholesterol. Digestibility trial was carried out on three animals of each group to investigate the nutritional value of rations. Economical study was also carried out on experimental animals. Results indicated that there was an improvement in feed intake by 13 and 14% for groups fed a ration containing NSM compared with the group fed the control one. No significant differences were between groups of calves in total body weight gain and blood parameters. The feed conversion ratio improved by 12% for the group of calves fed control ration as compared with other groups. The same cost of producing 1 kg live body weight gain was found. Substituting soybean meal protein at 60 and 100% by NSM protein significantly improved crude fiber, ether extract, EE, and the values of digestion coefficient. It was concluded that NSM could be substituted instead of soyabean meal for growing local calves with out adverse effects on their performance.

  9. The Effect of Age at First Calving and Calving Interval on Productive Life and Lifetime Profit in Korean Holsteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Changhee Do

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This study was performed to estimate the effect of age at first calving and first two calving intervals on productive life and life time profit in Korean Holsteins. Reproduction data of Korean Holsteins born from 1998 to 2004 and lactation data from 276,573 cows with birth and last dry date that calved between 2000 and 2010 were used for the analysis. Lifetime profit increased with the days of life span. Regression of Life Span on Lifetime profit indicated that there was an increase of 3,800 Won (approximately $3.45 of lifetime profit per day increase in life span. This is evidence that care of each cow is necessary to improve net return and important for farms maintaining profitable cows. The estimates of heritability of age at first calving, first two calving intervals, days in milk for lifetime, lifespan, milk income and lifetime profit were 0.111, 0.088, 0.142, 0.140, 0.143, 0.123, and 0.102, respectively. The low heritabilities indicated that the productive life and economical traits include reproductive and productive characteristics. Age at first calving and interval between first and second calving had negative genetic correlation with lifetime profit (−0.080 and −0.265, respectively. Reducing age at first calving and first calving interval had a positive effect on lifetime profit. Lifetime profit increased to approximately 2,600,000 (2,363.6 from 800,000 Won ($727.3 when age at first calving decreased to (22.3 month from (32.8 month. Results suggested that reproductive traits such as age at first calving and calving interval might affect various economical traits and consequently influenced productive life and profitability of cows. In conclusion, regard of the age at first calving must be taken with the optimum age at first calving for maximum lifetime profit being 22.5 to 23.5 months. Moreover, considering the negative genetic correlation of first calving interval with lifetime profit, it should be reduced against the present

  10. Avaliação clínica e hematológica em bezerros Nelore infectados experimentalmente com isolados de Babesia bigemina das regiões Sudeste, Nordeste e Norte do Brasil Clinical and hematological evaluation of Nelore calves experimentally infected with isolates of Babesia bigemina from the Southeastern, Northeastern and Northern regions of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Lopes de Mendonça

    2003-06-01

    alterations caused by isolates of Babesia bigemina from southeastern, northeastern and northern Brazil in experimentally infected Nelore calves. Eighteen calves between 7 and 9 months of age, without antibodies against Babesia sp and raised free from ticks, were used. Three animals were previously inoculated with 2.0x10(9 parasitic erythrocytes (PE for each stabilate. The other 15 calves were subdivided into three groups, with five animals each, that were subinoculated with 1.0x10(10 PE of the respective isolates. The clinical and hematological alterations were evaluated by the determination of parasitaemia, haemogram, plasmatic fibrinogen, reticulocyte count, descriptive analysis of the bone marrow and erythrocytic osmotic fragility, for 30 days, totalizing seven moments of observation. The follow-up of the immunological response by the indirect fluorescent antibody test was carried out daily until the 10th day after inoculation (DAI and after that, on the 15th, 20th, 25th and 30th DAI. A mild clinical manifestation of the disease was observed. The laboratory findings revealed low levels of parasitaemia; decrease of the erythrogram values; absence of reticulocytes, initial decrease in the total count of leukocytes, neutrophils and lymphocytes with a posterior elevation of the number of these cells; hypercellularity of the erythrocytic series and decrease of the myeloid: erythroid relation which was more accentuated between the 8th and 12th DAI, and an increase of the erythrocytic osmotic fragility in the groups inoculated with the Southeast and Northeast isolates. None of the three isolates of B. bigemina gave rise to the clinical characteristic form of the disease, although they induced an humoral immune response.

  11. Comparison of three methods of feeding colostrum to dairy calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besser, T E; Gay, C C; Pritchett, L

    1991-02-01

    Absorption of colostral immunoglobulins by Holstein calves was studied in 3 herds in which 3 methods of colostrum feeding were used. Failure of passive transfer, as determined by calf serum immunoglobulin G1 (IgG1) concentration less than 10 mg/ml at 48 hours of age, was diagnosed in 61.4% of calves from a dairy in which calves were nursed by their dams, 19.3% of calves from a dairy using nipple-bottle feeding, and 10.8% of calves from a dairy using tube feeding. The management factor determined to have the greatest influence on the probability of failure of passive transfer in the herds using artificial methods of colostrum feeding (bottle feeding or tube feeding) was the volume of colostrum fed as it affected the amount of IgG1 received by the calf. In dairies that used artificial feeding methods, failure of passive transfer was infrequent in calves fed greater than or equal to 100 g IgG1 in the first colostrum feeding. In the dairy that allowed calves to suckle, prevalence of failure of passive transfer was greater than 50% even among calves nursed by cows with above-average colostral IgG1 concentration. Analysis of the effect of other management factors on calf immunoglobulin absorption revealed small negative effects associated with the use of previously frozen colostrum and the use of colostrum from cows with long nonlactating intervals.

  12. Calving Interval Covariance Structures for dairy breeds in South Africa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    OlivierR

    Abstract. Calving interval (CI) is a fertility trait that can be used in selection programmes to minimize the ... Calving Interval (CI), Days Open and Pregnancy Rate. The last group of ..... SAS Institute Inc., Cary, North Carolina, USA. VanRaden ...

  13. Dairy cows with prolonged calving seek additional isolation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rørvang, Maria Vilain; Herskin, Mette S.; Jensen, Margit Bak

    2017-01-01

    and management practices that better align with the motivations of the cow. This study examined dairy cow preferences for individual calving pens by offering 3 different levels of isolation (tall and narrow, low and wide, and tall and wide) by analyzing the association between precalving behavior, choice...... that interactions between motivation for isolation seeking and calving behavior exist....

  14. Selection for beef traits and calving performance in Piemontese cattle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Albera, A.

    2006-01-01

    Beef cattle selection programmes are usually focused on the improvement of production traits. However, also functional traits play an important role for the efficiency of animal production. Among these traits calving performance, affecting stillbirth of calves, fertility of cows, animal welfare and

  15. Quantitative Trait Loci Affecting Calving Traits in Danish Holstein Cattle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomasen, J R; Guldbrandtsen, B; Sørensen, P

    2008-01-01

    The objectives of this study were 1) to detect quantitative trait loci (QTL) affecting direct and maternal calving traits at first calving in the Danish Holstein population, 2) to distinguish between pleiotropic and linked QTL for chromosome regions affecting more than one trait, and 3) to detect...

  16. Calving fluxes and basal melt rates of Antarctic ice shelves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Depoorter, M.A.; Bamber, J.L.; Griggs, J.A.; Lenaerts, J.T.M.; Ligtenberg, S.R.M.; van den Broeke, M.R.; Moholdt, G.

    2013-01-01

    Iceberg calving has been assumed to be the dominant cause of mass loss for the Antarctic ice sheet, with previous estimates of the calving flux exceeding 2,000 gigatonnes per year1, 2. More recently, the importance of melting by the ocean has been demonstrated close to the grounding line and near

  17. Effect of calving distribution on beef cattle progeny performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funston, R N; Musgrave, J A; Meyer, T L; Larson, D M

    2012-12-01

    Records collected between 1997 and 2010 were used to determine the effect of calving period on heifer (n = 1,019) and steer (n = 771) progeny from the Gudmundsen Sandhills Laboratory, Whitman, NE. Progeny were classified as being born in the first, second, or third 21-d period of the spring calving season within year. Heifer birth BW was lightest (P Birth to weaning ADG tended (P = 0.10) to be least for heifers born in the first calving period; however, weaning BW decreased (P = 0.03) with advancing calving period. Weaning to prebreeding ADG tended (P = 0.07) to be least for heifers born in the first period; however, prebreeding BW was greatest (P rates were lowest (P = 0.02) for heifers born in the third calving period (90, 86, and 78%, respectively). Birth date of the first calf of the heifer and birth BW decreased (P rates compared with heifers born in the third period. First calf progeny also had an earlier birth date and greater weaning BW. Steer calves born during the first 21 d of the calving season had greater weaning, final, and carcass weights; greater marbling scores; a greater percentage grading USDA modest or greater; and greater carcass value. Calving period of progeny significantly impacts performance.

  18. An epidemiological study of gammaglobulin levels in newborn calves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dobbelaar, P.; Noordhuizen, J.P.T.M.; Keulen, K.A.S. van

    The effect of various factors on serum gammaglobulin concentration in newborn dairy calves was studied in 181 calves on six commercial farms. The refractometer test for monitoring colostrum management was found to be a reliable, rapid and practical method up to 6 days after birth. The three factors,

  19. Staphylococcal milk poisoning in calves | Ngatia | Kenya Veterinarian

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Twenty out of 89 dairy calves fed on unsold raw milk returned from the fresh milk market, became sick within one hour after consuming the milk. The main clinical signs observed were sudden collapse, bloating, tetany, and diarrhea, seven of the sick calves died and two were submitted for necropsy. Postmortem findings ...

  20. The birth and survival of wildebeest calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estes, R D; Estes, R K

    1979-05-01

    This paper describes social organization, parturition, post partum behavior of wildebeest mothers and offspring, and calf predation during the annual birth peak in Ngorongoro Crater, Tanzania. The wildebeest's "follower-calf" system, unique among the Bovidae, is remarkably effective in protecting neonates. Even during hte one-month peak, the major predator on calves, the spotted hyena, is unable to feed to satiation. Calf survival is consistently high, despite large fluctuations in the numbers of wildebeest, with consequent effects on the size of the yearly calf crop.

  1. Complex social housing reduces food neophobia in dairy calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, J H C; Daros, R R; von Keyserlingk, M A G; Weary, D M

    2014-12-01

    Animals are often reluctant to consume novel feeds. Research suggests that social housing can reduce fearfulness in animals. The aim of this study was to test the prediction that social housing reduces food neophobia in dairy calves. Beginning immediately at birth, Holstein bull calves were either reared individually (n=18) or in a complex social group with other calves and cows (n=18). In food neophobia tests, calves were exposed to 2 identical buckets, one empty and the other filled with a novel food (chopped hay in trial 1 and chopped carrots in trial 2). Calves were tested for 30 min/d on 3 consecutive days starting at 70 d of age. Regardless of the type of food, socially housed calves consumed more of the novel feed compared with individually housed calves. In trial 1, intake of hay as fed averaged 35 ± 6 versus 18 ± 6 g/d for socially versus individually housed calves. In trial 2, intake of chopped carrots as fed averaged 27 ± 6 versus 6 ± 6 g/d for socially versus individually housed calves, respectively. Social rearing decreased the latency to eat the novel feed. Calves housed in a complex social group began eating the hay after 1:23 ± 1:13 versus 3:58 ± 1:10 min:s for individually housed calves. Latency to begin eating the chopped carrots averaged 3:09 ± 1:17 versus 6:38 ± 1:13 min:s for socially versus individually housed calves. Treatment had no effect on time spent eating, latency to approach the food bucket or the empty bucket in either trial, or on time spent manipulating the empty bucket. These results indicate that housing dairy calves in a complex social group reduces food neophobia. More generally, this study contributes to a series of studies showing that calves raised in more complex social environments may be better able to transition to other changes in their environment. Copyright © 2014 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Effect of feed presentation on feeding patterns of dairy calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller-Cushon, E K; Bergeron, R; Leslie, K E; Mason, G J; DeVries, T J

    2013-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine the effect of feed presentation on meal frequency and duration, as well as diurnal feeding patterns of dairy calves, and to assess any longer-term differences in feeding patterns resulting from previous experience. Twenty Holstein bull calves were exposed from wk 1 to 8 of life to 1 of 2 feed presentation treatments: concentrate and chopped grass hay (Feed was provided ad libitum. Calves received 8L/d of milk replacer (1.2 kg of dry matter), with the amount progressively reduced after 5 wk to facilitate weaning by the end of wk 7. At the beginning of wk 9, all calves received the MIX diet and remained on trial for an additional 3 wk. Feeding behavior was recorded from video for 4d during wk 6, 8, 9, and 11. In wk 6, calves fed MIX spent more time feeding than calves fed COM (56.7 vs. 46.8 min/d). In wk 8, calves fed MIX spent more time feeding (174.0 vs. 139.1 min/d) and had a lower rate of intake (11.5 vs. 14.7 g/min) compared with calves fed COM. Meal frequency was similar between treatments (12.2 meals/d). Diurnal feeding patterns in wk 8 were also affected by feed presentation, with calves fed MIX spending less time feeding at time of feed delivery and more time feeding throughout the rest of the daylight hours than calves fed COM. Diurnal feeding patterns of hay and concentrate in wk 8 differed for calves fed COM, with more time spent consuming hay at time of feed delivery and less time spent consuming hay throughout the rest of the day. Once calves previously fed COM were transitioned to the MIX diet in wk 9, meal frequency, meal duration, and diurnal feeding patterns were similar between treatments: both treatments spent similar amounts of time feeding (173.9 min/d) and had similar peaks in feeding activity at time of feed delivery, sunrise, and sunset. Provision of hay and concentrate to young calves as a mixed ration, compared with separate components, increases time spent feeding and results in more evenly

  3. The pharmacokinetics and effects of meloxicam, gabapentin, and flunixin in postweaning dairy calves following dehorning with local anesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glynn, H D; Coetzee, J F; Edwards-Callaway, L N; Dockweiler, J C; Allen, K A; Lubbers, B; Jones, M; Fraccaro, E; Bergamasco, L L; KuKanich, B

    2013-12-01

    Approved analgesic compounds in cattle are not currently available in the United States due to the lack of validated pain assessment methods and marker residue depletion studies. In this study, we compared the pharmacokinetic parameters and effect of preemptive analgesics administered to calves subjected to dehorning with local anesthesia. Holstein steers were randomly assigned to receive one of the following treatments per os (PO) or intravenously (IV) (n = 8/group): meloxicam (1 mg/kg PO), gabapentin (15 mg/kg PO), meloxicam (1 mg/kg), and gabapentin (15 mg/kg) PO, flunixin (2.2 mg/kg IV), or a placebo. Plasma drug, haptoglobin, substance P (SP) concentrations, serum cortisol concentrations, ocular thermography, mechanical nociceptive threshold (MNT), and average daily gain (ADG) were evaluated. Data were analyzed using mixed-effects models and noncompartmental pharmacokinetic analysis. Meloxicam, gabapentin, and meloxicam with gabapentin at the present doses did not reduce cortisol concentrations. Analgesic-treated calves had significantly lower plasma SP concentrations and improved ADG compared with controls. Flunixin calves had reduced circulating cortisol compared with controls. Meloxicam-treated calves showed an increase in MNT at two horn bud sites compared with the other treatments. Analgesics improved ADG and reduced biomarkers of pain, but effects differed by compound and route of administration. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Comparison of thoracic auscultation, clinical score, and ultrasonography as indicators of bovine respiratory disease in preweaned dairy calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buczinski, S; Forté, G; Francoz, D; Bélanger, A-M

    2014-01-01

    The diagnostic tools for bovine respiratory disease diagnosis include clinical inspection, thoracic auscultation, and ultrasonography. Thoracic auscultation and clinical examination have limitations in the detection of lung consolidation in dairy calves. Prospective cohort of 106 preweaned calves from 13 different dairy herds (10 with a history of active bovine respiratory disease (BRD) in calves and 3 without suspected BRD problems). Each preweaned calf was clinically inspected using the Wisconsin calf respiratory scoring chart (CRSC) and treatment history was noted. Systematic thoracic auscultation and ultrasonography then were performed, the latter focusing on lung consolidation. Mortality was recorded over a 30-day period. A total of 56 of 106 calves had ultrasonographic evidence of lung consolidation. The sensitivity of thoracic auscultation to detect consolidation was 5.9% (range, 0-16.7%). Only 41.1% (23/33) of calves with consolidated lungs had been treated previously by the producers. When adding CRSC and previous BRD treatment by the producer, sensitivity of detection increased to 71.4% (40/56). The area under the receiver operating characteristics curve was 0.809 (95% CI, 0.721-0.879) for the number of areas within the lungs with consolidation and 0.743 (95% CI, 0.648-0.823) for the maximal depth of consolidation as predictors of death within 1 month after examination. These were not significantly different (P = .06). This study shows that thoracic auscultation is of limited value in diagnosing lung consolidation in calves. Ultrasonographic assessment of the thorax could be a useful tool to assess BRD detection efficiency on dairy farms. Copyright © 2013 by the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  5. Legg-Calvé-Perthes disease: Diagnostics and contemporary treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vukašinović Zoran

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Legg-Calvé-Perthes disease represents avascular necrosis of the femoral head in a growing child. It commonly affects children aged 2-14 years, mostly boys, and has familiar pattern. The etiology of this disease is unknown. It is based on avascular necrosis due to variations of the femoral head vascular supply, trauma, coagulation of endocrine disturbances. The disease presents with limping and pain localized in the hip with projection to thigh and knee, frequently accompanied by the limitation of abduction and internal rotation, as well as slight limitation in flexion of about 20 degrees. Plain radiography is most informative additional diagnostic procedure, enabling assessment of the stage of disease, containment of the femoral head within the acetabulum, acetabular coverage and the extent of disease. Main treatment goal is obtaining the spherical congruity of the hip joint. This can be achieved by abduction bracing, varization femoral osteotomies and various innominate osteotomies (sometimes combined with femoral osteotomies. Children younger than four years of age, with minimal femoral head involvement, do not need any treatment. These children with a larger involvement, older than four years of age, with possible containment in hip abducion, should be treated by one of the following procedures: Salter innominate osteotomy, Salter innominate osteotomy with femoral shortening, or triple pelvic osteotomy. The patients with containment of the hip is not possible in abduction (related to subluxation and femoral head crush, should be treated by Chiari pelvic osteotomy.

  6. Metabolism of manganese, iron, copper, and selenium in calves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ho, S.Y.

    1981-01-01

    Sixteen male Holstein calves were used to study manganese and iron metabolism. The calves were fed one of the following diets for 18 days: control, control + iron, control + manganese, and control + iron and manganese. All calves were dosed orally with manganese-54. Tissue concentrations of manganese, iron and manganese-54 were determined. Small intestinal iron was lower in calves fed the high manganese diet than in controls. Tissue manganese-54 was lower in calves fed a high manganese diet. Fecal manganese content increased in calves fed both high manganese and high manganese-high iron diets. Serum total iron was not affected by the dietary treatments. To study the effects of high dietary levels of copper and selenium on the intracellular distributions of these two elements in liver and kidney cytosol, calves were fed one of four diets for 15 days. These were 0 and 100 ppM supplemental copper and 0 and 1 ppM added selenium. The control diet containing 0.1 ppM of selenium and 15 ppM of copper. All calves were orally dosed 48 hrs prior to sacrifice with selenium-75. A high copper diet increased copper concentrations in all intracellular liver fractions and most kidney fractions. Only the effects in the liver were significant. Less copper was found in the mitochondria fractions in liver and kidney of calves fed a high selenium diet. Three major copper-binding protein peaks were separated from the soluble fractions of calf liver and kidney. Peak 1 appeared to be the major copper-binding protein in liver and kidney cytosol of copper-loaded animals. Added selenium alone or in combination with copper accentuated the copper accumulation in this peak. Most of selenium-75 was recovered in the same peak as the copper. The results of this experiment indicated that the large molecular proteins in liver and kidney cytosol of calves play an important role in copper and selenium-75 metabolism

  7. Rice gluten meal as an alternative by-product feed for growing dairy calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Rohit; Thakur, Sudarshan Singh; Mahesh, M S

    2016-03-01

    This experiment aimed at studying the nutritional characteristics and feeding value of rice gluten meal (RGM, a wet-milling by-product of rice) in growing dairy calves. RGM contained 464 g/kg of crude protein with 821 and 196 g/kg nitrogen (N) of borate-phosphate insoluble N and acid detergent insoluble N, respectively, which were higher (P calves (6-12 months) were randomly assigned into three groups based on comparable body weight and age. The first group (GP-I) was fed concentrate mixture containing mainly GNC as protein source, whilst it was replaced by RGM up to 50 and 75 % on N basis, in second (GP-II) and third (GP-III) groups, respectively. Thus, RGM constituted 140 and 210 g/kg of concentrate mixture of GP-II and GP-III, respectively. In addition, all animals were offered chopped green maize and wheat straw for the whole experimental period of 90 days. Results revealed that there was no difference in intake and digestibility of nutrients, N balance, average daily gain (ADG) and feed efficiency among three groups. Nevertheless, RGM-based diets produced cost-effective ADG than GP-I. Furthermore, experimental calves did not differ in haematological variables like glucose, blood urea N, plasma proteins and non-esterified fatty acids. This study demonstrated that RGM could be incorporated successfully in the concentrate mixture, replacing 75 % of GNC without any discernable compromise in the performance of growing calves.

  8. Effect of weaning age on feed intake and ruminal fermentation patterns of calves fed a dry total mixed ration with ad libitum access to grass hay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Ackeren, Caroline; Steingass, Herbert; Hartung, Karin; Funk, Rainer; Drochner, Winfried

    2010-08-01

    To study the effect of weaning age on average daily gain (ADG), dry matter intake (DMI) and ruminal fermentation, 10 rumen-cannulated male Holstein calves were randomly assigned to one of two treatments: (i) early weaned at 8 weeks of age (235 l milk); (ii) conventionally weaned at 12 weeks of age (347 l milk). Twice daily grass hay (9.0 MJ ME x kg(-1) DM) and a dry total mixed ration (TMR) (11.6 MJ ME x kg(-1) DM) containing 15% alfalfa hay and 85% concentrates were offered separately. Water was available ad libitum. Ruminal fluid was collected via cannulas at weeks 9, 11, 13 and 15, twice weekly just prior to as well as 1, 3, 5 and 7 h after morning feeding. Calves of both treatments achieved adequate ADG (947 vs. 959 g; p > 0.05). Just-weaned calves rapidly increased DMI (1.1-2.5 kg TMR and 2.4-3.6 kg TMR for early- and conventionally-weaned calves, respectively). From weeks 10-12 early-weaned calves consumed significantly more dry feed than conventionally-weaned calves (week 10: 2.5 vs. 1.6 kg/d; week 12: 3.4 vs. 2.4 kg/d). Early weaning stimulates DMI supporting ruminal fermentation intensity, indicated by lower ruminal pH. After weaning, only early-weaned calves achieved critical average ruminal pH (week 9: 5.7 vs. 6.0, p = 0.017; week 11: 5.9 vs. 6.2, p = 0.007). Experimental treatment did not affect the concentration of ruminal short-chain fatty acids (SCFA). For all calves, the effects of the concentrate-rich TMR were shown by a high SCFA level (daily average: 137-152 mmol x l(-1)) and an acetate to propionate to butyrate ratio between 51:36:9 and 54:33:10.

  9. Effect of protein provision via milk replacer or solid feed on protein metabolism in veal calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berends, H; van den Borne, J J G C; Røjen, B A; Hendriks, W H; Gerrits, W J J

    2015-02-01

    The current study evaluated the effects of protein provision to calves fed a combination of solid feed (SF) and milk replacer (MR) at equal total N intake on urea recycling and N retention. Nitrogen balance traits and [(15)N2]urea kinetics were measured in 30 calves (23 wk of age, 180±3.7kg of body weight), after being exposed to the following experimental treatments for 11 wk: a low level of SF with a low N content (SF providing 12% of total N intake), a high level of SF with a low N content (SF providing 22% of total N intake), or a high level of SF with a high N content (SF providing 36% of total N intake). The SF mixture consisted of 50% concentrates, 25% corn silage, and 25% straw on a dry matter basis. Total N intake was equalized to 1.8g of N·kg of BW(-0.75)·d(-1) by adjusting N intake via MR. All calves were housed individually on metabolic cages to allow for quantification of a N balance of calves for 5 d, and for the assessment of urea recycling from [(15)N2]urea kinetics. Increasing low-N SF intake at equal total N intake resulted in a shift from urinary to fecal N excretion but did not affect protein retention (0.71g of N·kg of BW(-0.75)·d(-1)). Increasing low-N SF intake increased urea recycling but urea reused for anabolism remained unaffected. Total-tract neutral detergent fiber digestibility decreased (-9%) with increasing low-N SF intake, indicating reduced rumen fermentation. Increasing the N content of SF at equal total N intake resulted in decreased urea production, excretion, and return to ornithine cycle, and increased protein retention by 17%. This increase was likely related to an effect of energy availability on protein retention due to an increase in total-tract neutral detergent fiber digestion (>10%) and due to an increased energy supply via the MR. In conclusion, increasing low-N SF intake at the expense of N intake from MR, did not affect protein retention efficiency in calves. Increasing the N content of SF at equal total N

  10. Effects of human handling during early rearing on the behaviour of dairy calves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schütz, K.E.; Hawke, M.L.; Waas, J.R.; McLeay, L.M.; Bokkers, E.A.M.; Reenen, van C.G.; Webster, J.R.; Stewart, M.

    2012-01-01

    We examined the effects of daily positive or negative human handling on the behaviour of Holstein-Friesian dairy calves (n = 20 calves per treatment, five calves per group). The response to humans and indicators of positive emotions were examined at four weeks of age. Calves that received positive

  11. Using of Different Grain Sources with or without Monensin on Fattening Performance of Brown Swiss Male Calves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Bashtani

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The effect of barley or triticale and monensin on fattening performance of Brown Swiss calves (with average body weight of 170±30 kg were studied in a completely randomized design with factorial arrangement of 2×2 and 4 replicates. Experimental treatments were: 1- barley grain without monensin 2- barley grain with monensin 3- triticale grain without monensin and 4- triticale grain with monensin. The amount of monensin in the ration was set to be 30 mg/kg DM. Calves weighing was undertaken monthly and dry matter intake was measured daily. Sampling from rumen fluid was carried out using a stomach tube, and blood sampes were taken at the end of each month. Average daily gain, feed conversion ratio and daily feed intake were not significantly affected by the treatments. Monensin had no significant effect on blood glucose concentration. Ruminal N-NH3, blood urea nitrogen and ruminal pH were not significantly affected by the experimental treatments. As grain sources and monensin application had no effect on fattening performance of the calves. it can therefore concluded that triticale grain might be utilized substituted with barley grain in feed lot diets. This substitutionn can be important from the economical of view in calves feed lot interprise.

  12. Characterization of transfer of passive immunity in dairy heifer calves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elizondo-Salazar, Jorge Alberto

    2016-01-01

    The transfer of passive immunity was determined in dairy heifer calves in Costa Rica. The data presented of total serum protein (TSP) have corresponded to measurements obtained in the period between 2010 and 2013, during the months of August and November in 50 dairy farms. 2500 heifer calves born from Holstein cows, Jersey, HolsteinxJersey crosses and others were evaluated. When the TSP concentration has been less than 5,5 g / dl, it was considered as a failure of passive transfer of immunity (FPTI). TSP concentration has ranged between 2,0 and 10,0 g/dl, with an overall mean of 5,9 g/dl. Of all the calves evaluated, 38.8% presented failure of passive transfer of immunity. The animals sampled have presented 38,8% of FPTI. A significantly higher TSP concentration (P<0,05) to the Holstein breed and others were obtained from the animals from the Jersey breed and HolsteinxJersey crosses. When considering calving of the dam, the concentration of TSP of the offsprings remains without significant differences. The offspring of first calving cows have showed the lowest proportion of animals with FPTI. The TSP concentration has varied significantly (P <0,05) between calves that have remained with the dams and were fed with colostrum by bottle. The FPTI has been higher when calves have stayed with their mother (44 vs. 33%). (Author) [es

  13. The effect of beta-hydroxy-beta-methylbutyrate (HMB) on the proliferative response of blood lymphocytes and the phagocytic activity of blood monocytes and granulocytes in calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wójcik, R; Małaczewska, J; Siwicki, A K; Miciński, J; Zwierzchowski, G

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of HMB on selected indicators of immunity in calves. The experiment was performed on 14 calves aged 30 +/- 2 days, divided into two equal groups of control (group I) and experimental (group II) animals. The feed administered to experimental group calves was supplemented with HMB at 40 mg/kg BW, whereas control calves were administered standard farm-made feed without supplementation. Blood was sampled from the jugular vein immediately before the experiment (day 0) and on experimental days 15, 30 and 60 to determine the following parameters of immunity: proliferative response of LPS- and ConA-stimulated lymphocytes (MTT), respiratory burst activity (RBA) and potential killing activity (PKA) of phagocytes. The results revealed a significant increase in RBA and MTT values in calves administered HMB in comparison with the control group throughout the experiment. In the group of animals receiving HMB, an increase in PKA values was noted only on day 30.

  14. Social behavior of young dairy calves housed with limited or full social contact with a peer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duve, Linda Rosager; Jensen, Margit Bak

    2012-01-01

    grouping in duration of rest and rest with a neighbor. In conclusion, from the age of 3wk of life, calves housed with full social contact performed more social behaviors than calves housed individually with limited social contact, whereas only minor differences were found in the social behavior of calves......This study compared the effect of individual and pair housing and age at pair housing on the social behavior of young dairy calves. Twenty-seven pairs of calves were reared from birth until 6 wk either individually (limited social contact between bars; L calves), in pairs (full social contact; F...... sniffing and licking another calf more than were the L calves. No difference was found in duration of lying down in body contact with another calf between F and LF calves on d 22; however, on d 34, LF calves performed more of this behavior than did F calves. Continuous recordings of social behavior were...

  15. Effect of low to normal dietary phosphorus levels on zinc metabolism and tissue distribution in calves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laflamme, D.P.; Miller, W.J.; Neathery, M.W.; Gentry, R.P.; Blackmon, D.M.; Logner, K.R.; Fielding, A.S.

    1985-01-01

    Sixteen 10-wk-old, phosphorus (P)-depleted Holstein bull calves were fed for 6 wk a control diet containing .08% P or P-supplemented diets containing .14, .20 or .32% P with supplemental P from two sources (CDP and Dynafos). The diets contained .45, .56, .66 and .87% Ca. After 5 wk of the experiment, the calves were dosed orally with 65 Zn, and daily total fecal collections were initiated. At the end of the experimental period, the calves were killed and tissue samples were taken for total Zn and 65 Zn analyses. Growth, feed intake and feed efficiency improved with increasing dietary P levels. Level of dietary P and Ca had little or no effect on total Zn content of rib, tibia, liver, heart, kidney, muscle or blood. Likewise, 65 Zn absorption and content in most tissues were not affected. The results do not preclude the possibility of some minor effects of P levels on Zn metabolism. However, it is apparent that when adequate Zn is fed, any effects are likely to be of little or no practical importance

  16. Growth rates and morphological measurements of Porcupine caribou calves

    OpenAIRE

    Parker, Katherine L.

    1989-01-01

    Body weights, leg lengths, and surface area were monitored for bottle-raised barren-ground caribou calves (Rangifer tarandus granti) from the Porcupine herd up to 1 year of age. Body weights were compared with maternally-raised calves from the same cohort in the wild and from the Delta herd. A successful feeding regime for bottle-raising caribou calves is presented.Veksthastigheter og morfologiske mål hos Porcupine karibu-kalver.Abstract in Norwegian / Sammendrag: Kroppsvekter, visse kn...

  17. Modelling the consequences of targeted selective treatment strategies on performance and emergence of anthelmintic resistance amongst grazing calves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoe Berk

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The development of anthelmintic resistance by helminths can be slowed by maintaining refugia on pasture or in untreated hosts. Targeted selective treatments (TST may achieve this through the treatment only of individuals that would benefit most from anthelmintic, according to certain criteria. However TST consequences on cattle are uncertain, mainly due to difficulties of comparison between alternative strategies. We developed a mathematical model to compare: 1 the most ‘beneficial’ indicator for treatment selection and 2 the method of selection of calves exposed to Ostertagia ostertagi, i.e. treating a fixed percentage of the population with the lowest (or highest indicator values versus treating individuals who exceed (or are below a given indicator threshold. The indicators evaluated were average daily gain (ADG, faecal egg counts (FEC, plasma pepsinogen, combined FEC and plasma pepsinogen, versus random selection of individuals. Treatment success was assessed in terms of benefit per R (BPR, the ratio of average benefit in weight gain to change in frequency of resistance alleles R (relative to an untreated population. The optimal indicator in terms of BPR for fixed percentages of calves treated was plasma pepsinogen and the worst ADG; in the latter case treatment was applied to some individuals who were not in need of treatment. The reverse was found when calves were treated according to threshold criteria, with ADG being the best target indicator for treatment. This was also the most beneficial strategy overall, with a significantly higher BPR value than any other strategy, but its degree of success depended on the chosen threshold of the indicator. The study shows strong support for TST, with all strategies showing improvements on calves treated selectively, compared with whole-herd treatment at 3, 8, 13 weeks post-turnout. The developed model appeared capable of assessing the consequences of other TST strategies on calf populations.

  18. Genetic parameters for milk yield, age at first calving and interval between first and second calving in milk buffaloes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.R. Aspilcueta Borquis

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Genetic parameters for the relation between the traits of milk yield (MY, age at first calving (AFC and interval between first and second calving (IBFSC were estimated in milk buffaloes of the Murrah breed. In the study, data of 1578 buffaloes at first lactation, with calvings from 1974 to 2006 were analyzed. The MTDFREML system was used in the analyses with models for the MY, IBFSC traits which included the fixed effects of herd-year-season of calving, linear and quadratic terms of calving age as covariate and the random animal effects and error. The model for AFC consisted of the herd-year-season fixed effects of calving and the random effects of animal and error. Heritability estimates MY, AFC and IBFSC traits were 0.20, 0.07 and 0.14, respectively. Genetic and phenotypic correlations between the traits were: MY and AFC = -0.12 and -0.15, MY and IBFSC = 0.07 and 0.30, AFC and IBFSC = 0.35 and 0.37, respectively. Genetic correlation between MY and AFC traits showed desirable negative association, suggesting that the daughters of the bulls with high breeding value for MY could be physiological maturity to a precocious age. Genetic correlation between MY and IBFSC showed that the selection of the animals that increased milk yield is also those that tend to intervals of bigger calving.

  19. Impact of respiratory disease, diarrhea, otitis and arthritis on mortality and carcass traits in white veal calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pardon, Bart; Hostens, Miel; Duchateau, Luc; Dewulf, Jeroen; De Bleecker, Koen; Deprez, Piet

    2013-04-15

    Little is known on the effects of common calf diseases on mortality and carcass traits in the white veal industry (special-fed veal), a highly integrated production system, currently criticized for the intensive pro- and metaphylactic use of antimicrobials. The objective of the present study was to determine the impact of bovine respiratory disease (BRD), diarrhea, arthritis and otitis on the economically important parameters of mortality, hot carcass weight (HCW), carcass quality, fat cover and meat color. For this purpose, a prospective study on 3519 white veal calves, housed in 10 commercial herds, was conducted. Case definitions were based on clinical observation by the producers and written treatment records were used. Calves received oral antimicrobial group treatments in the milk during 25.2% of the production time on average. With an increasing percentage of the production cycle spent on oral antimicrobials, HCW reduced, whereas the odds for insufficient fat cover or an undesirable red meat color both decreased. Of the calves, 14.8%, 5.3%, 1.5% and 1.6% were individually diagnosed and treated for BRD, diarrhea, arthritis and otitis, respectively. Overall, 5.7% of the calves died and the mortality risk was higher in the first weeks after arrival. Calves that experienced one BRD episode showed a 8.2 kg reduction in HCW, a lower fat cover and an increased mortality risk (hazard ratio (HR) = 5.5), compared to calves which were not individually diagnosed and treated for BRD. With an increasing number of BRD episodes, these losses increased dramatically. Additionally, calves, which experienced multiple BRD episodes, were more likely to have poor carcass quality and an undesirable red meat color at slaughter. Arthritis increased the mortality risk (HR = 3.9), and reduced HCW only when associated with BRD. Otitis did only increase the mortality risk (HR = 7.0). Diarrhea severely increased the mortality risk (HR = 11.0), reduced HCW by 9.2 kg on

  20. Genetic parameters of calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, and potassium serum concentrations during the first 8 days after calving in Holstein cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsiamadis, V; Banos, G; Panousis, N; Kritsepi-Konstantinou, M; Arsenos, G; Valergakis, G E

    2016-07-01

    Calcium, Mg, P, and K are of great importance for the health and productivity of dairy cows after calving. So far genetic studies have focused on clinical hypocalcemia, leaving the genetic parameters of these macroelements unstudied. Our objective was to estimate the genetic parameters of Ca, Mg, P, and K serum concentrations and their changes during the first 8d after calving. The study was conducted in 9 herds located in northern Greece, with 1,021 Holstein cows enrolled from November 2010 until November 2012. No herd used any kind of preventive measures for hypocalcemia. Pedigree information for all cows was available. A total of 35 cows were diagnosed and treated for periparturient paresis and, therefore, excluded from the study. The remaining 986 cows were included in genetic analysis. The distribution of cows across parities was 459 (parity 1), 234 (parity 2), 158 (parity 3), and 135 (parity ≥4). A sample of blood was taken from each cow on d1, 2, 4, and 8 after calving and serum concentrations of Ca, P, Mg, and K were measured in each sample. A final data set of 15,390 biochemical records was created consisting of 3,903 Ca, 3,902 P, 3,903Mg, and 3,682K measurements. Moreover, changes of these concentrations between d1 and 4 as well as 1 and 8 after calving were calculated and treated as different traits. Random regression models were used to analyze the data. Results showed that daily heritabilities of Ca, P, and Mg concentrations traits were moderate to high (0.20-0.43), whereas those of K were low to moderate (0.12-0.23). Regarding concentration changes, only Mg change between d1 and 8 after calving had a significant heritability of 0.18. Genetic correlations between Ca, P, Mg, and K concentrations and their concentration changes from d1 to 4 and 1 to 8 after calving were not significantly different from zero. Most phenotypic correlations among Ca, P, Mg, and K concentrations were positive and low (0.09-0.16), whereas the correlation between P and Mg was

  1. Rumination time around calving: an early signal to detect cows at greater risk of disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calamari, L; Soriani, N; Panella, G; Petrera, F; Minuti, A; Trevisi, E

    2014-01-01

    The main objective of this experiment was to evaluate the use of rumination time (RT) during the peripartum period as a tool for early disease detection. The study was carried out in an experimental freestall barn and involved 23 Italian Friesian cows (9 primiparous and 14 multiparous). The RT was continuously recorded by using an automatic system (Hr-Tag, SCR Engineers Ltd., Netanya, Israel), and data were summarized in 2-h intervals. Blood samples were collected from 30 d before calving to 42 d in milk (DIM) to assess biochemical indicators related to energy, protein, and mineral metabolism, as well as markers of inflammation and some enzyme activities. The liver functionality index, which includes some negative acute-phase proteins and related parameters (albumin, cholesterol, and bilirubin), was used to evaluate the severity of inflammatory conditions occurring around calving. The cows were retrospectively categorized according to RT observed between 3 and 6 DIM into those with the lowest (L) and highest (H) RT. The average RT before calving (-20 to -2d) was 479 min/d (range 264 to 599), reached a minimum value at calving (30% of RT before calving), and was nearly stable after 15 DIM (on average 452 min/d). Milk yield in early lactation (on average 26.8 kg/d) was positively correlated with RT (r = 0.33). After calving, compared with H cows, the L cows had higher values of haptoglobin (0.61 and 0.34 g/L at 10 DIM in L and H, respectively) for a longer time, had a greater increase in total bilirubin (9.5 and 5.7 μmol/L at 5 DIM in L and H), had greater reductions of albumin (31.2 and 33.5 g/L at 10 DIM in L and H) and paraoxonase (54 and 76 U/ml at 10 DIM in L and H), and had a slower increase of total cholesterol (2.7 and 3.2 mmol/L at 20 DIM in L and H). Furthermore, a lower average value of liver functionality index was observed in L (-6.97) compared with H (-1.91) cows. These results suggest that severe inflammation around parturition is associated with a

  2. Effect of early calving of Simmentaler heifers under an extensive ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    is concluded that improved productivity is unlikely in an early mating system without additional inputs. ... heifers are managed to calve for the first time at three years of age. ..... It should therefore not be considered as a standard management.

  3. [Familial occurrence of diprosopus in German Holstein calves].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulze, Ursula; Kuiper, Heidi; Doeleke, Renate; Ulrich, Reiner; Gerdwilker, Axel; Distl, Ottmar

    2006-01-01

    Diprosopus was diagnosed in six German Holstein calves born on different dairy farms. The degree of facial duplication varied from a partial doubling of the nostrils and upper jaw to complete duplication of the face with formation of two mouths, four eyes and four ears. Further calves descending from the same parents or dams and calves from the same farms were not affected. A joint pedigree was ascertained for the calves with diprosopus. Furthermore, a previously reported case of diprosopus could be traced back to the same ancestors of this pedigree. Consequently, we detected the first time a familial accumulation of diprosopus. Since the ancestors showed no signs of diprosopus and the frequency of diprosopus in German Holsteins is presumably low, an oligogenic inheritance is likely. Recessive genes or a combination of recessive and dominant genes may cause this anomaly.

  4. Pathological and microbiological studies on pneumonic lungs from Danish calves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tegtmeier, Conny; Uttenthal, Åse; Friis, N.F.

    1999-01-01

    During 1 year, the association between microbiological and pathological findings in 72 lungs from calves submitted to the Danish Veterinary Laboratory for diagnostic purposes was studied. All cases mere evaluated pathologically and bacteriologically, whereas only 68 cases were examined...

  5. Appearance and dynamics of rumen motility in newborn calves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kostov, Y.; Aleksandrova, V.

    2010-01-01

    The appearance and dynamics of rumen motility in newborn calves were studied by means of radiotelemetry. Rumen contractions were registered right after birth. Their amplitude was growing gradually and that was observed best in the first month after birth

  6. Thyroidal status of neonatal and young buffalo calves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agarwal, S P; Saini, M S; Sengupta, B P; Agarwal, V K [Haryana Agricultural Univ., Hissar (India)

    1989-12-01

    Serum thyroidal hormones in four male and four female neonatal buffalo calves up to an age of 117 days were estimated by radiommunoassay technique. Both thyroxine(T{sub 4}) and triiodothyronine(T{sub 3}) levels radioimmunoassay were significantly higher at birth through six days of post-natal life. An appreciable sex difference was recorded during this period with male calves having higher values. However, the difference disappeared afterwards. The levels gradually declined by day 27 and then stabilised. T{sub 4}:T{sub 3} ratio was relatively lower in neonatal than young calves and in male than female calves. The higher thyroid hormone levels at birth seem to help in spontaneous adaptation from intrauterine to extrauterine life. (author). 23 refs., 5 figs.

  7. Thyroidal status of neonatal and young buffalo calves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agarwal, S.P.; Saini, M.S.; Sengupta, B.P.; Agarwal, V.K.

    1989-01-01

    Serum thyroidal hormones in four male and four female neonatal buffalo calves up to an age of 117 days were estimated by radiommunoassay technique. Both thyroxine(T 4 ) and triiodothyronine(T 3 ) levels radioimmunoassay were significantly higher at birth through six days of post-natal life. An appreciable sex difference was recorded during this period with male calves having higher values. However, the difference disappeared afterwards. The levels gradually declined by day 27 and then stabilised. T 4 :T 3 ratio was relatively lower in neonatal than young calves and in male than female calves. The higher thyroid hormone levels at birth seem to help in spontaneous adaptation from intrauterine to extrauterine life. (author). 23 refs., 5 figs

  8. Evaluation of the effects of Bacillus subtilis and Bacillus Licheni formis promix on blood metabolites and elements and weight gain in rearing calves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gh Moghaddam

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Probiotics are beneficial microorganisms which are colonized in the digestive system of livestock and influence some of the blood parameters through special mechanisms. For this purpose, an experiment was conducted to clarify the influence of promix containing living spores of the two bacteria Bacillus subtilis and Bacillus licheniformis on body weight gain, blood metabolites and elements of calves. Twenty male Holstein calves were divided into two groups of ten calves and kept at separate bans. The control group were fed with a standard ration and the treatment group were fed with the same ration plus promix (1.6 × 109 cfu/g feed or 500 g/T feed for 45 days. Calves were weighed in the 1st, 15th, 30th and 45th days and blood samples were collected for measurement of some metabolites and blood elements. The obtained means were compared using the T- test. The results indicated that the average daily weight gain using promix had a non-significant improvement of 4.8% (p>0.05. Also the average daily weight gain showed a non significant improvement in each of the 3 experimental periods (p>0.05. Blood phosphorus and calcium of calves increased significantly influenced by promix with the increase being non significant in the first experimental period and significant in the second and third periods (p

  9. Gotta Go, Mom’s Calling: Dolphin (Tursiops truncatus Mothers Use Individually Distinctive Acoustic Signals To Call Their Calves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stan A. Kuczaj II

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Dolphin calves often wander away from their mothers, which can compromise their safety and survival. Mothers can retrieve their calves by actively pursuing them or by signaling their wandering calves to return. However, little is known about the retrieval techniques employed by mothers in specific calf recall contexts. We experimentally investigated maternal calf retrieval methods by assessing behavioral and acoustic strategies employed by three Atlantic bottlenose dolphin mothers to elicit their calf’s return in a controlled, non-threatening setting. Three mothers were asked to retrieve their calves on cue in this setting, and could do so however they chose. Mothers were much more likely to use energetically less costly acoustic signals than physical retrievals. Each mother produced individually distinctive calls that incorporated the mother’s signature whistle but often also involved additional whistles and clicks. The dolphin mothers’ use of individually distinctive calls to request a calf’s return is consistent with the notion that other dolphins can distinguish such calls and provides additional support for the notion that dolphin communication is flexible rather than fixed.

  10. Incidence of lead poisoning in calves in Northern Ireland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Todd, J R

    1964-08-01

    The concentrations of lead in kidneys of slaughtered calves from three slaughterhouses in Northern Ireland were analyzed for lead content to determine the frequency of lead-poisoning-attributable deaths. It was found that about 4% of the calves had concentrations of lead exceeding 25 ppm in the kidney, a level generally accepted to indicate lethality. This finding is substantially higher than previous estimates. 6 references, 1 table.

  11. An Intensive Observation of Calving at Helheim Glacier, East Greenland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holland, David M.; Voytenko, Denis; Christianson, Knut; Dixon, Timothy H.; Mei, M. Jeffrey; Parizek, Byron R.; Vankova, Irena; Walker, Ryan T.; Walter, Jacob I.; Nicholls, Keith; hide

    2016-01-01

    Calving of glacial ice into the ocean from the Greenland Ice Sheet is an important component of global sea-level rise. The calving process itself is relatively poorly observed, understood, and modeled; as such, it represents a bottleneck in improving future global sea-level estimates in climate models. We organized a pilot project to observe the calving process at Helheim Glacier in east Greenland in an effort to better understand it. During an intensive one-week survey, we deployed a suite of instrumentation, including a terrestrial radar interferometer, global positioning system (GPS) receivers, seismometers, tsunameters, and an automated weather station. We were fortunate to capture a calving process and to measure various glaciological, oceanographic, and atmospheric parameters before, during, and after the event. One outcome of our observations is evidence that the calving process actually consists of a number of discrete events, spread out over time, in this instance over at least two days. This time span has implications for models of the process. Realistic projections of future global sea level will depend on an accurate parametrization of calving, and we argue that more sustained observations will be required to reach this objective.

  12. Effect of weaning stress, housing system and probiotics supplementation on cortisol, thyroid activity and productive performance of sucker camel calves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdel-Fattah, M. S.; Hashem, A. L.S.; Azamel, A. A. [Department of Animal Physiology, Animal and Poultry Production Division, Desert Research Center, Cairo (Egypt); Farghaly, H. A.M., [Biological Applications Department, Radioisotopes Applications Division, Nuclear Research Centre, Atomic Energy Authority, P.O. 13759, Inshas (Egypt)

    2011-07-01

    The weaning process has been identified as associated with potential psychological, nutritional and physiological stressors on both dam and her young. These stressors are often stressful for the young. Ten sucker camel calves were weaned using calf-dam on and suckling off weaning system (calves were kept with their dams at all times during weaning process and prevented from suckling) under two housing systems, 6 calves in group housing system (G) and 4 calves in individually housing system (I). Half of calves in each housing system were supplemented with probiotics (treated, P), while the other was not-supplemented with probiotics (control, C). This study was carried out at Maryout Research Station of the Desert Research Center, 35 km to southwest of Alexandria, Egypt. Calves were weaned at 280 days of age with initial live body weight (LBW) of 236.76{+-}0.224 kg. The duration of the study was 35 days and divided into five weeks; one week served as pre-weaning followed by four weeks served as post-weaning period (calves were in treatments). Calves and their dams were used to estimate the effects of weaning stress, housing systems (group, G vs. individually, I) and probiotics supplementation on the productive performance, cortisol (COR) and thyroid hormones (T{sub 3} and T{sub 4}) concentrations of camel calves (Camelus dromedaries). No measurements were done on the dams. The results indicated that, regardless the effect of housing system and Abdel-Fattah et al., J. Rad. Res. Appl. Sci., Vol. 4, No. 4(B) (2011) 1292 probiotics supplementation, weaning stress declined LBW -0.89% at d{sub 7} post weaning. Concerned housing system effect, group-housed calves and individually-housed calves lost -0.36 and -1.43% of their body weights, respectively on d{sub 7} post-weaning and they recovered their weaning weight (d{sub 0}) on d{sub 14} post-weaning period (2.45 and 0.57%). Neither group housing system nor probiotics supplementation prevented the weight lost resulted by

  13. The effects of increasing garlic powder and monensin supplementation on feed intake, nutrient digestibility, growth performance and blood parameters of growing calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gholipour, A; Foroozandeh Shahraki, A D; Tabeidian, S A; Nasrollahi, S M; Yang, W Z

    2016-08-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of increasing garlic powder and monensin supplementation on feed intake, nutrient digestibility, growth performance and blood metabolites of growing calves. Forty Holstein calves (BW = 100 ± 11 kg) were randomly assigned to four dietary treatments (n = 10) in a complete randomized design. Experimental treatments consisted of the following: (i) basal diet (control), (ii) basal diet supplemented with 0.0003% of dietary dry matter (DM) sodium monensin, (iii) low level of garlic powder (Low-GAR; 0.5% of dietary DM) and (iv) high level of garlic powder (High-GAR; 1% of dietary DM). DM intake (DMI) and DM digestibility were (p calves supplemented with Low-GAR had a similar DMI to the control calves and similar DM digestibility to the control and monensin groups. The digestibility of other nutrients were not affected by the treatments. Although supplementing monensin relative to Low-GAR increased the DMI (p calves, which were higher than the control and High-GAR groups (p feed conversion ratio was improved in the Low-GAR group versus other treatment groups (p calves fed the Low-GAR showed an improved FCR and blood metabolites without changing the DMI and nutrient digestibility. It suggests that garlic powder could be used as an alternative to monensin for growing calves under the current feeding conditions. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  14. Radiographic and radionuclide lung perfusion imaging in healthy calves and calves naturally infected with bovine respiratory syncytial virus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verhoeff, J.; Brom, W.E. van den; Ingh, T.S.G.A.M. van den

    1992-01-01

    Nine calves between three and 18 weeks old with serologically confirmed natural bovine respiratory syncytial virus infection were examined clinically, radiographically and by radionuclide lung perfusion imaging. The results were compared with those from seven healthy calves. The diseased calves were euthanased and examined pathologically, virologically and bacteriologically. The clinical signs indicated that the disease was in an acute stage. Radiography of the diseased animals revealed cysts, corresponding morphologically with bullous emphysema, and infiltrations roughly corresponding in distribution with atelectatic and, or, pneumonic areas. Radionuclide lung perfusion imaging revealed no perfusion shifts between the left and right lungs and a normal perfusion pattern in five of the nine diseased calves. The abnormalities in the perfusion patterns of three calves were probably caused by anatomical disorders such as cysts and pleural adhesions, but no cause of the abnormality could be found in one calf. These findings suggest that in calves infected with bovine respiratory syncytial virus, the normal perfusion pattern is maintained until anatomical disorders occur. The pathological examination and radiography revealed that the cranioventral lung fields were particularly poorly ventilated. This finding and the normal perfusion pattern indicate that these parts of the lungs are probably the sites where shuntings and perfusion-ventilation mismatchings occur

  15. Evaluation of Glycopyrrolate as an Anticholinergic in Buffalo Calves (Bubalus bubalis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Singh

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Twelve experimental trials were undertaken on clinically healthy male buffalo calves. Glycopyrrolate was injected @ 0.01 mg/kg, IM. After glycopyrrolate administration, two animals became ataxic. Muzzle, mouth and nostrils became dry after 41.5±3.334 minute of drug administration; the same again became wet at 578.8±19.27 minute. The pulse pressure increased significantly after glycopyrrolate administration without any significant variation in heart rate, mean arterial pressure (MAP and central venous pressure (CVP.

  16. Evaluation of Atropine as an Anticholinergic in Buffalo Calves (Bubalus bubalis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Singh

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Twelve experimental trials were undertaken on clinically healthy male buffalo calves. Atropine was administered @ 0.04 mg/kg, IM. Atropine produced ataxia in all the animals. Muzzle, mouth and nostrils became dry at 37.5±4.924 minute and again became wet at 246.3±28.00 minute of its administration. No analgesia was observed. Heart rate, pulse pressure and mean arterial pressure increased significantly without any significant variations in central venous pressure.

  17. Nanoparticle-mediated drug delivery to treat infections in the female reproductive tract: evaluation of experimental systems and the potential for mathematical modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sims, Lee B; Frieboes, Hermann B; Steinbach-Rankins, Jill M

    2018-01-01

    A variety of drug-delivery platforms have been employed to deliver therapeutic agents across cervicovaginal mucus (CVM) and the vaginal mucosa, offering the capability to increase the longevity and retention of active agents to treat infections of the female reproductive tract (FRT). Nanoparticles (NPs) have been shown to improve retention, diffusion, and cell-specific targeting via specific surface modifications, relative to other delivery platforms. In particular, polymeric NPs represent a promising option that has shown improved distribution through the CVM. These NPs are typically fabricated from nontoxic, non-inflammatory, US Food and Drug Administration-approved polymers that improve biocompatibility. This review summarizes recent experimental studies that have evaluated NP transport in the FRT, and highlights research areas that more thoroughly and efficiently inform polymeric NP design, including mathematical modeling. An overview of the in vitro, ex vivo, and in vivo NP studies conducted to date - whereby transport parameters are determined, extrapolated, and validated - is presented first. The impact of different NP design features on transport through the FRT is summarized, and gaps that exist due to the limitations of iterative experimentation alone are identified. The potential of mathematical modeling to complement the characterization and evaluation of diffusion and transport of delivery vehicles and active agents through the CVM and mucosa is discussed. Lastly, potential advancements combining experimental and mathematical knowledge are suggested to inform next-generation NP designs, such that infections in the FRT may be more effectively treated.

  18. Loss of protection with insecticide-treated nets against pyrethroid-resistant Culex quinquefasciatus mosquitoes once nets become holed: an experimental hut study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irish SR

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background An important advantage of pyrethroid-treated nets over untreated nets is that once nets become worn or holed a pyrethroid treatment will normally restore protection. The capacity of pyrethroids to kill or irritate any mosquito that comes into contact with the net and prevent penetration of holes or feeding through the sides are the main reasons why treated nets continue to provide protection despite their condition deteriorating over time. Pyrethroid resistance is a growing problem among Anopheline and Culicine mosquitoes in many parts of Africa. When mosquitoes become resistant the capacity of treated nets to provide protection might be diminished, particularly when holed. An experimental hut trial against pyrethroid-resistant Culex quinquefasciatus was therefore undertaken in southern Benin using a series of intact and holed nets, both untreated and treated, to assess any loss of protection as nets deteriorate with use and time. Results There was loss of protection when untreated nets became holed; the proportion of mosquitoes blood feeding increased from 36.2% when nets were intact to between 59.7% and 68.5% when nets were holed to differing extents. The proportion of mosquitoes blood feeding when treated nets were intact was 29.4% which increased to 43.6–57.4% when nets were holed. The greater the number of holes the greater the loss of protection regardless of whether nets were untreated or treated. Mosquito mortality in huts with untreated nets was 12.9–13.6%; treatment induced mortality was less than 12%. The exiting rate of mosquitoes into the verandas was higher in huts with intact nets. Conclusion As nets deteriorate with use and become increasingly holed the capacity of pyrethroid treatments to restore protection is greatly diminished against resistant Culex quinquefasciatus mosquitoes.

  19. Intake of specific fatty acids and fat alters growth, health, and titers following vaccination in dairy calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esselburn, K M; O'Diam, K M; Hill, T M; Bateman, H G; Aldrich, J M; Schlotterbeck, R L; Daniels, K M

    2013-09-01

    Typical fatty acid profiles of milk and milk replacer (MR) differ. Calf MR in the United States are made from animal fat, which are low in short- and medium-chain fatty acids and linolenic acid. Two 56-d trials compared a control MR containing 27% crude protein and formulated with 3 fat and fatty acid compositions. The 3 MR treatments were (1) only animal fat totaling 17% fat (CON), (2) animal fat supplemented with butyrate, medium-chain fatty acids, and linolenic acid using a commercial product (1.25% NeoTec4 MR; Provimi North America, Brookville, OH) totaling 17% fat (fatty acid-supplemented; FA-S), and (3) milk fat totaling 33% fat (MF). The MR were fed at 660 g of dry matter from d 0 to 42 and weaned. Starter (20% crude protein) and water were fed ad libitum for 56 d. Trial 1 utilized Holstein calves (24 female, 24 male) during summer months and trial 2 utilized Holstein calves (48 male) during fall months. Calves (41±1 kg of initial body weight; 2 to 3d of age) were sourced from a single farm and housed in a naturally ventilated nursery without added heat. Calves were in individual pens with straw bedding. Calf was the experimental unit. Data for each trial were analyzed as a completely randomized design with a 3 (MR treatment) × 2 (sex) factorial arrangement of treatments in trial 1 with repeated measures and as a completely randomized design with 3 MR treatments in trial 2 with repeated measures. Preplanned contrast statements of treatments CON versus FA-S and CON versus MF were used to separate means. We found no interactions of MR treatment by sex. Calf average daily gain, hip width change, and feed efficiency differed (CONFA-S). Titers to bovine respiratory parainfluenza-3 and bovine virus diarrhea type 1 (vaccinations to these pathogens were on d 7 and 28) in serum samples taken on d 49 and 56 differed (CONFA-S; CONFA-S; CON>MF). Calves fed FA-S and MF had improved growth and feed efficiency compared with calves fed CON, whereas calves fed FA-S also

  20. A Comparison of Po2, Pco2, Ph and Bicarbonate in Blood from the Carotid and Coccygeal Arteries of Calves

    OpenAIRE

    Gustin, Pascal; de Groote, A.; Dhem, A. R.; Bakima, M.; Lomba; Lekeux, Pierre

    1988-01-01

    A technique is described for the subcutaneous deviation of the carotid artery into the jugular groove of calves weighing between 90 and 200 kg. This makes sampling arterial blood or chronic cannulation for further experimentation very easy. Values of oxygen tension, carbon dioxide tension, pH and bicarbonate concentration in blood sampled from the ventral coccygeal artery were compared with the values obtained in blood from carotid artery puncture. The high correlations observed indicate that...

  1. Experimental studies on mechanical properties of T6 treated Al25Mg2Si2Cu4Fe alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sondur, D. G.; Mallapur, D. G.; Udupa, K. Rajendra

    2018-04-01

    Effect of T6 treatment on the mechanical properties of Al25Mg2Si2Cu4Fe alloy was evaluated by conducting mechanical tests on test pieces using universal testing machine. Increase in the mechanical properties such as ultimate tensile strength, hardness and % elongation was observed. Microstructure characterization revealed the modification in the size and shapes of the precipitates formed during the homogenization process. This modification increases the anisotropy of the microstructure and the stresses in the as cast structure. The increase in the hardness of T6 treated alloy is due to the partial recrystallization, fragmentation and redistribution of primary Mg2Si phase, precipitation of fine θ, Q phases. The high volume fractions of uniformly dispersed hard β-particles greatly increase the flow stress and provide an appreciable impediment to plastic deformation. Thus increasing the hardness of the alloy.

  2. Accumulation of fluorine in CF4 plasma-treated AlGaN/GaN heterostructure interface: An experimental investigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basu, Anirban; Adesida, Ilesanmi

    2009-01-01

    The impact of CF 4 plasma treatment on the transport properties of the two dimensional electron gas (2DEG) in AlGaN/GaN heterostrustures has been studied. Systematic Hall measurements of the plasma-treated samples show a large degradation in mobility and sheet concentration, which can be partially recovered with short-duration rapid thermal annealing. Further annealing progressively degrades both mobility and sheet concentration. Secondary ion mass spectrometry of the heterostructure reveals accumulation of fluorine at the AlGaN/GaN interface close to the 2DEG channel as a result of annealing. Following our systematic electrical and analytical studies of the behavior of fluorine incorporated into the heterostructure epilayer due to bombardment, a vacancy-mediated postannealing redistribution of fluorine has been proposed

  3. Symbiotic formulation in experimentally induced liver fibrosis in rats: intestinal microbiota as a key point to treat liver damage?

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Argenio, Giuseppe; Cariello, Rita; Tuccillo, Concetta; Mazzone, Giovanna; Federico, Alessandro; Funaro, Annalisa; De Magistris, Laura; Grossi, Enzo; Callegari, Maria L; Chirico, Marilena; Caporaso, Nicola; Romano, Marco; Morelli, Lorenzo; Loguercio, Carmela

    2013-05-01

    Evidence indicates that intestinal microbiota may participate in both the induction and the progression of liver damage. The aim of our research was the detection and evaluation of the effects of chronic treatment with a symbiotic formulation on CCl4 -induced rat liver fibrosis. CCl4 significantly increased gastric permeability in respect to basal values, and the treatment with symbiotic significantly decreased it. CCl4 per se induced a decrease in intestinal permeability. This effect was also seen in fibrotic rats treated with symbiotic and was still evident when normal rats were treated with symbiotic alone (P symbiotic treatment normalized the plasma levels of TNF-α and significantly enhanced anti-inflammatory cytokine IL 10. TNF-α, TGF-β, TLR4, TLR2, iNOS and α-SMA mRNA expression in the liver were up-regulated in rats with CCl4 -induced liver fibrosis and down-regulated by symbiotic treatment. Moreover, IL-10 and eNOS mRNA levels were increased in the CCL4 (+) symbiotic group. Symbiotic treatment of fibrotic rats normalized serum ALT, AST and improved histology and liver collagen deposition. DGGE analysis of faecal samples revealed that CCl4 administration and symbiotic treatment either alone or in combination produced modifications in faecal profiles vs controls. Our results provide evidence that in CCl4 -induced liver fibrosis, significant changes in gastro-intestinal permeability and in faecal flora occur. Treatment with a specific symbiotic formulation significantly affects these changes, leading to improvement in both liver inflammation and fibrosis. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  4. Reproduction performance of cows with single, twin and triplet calves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Sawa

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to analyse data on 74,081 calvings, subsequent lactation performance and culling of 23,588 Black-and-White cows improved with Holstein-Friesians. The animals represented the active population in Pomerania and Kujavia, first calved in 2000 and 2001, and were culled before the end of 2008. Frequency of calvings, which averaged 1.5% for twin births and just 0.02% for triplet births, increased with age of cow and also with increasing milk yield in the preceding lactation. Performance results showed that mothers of twins were superior to mothers of single calves in terms of milk yield (1.3 kg milk/day milking. Despite the greater perinatal mortality of twins and triplets, multiple pregnancies gave rise to a greater number of calves compared to single pregnancies. However, multiple pregnancies were accompanied by adverse effects such as increased proportion of complications requiring human assistance, mechanical assistance and veterinary intervention (1.2 × more. Fertility of the cows deteriorated after multiple pregnancies, with particularly unfavourable indicators of fertility found for triplet births, decreased chance of survival to the next calving, and increased culling rates in cows, especially due to udder diseases, infertility, reproductive diseases, old age, metabolic and gastrointestinal diseases, and locomotor system diseases. It was found that the increasing milk yield was paralleled by the increasing proportion of multiple pregnancies. This has highlighted the need for early and reliable diagnosis and management of twin pregnancies, which is supposed to facilitate parturition and ensure survival of calves.

  5. Strategic control of acute diarrhea of newborn calves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siti Chotiah

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Economic performance of beef cattle operations can be severely hampered by acute calfhood diarrhea. Accordingly, a study was conducted at Bbalitvet to identify the causal agents, reduce clinical incidence, and increase body weight gain of newborn calves. One potential control is application of suitable vaccines to pregnant cows. The study was begun by identifying cases of diarrhea followed by isolation and identification of the causal agents in 12 beef cattle farms in West Java. A field trial was then designed for controlling calf diarrhea in such farms. Inactive vaccines Ecoli-Closvak polivalen were administered to pregnant cows to increase specific resistance of the newborn calves. At 2 months prepartum, 12 pregnant cows were assigned either to a vaccination or a placebo group, with a booster vaccination 3 weeks prior to parturition. Strict hygenic management was provided to both groups, and all calves were provided adequately with colostrum. Subjects were observed for 5 months, starting from the time of initial vaccination until the calves were 3 months of age. In the initial farm surveys, entero-pathogenic bacteria such as Escherichia coli serotype K99 and Clostridium perfringens type A and C were isolated and identified in fecal samples from 4 beef cattle farms in 3 districts (Garut, Tasikmalaya, Ciamis and 2 beef cattle farms in 2 districts (Tasikmalaya and Ciamis of West Java. In the vaccination trial, good immune responses to E. coli and C. perfringens alpha toxin measured by ELISA were observed. Application of effective control of calf diarrhea including vaccination and good livestock management showed good results. No death or signs of diarrhea were found in the new born calves up to 3 months of age. The rate of body weight gain was significantly higher in calves of vaccinated dams than in calves of non-vaccinated dams.

  6. Effect of local infusion of NSAID analgesics administered alone or in combination on the pain associated with band castration in calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paull, D R; Small, A H; Lee, C; Labeur, L; Colditz, I G

    2015-08-01

    To evaluate the analgesic efficacy of flunixin alone or in combination with diclofenac administered locally to the scrotum at the time of band castration of calves. Angus bull calves (n = 40; ≈7-9 weeks old) were allocated to four treatment groups (n = 10 per group) to examine the effects of two non-steroidal anti-inflammatory analgesics (NSAIDs) administered locally at the time of band castration: sham control; castration + flunixin; castration + flunixin + diclofenac; castration + saline. The NSAIDs and saline were administered subcutaneously into the scrotum under the band. Blood was sampled at -0.5, 0.5, 1.5, 3, 12, 24, 48 and 72 h relative to castration. Haematology parameters and plasma cortisol levels were determined in samples at all time points and plasma haptoglobin levels determined in samples collected at -0.5, 24, 48 and 72 h. Pain avoidance and postural behaviours were measured for 2 and 12 h, respectively, after castration. Band-castrated calves exhibited significantly higher peak cortisol and higher integrated cortisol responses during the first 6 h post-castration relative to sham controls. Individual active pain avoidance behaviours observed for 1 h post-castration were not significantly different between treatment groups; however; the sum of the total behaviours was significantly increased by castration (P = 0.023). Postural changes included increased abnormal ventral lying for all castrated groups and decreased normal standing and increased combined abnormal postures for the flunixin- and saline-treated groups. Growth rates of calves were not affected by treatments during weeks 1 and 2 post-castration; however, growth rates of castrated calves were significantly lower than those of sham-treated calves in week 3 post-castration (1.41 vs 0.84, 0.75 and 0.56±0.19 kg/day for sham, flunixin-, flunixin + diclofenac- and saline-treated groups, respectively). The administration of flunixin or flunixin + diclofenac intrascrotally at several sites

  7. RESEARCH ON THE INFLLUENCE OF THE CALVING INTERVAL ON MILK YIELD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agatha POPESCU

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper goal was to study the influence of the calving interval on milk yield for the Romanian Brown breed, using 950 lactations, of which: 573 lactations (60.31 % belonged to the over 400 days calving interval and 377 lactations (39.69% belonged to the 351-400 days calving interval. The calving interval varied between 446.41±18.94 days, the highest length for the 51 dairy cows which had parturition in September and 373.49 ±14.28 days, the shortest length for 53 cows which calved in October. The average calving interval for the cows with a calving interval longer than 400 days accounted for 425.58±14.10 days, while the average calving interval for the cows with this reproductionindicator between 351 and 400 days was 358.65±10.07 days. For the cows whose calving interval was longer than 400 days, milk yield accounted for 4,682.5±124.92 while for the cows whose calving interval varied between 351 and 400 days registered 4,240.0±215.10 kg. The calculations revealed a gross product of Lei 6,087 per lactation in case of cows whose calving interval was longer than 400 days and Lei 5,512 in case of the cows whose calving interval varied between 351-400 days. For an average difference of 66.93 days calving interval between the two calving interval size groups taken into consideration, the milk yield difference accounted for 442.50 kg in the benefit of the cows with the calving interval longer than 400 days. Also, a difference of Lei 575 was recorded in the favor of the cows with calving intervals longer than 400 days because they registered higher a milk yield. This means Lei 8.59 additional income per cow and calving interval day longer than 400 days.

  8. Blood gas analysis in equine with experimental large colon impaction treated with sene, enteral and parenteral fluid therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Ribeiro Filho, José Dantas; Abreu, José Mário Girão; Alves, Geraldo Eleno Silveira; Dantas, Waleska de Melo Ferreira

    2007-01-01

    O equilíbrio ácido-base foi estudado em eqüinos com compactação experimental do cólon maior após o uso de solução isotônica poliônica enteral, sene mais hidratação intravenosa e hidratação intravenosa. As amostras sangüíneas foram colhidas de 20 animais, quatro grupos (E8, RL, SE e C) de cinco animais cada. Os animais dos grupos tratados eram portadores de compactação no cólon maior induzida experimentalmente. Eqüinos no grupo E8 receberam solução isotônica poliônica enteral (8mL kg-1 h-1 48h...

  9. Lead accumulation in feathers of nestling black-crowned night-herons (Nycticorax nycticorax) experimentally treated in the field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golden, N.H.; Rattner, B.A.; Cohen, J.B.; Hoffman, D.J.; Russek-Cohen, E.; Ottinger, M.A.

    2003-01-01

    Although lead can attain high concentrations in feathers, interpretation of the biological significance of this phenomenon is difficult. As part of an effort to develop and validate non-invasive methods to monitor contaminant exposure in free-ranging birds, lead uptake by feathers of nestling black-crowned night-herons (Nycticorax nycticorax) was evaluated in a controlled exposure study. Four to six day-old heron nestlings (one/nest) at Chincoteague Bay, Virginia, received a single intraperitoneal injection of dosing vehicle (control; n=7) or a dose of lead nitrate in water (0.01, 0.05, or 0.25 mg Pb/g body weight of nestling; n=6 or 7/dose) chosen to yield feather lead concentrations found at low to moderately polluted sites. Nestlings were euthanized at 15 days of age. Lead accumulation in feathers was associated with concentrations in bone, kidney, and liver (r = 0.32 - 0.74, p feather lead concentration. Culmen growth rate was depressed in nestlings treated with the highest dose of lead, but not correlated with feather lead concentration. These findings provide evidence that feathers of nestling herons are a sensitive indicator of lead exposure and have potential application for the extrapolation of lead concentrations in other tissues and the estimation of environmental lead exposure in birds.

  10. Lead accumulation in feathers of nestling black-crowned night herons (Nycticorax nycticorax) experimentally treated in the field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golden, Nancy H; Rattner, Barnett A; Cohen, Jonathan B; Hoffman, David J; Russek-Cohen, Estelle; Ottinger, Mary Ann

    2003-07-01

    Although lead can attain high concentrations in feathers, interpretation of the biological significance of this phenomenon is difficult. As part of an effort to develop and validate noninvasive methods to monitor contaminant exposure in free-ranging birds, lead uptake by feathers of nestling black-crowned night herons (Nycticorax nycticorax) was evaluated in a controlled exposure study. Four- to 6-d-old heron nestlings (one/nest) at Chincoteague Bay, Virginia (USA), received a single intraperitoneal injection of dosing vehicle (control, n = 7) or a dose of lead nitrate in water (0.01, 0.05, or 0.25 mg Pb/g body wt of nestling; n = 6 or 7/dose) chosen to yield feather lead concentrations found at low- to moderately polluted sites. Nestlings were euthanized at 15 d of age. Lead accumulation in feathers was associated with concentrations in bone, kidney, and liver (r = 0.32-0.74, p feather lead concentration. Culmen growth rate was depressed in nestlings treated with the highest dose of lead but not correlated with feather lead concentration. These findings provide evidence that feathers of nestling herons are a sensitive indicator of lead exposure and have potential application for the extrapolation of lead concentrations in other tissues and the estimation of environmental lead exposure in birds.

  11. Measurements of normal joint angles by goniometry in calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sengöz Şirin, O; Timuçin Celik, M; Ozmen, A; Avki, S

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to establish normal reference values of the forelimb and hindlimb joint angles in normal Holstein calves. Thirty clinically normal Holstein calves that were free of any detectable musculoskeletal abnormalities were included in the study. A standard transparent plastic goniometer was used to measure maximum flexion, maximum extension, and range-of-motion of the shoulder, elbow, carpal, hip, stifle, and tarsal joints. The goniometric measurements were done on awake calves that were positioned in lateral recumbency. The goniometric values were measured and recorded by two independent investigators. As a result of the study it was concluded that goniometric values obtained from awake calves in lateral recumbency were found to be highly consistent and accurate between investigators (p <0.05). The data of this study acquired objective and useful information on the normal forelimb and hindlimb joint angles in normal Holstein calves. Further studies can be done to predict detailed goniometric values from different diseases and compare them.

  12. Performance of dairy calves raised under two breeding systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reinaldo Henrique Borger

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Increasing concern about some animal production systems has placed considerable value on humanitarian breeding systems, aimed at ensuring animal welfare and comfort. Raising calves is one of the most important stages in a milk production system. This study aimed to evaluate and compare the performance of Holstein dairy calves raised by two farming systems: conventional individual (CI and collective with automatic calf feeder (CACF. Fourteen, 15-day-old Holstein dairy calves having an average initial body weight of 40 kg, were used. The animals were distributed in a completely randomized design with seven animals per treatment. The variables evaluated were the milk and feed intake, body weight, hip height, thoracic circumference and daily weight gain. The average milk intake was lower in the CACF (3.5 L animal-1 day-1 than CI (5.1 L animal-1 day-1 system. However, the feed intake was higher in the CACF (1.205 kg animal-1 day-1 compared to CI (0.910 kg animal-1 day-1 system. Body weight, thoracic circumference, hip height and daily weight gain were similar between the two systems. The CACF raised calves had a higher concentrate intake and lower milk intake than the calves raised under the CI system.

  13. Experimental research on the poly-aluminum chloride for treating the Pi River water in winter and summer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Rusheng; Bai, Yulin; Yang, Jie

    2018-02-01

    In the beaker experiments that the disposal of low turbidity water, we observed the influence of some factors, such as the dosage of poly-aluminum chloride coagulant, the pH value of raw water, in disposing the high natural organic matters of low turbidity water in winter and summer. we discussed the removal of residual aluminum and UV254 in summer. The experimental results show that when the turbidity is less than 10 NTU, the optimum dosage are 14.4 mg.L-1 and 8.2 mg.L-1 respectively in winter and summer. No matter in winter or summer, the effect of pH value on coagulation treatment is very significant, the best pH value is about 8.1. In summer, with the increase of dosage of poly-aluminum chloride, residual aluminum increased slowly after decrease, turbidity and UV254 after precipitation is similar removal trend. Finally, according to the current market price of poly-aluminum chloride economic analysis, daily differences in pharmaceutical costs about 1600 yuan in summer and winter in the second water plant in Lu’an.

  14. An experimental study of factors in the recovery of plutonium from combustible wastes treated by incineration, pyrolysis and other processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bamber, D.C.; McDonald, L.A.; Roberts, W.G.; Sutcliffe, P.W.; Wilkins, J.D.

    1984-01-01

    The work described in this report is concerned with the incineration and pyrolysis of plutonium-contaminated combustible wastes, the leaching of the ashes and chars and the subsequent treatment of the leach solutions. A range of ashes and chars have been prepared from a range of plutonium-contaminated materials covering a variety of combustible materials (e.g. PVC, neoprene, Hypalon) and plutonium contaminants [e.g. PuO 2 , Pu(NO 3 ) 4 , (U, Pu)O 2 ]. Treatment temperatures in the range of 550-900 0 C have been investigated, the best results being obtained at or below 700 0 C with pyrolysis followed by char oxidation being the favoured process. A number of methods for treatment of the leach solutions have been considered and some have been investigated experimentally. Extraction of plutonium and americium with tributylphosphate (TBP) from a leach solution conditioned to 0.1 M H/+5 M NO 3 - has been studied. The key stage has been found to be the conditioning step where precautions must be taken to ensure that plutonium-containing precipitates and non-extractable plutonium are not formed. Consideration has also been given to treatment of the americium containing raffinates from a high acid TBP extraction and some methods have been investigated. A range of simple washing experiments have been carried out in order to compare the process with incineration/pyrolysis

  15. Evaluation of silage diets offered to reindeer calves intended for slaughter. I. Feeding of silage and barley from September to March

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Nilsson

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available An experiment involving 75 male reindeer calves (mean initial live weight 39.6 kg, SD=3.7 intended for slaughter was undertaken to study the effect of proporrion of barley to silage in the diets on animal performance. The calves were alloted to five groups including one group slaughtered at the start of the experiment in September. The remaining groups were offered diets containing either, 30% (LB, or 60% (HB rolled barley, based on the dry matter (DM content, until slaughter in November (LB and HB or in March (HB. The silage (43% DM was made from the primary growth of a predominantly grass sward preserved as plastic-wrapped big bales. Small amounts of lichens were mixed with the rations during rhe first two weeks of the experiment and the calves adapted well to the experimental diets. However, health problems and deaths occurred on borh rarions after five weeks of feeding. Since the animals fed the LB diet lost live weight and condition the experimental feeding of these calves were interrupted at the slaughter in November. Calves fed the LB diet had significantly lower daily DM intake (P<0.01. They also had lower live weighr gain (not significant, greater losses of carcass weight and fat in the abdominal cavity relative to those offered the HB diet. During the second period of the study the remaining animals offered the HB diet showed no signs of ill-health and increased live weight, carcass weighr, and fat in the abdominal cavity. The results of the presenr experiment indicate that when silage of the investigated quality is fed to reindeer calves rhe proportion of silage should not exceed 40% of the DM.

  16. The level of social contact affects social behaviour in pre-weaned dairy calves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duve, Linda Rosager; Jensen, Margit Bak

    2011-01-01

    The present study investigated the effects of the level of social contact in the home environment on the social preference, bonding and social behaviour of pre-weaned dairy calves. Twenty-seven pairs of calves were reared from birth until 6 weeks either individually (with limited social contact...... between bars; L-calves), in pairs (with full social contact; F-calves), or individually for 3 weeks and in pairs for the next 3 weeks (LF-calves). At 5 weeks of age the bonding between calves in a pair was evaluated by measuring their response to separation and the subsequent reunion in the home...... environment. The following day the social preference was evaluated in a triangular test arena where the calves could choose between the companion and an unfamiliar calf. Finally, at 6 weeks of age the response of the calves to a novel arena, alone and with the companion, was measured. During separation...

  17. Conception rate of beef cows and growth of suckling calves as ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    optimizing preweaning growth of suckling calves and reconcep- tion of the lactating cow. ... daily requirements of a lactating beef cow grazing spring grass. ...... buffalo cows which had the greatest mass at calving also lost most thereafter, when ...

  18. Housing and environment for dairy calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turnbull, J E

    1980-03-01

    Many cases of poor health in calves have been traced to bad management and inadequate ventilation in the calf nursery. Important management principles for improved calf health include calf housing isolated from the adult herd and periodic depopulation and sanitizing of the calf nursery area. In good weather, low-cost calf rearing portables such as the "calf hutch" can provide alternative housing during the cleanup period.Calf nursery ventilation systems must have flexibility to give the full winter-to-summer range of controlled ventilation rates and critical air inlet adjustments. Earlier recommendations were for three stepped ventilation rates of 3.3, 6.6 and 24 L/s per calf to cover the range from cold winter to warm summer weather. Later recommendations are for a simpler two stepped fan system starting at 6.7 L/s (continuous winter rate) and increasing to 50 L/s for temperature control in warm to hot weather. Even with the best insulated construction, increased supplementary heating is required to support this increased continuous winter ventilation. To save energy the heating must be controlled to stop before the higher-rate ventilation starts. Other design features for more uniform temperatures and improved calf nursery ventilation include: 1) preheating the ventilation air before it enters the calf room, 2) distributing air to the ceiling with round holes and adjustable slots adjusted to give at least 4 m/s inlet velocity, 3) using a properly sized centrifugal fan running continuously to exhaust air from near the floor in winter and 4) protecting air intakes and fan openings from the effects of wind. Air recirculation systems and variable-speed fans are not recommended.

  19. Efficacy of oral meloxicam suspension for prevention of pain and inflammation following band and surgical castration in calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, M E; Ralston, Brenda; Burwash, Les; Matheson-Bird, Heather; Allan, Nick D

    2016-06-13

    Castration is one of the most common procedures performed on beef and dairy cattle. The objective of the study was to determine the efficacy of meloxicam oral suspension in reducing pain and inflammation in calves following band or surgical castration. Two identical trials with the exception of the method of castration (Band Castration Study 1 and Surgical Castration Study 2) were conducted. Sixty (60) healthy Holstein calves 4 to 5 months of age (138-202 Kg) were used. Animals received either Meloxicam Oral Suspension at a dose of 1 mg/kg BW (n = 15 Study 1 and 15 Study 2) or Saline (n = 15 Study 1 and 15 Study 2) 2 h before castration. Physiological (Heart Rate, Plasma Cortisol and Plasma Substance P) and Behavioral (Visual Analog Scale (VAS), Accelerometers and tail Pedometers) evaluations were conducted before (day -1) and after Castration (Day 0, 1, 2, 3). Inflammation was evaluated daily by providing an individual animal score (Study1) or with a measurement of scrotal thickness (Study 2). Heart rates were significantly greater in control animals following band and surgical castration. Plasma cortisol and substance P were significantly reduced in animals receiving Meloxicam Oral Suspension. Control animals had significantly greater VAS scores. Accelerometers showed that meloxicam treated animals had a significantly greater motion index and number of steps as well as less % time lying and number of lying bouts. The scrotal inflammation (based on scrotal swelling) was significantly decreased in the meloxicam treated animals compared to the control animals on day 1, day 2 and 3. Meloxicam Oral Suspension was able to significantly reduce the display of painful behaviors and physiological responses to pain in band castrated and surgical castrated calves for up to 72 h following a single oral treatment of 1 mg/kg body weight. Meloxicam Oral Suspension was able to significantly reduce scrotal inflammation in band castrated and surgical castrated calves.

  20. How milk-fed dairy calves perform in stable versus dynamic groups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Rikke Engelbrecht; Sørensen, Jan Tind; Skjøth, F

    2009-01-01

    The objective of the present field trial was to compare calf performance among pre-weaned calves in two different group housing systems, stable groups ("all in-all out") and dynamic groups (continuous introduction). Performance data was collected from 484 calves randomly assigned to the two syste....../days). The prevalence of both diarrhoea and respiratory disease were more than twice as high among calves in dynamic groups compared to calves in stable groups....

  1. ANTIMICROBIAL SUSCEPTIBILITY PROFILE OF MICROBIAL PATHOGENS ISOLATED FROM CALVES WITH RESPIRATORY DISEASES

    OpenAIRE

    George Cosmin Nadas; Flore Chirila; Cosmina Bouari; Nicodim Fit

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Respiratory disease in calves is an actual problem, a major cause of economic losses due to mortality, growth delay and improper development. These conditions are frequent in calves due to the weaning stress, transport and environmental changes. Aims: The aim of this study was the isolation of bacteria from 30 calves with respiratory disorders and their antibiotic susceptibility testing. Materials and methods: Samples were collected from calves with respiratory disorders...

  2. Effects of preweaning total plane of milk intake and weaning age on intake, growth performance, and blood metabolites of dairy calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirzaei, M; Dadkhah, N; Baghbanzadeh-Nobari, B; Agha-Tehrani, A; Eshraghi, M; Imani, M; Shiasi-Sardoabi, R; Ghaffari, M H

    2018-05-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of preweaning total plane of milk intake and weaning age on intake, growth performance, and blood metabolites of dairy calves. A total of 48 Holstein calves (40 ± 1.6 kg of body weight) were used in a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement with the factors of weaning age (d 60 vs. 75) and the total plane of milk intake (medium vs. high) during the preweaning period. Calves were assigned to 1 of 4 treatments: (1) calves fed medium plane of milk (MPM) intake and weaned on d 60 of age (MPM-60d, 4 L/d of milk from d 3 to 10, 6 L/d of milk from d 11 to 55, and 3 L/d of milk from d 56 to 60 of age; total milk intake = 317 L), (2) calves fed MPM intake and weaned on d 75 of age (MPM-75d, 4 L/d of milk from d 3 to 10 and 4.5 L/d of milk from d 11 to 70 of age followed by feeding 2.25 L/d of milk from d 71 to 75 of age; total milk intake = 313 L), (3) calves fed high plane of milk (HPM) intake and weaned on d 60 of age (HPM-60d, 4 L/d of milk from d 3 to 10, 6 L/d of milk from d 11 to 20, and 8.5 L/d of milk from d 21 to 55 followed by feeding 4.25 L/d of milk from d 56 to 60 of age; total milk intake = ∼411 L); and (4) calves fed HPM intake and weaned on d 75 (HPM-75d, 4 L/d of milk from d 3 to 10, and 6 L/d of milk from d 11 to 70 of age followed by feeding 3 L/d of milk from d 71 to 75 of age; total milk intake = 407 L) with no milk refusals. All of the calves were monitored up to d 90 of age. Regardless of weaning age, starter feed intake and dry matter intake (% of body weight) were lower in calves fed HPM compared with those receiving MPM. A tendency for the plane of milk intake × weaning age interaction was observed for metabolizable energy intake with the highest value was recorded with the HPM-75d calves. The lowest efficiency of metabolizable energy intake and average feed efficiency was observed in HPM-60d calves throughout the experimental period as compared with the other groups. An interaction was found between

  3. Boundary layer models for calving marine outlet glaciers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Schoof

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available We consider the flow of marine-terminating outlet glaciers that are laterally confined in a channel of prescribed width. In that case, the drag exerted by the channel side walls on a floating ice shelf can reduce extensional stress at the grounding line. If ice flux through the grounding line increases with both ice thickness and extensional stress, then a longer shelf can reduce ice flux by decreasing extensional stress. Consequently, calving has an effect on flux through the grounding line by regulating the length of the shelf. In the absence of a shelf, it plays a similar role by controlling the above-flotation height of the calving cliff. Using two calving laws, one due to Nick et al. (2010 based on a model for crevasse propagation due to hydrofracture and the other simply asserting that calving occurs where the glacier ice becomes afloat, we pose and analyse a flowline model for a marine-terminating glacier by two methods: direct numerical solution and matched asymptotic expansions. The latter leads to a boundary layer formulation that predicts flux through the grounding line as a function of depth to bedrock, channel width, basal drag coefficient, and a calving parameter. By contrast with unbuttressed marine ice sheets, we find that flux can decrease with increasing depth to bedrock at the grounding line, reversing the usual stability criterion for steady grounding line location. Stable steady states can then have grounding lines located on retrograde slopes. We show how this anomalous behaviour relates to the strength of lateral versus basal drag on the grounded portion of the glacier and to the specifics of the calving law used.

  4. Influence of puberty and antral follicle count on calving day in crossbred beef heifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNeel, Anthony K; Cushman, Robert A

    2015-10-15

    Lifetime productivity and longevity are greater in beef cows that give birth early in their first calving season. The ability of heifers to conceive early in the breeding season is traditionally thought to be a function of pubertal status; however, recent evidence suggests that antral follicle count is positively associated with calving day in pubertal beef heifers. Additionally, there is evidence to suggest that the total number of ovarian follicles may alter response to hormonal synchronization protocols. The objectives of this study were to confirm the beneficial influence of antral follicle count on calving day in beef heifers and to determine whether response to PGF2α is associated with differences in antral follicle counts. A 2 × 2 factorial experiment was designed to investigate the interaction between calving period (early vs. late) and PGF2α (control vs. PGF) on calving day and antral follicle count in yearling beef heifers (n = 95). As intended, calving day was less in the early calving period compared to the late calving period (P 0.05). There was a significant interaction between calving period and PGF2α on age at first calving (P reproductive tract scoring for commercial production because of its association with calving day. As a prebreeding ovarian phenotype, antral follicle counts may hold additional applicability for organic beef producers looking to reduce the length of their calving season without increasing the total number of replacement heifers retained. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  5. RESEARCHES ON GROOMING BEHAVIOR OF THE DAMCALF COUPLE DURING THE FIRST WEEK AFTER CALVING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. TRIPON

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper is dealing with the maternal behavior during the first week after calving. Researches were carried out during the winter season on Romanian Black and White breed dam-calf couples. The behavior of calves and their mothers was nonstop video recorded during the first, second and seventh day after calving. For a better interpretation the recorded material was divided in three periods for every 24 hours of surveillance: 07:00 to 15:00, 15:00 to 23:00, and 23:00 to 07:00. Calves received attention from their mothers in 18 to 33 grooming periods during the first day after calving. The number of grooming periods decreased to 6 – 15 periods per day in the seventh day after calving. The total length of grooming periods also decreased from the first day to the seventh day after calving from 26.5 minutes to 7.4 minutes on each 8-hour time frame. There were also contacts between mother cows and their calves that were not followed by grooming (sniffing. The number of contacts without grooming was higher during the first two days after calving and decreased on the seventh day after calving. During the first week of life calves received, 55.6 minutes per day of care from their mothers, and there were, on average, 8.1 contacts without grooming between mothers and calves.

  6. Reaction of calves to two flooring materials offered simultaneously in one pen.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stefanowska, J.; Swierstra, D.; Smits, A.C.; Berg, van den J.V.; Metz, J.H.M.

    2002-01-01

    Now that group housing is replacing individual crates, so that calves can lie, stand and walk on the pen floor, the quality of the floor for group-housed calves has become the focus of attention. The reaction of two groups of four calves to a double area of floor made from two materials (wooden

  7. Tidal and seasonal variations in calving flux observed with passive seismology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartholomaus, T.C.; Larsen, Christopher F.; West, Michael E.; O'Neel, Shad; Pettit, Erin C.; Truffer, Martin

    2015-01-01

    The seismic signatures of calving events, i.e., calving icequakes, offer an opportunity to examine calving variability with greater precision than is available with other methods. Here using observations from Yahtse Glacier, Alaska, we describe methods to detect, locate, and characterize calving icequakes. We combine these icequake records with a coincident, manually generated record of observed calving events to develop and validate a statistical model through which we can infer iceberg sizes from the properties of calving icequakes. We find that the icequake duration is the single most significant predictor of an iceberg's size. We then apply this model to 18 months of seismic recordings and find elevated iceberg calving flux during the summer and fall and a pronounced lull in calving during midwinter. Calving flux is sensitive to semidiurnal tidal stage. Large calving events are tens of percent more likely during falling and low tides than during rising and high tides, consistent with a view that deeper water has a stabilizing influence on glacier termini. Multiple factors affect the occurrence of mechanical fractures that ultimately lead to iceberg calving. At Yahtse Glacier, seismology allows us to demonstrate that variations in the rate of submarine melt are a dominant control on iceberg calving rates at seasonal timescales. On hourly to daily timescales, tidal modulation of the normal stress against the glacier terminus reveals the nonlinear glacier response to changes in the near-terminus stress field.

  8. Including gene networks to predict calving ease in Holstein, Brown Swiss and Jersey cattle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background Calving difficulty or dystocia has a great economic impact in the US dairy industry. Reported risk factors associated with calving difficulty are feto-pelvic disproportion, gestation length and conformation. Different dairy cattle breeds have different incidence of calving difficulty, wit...

  9. Gastrointestinal development of dairy calves fed low- or high-starch concentrate at two milk allowances

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kosiorowska, Anna Katarzyna; Puggaard, Liselotte; Hedemann, Mette Skou

    2011-01-01

    The objective was to study the effect of type of concentrate with varying starch and fibre content on growth and gastrointestinal development in preweaned dairy calves. Thirty-two newborn Danish Holstein male calves were allocated to four treatment groups in eight blocks of four calves. An experi...

  10. Macromolecule absorption and cortisol secretion in newborn calves derived from in vitro produced embryos

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, H; Sangild, P T; Schmidt, M

    2002-01-01

    Earlier reports indicate that calves derived from in vitro produced (IVP) embryos are more susceptible to neonatal disease than calves produced after artificial insemination (AI) or natural mating. The aims of the present study were to investigate whether calves born after IVP embryos show...

  11. [High incidence of jaundice in young calves in Southern Germany].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metzner, M; Wieland, M; Rademacher, G; Weber, B K; Hafner-Marx, A; Langenmayer, M C; Ammer, H; Klee, W

    2012-10-17

    Between September, 2010, and August, 2011, a series of cases of jaundice of unknown origin in young calves was detected in a number of farms in Southern Germany. This paper describes the syndrome on the basis of 57 cases, and the approach taken to discover the cause. The clinical course of the disease is described in 19 patients. Using a case definition (calves aged 1-3 weeks, total serum bilirubin > 20 µmol/l and/or serum glutamate dehydrogenase [GLDH] activity >50U/l and/or autopsy findings with striking liver pathology [jaundice, liver dystrophy, cirrhosis]), 36 farms were included in an epidemiological survey. In a feeding trial, two batches of a dietary supplement feed, previously used in diseased calves on farms, were fed at the dosage recommendations of the manufacturer to four clinically healthy calves over 5days. Four other calves served as controls. The calves were clinically monitored daily, and blood samples were investigated using clinical chemistry and haematology. Clinical examination revealed behavioural alterations (weakness, tonic-clonic seizures and bawling just before death), recumbency, jaundice and discolouration of faeces. In less severe cases without clinical signs, there was an increase in serum bilirubin concentration and/or GLDH activity. In the epidemiological survey of affected farms, the feeding of a diet supplement feed was registered in 54 of 57 cases. The feeding of two batches of that diet supplement feed to four clinically healthy calves resulted in a significant (p<0.05) increase in bilirubin and lactate concentrations, as well as the GLDH activity in serum, but without serious impairment of the general condition, whereas in control calves, no comparable changes were observed. The results of the epidemiological survey and the feeding trial suggest a causal involvement of a dietary supplement feed. The toxic principle is unknown. Knowledge of the clinical picture and the probable feed-related context is important to detect this

  12. Mortality, diarrhea and respiratory disease in Danish dairy heifer calves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reiten, M.; Rousing, T.; Thomsen, P. T.

    2018-01-01

    system (conventional/organic), season (summer/winter) and calf mortality risk, diarrhea, signs of respiratory disease and ocular discharge, respectively, for dairy heifer calves aged 0–180 days. Sixty Danish dairy herds, 30 conventional and 30 organic, were visited once during summer and once during......Diarrhea and respiratory disease are major health problems for dairy calves, often causing calf mortality. Previous studies have found calf mortality to be higher in organic dairy herds compared to conventional herds. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between production...... variables and in certain age groups, dependent on production system and season....

  13. Management of Preconditioned Calves and Impacts of Preconditioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilton, W Mark

    2015-07-01

    When studying the practice of preconditioning (PC) calves, many factors need to be examined to determine if cow-calf producers should make this investment. Factors such as average daily gain, feed efficiency, available labor, length of the PC period, genetics, and marketing options must be analyzed. The health sales price advantage is an additional benefit in producing and selling PC calves but not the sole determinant of PC's financially feasibility. Studies show that a substantial advantage of PC is the selling of additional pounds at a cost of gain well below the marginal return of producing those additional pounds. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Acid-base disorders in calves with chronic diarrhea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bednarski, M; Kupczyński, R; Sobiech, P

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze disorders of acid-base balance in calves with chronic diarrhea caused by mixed, viral, bacterial and Cryptosporydium parvum infection. We compared results ob- tained with the classic model (Henderson-Hasselbalch) and strong ion approach (the Steward model). The study included 36 calves aged between 14 and 21 days. The calves were allocated to three groups: I - (control) non-diarrheic calves, group II - animals with compensated acid-base imbalance and group III calves with compensated acid-base disorders and hypoalbuminemia. Plasma concentrations of Na+, K+, Cl-, C12+, Mg2+, P, albumin and lactate were measured. In the classic model, acid-base balance was determined on the basis of blood pH, pCO2, HCO3-, BE and anion gap. In the strong ion model, strong ion difference (SID), effective strong anion difference, total plasma concentration of nonvolatile buffers (A(Tot)) and strong ion gap (SIG) were measured. The control calves and the animals from groups II and III did not differ significantly in terms of their blood pH. The plasma concentration of HCO3-, BE and partial pressure of CO2 in animals from the two groups with chronic diarrhea were significantly higher than those found in the controls. The highest BE (6.03 mmol/l) was documented in calves from group II. The animals from this group presented compensation resulted from activation of metabolic mechanisms. The calves with hypoal- buminemia (group III) showed lower plasma concentrations of albumin (15.37 g/L), Cl (74.94 mmol/L), Mg2+ (0.53 mmol/L), P (1.41 mmol/L) and higher value of anion gap (39.03 mmol/L). This group III presented significantly higher SID3 (71.89 mmol/L), SID7 (72.92 mmol/L) and SIG (43.53 mmol/L) values than animals from the remaining groups (P acid-base disturbance in these cases suggests that classic model have some limitations. This model can not be recommended for use whenever serum albumin or phosphate concentrations are markedly abnormal.

  15. Body condition scores at calving and their association with dairy cow performance and health in semiarid environment under two cooling systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed A.B. Mandour

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Under tropical environments cow’s body condition at calving may influence productivity and health performance. Therefore, the current research evaluated the impact of body condition score (BCS at calving on milk production traits and health problems of primiparous and multiparous cows raised under two cooling systems in semi-arid environment. Milk yield parameters and health disorders data at different parities were obtained from 1700 Holstein cows, which were managed under Korral Kool (KKC and fan (FC cooling systems in Saudi Arabia. The results revealed that KKC system induced high level of milk production improvement (305TM, days in milk, daily milk yield (P<0.05 compared to FC, especially in multiparous cows. There was an advantage of the high BCS group under KKC system over the FC system for peak yield and period. Cows from both cooling systems having moderate BCS outdid the other groups for total milk yield. Low BCS primiparous cows reared under KKC system were the most to suffer from stillbirth (18%, and calving ease (26.1% in winter, while high BCS were the most to be treated for mastitis (8.5% in summer. On the other hand, spring calved multiparous cows raised under FC system suffered more from lameness (21.57% - high BCS and milk fever (4.4% - moderate BCS. Further, cows having moderate BCS kept under KKC system had the highest incidence of lameness (62.2%, and abomasum displacement (4.4%. In conclusion, achieving correct BCS at calving and cooling system is important to avoid calving subsequent lactation performance and metabolic disease losses.

  16. Evaluating the effect of administrating hypertonic and isotonic saline solutions on clinical improvement, serum electrolyte concentrations and renal function of calves affected by diarrhea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Hasanpour

    2009-11-01

    This study was conducted on 40 calves under the age of one mouth with 30 calves affected by diarrhea allocated to 3 treatment groups of 10 calves each and the control group consisting of 10 calves. The control group received neither treatment nor any injections. In the first treatment group, only antibiotics were administered without any fluid therapy. In the second treatment group, apart from antibiotic therapy of diarrhea, hypertonic saline solution (7.5% was administered at a dose of 5 ml/kg as slow intravenous infusion alongside oral ORS solution whereas in the third treatment group isotonic saline solution (0.9% was given intravenously according to the formula (Body weight × %Dehydration alongside oral ORS solution. In all groups, clinical examination and blood sampling was undertaken at times 0, 1, 2, 8 and 24 hours following treatment. At time 0, the diarrhea had resulted in clinical and laboratory signs such as a fever, the dehydration, tachycardia, oligopnea, increased packed sell volume, hypernatremia, hyperchloremia, hyperkalemia, hyperphosphatemia, hypercalcemia, increased serum creatinine and BUN values. Following treatment, fever subsided and the dehydration was corrected and this correction occurred faster in calves which had received hypertonic saline solution. Correction of sodium, potassium, chloride, phosphorus and calsium imbalance occurred faster in patients which were treated by hypertonic solution. Fluid therapy with saline solutions prevented the increase in serum creatinine and BUN values. In conclusion, the administration of hypertonic saline solutions leads to much faster and more reliable clinical improvement and electrolyte imbalance correction in calves affected by diarrhea.

  17. Effects of Acupressure on Fatigue and Depression in Hepatocellular Carcinoma Patients Treated with Transcatheter Arterial Chemoembolization: A Quasi-Experimental Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Su-Chen Lan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was to examine the effects of acupressure on fatigue and depression in HCC patients undergoing TACE. A quasiexperimental study design was used. Patients were evaluated at five time points: before treatment (T1 and 2, 3, 4, and 5 days after treating TACE (T2, T3, T4, and T5. Fatigue and depression were assessed by a VAS fatigue scale and a VAS depression scale at each time point. TFRS and BDI were administered at T1 and T5. Patients’ fatigue and depression were significantly higher at T5 than at T1 in two groups. Fatigue and depression increased in both the experimental and control groups’ patients over the five days of hospitalization during which TACE and chemotherapy were administered. The experimental group had significantly less fatigue than the control group, with lower subscale scores on physical, psychosocial, daily, and overall fatigue. There were no differences between the groups on depression. At posttest, the experimental group experienced lower physical, psychosocial, daily, and overall fatigue than the control group. Acupressure can improve fatigue in HCC patients during treatment with TACE but did not alleviate depression. Discharge planning should include home care for management of fatigue and depression.

  18. Woodland caribou calf recruitment in relation to calving/post-calving landscape composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara C. McCarthy

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Since the 1990s, Newfoundland’s woodland caribou (Rangifer tarandus caribou population has declined by an estimated 66%. Low calf recruitment has been associated to the decline, possibly triggered by increasing calf predation and/or decreasing resources. To investigate the role of landscape composition in this system, we studied the yearly (2005-2008 calving/post-calving range (CPCR of 104 satellite-collared females belonging to six herds. We mapped nine disturbance factors (e.g. roads, logging, etc, as well as vegetation cover types (e.g. coniferous, deciduous forests, etc, and determined the total area they occupied within CPCRs yearly for each herd. Using an information theoretic approach, we assessed the model that best explained variation in recruitment using these components. Based on corrected Akaike Information Criterion, the model that best explained variation in calf recruitment included total disturbance and deciduous forest area, both showing the expected negative relationship with calf recruitment. Other landscape variables among the models with ΔAICc < 2 were mixed forest, also with a suggested negative relationship, and barrens and wetlands with a significant positive trend. This study highlights the need to minimize total disturbance footprint and account for resulting changes in forest composition within CPCRs during land use planning. Expanding forestry operations and road infrastructure in critical woodland caribou habitat across Canada may additionally contribute to habitat loss via fragmentation. This in turn, may lead to range recession beyond the initial local avoidance footprint. We see the possibility of using calf recruitment models based on landscape parameters, among others, to predict the impact of new industrial developments on calf recruitment.

  19. Excretion of Antibiotic Resistance Genes by Dairy Calves Fed Milk Replacers with Varying Doses of Antibiotics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thames, Callie H.; Pruden, Amy; James, Robert E.; Ray, Partha P.; Knowlton, Katharine F.

    2012-01-01

    Elevated levels of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) in soil and water have been linked to livestock farms and in some cases feed antibiotics may select for antibiotic resistant gut microbiota. The purpose of this study was to examine the establishment of ARGs in the feces of calves receiving milk replacer containing no antibiotics versus subtherapeutic or therapeutic doses of tetracycline and neomycin. The effect of antibiotics on calf health was also of interest. Twenty-eight male and female dairy calves were assigned to one of the three antibiotic treatment groups at birth and fecal samples were collected at weeks 6, 7 (prior to weaning), and 12 (5 weeks after weaning). ARGs corresponding to the tetracycline (tetC, tetG, tetO, tetW, and tetX), macrolide (ermB, ermF), and sulfonamide (sul1, sul2) classes of antibiotics along with the class I integron gene, intI1, were monitored by quantitative polymerase chain reaction as potential indicators of direct selection, co-selection, or horizontal gene transfer of ARGs. Surprisingly, there was no significant effect of antibiotic treatment on the absolute abundance (gene copies per gram wet manure) of any of the ARGs except ermF, which was lower in the antibiotic-treated calf manure, presumably because a significant portion of host bacterial cells carrying ermF were not resistant to tetracycline or neomycin. However, relative abundance (gene copies normalized to 16S rRNA genes) of tetO was higher in calves fed the highest dose of antibiotic than in the other treatments. All genes, except tetC and intI1, were detectable in feces from 6 weeks onward, and tetW and tetG significantly increased (P calves. Overall, the results provide new insight into the colonization of calf gut flora with ARGs in the early weeks. Although feed antibiotics exerted little effect on the ARGs monitored in this study, the fact that they also provided no health benefit suggests that the greater than conventional nutritional intake applied

  20. Antioxidant status in oral subchronic toxicity of fipronil and fluoride co-exposure in buffalo calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, Kamalpreet Kaur; Dumka, Vinod Kumar

    2016-02-01

    The effects of fipronil and fluoride co-exposure were investigated on antioxidant status of buffalo calves. A total of 24 healthy male buffalo calves divided into 4 groups were treated for 98 consecutive days. Group I, receiving no treatment, served as the control. Animals of groups II and III were orally administered with fipronil at the dosage of 0.5 mg/kg/day and sodium fluoride (NaF) at the dosage of 6.67 mg/kg/day, respectively, for 98 days. Group IV was coadministered with fipronil and NaF at the same dosages as groups II and III. Administration of fipronil alone produced significant elevation in lipid peroxidation (LPO) and decrease in the levels of nonenzymatic antioxidant glutathione (GSH). However, it did not produce any significant effect on the activities of enzymatic antioxidants including glutathione peroxidase (GPx), catalase (CAT), and superoxide dismutase (SOD). NaF exposure led to enhanced oxidative stress as shown by significant increase in the LPO and SOD activities while GPx and CAT activities and GSH levels were significantly decreased. Co-exposure to fipronil and NaF showed additive effects on LPO, GPx activity, and GSH levels. © The Author(s) 2013.

  1. Anthelmintic resistance impact on tropical beef cattle productivity: effect on weight gain of weaned calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borges, Fernando A; Almeida, Gabriel D; Heckler, Rafael P; Lemes, Raul T; Onizuka, Marcel K V; Borges, Dyego G L

    2013-03-01

    The performance of grazing cattle in tropical areas is deeply influenced by parasitism, and the increasing reports of resistance are a threat to effective nematode control. The present study aimed to evaluate the effect of avermectins on the performance of weaned calves naturally infected by ivermectin-resistant gastrointestinal nematodes. The effect of four commercial endectocides (ivermectin 2.25 % + abamectin 1.25 %, ivermectin 3.15 %, doramectin 3.15 %, and doramectin 1 %) on parasitism and performance of a hundred weaned Nellore calves were evaluated during 112 days. The most effective anthelmintic showed efficacy of 84 % and resulted in an increase (P < 0.05) of live weight gain of 11.85 kg, compared to untreated group, 9.05 and 9.41 kg compared to those treated with more ineffective avermectins which showed efficacy of 0 and 48.2 %, respectively. A significant (P < 0.05) and weak negative correlation (r = -0.22) between the eggs per gram (EPG) and body weight was observed, indicating that even the low mean EPG (175 ± 150) observed at day 0 in the control group, with predominance of Haemonchus sp., was responsible for production losses. These results indicate that control of nematode parasites in beef cattle in the weaning phase may not result in increased productivity when carried out without technical criteria.

  2. Influence of housing conditions and calving distance on blood metabolites in water buffalo cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Napolitano

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate whether housing conditions allowing the animals to lie in the mud and performmore physical exercise can negatively affect reserve mobilization and milk production. In addition, the effect of calvingdistance on blood metabolites was assessed. The experiment was conducted on twenty-eight lactating buffalo cows,equally allocated to two treatments. Fourteen cows were group-housed in a loose open-sided barn with a concrete floorand equipped with self-locking stanchions, where they received 10 m2/head of space allowance, as in intensive systems(Group IS. Fourteen others were group-housed in a similar barn but they also had the benefit of an outdoor yard with500 m2/head as space allowance, including spontaneous vegetation and potholes for bathing and wallowing, as in traditionalsystems (Group TS. Animals were included in the experimental groups 5 days after calving. Daily milk yield, andmilk fat, protein and somatic cell content were determined 4 weeks after grouping (about 35 days after calving and thenat monthly intervals (5 recordings. Blood samples were collected from the jugular vein in vacuum tubes 10 days aftergrouping (i.e. 15 days after calving and then at 10 day intervals (17 collections. After centrifugation, plasma and serumaliquots were frozen stored until metabolite determinations (glucose, cholesterol, triglycerides, NEFA, urea, creatinine,albumins, total proteins, calcium, phosphorus, bilirubin, alkaline phosphatase, aspartate aminotransferase, alanineaminotransferase, lactate dehydrogenase and γglutamyl transferase. Treatment did not affect daily milk yield and milkfat, protein or somatic cell count content. Blood metabolite levels were not affected by treatment and interaction treatmentx time. Conversely, as expected, calving distance had an influence on most of these variables (Pparticular, in the first two months after parturition, glucose concentration decreased, whereas NEFA and

  3. Field testing of a fenbendazole treatment combined with hygienic and management measures against a natural Giardia infection in calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geurden, Thomas; Vercruysse, Jozef; Claerebout, Edwin

    2006-12-20

    The need of a combination of animal treatment and environmental measures against a natural Giardia infection in calves between the age of 1 and 6 months was emphasized and evaluated. Ten commercial farms with a total of 94 calves suffering from chronic diarrhea, ill thriving and impaired growth, were included in two subsequent studies. The first study indicated that treatment of all animals with fenbendazole at 15 mg/kg during 3 consecutive days combined with environmental measures on the final day of treatment, which were either removal of bedding, thorough cleaning and ammonia 10% disinfection or relocation of the treated animals to a Giardia free environment, resulted in a total reduction in cyst excretion for at least 2 weeks. In the second study, the immunofluorescence assay (Merifluor Cryptosporidium/Giardia; Meridian Diagnostics Inc., Cincinnati, Ohio) was used quantitatively and confirmed that the combination of treatment and environmental measures resulted in a total reduction of cyst excretion during 2 weeks and in a significant (Por=98.0%) reduction of the cyst excretion until at least 4 weeks after treatment. Furthermore, there was a noticeable improvement of the clinical symptoms in all animals towards day 28 after treatment and 4 months after treatment health in all calves was normal.

  4. Clinical mastitis from calving to next conception negatively affected ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of clinical mastitis between calving and next conception on reproductive performance in Chinese Holstein cows. Six hundred and three multiparous Holstein cows from a commercial dairy farm were divided into three groups respectively: cows with first clinical mastitis ...

  5. Aerosol challenge of calves with Haemophilus somnus and Mycoplasma dispar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tegtmeier, C.; Angen, Øystein; Grell, S.N.

    2000-01-01

    The aim of the study was to examine the ability of Haemophilus somnus and Mycoplasma dispar to induce pneumonia in healthy calves under conditions closely resembling the supposed natural way of infection, viz, by inhalation of aerosol droplets containing the microorganisms. The infections were...

  6. The digestion of yeast cell wall polysaccharides in veal calves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gaillard, B.D.E.; Weerden, van E.J.

    1976-01-01

    1. The digestibility of the cell wall polysaccharides of an alkane-grown yeast in different parts of the digestive tract of two veal calves fitted with re-entrant cannulas at the end of the ileum was studied by replacing part of the skim-milk powder of their ‘normal’, milk-substitute

  7. Recent estimates of energy utilization by young dairy calves ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Recent estimates of energy utilization by young dairy calves. P.T.C. Johnson. Abstract. No Abstract. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's ...

  8. CLOSTAT alters the serum metabolome of Holstein Steer Calves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Probiotics are gaining increased interest in calf feeding operations as some producers seek novel, non-antibiotic technologies to improve health and performance. Therefore, the objective of this study was to evaluate changes in serum metabolomic compounds of Holstein steer calves supplemented with C...

  9. Characterization of bifidobacteria suitable for probiotic use in calves

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bunešová, V.; Domig, K. J.; Killer, Jiří; Vlková, E.; Kopečný, Jan; Mrázek, Jakub; Ročková, Š.; Rada, V.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 18, č. 1 (2012), 166-168 ISSN 1075-9964 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA523/08/1091; GA ČR GD525/08/H060 Institutional support: RVO:67985904 Keywords : Bifidobacteria * Identification * calves Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 2.022, year: 2012

  10. The immunological response of RB51 vaccinated buffalo calves ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Immune status of RB51 vaccinated buffaloes was evaluated using tube agglutination test (TAT) and ELISA, using both periplasmic protein antigen (PPA) and lipopolysaccharide antigen (LPS). For this purpose, three groups of buffalo calves were used. The first one received S19 vaccine subcutaneously; the second was ...

  11. Performance and physiological responses of milk-fed calves to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    CCB) on calf performance and some blood parameters. Sixteen female Holstein calves with a mean age of 3 ± 1 d were divided into two equal groups and fed a milk replacer supplemented with 3 g of coated calcium butyrate (CCB)/day or with no ...

  12. Biological evaluation of mechanical circulatory support systems in calves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rakhorst, G; VanDerMeer, J; Kik, C; Mihaylov, D; Havlik, P; Trinkl, J; Monties, [No Value

    Data from animal experiments with mechanical circulatory support systems (MCSS) performed in Groningen and Marseille over the past years were used to obtain normal values of hematological, coagulation, rheological and blood chemistry parameters in calves. These parameters were divided between two

  13. Consequences of Selection for Yield Traits on Calving Ease Performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lopez de Maturana, E.; Ugarte, E.; Komen, J.; Arendonk, van J.A.M.

    2007-01-01

    The impact of different breeding goals on the genetic response for calving ease (CE) and yield traits was studied in the Basque Holstein cattle population. The economic value for CE was estimated with a bioeconomic model, using Basque production and market circumstances and taking into account the

  14. Calving interval genetic parameters and trends for dairy breeds in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Calving interval (CI) is a fertility trait that can be used in selection programmes to minimize the negative effects that selection for production have on fertility. CI can be derived from milk recording data, therefore this fertility trait can easily be implemented in the National Dairy Genetic Evaluations of South Africa. The aim of this ...

  15. Genetic relationships between calving interval and linear type traits in

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Genetic correlations between first calving interval (CI) and linear type traits in South African Holstein and Jersey cattle were estimated to assess the possibility of using type information as selection criteria for CI. All linear type traits routinely evaluated under the National Genetic Evaluation Programme (18 for Jersey and 17 ...

  16. Natural markings and their use in determining calving intervals in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1987-10-06

    Oct 6, 1987 ... Since 1979, 245 right whales (excluding calves) have been individually identified in aerial ... From a simple model it is shown that .... were exposed, and notes taken of associated information .... predominantly male, or that their female component is ... In order to compare the incidence of partial albinism.

  17. A note on the early calving of beef heifers

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    and weaning mass (156,3 versus 174,4) of the progeny produced by the two groups ... production in the early calving group due to reduced udder development. ..... adipose tissue is different to that of a lean heifer and that this storage adipose ...

  18. Host differences in response to trickle infection with Fasciola gigantica in buffalo, Ongole and Bali calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiedosari, E; Hayakawa, H; Copeman, B

    2006-01-01

    Progressive weight gain, faecal egg counts, packed cell volume, percent eosinophils in blood, serum antibody and serum levels of glutamate dehydrogenase and gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase were recorded in seven swamp buffalo (Bubalis bubalis), 7 Ongole (Bos indicus) and four Bali calves (Bos sundiacus) which were infected orally with 15 metacercariae of Fasciola gigantica twice weekly for 32 weeks. Similar observations were made on four buffalo, 4 Ongole calves and 3 Bali calves maintained fluke-free as controls. Flukes were counted at slaughter 36 weeks after initial infection. Mean daily weight gains of infected Bali (228 +/- 100 (SD) g/day) and infected Ongole calves (328 +/- 57 (SD) g/day) were lower (p = 0.026 and 0.067, respectively) than those of control calves (405 +/- 107 (SD) g/day), but infected buffalo calves (379 +/- 78 (SD) g/day) had similar weight gains to those of the controls (p = 0.57). Throughout the trial, faecal Fasciola egg counts in buffaloes were about one-fifth of counts of Ongole calves, and counts in Bali calves were intermediate. Ongole calves had three times the number of flukes at slaughter in their liver compared to buffalo and Bali calves, which had similar numbers. However, there was evidence that Bali calves had acquired a degree of resistance about 24 weeks after infection commenced and may have lost adult flukes as a consequence.

  19. Growth Performances of Female and Male Holstein Calves Fed Milk and Milk Replacers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tahir BAYRIL

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to compare growth performances of male and female Holstein calves fed milk and milk replacers. A total of 60 Holstein calves were used in the study. Calves were divided into three equal groups. In each group, there were 10 female and 10 male calves. Calves were offered colostrum for 3 days after birth and were weighed at fourth day for the trial. Initial body weights of calves in dietary treatments were statistically similar. The first, second and third groups were fed milk, milk replacer-I (CP 21% and CF 16.5% and milk replacer-II (CP 24% and CF 18%, respectively. In addition to milk and milk replacers, calves were supplemented with ad libitum concentrate feed and alfalfa. Dietary treatment was significantly effective (P<0.05 on body weight of calves at 60 days of age. In conclusion, growth performances of calves increased with increasing protein content of milk replacer had better than those of calves fed milk replacer containing low-protein. Therefore, during the suckling period, in feeding of Holstein calves, milk or milk replacer containing high-protein should be preferred primarily.

  20. Prospective study on quantitative and qualitative antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory drug use in white veal calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pardon, Bart; Catry, Boudewijn; Dewulf, Jeroen; Persoons, Davy; Hostens, Miel; De Bleecker, Koen; Deprez, Piet

    2012-04-01

    To document and quantify drug use in white veal calves, an intensive livestock production system where multidrug resistance is abundantly present. Drug consumption data were prospectively collected on 15 white veal production cohorts (n = 5853 calves) in Belgium (2007-09). Treatment incidences (TIs) based on animal defined daily dose (ADD), prescribed daily dose (PDD) and used daily dose (UDD) were calculated. Risk factors were identified by linear regression. The average TI(ADD) of antimicrobial treatments was 416.8 ADD per 1000 animals at risk. Predominantly, oral group antimicrobial treatments were used (95.8%). Of the oral group antimicrobial treatments, 12% and 88% were used for prophylactic or metaphylactic indications, respectively. The main indication for group and individual drug use was respiratory disease. The most frequently used antimicrobials (group treatments) were oxytetracycline (23.7%), amoxicillin (18.5%), tylosin (17.2%) and colistin (15.2%). Deviations from the leaflet dosage recommendations were frequently encountered, with 43.7% of the group treatments underdosed (often oxytetracycline and tylosin to treat dysbacteriosis). In 33.3% of the oral antimicrobial group treatments a combination of two antimicrobial preparations was used. Smaller integrations used more antimicrobials in group treatments than larger ones (P < 0.05); an integration is defined as a company that combines all steps of the production chain by having its own feed plant and slaughterhouse and by placing its calves in veal herds owned by producers that fatten these calves for this integration on contract. Producers used higher dosages than prescribed by the veterinarian in cohorts with a single caretaker (P < 0.01). The present study provided detailed information on the intensive antimicrobial use in the white veal industry. Reduction can only be achieved by reducing the number of oral group treatments.

  1. Veda e vermifugação como alternativas de manejo para desmama de bezerros Nelore em pastagem nativa do Pantanal Alternative management for weaned nelore calves in the Pantanal's native pastures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JOSÉ ROBSON BEZERRA SERENO

    2000-10-01

    Full Text Available Entre março de 1992 e janeiro de 1993 realizou-se este estudo com o objetivo de avaliar o efeito integrado da veda do pasto nativo com o controle estratégico de nematóides gastrintestinais no desempenho corporal de bezerros Nelore pós-desmame no Pantanal da Nhecolândia, MS, Brasil. Dois lotes de animais recém-desmamados aos nove meses foram colocados em invernadas contíguas de pastagens nativas com as mesmas características fisionômicas, que foram vedadas por três meses e meio; a invernada do lote controle foi previamente pastejada por vacas com bezerro ao pé para contaminação. O lote tratado permaneceu com níveis muito baixos de ovos por grama de fezes durante todo o período experimental, e no lote controle foram diminuindo no decorrer do ensaio, terminando semelhantes. No desenvolvimento corporal, observou-se menor perda de peso do lote tratado durante a estação seca e ganho de peso compensatório do lote controle na estação chuvosa subseqüente. Os pesos médios dos dois lotes no final do experimento foram semelhantes.The aim of this study was to investigate the integrated effects of native pastures sealing with strategic control of gastrointestinal nematodes on body development of weaned Nellore calves, studied between March 1992 and January 1993 in the Pantanal region, Brazil. Two homogeneous groups of weanling calves were put on contiguous paddocks of native pastures with the same physiognomic characteristics and sealed for three and a half months. The paddock where the non-treated group was put, was previously used by cows that were rearing a calf for contamination of the pasture. The treated group remained with low levels of eggs per gram of feces (EGF during the whole experimental period. In the non-treated group, the EGF diminished during the assay, ending with similar levels of the treated group. On body development, it was observed a lower body weight loss of the treated group during the dry season and a

  2. Assessment of serum selenium levels in 2-month-old sucking calves using total reflection technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernardini, D.; Testoni, S.; Buoso, M.C.; Ceccato, D.; Moschini, G.; Valdes, M.; Torboli, A.

    2000-01-01

    The assessment of selenium status of livestock is an important aspect of production medicine as evidence for the influence of low Se levels on disease resistance in ruminants is reviewed with emphasis on susceptibility to various pathologies (such as infections, exudative diathesis, pneumonia, pancreatic degeneration). Additional evidence suggests that Se deficiency may cause muscular dystrophy in calves, while, severe deficiency has been associated with cardiomyopathy and even death. Serum Se content is a good indicator of the short term Se status and reflects the recent dietary intake of the element. Since serum Se content is a good indicator of the short term status of the element and reflects the its recent dietary intake, the present work is aimed to determine Se concentration in serum from a group of 2 months old sucking calves suspected to be severely deficient. We used the TX 2000 X-ray spectrometer manufactured by Ital Structures. The energy resolution (FWHM) of the Si(Li) detector was 137 eV for Mn Kα. Among nuclear techniques the TXRF method is the best suitable for trace element analysis in liquid or dissolved samples and can deal much easier with elemental investigation. Physical basis of used analytical method, experimental set up and the sample preparation procedure are described. The concentration data obtained are presented and discussed. (author)

  3. OPTIMIZATION OF AGE AT FIRST CALVING IN KARAN FRIES CATTLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.K.Panja

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Data on 571 Karan Fries (crossing Tharparkar and Sahiwal cows with American Holstein Friesian sires at NDRI, Karnal was studied for determination of optimum age at first calving (AFC. Least squares analysis (Harvey, 1975 was used to see the effect of sire, period and season of calving and was corrected for significant effect of non-genetic factors. The genetic and phenotypic parameters was estimated for the sires which had five or more progenies. The relationship between age at first calving with other traits were studied by using regression analysis and class interval method. The least squaqres means of age at first calving (AFC, first lactation 305 days or less milk yield (FL305Y, first lactation total milk yield (FLTMY, milk yield per day of first lactation length (MY/FLL and milk yield per day of first calving interval (MY/FCI was estimated as 940.98 ± 44.24 days, 3199+ 44.24 kgs, 3599.06 ± 54.96 kgs, 10.50 ± 0.14 kgs and 7.52 ± 0.26 kgs , respectively. The heritability estimates of these traits were moderate. The AFC had significant and positive phenotypic correlation with FL305Y, FLTMY, MY/FLL and MY/FCI. The genetic correlation of AFC with FLTMY was positive. Relationship between AFC and first lactation production traits could not be explained through regression analysis therefore class interval method was used to find at the relationship. Eight classes of AFC was used to find out the relationship. Optimum AFC was identified based on higher milk production and numbers of animals in various classes as 26-36 months. To determine the optimum range of AFC, much emphasis should be given as maximum profit rather than maximizing milk production.

  4. Effect of adding herbs (Ziziphora clinopodioides, Mentha spicata and Mentha pulegium in milk on performance, blood metabolites and fecal microbial population on Holstein calves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    narges ghahhari

    2016-08-01

    chemical composition of plants used for food such as dry matter, crude protein and ether extracts, from conventional laboratory methods AOAC (2005 were used. sixteen Holstein calves with mean of 42.18± 0.71 Kg birth weight, aged 5± 3 day allocated to treats: 1 control (milk without additive, 2 milk contains powder Ziziphora clinipodioides, 3 milk contains powder Mentha spicata, 4 milk contains powder Mentha pulegium. The herbs added to milk in each treatment was 20 g daily. Duration the experimental period was 25 days. Dry matter intake, water intake and fecal score measured daily. Body weight monitored every 5 days, and blood sampling conducted twice, once one day before the start of the period (day zero and once final day. Samples for culture prepared in three phases beginning, middle and end of the period. Results and Discussion The major component in Ziziphora clinopodioies was pulegone (38.34%, major component in Mentha spicata and Mentha pulegium was carvone (61.93% and piperitone oxide (43.09%, respectively. The dry matter of three plant, Ziziphora clinopodioies, Mentha spicata and Mentha pulegium were 92.70, 93.25 and 94.01, crude protein were 8.57, 20.47 and 17.32, and also ether extracts were 3.20, 2.15 and 2.50 percent, respectively. Based on the obtained results, adding of Mentha pulegium to milk reduces dry matter intake during starter period and total dry matter intake in treatment Ziziphora clinopodioides was significantly higher than treatment control. Calves treated with Ziziphora clinopodioides, Mentha pulegium and Mentha spicata consumed statistically more water than control group. Dry matter digestibility significantly decreased in treatments Ziziphora clinopodioides and Menthe spicata compared to control. Daily gain, feed conversion ratio, blood parameter and immune respones were not affected by treatment trials. There were no significant differences between treatments for fecal score and day of diarrhea. Ziziphora clinopodioies, Mentha spicata and

  5. Effects of Topical Anaesthetic and Buccal Meloxicam Treatments on Concurrent Castration and Dehorning of Beef Calves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominique Van der Saag

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The use of pain relief during castration and dehorning of calves on commercial beef operations can be limited by constraints associated with the delivery of analgesic agents. As topical anaesthetic (TA and buccal meloxicam (MEL are now available in Australia, offering practical analgesic treatments for concurrent castration and dehorning of beef calves, a study was conducted to determine their efficacy in providing pain relief when applied separately or in combination. Weaner calves were randomly allocated to; (1 no castration and dehorning/positive control (CONP; (2 castration and dehorning/negative control (CONN; (3 castration and dehorning with buccal meloxicam (BM; (4 castration and dehorning with topical anaesthetic (TA; and (5 castration and dehorning with buccal meloxicam and topical anaesthetic (BMTA. Weight gain, paddock utilisation, lying activity and individual behaviours following treatment were measured. CONP and BMTA calves had significantly greater weight gain than CONN calves (p < 0.001. CONN calves spent less time lying compared to BMTA calves on all days (p < 0.001. All dehorned and castrated calves spent more time walking (p = 0.024 and less time eating (p < 0.001 compared to CONP calves. There was a trend for CONP calves to spend the most time standing and CONN calves to spend the least time standing (p = 0.059. There were also trends for the frequency of head turns to be lowest in CONP and BMTA calves (p = 0.098 and tail flicks to be highest in CONN and BM calves (p = 0.061. The findings of this study suggest that TA and MEL can potentially improve welfare and production of calves following surgical castration and amputation dehorning.

  6. Effects of different levels of sunflower residue silage replacement with alfalfa hay on Azari male buffalo calves fattening performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Razzagzadeh

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was conducted to study the effects of replacing alfalfa hay with different levels of sunflower residual silage (SRS on fattening performance of Azari male buffalo calves. Thirty calves with 138.33 Kg of BW fed experimental diets in a completely randomized design with 5 groups and 6 replicates. The five groups (1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 included 0 (control, 25, 50, 75 and 100 percent replacement of alfalfa hay with SRS, respectively in basal diet. The results showed that dry matter intake (DMI was significantly different between the groups (p<0.05. The highest and the lowest DMI were shown at the groups 1 and 5, respectively, however there was no significant difference between the groups 2, 3, and 4 with control. Daily weight gain (DWG was significantly different between the groups (p<0.05. Group 5 had significantly lower DWG than groups 1, 2 and 3, furthermore there were no significant difference between groups 1, 2, 3 and 4. Feed conversion ratio (FCR was significantly different among the groups (p<0.05. There was no significant difference among the groups 1, 2, 3 and 4. But these groups had significantly better FCR than the group 5. The best FCR was obtained for group3. It may conclude that alfalfa hay can be substituted with SRS at 50 % level with no negative effects on Azari male buffalo calves fattening performance.

  7. Circulating immune cell subpopulations in pestivirus persistently infected calves and non-infected calves varying in immune status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Circulating immune cell subpopulations in cattle representing varying stages of immune status categorized as; colostrum deprived (CD), receiving colostrum (COL), colostrum plus vaccination (VAC) and persistently infected with a pestivirus (PI) were compared. The PI calves were infected with a HoBi-...

  8. Circulating immune cell subpopulations in pestivirus persistently infected calves and non-infected calves varying in immune status [Abstract

    Science.gov (United States)

    The circulating immune cell subpopulations in cattle representing varying stages of immune status categorized as; colostrum deprived (CD), receiving colostrum (COL), colostrum plus vaccination (VAC) and persistently infected with a pestivirus (PI) were compared. The PI calves were infected with a H...

  9. Short communication: Effects of processing methods of barley grain in starter diets on feed intake and performance of dairy calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarrah, A; Ghorbani, G R; Rezamand, P; Khorvash, M

    2013-01-01

    The present study was conducted to evaluate the effects of different processing methods of barley grain in starter rations on feed intake, average daily gain, feed efficiency, skeletal growth, fecal score, and rumen pH of dairy calves. Thirty-two Holstein dairy calves (16 female and 16 male) were randomly allocated to 1 of 4 treatments consisting of coarse ground, whole, steam-rolled, or roasted barley from d 4 to 56 of birth in a completely randomized design. Starter diets were formulated to have similar ingredients and composition. All calves had free access to water and feed throughout the study period and received 4 L of milk/d from a bottle from d 4 to 41, 2L/d from d 41 to 45, and weaning occurred on d 45. Feed intake and fecal score were recorded daily. Body weight and skeletal growth measures were recorded on d 4 (beginning of the study), 45, and 56. Rumen fluid and blood samples were collected on d 35, 45, and 56. Data were analyzed using PROC MIXED of SAS (SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC). The results indicate that different methods of processing barley had no detectable effect on dry matter intake, average daily gain, and feed efficiency and that skeletal growth, health, and rumen pH were not affected by dietary treatments. In conclusion, the results show that different processing methods of barley included in starter diets had no detectable effect on the performance of dairy calves under our experimental conditions. Therefore, feeding whole or coarsely ground barley would be a more economical method compared with steam rolled or roasted barley. Copyright © 2013 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Comparative investigation on the efficacy of tulathromycin and florfenicol in the treatment of bronchopneumonia in feedlot calves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jezdimirović Milanka

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The clinical efficacy of tulathromycin (TU and florfenicol (FL in the treatment of bronchopneumonia (BP caused by Pasteurella multocida which was isolated from nose swabs of diseased calves has been examined. The symptoms of bronchopneumonia (BP were quantified by means of the clinical score (CS with a maximum of 47 points. In the current investigation the average CS in diseased calves was 23.5± 0.15. The clinical efficacy of TU and FL was assessed every day in the first week after the administration of the drugs and was based on the decrease in CS and on microbiological findings on days 7, 28 and 35 after the completion of therapy. Tulathromycin was administered s.c., in the prescribed therapeutic dose (2.5 mg/kg BW, and florfenicol s.c., twice at a 48 h interval, in its respective therapeutic dose (40 mg/kg BW. In spite of the repeated administration of FL, TU was significantly more rapid to decrease the major clinical symptoms in the first four days following the application, in comparison with FL (P<0.05. On the fourth day after the administration, the clinical efficacy of TU in the therapy of BP in calves was 43.4±1.5 %, and of florfenicol 27.2±1.6 %. However, five days after the application of TU and two days after the repeated application of FL the assessed clinical efficacy of the two antibiotics was roughly the same. The average efficacy of TU was 57.1±0.0%, and of florfenicol 58.5±0.0%, both the individual and mean CS in the treated calves was 10 points, due to hyperthermia, which remained the only symptom. Six days after the administration of TU and three days after the repeated application of FL both antibiotics had equal maximum efficacy (100% in the treatment of BP. The clinical efficacy remained unchanged on day seven. The recovery was confirmed by the absence of P. multocida in nose swabs sampled on the seventh day after the initial treatment. However, in 4 calves (21.05 % of the 19 treated Streptococcus alpha haemolyticus

  11. Age-dependent differences in cytokine and antibody responses after experimental RSV infection in a bovine model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grell, S.N.; Riber, Ulla; Tjørnehøj, Kirsten

    2005-01-01

    Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) causes severe respiratory disease in both infants and calves. As in humans, bovine RSV (BRSV) infections are most severe in the first 6 months of life. In this study, experimental infection with BRSV was performed in calves aged 1-5, 9-16 or 32-37 weeks. Compared...

  12. Studies on the digestibility of microbial cell protein in buffalo calves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verma, D.N.; Singh, U.B.

    1980-01-01

    The digestibility of cell wall, cell contents and mixed whole 35 S-rumen bacteria and 14 C-protozoal cells was determined in buffalo calves. The intact cells as well as their fractions were injected in a single dose into the rumen after treating with formaldehyde to protect degradation in the rumen and radioactivity excreted in the faeces was measured for six consecutive days. The indigestibility of mixed whole rumen bacteria, cell wall and cell contents was observed to be 87.13 +- 0.61, 92.77 +- 0.83 and 83.62 +- 1.10 percent, respectively. The digestibility coefficients of mixed whole rumen protozoa, cell wall, cell content and Holotrics were 90.95 +- 0.39, 94.39 +- 1.08, 89.01 +- 0.97 and 93.16 +- 0.69 percent, respectively. (auth.)

  13. Traditional behaviour and fidelity to caribou calving grounds by barren-ground caribou

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Gunn

    1986-06-01

    Full Text Available Evidence for the fidelity of female barren-ground caribou (Rangifer tarandus spp. of each herd to specific calving grounds is convincing. Involvement of learned behaviour in the annual return of those cows to the same calving grounds implies such actions are a form of «traditional» behaviour. Even wide variations in population size have not yet knowingly led to marked changes in size or location of calving grounds or prolonged abandonment of established ones. Rarely is the adoption of new calving grounds reported and emigration to another herd's calving ground or interchange between calving grounds has not yet been unequivocally documented. The calving experience of individual caribou and environmental pressures may modify the cow's use patterns of her calving grounds. The current definition of herds based on traditional calving grounds may require modification, if increasing caribou numbers result in changes in traditions. However, current data do not contradict either the fidelity to traditional calving grounds or the concept of herd identity based on that fidelity.

  14. VITAL SIGNS AND FIRST OCCURRENCES IN NORMAL AND ABNORMAL NEWBORN ASIAN ELEPHANT ( ELEPHAS MAXIMUS) CALVES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiedner, Ellen; Kiso, Wendy K; Aria, Janice; Isaza, Ramiro; Lindsay, William; Jacobson, Gary; Jacobson, Kathy; Schmitt, Dennis

    2017-12-01

    Sixteen years of medical records documenting 19 births within a herd of Asian elephants ( Elephas maximus) at a private facility in the southeastern United States were reviewed. Of the 19 calves, 11 were normal at birth, requiring no additional veterinary care, and eight were abnormal, requiring veterinary care immediately or within the first week of birth. Descriptive statistics were used to evaluate morphometrics, vital signs, and behavioral milestones in newborn calves both normal and abnormal. Blood work and urinalysis results from all calves were compared to values for adult elephants. Medical management of abnormal calves is described. All calves had faster heart rates and respiratory rates than did adult elephants, but rectal temperatures were the same. Calves were precocious with regard to sitting and standing but could be very slow to nurse. The most-common medical conditions of newborn calves were umbilical abnormalities and problems associated with nursing. Two calves required cardiopulmonary resuscitation after birth but made full recoveries. Some conditions were not apparent at birth but were recognized a few hours or days later. Following veterinary intervention, six of the eight calves made full recoveries, suggesting that early identification and treatment of problems can greatly decrease mortality. This is the first report of multiple veterinary and behavioral parameters in normal and abnormal neonatal Asian elephants from a facility with a calf survival rate above 90%. This information may be helpful to other elephant-holding facilities in providing care to their newborn elephant calves.

  15. Long-term follow-up of a patient cohort with Legg-Calvé-Perthes disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Froberg, Lonnie; Christensen, Finn; Pedersen, Niels W

    2011-01-01

    system were applied. A significant correlation between the Herring group and Stulberg was found (P=0.03). There was a significant correlation between age at onset of the disease and Stulberg outcome (P=0.05). The Herring classification correlated to the Stulberg outcome. An age of 7 years or more......The purpose of this study was to evaluate prognostic risk factors related to a poor radiological outcome. The study consisted of 74 patients with Legg-Calvé-Perthes disease treated using a Thomas splint. The modified Herring lateral pillar classification and the reviewed Stulberg classification...

  16. Systemic effects of zoledronic acid in children with traumatic femoral head avascular necrosis and Legg-Calve-Perthes disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johannesen, Jesper; Briody, Julie; McQuade, Mary

    2009-01-01

    Background: Intravenous bisphosphonate therapy is associated with preservation of femoral head sphericity and congruence in 77% of children with traumatic avascular necrosis. The aim was to describe the systemic effects of intravenous zoledronic acid (ZA) on bone and mineral metabolism in otherwise...... normal children and adolescents with femoral head AVN. Material and methods: 37 children (age 10.8+/-2.76 years) diagnosed with avascular necrosis AVN (Slipped Capital Femoral Epiphysis (SCFE), N=20 or Legg-Calve-Perthes disease (LCPD), N=17) were treated with at least 12 months of ZA. Bone mineral...

  17. Neonatal morbidity and mortality of 31 calves derived from somatic cloning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brisville, A-C; Fecteau, G; Boysen, S; Desrochers, A; Dorval, P; Buczinski, S; Lefebvre, R; Hélie, P; Blondin, P; Smith, L C

    2013-01-01

    The neonatal period is associated with high morbidity and mortality in cloned calves. To describe morbidity and mortality in cloned calves from birth to 2 years of age. Thirty-one somatic cell-derived Holstein calves delivered at a veterinary teaching hospital. Medical files were retrospectively analyzed. Four calves were stillborn. Five calves born alive had physical congenital defects. Twenty-three calves had an enlarged umbilical cord. Laboratory abnormalities included acidemia, respiratory acidosis, hyperlactatemia, anemia, stress leukogram, decreased total protein, albumin and globulins, and increased creatinine. Twenty-five calves survived the 1st hour of life. Among them, 11 stood without assistance within 6 hours of birth, 10 calves took longer than 6 hours to stand, and 4 never stood. Twenty-two calves suffered from anorexia. Twelve calves had complications arising from umbilical cord infections. Three calves developed idiopathic hyperthermia (>40°C). Eight calves suffered from gastrointestinal problems, including ruminal distension, abomasal ulcers, neonatal enteritis, intussusception, and abomasal displacement. Mortality between birth and 3 weeks of age was 32% (10/31). Causes of death and reasons for euthanasia included stillbirths, respiratory failure, and limb deformities. Mortality between 3 weeks and 2 years of age was 19% (4/21), with deaths in this group attributed to generalized peritonitis and complications arising from umbilical infections. Overall, mortality rate within 2 years of age was 14/31 (45%). Respiratory problems, limb deformities, and umbilical infections were the most common causes of morbidity and mortality in these cloned calves. Copyright © 2013 by the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  18. Effects of Processing of Starter Diets on Performance, Nutrient Digestibility, Rumen Biochemical Parameters and Body Measurements of Brown Swiss Dairy Calves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Ghassemi Nejad

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available In order to investigate the effect of physical forms of starter diets on performance, weaning age, nutrient digestibility and rumen biochemical factors, 24 female of neonatal Brown Swiss calves (average body weight of 39.5±1.2 kg were randomly assigned to three treatments. Dietary treatments were mashed (MS, pelleted (PS, and texturized (TS starter using 8 calves from birth till 90 days of age in each treatment. Diets were formulated to be iso-nitrogenous with 21% crude protein. Based on the experimental results, calves that received PS and TS diets, had significant higher average daily gain (ADG than those receiving MS (p0.05. Ruminal pH was higher (p<0.01 in MS than the other groups, but ruminal ammonia (g/dl concentration was not different among the treatments. Body measurements such as body length, pin width, hip width, pin to hip length, size of metacarpus and metatarsus bones, hip height, wither height, stomach size and heart girth were not significantly different among the treatments. Overall, it is concluded that starter diets in the form of pellet and texture can improve performance in neonatal Brown Swiss calves compared to the mashed form.

  19. Effect of Two Different Levels of Fiber on Feed Intake, Average Daily Gain, Feed Efficiency and Ruminal Metabolites of Holstein Calves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Salary Neya

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This experiment was conducted to determine the effect of feeding alfalfa hay and starter fiber level on feed intake and performance of Holstein dairy calves, using thirty two male calves in a completely randomized design assigned to four diets in a 2×2 factorial arrangement. The experimental treatments were as follow: T1: starter with low fiber and without alfalfa hay, T2: starter with low fiber along with alfalfa hay, T3: starter with high fiber and without alfalfa hay and T4: starter with high fiber along with alfalfa hay. Results showed feed intake was not significantly different in pre-weaning and throughout the study but after weaning there was significant difference among treatments. Average daily gain of calves was not significantly different during pre-weaning period but during post-weaning and throughout the study there was significant difference among treatments for this trait. Feed efficiency was not significantly different among treatments in pre-weaning and post-weaning periods but it was significantly different during throughout the study. The results of this experiment showed adding fiber to dairy calves ration through both starter concentrate and alfalfa hay may reduce their performance.

  20. Health benefits of orally administered anti-IL-10 antibody in milk-fed dairy calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raabis, S M; Ollivett, T L; Cook, M E; Sand, J M; McGuirk, S M

    2018-05-16

    The primary objective of this randomized controlled trial was to determine whether anti-IL-10 egg yolk antibodies fed upon arrival to a calf ranch would lower the prevalence of Cryptosporidium parvum shedding in naturally challenged preweaned dairy calves. The secondary objectives included measuring the effect of anti-IL-10 antibodies on calf health, performance, and shedding of less common diarrheal pathogens. A total of 133 calves, enrolled at 24 to 72 h of age, received a daily dose of 0.96 g of egg yolk powder with anti-IL-10 antibodies (MAB, n = 71) or without anti-IL-10 antibodies (MEP, n = 62) split between 2 feedings for the first 11 d on feed at a calf ranch. Daily health evaluations were completed for 15 d after arrival and on d 56. Digital weights were collected at enrollment and d 56, and hipometer weights were collected at enrollment and d 7 and 56. Packed cell volume and serum total protein concentration were measured at enrollment and on d 7 and 14. Fecal pH was measured at enrollment and on d 5 and 14, and fecal pathogen (C. parvum, coronavirus, rotavirus, and Salmonella spp.) shedding was assessed at d 5 and 14. Continuous outcomes were compared between groups using a Student's t-test or Wilcoxon rank sum test. Fecal pathogen shedding at d 14, respiratory disease at d 56, and antibiotic usage were compared using relative risk (RR) and chi-squared test. Fecal pH (median and interquartile range) on d 14 was 6.65 (6.39-6.99) and 6.52 (5.97-6.81) for MAB and MEP, respectively. On d 56, the risk of respiratory disease was lower for MAB compared with MEP (RR = 0.40; confidence interval = 0.16-0.99). The risk for antibiotic treatment was lower for MAB- compared with MEP-treated calves (RR = 0.38; confidence interval = 0.17-0.88). The risk of shedding rotavirus was higher in MAB (RR = 1.38; confidence interval = 1.10-1.81) calves. After multivariable analyses, hipometer weights (least squares means ± standard error) were 1.7 ± 0.8 kg greater on d 56 in

  1. A comparison of the effect of short-acting and long-acting cloxacillin-based dry-cow therapy on somatic cell counts after calving in cows also given internal teat sealants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitfield, L K; Laven, R A

    2018-01-01

    To compare, in cows treated with an internal teat sealant, the effect of short-acting and long-acting cloxacillin-based dry-cow therapy on somatic cell counts (SCC) after calving. Cows from a spring-calving, pasture-based dairy farm in the Manawatu-Whanganui region of New Zealand were randomly allocated to receive either a short-acting cloxacillin and ampicillin dry-cow therapy and internal teat sealant (n=291) or a long-acting cloxacillin and ampicillin dry-cow therapy and internal teat sealant (n=288) at the end of lactation. Cows were managed on-farm with routine husbandry procedures through the dry period and following calving. A multivariable logistic regression model was used to determine the association between length of action of dry-cow therapy and the proportion of cows with a SCC >150,000 cells/mL at the first herd test after calving. Age of cow, mean SCC for the preceding season and interval from calving to the first post-calving herd test were all associated with the proportion of cows with an individual SCC >150,000 cells/mL at the first herd test (pcow therapy was not associated with decreased odds of cows having a SCC >150,000 cells/mL at the first herd test compared with treatment with long-acting dry-cow therapy (OR=0.724; 95% CI=0.40-1.30). In this herd, which routinely used internal teat sealants, the use of short-acting cloxacillin-based dry-cow therapy did not result in an increased proportion of cows with elevated SSC post-calving. This was a single farm, single year study but indicates that in this herd, changing from a long-acting to a short-acting antimicrobial may have no impact on the prevalence of subclinical mastitis.

  2. The effect of group composition and age on social behaviour and competition in groups of weaned dairy calves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Færevik, G.; Jensen, Margit Bak; Bøe, K. E.

    2010-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to investigate how group composition affects behavior and weight gain of newly weaned dairy calves and how age within heterogeneous groups affects behavior and competition. Seventy-two calves were introduced into 6 groups of 12 calves, of which 3 groups were...... period of 14 d. Analysis of the effect of group composition on behavior and weight gain included young calves in heterogeneous groups and calves in homogeneous groups within the same age range at grouping (30 to 42 d). Irrespective of group composition, time spent feeding and lying increased, whereas...... time spent active decreased from d 1 to 7. In homogeneous groups, calves were more explorative on d 1 after grouping. Finally, calves in homogeneous groups had a higher average daily weight gain than calves in heterogeneous groups. Analysis of the effect of age included young and old calves...

  3. Is The Bovine Pedal Bone Sinking Around Calving?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bach, Kurt; Nielsen, Søren Saxmose; Capion, Nynne

    weeks. The correlation between “days from calving” and “thickness of the soft tissue” was 0.31 (Pearson’s, p...Introduction Softening of connective tissue of the claw suspensory apparatus around calving as described by Tarlton, et al. (2002) may lead to sinking of the bovine pedal bone resulting in compression of the digital cushion. The objective of this study was to describe changes in the thickness...

  4. Effects of hunger level and tube diameter on thefeeding behavior of teat-fed dairy calves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herskin, Mette S; Skjøth, Flemming; Jensen, Margit Bak

    2010-01-01

    Behavioral changes caused by variation in hunger have a great potential in health monitoring in dairy cattle. The present experiment used 48 Danish Holstein bull calves with a median age of 33 d. We examined the effect of different levels of hunger (reduced, in which calves were fed 1.5 L of milk...... via esophageal tube before feeding; increased, in which calves were fed half milk ration at the previous feeding, or control, in which calves were fed normal ration at the previous feeding) on feeding behavior of calves fed via different tube diameters (6.0, 3.0, or 1.5 mm). Behavior observed during...... levels. The present results show that only a rather high reduction in tube diameter led to reduced drinking rate. Neither reduced nor increased hunger levels led to changes in drinking rate, but calves showed reduced nonnutritive sucking and butting when they were less hungry and increased nonnutritive...

  5. Minimising the stress of weaning of beef calves: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ungerfeld Rodolfo

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Weaning of beef calves is usually done abruptly and early compared to the natural weaning of the species, and is associated with simultaneous exposure of calves to a range of social and environmental stressors. Behavioural and physiological responses to weaning indicate detrimental effects on the welfare of these animals. The development and assessment of weaning methods aiming at reducing or avoiding this problem must be supported by scientific knowledge of the morphological, physiological and psychological mechanisms involved in the establishment, maintenance and braking of the cow-calf bond. Solutions also depend on the understanding of the various stressors associated with weaning, among which are the change in diet, cessation of nursing, separation from the dam, the change to a new spatial environment and the need for social reorganization following removal of the adults from the group. This review discusses these issues and assesses the effectiveness of the methods so far proposed for improving the welfare of beef calves during the weaning period.

  6. Dermatophilosis in Nelore calves in Mato Grosso do Sul

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávia Barbieri Bacha

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to describe two outbreaks of dermatophilosis in Nelore calves in the State of Mato Grosso do Sul with epidemiological characteristics peculiar to the Midwest. Morbidity and mortality rates were 50% and 0.0025% in the outbreak 1, and 12.5% and 10% in the outbreak 2, respectively. Only Nelore calves aging between 5 and 60 days were affected. Most cases occurred on pastures of Brachiaria brizantha during the rainy season. In both outbreaks, the signs started with skin thickening followed by weeping and crusting around the eyes and muzzle. In more severe cases, lesions disseminated throughout the face and the body, evolving to generalized marked thickening of the skin and wrinkling. Histology of skin lesions showed suppurative dermatitis and hyperkeratosis. The diagnosis was confirmed by viewing basophilic filamentous structures morphologically consistent with Dermatophilus congolensis in Gram stained smears. The treatment with streptomycin, oxytetracycline or penicillin associated with streptomycin used in calves demonstrated to be effective. The disease has been misdiagnosed, by the farmers, with hepatic photosensitization caused by Brachiaria spp. ingestion. This article discusses these results with the aim to help in the correct diagnosis of dermatophilosis, which is important to achieve the adequate treatment and effective control measures to minimize the losses caused by this disease.

  7. Respiratory Support for Pharmacologically Induced Hypoxia in Neonatal Calves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. G. Donnelly

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Practical methods to provide respiratory support to bovine neonates in a field setting are poorly characterised. This study evaluated the response of healthy neonatal calves with pharmacologically induced respiratory suppression to nasal oxygen insufflation and to continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP delivered via an off-the-shelf device. Ten calves were randomised to receive either nasal oxygen insufflation (Group 1, n=5 or CPAP (Group 2, n=5 as a first treatment after induction of respiratory depression by intravenous administration of xylazine, fentanyl, and diazepam. Calves received the alternate treatment after 10 minutes of breathing ambient air. Arterial blood gas samples were obtained prior to sedation, following sedation, following the first and second treatment, and after breathing ambient air before and after the second treatment. Oxygen insufflation significantly increased arterial oxygen partial pressure (PaO2 but was also associated with significant hypercapnia. When used as the first treatment, CPAP was associated with significantly decreased arterial partial pressure of carbon dioxide but did not increase PaO2. These results suggest that the use of CPAP may represent a practical method for correction of hypercapnia associated with inadequate ventilation in a field setting, and further research is required to characterise the use of CPAP with increased inspired oxygen concentrations.

  8. Septicaemic listeriosis in reindeer calves – a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuomo Nyyssönen

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Listeria monocytogenes was isolated from 4 reindeer calves as a nearly pure growth from several internal organs, pointing to a septicaemic form of listeriosis. The calves were born in a calving corral. Silage feeding was considered the most probable source of the infection.Abstract in Finnish / Tiivistelmä:Listeria monocytogenes -bakteerin aiheuttama verenmyrkytys poronvasoilla – tapausselostus Toukokuussa 2005 Suomen poronhoitoalueen kaakkoisosassa sijaitsevassa vasotustarhassa kuoli neljä poronvasaa pian syntymän jälkeen 5-11 päivän ikäisinä. Kaikkien vasojen kuolinsyyksi todettiin Listeria monocytogenes -bakteerin aiheuttama verenmyrkytys. Tartunnan todennäköisin lähde oli vaatimien lisäruokinnassa käytetty säilörehu. Kyseessä on ensimmäinen poronvasoilla todettu Listeria monocytogenes -bakteerin aiheuttama verenmyrkytys Suomessa. Abstract in Norwegian / Sammendrag: Tilfelle av sjukdomsfremkallende Listeriabakterie i reinkalver Listeria monocytogenes ble isolert fra 4 reinkalver som en nesten ren vekst fra flere indre organer, noe som antyder en sykdomsfremkallende form av listeriose. Kalvene nedkom i en kalveinnhegning, og man antok at dårlig silofôr var smittekilden.

  9. Immunization of zebu calves against Fasciola gigantica, using irradiated metacercariae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Younis, S.A.; Yagi, A.I.; Haroun, E.M.; Gameel, A.A.; Taylor, M.G.

    1986-06-01

    The pathogenesis of unirradiated, 3 krad-irradiated and 20 krad-irradiated metacercarial infections was compared in zebu calves studied over 10 weeks. Calves exposed to 1000 unirradiated metacercariae (MC) became hypoalbuminaemic, and showed elevated serum concentrations of liver enzymes, whereas neither of the other groups was significantly affected. At slaughter, a mean of 332 flukes was recovered from the 0 krad group, while only 23% and 12% of this number were recovered from the 3 krad and 20 krad groups, respectively. All the worms recovered from the 20 krad group were stunted, but a mean of 13% of the flukes recovered from the 3 krad group were large. Liver lesions typical of acute fascioliasis were present in the 0 krad group, but lesions in the other groups, were far less severe. A single vaccination of calves with 10003 krad-irradiated mc induced partial resistance to a challenge with 1000 normal mc eight weeks later, but the reduction in worm recovery was not statistically significant. There was less evidence of protection when two vaccinating doses of 3 krad mc were given within four weeks, with challenge at week 8, and a single vaccination was ineffective against a challenge four weeks later. However, when the irradiation dose was increased to 20 krad, a high level of resistance was induced by a single vaccination, given eight weeks before challenge, and liver pathology was strikingly reduced in the vaccinated animals.

  10. Immunization of zebu calves against Fasciola gigantica, using irradiated metacercariae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Younis, S.A.; Yagi, A.I.; Haroun, E.M.; Gameel, A.A.; Taylor, M.G.

    1986-01-01

    The pathogenesis of unirradiated, 3 krad-irradiated and 20 krad-irradiated metacercarial infections was compared in zebu calves studied over 10 weeks. Calves exposed to 1000 unirradiated metacercariae (mc) became hypoalbuminaemic, and showed elevated serum concentrations of liver enzymes, whereas neither of the other groups was significantly affected. At slaughter, a mean of 332 flukes was recovered from the 0 krad group, while only 23% and 12% of this number were recovered from the 3 krad and 20 krad groups, respectively. All the worms recovered from the 20 krad group were stunted, but a mean of 13% of the flukes recovered from the 3 krad group were large. Liver lesions typical of acute fascioliasis were present in the 0 krad group, but lesions in the other groups, were far less severe. A single vaccination of calves with 10003 krad-irradiated mc induced partial resistance to a challenge with 1000 normal mc eight weeks later, but the reduction in worm recovery was not statistically significant. There was less evidence of protection when two vaccinating doses of 3 krad mc were given within four weeks, with challenge at week 8, and a single vaccination was ineffective against a challenge four weeks later. However, when the irradiation dose was increased to 20 krad, a high level of resistance was induced by a single vaccination, given eight weeks before challenge, and liver pathology was strikingly reduced in the vaccinated animals. (author)

  11. Feeding calves with hydrosoluble soybean extract. I. Performance and digestibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Novita Esteves

    1995-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this investigation was to study the total replacement of powder milk protein (SL for hydrosoluble soybean extract (EHS in feeding 5-day-old Holstein male calves. The experiment was carried out using 3 treatment throughout the period of milk intake (5 to 90 days of life. In treatment I, SL was supplied from the 5th to 90th day of life. In treatment II, SL was supplied until the 29th day, and, from the 30th to 90th day, EHS was supplied. In treatment III, EHS was supplied from the 5th day of life. After this period the calves were weaned and received the same hay and concentrate feed as in the milk intake period, up to 180 days. During the milk intake period, the animals of treatment II, showed in average lower food intake, decreased daily weight gain and poorer digestibility of nutrients than animals from treatment I (P<0.05. In the post-weaning period food intake and average daily gain were similar. Calves of treatment III lost weight throughout the experiment, showed very weak body condition and were sacrified.

  12. Intramyocardial oxygen transport by quantitative diffuse reflectance spectroscopy in calves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindbergh, Tobias; Larsson, Marcus; Szabó, Zoltán; Casimir-Ahn, Henrik; Strömberg, Tomas

    2010-03-01

    Intramyocardial oxygen transport was assessed during open-chest surgery in calves by diffuse reflectance spectroscopy using a small intramuscular fiber-optic probe. The sum of hemo- and myoglobin tissue fraction and oxygen saturation, the tissue fraction and oxidation of cytochrome aa3, and the tissue fraction of methemoglobin were estimated using a calibrated empirical light transport model. Increasing the oxygen content in the inhaled gas, 21%-50%-100%, in five calves (group A) gave an increasing oxygen saturation of 19+/-4%, 24+/-5%, and 28+/-8% (panimals increased with LVAD pump speed (p<0.001, ANOVA) and with oxygen content in inhaled gas (p<0.001, ANOVA). The cytochrome aa3 oxidation level was above 96% in both group A and group B calves, including the two cases involving cardiac arrest. In conclusion, the estimated tissue fractions and oxygenation/oxidation levels of the myocardial chromophores during respiratory and hemodynamic provocations were in agreement with previously presented results, demonstrating the potential of the method.

  13. Growth rates and morphological measurements of Porcupine caribou calves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine L. Parker

    1989-06-01

    Full Text Available Body weights, leg lengths, and surface area were monitored for bottle-raised barren-ground caribou calves (Rangifer tarandus granti from the Porcupine herd up to 1 year of age. Body weights were compared with maternally-raised calves from the same cohort in the wild and from the Delta herd. A successful feeding regime for bottle-raising caribou calves is presented.Veksthastigheter og morfologiske mål hos Porcupine karibu-kalver.Abstract in Norwegian / Sammendrag: Kroppsvekter, visse knokkel-lengder og kropps-overflate areal ble målt hos flaske-oppfødde kalver av barren-ground karibu (Rangifer tarandus granti fra Porcupine-stammen opp til 1 års alder. Kroppsvekter ble sammelignet med normalt oppfødde kalver av samme type i det fri og fra Delta-stam-men. Det presenteres et vellykket system for flaske-oppforing av karibu-kalver.Porcupine-lauman karibuvasojen kasvunopeus ja morfologiset mitat.Abstract in Finnish / Yhteenveto: Porcupine -lauman pulloruokinnalla olleiden tundrakaribuvasojen ruumiinpainot, jalanpituu-det ja ruumiin pinta-alat mitattiin 1 vuoden ikäään saakka. Ruumiinpainoja verrattiin vastaaviin luonnon-oloissa kasvaneisiin saman lauman ja Delta -lauman vasoihin. Tutkimus kuvaa toimivan vasojen pulloruo-kintamenetelmän.

  14. The effect of housing on calving behavior and calf vitality in Holstein and Jersey dairy cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Campler, Magnus Robert Bertil; Munksgaard, Lene; Jensen, Margit Bak

    2015-01-01

    The present study investigated how calving behavior and calf vitality in Holstein and Jersey dairy cows were affected by housing during the final 4 wk precalving. One hundred twenty-one cows (36 primiparous and 85 multiparous) were moved either to a group pen with deep straw bedding or into frees...... that a longer period of housing on deep-bedded straw compared with freestalls with mattresses before calving may facilitate the calving process, whereas the effect on calf vitality needs further investigation....

  15. The assessment of colostral immunity in dairy calves based on serum biochemical indicators and their relationships

    OpenAIRE

    Soňa Šlosárková; Petr Fleischer; Oldřich Pěnkava; Miloslav Skřivánek

    2014-01-01

    Passive transfer of immunity in dairy calves is routinely monitored in North America. This study analyzes such type of biochemistry monitoring in 591 calves (Holstein, Fleckvieh) from 19 large farms in the Czech Republic. All calves, aged 1–6 days, were blood sampled once. Serum concentrations of total protein, albumin, zinc sulphate turbidity units and γ-glutamyltransferase activity were analysed by photometry methods. The samples were divided according to concentrations of total protein and...

  16. Early pair housing increases solid feed intake and weight gains in dairy calves

    OpenAIRE

    Costa, J. H. C.; Meagher, R. K.; von Keyserlingk, M. A. G.; Weary, D. M.

    2015-01-01

    Dairy calves have traditionally been kept in individual pens throughout the milk-feeding period. Social rearing is associated with increased solid feed intake and hence higher weight gains before and after weaning. Little is known about the effect of the age at which social housing begins. The aim of this study was to assess the effects of early versus late pairing on feeding behavior and weight gain before and after weaning. Holstein bull calves were reared individually (n=8 calves), or pair...

  17. Experimental study of cerebrospinal fluid tumor necrosis factor-alpha release in penicillin- and cephalosporin-resistant pneumococcal meningitis treated with different antibiotic schedules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Vivas

    2017-08-01

    Conclusion: CSF TNF-α levels were significantly lower in rabbits treated with daptomycin than in rabbits treated with ceftriaxone. Daptomycin avoided the inflammatory peak after administration observed in ceftriaxone-treated rabbits. The use of daptomycin plus dexamethasone achieved a significantly larger reduction in CSF TNF-α levels.

  18. Effect of feeding processed sweet sorghum (Sorghum bicolour (L moench crushed residue based complete ration on growth performance and feeding behavior of murrah buffalo calves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Ramana Reddy

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The objective of the present study is to know the effect of feeding processed sweet sorghum (Sorghum bicolour (L moench crushed residue (SSCR based complete ration on growth, feeding behavior and cost of gain in Murrah buffalo calves in order to compare the feeding value of SSCR with sorghum straw (SS and also find out the efficient way of utilization of SSCR in the diets of growing buffalo calves. Materials and Methods: Experimental complete rations were formulated with SSCR and concentrate in 50:50 ratio and processed in to SSCR chopped and concentrate (SSCRC, mash (SSCRM and expander extruder pellets (SSCRP. The control ration was SS based complete feed processed in to mash (SSM. 24 Murrah buffalo calves (Average 137 kg body weight and aged 1 year 2 months were randomly distributed into 4 experimental groups of 6 animals each in a completely randomized design and the experimental rations were offered to 4 groups randomly for a period of 150 days. A 7 day digestion trial was conducted at the end of 150 day growth trial to find out the nutrient digestibility of experimental rations. Eating and ruminating activities were noted every 5 minutes, and each activity was assumed to persist for the entire 5 minutes. Sorting behavior in the calves was observed physically at the time of feeding. The cost of the rations was calculated on the basis of processing cost and the prevailing market prices of the feed ingredients. Results: The DM intake (g/d, digestibilities of DM, organic matter, crude protein and nitrogen free extract and nitrogen (N balance were higher (P<0.05 in buffalo calves fed SSCRP ration but, comparable among SSCRC, SSCRM and SSM rations. Higher (P<0.01 average daily gain (g, lower feed conversion ratio (FCR was observed in calves fed SSCRP ration, while comparable among SSCRC, SSCRM and SSM rations. Eating, rumination and total chewing time (minutes/d,minutes/kg DMI and minutes/kg NDFI and number of chews for eating, rumination

  19. Health and performance of calves with forestomach-bypass fed milk replacer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKinstry, D M; Cason, J L; Albert, T F; Sass, B

    1976-02-01

    Ten male Holstein calves were placed in groups of two calves each on similarity of age. On calf in each group was subjected to forestomach-bypass surgery at about 1 mo of age. Fortified commercial milk replacer with added minerals and vitamins was fed as the sole diet. The calves were housed indoors on slatted platforms. Weight gain was determined biweekly. Feed intake was determined daily. Necropsies were performed upon termination of the study. Recurrent ruminal bloat, fever, and anorexia of varying degrees and combinations occurred in four of the calves with forestomach bypass. Two of these calves showed slow weight gain. One of the four calves died following acute bloat while the other three calves were sacrificed following repeated episodes of bloat. The time of termination varied between 3 and 10 mo. One calf with forestomach bypass and all control calves appeared healthy throughout the experiment. Necropsies indicated that the ruminal bloat, seen in most of the forestomach-bypass calves, could be attributed to the back-flow of ingesta via the omasal-abomasal orifice. This ingesta appeared to produce gas which became trapped in the bypassed rumen.

  20. CEACAM18 as candidate for the Holstein calving QTL on BTA18

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mao, Xiaowei; Kadri, Naveen Kumar; de Koning, DirkJan

    . Phenotypes used were estimated breeding values (EBV) for six direct calving traits and one compound index trait. A SNP by SNP mixed model approach was first applied using HD genotypes. Haplotypes in the significant region were fitted in a mixed model. Finally, NGS variants in the significant region were...... utilized to precisely locate causative mutations. Results identified 21 QTL regions associated with one or more calving traits on 16 autosomes. These findings contribute to an improved understanding of the genetic architecture of the calving traits. They may help in improving calving performance in dairy...... breeding programs...

  1. Comparative study of obstructive urolithiasis and its sequelae in buffalo calves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasmin H. Bayoumi

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The present work was designed to study the incidence of obstructive urolithiasis and to apply comparative diagnosis to urine retention cases. Materials and Methods: A total of 78 non-castrated buffalo calves aging 3-11 months were included in this study, 68 calves were admitted to the Veterinary Teaching Hospital, Zagazig University, Egypt, during the study period with a history of anuria, and they were classified into three groups; intact bladder group (19 calves, uroperitoneum group (45 calves, and ruptured urethra group (4 calves. 10 apparently healthy calves were used for comparison. On the basis of history, clinical, laboratory, and ultrasonographic findings diagnosis was achieved. Results: There was a marked increase in the incidence of obstructive urolithiasis in winter season, especially in winter months of 2016. Calves within the age of 3-4 months and 6-8 months were mostly affected. Inappetence to anorexia, restlessness or depression, and abdominal distension were the most observed signs in the diseased calves. Laboratory findings revealed hemoconcentration and a significant increase in blood urea nitrogen and serum creatinine levels in all diseased groups. Hyperproteinemia, hypocalcemia, and hyperphosphatemia with electrolytes imbalance were recorded in the uroperitoneum group. Ultrasonographically, distended urinary bladder with distal acoustic enhancement revealed obstructive urolithiasis with intact bladder while anechoic fluid in abdominal cavity indicates uroperitoneum. Conclusion: On the basis of all findings, calves with intact bladder were in superior condition than those with a ruptured urethra and both were better than those with uroperitoneum.

  2. Facial symmetry evaluation after experimentally displaced condylar process fracture in methotrexate treated rats Avaliação da simetria facial após fratura experimental com desvio do processo condilar em ratos tratados com metotrexato

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samantha Cristine Santos Xisto Braga Cavalcanti

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To investigate the facial symmetry of high and low dose methotrexate (MTX treated rats submitted to experimentally displaced mandibular condyle fracture through the recording of cephalometric measurements. METHODS: One hundred male Wistar rats underwent surgery using an experimental model of right condylar fracture. Animals were divided into four groups: A - saline solution (1mL/week; B - dexamethasone (DEX (0,15mg/Kg; C - MTX low dose (3 mg/Kg/week; D - MTX high dose (30 mg/Kg. Animals were sacrificed at 1, 7, 15, 30 and 90 days postoperatively (n=5. Body weight was recorded. Specimens were submitted to axial radiographic incidence, and cephalometric mensurations were made using a computer system. Linear measurements of skull and mandible, as well as angular measurements of mandibular deviation were taken. Data were subjected to statistical analyses among the groups, periods of sacrifice and between the sides in each group (α=0.05. RESULTS: Animals regained body weight over time, except in group D. There was reduction in the mandibular length and also changes in the maxilla as well as progressive deviation in the mandible in relation to the skull basis in group D. CONCLUSION: Treatment with high dose methotrexate had deleterious effect on facial symmetry of rats submitted to experimentally displaced condylar process fracture.OBJETIVO: Avaliar a simetria facial de ratos tratados com metotrexato (MTX, em dose alta e baixa, submetidos à fratura experimental do processo condilar com desvio por meio de mensurações cefalométricas. MÉTODOS: Cem ratos Wistar machos foram submetidos a procedimento cirúrgico utilizando modelo experimental de fratura de côndilo do lado direito. Os animais foram distribuídos em quatro grupos: A - soro fisiológico (1mL/semana; B - dexametasona (DEX (0,15mg/Kg; C - MTX baixa dose (3mg/Kg/semana; D - MTX alta dose (30mg/Kg. Os períodos de sacrifício foram de 1, 7, 15, 30 e 90 dias de pós-operatório (n=5

  3. Theoretical and experimental analysis of amplitude control ablation and bipolar ablation in creating linear lesion and discrete lesions for treating atrial fibrillation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Shengjie; Wu, Xiaomei; Wang, Weiqi

    2017-09-01

    Radiofrequency (RF) energy is often used to create a linear lesion or discrete lesions for blocking the accessory conduction pathways for treating atrial fibrillation. By using finite element analysis, we study the ablation effect of amplitude control ablation mode (AcM) and bipolar ablation mode (BiM) in creating a linear lesion and discrete lesions in a 5-mm-thick atrial wall; particularly, the characteristic of lesion shape has been investigated in amplitude control ablation. Computer models of multipolar catheter were developed to study the lesion dimensions in atrial walls created through AcM, BiM and special electrodes activated ablation methods in AcM and BiM. To validate the theoretical results in this study, an in vitro experiment with porcine cardiac tissue was performed. At 40 V/20 V root mean squared (RMS) of the RF voltage for AcM, the continuous and transmural lesion was created by AcM-15s, AcM-5s and AcM-ad-20V ablation in 5-mm-thick atrial wall. At 20 V RMS for BiM, the continuous but not transmural lesion was created. AcM ablation yielded asymmetrical and discrete lesions shape, whereas the lesion shape turned to more symmetrical and continuous as the electrodes alternative activated period decreased from 15 s to 5 s. Two discrete lesions were created when using AcM, AcM-ad-40V, BiM-ad-20V and BiM-ad-40V. The experimental and computational thermal lesion shapes created in cardiac tissue were in agreement. Amplitude control ablation technology and bipolar ablation technology are feasible methods to create continuous lesion or discrete for pulmonary veins isolation.

  4. Effect of Hot Climatic Conditions With Different Types of Housing on Productive Efficiency and Physiological Changes in Buffalo Calves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Habeeb, A.A.M.; Gad, A.E.; El-Tarabany, A.A.

    2012-01-01

    The present study was planned to investigate the effect of housing types under both mild and hot periods of the year on twenty four buffalo calves aged 8-10 months with average body weight 156.8 kg. The study included two periods each was of 3 months. The first period was carried out during mild conditions while the second period was carried out during hot conditions. Averages of air temperature and relative humidity values at midday inside the farm building were 20.8 ± 1.0 degree C and 72.07 ± 2.1% under mild conditions and 35.93± 1.4 degree C and 58.23 ± 1.5 under the hot period, respectively. The estimated temperature-humidity index of values 20.23 and 33.17 during mild and hot conditions, respectively, indicated absence of heat stress during the first period and exposing the animals to very severe heat stress during the second period. The animals during the two experimental periods were fed the concentrate feed mixture according to body weight and daily gain with rice straw offered ad libitum. In each of the two studied periods, the animals were divided into two equal groups according to type of housing system. The animals in the first group (6 calves) were tied from their neck in stall barn in two rows tail to tail while the animals in the second group (6 calves) were left loose housing in the barn. The results showed that heat stress conditions of summer period induced significant decreases in daily body weight gain, total proteins, albumin, globulin, glucose, total lipids, total cholesterol, triglycerides, creatinine, sodium, potassium, calcium, inorganic phosphorus and GGT as well as T4 , T3 , parathormone hormonal levels. On the other hand, significant increase in respiration rate, temperatures of rectal and skin, urea, cortisol, GOT and GPT. Concerning the effect of housing type, there were significant differences in daily body gain of buffalo calves between free and tied through the first two months of experiment, so, daily body gain of buffalo

  5. Utilização da veia glicerolada na regeneração neural: Estudo experimental em ratos The use of glycerol-treated venous graft in damaged nerves repair: an experimental study in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armando dos Santos Cunha

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available A auto-enxertia de nervo é o tratamento de escolha para grandes perdas de tecido neural que não podem ser reparadas por meio de rafia primária. A utilização do enxerto venoso previamente conservado em glicerol seria uma alternativa para diminuir o tempo operatório e a morbidade cirúrgica nesses casos. Os vasos preservados em glicerol não apresentam destruição de sua estrutura, o que permite seu uso na microcirurgia vascular, tendo a vantagem de diminuir a imunogenicidade do enxerto. O objetivo deste trabalho experimental foi comparar o grau de reparação nervosa, utilizando análise histológica, contagem do número de axônios mielinizados regenerados e análise funcional, obtida com a interposição de enxerto autógeno (grupo A e de tubo de veia glicerolada (grupo B em defeitos de 5 mm no nervo fibular de ratos Wistar. Somente no grupo A foi observado a formação de neuroma. O grupo B apresentou padrões histológicos compatíveis com diminuição quantitativa do número de axônios mielinizados regenerados em menor número em relação ao grupo A (controle. Na recuperação funcional, não houve diferença estatisticamente significativa entre os dois grupos.Autografting is the treatment of choice for cases of major nervous tissue loss where the ruptured nerve ends cannot be reduced. The use of a venous autograft previously treated with glycerol may be an alternative treatment, as it reduces surgery time duration and level of morbidity. Blood vessel explants, used in vascular microsurgery, kept in glycerol maintain their original biological structure, and when used in autografting, present reduced levels of patient's immune response. The aim of this study was to compare the level of nervous tissue regeneration by using histological analysis, regenerated myelinized axons counts, and functional analysis, obtained with the interposition of autologous graft (group A and glycerol-treated vein tube (group B in 5-mm defects on Wistar

  6. Causes of Stillbirth and Time of Death in Swedish Holstein Calves Examined Post Mortem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elvander M

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available This study was initiated due to the observation of increasing and rather high levels of stillbirths, especially in first-calving Swedish Holstein cows (10.3%, 2002. Seventy-six Swedish Holstein calves born to heifers at 41 different farms were post mortem examined in order to investigate possible reasons for stillbirth and at what time in relation to full-term gestation they had occurred. The definition of a stillborn calf was dead at birth or within 24 h after birth after at least 260 days of gestation. Eight calves were considered as having died already in uterus. Slightly less than half of the examined calves (46.1% were classified as having died due to a difficult calving. Four calves (5.3% had different kinds of malformations (heart defects, enlarged thymus, urine bladder defect. Approximately one third of the calves (31.6% were clinically normal at full-term with no signs of malformation and born with no indication of difficulties at parturition or any other reason that could explain the stillbirth. The numbers of male and female calves were rather equally distributed within the groups. A wide variation in post mortem weights was seen in all groups, although a number of the calves in the group of clinically normal calves with unexplained reason of death were rather small and, compared with e.g. those calves categorised as having died due to a difficult calving, their average birth weight was 6 kg lower (39.9 ± 1.7 kg vs. 45.9 ± 1.5 kg, p ≤ 0.01. It was concluded that the cause of stillbirth with a non-infectious aetiology is likely to be multifactorial and difficult calving may explain only about half of the stillbirths. As much as one third of the calves seemed clinically normal with no obvious reason for death. This is a target group of calves that warrants a more thorough investigation in further studies.

  7. PREVALENCE OF PARASITIC INFECTION IN BUFFALO CALVES IN JKHADAGZAI, DISTRICT DIR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M, Azam. M. M, Siddiqui and G. Habib

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available Prevalence of ecto and endo-parasites of buffalo calves was investigated in 50 buffalo farms in Khadagzai area of district Dir. N.W.F.P. Province. Faecal examination of calves (n = 118: age ≤ 1 year revealed that 64.41% of the calves were positive for internal parasites. The worm load significantly varied (P<0.05 among the farms and was the highest (1600-3600 EPG in 2%, moderate (800-1600 EPG in 22%, low (200-800 EPG in 34% and negligible (less than 200 EPG in 42% farms. Among the calves examined 50.84% had the worm load of 200-800 EPG and 13.56% calves showed the worm load of 800-1600 EPG. , The highest worm load (1600-3600 EPG was observed only in 0.85% of the calves. Six species of nematodes and one specie of trematodes were identified. No cestode infection was encountered during the study. The incidence of Trichostrongylus species was 21.19% followed by Trichuris (9.32%. Haemonchus (8.47%, Strongyloides papillosus (5.93%, Ostertagia (5.08%. Toxocara vitulurum (1 .70%. Fasciola (5.93% and mixed infections (6.78%. Intestinal protozoan infection was recorded in 72% of the calves. Majority of the calves (85% had mixed infection of Coccidia and Amoeba and the remaining 15% calves were found infected with Coccidia only. A total of 5.93% of the calves studied were found positive for ecto-parasites. The prevalence of ticks, lice, mites and mixed infection was 5.08, 34.75, 11.86 and 4.24% respectively in the surveyed calves.

  8. Effects of plane of nutrition on growth, feed intake, digestibility and nitrogen balance in Murrah graded male buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) calves in Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumagai, Hajime; Baral, Bodh R; Shiino, Tatsu; Devkota, Naba R; Oishi, Kazato; Hirooka, Hiroyuki; Kolachhapati, Mana R; Tiwari, Ishwor C P

    2012-01-01

    An experiment was conducted using 17 male buffalo calves to assess the effects of plane of nutrition on dry matter intake (DMI), daily gain (DG), body size measurement, apparent digestibility and nitrogen (N) balance. To attain 250kg BW, the calves were allocated into three groups: H, L-H and L, receiving the concentrate at 1.50% of BW, 0.75% of BW until 190kg BW and 1.50% thereafter and 0.75% of BW, respectively. The animals had ad libitum access to urea-treated rice straw (UTRS). The DMI of UTRS through the experiment was higher in L and L-H than H, showing 3.52, 2.90 and 2.62kg/day, respectively (Pcalves in Nepal. © 2011 The Authors. Animal Science Journal © 2011 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  9. The Effect Feed Supplement of Medicated Block (SPMB) of the Daily Weight Gain on Cows after Calving

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suharyono; Andini, L.S; WT Sasongko

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of the experiment was to develop feed supplement for sustain ability of technology and improving the performance of cows after calving. This feed supplement is derived from modification of UMMB-bungkil kedelai composition. In vitro study to measure ratio bacteria and protozoa using 32 P method was carried out. Cows after calving were treated 3 with treatments, namely I = control (basal diet + concentrate), II = I + UMMB, III = I + SPMB-temu ireng. Ratio bacteria and protozoa of UMMB-soy bean powder and soy bean meal was 19:1 and 14:1 respectively. Nutrient content of crude protein was 30.02 and 26.47%. SPMB-temu ireng and UMMB increased daily weight gain of cows 0.02 and 0.01 kg/h/d compared control (0.08 kg/h/d). The daily weight gain decreased, however, it was slower than control. The daily weight gain was - 0.04 and - 0.03 kg/h/d compared to - 0.3 kg/h/d. Basal diet and concentrate offered in Gunungkidul was between 5.4 - 6.84 forages/DM and 1.7 - 3.3 kg, while in Sleman it was 5.2 - 5.81 kg/forages/DM and 2.5 - 3.2 kg. The overall conclusion is the SPMB and UMMB has positive responds on the performance of cows after calving, however, the cows have to be fulfilled with the requirement of basal diet. (author)

  10. Grizzly bear predation rates on caribou calves in northeastern Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Donald D.; McCabe, Thomas R.

    1997-01-01

    During June 1993 and 1994, 11 radiocollared and 7 unmarked grizzly bears (Ursus arctos) were monitored visually (observation) from fixed-wing aircraft to document predation on calves of the Porcupine Caribou (Rangifer tarandus) Herd (PCH) in northeastern Alaska. Twenty-six (72%) grizzly bear observations were completed (???60 min) successfully (median duration = 180 min; ??95% CI = 136-181 min; range = 67-189 min) and 10 were discontinued (duration ???24 min) due to disturbance to the bear, or unfavorable weather conditions. Of the 26 successfully completed observations, 15 (58%) included predatory activity (encounter) directed at caribou calves and 8 (31%) included kills. Of 32 encounters, 9 resulted in kills, for a success rate of 28%. The median duration of encounters was 1 minute (??95% CI = 1-2 min; range = 1-6 min; n = 32;), and the median time spent at a kill was 14 minutes (??95% CI = 9-23 min; range = 6-56 min; n = 9). Sows with young (n = 4) killed more frequently (75%; P = 0.0178) than barren sows, boars, and consorting pairs combined (17%; n = 18). Estimated kill rate was highest for sows with young (6.3 kills/bear/day; n = 4), followed by barren sows (4.6 kills/bear/day; n = 5), boars (1.9 kills/bear/day; n = 5), and, finally, consorting pairs (1.0 kills/bear/day; n = 8). Estimated kill rate obtained via conventional radiotracking point surveys (4.8 kills/bear/day) was higher than that obtained via concurrent bear observations (3.1 kills/bear/day). Our research provides baseline estimates of predation rates by grizzly bears on caribou calves that will enhance the capability of wildlife professionals in managing populations of both predators and their prey.

  11. Blood interaction with a Bioline heparin coated HIA-VAD : A study on calves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    vanderKamp, KWHJ; Magielse, CPE; Elstrodt, JM; vanderMeer, J; vanOeveren, W; Rakhorst, G

    The blood compatibility of ventricular assist devices developed by the Helmholtz institute Aachen (HA-VAD's) was tested on calves. Seven calves received a non-coated HIA-VAD (control) and three a Bioline heparin coated device. The circulatory support of these HIA-VAD's lasted one week. Mechanical

  12. Genetic parameters for production and fertility in spring-calving Irish dairy cattle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Evans, R.; Buckley, F.; Dillon, P.; Veerkamp, R.F.

    2001-01-01

    The objective of this study was to estimate genetic parameters for milk production and selected fertility traits in Irish dairy cattle. Data were derived from 74 seasonal spring-calving dairy herds with a potential cow population of 6,783 in the 1999 calving season. The average 305-day yields (kg)

  13. Breed x sex effects on birth weight in Brahman-Simmental embryo transfer calves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brahman cross calves exhibit unusual inheritance of birth weight: Brahman-sired crossbreds out of Bos taurus females are heavier with greater difference between sexes than calves of the reciprocal cross. The objective of this work was to compare birth weight in various crosses of Brahman, Simmenta...

  14. Chopped or long roughage: what do calves prefer? Using cross point analysis of double demand functions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Webb, L.E.; Bak Jensen, M.; Engel, B.; Reenen, van C.G.; Gerrits, W.J.J.; Boer, de I.J.M.; Bokkers, E.A.M.

    2014-01-01

    The present study aimed to quantify calves'(Bos taurus) preference for long versus chopped hay and straw, and hay versus straw, using cross point analysis of double demand functions, in a context where energy intake was not a limiting factor. Nine calves, fed milk replacer and concentrate, were

  15. A titration approach to identify the capacity for starch digestion in milk-fed calves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gilbert, M.S.; Borne, van den J.J.G.C.; Pantophlet, A.J.; Gerrits, W.J.J.

    2013-01-01

    Calf milk replacers commonly contain 40-50% lactose. For economic reasons, starch is of interest as a lactose replacer. Compared with lactose, starch digestion is generally low in calves. Ileal disappearance of starch was only 60% in calves, whereas lactose disappeared for 97% (Coombe and Smith,

  16. Influence of puberty and antral follicle count on calving day in crossbred beef heifers

    Science.gov (United States)

    The ability of a cow to produce a calf every 12 months beginning at 24 months of age is one of the primary factors contributing to the long-term profitability of a cow-calf operation. Cows that calve early in the calving season have the greatest productive lifespan, but which factors contribute the...

  17. Genome-wide Association Study for Calving Traits in Danish and Swedish Holstein Cattle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sahana, Goutam; Guldbrandtsen, Bernt; Lund, Mogens Sandø

    2011-01-01

    A total of 22 quantitative trait loci (QTL) were detected on 19 chromosomes for direct and maternal calving traits in cattle using a genome-wide association study. Calving performance is affected by the genotypes of both the calf (direct effect) and dam (maternal effect). To identify the QTL cont...

  18. The optimal number of heifer calves to be reared as dairy replacements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mohd Nor, N.; Steeneveld, W.; Mourits, M.C.M.; Hogeveen, H.

    2015-01-01

    Dairy farmers often keep almost all their newborn heifer calves despite the high cost of rearing. By rearing all heifer calves, farmers have more security and retain flexibility to cope with the uncertainty in the availability of replacement heifers in time. This uncertainty is due to mortality or

  19. The optimal number of heifer calves to be reared as dairy replacements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mohd Nor, N; Steeneveld, W|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304833169; Mourits, M C M; Hogeveen, H|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/126322864

    Dairy farmers often keep almost all their newborn heifer calves despite the high cost of rearing. By rearing all heifer calves, farmers have more security and retain flexibility to cope with the uncertainty in the availability of replacement heifers in time. This uncertainty is due to mortality or

  20. Milk composition and blood metabolic profile from holstein cows at different calving orders and lactation stages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Borges de Castro Dias

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate milk composition and metabolic profile of Holstein cows at different calving orders in the beginning, middle, and end of lactation. One hundred ten Holstein cows were housed in a free stall system receiving the same diet and were grouped according to calving order (first, second, third, and fourth calving and days in milk (DIM: early (1-90 DIM, middle (91-180 DIM, and end of lactation (over 181 DIM for comparing milk yield, milk composition, and blood metabolic profile between the calving orders within the same lactation period. These parameters were also evaluated between lactation periods of the cows in different calving orders. The calving order, in any lactation stage, had no influence on milk yield per day and blood biochemical profile of Holstein cows receiving the same diet. However, calving order in all stages of lactation influenced milk composition. The first, second, third, and fourth calving order had no effect on the blood biochemical profile of Holstein cows, in any lactation stage. On the other hand, the different stages of lactation influenced milk yield and milk composition of Holstein cows.

  1. Natural (auto)antibodies in calves are affected by age and diet

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khobondo, J.O.; Nieuwland, M.G.B.; Webb, L.E.; Bokkers, E.A.M.; Parmentier, H.K.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Natural autoantibodies (N(a)ab) were found in every species tested so far, and are likely important in maintaining homeostasis. Objectives: (1) To determine N(a)ab in Bos taurus calves, (2) evaluate effects of diet and age on N(a)ab binding repertoires in calves, and (3) delineate bovine

  2. The benzodiazepine brotizolam reduces fear in calves exposed to a novel object test

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reenen, van C.G.; Hopster, H.; Werf, van der J.T.N.; Engel, B.; Buist, W.G.; Jones, R.B.; Blokhuis, H.J.; Korte, S.M.

    2009-01-01

    The present study examined the effects of the intravenous administration of the anxiolytic drug brotizolam on the behavioral and physiological responsiveness of calves to novelty in a dose response fashion. Holstein Friesian heifer calves (39¿41 weeks of age; body weight 200¿300 kg) received an

  3. What do calves choose to eat and how do preferences affect calf behaviour and welfare?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Webb, L.E.; Engel, B.; Berends, H.; Reenen, van C.G.; Gerrits, W.J.J.; Boer, de I.J.M.; Bokkers, E.A.M.

    2014-01-01

    Calves raised for milk or meat are fed diets that differ from feral-herd calf diets and are based on the nutritional requirements of the ‘average calf’. These diets may not meet the dietary preferences of each individual calf. This study explored diet preferences in calves with free dietary choice,

  4. Determination of energy and protein requirements for crossbred Holstein × Gyr preweaned dairy calves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Silva, A.L.; Marcondes, M.I.; Detmann, E.; Campos, M.M.; Machado, F.S.; Filho, S.C.V.; Castro, M.M.D.; Dijkstra, J.

    2017-01-01

    The objective was to quantify the energy and protein nutritional requirements of Holstein × Gyr crossbred preweaned dairy calves until 64 d of age. Thirty-nine Holstein × Gyr crossbred male calves with an average initial live weight (mean ± SEM; for all next values) of 36 ± 1.0 kg were used. Five

  5. Effect of protein provision via milk replacer or solid feed on protein metabolism in veal calves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berends, H.; Borne, van den J.J.G.C.; Røjen, B.A.; Hendriks, W.H.; Gerrits, W.J.J.

    2015-01-01

    The current study evaluated the effects of protein provision to calves fed a combination of solid feed (SF) and milk replacer (MR) at equal total N intake on urea recycling and N retention. Nitrogen balance traits and [15N2]urea kinetics were measured in 30 calves (23 wk of age, 180 ± 3.7 kg of body

  6. The assessment of colostral immunity in dairy calves based on serum biochemical indicators and their relationships

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soňa Šlosárková

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Passive transfer of immunity in dairy calves is routinely monitored in North America. This study analyzes such type of biochemistry monitoring in 591 calves (Holstein, Fleckvieh from 19 large farms in the Czech Republic. All calves, aged 1–6 days, were blood sampled once. Serum concentrations of total protein, albumin, zinc sulphate turbidity units and γ-glutamyltransferase activity were analysed by photometry methods. The samples were divided according to concentrations of total protein and zinc sulphate turbidity units, and the age of calves. These groups were compared using nonparametric tests. The samples had good mean values (total protein 63.5 g·l-1, albumin 30.5 g·l-1, zinc sulphate turbidity 11.5 U, γ-glutamyltransferase 10.7 μkat·l-1 but 41% and 54% of calves had low total protein (-1 and zinc sulphate turbidity (P P -1; calves aged 3–6 days had significantly lower activity. It is newly suggested that samples be taken from calves 1–3 days old for γ-glutamyltransferase analysis and traditionally anytime during the first week of life for all other indicators. This first extensive analysis of passive transfer in Central Europe shows that there are widespread deficiencies in the feeding of colostrum to calves.

  7. Factors associated with the number of calves born to Norwegian beef suckler cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmøy, Ingrid H; Nelson, Sindre T; Martin, Adam D; Nødtvedt, Ane

    2017-05-01

    A retrospective cohort study was performed to evaluate factors associated with the number of calves born to Norwegian beef suckler cows. Production data from 20,541 cows in 2210 herds slaughtered over a three-year period (1st of January 2010 to 23rd of January 2013) were extracted from the national beef cattle registry. This study's inclusion criteria were met for 16,917 cows (from 1858 herds) which gave birth to 50,578 calves. The median number of calves born per cow was 2 (min 1, max 18). Two multilevel Poisson regression models with herd random effects showed that early maturing breeds (Hereford and Aberdeen Angus) gave birth to more calves than late maturing breeds (Charolais and Limousin) in four out of five areas of Norway. The significant breed-region interaction indicated that the coastal South East region of Norway, which has a relatively long growing season and gentle topography, yielded the highest number of calves born for all but one breed (Simmental). Cows that needed assistance or experienced dystocia at their first calving produced fewer calves than those that did not: incidence rate ratio 0.87 (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.84-0.91) for assistance and 0.70 (95% CI: 0.66-0.75) for dystocia, respectively. Cows in larger herds (>30 cows) produced 11% more calves in their lifetime compared to cows in smaller herds (≤30 cows) (Pcow. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Tritiated-water heat-tolerance index to predict the growth rate in calves in hot deserts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamal, T.H.

    1982-01-01

    It was the intention of this study to develop a heat-tolerance index that predicts at an early age the growth rate of calves in a hot desert area (Inshas). Twelve female Friesian calves aged 13-15 months were maintained in climatic chambers for 2 weeks at a mild climate (control), followed by 2 weeks at a hot climate (experimental). Determinations of body water content, body solids, body weight and final rectal temperature were undertaken during the second week of the control and experimental periods. Afterwards the animals were transferred to the farm and maintained outdoors; they were weighed at the end of the 4 summer months. Body water content and rectal temperature were 9.47 and 2.42%, respectively, higher in the hot climate than in the control at P 1 ) or body solids content (X 2 ) that had occurred previously during the 2-weeks heat stress in the climatic chamber by using the equation Y = 39.44 - 1.65X 1 or Y = 45.02 - 1.27X 2 . The standard errors of the regression coefficients for the two equations were 0.094 and 0.132, respectively. The standard errors of the predicted Y for the two equations were 0.207 and 0.218, respectively

  9. Legg-Perthes-Calve disease: staging by MRI using gadolinium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ducou le Pointe, H. (Dept. of Pediatric Radiology, Hopital d' Enfants Armand-Trousseau, 75 - Paris (France)); Haddad, S. (Dept. of Pediatric Radiology, Hopital d' Enfants Armand-Trousseau, 75 - Paris (France)); Silberman, B. (Dept. of Pediatric Radiology, Hopital d' Enfants Armand-Trousseau, 75 - Paris (France)); Filipe, G. (Dept. of Orthopedic Surgery, Hopital d' Enfants Armand-Trousseau, 75 - Paris (France)); Monroc, M. (Dept. of Pediatric Radiology, Hopital d' Enfants Armand-Trousseau, 75 - Paris (France)); Montagne, J.P. (Dept. of Pediatric Radiology, Hopital d' Enfants Armand-Trousseau, 75 - Paris (France))

    1994-04-01

    Twenty-one patients (26 hips) with typical signs of Legg-Perthes-Calve (LPC) disease on plain radiographs were explored by MRI. Patients were imaged with a 0.5 T MR unit. Gadolinium-enhanced spinecho MR images were obtained after nonenhanced T1-weighted (spin-echo) and T2[sup *]-weighted (gradient-echo) images. Four different areas were identified in the femoral epiphysis (necrosis, regenerative, cartilaginous and normal fatty bone tissue). The histological evolution of LPC is well described by Catterall and others. Comparing their descriptions with out MR findings, we suggest classification ofLPC into five phases: necrosis: regeneration, reconstruction, reossification and sequelae. (orig.)

  10. A brief history of Legg-Calvé-Perthes disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenger, Dennis R; Pandya, Nirav K

    2011-09-01

    Legg-Calvé-Perthes (LCP) disease has an extensive history that has provided an ongoing intellectual challenge for the orthopaedic community. Debate around etiology and treatment of LCP disease continues even after its initial description in the early 1900 s. In order for modern day clinicians to have a full understanding of the condition, one must be a scholar of its development. The purpose of our review will be to discuss the scientific communities' understanding of presentation, etiology, and treatment of LCP disease over time.

  11. Benchmarking passive transfer of immunity and growth in dairy calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkinson, D J; von Keyserlingk, M A G; Weary, D M

    2017-05-01

    Poor health and growth in young dairy calves can have lasting effects on their development and future production. This study benchmarked calf-rearing outcomes in a cohort of Canadian dairy farms, reported these findings back to producers and their veterinarians, and documented the results. A total of 18 Holstein dairy farms were recruited, all in British Columbia. Blood samples were collected from calves aged 1 to 7 d. We estimated serum total protein levels using digital refractometry, and failure of passive transfer (FPT) was defined as values below 5.2 g/dL. We estimated average daily gain (ADG) for preweaned heifers (1 to 70 d old) using heart-girth tape measurements, and analyzed early (≤35 d) and late (>35 d) growth separately. At first assessment, the average farm FPT rate was 16%. Overall, ADG was 0.68 kg/d, with early and late growth rates of 0.51 and 0.90 kg/d, respectively. Following delivery of the benchmark reports, all participants volunteered to undergo a second assessment. The majority (83%) made at least 1 change in their colostrum-management or milk-feeding practices, including increased colostrum at first feeding, reduced time to first colostrum, and increased initial and maximum daily milk allowances. The farms that made these changes experienced improved outcomes. On the 11 farms that made changes to improve colostrum feeding, the rate of FPT declined from 21 ± 10% before benchmarking to 11 ± 10% after making the changes. On the 10 farms that made changes to improve calf growth, ADG improved from 0.66 ± 0.09 kg/d before benchmarking to 0.72 ± 0.08 kg/d after making the management changes. Increases in ADG were greatest in the early milk-feeding period, averaging 0.13 kg/d higher than pre-benchmarking values for calves ≤35 d of age. Benchmarking specific outcomes associated with calf rearing can motivate producer engagement in calf care, leading to improved outcomes for calves on farms that apply relevant management changes. Copyright

  12. Pathophysiological and parasitological studies on Cooperia oncophora infections in calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armour, J; Bairden, K; Holmes, P H; Parkins, J J; Ploeger, H; Salman, S K; McWilliam, P N

    1987-05-01

    Calves which had received daily infections of Cooperia oncophora over a six week period showed inappetence, weight loss, impaired nitrogen retention and a loss of plasma proteins into the gut. During this period the infections occurred in the duodenum, jejunum and ileum and many larval stages were present in the mucosa of the small intestine. At necropsy, on weeks 3, 6 and 10 after the first infection, stunting and thickening of the villi were noted with excessive mucus production. Prior administration of a morantel slow release bolus prevented these changes. By week 12 most of the worms had been expelled yet a loss of plasma proteins to the gut was still occurring.

  13. Lipid profile of commercial beef cuts from grazing, suckling calves

    OpenAIRE

    Vargas, Karin; English, Patti; Vera, Raúl R.; Briones, Ignacio

    2009-01-01

    The objective of the present research was to determine the contents of fat, cholesterol and fatty acids of eight beef cuts from unsupplemented, suckling, 7-8 month old male and female calves reared on permanent pastures in the VIIth Region of Chile by small cattle producers. A total of 54 animals with a mean carcass weight of 150 ± 22 kg were slaughtered in a commercial abattoir on three different dates during the month of March, 2008. Five samples of each of eight cuts were collected at rand...

  14. Effect of serum calcium status at calving on survival, health, and performance of postpartum Holstein cows and calves under certified organic management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilhelm, A L; Maquivar, M G; Bas, S; Brick, T A; Weiss, W P; Bothe, H; Velez, J S; Schuenemann, G M

    2017-04-01

    The study objective was to assess the effect of hypocalcemia (HYPO; ≤2.0 mmol/L) of the dam at calving on survival, health, and performance of lactating dairy cows and their calves under certified organic management. Prepartum dairy cows (primiparous, n = 445; multiparous, n = 328) from 1 dairy herd were monitored (prepartum pen) for imminent signs of parturition (appearance of amniotic sac outside the vulva) until birth. All calves were subject to the same newborn care, colostrum management, and failure of passive transfer assessment (serum total protein ≤5.5 mg/dL). Serum total calcium of cows was determined in samples taken within 2 h after calving. To define HYPO cows after calving, a cut-point of total serum Ca concentration with optimal sensitivity and specificity to predict metritis or calf diarrhea was established by using the receiver operator characteristic. The effect of HYPO on survival (died or culled within 60 DIM), health status, and pregnancy per artificial insemination (PAI) for first services of lactating cows were analyzed using the GLIMMIX procedure of SAS. Additionally, the effect of HYPO at calving on days in milk (DIM) at first service (DIMFS), milk yield (kg), milk components (percent fat and protein), and somatic cell count were analyzed for the first 3 Dairy Herd Improvement Association (DHIA) tests using the MIXED procedure of SAS (SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC). The effect of parity (primiparous and multiparous), body condition score at calving, and manure hygiene score at calving were also included in the statistical models. The effect of HYPO at calving on calf survival, serum total protein, and diarrhea within 10 d of age were assessed using GLIMMIX procedure of SAS. The overall prevalence of HYPO was 14.6% (2.7% for primiparous and 30.8% for multiparous cows). Cows experiencing HYPO at calving had greater proportion of metritis (25.1 vs. 14.7%) and culling within 60 DIM (15.9 vs. 6.8%) compared with non-HYPO cows, respectively

  15. Effects of D-a-tocopherol and dietary energy on growth and health of preruminant dairy calves

    Science.gov (United States)

    To observe the effects of supplemental dietary d-a-tocopherol in relation to dietary energy on growth and immune status in dairy calves, 32 newborn Holstein bull calves were assigned to 1 of 4 treatments for 5 weeks in a 2x2 factorial randomized complete block, split-plot design. Calves received mod...

  16. The early behaviour of cow and calf in an individual calving pen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Margit Bak

    2011-01-01

    The aim was to investigate the early behaviour in dairy cows and their calves. Thirty-eight multiparous Danish Holstein Frisian cows and their calves were housed in individual calving pens during the first twelve days post-partum and their behaviour was observed during 24 h on days 3, 7 and 11....... Cows gradually reduced the time spent sniffing and licking their calves from 59 to 49 min over the days studied (P cow from less than half a minute on days 3 and 7 to 1 min on day 11 (P ... studied (P cows’ behavioural priorities, the cows were tested on either day 4, 8 or 12 after calving by removing them from their pens during 3 h and subsequently reintroducing them. Behavioural observations during 3 h after reintroduction showed...

  17. Health Status of Beef Cows and their Calves in the Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petr Slavík

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to assess the health status and the most common health problems occurring in beef cattle in the Czech Republic. Thirty five beef herds of different breeds were monitored from 1 January to 31 December 2006. The health status of 4872 animals (2601 cows and 2271 of their calves was analyzed. Herds of up to 50 cows and those over 50 cows were evaluated both separately and together. Farm management data were collected by means of a questionnaire completed by the farmers. Both geographic and herd characteristics were evaluated, as well as the course of calving, mortality and morbidity in calves, and disease occurrence in cows. Calving was unassisted in about 80% of the cows, and the conception rate was approximately 90%. More difficult courses of calving were reported from the small herds than from the large ones (p p p p p < 0.001.

  18. Extent, causes and timing of moose calves mortality in western interior Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osbourne, Timothy O.; Paragi, Thomas F.; Bodkin, James L.; Loranger, Andre J.; Johnson, W.N.

    1991-01-01

    We examined the causes and timing of moose (Alces alces) calf mortality during 1988­ 90 in 2 locations in western interior Alaska. Annual survival rates of all calves in 1988 (0.34, n = 42) and 1989 (0.29, n =47) on the Nowitna National Wildlife Refuge (NWR) and in 1990 (0.25, n = 62) on the Koyukuk NWR were not significantly different. Survival rates of male and female calves were not significantly different during any year. Annual survival of single calves was significantly higher than that for twins in 1989 (0.56 vs. 0.20) and 1990 (0.37 vs. 0.21), but not in 1988. Black bears (Ursus americanus) killed 40% of all calves. Wolves (Canis lupus) killed 9% of the calves, unknown predators killed 8%, grizzly bears (Ursus arctos) killed 3%, and 5% died from other causes.

  19. Predatory behavior of grizzly bears feeding on elk calves in Yellowstone National Park

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, Steven P.; French, Marilynn G.

    1990-01-01

    Grizzly bears (Ursus arctos horribilis) were observed preying on elk calves (Cervus elaphus) on 60 occasions in Yellowstone National Park, with 29 confirmed kills. Some bears were deliberate predators and effectively preyed on elk calves for short periods each spring, killing up to 1 calf daily. Primary hunting techniques were searching and chasing although some bears used a variety of techniques during a single hunt. They hunted both day and night and preyed on calves in the open and in the woods. Excess killing occurred when circumstances permitted. One bear caught 5 calves in a 15-minute interval. Elk used a variety of antipredator defenses and occasionally attacked predacious bears. The current level of this feeding behavior appears to be greater than previously reported. This is probably related to the increased availability of calves providing a greater opportunity for learning, and the adaptation of a more predatory behavior by some grizzly bears in Yellowstone.

  20. Management of tibial fractures using a circular external fixator in two calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aithal, Hari Prasad; Kinjavdekar, Prakash; Amarpal; Pawde, Abhijit Motiram; Singh, Gaj Raj; Setia, Harish Chandra

    2010-07-01

    To report the repair of tibial diaphyseal fractures in 2 calves using a circular external skeletal fixator (CEF). Clinical report. Crossbred calves (n=2; age: 6 months; weight: 55 and 60 kg). Mid-diaphyseal tibial fractures were repaired by the use of a 4-ring CEF (made of aluminum rings with 2 mm K-wires) alone in 1 calf and in combination with hemicerclage wiring in 1 calf. Both calves had good weight bearing with moderate lameness postoperatively. Fracture healing occurred by day 60 in 1 calf and by day 30 in calf 2. The CEF was well maintained and tolerated by both calves through fracture healing. Joint mobility and limb usage improved gradually after CEF removal. CEF provided a stable fixation of tibial fractures and healing within 60 days and functional recovery within 90 days. CEF can be safely and successfully used for the management of selected tibial fractures in calves.

  1. Effect of Calving Interval on Milk Yield and Quality Lactation in Dairy Cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona Baul

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Researches were made on 125 lactations from Romanian Black Spotted cows, aimed at studying the evolution of the interval between calving on milk quantity and quality. Data were recorded and statistically analyzed by means of ANOVA / MANOVA determining the average values and dispersion indices. Based on averages parameters of lactation curves were calculated using the mathematical model proposed by Wood, called the incomplete gamma function. The interval between calving significantly influenced (p < 0.05 lactation curve aspect for the percentage of dry defatted from milk for the daily growth rate (parameter c between calving interval 351 to 450 days and of over 450 days (0.00008. Also we’ve met significant differences (p < 0.05 for the initial concentration of the percentage of total solids in milk for parameter a from the interval between calving up to 350 days and calving interval 351-450 days (0.80101.

  2. Molecular Relationship Between BALADI And Crossbred Bovine Female Calves Using AP-PCR And Its Relation To Body Weight

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    EL-FOOLY, H.A.; EL-MASRY, K.A.; TEAMA, F.E.

    2009-01-01

    This experiment was conducted in the bovine farm of Experimental Farms Project of Nuclear Research Centre, Atomic Energy Authority of Egypt, which is located in the desert area of Inshas. DNA fingerprinting analysis using arbitrarily primed-polymerase chain reaction (AP-PCR) is a powerful technique for detecting markers that can be used for establishment of genetic variations, molecular relationships and taxonomy identifications between different animal breeds. In the present study, for detecting the genetic relationship between Egyptian bovine Baladi female and crossbred calves (Brown Swiss Baladi) previously imported, blood samples were collected from 10 animals (5 for each breed), DNA was isolated and AP-PCR technique was applied using four random primers to establish fingerprinting and molecular relationship between the two breeds using radioactive 32 P-dCTP for labelling the fragments amplified in PCR.. The band sharing coefficient between the two groups was calculated, and the quantity of DNA was correlated with average daily gain (ADG). The data showed non- significant correlation between the quantity of DNA and average daily gain. Also, data showed the powerful of the technique for detecting the molecular variations and there is a specific pattern for certain breeds especially when using the Knp-X primer. The present study also revealed that there was a close genetic relationship between the Egyptian Baladi breed and the crossbred calves (Brown Swiss Baladi) in about seventy percent of the genetic materials as represented by band-sharing (BS) = 0.7. In conclusion, the AP-PCR technique is effective in detecting the molecular variations between different breeds and provides a potential tool for studying the molecular relationships. The native Egyptian calves are genetically closely related to crossbred (Brown Swiss Baladi) by about 70%. Further studies on the large scale are needed using different primers for detecting patterns specific for each breed and

  3. Carcass physical composition and meat quality of holstein calves, terminated in different finishing systems and slaughter weights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priscila Vincenzi dos Santos

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The Brazil sacrifices many dairy calves at birth, which can become a very serious problem merchandising. The objective of this experiment was to evaluate the physical carcass composition and meat quality characteristics of Holstein calves in feedlot or pasture with supplementation, slaughtered at 140, 180, 220 or 260 kg body weight. In the early termination calves had on average 57 kg and 58 days of age. The confined animals were fed forage (corn and concentrated, in the ratio of 40:60 and concentrated pasture supplemented with 1% body weight. The experimental design was completely randomized in a factorial 2 x 4 (two feeding systems x four slaughter weights. It was observed a significant interaction between slaughter weight and finishing system only for the texture of the meat. The finished animals on pasture showed improved texture with increased weight, whereas the confined animals did not affect the weight. Animals finished on pasture had higher muscle percentage (69.48% vs 66.57%, and lower fat percentage (9.58% and 9.75 kg vs 13.20% and 13.08 kg compared to confined animals. There was a linear increase in the total amount of muscle, bone and fat, muscle / bone ratio, compared edible portion / bone, palatability and juiciness when increased slaughter weight. The percentage of bone and meat coloring decreased linearly with the increase of slaughter weight. The proportion of muscle and fat, showed quadratic behavior. The animals of dairy breeds are excellent producers of lean meat, with good smoothness, flavor and juiciness.

  4. Multidisciplinary approach to evaluating welfare of veal calves in commercial facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stull, C L; McDonough, S P

    1994-09-01

    Due to pending legislation and public concerns, a multidisciplinary approach was designed to investigate the welfare of special-fed veal calves in commercial veal facilities. Concerns included housing conditions, dietary regimens, management practices, and behavioral aspects imposed on special-fed calves. Four categories of parameters including environment and housing, nutrition, health and stress, and behavior provided a broad base of evaluating veal systems. Observations and samples were collected on 550 Holstein bull calves located in 10 commercial veal facilities. Each facility was visited to collect data during wk 0 (week of arrival of the calves), 2, 4, 8, 12, and 16. Nine facilities used individual stalls 48 to 55 cm in width with tethers attached to the front of the stalls. One facility housed 30 calves in group pens after obtaining calves at 8 wk of age. Ammonia, carbon monoxide, and hydrogen sulfide gas did not exceed the permissible limit for humans in any facility. All facilities exceeded the 2-foot-candle recommendation for lighting. The average daily gain of calves was .85 kg during wk 0 to 8 and 1.18 kg during wk 8 to 16. Dietary iron levels decreased from 209 ppm at wk 0 to 32 ppm at wk 16. At 16 wk, 25% of calves were marginally anemic and 10% clinically anemic. Overall mortality was 4.2%. Stress indices such as plasma cortisol concentrations or neutrophil to lymphocyte ratios declined as calves approached market weight. In either pens or stalls, calves spent approximately 25 and 75% of time in standing and lying positions, respectively.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  5. Renal cortex copper concentration in acute copper poisoning in calves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis E. Fazzio

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to estimate the diagnostic value of renal cortex copper (Cu concentration in clinical cases of acute copper poisoning (ACP. A total of 97 calves that died due to subcutaneous copper administration were compiled in eleven farms. At least, one necropsy was conducted on each farm and samples for complementary analysis were taken. The degree of autolysis in each necropsy was evaluated. The cases appeared on extensive grazing calf breeding and intensive feedlot farms, in calves of 60 to 200 kg body weight. Mortality varied from 0.86 to 6.96 %, on the farms studied. The first succumbed calf was found on the farms between 6 and 72 hours after the susbcutaneous Cu administration. As discrepancies regarding the reference value arose, the local value (19.9 parts per million was used, confirming the diagnosis of acute copper poisoning in 93% of the analyzed kidney samples. These results confirm the value of analysis of the cortical kidney Cu concentration for the diagnosis of acute copper poisoning.

  6. Influence of oxytetracycline on carprofen pharmacodynamics and pharmacokinetics in calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brentnall, C; Cheng, Z; McKellar, Q A; Lees, P

    2013-08-01

    A tissue cage model of inflammation in calves was used to determine the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties of individual carprofen enantiomers, following the administration of the racemate. RS(±) carprofen was administered subcutaneously both alone and in combination with intramuscularly administered oxytetracycline in a four-period crossover study. Oxytetracycline did not influence the pharmacokinetics of R(-) and S(+) carprofen enantiomers, except for a lower maximum concentration (Cmax ) of S(+) carprofen in serum after co-administration with oxytetracycline. S(+) enantiomer means for area under the serum concentration-time curve (AUC0-96 h were 136.9 and 128.3 μg·h/mL and means for the terminal half-life (T(1/2) k10 ) were = 12.9 and 17.3 h for carprofen alone and in combination with oxytetracycline, respectively. S(+) carprofen AUC0-96 h in both carprofen treatments and T(1/2) k10 for carprofen alone were lower (P oxytetracycline in calves and indicate that no alteration to carprofen dosage is required when the drugs are co-administered. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Productive performance of Holstein calves finished in feedlot or pasture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANA MARIA O. DIAS

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The use of animals from dairy farms is an alternative to meat production since it provides an increment of total income for farmers. This study aims to evaluate the performance of Holstein calves finished in two feeding systems (feedlot or pasture. Forty-three animals with 58 days old and 57 kg were divided in two treatments: 23 animals finished in feedlot with corn silage plus concentrate based on corn and soybean meal (40:60; 20 animals kept in cultivated pastures according to the period of the year: Italian ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum and pearl millet (Pennisetum americanum with supplementation with the same feedlot-concentrate at 1% body weight. Animals were slaughtered with 200 kg. Dry matter and nutrient intake were determined, with the use of chromium oxide for estimating pasture intake. Feedlot animals had greater total intake and total digestible nutrients, resulting in higher average daily gain (0.949 vs 0.694 kg day-1. Crude protein intake, neutral detergent fiber and feed conversion did not show significant differences. Holstein calves have improved performance when finished in feedlot.

  8. The effect of palatability of protein source on dietary selection in dairy calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller-Cushon, E K; Terré, M; DeVries, T J; Bach, A

    2014-07-01

    Evidence has shown that soybean meal is perceived as more palatable than canola meal by dairy calves in short-term preference tests. This study evaluated the effect of protein source on longer-term dietary selection of dairy calves. In experiment 1, 40 Holstein bull calves (11.4 ± 4.3 d of age) were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 choice diets for 6 wk: base starter pellet (S; 12% crude protein; CP) and high-protein pellet (40% CP) containing either (1) soybean meal (SB) or (2) canola meal (CM). In wk 7 to 8, all calves were offered a single pelleted diet containing the protein source to which they were previously exposed. In experiment 2, 22 Holstein bull calves (9.9 ± 4.6d of age) were offered, for 6 wk, a choice of 2 mixed pelleted diets: (1) 70% S and 30% SB (SB mix), or (2) 70% S and 30% CM (CM mix). In wk 7 to 8, calves were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 choice diets, as in experiment 1: (1) SB + S, or (2) CM + S. All feeds were provided ad libitum. Calves received 6 L/d of milk replacer [0.75 kg/d of dry matter (DM)] for the duration of both experiments. Feed intake was recorded daily and calves were weighed every 14 d. Feeds were sampled weekly to analyze DM and nutrient intake. Mixed diets in experiment 2 were analyzed for CP in wk 4 and 6 to assess feed sorting (calculated as actual CP intake as a percentage of predicted intake). In experiment 1, calves offered SB + S in wk 1 to 6 consumed more high-protein pellet than calves offered CM + S [73 vs. 42% of DM intake (DMI)] and, consequently, more CP (168 vs. 117 g/d). Solid feed DMI and average daily gain were similar between treatments. When offered a single diet in wk 7 to 8, calves offered starter containing soybean meal increased intake to a greater extent than calves offered the starter containing canola meal. In experiment 2, calves preferred the SB mix to CM mix (preference ratio: 0.7). Calves consumed more CP than predicted from SB mix in wk 4 and 6 (108 ± 2.0%), indicating that they were sorting in

  9. Ostertagia ostertagi in calves: growth, nitrogen balance and digestibility studies conducted during winter feeding following different fenbendazole therapy programmes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkins, J J; Bairden, K; Armour, J

    1982-01-01

    Observations of growth, nitrogen (N) balance and digestibility were made during the first winter housing period upon three groups of calves which had previously been naturally infected with Ostertagia ostertagi and which were left either untreated (A) or treated with fenbendazole on three occasions (B) or every two weeks during the entire grazing season (C). The diet given contained sufficient metabolisable energy but only about 60 per cent of the recommended crude protein to sustain a daily growth rate of 0.5 kg. Growth rates were only 50 per cent of that expected on a basis of metabolisable energy input with untreated calves A being poorest. Water intake and output was greatest in group A. There were no significant differences in digestibility between groups although group A had the lowest apparent crude protein digestibility. N balance was always lowest in group A and highest in group C but group B demonstrated a marked increase in N retention with time after housing. Differences in N retention were mainly accounted for by increased urinary N excretion. It is concluded that, under conditions of suboptimal protein intake, nematode infection in the growing calf can markedly affect production even after efficient anthelmintic treatment.

  10. Environmental factors and dam characteristics associated with insulin sensitivity and insulin secretion in newborn Holstein calves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamal, M.M.; Van Eetvelde, M.; Bogaert, H.; Hostens, M.; Vandaele, L.; Shamsuddin, M.; Opsomer, G.

    2016-01-01

    Full text: The objective of the present retrospective cohort study was to evaluate potential associations between environmental factors and dam characteristics, including level of milk production during gestation, and insulin traits in newborn Holstein calves. Birth weight and gestational age of the calves at delivery were determined. On the next day, heart girth, wither height and diagonal length of both the calves and their dams were measured. Parity, body condition score and age at calving were recorded for all dams. For the cows, days open before last gestation, lactation length (LL), lenght of dry period (DP) and calving interval were also calculated. The magnitude and shape of the lactation curve both quantified using the MilkBot model based on monthly milk weights, were used to calculate the amount of milk produced during gestation. Using the same procedure, cumulative milk production from conception to drying off (MGEST) was calculated. A blood sample was collected from all calves (n=481; 169 born to heifers and 312 born to cows) at least 5 h after a milk meal on day 3 of life to measure basal glucose and insulin levels. In addition, an intravenous glucose-stimulated insulin secretion test was performed in a subset of the calves (n=316). After descriptive analysis, generalized linear mixed models were used to identify factors that were significantly associated with the major insulin traits (Insb, basal insulin level; QUICKI, quantitative insulin sensitivity check index; AIR, acute insulin response; DI, disposition index) of the newborn calves. The overall average birth weight of the calves was 42.7 ± 5.92 kg. The insulin traits were significantly associated with MGEST (P=0.076) and longer DP (P=0.034). The QUICKI was estimated to be lower in calves born to the cows having passed a higher MGEST (P=0.030) and longer DP (P=0.058). Moreover, the AIR (P=0.009) and DI (P=0.049) were estimated to be lower in male compared with female calves. Furthermore, the AIR

  11. Performance, nutritional behavior, and metabolic responses of calves supplemented with forage depend on starch fermentability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mojahedi, S; Khorvash, M; Ghorbani, G R; Ghasemi, E; Mirzaei, M; Hashemzadeh-Cigari, F

    2018-05-16

    This study evaluated the interactive effects of forage provision on performance, nutritional behavior, apparent digestibility, rumen fermentation, and blood metabolites of dairy calves when corn grains with different fermentability were used. Sixty 3-d-old Holstein calves were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 treatments in a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement. Dietary treatments were (1) steam-flaked (SF) corn without alfalfa hay (AH) supplementation (SF-NO), (2) SF corn with AH supplementation (SF-AH), (3) cracked (CR) corn without AH supplementation (CR-NO), and (4) CR corn with AH supplementation (CR-AH). All calves received the same amount of pasteurized whole milk and weaned on d 56 of the experiment; the study was terminated on d 70. Steam-flaked corn contained higher amounts of gelatinized starch in comparison with cracked corn (44.1 vs. 12.5% of total starch, respectively). Starter intake was not affected by corn processing methods or AH provision during the pre- or postweaning periods. However, we noted an interaction between corn processing methods and forage supplementation for starter intake during d 31 to 50 of the experiment, where calves fed on SF-AH starter had greater starter intake than those fed SF-NO starter, but the starter intake was not different between CR-NO and CR-AH fed calves. Furthermore, AH increased average daily gain (ADG) of calves fed an SF-based diet but not in calves fed a CR-based diet during the preweaning and overall periods. Interaction between forage provision and time was significant for ADG and feed efficiency, as calves supplemented with forage had higher ADG (0.982 vs. 0.592, respectively) and feed efficiency compared with forage unsupplemented calves at the weaning week. Forage supplementation resulted in more stable ruminal condition compared with nonforage-fed calves, as evidenced by higher ruminal pH (5.71 vs. 5.29, respectively) at postweaning and lower non-nutritive oral behavior around weaning time (55 vs. 70.5 min

  12. Interaction between milk allowance and fat content of the starter feed on performance of Holstein calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araujo, G; Terré, M; Bach, A

    2014-10-01

    Sixty-six Holstein male calves [42 ± 6.0 kg of body weight (BW) and 12 ± 3.1 d of age] were housed individually and allocated to 1 of 4 treatments following a 2 × 2 factorial complete randomized design to assess the potential interaction between milk replacer (MR) allowance and fat content in the starter feed. Thus, 4 treatments were evaluated: a low-fat (4.1% fat; LF) starter feed offered along with 4 L/d of MR (4 LF), a high-fat (11.2% fat; HF) starter feed plus 4 L/d of MR (4 HF), a LF starter feed offered with 6 L/d of MR (6LF), and an HF starter feed offered with 6 L/d of MR (6 HF). Calves were fed either 4 or 6 L/d of MR (25% crude protein and 19.2% fat) in 2 offers (0800 and 1630 h) and had ad libitum access to either an LF or an HF starter feed (21.4 and 22.3% crude protein). Calves were weaned at wk 6 of study by halving the daily MR allowance for 1 wk. Individual MR and starter feed intakes were recorded daily and BW was determined weekly. A glucose tolerance test was performed on d 30 of study to evaluate the effects of increased energy provision on glucose metabolism. Apparent feed digestibility was measured for the last 5 d of study. Overall, fat content of starter feed had no effect on solid feed intake. However, during wk 8 of study (after weaning), calves in the LF treatment had greater starter feed intake than HF calves. Calves on 6 L/d of MR had greater BW than calves fed 4 L/d from the second week of study until weaning. After weaning, 6 LF calves had lesser BW than 6 HF calves. Calves on 6 L/d of MR had greater average daily gain than calves fed 4 L/d, and 6 HF calves tended to have the greatest average daily gain. Glucose clearance rate tended to be lesser for HF than for LF calves. In conclusion, offering 6 L/d of MR increased growth performance before weaning and, when offering 6 L/d of MR, feeding a high-fat starter feed resulted in the greatest BW after weaning. Copyright © 2014 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier

  13. Influence of weaning regimen on intake, growth characteristics and plasma blood metabolites in male buffalo calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashid, M A; Pasha, T N; Jabbar, M A; Ijaz, A; Rehman, H; Yousaf, M S

    2013-09-01

    Experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of weaning age on growth performance, feed intake, feed efficiency (FE) and blood metabolites in Nili-Ravi male buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) calves. Twenty-four male buffalo calves were assigned to one of the three treatment groups: continuous milk feeding (CMF), limited milk feeding (LMF) and early weaning (EW), and weaned off milk at 12, 10 and 8 weeks of age, respectively. For the first 3 days after birth, calves in all three treatments were fed colostrum, and were then moved to individual milk feeding at 10% of BW for the next 6 weeks. Thereafter, the provision of milk to the CMF group was gradually tapered to zero through week 12, using week 6 intakes as a base. The LMF calves were fed milk at 7.5%, 5.0%, 3.5%, and 1.5% of BW during weeks 7 to 10, respectively. Lastly, calves in the EW group were fed milk at 5.0% and 2.5% of BW at weeks 7 and 8, respectively. Calf starter (CS) feed was also provided ad libitum from weeks 2 to 12 and individual intakes were recorded on a daily basis. Blood samples were taken from weeks 6 to 12, on a weekly basis; whereas, the BW, heart girth, withers height and hip width were measured at the start of experiment and later on a weekly basis. Weight gain, average daily gain, and body measurements were the same across all three groups. Milk intake was lower (P intake was greater (P calves compared with the other treatment groups. Dry matter intake was greater (P calves compared with the CMF calves. The FE was greater (P calves compared with the LMF and EW treatment groups. Blood glucose concentration was similar among the treatments; however, blood urea nitrogen was greater (P calves compared with the CMF and LMF groups. Plasma concentration of non-esterified fatty acids was higher (P calves compared with the CMF calves. In light of these results, it is evident that buffalo calves can be successfully weaned as early as 8 weeks of age without negatively affecting their growth performance.

  14. Hay intake improves performance and rumen development of calves fed higher quantities of milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, M A; Weary, D M; von Keyserlingk, M A G

    2011-07-01

    Research to date has suggested that access to forage before weaning can limit rumen development in calves, but no research has yet addressed the role of forage for calves fed higher quantities of milk. This study compared performance and rumen development of calves provided high volumes (equivalent to approximately 20% of calf birth weight) of milk with and without access to hay. At d 3 of age, individually housed calves were randomly assigned to treatment (either ad libitum access to chopped grass hay or no forage; n=15 calves per treatment, 10 heifers, and 5 bulls). All calves were provided ad libitum access to water and starter throughout the study. All calves were offered 8L of milk/d from a nipple bottle from d 3 to 35, 4 L/d from d 36 to 53, and 2L/d until weaning at d 56. Solid feed intake and growth parameters were monitored from d 3 to 70. At d 70, males from both treatments were slaughtered to measure rumen development parameters. Overall dry matter (DM) intake from solid feed did not differ between treatments before wk 5. However, during wk 6 to 10, calves fed forage consumed more total DM (starter plus hay) than did calves fed no forage. Hip and wither height, heart girth, and body barrel at d 3, 56, and 70 did not differ between treatments. Reticulorumen weight was heavier in calves fed hay versus those fed only starter (12.77±1.29 vs. 7.99±0.69 kg with digesta; 1.89±0.05 vs.1.60±0.09 kg without digesta). Body weight without digesta was similar in calves fed forage or no forage. Mean rumen pH was higher in calves fed hay compared with those fed no forage (5.49±0.08 vs. 5.06±0.04). In conclusion, provision of chopped hay to calves fed high volumes of milk can promote solid feed DM intake and rumen development without affecting BW gain. Copyright © 2011 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Effects of Feeding Acidified Milk Replacer on the Growth, Health and Behavioural Characteristics of Holstein Friesian Calves

    OpenAIRE

    YANAR, Mete; GÜLER, Olcay; BAYRAM, Bahri; METİN, Jale

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the performances of calves fed acidified milk replacer (AMR) or sweet (regular) milk replacer (SMR) at 8% of birth weight. Twenty-one calves (10 males, 11 females) were offered replacers reconstituted to 12% of dry matter over 5 weeks. In the group fed AMR, daily body weight gains of calves at the different stages of growth were comparable to those for calves fed SMR. In the preweaning period, calves offered AMR had similar dry matter intakes from st...

  16. Effect of physical form of forage on performance, feeding behavior, and digestibility of Holstein calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montoro, C; Miller-Cushon, E K; DeVries, T J; Bach, A

    2013-02-01

    The physical form of forage may influence rumen development and, consequently, the body weight gain, dry matter (DM) consumption, digestibility, and welfare of dairy calves. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of 2 different physical forms of forage on performance, apparent digestibility, and feeding behavior of young calves. Twenty Holstein male calves (46.8 ± 1.2 kg) were randomly assigned at birth to 1 of 2 feeding treatments in which they were exposed to a mixed ration containing (on a DM basis) 90% crumb starter concentrate and either (1) 10% coarsely chopped (3 to 4 cm) grass hay (CRS; n=10) or (2) 10% finely ground (2mm) grass hay (FN; n=10). All calves were offered 8L/d of milk replacer (MR; 1.2 kg of DM) from birth; the amount of MR was progressively reduced after 5 wk to enable weaning by the end of wk 7. The study finished after wk 8. Consumption of the mixed ration, MR, and water was recorded daily, and calves were weighed twice weekly. Samples of feed and orts were taken in wk 7 and 8 for nutrient content analysis. Behavioral data for each calf were obtained for 2h/d during wk 6 and 8, for a total observation time per animal of 28 h. Total feces were collected during wk 8 to determine apparent digestibility. Calves fed CRS had greater DM intake than those fed FN (2.70 vs. 2.45 ± 0.11 kg/d, respectively) during the week after weaning (wk 8). Body weight gain was similar between treatments; however, calves fed CRS tended to have a greater gain-to-feed ratio than calves fed FN (0.68 vs. 0.63 ± 0.02 kg of gain/kg of DM intake). No differences were observed in crude protein and acid detergent fiber consumption between treatments; however, calves fed CRS tended to consume more neutral detergent fiber than calves fed FN during the last week of the study (719.2 vs. 610.5 ± 25.84 g/d). Calves receiving CRS sorted in favor of neutral detergent fiber to a greater extent than calves consuming FN, whereas calves fed FN sorted in favor of

  17. Cryptosporidium Infection in Dairy Cattle Calves and its Public Health Significance in Central Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manyazewal Anberber Zeleke

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Cryptosporidium spp. are common intestinal protozoan parasites that causes diarrhoea in neonates and young calves. This longitudinal study was conducted at two large dairy cattle farms in central Ethiopia during February/2014 to June/2015 to determine the age-related distribution of Cryptosporidium species, to identify risk factors of the disease and to assess the public health significance of the parasite. Thirty calves born to these dairy farms were followed-up from birth to three months of age, and 270 faecal samples were collected and examined by the Modified Ziehl-Neelsen, PCR-RFLP and Sequencing. Cryptosporidium was detected from week 1 to 3 months of age with an overall prevalence of 14.8%, Peak of the infection was at two weeks of age when 12 of the 30 calves (40% shedded oocysts. Cryptosporidium parvum and C. andersoni were identified in pre-weaned and post-weaned calves, respectively. Phylogenetic analysis showed clustering of the C. parvum isolates from this study with GenBank sequences for C. parvum bovine genotype IIa and IId subtypes. This study showed the predominance of the zoonotic C. parvum species in pre-weaned calves and demonstrated that this age group of calves pose the greatest risk for human infection. Due attention on the management of pre-weaned calves is recommended to prevent transmission of the infection to humans and lessen contamination of the environment by oocysts.

  18. Influence of high dietary lead on selenium metabolism in dairy calves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neathery, M.W.; Miller, W.J.; Gentry, R.P.; Crowe, C.T.; Alfaro, E.; Fielding, A.S.; Pugh, D.G.; Blackmon, D.M.

    1987-01-01

    Metabolism of orally dosed 75 Se was studied in 10 intact male Holstein calves that were fed ad libitum a control diet containing no added Pb or supplemented with 1000 ppm Pb as PbSO 4 for 4 wk. Lead-supplemented calves did not exhibit any clinical signs of Pb toxicity. Voluntary feed intake was reduced by 9.5% and average daily gain by 23%. Lead content of rib, liver, and kidney increased. Serum glutamic oxaloacetate transaminase activity was increased during the last 2 wk of the experiment in calves fed Pb. In calves receiving supplemental Pb, 75 Se absorption, blood concentration, and urine concentration were reduced by 26, 21, and 42%, respectively. Tissue 75 Se concentrations were significantly lower in kidney, liver, testicle, pancreas, small intestine, heart, spinal cord, and muscle in calves fed Pb. There was a significant negative correlation (r = -.78) between 75 Se and stable Pb concentrations in the liver. It is not clear whether the ingestion of subclinical amounts of Pb could affect the absorption and utilization of Se in dairy calves to the extent of Se deficiency when dairy calves are kept in areas known to be low in Se

  19. Fornecimento de volumoso para bezerros pré-ruminantes Roughage for pre-ruminant calves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosane Scatamburlo Lizieire

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho avaliou a performance de bezerros mestiços HolandêsxZebu, do nascimento aos 90 dias de idade, desaleitados aos 56 dias, com acesso ou não a volumoso. O ensaio foi conduzido na Estação Experimental de Itaguaí da PESAGRO-RIO, em Seropédica, RJ, no período de janeiro a abril de 2000. Foram utilizados 27 bezerros, distribuídos em blocos ao acaso, de acordo com o peso ao nascer e com o sexo, nos seguintes tratamentos experimentais: (1 Concentrado; (2 Concentrado+pasto de capim-estrela (Cynodon nhenfluensis, e (3 Concentrado+feno de alfafa (Medicago sativa. Os animais foram separados das mães 24 horas após o nascimento e mantidos em baias individuais. Todos os animais receberam colostro até o 3º dia de vida e, a partir daí, quatro litros de leite integral/animal/dia, além de concentrado comercial (18%PB, até o máximo de 2,0kg/animal/dia, a partir da segunda semana de vida. Os animais do tratamento 2 tiveram acesso aos piquetes, manejados em rodízio, a partir do 15º dia de vida, no período das 8h às 14h, e aqueles do tratamento 3 receberam feno de alfafa (18%PB picado, à vontade, a partir do 8º dia de vida. Não houve diferença (P>0,05 entre os tratamentos 1 e 3; entretanto, aqueles submetidos ao tratamento 2 consumiram menor (P0,05 para consumo total de matéria seca e eficiência alimentar entre os tratamentos 1 e 3 e para ganho de peso médio diário, perímetros abdominal e torácico, incidência de diarréias e corrimento nasal entre os três tratamentos. O fornecimento de volumoso para bezerros pode ser feito a partir da 8ª semana de idade, sem prejuízos para o seu desenvolvimento, desde que os animais tenham à sua disposição concentrado inicial desde a segunda semana de idade.This experiment aimed to evaluate the growth of Holstein Zebu crossbred calves, from birth to 90 days of age, early weaned, with or without available roughage from the second week of age on. The trial was carried out at the

  20. Seizures triggered by food intake in antimuscarinic-treated fasted animals: evaluation of the experimental findings in terms of similarities to eating-triggered epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enginar, Nurhan; Nurten, Asiye

    2010-07-01

    Food intake triggers convulsions in fasted mice and rats treated with antimuscarinic drugs, scopolamine or atropine. Bearing some similarities in triggering factor and manifestations of the seizures in patients with eating-evoked epilepsy, seizures in fasted animals may provide insight into the mechanism(s) of this rare and partially controlled form of reflex epilepsy.

  1. Towards a Universal Calving Law: Modeling Ice Shelves Using Damage Mechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitcomb, M.; Bassis, J. N.; Price, S. F.; Lipscomb, W. H.

    2017-12-01

    Modeling iceberg calving from ice shelves and ice tongues is a particularly difficult problem in glaciology because of the wide range of observed calving rates. Ice shelves naturally calve large tabular icebergs at infrequent intervals, but may instead calve smaller bergs regularly or disintegrate due to hydrofracturing in warmer conditions. Any complete theory of iceberg calving in ice shelves must be able to generate realistic calving rate values depending on the magnitudes of the external forcings. Here we show that a simple damage evolution law, which represents crevasse distributions as a continuum field, produces reasonable estimates of ice shelf calving rates when added to the Community Ice Sheet Model (CISM). Our damage formulation is based on a linear stability analysis and depends upon the bulk stress and strain rate in the ice shelf, as well as the surface and basal melt rates. The basal melt parameter in our model enhances crevasse growth near the ice shelf terminus, leading to an increased iceberg production rate. This implies that increasing ocean temperatures underneath ice shelves will drive ice shelf retreat, as has been observed in the Amundsen and Bellingshausen Seas. We show that our model predicts broadly correct calving rates for ice tongues ranging in length from 10 km (Erebus) to over 100 km (Drygalski), by matching the computed steady state lengths to observations. In addition, we apply the model to idealized Antarctic ice shelves and show that we can also predict realistic ice shelf extents. Our damage mechanics model provides a promising, computationally efficient way to compute calving fluxes and links ice shelf stability to climate forcing.

  2. Immune response of calves inoculated with proteins ofAnaplasma marginale bound to an immunostimulant complex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcela Ribeiro Gasparini

    Full Text Available Despite our current knowledge of the immunology, pathology, and genetics of Anaplasma marginale, prevention in cattle is currently based on old standbys, including live attenuated vaccines, antibiotic treatment, and maintaining enzootic stability in cattle herds. In the present study, we evaluated the use of an immunostimulant complex (ISCOMATRIX adjuvant, associated with a pool of recombinant major surface proteins (rMSP1a, rMSP1b, rMSP4 and rMSP5 to improve the humoral immune response triggered in calves mainly by IgG2. Ten calves were divided in three groups: 4 calves were inoculated with the ISCOMATRIX/rMSPs (G1; 2 calves were inoculated with ISCOMATRIX adjuvant (G2; and 4 calves received saline (G3. Three inoculations were administered at 21-day intervals. In G1, the calves showed significant increases in total IgG, IgG1 and IgG2 levels 21 days after the second inoculation, compared to the control group (p < 0.05, and G1 calves remained above the cut-off value 28 days after the third inoculation (p < 0.05. The post-immunized sera from calves in G1 reacted specifically for each of the rMSPs used. In conclusion, the ISCOMATRIX/rMSPs induced antigen-specific seroconversion in calves. Therefore, additional testing to explore the protection induced by rMSPs, both alone and in conjunction with proteins previously identified as subdominant epitopes, is warranted.

  3. Associations among body condition score, body weight, and reproductive performance in seasonal-calving dairy cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roche, J R; Macdonald, K A; Burke, C R; Lee, J M; Berry, D P

    2007-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to identify and quantify relationships between body condition score (BCS) and body weight (BW) in dairy cows with reproduction variables in pasture-based, seasonal-calving dairy herds. Over 2,500 lactation records from 897 spring-calving Holstein-Friesian dairy cows were used in the analyses. Eleven BCS- and 11 BW-related variables were generated, including observations at calving, nadir, planned start of mating (PSM), and first service, as well as days to nadir and the amount and rate of change between periods. The binary reproductive variables were cycling by PSM, mated in the first 21 d from PSM, pregnant to first service, and pregnant in the first 21, 42, and 84 d of the seasonal mating period. Generalized estimating equations were used to identify BCS and BW variables that significantly affected the probability of a successful reproductive outcome. After adjusting for the fixed effect of year of calving, parity (for cycling by PSM only), and the interval from calving to either first service or PSM, reproductive performance was found to be significantly affected by BW or BCS at key points, and by BCS and BW change during lactation. All reproductive response measures were negatively affected when BCS and BW measures indicated an increased severity and duration of the postpartum negative energy balance. In particular, cycling by PSM was positively associated with calving BCS, whereas pregnancy at 21, 42, and 84 d post-PSM were positively associated with nadir BCS and BW gain post-PSM, and negatively associated with BCS loss between calving and nadir. The results highlight the important role that BCS and BW loss has on reproductive performance, especially in seasonal-calving dairy systems because of the short period between calving and PSM.

  4. Creep feeding effects on male Nellore calves influencing behavior and performance of their dams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Leandro Soares; Paulino, Mário Fonseca; Rennó, Luciana Navajas; Detmann, Edenio; de Almeida, Daniel Mageste; Ortega, Roman Maza; Moreno, Deilen Paff Sotelo; Cárdenas, Javier Enrique Garces

    2017-12-01

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effect of different schemes of calves' supplementation in a creep feeding system, on the behavior of Bos indicus calves and dams, and also the influence of the calves' supplementation on dams' performance. Forty-eight Nellore male calves (147 ± 7 kg body weight and 3 months of age) in the suckling phase and their dams (476 ± 9 kg and 6 years of age) were studied in a completely randomized design. The experiment was divided into two periods of 71 days. The treatments were 5- and 10-g supplement dry matter (DM)/kg BW day offered in periods 1 and 2, respectively (5S/10S); 10- and 5-g supplement DM/kg BW day offered in periods 1 and 2, respectively (10S/5S); 7.5-g supplement DM/kg BW day in both periods 1 and 2 (7.5S); and mineral mix ad libitum in both periods 1 and 2 (MM). No differences (P  0.05) in the first evaluated period. Calves from 10S/5S treatment spent more time suckling and less time eating supplements (P < 0.05) than 5S/10S treatment animals, in the second evaluated period. Dams of MM treatment's calves had more idle time and lower grazing time when compared with the mothers of calves from 5S/10S and 10S/5S treatments. It was concluded that different schedules of Nellore calves' supplementation on pasture do not affect their mothers' performance, and supplementation decreases the grazing time of calves in the suckling phase.

  5. Short communication: Absorption of protein and immunoglobulin g in calves fed a colostrum replacer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, G W; Foster, D M

    2007-06-01

    A well-managed colostrum program on farms is the most important step in reducing disease in neonatal calves. In the last few years, colostrum replacers have increased in popularity and are designed to be an alternative to colostrum on farms that have poor colostrum quality, limited colostrum reserves, or to break the cycle of transmission for certain infectious diseases. However, it is important to make sure these products are effective and are capable of providing adequate serum immunoglobulin concentrations. The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of a commercially available colostrum replacer product in dairy calves. Holstein calves from a single dairy were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 groups at birth. Group 1 (n = 21) calves were given 4 quarts of colostrum via esophageal feeder within 3 h of birth and served as the control group for this study. Group 2 (n = 21) received 2 packages of a colostrum replacer product, and group 3 (n = 21) received 3 packages of the colostrum replacer product within 3 h of birth. Blood samples from all calves were collected 24 h after colostrum administration and analyzed for serum total protein and IgG concentrations. Calves fed fresh colostrum had significantly higher serum total protein levels and IgG concentrations compared with calves fed the colostrum replacer product. Calves fed the colostrum replacer also had a significantly higher percentage of calves with failure of passive transfer (serum IgG <1,000 mg/dL). The colostrum replacer product evaluated in this study failed to routinely provide adequate IgG concentrations when fed according to label directions.

  6. Relationship between the degree of insulin resistance during late gestation and postpartum performance in dairy cows and factors that affect growth and metabolic status of their calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawashima, Chiho; Munakata, Megumi; Shimizu, Takashi; Miyamoto, Akio; Kida, Katsuya; Matsui, Motozumi

    2016-06-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effects of insulin resistance (IR) during the close-up dry period on the metabolic status and performance of dairy cows as well as to determine the effects on body weight (BW) and metabolic status of their calves. An insulin tolerance test (ITT) was conducted by administering 0.05 IU/kg BW of insulin to 34 multiparous Holstein cows at 3 weeks prepartum. Blood samples were collected at 0, 30, 45 and 60 min after insulin injection, and cows were divided into two groups based on the time required for glucose to reach the minimum levels [non-IR (NIR), 45 min (n=28); and IR, 60 min (n=6)]. Blood or milk sampling and body condition score (BCS) estimation were performed twice weekly during the experimental period. Blood samples from calves were collected immediately after birth. Cows with IR showed lower BCS (Pinsulin-like growth factor-I concentration (Pinsulin concentration (Pdairy cows is related to postpartum metabolic status and performance along with growth and metabolic status of their calves.

  7. Effect of early exposure to different feed presentations on feed sorting of dairy calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller-Cushon, E K; Bergeron, R; Leslie, K E; Mason, G J; Devries, T J

    2013-07-01

    This study examined how early exposure to different feed presentations affects development of feed sorting in dairy calves. Twenty Holstein bull calves were exposed for the first 8 wk of life to 1 of 2 feed presentation treatments: concentrate and chopped grass hay (haylage, 21.5% high-moisture corn, and 16.0% protein supplement) in wk 12 to 13. Intake was recorded daily and calves were weighed twice a week. Fresh feed and orts were sampled on d 1 to 4 of wk 6, 8, 9, 11, 12, and 13 for analysis of feed sorting, which was assessed through nutrient analysis for the MIX diet and particle size analysis for the TMR. The particle separator had 3 screens (19, 8, and 1.18mm) producing long, medium, short, and fine particle fractions. Sorting of nutrients or particle fractions was calculated as the actual intake as a percentage of predicted intake; values >100% indicate sorting for, whereas values <100% indicate sorting against. Feed presentation did not affect dry matter intake or growth. Prior to weaning, all calves selected in favor of hay; MIX calves consumed more neutral detergent fiber (NDF) than predicted (103.6%) and less nonfiber carbohydrates (NFC) than predicted (92.6%), and COM calves consumed, as a percentage of dry matter intake, 40.3% hay (vs. 30% offered rate). In wk 8, calves fed COM consumed more NFC than calves fed MIX (1.0 vs. 0.95kg/d) and less NDF (0.43 vs. 0.54kg/d), indicating greater selection in favor of concentrate. However, when provided the MIX diet, calves previously fed COM did not sort, whereas calves previously fed MIX consumed more NFC intake than predicted (103.2%) and less NDF intake than predicted (97.6%). Calves previously fed MIX maintained increased sorting after transition to the novel TMR, sorting against long particles (86.5%) and for short (101.8%) and fine (101.2%) particles. These results indicate that initially providing dairy calves with solid feeds as separate components, compared with as a mixed ration, reduces the extent of

  8. Technical note: Use of accelerometers to describe gait patterns in dairy calves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Passillé, A. M. de; Jensen, Margit Bak; Chapinal, N.

    2010-01-01

    Developments in accelerometer technology offer new opportunities for automatic monitoring of animal behavior. Until now, commercially available accelerometers have been used to measure walking in adult cows but have failed to identify walking in calves. We described the pattern of acceleration...... associated with various gaits in calves and tested whether measures of acceleration could be used to count steps and distinguish among gait types. A triaxial accelerometer (sampling at 33 readings/s with maximum measurement at +/-3.2 g) was attached to 1 hind leg of 7 dairy calves, and each calf was walked...

  9. Production indicators and health status of calves fed different amounts of rumen undegradable starch and protein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomislav Koturić

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine whether increase in proportion of the rumen undegradable starch (RUS and rumen undegradable protein (RUP affects the production performance and health status of calves. The experiment was done on 36 Holstein, seven-day-old calves, divided into three groups of 12 calves, with equal sex ratio. The experiment was conducted in two periods. In the first period, calves were fed with full pasteurized milk and milk replacer and additionally fed with starter mixture with different proportions of rumen undegradable protein and starch: Group I 36.6% RUP and 16.5% RUS, Group II 49.1% RUP and 27.6% RUS and Group III 53.5% RUP and 36.5% RUS. In the second period, calves were fed with milk replacer and grower mixture with different proportions of rumen undegradable protein and starch: Group I 33.5% RUP and 15.8% RUS, Group II 48% RUP and 26.3% RUS and Group III 54.3% RUP and 34.6% RUS. In the first period, calves from the Group III had significantly (P<0.01 higher body weight compared to calves in Group I and II (74.75; 59.36; 66.58 kg, as well as daily weight gain (0.76, 0.49, 0.61 kg/d. At the end of the experiment, there was no significant difference in body weight and daily weight gain. The calves in Group I and III had significantly (P<0.05 higher consumption of starter mixture compared to the calves in Group II (7.48; 7.11; 4.33 kg/d, and a significantly (P<0.05 higher overall feed consumption compared to the calves in Group II. The calves in Group II and III had significantly (P<0.05 better feed conversion ratio than the calves in Group I (1.37; 1.50; 2.08 kg/kg. The results of health monitoring (diarrhea, pneumonia indicate a different proportion of rumen undegradable starch and protein ratio did not have significant effect on calves’ health.

  10. Phylogenetic analysis of Escherichia coli isolates from healthy and diarrhoeic calves in Mashhad, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Barzan

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Escherichia coli is a normal inhabitant of the gastrointestinal tract of vertebrates. Certain Escherichia coli strains have been associated with neonatal diarrhoea in ruminants. These strains can be assigned to one of the four main phylogenetic groups, A, B1, B2 and D. Several studies have shown the rela-tionship between phylogeny and pathogenicity of E. coli, a great deal can be obtained by determining the phylogroup of unknown E. coli strains. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the influence of diar-rhoea on the genetic composition of E. coli populations isolated from calves. A total of 80 Es-cherichia coli isolates were obtained from healthy and diarrhoeic calves. Phylogenetic grouping was done based on the Clermont triplex PCR method using primers targeted at three genetic markers, chuA, yjaA and TspE4.C2. According to our results, phylogenetic group A strains was the most prevalent in both healthy (37.5% and diarrhoeic calves (55%. Group B1 contained 27.5% of isolates in healthy calves, followed by group B2 (17.5%, and group D (7.5%. Also, four isolates from healthy calves were not included in the major phylogenetic groups or subgroups. A total of 14% and 4% of isolates from diarrhoeic calves beloned to phylogroups B2 and D respectively. Although no isolate from diarrhoeic calves was found to belong to group B1, there was no significant difference between healthy and diarrhoeic calves for other phylogroups. There was not a dramatic shift in E. coli phylogroup/subgroup due to occurrence of diarrhoea in calves, except for phylogroup B1 which was higher in healthy calves. This can be due to the difference in secretions of digestive system in diarrhoeic calves which can prevent the conditions for instability of Escherichia coli isolates of phy-logroup B1. The majority of isolates from both healthy and diarrhoeic calves belonged to non-pathogenic phylogentic group A and B1.

  11. Habituating to handling: Factors affecting preorbital gland opening in red deer calves

    OpenAIRE

    Ceacero, Francisco; Landete-Castillejos, Tomás; Bartošová, Jitka; García, Andrés J.; Bartoš, Ludek; Komárková, Martina; Gallego, Laureano

    2014-01-01

    The preorbital gland plays not only an olfactory role in cervids but also a visual one. Opening this gland is an easy way for the calf to communicate with the mother, indicating hunger/satiety, stress, pain, fear, or excitement. This information can be also useful for farm operators to assess how fast the calves habituate to handling routines and to detect those calves that do not habituate and may suffer chronic stress in the future. Thirty-one calves were subjected to 2 consecutive experime...

  12. Nutrient intake, rumen fermentation and growth performance of dairy calves fed extruded full-fat soybean as a replacement for soybean meal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    ZeidAli-Nejad, A; Ghorbani, G R; Kargar, S; Sadeghi-Sefidmazgi, A; Pezeshki, A; Ghaffari, M H

    2018-04-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of extruded full-fat soybean (ESB) as a replacement for soybean meal (SBM) on nutrient intake, rumen fermentation, and growth performance of dairy calves. A total of 45 male Holstein dairy calves (42.0±0.5 kg of BW) were randomly assigned to one of three experimental diets: (1) 0% ESB (Control): 35.3% SBM no ESB; (2) 25% ESB: 27.0% SBM+9.0% ESB; and (3) 50% ESB: 19.0% SBM+19.0% ESB. All calves were weaned on day 56 of age and remained in the study until day 70 of age. During the pre-weaning and overall periods, substituting of SBM with ESB had no effect on intake of starter feed, metabolizable energy (ME), CP and non-fiber carbohydrate (NFC). Compared with the control, 50% ESB resulted in a decrease in starter feed intake, and intakes of other nutrients including CP, NFC and ME during the post-weaning period. Substituting SBM with ESB decreased intake of C16 : 0 and increased intakes of n-9 C18 : 1, n-6 C18 : 2 and n-3 C18 : 3 during the pre-weaning, post-weaning and overall periods. Using ESB as a replacement for SBM did not affect average daily gain, feed efficiency, rectal temperature and fecal score over the trial periods. Compared with control, the rumen concentration of NH3-N decreased for 50% ESB on days 35 and 56 of age but not when compared with 25% ESB. Rumen pH, total volatile fatty acids concentrations, and the molar proportions of ruminal acetate, propionate and butyrate were not different among treatments. Body measurements were not affected by the treatments. In conclusion, substitution of SBM with ESB may improve nitrogen utilization efficiency in dairy calves but slightly reduce post-weaning starter intake with no negative outcomes on growth performance and rumen fermentation.

  13. Effect of Calcium Borogluconate Injection pre and Immediately Postpartum on Production Performance, Incidence of Metabolic Disorders and Situation of the Uterus After Calving in Cows Fed Anionic Diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Amanlou

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the effect of calcium borogluconate injection 48 and 24 hours prepartum and immediately after parturition on dry matter intake at day of calving, milk yield, incidence of metabolic disorders and uterine conditions during the first 21 days postpartum in cows fed anionic diets. Thirty six lactating dairy cows were balanced by parity (1, 2, 3+ and allocated to 4 subcutaneous injection treatments of 15.2 gr calcium as borogluconate at different times pre and postpartum than expected calving date . Group 1 consisted of 9 cows receiving no treatment before or after parturition. Group 2 consisted of 9 cows receiving calcium borogluconate 48 h prepartum.Group 3 consisted of 9 cows receiving calcium borogluconate 24 h prepartum. Group 4 consisted of 9 cows receiving 15.2 gr of ca as borogluconate immediately postpartum. Dry matter intake was in treatments 1, 2, 3 and 4 was 10.87, 12.32, 12.63 and 15.03 kg in the first 24 h after calving, respectively And indicated significantly difference among treatments. milk yield in 2, 3 and 4 treatments was significantly greater than group 1 in the first 21 days of lactation (38.7, 38.9, 40.3 vs 36.07 kg/d. Treatment had a significant effect on the subclinical hypocalcemia incidence so incidence risk of subclinical hypocalcemia in 1 treatment was 10 times more likely than 4 treatment. Data regression analysis indicated that 4 treatment had a significant effect on the ketosis incidence. So that the cows no calcium injection 2.43 times more likely to experience ketosis than 4 treatment. But experimental treatments were not significantly effect on the incidence of milk fever, displacement abomasum, retained placenta, metritis and endometritis. In general, calcium injection, especially immediately after parturation increased the dry matter intake in day of calving and reduced metabolic disorders such as hypocalcaemia and ketosis.

  14. Performance and health responses of dairy calves offered different milk replacer allowances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bach, A; Terré, M; Pinto, A

    2013-01-01

    Eighty female Holstein calves (12±4.1 d of age and 42±4.3 kg of BW) were collected from different herds, brought to the study site, and blocked by age and assigned to either a 6 L/d maximum daily milk replacer (MR) allowance (LMR) or a maximum MR allowance of 8 L/d (HMR). Calves were kept in individual hutches until 52 d of age and then moved into pens, forming groups of 10. All calves had ad libitum access to a mash starter feed. Calves in both treatments received the MR distributed in 3 separate allotments between 1 wk after the beginning of the study and 52 d of age. Then, all calves were moved to group pens and preweaned by offering 2 L/calf of the same MR twice daily in a trough until the age of 59 d, when MR offer was further reduced to a single dose of 2 L until the age of 73 d, when all calves were completely weaned. Individual starter feed and MR consumption was recorded on a daily basis until 52 d of age, and on a group basis until weaning time. Body weight was measured at the beginning of the study and at 52 (preweaning), 73 (weaning), and 110, 160, and 228 d of age. Solid feed consumption (mean ± SE) was greater in LMR (821±42.1 g/d) than in HMR calves (462±42.1 g/d) between 42 d of age and 52 d (preweaning). As expected, as age increased, solid feed consumption increased, and LMR showed a more marked increase than HMR calves. Despite the greater solid feed intake of LMR calves, HMR grew faster than LMR calves until preweaning time, but from preweaning to weaning, LMR calves grew more than HMR calves (977 vs. 857±30.7 g/d, respectively; mean ± SE). No differences in feed efficiency were observed. While calves were individually housed, no differences were observed in the incidence of bovine respiratory disease or diarrhea between treatment groups. We concluded that, under the milk regimen, age range of calves, and weaning method used in the current study, before preweaning, HMR calves grow more than LMR calves, but between preweaning and weaning

  15. Changes of cartilaginous contour of Legg-Calve-Perthes disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumasaka, Yukiko; Watanabe, Hitoshi; Higashihara, Tokuro; Kishimoto, Haruyoshi; Harada, Koushi; Kozuka, Takahiro.

    1991-01-01

    T 1 -weighted MR images of Legg-Calve-Perthes disease (LCPD) were classified into three groups on the basis of radiographic stage, and morphological differentiation for staging was attempted. In the stage of fragmentation, both enlargement and flattening of the cartilaginous contour surrounding the epiphysis could be recognized on MRI, and the growth plate showed more curvature than normal. This produced flattening of the epiphysis in the shape of a crescent. We confirmed these findings using four indices for the measurement of cartilaginous outline, and the stage of avascular necrosis and fragmentation could be clearly differentiated. Cartilaginous deformities on MRI are very useful for differentiating between the stage of avascular necrosis and fragmentation. (author)

  16. Role of different negative pressure values in the process of infected wounds treated by vacuum-assisted closure: an experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Min; Yu, Aixi; Wu, Gang; Xia, Chengyan; Hu, Xiang; Qi, Baiwen

    2013-10-01

    Vacuum-assisted closure (VAC) device is widely used to treat infected wounds in clinical work. Although the effect of VAC with different negative pressure values is well established, whether different negative pressures could result in varying modulation of wound relative cytokines was not clear. We hypothesise that instead of the highest negative pressure value the suitable value for VAC is the one which is the most effective on regulating wound relative cytokines. Infected wounds created on pigs' back were used to investigate the effects of varying negative pressure values of VAC devices. Wounds were treated with VAC of different negative pressure values or moist gauze, which was set as control. The VAC foam, semiocclusive dresses and moist gauze were changed on days 3, 5, 7 and 9 after wounds were created. When changing dressings, tissues from wounds were harvested for bacteria count and histology examination including Masson's trichrome stain and immunohistochemistry for microvessels. Western blot was carried out to test the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF). Results showed that on days 3 and 5 the number of bacteria in wounds treated by VAC with 75, 150, 225 and 300 mmHg was significantly decreased compared with that in wounds treated by gauze and 0 mmHg pressure value. However, there was no difference in wounds treated with negative pressure values of 75 , 150, 225 and 300 mmHg at any time spot. Immunohistochemistry showed that more microvessels were generated in wounds treated by VAC using 75 and 150 mmHg negative pressure comparing with that using 225 and 300 mmHg on days 3 and 5. However this difference vanished on days 7 and 9. Morphological evaluation by Masson's trichrome staining showed increased collagen deposition in VAC of 75 and 150 mmHg compared with that in VAC of 225 and 300 mmHg. Western blot showed that the expression of VEGF and bFGF significantly increased when the wounds

  17. Hepatic regeneration and functional recovery following partial liver resection in an experimental model of hepatic steatosis treated with omega-3 fatty acids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marsman, H. A.; de Graaf, W.; Heger, M.; van Golen, R. F.; ten Kate, F. J. W.; Bennink, R.; van Gulik, T. M.

    2013-01-01

    Omega-3 fatty acids (FAs) have been shown to reduce experimental hepatic steatosis and protect the liver from ischaemia-reperfusion injury. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of omega-3 FAs on regeneration of steatotic liver. Steatosis was induced in rats by a 3-week

  18. Isolation and identification of group A rotaviruses among neonatal diarrheic calves, Morocco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ennima, Imane; Sebbar, Ghizlane; Harif, Bachir; Amzazi, Saaid; Loutfi, Chafiqa; Touil, Nadia

    2016-05-05

    Group A rotaviruses (RVA) are the main cause of neonatal calve diarrhea (NCD) in Morocco. In this study, we isolated RVA strains from NCD clinical samples in order to support RVA disease control in Morocco. This isolation process constitutes a first step toward vaccine development. Thirteen fecal samples were obtained from calves with a single episode of neonate calf diarrhea at three different dairies and two samples were collected from field during a severe NCD outbreak. Diagnosis of RVA infection was based on fecal immune-chromatographic rapid test and further evaluated for their hemagglutination (HA) activity. RVA isolation was carried out on MA104 cells after inoculates were treated with different concentrations of trypsin TPCK. All RVA isolates were confirmed by LSI VetMAX™ Triplex Ruminant Rotavirus & Coronavirus Real-Time PCR kit. G and P typing were determined by direct sequencing of the VP4 and VP7 amplicons. RVA isolation was achieved for nine clinical samples following one or two passages (60 %) and was properly depended on HA activity and trypsin treatment of inoculates. The first sign of CPE detected consisted of increased cell granularity, obscure cell boundaries, cell rounding, and eventual degeneration and detachment of cells. At lower TPCK concentration (3-10 μg/inoculum), no changes at the cellular level were observed, while cells activated with 25-30 μg of trypsin/inoculums, they degenerated and trypsin cytotoxicity was enhanced. Appreciable changes in cell's morphology were detected with optimal trypsin concentration of 15-20 μg trypsin/inoculums. Data from qRT-PCR confirmed that unsuccessful cultivations have No-Ct, and all nine isolates have Ct values ranged between 12.17 and 24.69. Analysis sequencing revealed that field isolates were of G6 P[5] serotype and isolates from the dairy NCD samples were of G10 P[14] serotype. To our knowledge, this is the first study in Morocco which reports the circulation of G10P[14] in NCD on dairy

  19. Using automated feeders to wean calves fed large amounts of milk according to their ability to eat solid feed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Passillé, Anne Marie; Rushen, Jeffrey

    2016-05-01

    Dairy calves weaned off milk at an early age show signs of hunger and can lose weight. We examined whether using automated feeders to wean calves according to individual voluntary solid feed intake reduced the effects of weaning. Female Holstein calves were housed in groups of 5 to 9. All calves were fed 12 L/d milk and ad libitum grain starter and hay from automated feeders immediately after grouping, and were allocated to 3 weaning strategies: (1) early-weaned (EW; n=14): weaning began on d 40, and milk allowance gradually decreased until weaning was complete on d 48; (2) late-weaned (LW; n=14): weaning began on d 80 and was completed on d 89; (3) weaned by starter intake (WSI; n=28): weaning began when calves consumed 200g/d of starter and was completed when the calves consumed 1,400g/d. Each day, the automated feeders recorded quantities of milk, starter, and hay eaten by all calves, as well as the frequency of visits to the milk feeder; we used unrewarded visit frequency as a sign of hunger. Body weights (BW) were recorded weekly. We estimated daily digestible energy (DE) intake for each calf based on the milk, hay, and starter consumed. Average daily gains (ADG) were expressed as percent of BW. For calves in WSI, weaning began at 54.7±18.9 d (mean ± SD) of age, the duration of weaning was 21.1±10.6 d, and weaning ended at 75.8±10.7 d of age. Both LW and WSI calves had better ADG from wk 3 to 13 than EW calves. Calves in the WSI group drank less milk and ate more starter than LW calves but had similar ADG. During the period of weaning, EW calves made more unrewarded visits to the milk feeder than LW and WSI calves. Three EW calves lost weight during weaning, whereas all LW and WSI calves gained weight. Calves differ greatly in when they begin to eat solid feed and how quickly they increase the intake in response to a decrease in milk allowance. An advantage of automated feeders is that calves can be weaned at variable ages depending on their ability and

  20. BIÓPSIA PULMONAR EM BEZERROS COM BRONCOPNEUMONIA INDUZIDA PELA Mannheimia haemolytica PULMONAR BIOPSY IN CALVES WITH BRONCHOPNEUMONIA INDUCED BY Mannheimia haemolytica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Pessoa Gomes da Silva

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Com o propósito de avaliar a segurança, a eficácia diagnóstica da biópsia pulmonar e comparar a possível ocorrência de complicações decorrentes da técnica, entre bezerros sadios e com broncopneumonia induzida, utilizaram-se dez bezerros (G1 sadios e vinte bezerros portadores de broncopneumonia, divididos em quatro grupos de cinco bezerros (G2 a G5, os quais foram biopsiados 12, 24, 48 e 72 horas após a inoculação com Mannheimia haemolytica, respectivamente. A presença de crepitação grossa, som submaciço à percussão e as alterações radiográficas auxiliaram no diagnóstico da broncopneumonia e localizaram a área pulmonar a ser biopsiada nos grupos G2 a G5. As alterações microscópicas, visualizadas nos animais do grupo G2 a G5, foram as de broncopneumonia fibrinopurulenta. Nos bezerros do grupo G1 as alterações relacionadas à técnica foram: tosse, epistaxe, dispneia mista, taquipneia e taquicardia. Cinco (25% bezerros com broncopneumonia desenvolveram hemotórax após a biópsia e as alterações relacionadas à técnica foram: taquipneia, taquicardia, tosse, dispneia mista, apatia, mucosas pálidas e decúbito. Conclui-se que a biópsia pulmonar permite o diagnóstico de broncopneumonia em bezerros, contudo as complicações decorrentes da técnica limitam o seu uso apenas nas situações em que os métodos convencionais não tenham possibilitado o diagnóstico.

    PALAVRAS-CHAVES: Bezerros, biópsia pulmonar, broncopneumonia, Mannheimia haemolytica.

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the safety and diagnostic efficacy of lung biopsy and to compare the possible occurrence of complications due to this technique in healthy calves and in calves with bronchopneumonia. Thirty Holstein calves were divided into a group of ten healthy animals (G1 and into four experimental groups (G2 to G5 of five calves each

  1. Influence of different seasons during late gestation on Holstein cows' colostrum and postnatal adaptive capability of their calves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trifković, Julijana; Jovanović, Ljubomir; Đurić, Miloje; Stevanović-Đorđević, Snežana; Milanović, Svetlana; Lazarević, Miodrag; Sladojević, Željko; Kirovski, Danijela

    2018-02-01

    Season may affect calves' thermal comfort and behavior, but the data related to the overall influence of seasonal variations on dams' colostrum and postnatal adaptive capability of calves are limited. The aim of this study was to measure the effects of a 49-day-long low air temperature (LAT) season (5.20 ± 0.46 °C mean air temperature) and a 53-day-long high air temperature (HAT) season (27.40 ± 0.39 °C mean air temperature) on dams' colostrum quality and physiological, biochemical, hormonal, and oxidative stress parameters of their calves during the first 7 days of life. The dams' colostrum was sampled at 2, 14, and 26 h after calving, before feeding of their calves. Calves' blood samples were taken before the first colostrum intake and on days 1, 2, 3, and 7 of life. Calves' physiological parameters were measured on days 0 and 7. HAT season significantly reduced the quality of dams' colostrum. The ingestion of the low-quality colostrum, combined with the thermal discomfort during HAT season, probably provoked impaired physiological, biochemical, hormonal, and oxidative stress parameters in samples taken from the post-colostral calves. Additionally, intravenous glucose tolerance test was performed on day 7, which suggested an enhanced insulin response in HAT season calves. This study highlights the importance of adequate supporting strategies for the care of the late gestation cows and postnatal calves during the HAT season.

  2. Antlers on the Arctic Refuge: capturing multi-generational patterns of calving ground use from bones on the landscape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Joshua H; Druckenmiller, Patrick; Bahn, Volker

    2013-05-22

    Bone accumulations faithfully record historical ecological data on animal communities, and owing to millennial-scale bone survival on high-latitude landscapes, have exceptional potential for extending records on arctic ecosystems. For the Porcupine Caribou Herd, maintaining access to calving grounds on the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge (ANWR, Alaska) is a central management concern. However, variability in calving ground geography over the 30+ years of monitoring suggests establishing the impacts of climate change and potential petroleum development on future calving success could benefit from extended temporal perspectives. Using accumulations of female antlers (shed within days of calving) and neonatal skeletons, we test if caribou calving grounds develop measureable and characteristic bone accumulations and if skeletal data may be helpful in establishing a fuller, historically integrated understanding of landscape and habitat needs. Bone surveys of an important ANWR calving area reveal abundant shed antlers (reaching 10(3) km(-2)) and high proportional abundance of newborn skeletal individuals (up to 60% neonate). Openly vegetated riparian terraces, which compose less than 10 per cent of ANWR calving grounds, yield significantly higher antler concentrations than more abundant habitats traditionally viewed as primary calving terrain. Differences between habitats appear robust to potential differences in bone visibility. The distribution of antler weathering stages mirrors known multi-decadal calving histories and highlights portions of the antler accumulation that probably significantly extends records of calving activity. Death assemblages offer historically integrated ecological data valuable for the management and conservation of faunas across polar latitudes.

  3. Environmental factors and dam characteristics associated with insulin sensitivity and insulin secretion in newborn Holstein calves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamal, M.M.; Van Eetvelde, M.; Bogaert, H.; Hostens, M.; Vandaele, L.; Shamsuddin, M.; Opsomer, G.

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the present retrospective cohort study was to evaluate potential associations between environmental factors and dam characteristics, including level of milk production during gestation, and insulin traits in newborn Holstein calves

  4. Eimeriosis in Danish Dairy Calves – Correlation between Species, Oocyst Excretion and Diarrhoea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enemark, Heidi L.; Dahl, Jan; Enemark, Jörg M Dehn

    2013-01-01

    The study collected up-to-date data on prevalence and importance of Eimeria infections in Danish dairy calves with suspected clinical eimeriosis and analysed correlation between Eimeria spp., oocyst excretion and diarrhoea. From October 2010 through August 2011, veterinarians collected faecal...... determined, along with opg values for the specific Eimeria spp. Association between opg and faeces consistency was evaluated in a multinomial, logistic regression model. Overall prevalence of Eimeria spp. was 96.2 % with a prevalence of 60.9 % in individual calves. E. zuernii and/or E. bovis were detected...... in 88.5 % of herds and 41.5 % of the calves. Mean opg was 2,040 (range 0–114,000) in the calves, of which 18.1 % had opg values ≥ 1,000. A total of 12 Eimeria spp. was found with the following calf prevalences: E. ellipsoidalis (37 %), E. zuernii (32 %), E. bovis (28 %), E. cylindrica (23 %), E...

  5. Study of Serum Drug Levels in Calves Following Intramuscular Administration of Three Tetracycline Drug Preparations

    OpenAIRE

    Black, W. D.; Claxton, J.; Robinson, G. A.

    1982-01-01

    Three antibiotic formulations, oxytetracycline (A) in propylene glycol and oxytetracycline (B) in polyvinyl pyrrolidine and pyrrolidino-methyltetracycline in an oil suspension were given to calves by the intramuscular route. Only oxytetracycline (A) appeared to cause much pain after injection.

  6. Chromosome evaluation of Angus calves with unilateral congenital cleft lip and jaw (cheilognathoschisis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swartz, H A; Vogt, D W; Kintner, L D

    1982-04-01

    Two purebred Angus calves with unilateral cleft lip and jaw were karyotyped and anatomically described. Both calves, 1 male and 1 female, were from the same farm and were born in March and April 1980. The defect was most pronounced in the female calf. Both calves exhibited an elevated midline of the hard palate. The female calf also manifested characteristics indicative of proportionate dwarfism. Karyotypes were constructed after a 72-hour culture of peripheral blood. The 2N number was 60 with no apparent chromosome abnormality. The coefficient of relationship between the 2 affected calves was calculated to be 0.78%. The cause of the defect could not be ascertained from the limited data available.

  7. Sublingual administration of detomidine to calves prior to disbudding: a comparison with the intravenous route.

    OpenAIRE

    Hokkanen, Ann-Helena; Raekallio, Marja R.; Salla, Kati; Hänninen, Laura; Viitasaari, Elina Anna Maria; Norring, Marianna; Raussi, Satu; Rinne, Valtteri; Scheinin, Mika; Vainio, Outi M.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To study the effects of oromucosal detomidine gel administered sublingually to calves prior to disbudding, and to compare its efficacy with intravenously (IV) administered detomidine. Study design Randomised, prospective clinical study. Animals Twenty dairy calves aged 12.4 ± 4.4days (mean ± SD), weight 50.5 ± 9.0 kg. Methods Detomidine at 80 μg kg−1 was administered to ten calves sublingually (GEL) and at 30 μg kg−1 to ten control calves IV (V. jugularis). Meloxicam (0.5 mg kg−1) a...

  8. Nutrient utilisation and methane emissions in Sahiwal calves differing in residual feed intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Vimlesh C; Mahesh, Munnurpal S; Mohini, Madhu; Datt, Chander; Nampoothiri, Vinu M

    2014-01-01

    The presented study aimed at investigating the residual feed intake (RFI) of Sahiwal calves, nutrient utilisation as affected by RFI and its relationship with methane (CH4) emissions and some blood metabolites. Eighteen male Sahiwal calves (10-18 months of age; mean body weight 133 kg) were fed ad libitum with a total mixed ration. After calculating RFI for individual calves (-0.40 to +0.34 kg DM/d), they were divided into three groups with low, medium and high RFI, respectively. Dry matter intake (DMI) was higher (p feed conversion ratio were similar among the groups. With exception of glucose, concentrations of all measured blood metabolites were higher in Group High RFI (p feed efficiency and less CH4 production were observed in Group Low RFI, it was concluded that RFI can be used as a measure of feed efficiency, which has a potential to select Sahiwal calves for lowered CH4 emissions.

  9. Genetic parameters for cow weight at calving and cow weight at calf ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Brad Crook

    1 Agricultural Business Research Institute, UNE Armidale, NSW 2351, Australia .... Table 1 provides summary statistics of cow age and weight at calving and weaning .... Genetic evaluation for the beef industry in. Australia. Aust. J. Exp. Agric.

  10. Effects and detection of Nandrosol and ractopamine administration in veal calves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Divari, Sara; Berio, Enrica; Pregel, Paola; Sereno, Alessandra; Chiesa, Luca; Pavlovic, Radmila; Panseri, Sara; Bovee, Toine F.H.; Biolatti, Bartolomeo; Cannizzo, Francesca T.

    2017-01-01

    The present study describes different effects of the selective androgen receptor modulator (SARM) nandrolone phenylpropionate (Nandrosol) and the β-agonist ractopamine administration in veal calves, and it investigates different strategies applied to trace these molecules. Morphological changes

  11. Increase in seizure susceptibility in sepsis like condition explained by spiking cytokines and altered adhesion molecules level with impaired blood brain barrier integrity in experimental model of rats treated with lipopolysaccharides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sewal, Rakesh K; Modi, Manish; Saikia, Uma Nahar; Chakrabarti, Amitava; Medhi, Bikash

    2017-09-01

    Epilepsy is a neurological disorder characterized by recurrent unprovoked seizures. Sepsis is a condition which initiates a cascade of a surge of inflammatory mediators. Interplay between seizures and inflammation other than of brain origin is yet to be explored. The present study was designed to evaluate the seizure susceptibility in experimental models of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induced sepsis. Experimental sepsis was induced using lipopolysaccharides in Wistar rats. Valproic acid, dexametasone were given to two different groups of animals along with LPS. Two groups of animals were subjected to administration of vehicle and LPS respectively with no other treatment. 24h later, animals were subjected to seizures by using either maximal electro shock or pentylenetetrazole. Seizures related parameters, oxidative stress and TNF-α, IL-6, IL-1β, ICAM-1, ICAM-2, VCAM-1, MMP-9 level in serum and brain samples were evaluated. Histopathological and blood brain barrier permeability studies were conducted. Seizures were decreased in valproic acid treated animals. Reduced oxidative stress was seen in dexamethasone plus valproic acid treated groups as compared to LPS alone treated group. TNF-α, IL-6, IL-1β, ICAM-1, VCAM-1, MMP-9 levels were found increased in LPS treated animals whereas a reverse observation was noted for ICAM-2 level in brain and serum. Histopathological findings confirmed the successful establishment of sepsis like state in animals. Blood brain barrier permeability was found increased in LPS treated groups of animals. Seizure susceptibility may escalate during the sepsis like inflammatory conditions and curbing the inflammatory state might reverse the phenomenon. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  12. Long-term engraftment, graft-vs.-host disease, and immunologic reconstitution after experimental transplantation of allogeneic peripheral blood cells from G-CSF-treated donors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, L; Bressler, S; Cooke, K R; Krenger, W; Karandikar, M; Ferrara, J L

    1996-10-01

    Peripheral blood cells (PBPC) are an alternative source of bone marrow for allogeneic transplantation. Reports from recent clinical trials granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF)-mobilized PBPC for allogeneic transplantation show incidence and severity of graft-vs.-host disease (GVHD) similar to those observed in conventional bone marrow transplantation (BMT), despite the presence of 10- to 20-fold more T cell in the PBPC inoculum. In the present study, we examined the effects of pretreatment of donors with G-CSF on GVHD, long-term engraftment, and lymphocyte reconstitution in a murine parent-->F1 model (B6.Ly-5a-->B6d2F1) using splenocytes as a source of peripheral progenitor cells. Recipients of splenocytes from G-CSF-treated donors experienced less mortality from acute GVHD and showed sustained weight gain by day 100 after transplantation. At that time, there was no histological evidence od GVHD in either liver or gut. Recipients of splenocytes from G-CSF-treated donors showed complete donor engraftment within 1 month, which was sustained until the end of the observation period. In contrast, recipients of T cell-depleted splenocytes showed slower donor engraftment and persistent donor/host chimerism. In addition, lymphocyte phenotype and function in mice receiving splenocytes from G-CSF-treated donors was significantly restored by day 100 after transplantation. Thus, the use of G-CSF-mobilized PBPC may provide significant advantages to conventional BMT by reducing GVHD without impairing long-term engraftment and immunologic reconstruction.

  13. Caribou distribution during calving in the northeast National Petroleum Reserve-Alaska, June 1998 to 2000

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lynn E. Noel

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available Barren ground caribou (Rangifer tarandus granti of the Teshekpuk Caribou Herd (TCH inhabit the western portion of Alaska's Arctic Coastal Plain within the National Petroleum Reserve—Alaska (NPR-A. Alaska's North Slope communities, management agencies, and private industry are interested in this herd because of its importance as a subsistence resource and location relative to potential petroleum development. From 1998 through 2000, we monitored caribou distribution during the calving period within the Northeast Planning Area of the NPR-A using systematic strip-transect aerial surveys, as well as VHF and satellite telemetry for cow caribou. Aerial survey and telemetry data indicated cows with calves were distributed around Teshekpuk Lake, with a concentration south of the lake in 1999 and 2000. Inconsistencies in weather conditions, survey timing (both strip-transect and VHF surveys, 100% coverage survey areas, and small sample sizes confound interpretations of our results. However, several patterns were apparent. Later transect survey timing (7—12 June versus 4—7 and 5—8 June resulted in more cow/calf pairs recorded. Our 18% coverage area, originally based on VHF telemetry data for the extent of TCH calving, covered a consistently high proportion (95% to 100% of the annual calving ranges (95% kernel utilization distributions, but accounted for only 24% to 46% of the adult cows in the TCH based on the current Alaska Department of Fish and Game population estimate (1999 and average 1998¬2000 herd composition. It appears that either our transect survey methodology significantly underestimated the true number of caribou cows in the study area, many cows calved outside the area or moved into the area and calved after our surveys, or we have over estimated the number of reproductive cows in the herd. Our 100% coverage transect areas covering oil and gas lease areas, contained 38% of the calving range with 23% of TCH cows in 1999; and 18% of

  14. Effect of infrared lamps to ameliorate cold stress in Vrindavani calves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Showkat A. Bhat

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim: This study was conducted to determine the effect of infrared lamps to ameliorate cold stress in Vrindavani (Holstein Friesian × Brown Swiss × Jersey × Hariana calves. Materials and Methods: For the present investigation, ten newborn Vrindavani calves were randomly divided into two groups (G1 and G2 of five each. The experiment was conducted from 2nd November to 8th February when the environmental temperature was at the lowest. The calves of G1 were provided with no additional protection while the calves of G2 were protected against the cold weather by providing heat using the infrared lamps. The body weight (kg of the calves was recorded at weekly interval. The blood samples collected within 6 h of birth and then at fortnightly interval were analyzed for packed cell volume (PCV, %, hemoglobin (Hb, g/dl. Besides, the serum biochemical parameters, viz., Total serum protein (TSP, g/l, albumin (g/l, globulin (g/l, albumin globulin ratio (A:G and important stress parameters, viz., triiodothyronine (T3, ng/ml, thyroxine (T4, ng/ml and cortisol (ng/ml were also estimated. Results: The calves of G2 showed higher body weight gain as compared to G1. The differences were found to be highly significant (p<0.01. The calves in G1 showed comparatively higher values of PCV and Hb and the differences were found to be significant (p<0.05 on 45th day for PCV and highly significant (p<0.01 on 60th day for PCV and on 45th day for Hb. The values of TSP and albumin were comparatively higher in calves of G1 as compared to G2 and the differences were highly significant (p<0.01 on 45th day for both TSP and albumin and significant (p<0.05 on 60th day for albumin. Significantly (p<0.01 higher values of cortisol and T4 were observed on 15 and 45th day in calves of G1 as compared to G2. The T3 levels were also found higher in calves of G1 than G2 and the differences were significant (p<0.05 on 15 and 30th day and highly significant (p<0.01 on 45th day of the study

  15. Ultrasonographic examination of the forestomachs and the abomasum in ruminal drinker calves

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background The study investigated the ultrasonographic appearance of the reticulum, rumen, omasum and abomasum of calves with ruminal drinking syndrome. Methods In ten milk-fed calves with ruminal drinking syndrome the reticulum, rumen, omasum and abomasum were examined by ultrasonography using a 5-MHz linear transducer before, during and after the ingestion of milk. Results The reticulum could be imaged in eight of ten calves before feeding. The reticular wall appeared as an echoic line, similar to mature cattle, and reticular folds were seen in eight calves. The reticular content appeared as echoic heterogeneous fluid. Reticular contractions were biphasic with 1.0 ± 0.38 contractions per minute. The rumen had a mean wall thickness of 2.1 mm dorsally, 3.5 mm at the level of the longitudinal groove, and 3.2 mm ventrally. The ventral sac of the rumen of all calves contained echoic heterogeneous liquid. During feeding the milk entering the rumen could be seen as hyperechoic liquid in five calves. The omasum was seen on the right side as a crescent-shaped line medial to the liver in seven calves. Only the omasal wall closest to the transducer was seen as an echoic line with a mean thickness of 2.7 mm. The ultrasonographic appearance of the omasum did not change during or after feeding. The abomasum was seen immediately caudal to the xyphoid on both sides of the midline before feeding. The mean length at the ventral midline was 22.2 cm. The ingesta were heterogeneous in all calves and the abomasal folds were distinct in eight. The mean lateral expansion of the abomasum from the ventral midline to the left and right varied from 8.7 to 13.8 cm and from 4.3 to 11.3 cm. The milk entering the abomasum was observed in all calves, and signs of milk clotting were seen in all calves 15 minutes after feeding. Conclusion This study showed that ultrasonography is useful for detecting milk in the reticulum and rumen of calves with ruminal drinking syndrome. PMID:23298472

  16. Microbial functional diversity of a shrubland soil experimentally burned and treated with two post-fire stabilization techniques (straw mulch and seeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.T. Fonturbel

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The study examined the effect of two post-fire stabilization treatments (seeding and mulching on microbial diversity of a shrubland area of Galicia after an experimental fire. The soil was a Leptosol developed over granite with a slope of 38-54% and the soil microbial functional diversity was assessed using Biolog substrate utilization EcoPlates (Biolog Inc., Hayward, CA, USA. Soil samples were taken from the A horizon (0-5 cm depth at different sampling times over one year after the experimental fire. The results indicated that immediately after the fire there were significant differences in the categorized substrate utilization pattern between the microbial communities of the burnt soil treatments and the corresponding unburnt control. The burned soils exhibited significant higher values for the utilization of carboxylic acids, amino acids, carbohydrates and phenolic compounds, suggesting that the microbial community in the burned soils could be favoured by the increase in available C and nutrients following the experimental fire. These changes in the categorized substrate utilization pattern were attenuated with time; thus, one year after the fire, similar values for utilization of different C sources were observed for all unburned and burnt soils. With respect to post-fire treatments only the mulching showed an effect on the C utilization pattern.

  17. Avaliação da produção de bezerros em confinamento ou em suplementação exclusiva Evaluation of production of calves in feed lot or in creep feeding systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.C.V. Ítavo

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se o desempenho de vacas e bezerros desmamados aos 90 (D90 e aos 210 (D210 dias, utilizando-se 36 vacas Beefalo-Nelore, multíparas e seus bezerros, em delineamento experimental de blocos ao acaso, com 18 repetições, sendo nove machos e nove fêmeas. Aos 90 dias pós-parto os bezerros foram pesados e distribuídos em dois tratamentos, adotando-se para a formação do bloco o peso e o sexo do bezerro. Os dois tratamentos foram creep-feeding (D210 e confinamento (D90. Os bezerros (D210 foram criados em pastagem de Brachiaria decumbens e B. humidicula com 48 hectares Os bezerros (D90 foram confinados em 7,95m²/animal e receberam capim elefante picado e concentrado. As médias de consumo de matéria seca do concentrado, do peso ao desmame e do ganho de peso foram 0,56 e 1,69kg/dia; 208,68 e 185,67kg; 0,75 e 0,52kg/dia, respectivamente, para bezerros D210 e D90. Matrizes D90 apresentaram maior peso (448,86kg aos 210 dias pós-parto. Sugere-se a suplementação excluviva, ou creep-feeding, para desmame de bezerros mais pesados.Performances of cows and calves weaned at 90 (D90 and 210 days of age (D210 were evaluated, using 36 Beefalo-Nelore multiparus cows and their calves, in a randomized block experimental design, with 18 replicates of nine animals of each sex. Calves were allotted to treatments using as criteria to form blocks, the weight and sex of the animal. Calves (D210 were raised in 48ha pasture of Brachiaria decumbens e B. humidicula. Calves (D90 were raised in feedlot condition, in an area of 7.95m² /animal, and were fed chopped elephant grass and concentrate. The average concentrate dry matter intake, weaned body weight and weight gain were, respectively, 0.56 and 1.69kg/day; 208.68 and 185.67kg; 0.75 and 0.52kg/day respectively for D210 e D90 calves. Cows from D90 treatment showed higher body weight (448.86kg at 210 days post partum. Creep-feeding is suggested for weaning heavier calves.

  18. Performance and Health of Group-Housed Calves Kept in Igloo Calf Hutches and Calf Barn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerzy Wójcik*, Renata Pilarczyk, Anna Bilska, Ottfried Weiher1 and Peter Sanftleben1

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Group-reared calves are usually housed in common buildings, such as calf barns of all sorts; however, there are concerns about this practice due to problems such as an increased incidence of diseases and poor performance of the calves. Group calf rearing using igloo hutches may be a solution combining the benefits of individual and group housing systems. The aim of this study was to evaluate group-reared calves housed in Igloo-type hutches compared with those housed in common calf barns. The experiment was carried out on a large private dairy farm located in Vorpommern, Germany. A total of 90 Deutsche-Holstein bull calves were assigned to 2 treatment groups: the calf-barn group, with calves grouped in pens in a building, and the Igloo-hutch group, with calves housed in outdoor enclosures with an access to group igloo-style hutches. Calves entering the 84-day experiment were at an average age of about three weeks, with the mean initial body weight of about 50 kg. The calves housed in the group Igloo hutches attained higher daily weight gains compared to those housed in the calf barn (973 vs 721 g/day, consumed more solid feeds (concentrate, corn grain and maize silage: (1.79 vs 1.59 kg/day, and less milk replacer (5.51 vs 6.19 kg/day, had also a lower incidence of respiratory diseases (1.24 vs 3.57% with a shorter persistence of the illness.

  19. Causes for culling first calving cows on farms with different levels of production

    OpenAIRE

    Stojić P.; Beskorovajni R.; Pantelić V.; Novaković Ž.; Bojković-Kovačević S.; Stanojević D.

    2013-01-01

    It is general knowledge that management influences results in cattle production to the highest extent, and that the culling of cows is a very good indicator of the success of farm management. A comparison of results of culling for first calving cows on farms with various levels of production in 2011 established differences both for the number of culled animals and the reasons for culling. On farms with higher levels of production, the share of first calving...

  20. Effects of milk intake on forage intake and performance of suckling range calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansotegui, R P; Havstad, K M; Wallace, J D; Hallford, D M

    1991-03-01

    A study to examine the relationships between milk intake, forage intake, and performance of Hereford-Angus suckling range calves was conducted during July, August, and September of 1984 and 1985. Twenty calves were used each year. The study was conducted at the Red Bluff Research Ranch located 56 km west of Bozeman, Montana. Average daily gain, milk intake (MI), forage digestibility, and fecal output (FO) were measured at 28-d intervals, beginning when the average calf age was 66 +/- 4 d. Milk intake was estimated using weigh-suckle-weigh techniques. Total fecal collections were used to measure FO. Forage digestibility and rates of passage were determined using nylon bag in situ techniques and external markers in ruminally cannulated calves of the same age. Fecal output by calves increased as body weight and age increased. Milk intake was higher (P less than .05) in 1985 than in 1984, but FO was higher (P less than .01) in 1984 than in 1985. Fecal output by calves was negatively correlated to MI in July (r = -.62; P less than .05) and August (r = -.56; P less than .05). No significant correlations were detected between MI and ADG (P greater than .10). Forage intake estimates were derived from FO, rate of passage, and in situ digestibility values. During July, calves consumed .3 kg more forage for each kilogram of reduction in fluid MI (P less than .05). In both August and September, calves consumed .6 kg more forage for each kilogram of reduction in fluid MI (P less than .10). Calves maintained similar digestible energy (DE) intake both years, although the source of DE varied.

  1. Preorbital gland opening in red deer (Cervus elaphus) calves: signal of hunger?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartos, L; Víchová, J; Lancingerová, J

    2005-01-01

    The opening of the preorbital gland in red deer (Cervus elaphus) calves has been hypothesized to be a signal to the mother that her calf is hungry. Closing of the gland should indicate that the calf has received a sufficient amount of milk, and thus the mother should stop the suckling. We tested the hypothesis that the calf signals hunger when its preorbital gland is open and signals satiation when the gland is closed. To test this, the behavior of eight bottle-reared calves was monitored for 6 mo. For each meal during this time period, opening of the preorbital gland was recorded before calves were offered the meal and after they ate. Satiation of the calf was estimated (not begging for more food after the meal = satiated; begging = not satiated). The data set contained 3,116 records of paired measurements of preorbital gland opening (before and after the meal). Calves were satiated after feeding for 90.15% of the meals. The opening of the preorbital gland was associated with feeding and achieving satiety. In most cases (77%), calves opened their preorbital glands before their meal. Eighty-five percent of hungry calves still had preorbital glands open after the meal, whereas preorbital gland opening was decreased (P preorbital gland opening before and after the meal, and also according to whether the calf reached satiety. The heavier calves in this study tended to have their preorbital glands open more frequently than the lighter ones, which may indicate the need for an increased amount of milk intake. There was no clear trend in the frequency of preorbital gland opening with age. In conclusion, preorbital opening is likely to be a signal of calf satiety, as suggested earlier. Nevertheless, preorbital glands were not always open when the calves were hungry and did not vanish during the feeding in all cases.

  2. The effect of unrestricted milk feeding on the growth and health of Jersey calves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. L. Uys

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to determine the effect of feeding high milk volumes on the growth rate, health and cross-sucking behaviour in group-fed Jersey calves. Three-day-old heifers (n = 120 in a seasonal calving dairy herd were randomly assigned to one of 6 treatment groups. Three groups received high milk volumes (HMV, consisting of ad libitum milk or milk replacer feeding twice a day, while 3 groups received restricted milk volumes (RMV, consisting of 2 twice daily, during the pre-weaning period. After a pre-weaning period during which feeding was reduced to once daily, all calves were weaned at 42 days and monitored until 60 days of age.Adjusting for birth mass, birth date,damparity and sire, average daily mass gain (ADG, both pre-weaning (days 0–42 and overall (days 0–60, was higher inHMVthan inRMVcalves (P<0.001.After weaning, growth rates showed no differences and at 60 days of age the HMV calves maintained a 6.74 kg advantage in mean body mass (P < 0.001. The mean intake of dry starter feed was higher in RMV than in HMVcalves. Overall feed conversion rate ofHMVcalves was 9.6%better thanRMVcalves. However, the variable cost per kg mass gain was 12 % higher for HMV calves. In the RMV groups 75 % of calves showed cross-sucking behaviour pre-weaning and 18 % post-weaning, whereas in HMV calves the proportions were 2 % and 7 %, respectively. There was no significant effect of milk volume on the incidence of diarrhoea.We conclude that the feeding of high volumes of milk to Jersey calves has a positive effect on growth rate, without compromising health or reducing solid feed intake after weaning. However, the higher cost of such a feeding system may limit its implementation.

  3. The effect of calving season on reproductive performance of Jersey cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ercan Soydan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Dairy records, containing 1269 lactation record of 462 Jersey dairy cows collected over 16 years, from an agricultural state farm were used. Data for reproductive performance of cows were also collected. Means of the herd for lactation milk yield, calving interval, days open, interval from calving to the first insemination, lactation length, gestation length and dry period were 3195.7±20.2 kg, 366.6±1.7 d, 92.9±1.6 d, 78.0±1.3 d, 301.7±1.1 d, 275.2±0.2 d and 69.3±0.8 d, respectively. The effect of calving season (winter, spring, summer and autumn on reproductive performance for high, low and moderate milk-yield cows was investigated. Calving season affected the days from calving to first insemination in high and moderate yielding cows (P<0.001 while didn’t affect low yielding cows. In summer, days open in high yielding cows were 35 days longer compared to winter season (P<0.001 as observed for moderate yielding cows (P<0.01. In high yielding cows, calving interval was 18 days longer in spring compared to winter calving season. Calving season also affected the first service conception rate in high yielding cows (P<0.05. Services per conception in autumn were lower than the other seasons (P<0.001. In conclusion, high yielding dairy cows need more attention in summer season with respect to body condition score, dietary energy: protein ratio, uterus health and elimination of heat stress, to get more profit in dairy farm.

  4. Orphan caribou, Rangifer tarandus, calves: A re-evaluation of overwinter survival data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joly, Kyle

    2000-01-01

    Low sample size and high variation within populations reduce power of statistical tests. These aspects of statistical power appear to have affected an analysis comparing overwinter survival rates of non-orphan and orphan Caribou (Rangifer tarandus) calves by an earlier study for the Porcupine Caribou Herd. A re-evaluation of the data revealed that conclusions about a lack of significant difference in the overwinter survival rates between orphan and non-orphan calves were premature.

  5. Bone mineral response to ammonium sulphate offered as a lick supplement in beef calves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.E. Motsei

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Sixteen Bonsmara calves (4 males, 12 females between 10 and 18 months of age were blocked according to age and sex and randomly assigned to 2 groups. They were offered licks containing bone meal and salt (50:50 ratio (control and bone meal and ammonium sulphate (NH4SO4 at 1.25, 2.5, 5, 10, 15, and 18 % (treatment to evaluate the effects of dietary anions on bone phosphate (P concentration. Bone P concentration was significantly (P<0.05 higher in the NH4SO4 group compared with the control group, indicating that NH4SO4 was able to increase the P content of bone at each of the 6 concentrations used in the lick relative to the control animals, thereby improving the P status of the animals. Ammonium sulphate at 15% and 18% in the lick also significantly (P <0.05 increased bone P compared with the lower concentrations of NH4SO4. Bone calcium (Ca fluctuated as a result of the acidogenic lick. There was absorption of Ca when P was being resorbed and resorption of Ca when P was being absorbed into and out of bone. Bone Ca:P ratio ranged from 3.2 to 6.4 among the control group and 1.6 to 4.3 among the treatment group. Animals receiving the acidogenic lick had a higher percentage ash compared to the control group for most of the experimental period. Bone magnesium (Mg fluctuated in response to the acidogenic lick, and it was difficult to show a relationship between bone Mg and Ca or P. The overall mean cortical bone thickness was significantly (P < 0.05 greater in treatment (1.60 mm compared with control (1.43 mm calves and this was also true at sampling periods 2, 4, 5 and 6. Bone thickness followed bone P and not bone Ca. Results from this research indicate that the addition of ammonium sulphate to a lick had a beneficial effect in improving the P status by increasing bone P and improving the mineral status of bone by increasing the thickness of cortical bone and percentage ash.

  6. Establishment of ruminal enzyme activities and fermentation capacity in dairy calves from birth through weaning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rey, M; Enjalbert, F; Monteils, V

    2012-03-01

    The objectives of this study were to characterize the establishment of ruminal fermentation and enzymatic activities in dairy calves from birth to weaning (d 83). Six Holstein calves, immediately separated from their mother at birth, were fed colostrum for 3 d after birth, and thereafter milk replacer, starter pelleted concentrate, and hay until d 83 of age. Ruminal samples were collected from each calf every day for the first 10 d, and additionally at d 12, 15, 19, 22, 26, 29, 33, 36, 40, 43, 47, 50, 55, 62, 69, and 83. Ruminal samples were collected 1h after milk feeding with a stomach tube. The pH and redox potential (E(h)) were immediately measured. Samples were kept for further determination of ammonia nitrogen (NH(3)-N) and volatile fatty acid (VFA) concentrations, and xylanase, amylase, urease, and protease activities. Ruminal pH averaged 6.69, 5.82, and 6.34, from d 1 to 9, d 10 to 40, and d 43 to 83 of age, respectively. At first day of life, the ruminal E(h) value was positive (+224 mV). From d 2 to 9, d 10 to 40, and d 43 to 83 of age, ruminal E(h) averaged -164, -115, and -141 mV, respectively. From d 1 to 3, d 4 to 22, and d 26 to 83 of age, NH(3)-N concentration averaged 60.1, 179.8, and 58.2 mg/L, respectively. No VFA were detected in ruminal samples collected on d 1 of life of calves. From d 2 to 10 and d 12 to 83 of age, ruminal total VFA concentration averaged 19.5 and 84.4mM, respectively. Neither ruminal xylanase or amylase activities were observed at d 1 of age. From d 5 to 15 and d 19 to 83 of age, the xylanase activity averaged 182.2 and 62.4 μmol of sugar released per hour per gram of ruminal content dry matter (DM), respectively. From d 5 to 83 of age, the amylase activity reached 35.4 μmol of sugar released per hour per gram of ruminal content DM. The ruminal ureolytic activity was observed with an average value of 6.9 μg of NH(3)-N released per minute per gram of ruminal content DM over the 83-d experimental period. From d 1 to 4 and d

  7. Immunological responses of pregnant swamp and murrah buffalo cows and calves to Toxocara (Neoascaris) vitulorum infection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amerasinghe, P.; Masoodi, M.A.; Samarasinghe, B.; Sivanathan, S.; Gunawardana, V.K.; Fernando, S.T.

    1984-01-01

    Swamp buffalo cows from an area where T. vitulorum infection was heavy were examined for serum antibodies. Serum from all cows showed strongly positive precipitin reactions from the 4th to 6th months of pregnancy and after parturition using homologous larval, adult worm and adult excretory and secretory antigens; these precipitins were still being detected in the sera 4-6 months after calving. The sera of calves born to these cows were negative for T. vitulorum precipitins before feeding with colostrum but a precipitin reaction was evident from 24 hours of birth. Nevertheless, patent infections developed from 19-21 days after birth and one calf died with severe diarrhoea; the remainder revealed heavy faecal Toxocara egg counts. In six calves the infection was spontaneously eliminated between 40 and 60 days after birth suggesting a 'self-cure' reaction. In a similar study involving 30 Murrah cows sera precipitins were not observed during the first 4-6 months of pregnancy. In 14 calves born to these animals serum precipitins were never observed, but the animals had T. vitulorum egg counts comparable with those in swamp buffalo calves. After an initial natural infection a strong resistance to reinfection was acquired by most calves of both breeds in that larvae did not generally develop beyond the second stage. (author)

  8. Calves Use an Automated Brush and a Hanging Rope When Pair-Housed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gosia Zobel

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Calf housing often only meets the basic needs of calves, but there is a growing interest in providing enrichments. This study described the behaviour of calves when they were given the opportunity to interact with two commonly available enrichment items. Female and male calves (approximately 11 days old were pair-housed in 8 identical pens fitted with an automated brush and a hanging rope. Frequency and duration of behaviours were recorded on 3 separate days (from 12:00 until 08:00 the following day. Calves spent equal time using the brush and rope (27.1 min/day, but there was less variation in the use of the brush as opposed to the rope (coefficient of variation, CV: 23 vs. 78%, respectively. Calves had more frequent (94 bouts, CV: 24% and shorter (17.8 s/bout, CV: 24% brush use bouts compared to fewer (38 bouts, CV: 43% and longer (38.3 s/bout, CV: 53% rope use bouts. There was a diurnal pattern of use for both items. Frequency of play was similar to rope use, but total time playing was 8% of rope and brush use. Variability among calves suggested that individual preference existed; however, the social dynamics of the pair-housed environment were not measured and therefore could have influenced brush and rope use. Multiple enrichment items should be considered when designing improvements to calf housing.

  9. Technical note: preorbital gland opening in red deer (Cervus elaphus) calves as an indicator of stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartosová-Víchová, J; Bartos, L; Svecová, L

    2007-02-01

    The opening of the preorbital gland of red deer (Cervus elaphus) calves has been previously associated with feeding and satiety. However, it has been suggested to be most likely affected by some other factor or factors, possibly by excitement of the calf. If so, a calf should open its preorbital gland while being exposed to any stressful procedure. The hypothesis was tested that the preorbital gland is closed in a relaxed calf, whereas it is opened in a stressed calf. Preorbital opening was observed in 41 newborn red deer farm calves during a regular daily routine consisting of a search for newborn calves, their inspection, weighing, and painful marking with an ear tag. The openness of the preorbital gland (preorbital gland closed or opened) was recorded just before manipulation of a lying calf (i.e., in a calm calf) and then during the manipulation (i.e., in a distressed calf). Before manipulation, in all but 3 calves (7.3%, all of which were males), the preorbital gland was closed. All calves observed (100%) opened their preorbital gland during their manipulation, at least by the time the ear was punctured by the ear tag. The proportion of individuals with an open gland was lower (P preorbital gland in newborn red deer calves was associated with a stressful manipulation by the humans, which suggests that it may be a simple and easily recognized indicator of calf stress.

  10. Effects of Topical Anaesthetic and Buccal Meloxicam Treatments on Concurrent Castration and Dehorning of Beef Calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van der Saag, Dominique; White, Peter; Ingram, Lachlan; Manning, Jaime; Windsor, Peter; Thomson, Peter; Lomax, Sabrina

    2018-02-28

    The use of pain relief during castration and dehorning of calves on commercial beef operations can be limited by constraints associated with the delivery of analgesic agents. As topical anaesthetic (TA) and buccal meloxicam (MEL) are now available in Australia, offering practical analgesic treatments for concurrent castration and dehorning of beef calves, a study was conducted to determine their efficacy in providing pain relief when applied separately or in combination. Weaner calves were randomly allocated to; (1) no castration and dehorning/positive control (CONP); (2) castration and dehorning/negative control (CONN); (3) castration and dehorning with buccal meloxicam (BM); (4) castration and dehorning with topical anaesthetic (TA); and (5) castration and dehorning with buccal meloxicam and topical anaesthetic (BMTA). Weight gain, paddock utilisation, lying activity and individual behaviours following treatment were measured. CONP and BMTA calves had significantly greater weight gain than CONN calves ( p castrated calves spent more time walking ( p = 0.024) and less time eating ( p castration and amputation dehorning.

  11. Behavioral and Physiological Responses of Calves to Marshalling and Roping in a Simulated Rodeo Event

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle Sinclair

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Rodeos are public events at which stockpeople face tests of their ability to manage cattle and horses, some of which relate directly to rangeland cattle husbandry. One of these is calf roping, in which a calf released from a chute is pursued by a horse and rider, who lassoes, lifts and drops the calf to the ground and finally ties it around the legs. Measurements were made of behavior and stress responses of ten rodeo-naïve calves marshalled by a horse and rider, and ten rodeo-experienced calves that were roped. Naïve calves marshalled by a horse and rider traversed the arena slowly, whereas rodeo-experienced calves ran rapidly until roped. Each activity was repeated once after two hours. Blood samples taken before and after each activity demonstrated increased cortisol, epinephrine and nor-epinephrine in both groups. However, there was no evidence of a continued increase in stress hormones in either group by the start of the repeated activity, suggesting that the elevated stress hormones were not a response to a prolonged effect of the initial blood sampling. It is concluded that both the marshalling of calves naïve to the roping chute by stockpeople and the roping and dropping of experienced calves are stressful in a simulated rodeo calf roping event.

  12. Pair housing and enhanced milk allowance increase play behavior and improve performance in dairy calves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Margit Bak; Duve, Linda Rosager; Weary, D. M.

    2015-01-01

    -housed calves could perform social play behavior (play fighting), and the duration of this was greater on d 15 and 29 than on d 43 [8.3, 10.7 and 3.5 (±1.3) corresponding to 69, 115 and 12 s/24 h for d 15, 29, and 43]. Among calves on enhanced milk, pair-housed animals had a greater concentrate intake than...... observed no effect of pair versus individual housing [810 and 840 (±40) g/d]. In conclusion, greater durations of play behavior in enhanced-fed calves suggest an animal welfare benefit of this feeding method. Enhanced-fed calves consumed less concentrate, but pair housing stimulated concentrate intake......To investigate the effects of social housing and milk feeding on play behavior and performance, 48 Holstein-Friesian male and female calves were either individually or pair housed in straw-bedded pens (3.0 m × 4.5 m). Half of the calves in each housing treatment were fed a standard milk allowance...

  13. Growth, intake, and health of Holstein heifer calves fed an enhanced preweaning diet with or without postweaning exogenous estrogen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geiger, A J; Parsons, C L M; James, R E; Akers, R M

    2016-05-01

    Research has shown that changes in nutrition both before and after weaning can affect mammary development. Additionally, estrogen is known to be a potent mammogenic stimulant. Our objectives were to determine effects of altered preweaning feeding and exogenous estradiol postweaning on growth, intake, and health. Thirty-six Holstein heifer calves were reared on (1) a restricted milk replacer (MR) diet fed at 0.44kg powder dry matter (DM)/day [R; 20.9% crude protein (CP), 19.8% fat, DM basis], or (2) an enhanced MR fed at 1.08kg powder DM/d (EH; 28.9% CP, 26.2% fat, DM basis). The MR feeding was reduced 50% during wk 8 to prepare for weaning. Starter was offered after wk 4 but balanced between treatments. Body weight and frame were measured weekly with intakes and health monitored daily. At weaning, a subset of calves were slaughtered (n=6/diet). Enhanced-fed calves had greater carcass, thymus, liver, spleen, and mammary gland (parenchyma and mammary fat pad) weights. The EH calves also had greater average daily gain (ADG) starting during wk 1 (0.36 vs. -0.06kg/d) and lasting through wk 7 (1.00 vs. 0.41kg/d). Remaining calves received estrogen implants or placebo and were slaughtered at the end of wk 10, creating 4 treatments: (1) R, (2) R + estrogen (R-E2), (3) EH, and (4) EH + estrogen (EH-E2). Postweaning ADG was similar between R, EH, and EH-E2 calves, but greater in R-E2 calves than E calves. The EH-E2 calves had the heaviest mammary glands, and R-E2 calves had heavier mammary glands than R calves. The EH calves consumed more MR DM, CP, and fat preweaning. The R-fed calves consumed more starter DM preweaning. Fecal score was greater for EH calves (1.74 vs. 1.50) preweaning, but days medicated did not differ. Fecal scores were lower for R-E2 calves postweaning. Improved preweaning feeding of calves increased body weights and frame measures. Differences in body weights remained postweaning. Enhanced-fed calves showed greater ADG during the preweaning period but

  14. Effect of early feed type exposure on diet-selection behavior of dairy calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller-Cushon, E K; DeVries, T J

    2011-01-01

    Dairy cattle exhibit characteristic feeding behavior patterns that may be influenced by early experiences. The objective of this study was to determine how early exposure to different feed types affects diet selection behavior of dairy calves once fed a mixed ration after weaning off milk. Eight Holstein bull calves were randomly assigned at birth to a feed exposure treatment: concentrate or grass/alfalfa hay, offered ad libitum. All calves were offered 8 L/d of milk replacer [1.2 kg of dry matter (DM)] from birth, which was incrementally reduced after 4 wk to enable weaning by the end of wk 7. After milk weaning, all calves were fed a mixed ration containing (on a DM basis) 60% concentrate and 40% grass/alfalfa hay for 9 wk. Intake was recorded daily, and calves were weighed 3 times/wk. Samples of fresh feed and orts were taken in wk 8, 12, and 16 for particle size analysis. The separator had 3 screens (19, 8, and 1.18 mm) producing long, medium, short, and fine particle fractions. Sorting of each fraction was calculated as actual intake as a percentage of predicted intake. Calves exposed to concentrate tended to have greater DM intake than calves exposed to hay both before (0.49 vs. 0.16 kg/d) and after weaning off milk (3.3 vs. 2.6 kg/d). Weights were similar during the milk-feeding stage, but calves exposed to concentrate had greater weights overall in the postweaning stage (129.8 vs. 112.6 kg). Initially after weaning, calves sorted for familiar feed; calves previously exposed to concentrate sorted for short particles (126.4%), which were primarily concentrate, whereas calves previously exposed to hay did not (94.2%). Calves previously exposed to hay tended to sort for long particles (113.4%), which were solely hay, whereas calves previously exposed to concentrate sorted against them (56.4%). The sorting observed for short particles was associated with consuming a diet with a greater concentration of protein, nonfiber carbohydrates, and metabolizable energy

  15. Prediction of the hardness profile of an AISI 4340 steel cylinder heat-treated by laser - 3D and artificial neural networks modelling and experimental validation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hadhri, Mahdi; Ouafi, Abderazzak El; Barka, Noureddine [University of Quebec, Rimouski (Canada)

    2017-02-15

    This paper presents a comprehensive approach developed to design an effective prediction model for hardness profile in laser surface transformation hardening process. Based on finite element method and Artificial neural networks, the proposed approach is built progressively by (i) examining the laser hardening parameters and conditions known to have an influence on the hardened surface attributes through a structured experimental investigation, (ii) investigating the laser hardening parameters effects on the hardness profile through extensive 3D modeling and simulation efforts and (ii) integrating the hardening process parameters via neural network model for hardness profile prediction. The experimental validation conducted on AISI4340 steel using a commercial 3 kW Nd:Yag laser, confirm the feasibility and efficiency of the proposed approach leading to an accurate and reliable hardness profile prediction model. With a maximum relative error of about 10 % under various practical conditions, the predictive model can be considered as effective especially in the case of a relatively complex system such as laser surface transformation hardening process.

  16. Prediction of the hardness profile of an AISI 4340 steel cylinder heat-treated by laser - 3D and artificial neural networks modelling and experimental validation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hadhri, Mahdi; Ouafi, Abderazzak El; Barka, Noureddine

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents a comprehensive approach developed to design an effective prediction model for hardness profile in laser surface transformation hardening process. Based on finite element method and Artificial neural networks, the proposed approach is built progressively by (i) examining the laser hardening parameters and conditions known to have an influence on the hardened surface attributes through a structured experimental investigation, (ii) investigating the laser hardening parameters effects on the hardness profile through extensive 3D modeling and simulation efforts and (ii) integrating the hardening process parameters via neural network model for hardness profile prediction. The experimental validation conducted on AISI4340 steel using a commercial 3 kW Nd:Yag laser, confirm the feasibility and efficiency of the proposed approach leading to an accurate and reliable hardness profile prediction model. With a maximum relative error of about 10 % under various practical conditions, the predictive model can be considered as effective especially in the case of a relatively complex system such as laser surface transformation hardening process

  17. Air quality in barns for milk-fed calves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lavoie, J.

    2007-01-01

    Seventy per cent of the veal produced in Canada comes from Quebec. This paper reported on the air quality in barns used for milk-fed calves. It is known that air quality inside livestock buildings has an impact on both workers and animals, particularly in winter when air circulation is reduced. In this study, air quality inside barns was studied during the winter, spring and summer. Three types of barns with 3 different types of ventilation typically found in Quebec were evaluated. These included those with preheated corridors, lateral air entries, and central chimneys. Gases were measured in order to determine concentrations and emissions of: ammonia (NH 3 ) which is toxic, colourless and flammable; hydrogen sulfide (H 2 S) which is very toxic, flammable; carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) which is colourless and odourless; nitrous oxide (N 2 O) which is colourless and flammable, but harmless to health in the short-term; carbon monoxide (CO) which is colourless, odourless and flammable; and methane (CH 4 ) which is the principal constituent released by animals, and is also colourless, odourless and extremely flammable. When exposed to air, both methane and carbon monoxide can produce an explosive mix especially in an enclosed area. Bacteria, mold, endotoxins, and dust are also present in barns. Samples of gases were analyzed with the help of different portable apparatuses. Results revealed that there are no significant problems with air quality in barns used for milk-fed calves in Quebec. It was determined that the inside temperature was appropriate even during summer periods, and although the relative humidity was higher than the recommended values for the care and handling of farm animals, it was still acceptable. In winter, ammonia was the only gas present in concentrations that reached values of weighted average exposure. Also, concentrations of bacteria were higher during winter. It was suggested that better air ventilation during the winter period would lower ammonia

  18. The optimal number of heifer calves to be reared as dairy replacements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohd Nor, N; Steeneveld, W; Mourits, M C M; Hogeveen, H

    2015-02-01

    Dairy farmers often keep almost all their newborn heifer calves despite the high cost of rearing. By rearing all heifer calves, farmers have more security and retain flexibility to cope with the uncertainty in the availability of replacement heifers in time. This uncertainty is due to mortality or infertility during the rearing period and the variation in culling rate of lactating cows. The objective of this study is to provide insight in the economically optimal number of heifer calves to be reared as replacements. A herd-level stochastic simulation model was developed specific for this purpose with a herd of 100 dairy cows; the biological part of the model consisted of a dairy herd unit and rearing unit for replacement heifers. The dairy herd unit included variation in the number of culled dairy cows. The rearing unit incorporated variation in the number of heifers present in the herd by including uncertainty in mortality and variation in fertility. The dairy herd unit and rearing unit were linked by the number of replacement heifers and culled dairy cows. When not enough replacement heifers were available to replace culled dairy cows, the herd size was temporarily reduced, resulting in an additional cost for the empty slots. When the herd size reached 100 dairy cows, the available replacement heifers that were not needed were sold. It was assumed that no purchase of cows and calves occurred. The optimal percentage of 2-wk-old heifer calves to be retained was defined as the percentage of heifer calves that minimized the average net costs of rearing replacement heifers. In the default scenario, the optimal retention was 73% and the total net cost of rearing was estimated at €40,939 per herd per year. This total net cost was 6.5% lower than when all heifer calves were kept. An earlier first-calving age resulted in an optimal retention of 75%, and the net costs of rearing were €581 per herd per year lower than in the default scenario. For herds with a lower or

  19. Mortality risk factors for calves entering a multi-location white veal farm in Ontario, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winder, Charlotte B; Kelton, David F; Duffield, Todd F

    2016-12-01

    Mortality in preweaned dairy-breed calves, whether they are replacement dairy heifers, veal animals, or dairy beef animals, represents both a welfare issue and a source of economic loss for the industries involved. Studies describing morbidity and mortality in veal calves have illustrated different management practices and requirements in terms of housing and nutrition around the world. Studies examining the rearing of replacement dairy heifers have shown that rates of morbidity and mortality can vary dramatically between farms, perhaps reflecting differences in management strategies. It has been over 2 decades since morbidity and mortality in veal calves in Ontario were described. The objective of this retrospective population cohort study was to describe mortality and determine whether on-arrival information could be used to predict mortality risk. Predictors could be used to both better classify and group calves on arrival and provide feedback to suppliers about the characteristics of the highest- and lowest-risk calves. We collected data from 10,910 calves entering 7 barns of a single white veal farm, all in Ontario, from January 1 to December 31, 2014. Calves were followed until death or marketing (typically 140 to 150 d). We developed logistic regression models to determine the effects of weight on arrival, season of arrival, supplier, sex, barn, and purchase price on the risk of total mortality, early mortality (0-21d after arrival), and late mortality (>21d after arrival). We identified significant associations between season, barn, supplier, weight, and total mortality risk, with lighter-weight calves arriving in winter being at increased risk. Early mortality was significantly associated with weight, season, barn, and supplier, and tended to be associated with standardized price; lighter-weight calves arriving in winter at lower prices were at increased risk. Late mortality was significantly associated with season of arrival, barn, and supplier. On

  20. Monitoring Cell Death in Regorafenib-Treated Experimental Colon Carcinomas Using Annexin-Based Optical Fluorescence Imaging Validated by Perfusion MRI.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philipp M Kazmierczak

    Full Text Available To investigate annexin-based optical fluorescence imaging (OI for monitoring regorafenib-induced early cell death in experimental colon carcinomas in rats, validated by perfusion MRI and multiparametric immunohistochemistry.Subcutaneous human colon carcinomas (HT-29 in athymic rats (n = 16 were imaged before and after a one-week therapy with regorafenib (n = 8 or placebo (n = 8 using annexin-based OI and perfusion MRI at 3 Tesla. Optical signal-to-noise ratio (SNR and MRI tumor perfusion parameters (plasma flow PF, mL/100mL/min; plasma volume PV, % were assessed. On day 7, tumors underwent immunohistochemical analysis for tumor cell apoptosis (TUNEL, proliferation (Ki-67, and microvascular density (CD31.Apoptosis-targeted OI demonstrated a tumor-specific probe accumulation with a significant increase of tumor SNR under therapy (mean Δ +7.78±2.95, control: -0.80±2.48, p = 0.021. MRI detected a significant reduction of tumor perfusion in the therapy group (mean ΔPF -8.17±2.32 mL/100 mL/min, control -0.11±3.36 mL/100 mL/min, p = 0.036. Immunohistochemistry showed significantly more apoptosis (TUNEL; 11392±1486 vs. 2921±334, p = 0.001, significantly less proliferation (Ki-67; 1754±184 vs. 2883±323, p = 0.012, and significantly lower microvascular density (CD31; 107±10 vs. 182±22, p = 0.006 in the therapy group.Annexin-based OI allowed for the non-invasive monitoring of regorafenib-induced early cell death in experimental colon carcinomas, validated by perfusion MRI and multiparametric immunohistochemistry.

  1. Zinc Deficiency‐Like Syndrome in Fleckvieh Calves: Clinical and Pathological Findings and Differentiation from Bovine Hereditary Zinc Deficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, S.; Majzoub‐Altweck, M.; Trefz, F.M.; Seifert, C.; Knubben‐Schweizer, G.; Fries, R.; Hermanns, W.; Gollnick, N.S.

    2018-01-01

    Background Zinc deficiency‐like (ZDL) syndrome is an inherited defect of Fleckvieh calves, with striking similarity to bovine hereditary zinc deficiency (BHZD). However, the causative mutation in a phospholipase D4 encoding gene (PLD4) shows no connection to zinc metabolism. Objectives To describe clinical signs, laboratory variables, and pathological findings of ZDL syndrome and their utility to differentiate ZDL from BHZD and infectious diseases with similar phenotype. Animals Nine hospitalized calves with crusting dermatitis and confirmed mutation in PLD4 and medical records from 25 calves with crusting dermatitis or suspected zinc deficiency. Methods Prospective and retrospective case series. Results The 9 calves (age: 5–53 weeks) displayed a moderate to severe crusting dermatitis mainly on the head, ventrum, and joints. Respiratory and digestive tract inflammations were frequently observed. Zinc supplementation did not lead to remission of clinical signs in 4 calves. Laboratory variables revealed slight anemia in 8 calves, hypoalbuminemia in 6 calves, but reduced serum zinc concentrations in only 3 calves. Mucosal erosions/ulcerations were present in 7 calves and thymus atrophy or reduced thymic weights in 8 calves. Histologically, skin lesions were indistinguishable from BHZD. Retrospective analysis of medical records revealed the presence of this phenotype since 1988 and pedigree analysis revealed a common ancestor of several affected calves. Conclusions and Clinical Importance ZDL syndrome should be suspected in Fleckvieh calves with crusting dermatitis together with diarrhea or respiratory tract inflammations without response to oral zinc supplementation. Definite diagnosis requires molecular genetic confirmation of the PLD4 mutation. PMID:29424482

  2. Zinc Deficiency-Like Syndrome in Fleckvieh Calves: Clinical and Pathological Findings and Differentiation from Bovine Hereditary Zinc Deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langenmayer, M C; Jung, S; Majzoub-Altweck, M; Trefz, F M; Seifert, C; Knubben-Schweizer, G; Fries, R; Hermanns, W; Gollnick, N S

    2018-03-01

    Zinc deficiency-like (ZDL) syndrome is an inherited defect of Fleckvieh calves, with striking similarity to bovine hereditary zinc deficiency (BHZD). However, the causative mutation in a phospholipase D4 encoding gene (PLD4) shows no connection to zinc metabolism. To describe clinical signs, laboratory variables, and pathological findings of ZDL syndrome and their utility to differentiate ZDL from BHZD and infectious diseases with similar phenotype. Nine hospitalized calves with crusting dermatitis and confirmed mutation in PLD4 and medical records from 25 calves with crusting dermatitis or suspected zinc deficiency. Prospective and retrospective case series. The 9 calves (age: 5-53 weeks) displayed a moderate to severe crusting dermatitis mainly on the head, ventrum, and joints. Respiratory and digestive tract inflammations were frequently observed. Zinc supplementation did not lead to remission of clinical signs in 4 calves. Laboratory variables revealed slight anemia in 8 calves, hypoalbuminemia in 6 calves, but reduced serum zinc concentrations in only 3 calves. Mucosal erosions/ulcerations were present in 7 calves and thymus atrophy or reduced thymic weights in 8 calves. Histologically, skin lesions were indistinguishable from BHZD. Retrospective analysis of medical records revealed the presence of this phenotype since 1988 and pedigree analysis revealed a common ancestor of several affected calves. ZDL syndrome should be suspected in Fleckvieh calves with crusting dermatitis together with diarrhea or respiratory tract inflammations without response to oral zinc supplementation. Definite diagnosis requires molecular genetic confirmation of the PLD4 mutation. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  3. The Effects of Feeding Raw Fiber Concentrate on Growth Performance and Blood Metabolites of Suckling Holstein Calves

    OpenAIRE

    Mehdi Dehghan-Banadaky; Fridoon Niazi; Mohsen Ghiasvand

    2012-01-01

    Sixteen female Holstein calves allocated in three treatments including: 1: control, 2: fed raw fiber concentrate (RFC) for 45 days and 3: fed RFC for 90 days. RFC supplement (Vitacel® 200) was added to milk immediately before feeding (10 g/L milk). Withers height and body weights of calves were measured monthly. Individual dry matter intake was recorded daily. Blood samples were taken monthly. The result showed that calves consumed RFC had significantly greater weaning an...

  4. Experimental Study on the Feasibility of Using Water Glass and Aluminum Sulfate to Treat Complications in High Liquid Limit Soil Subgrade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-hui Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The feasibility of using water glass and aluminum sulfate to treat high liquid limit soil subgrade diseases is studied through laboratory experiments, and the following results were observed. After improving the high liquid limit clay with water glass and aluminum sulfate, the liquid limit decreases, the plastic limit increases, and the plasticity index decreases. Compared with untreated soil, the clay content of the improved soil decreases, while the silt and coarse contents increase. The absolute and relative expansion rates of the improved soil are both lower than those of the untreated soil. With the same number of dry and wet cycles, the decreased degrees of cohesion and internal friction angle of the improved soil are, respectively, one-half and one-third of those of the untreated soil. After three dry and wet cycles, the California bearing ratio (CBR of the untreated soil does not meet the requirements of specifications. However, after being cured for seven days and being subjected to three dry and wet cycles, the CBR of the improved soil, with 4% water glass solution and 0.4% aluminum sulfate, meets the requirements of specifications.

  5. The effects of total mass of seed on distribution of lead in different tissues of bean plant (Phaseolus vulgaris L. Experimentally treated by lead

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilić Zoran

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to establish distribution of lead in different tissues of bean seed (seed coat, endo­sperm, embryo depending on seed mass, treated samples (seed by different concentration of Pb-acetate: 1O-5 M, 10-3M i 2x 10-2M. Depending on seed weight the samples derived in three groups: large (715g, middle (465g and small (280g. Each sample contained the same number of seeds. Concentration was determined by atomic absorber (Unicam 929. At highest Pb-acetate concentration (2x10-2M in seed with small total mass content of Pb was 1139μg/g, white in seed of 1052μg/g; in endosperm 580,6μg/g, middle 290,2μg/g and in second group 79,4μg/g. Similar pattern shows embryo but at die lower level of accumulation. On die basis of above presented results it could be concluded that concentration of Pb-acetate solution. Largest mass seed accumulate respectively less content of Pb in endosperm and embryo. Seed coat accumulated significant die larger amount of land probably embryo, in that way protects embryo. Therefore, larger bean seed are more convenient for planting in cases of potentially contamination by 1, but probably by other metals. .

  6. Mutant prevention concentration, pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic integration, and modeling of enrofloxacin data established in diseased buffalo calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramalingam, B; Sidhu, P K; Kaur, G; Venkatachalam, D; Rampal, S

    2015-12-01

    The pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic (PK/PD) modeling of enrofloxacin data using mutant prevention concentration (MPC) of enrofloxacin was conducted in febrile buffalo calves to optimize dosage regimen and to prevent the emergence of antimicrobial resistance. The serum peak concentration (Cmax ), terminal half-life (t1/2 K10) , apparent volume of distribution (Vd(area) /F), and mean residence time (MRT) of enrofloxacin were 1.40 ± 0.27 μg/mL, 7.96 ± 0.86 h, 7.74 ± 1.26 L/kg, and 11.57 ± 1.01 h, respectively, following drug administration at dosage 12 mg/kg by intramuscular route. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), minimum bactericidal concentration, and MPC of enrofloxacin against Pasteurella multocida were 0.055, 0.060, and 1.45 μg/mL, respectively. Modeling of ex vivo growth inhibition data to the sigmoid Emax equation provided AUC24 h /MIC values to produce effects of bacteriostatic (33 h), bactericidal (39 h), and bacterial eradication (41 h). The estimated daily dosage of enrofloxacin in febrile buffalo calves was 3.5 and 8.4 mg/kg against P. multocida/pathogens having MIC90 ≤0.125 and 0.30 μg/mL, respectively, based on the determined AUC24 h /MIC values by modeling PK/PD data. The lipopolysaccharide-induced fever had no direct effect on the antibacterial activity of the enrofloxacin and alterations in PK of the drug, and its metabolite will be beneficial for its use to treat infectious diseases caused by sensitive pathogens in buffalo species. In addition, in vitro MPC data in conjunction with in vivo PK data indicated that clinically it would be easier to eradicate less susceptible strains of P. multocida in diseased calves. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Pair Housing of Dairy Calves and Age at Pairing: Effects on Weaning Stress, Health, Production and Social Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolt, Sarah L; Boyland, Natasha K; Mlynski, David T; James, Richard; Croft, Darren P

    2017-01-01

    The early social environment can influence the health and behaviour of animals, with effects lasting into adulthood. In Europe, around 60% of dairy calves are reared individually during their first eight weeks of life, while others may be housed in pairs or small groups. This study assessed the effects of varying degrees of social contact on weaning stress, health and production during pen rearing, and on the social networks that calves later formed when grouped. Forty female Holstein-Friesian calves were allocated to one of three treatments: individually housed (I, n = 8), pair-housed from day five (P5, n = 8 pairs), and pair-housed from day 28 (P28, n = 8 pairs). From day 48, calves were weaned by gradual reduction of milk over three days, and vocalisations were recorded as a measure of stress for three days before, during and after weaning. Health and production (growth rate and concentrate intakes) were not affected by treatment during the weaning period or over the whole study. Vocalisations were highest post-weaning, and were significantly higher in I calves than pair-reared calves. Furthermore, P28 calves vocalised significantly more than P5 calves. The social network of calves was measured for one month after all calves were grouped in a barn, using association data from spatial proximity loggers. We tested for week-week stability, social differentiation and assortment in the calf network. Additionally, we tested for treatment differences in: coefficient of variation (CV) in association strength, percentage of time spent with ex-penmate (P5 and P28 calves only) and weighted degree centrality (the sum of the strength of an individual's associations). The network was relatively stable from weeks one to four and was significantly differentiated, with individuals assorting based on prior familiarity. P5 calves had significantly higher CV in association strength than I calves in week one (indicating more heterogeneous social associations) but there were no

  8. COMPARATIVE EFFICIENCY OF SUNFLOWER MEAL AND COTTONSEED CAKES IN THE FEED OF CROSSBRED CALVES FOR MEAT PRODUCTION

    OpenAIRE

    M. A. JABBAR, M. I. ANJUM1, S. REHMAN2 AND W. SHAHZAD2

    2006-01-01

    Thirty crossbred (Sahiwal x Friesian) male calves of 9-10 months age and weighing 70 to 90 kg, were used in completely randomized design to investigate the possibility of replacing cottonseed cakes (CSC) with sunflower meal (SFM), partially or completely, in rations for fattening of crossbred calves for meat production. Three concentrate rations viz. A, B and C were formulated. Ration A containing CSC was fed to the calves of group A, ration B containing SFM was fed to calves of group B and...

  9. The effect of colostral immunoglobulin supplement on the passive immunity, growth and health of neonatal calves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juha Nousiainen

    1994-09-01

    Full Text Available Neonatal dairy calves were randomly allotted to three colostrum feeding regimens with increasing intakes of immunoglobulins (Ig on the first day of life. The control group was fed one litre of pooled colostrum (Ig intake 19.5 g. In two experimental groups, the pooled colostrum was supplemented with 0.5 or 1.5 litres of commercial Ig-concentrate, giving a total Ig intake of 52.7 and 119.0 g, respectively. Serum IgG, IgM and IgA levels increased linearly (p < 0.001 on day 2 post partum with the increasing Ig intake. The calculated mean Ig-absorption rate was 61% and decreased linearly for IgM (p = 0.051 and IgG (p = 0.078 with increasing Ig intake. At the highest Ig intake, serum IgG remained above 10 g/l during 30 days post partum. In the experimental groups, serum IgM and IgA decreased sharply during the first week of life and were relatively constant thereafter. In the control group, however, there was an increase in serum IgM after one week post partum, perhaps due to the in situ production of Ig. With the increasing Ig intake there was a small and non-significant tendency for better live weight gain (p = 0.286 and a lower incidence of diarrhoea (p = 0.421 during the first four weeks of life. It is concluded that the Ig-product tested is well absorbed during 24 hours post partum and it can be used either as a supplement to maternal colostrum when its quality is poor, or as a substitute when colostrum is not available.

  10. A complex relationship between calving glaciers and climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Post, A.; O'Neel, S.; Motyka, R.J.; Streveler, G.

    2011-01-01

    Many terrestrial glaciers are sensitive indicators of past and present climate change as atmospheric temperature and snowfall modulate glacier volume. However, climate interpretations based on glacier behavior require careful selection of representative glaciers, as was recently pointed out for surging and debris-covered glaciers, whose behavior often defies regional glacier response to climate [Yde and Paasche, 2010]. Tidewater calving glaciers (TWGs)mountain glaciers whose termini reach the sea and are generally grounded on the seaflooralso fall into the category of non-representative glaciers because the regional-scale asynchronous behavior of these glaciers clouds their complex relationship with climate. TWGs span the globe; they can be found both fringing ice sheets and in high-latitude regions of each hemisphere. TWGs are known to exhibit cyclic behavior, characterized by slow advance and rapid, unstable retreat, largely independent of short-term climate forcing. This so-called TWG cycle, first described by Post [1975], provides a solid foundation upon which modern investigations of TWG stability are built. Scientific understanding has developed rapidly as a result of the initial recognition of their asynchronous cyclicity, rendering greater insight into the hierarchy of processes controlling regional behavior. This has improved the descriptions of the strong dynamic feedbacks present during retreat, the role of the ocean in TWG dynamics, and the similarities and differences between TWG and ice sheet outlet glaciers that can often support floating tongues.

  11. Eight calves of cervical ectopia cordis and their sternums

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hiraga, T.; Abe, M.

    1986-01-01

    Four male and four female Holstein-Friesian calves affected with cervical ectopia cordis were examined macroscopically and their sternums were radiographed using soft X-rays. Their lifespan ranged from 3 minutes to 312 days. The heart was located within the pericardium under the muscles and skin at the ventral cervical area and its double apex was directed craniodorsally, and the base was pointed caudoventrally. The branching pattern of arteries from the aortic arch was similar to that of dog in all cases. Double cranial vena cava and double azygos vein were observed in many cases. The manubrium was very wide to enlarge the cranial thoracic aperture. The short and wide sternum consisted of 13 to 26 sternebrae, and the ossification centers of manubrium and body of sternum showed paired appearance. The thoracic portion of the thymus was absent, while the cervical portions were gathered together on the craniodorsal side of the heart. The ligaments extending from the fibrous pericardium were attached to the mandibles and parotid fasciae cranially, to the cervical fasciae laterally, and also to the first ribs or manubrium caudally and held the heart in its position. Based on these findings, the pathogenesis of this anomaly was discussed from an embryological point of view

  12. Serum calcium and magnesium level in dairy cows at calving

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.M. Pulimeno

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Milk fever and hypocalcaemia are post-partum metabolic diseases affecting about 6% of dairy cows and are due to a fail of the homeostatic metabolism regulating the calcium blood level around 9 and 10mg/100mL. The calcium drainage to the mammary gland along with the reduced capacity of the animal to mobilize calcium from bone reserve lead to a drop of the calcium blood level under 5-6mg/100mL with paresis like clinical symptoms known as milk fever. The incidence of the clinical milk fever is low, however the occurrence of mild hypocalcaemia (subclinical could be as high as 15- 20% within few days after calving, particularly in multiparous cows. The hypocalcaemia status as for the reduced bone calcium mobilization and intestinal absorption leads to reduced feed intake and make it a good start for ketosis, retained placenta, displaced abomasums and mastitis problems (Beede, 1991. The acid-base balance of the cow in the late pregnancy is determinant for hypocalcaemia............

  13. Detomidine-diazepam-ketamine anaesthesia in buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawde, A M; Amarpal; Kinjavdekar, P; Aithal, H P; Pratap, K; Bisht, G S

    2000-04-01

    Eight buffalo calves (8-12 months, 70-100 kg) were randomly assigned to two groups of four animals each. Animals of group I were given detomidine (100 micrograms/kg), whereas animals of group II received a mixture of detomidine (100 micrograms/kg), diazepam (100 micrograms/kg) and ketamine (3 mg/kg) (DDK) intravenously. Various clinical parameters, such as weak time, down time, pedal and pinprick reflexes, muscle relaxation and extent of sedation, as well as heart and respiratory rates and electrocardiograms were measured before (time 0) and 15, 30, 45, 60, 75 and 90 min after treatment. In all the animals of group II (DDK), the pedal reflex was completely abolished (score: 3.00 +/- 0.00) within 5 min, the pinprick response was either very weak or it was completely abolished at this interval. Muscle relaxation and sedation were excellent within 5 min of DDK administration. The depth of sedation and analgesia was maximum from 5 to 15 min postinjection. Detomidine alone, however, failed to produce appropriate depression of the pedal and pinprick reflexes, sedation was mild and muscle relaxation was inadequate. Heart rate showed a significant (P detomidine. The results indicated that DDK combination is safe and suitable for 15 min of anaesthesia with excellent muscle relaxation and has only limited cardiorespiratory effects in buffaloes.

  14. Phase formation in as-solidified and heat-treated Al–Si–Cu–Mg–Ni alloys: Thermodynamic assessment and experimental investigation for alloy design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farkoosh, A.R.; Javidani, M.; Hoseini, M.; Larouche, D.; Pekguleryuz, M.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Phase formation in Al–Si–Ni–Cu–Mg–Fe system have been investigated. ► T-Al 9 FeNi, γ-Al 7 Cu 4 Ni, δ-Al 3 CuNi and ε-Al 3 Ni are formed at different Ni levels. ► Thermally stable Ni-bearing precipitates improved the overaged hardness. ► It was found that Ni:Cu and Ni:Fe ratios control the precipitation. ► δ-Al 3 CuNi phase has more contribution to strength compare to other precipitates. - Abstract: Thermodynamic simulations based on the CALPHAD method have been carried out to assess the phase formation in Al–7Si–(0–1)Ni–0.5Cu–0.35Mg alloys (in wt.%) under equilibrium and non-equilibrium (Scheil cooling) conditions. Calculations showed that the T-Al 9 FeNi, γ-Al 7 Cu 4 Ni, δ-Al 3 CuNi and ε-Al 3 Ni phases are formed at different Ni levels. By analyzing the calculated isothermal sections of the phase diagrams it was revealed that the Ni:Cu and Ni:Fe ratios control precipitation in this alloy system. In order to verify the simulation results, microstructural investigations in as-cast, solution treated and aged conditions were carried out using electron probe microanalysis (EPMA), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Furthermore, cooling curve analysis (CCA) was also performed to determine the freezing range of the new alloys and porosity formation during solidification. Hardness measurements of the overaged samples showed that in this alloy system the δ-Al 3 CuNi phase has a greater influence on the overall strength of the alloys compared to the other Ni-bearing precipitates.

  15. Biosafety of parenteral Brucella abortus RB51 vaccine in bison calves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roffe, T.J.; Olsen, S.C.; Gidlewski, T.; Jensen, A.E.; Palmer, M.V.; Huber, R.

    1999-01-01

    Vaccination is considered among the primary management tools for reducing brucellosis prevalence in Greater Yellowstone Area (GYA) ungulates. Before their use, however, vaccine safety and efficacy must be demonstrated. Twenty-seven female bison (Bison bison) calves (approx 5 months old) were vaccinated with Brucella abortus Strain RB51 (1.5 x 1010 colony forming units [CFU], subcutaneously) as part of routine management. We assessed the persistence, pathology, shedding, and transmission associated with RB51 by serial necropsy, bacteriology, histopathology, and serology of 20 of these 27 vaccinated calves, and RB51 serology of 10 nonvaccinated, commingling adult females. With the exception of 1 calf, RB51 dot-blot titers at necropsy were <1:80. Strain RB51 was cultured from lymph nodes in 4 of 4 calves at 14 weeks postvaccination (PV), 4 of 4 calves at 18 weeks PV, 1 of 4 calves at 22 weeks PV, 3 of 4 at 26 weeks PV, and 0 of 4 calves at 30 weeks PV. No gross lesions were observed. Mild histologic changes occurred only in a few draining lymph nodes early in sampling. Adverse clinical effects were not observed in vaccinates. Swabs from nasopharynx, conjunctiva, rectum, and vagina were uniformly culture negative for RB51. Strain RB51 dot-blot assays of bison cows were negative at a 1:20 dilution at 26 weeks PV. Our results suggest that RB51 persists longer in bison calves than in domestic cattle and is systemically distributed within lymphatic tissues. However, bison apparently clear the RB51 vaccine strain without shedding, transmission, or significant adverse reactions.

  16. Ice-ocean interaction and calving front morphology at two west Greenland tidewater outlet glaciers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauché, N.; Hubbard, A.; Gascard, J.-C.; Box, J. E.; Bates, R.; Koppes, M.; Sole, A.; Christoffersen, P.; Patton, H.

    2014-08-01

    Warm, subtropical-originating Atlantic water (AW) has been identified as a primary driver of mass loss across the marine sectors of the Greenland Ice Sheet (GrIS), yet the specific processes by which this water mass interacts with and erodes the calving front of tidewater glaciers is frequently modelled and much speculated upon but remains largely unobserved. We present a suite of fjord salinity, temperature, turbidity versus depth casts along with glacial runoff estimation from Rink and Store glaciers, two major marine outlets draining the western sector of the GrIS during 2009 and 2010. We characterise the main water bodies present and interpret their interaction with their respective calving fronts. We identify two distinct processes of ice-ocean interaction which have distinct spatial and temporal footprints: (1) homogenous free convective melting which occurs across the calving front where AW is in direct contact with the ice mass, and (2) localised upwelling-driven melt by turbulent subglacial runoff mixing with fjord water which occurs at distinct injection points across the calving front. Throughout the study, AW at 2.8 ± 0.2 °C was consistently observed in contact with both glaciers below 450 m depth, yielding homogenous, free convective submarine melting up to ~200 m depth. Above this bottom layer, multiple interactions are identified, primarily controlled by the rate of subglacial fresh-water discharge which results in localised and discrete upwelling plumes. In the record melt year of 2010, the Store Glacier calving face was dominated by these runoff-driven plumes which led to a highly crenulated frontal geometry characterised by large embayments at the subglacial portals separated by headlands which are dominated by calving. Rink Glacier, which is significantly deeper than Store has a larger proportion of its submerged calving face exposed to AW, which results in a uniform, relatively flat overall frontal geometry.

  17. Effects of forage provision to young calves on rumen fermentation and development of the gastrointestinal tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castells, L; Bach, A; Aris, A; Terré, M

    2013-08-01

    Fifteen Holstein male calves were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 dietary treatments according to age and body weight (BW) to determine the effects of feeding different forages sources on rumen fermentation and gastrointestinal tract (GIT) development. Treatments consisted of a starter (20% crude protein, 21% neutral detergent fiber) fed alone (CON) or supplemented with alfalfa (AH) or with oat hay (OH). All calves received 2L of milk replacer (MR) at 12.5% dry matter twice daily until 49 d of age. Calves received 2L of the same MR from 50 to 56 d of age and were weaned at 57 d of age. Individual starter, forage, and MR intakes were recorded daily and BW was recorded weekly. A rumen sample was taken weekly to determine rumen pH and volatile fatty acid concentrations. Three weeks after weaning, animals were harvested and each anatomical part of the GIT was separated and weighed with and without contents. Rumen pH was lower in CON than in OH and AH calves. Furthermore, acetate proportion in the rumen liquid tended to be greater in AH than in CON and OH treatments. Total GIT weight, expressed as a percentage of BW, tended to be greater in AH compared with the other 2 treatments. Rumen tissue tended to weigh more in CON than in OH animals. Animals with access to forage tended to have a greater expression of monocarboxylate transporter 1 than CON calves. In conclusion, calves supplemented with oat hay have a better rumen environment than calves offered no forage and do not have an increased gut fill. Copyright © 2013 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Performance of Holstein calves having free access to milk and dosed with Megasphaera elsdenii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukengela Claude Muya

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Megasphaera elsdenii converts lactate and glucose into butyrate, the main volatile fatty acid responsible of papillae development and may benefit calf performance. Twenty-six Holstein calves (BW = 34.5 ± 1.65 kg were randomly assigned at birth to a control group (Meg0 and a group that received an oral dose of M. elsdenii NCIMB 41125 at 14 d of age (Meg14. Calves received colostrum for the first 3 d followed by free choice access to whole milk until weaning at 56 d. From d 4 onward, starter and water were offered ad libitum. Intakes were measured daily and body weights (BW weekly. Blood samples were collected on day 7, 21, 28, 42, and 56 for β-hydroxybutyrate (BHBA analysis. Performance was measured for an additional 14 d post-weaning. Pre-weaning milk intake was lower (p = 0.010 and starter DMI (dry matter intake greater (p = 0.001 for Meg14 than Meg0 calves. Total DMI, metabolisable energy (ME intake and average daily gain (ADG were similar (p > 0.05 for both groups, but Meg14 calves had greater weaning BW (p = 0.012 and feed efficiency (p < 0.029. The average BHBA between d 21 and 56 was greater for Meg14 (p = 0.03 compared to Meg0 calves. After weaning, Meg14 calves had greater DMI (p = 0.027, ME intake (p = 0.023 and ADG (p = 0.002 and tended to have better feed efficiencies (p = 0.07 than Meg0 calves. Administering M. elsdenii NCIMB 41125 improved starter intake and feed efficiency, which was associated with high blood BHBA.

  19. Risk of Mycoplasma bovis transmission from contaminated sand bedding to naive dairy calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, D J; Justice-Allen, A; Goodell, G; Baldwin, T J; Skirpstunas, R T; Cavender, K B

    2011-03-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the possible transmission of Mycoplasma bovis from positive sand bedding to naïve dairy calves. Twelve preweaned Holstein bull calves were blocked in pairs and randomly assigned as unexposed controls (n=6) bedded with control sand, or exposed calves (n=6) bedded with sand previously positive for M. bovis at a dairy farm. Bedding sand was cultured weekly. Nasal and ear swabs and sera were collected weekly, tracheal swabs were collected monthly, and by the end of the 105-d study, all calves were euthanized (n=10) or died (n=2). Sera were tested for M. bovis-specific antibody. Mycoplasma spp. culture was performed on nasal and ear swabs; culture and a PCR differentiating multiple Mycoplasma spp. were performed on postmortem samples of lung, retropharyngeal lymph node, and trachea from each calf. A complete necropsy also was performed. During 6 wk, mycoplasma concentration in exposed group sand was between 200 and 32,000 cfu/g. All 166 tracheal swabs, nasal and ear swabs, and postmortem tests from all calves were negative for mycoplasma. All 94 sera were negative for M. bovis-specific antibody. No gross pathology suggestive of mycoplasma disease was detected. The probability of mycoplasma detection, if an exposed calf had become infected 4 wk after exposure, ranged between 97 and 99% depending on time of exposure for individual calves. There was no evidence that sand bedding contaminated with M. bovis might serve as a source of transmission to naïve dairy calves. Copyright © 2011 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Tricky Treats

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    The Eagle Books are a series of four books that are brought to life by wise animal characters - Mr. Eagle, Miss Rabbit, and Coyote - who engage Rain That Dances and his young friends in the joy of physical activity, eating healthy foods, and learning from their elders about health and diabetes prevention. Tricky Treats shows children the difference between healthy snacks and sweet treats.

  1. Phase formation in as-solidified and heat-treated Al-Si-Cu-Mg-Ni alloys: Thermodynamic assessment and experimental investigation for alloy design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farkoosh, A.R., E-mail: amir.rezaeifarkoosh@mail.mcgill.ca [Department of Mining and Materials Engineering, McGill University, 3610 University, Aluminum Research Center - REGAL, Montreal, Quebec, Canada H3A 2B2 (Canada); Javidani, M. [Laval University, Department of Mining, Metallurgy and Materials Engineering, Aluminum Research Center - REGAL, 1065 Ave de la Medecine, Quebec, Canada G1V 0A6 (Canada); Hoseini, M. [Department of Mining and Materials Engineering, McGill University, 3610 University, Aluminum Research Center - REGAL, Montreal, Quebec, Canada H3A 2B2 (Canada); Larouche, D. [Laval University, Department of Mining, Metallurgy and Materials Engineering, Aluminum Research Center - REGAL, 1065 Ave de la Medecine, Quebec, Canada G1V 0A6 (Canada); Pekguleryuz, M. [Department of Mining and Materials Engineering, McGill University, 3610 University, Aluminum Research Center - REGAL, Montreal, Quebec, Canada H3A 2B2 (Canada)

    2013-02-25

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Phase formation in Al-Si-Ni-Cu-Mg-Fe system have been investigated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer T-Al{sub 9}FeNi, {gamma}-Al{sub 7}Cu{sub 4}Ni, {delta}-Al{sub 3}CuNi and {epsilon}-Al{sub 3}Ni are formed at different Ni levels. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Thermally stable Ni-bearing precipitates improved the overaged hardness. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer It was found that Ni:Cu and Ni:Fe ratios control the precipitation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer {delta}-Al{sub 3}CuNi phase has more contribution to strength compare to other precipitates. - Abstract: Thermodynamic simulations based on the CALPHAD method have been carried out to assess the phase formation in Al-7Si-(0-1)Ni-0.5Cu-0.35Mg alloys (in wt.%) under equilibrium and non-equilibrium (Scheil cooling) conditions. Calculations showed that the T-Al{sub 9}FeNi, {gamma}-Al{sub 7}Cu{sub 4}Ni, {delta}-Al{sub 3}CuNi and {epsilon}-Al{sub 3}Ni phases are formed at different Ni levels. By analyzing the calculated isothermal sections of the phase diagrams it was revealed that the Ni:Cu and Ni:Fe ratios control precipitation in this alloy system. In order to verify the simulation results, microstructural investigations in as-cast, solution treated and aged conditions were carried out using electron probe microanalysis (EPMA), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Furthermore, cooling curve analysis (CCA) was also performed to determine the freezing range of the new alloys and porosity formation during solidification. Hardness measurements of the overaged samples showed that in this alloy system the {delta}-Al{sub 3}CuNi phase has a greater influence on the overall strength of the alloys compared to the other Ni-bearing precipitates.

  2. Cardiovascular effects of a continuous rate infusion of lidocaine in calves anesthetized with xylazine, midazolam, ketamine and isoflurane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araújo, Marcelo A; Dias, Bianca P; Bovino, Fernanda; Deschk, Maurício; Abimussi, Caio Jx; Oliva, Valéria Nls; Rodrigues, Celso A; Santos, Paulo Sp

    2014-03-01

    To assess the cardiovascular changes of a continuous rate infusion of lidocaine in calves anesthetized with xylazine, midazolam, ketamine and isoflurane during mechanical ventilation. Prospective, randomized, cross-over, experimental trial. A total of eight, healthy, male Holstein calves, aged 10 ± 1 months and weighing 114 ± 11 kg were included in the study. Calves were administered xylazine followed by ketamine and midazolam, orotracheal intubation and maintenance on isoflurane (1.3%) using mechanical ventilation. Forty minutes after induction, lidocaine (2 mg kg⁻¹ bolus) or an equivalent volume of saline (0.9%) was administered IV followed by a continuous rate infusion (100 μg kg⁻¹ minute⁻¹) of lidocaine (treatment L) or saline (treatment C). Heart rate (HR), systolic, diastolic and mean arterial pressures (SAP, DAP and MAP), central venous pressure (CVP), mean pulmonary arterial pressure (mPAP), pulmonary arterial occlusion pressure (PAOP), cardiac output, end-tidal carbon dioxide (Pe'CO2 ) and core temperature (CT) were recorded before lidocaine or saline administration (Baseline) and at 20-minute intervals (T20-T80). Plasma concentrations of lidocaine were measured in treatment L. The HR was significantly lower in treatment L compared with treatment C. There was no difference between the treatments with regards to SAP, DAP, MAP and SVRI. CI was significantly lower at T60 in treatment L when compared with treatment C. PAOP and CVP increased significantly at all times compared with Baseline in treatment L. There was no significant difference between times within each treatment and between treatments with regards to other measured variables. Plasma concentrations of lidocaine ranged from 1.85 to 2.06 μg mL⁻¹ during the CRI. At the studied rate, lidocaine causes a decrease in heart rate which is unlikely to be of clinical significance in healthy animals, but could be a concern in compromised animals. © 2013 Association of Veterinary Anaesthetists

  3. Comparison of a commercially available oral nutritional supplement and intravenous fluid therapy for dehydration in dairy calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Jared D; Rodenburg, Merel; Snider, Timothy A

    2017-06-01

    Calf scours is a primary cause of morbidity and mortality in the dairy industry. Effective treatments are needed to minimize death, maximize welfare, and maintain growth and productivity. The objective of this trial was to compare the efficacy of a commercially available nutritional supplement (Diaque, Boehringer-Ingelheim Vetmedica Inc., St. Joseph, MO) and i.v. lactated Ringer's solution (LRS) in rehydrating, preventing acidemia, and correcting electrolyte imbalances in an experimental model for calf scours. Twenty-four colostrum-fed suckling dairy calves were used in a modified crossover design. An osmotic diarrhea was induced by orally feeding commercial milk replacer modified with high level of sucrose to create a hypertonic milk solution, and administering oral hydrochlorothiazide and spironolactone for 48 h. The intention was to create a challenge sufficient to result in moderately dehydrated, standing calves without producing severe depression or loss of suckle. The efficacy of i.v. fluid therapy and a commercial nutritional supplement were subsequently compared for reversing the effects of the diarrheal disease. Treatment A consisted of administering the nutritional supplement according to label directions (100 g in 1.9 L of warm water, 3 times a day), and treatment B consisted of i.v. LRS (2 L, once a day). Clinical signs and laboratory results were obtained once daily by a blinded observer. The induction method was effective in creating the desired effect, as demonstrated by weight loss and subjective health and hydration scores. Both treatment groups experienced increases in body weight, base excess, and bicarbonate, and decreases in total protein and packed cell volume following treatment. Both i.v. LRS and Diaque are effective methods to correct hypovolemia and control derangements in acid-base status in calves with diarrhea and dehydration. The Authors. Published by the Federation of Animal Science Societies and Elsevier Inc. on behalf of the

  4. Fatty acid intake alters growth and immunity in milk-fed calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, T M; Vandehaar, M J; Sordillo, L M; Catherman, D R; Bateman, H G; Schlotterbeck, R L

    2011-08-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine the effect of supplementing milk replacer (MR) with NeoTec4 (Provimi North America, Brookville, OH), a commercially available blend of butyric acid, coconut oil, and flax oil, on calf growth, efficiency, and indices of immune function. In trial 1a, 48 male Holstein calves were fed either a control MR that contained only animal fat or the same MR with NeoTec4 (treatment) along with free-choice starter. The MR (28.7% crude protein, 15.6% fat) was fed at an average of 1 kg of dry matter (DM)/d. In trial 1b, weaned calves from trial 1a were all fed dry starter for 28 d without NeoTec4 (phase 1), and then half the calves were fed NeoTec4 for 28 d (phase 2). In trial 2, 40 male Holstein calves were fed a control MR with lard, coconut oil, and soy lecithin or the same MR supplemented with NeoTec4 (treatment). The MR (22.8% crude protein, 18.9% fat) was fed at an average of 1 kg of DM/d; no starter was fed. In trial 1a, NeoTec4 improved average daily gain, feed intake, and feed efficiency, reduced the number of days that calves experienced scours, and reduced the medical treatments for clostridium sickness. In trials 1a and 2, NeoTec4 altered the inflammatory response to vaccination with Pasteurella at 5 wk of age and to challenge with Salmonella toxin at less than 2 wk of age (fed NeoTec4 for 6 d), as observed by reduced hyperthermia and hypophagia, and altered the tumor necrosis factor-α response. In addition, NeoTec4 enhanced the response in IL-4 and globular protein estimates postchallenge and enhanced titers for bovine viral diarrhea and respiratory parainfluenza-3. Postchallenge serum concentrations of albumin were lower and urea nitrogen concentrations were greater in control calves than in calves fed NeoTec4. In trial 1b, performance did not differ during the first 28 d when no calves received NeoTec4, but calves receiving NeoTec4 in the second 28 d had greater average daily gain and feed efficiency. We conclude that

  5. Machine-learning-based calving prediction from activity, lying, and ruminating behaviors in dairy cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borchers, M R; Chang, Y M; Proudfoot, K L; Wadsworth, B A; Stone, A E; Bewley, J M

    2017-07-01

    The objective of this study was to use automated activity, lying, and rumination monitors to characterize prepartum behavior and predict calving in dairy cattle. Data were collected from 20 primiparous and 33 multiparous Holstein dairy cattle from September 2011 to May 2013 at the University of Kentucky Coldstream Dairy. The HR Tag (SCR Engineers Ltd., Netanya, Israel) automatically collected neck activity and rumination data in 2-h increments. The IceQube (IceRobotics Ltd., South Queensferry, United Kingdom) automatically collected number of steps, lying time, standing time, number of transitions from standing to lying (lying bouts), and total motion, summed in 15-min increments. IceQube data were summed in 2-h increments to match HR Tag data. All behavioral data were collected for 14 d before the predicted calving date. Retrospective data analysis was performed using mixed linear models to examine behavioral changes by day in the 14 d before calving. Bihourly behavioral differences from baseline values over the 14 d before calving were also evaluated using mixed linear models. Changes in daily rumination time, total motion, lying time, and lying bouts occurred in the 14 d before calving. In the bihourly analysis, extreme values for all behaviors occurred in the final 24 h, indicating that the monitored behaviors may be useful in calving prediction. To determine whether technologies were useful at predicting calving, random forest, linear discriminant analysis, and neural network machine-learning techniques were constructed and implemented using R version 3.1.0 (R Foundation for Statistical Computing, Vienna, Austria). These methods were used on variables from each technology and all combined variables from both technologies. A neural network analysis that combined variables from both technologies at the daily level yielded 100.0% sensitivity and 86.8% specificity. A neural network analysis that combined variables from both technologies in bihourly increments was

  6. Virus detection by PCR following vaccination of naive calves with intranasal or injectable multivalent modified-live viral vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walz, Paul H; Newcomer, Benjamin W; Riddell, Kay P; Scruggs, Daniel W; Cortese, Victor S

    2017-09-01

    We evaluated duration of PCR-positive results following administration of modified-live viral (MLV) vaccines to beef calves. Twenty beef calves were randomly assigned to either group 1 and vaccinated intranasally with a MLV vaccine containing bovine alphaherpesvirus 1 (BoHV-1), bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV), and bovine parainfluenza virus 3 (BPIV-3), or to group 2 and vaccinated subcutaneously with a MLV vaccine containing bovine viral diarrhea virus 1 and 2 (BVDV-1, -2), BoHV-1, BRSV, and BPIV-3. Deep nasopharyngeal swabs (NPS) and transtracheal washes (TTW) were collected from all calves, and whole blood was collected from group 2 calves and tested by PCR. In group 1, the proportions of calves that tested PCR-positive to BVDV, BoHV-1, BRSV, and BPIV-3 on any sample at any time were 0%, 100%, 100%, and 10%, respectively. In group 1 calves, 100% of calves became PCR-positive for BoHV-1 by day 3 post-vaccination and 100% of calves became PCR-positive for BRSV by day 7 post-vaccination. In group 2, the proportions of calves that tested positive to BVDV, BoHV-1, BRSV, and BPIV-3 on any sample at any time were 50%, 40%, 10%, and 0%, respectively. All threshold cycle (Ct) values were >30 in group 2 calves, irrespective of virus; however, Ct values PCR-positive results for BoHV-1 and BRSV. All calves were PCR-negative for all viruses after day 28. Following intranasal MLV viral vaccination, PCR results and Ct values for BRSV and BoHV-1 suggest that attempts to differentiate vaccine virus from natural infection is unreliable.

  7. Camel Calves as Opportunistic Milk Thefts? The First Description of Allosuckling in Domestic Bactrian Camel (Camelus bactrianus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandlová, Karolína; Bartoš, Luděk; Haberová, Tamara

    2013-01-01

    Allosuckling is a situation when a female nurses a non-filial offspring. It was described in various ungulate species; however for camels this is the first description of this behaviour. The aim of the study was to assess the occurrence of allosuckling in captive camels (Camelus bactrianus) and to test whether it can be explained as a ‘milk-theft’ (opportunistic behaviour of calves) or alternatively as an altruistic behaviour of females. During 2005 and 2007, nine camel females and ten calves in four zoological gardens in the Czech Republic were observed. In total, 373 sucking bouts were recorded, from which 32 were non-filial (the calf sucked from the non-maternal female). Allosuckling regularly appeared in captive camel herds. As predicted for the milk-theft explanation, the non-filial calves sucked more often in the lateral position and even did not suck in the antiparallel position at all. The non-filial calves preferably joined the filial calf when sucking but in five cases (15.6% of non-filial sucking bouts) the calves sucked from non-maternal dam without the presence of filial calf. We then expected the differences in terminations of sucking bouts by females but did not find any difference in sucking terminations for filial and non-filial calves. As the calves were getting older, the incidence of allosucking increased. This was probably because skills of the calf to outwit the non-maternal dam increased and/or the older calves might be more motivated for allosucking due to the weaning process. Finally, duration of a sucking bout was shorter with non-filial than filial calves. The results of the study support the hypothesis of ‘milk theft’, being mostly performed by calves behaving as opportunistic parasites, but we cannot reject certain level of altruism from the allonursing females or their increased degree of tolerance to non-filial calves. PMID:23326378

  8. Camel calves as opportunistic milk thefts? The first description of allosuckling in domestic bactrian camel (Camelus bactrianus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karolína Brandlová

    Full Text Available Allosuckling is a situation when a female nurses a non-filial offspring. It was described in various ungulate species; however for camels this is the first description of this behaviour. The aim of the study was to assess the occurrence of allosuckling in captive camels (Camelus bactrianus and to test whether it can be explained as a 'milk-theft' (opportunistic behaviour of calves or alternatively as an altruistic behaviour of females. During 2005 and 2007, nine camel females and ten calves in four zoological gardens in the Czech Republic were observed. In total, 373 sucking bouts were recorded, from which 32 were non-filial (the calf sucked from the non-maternal female. Allosuckling regularly appeared in captive camel herds. As predicted for the milk-theft explanation, the non-filial calves sucked more often in the lateral position and even did not suck in the antiparallel position at all. The non-filial calves preferably joined the filial calf when sucking but in five cases (15.6% of non-filial sucking bouts the calves sucked from non-maternal dam without the presence of filial calf. We then expected the differences in terminations of sucking bouts by females but did not find any difference in sucking terminations for filial and non-filial calves. As the calves were getting older, the incidence of allosucking increased. This was probably because skills of the calf to outwit the non-maternal dam increased and/or the older calves might be more motivated for allosucking due to the weaning process. Finally, duration of a sucking bout was shorter with non-filial than filial calves. The results of the study support the hypothesis of 'milk theft', being mostly performed by calves behaving as opportunistic parasites, but we cannot reject certain level of altruism from the allonursing females or their increased degree of tolerance to non-filial calves.

  9. Diprosopia/dicephalia in calves in northern Italy: clinical and aetio-pathological features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biasibetti, E; D'Angelo, A; Bellino, C; Gay, L; Gianella, P; Capucchio, M T

    2011-12-01

    Cephalic parapagia, a rare congenital anomaly caused by the fusion of two monozygotic embryos, is characterized by a single body and a spectrum of duplication of craniofacial structures. The authors describe the clinical and pathological aspects of the parapagus conjoined twin defect in nine calves referred to the Department of Animal Pathology, Turin, between 1999 and 2009. The majority of the calves (eight cases) presented two snouts that shared three or four eyes (diprosopia); one calf presented two separate skulls fused at the foramen magnum (dicephalia). Bilateral inferior brachygnathia was observed in four calves. Post-mortem examination of the skull revealed complete brain duplication with fusion at the caudal portion of the brainstem in all calves. Histological features of the cerebral hemispheres and brainstem were normal; moderate disorganization of the cerebellar cortex was noted in two cases. Cardiac malformations were observed in three calves. No aetiologic cause was determined. This article underscores the importance of diprosopia in cattle species and suggests the need for more detailed investigations to better understand its pathogenesis. © 2011 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  10. Stillbirth in dairy calves is influenced independently by dystocia and body shape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrier, A C; Mason, C; Dwyer, C M; Haskell, M J; Macrae, A I

    2013-08-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine (1) if stillborn calves born following dystocia present with specific injuries/pathological changes compared to stillborns delivered without difficulty, and (2) whether such stillborns differ in conformation from dystocic calves that survive. Post-mortem examinations were carried out on 20 stillborns that were either unassisted (N) or were 'farm-staff'-assisted/normally presented (FN) at birth. Evidence of greater trauma and bruising was observed in the FN calves and parameters such as body length, birth-weight and thyroid:body weight were similar. In a second part of the study birth-weight, body length and height, girth length, body mass (BMI), and ponderal (PI) indices were assessed in 490 calves. Regardless of the severity of dystocia, stillborns had greater body lengths and lower BMIs and PIs than calves born alive (Pdystocia. Half of the stillborns had breathed indicating they were alive and possibly had experienced pain/distress at time of delivery. Body conformation was related to stillbirth independently of dystocia, a finding likely reflecting inadequate prenatal development. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Performance of crossbred calves raised on different dietary treatments under smallholder dairy farm conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyimo, H L N; Laswai, G H; Mtenga, L A

    2010-01-01

    and was formulated using locally available feed resources. Twenty-seven (27) male calves, with birth weight 32 ± 1.5 kg were randomly allocated to three treatments, whereby Treatment 1 (DC) calves were fed the developed concentrate, Treatment 2 (FC) calves were fed a common home made dairy cow concentrate (CP 130 g......An on-farm study was carried out in Tanzania to assess the performance of crossbred (Frisian/Ayrshire x Tanzania Shorthorn Zebu) dairy calves fed on a concentrate, previously developed and tested on-station. The developed concentrate contained 189 g crude protein (CP) and 13 ME MJ per kg DM...... and ME 13 MJ per kg DM) used by farmers in the study area. Treatment 3 (FP) was a control, where farmers followed their normal calf rearing practice with no interference. Restricted suckling, ad libitum feeding of forages and up to 1 kg concentrate were used for the calves on DC and FC. Weaning was at 12...

  12. Effects of varying the amounts of dietary calcium on selenium metabolism in dairy calves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alfaro, E.; Neathery, M.W.; Miller, W.J.; Gentry, R.P.; Crowe, C.T.; Fielding, A.S.; Etheridge, R.E.; Pugh, D.G.; Blackmon, D.M.

    1987-01-01

    Influence of dietary Ca on Se metabolism was studied with 16 intact male Holstein calves averaging 86 kg. Calves were assigned randomly and fed one of four diets containing .17, .67, 1.31, and 2.35% Ca at 3% of their body weight for 4 wk. The diets contained .062 ppm Se and .34% P. Four days prior to the end of the experiment, calves were dosed orally with radioactive 75 Se. Dietary Ca had no significant effect on 75 Se absorption. There was a slight curvilinear relationship between apparent 75 Se absorption and dietary Ca intakes. Urinary excretion of 75 Se and stable Se tended to decrease with increasing dietary Ca, but differences were not significant. No significant differences were found in concentration of 75 Se in several tissues. Kidney and liver had the highest concentration with that in kidney being about four times that of liver. Apparent 75 Se absorption was decreased 10 to 6%, respectively, in calves fed extremely low and high amounts of Ca, compared with those receiving the requirement (.67% Ca). These small reductions along with a small R 2 suggest that dietary Ca probably is of little practical importance relative to Se metabolism in calves

  13. Studies of Growth Rate of Limousine Calves Maintained on Pasture and Free Stabulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica Parvu

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim was to monitor the growth process from birth to weaning (six months old of the females and males Limousine calves maintained on pasture or free stabulation. The research was performed in a private farm situated in Covasna County. In this farm, the rearing of the calves was done without there being a technological guide. The calves had been grown along with the mother cows. The introduction of vegetal food into the calves ration is done at 3 weeks old. In the first period (one month old, all calves were housed in stabulation, having free access to the paddock. The daily gain was 666.7 g at females and 800 g at males. In the second period (from one month old until weaning, a group was maintained on pasture, and the other group in free stabulation. The daily gain was 1120 g at females and 1200 g at males on pasture; 1067 g and respectively 1140 g in stabulation. The stress of weaning was present only to the young females; for ten days, these were restlessness, having the desire for sucking and the appetite for food has decreased. Their bodyweight has decreased with 12%, the differences being significant (p≤0.05.

  14. Streptococcus bovis/S. equinus complex septicemia in a group of calves following intramuscular vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Lorelei L; Fathke, Robert L; Sanchez, Susan; Stanton, James B

    2016-07-01

    Organisms previously classified as Streptococcus bovis (i.e., the S. bovis/S. equinus complex) are common in cattle feces, but may also act as opportunistic pathogens. In the current work, Streptococcus infantarius subsp. coli, a member of this complex, was associated of a cluster of calves that died within hours of injection with a modified live viral vaccine. Within 12 h of vaccination of 46 calves at a cow/calf operation, 4 calves had died, 3 calves were ill, and 1 unvaccinated cow was dead. Autopsies were performed on the cow, 2 dead calves, and 1 affected surviving calf, which was euthanized ~24 h after vaccine administration. The animals had similar gross anatomic and microscopic lesions, including subcutaneous and intramuscular dark hemorrhage on the caudal neck, multiorgan ecchymosis and petechiation, and alveolitis to interstitial pneumonia. Gram-positive cocci were in the vasculature of the lung and skeletal muscle, and S. infantarius subsp. coli was cultured from tissues and from the vaccines used on affected animals, but not in vials used on unaffected animals. Together, these findings suggest death caused by streptococcal septicemia and toxemia as a result of contamination. © 2016 The Author(s).

  15. Grizzly bears and calving caribou: What is the relation with river corridors?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Donald D.; McCabe, Thomas R.

    1998-01-01

    Researchers have debated the effect of the Trans-Alaska Pipeline (TAP) and associated developments to caribou (Rangifer tarandus) of the central Arctic herd (CAH) since the 1970s. Several studies have demonstrated that cows and calves of the CAH avoided the TAP corridor because of disturbance associated with the pipeline, whereas others have indicated that female caribou of the CAH avoided riparian habitats closely associated with the pipeline. This avoidance was explained as a predator-avoidance strategy. We investigated the relation between female caribou and grizzly bear (Ursus arctos) use of river corridors on the yet undisturbed calving grounds of the Porcupine caribou herd (PCH) in northeastern Alaska. On the coastal plain, caribou were closer to river corridors than expected (P = 0.038), but bear use of river corridors did not differ from expected (P = 0.740). In the foothills, caribou use of river corridors did not differ from expected (P = 0.520), but bears were farther from rivers than expected (P = 0.001). Our results did not suggest an avoidance of river corridors by calving caribou or a propensity for bears to be associated with riparian habitats, presumably for stalking or ambush cover. We propose that PCH caribou reduce the risks of predation to neonates by migrating to a common calving grounds, where predator swamping is the operational antipredator strategy. Consequently, we hypothesize that nutritional demands, not predator avoidance strategies, ultimately regulate habitat use patterns (e.g., use of river corridors) of calving PCH caribou.

  16. Viable calves produced by somatic cell nuclear transfer using meiotic-blocked oocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Bem, Tiago H C; Chiaratti, Marcos R; Rochetti, Raquel; Bressan, Fabiana F; Sangalli, Juliano R; Miranda, Moysés S; Pires, Pedro R L; Schwartz, Kátia R L; Sampaio, Rafael V; Fantinato-Neto, Paulo; Pimentel, José R V; Perecin, Felipe; Smith, Lawrence C; Meirelles, Flávio V; Adona, Paulo R; Leal, Cláudia L V

    2011-10-01

    Somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) has had an enormous impact on our understanding of biology and remains a unique tool for multiplying valuable laboratory and domestic animals. However, the complexity of the procedure and its poor efficiency are factors that limit a wider application of SCNT. In this context, oocyte meiotic arrest is an important option to make SCNT more flexible and increase the number of cloned embryos produced. Herein, we show that the use of butyrolactone I in association with brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) to arrest the meiotic division for 24 h prior to in vitro maturation provides bovine (Bos indicus) oocytes capable of supporting development of blastocysts and full-term cloned calves at least as efficiently as nonarrested oocytes. Furthermore, the procedure resulted in cloned blastocysts with an 1.5- and twofold increase of POU5F1 and IFNT2 expression, respectively, which are well-known markers of embryonic viability. Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) copy number was diminished by prematuration in immature oocytes (718,585±34,775 vs. 595,579±31,922, respectively, control and treated groups) but was unchanged in mature oocytes (522,179±45,617 vs. 498,771±33,231) and blastocysts (816,627±40,235 vs. 765,332±51,104). To our knowledge, this is the first report of cloned offspring born to prematured oocytes, indicating that meiotic arrest could have significant implications for laboratories working with SCNT and in vitro embryo production.

  17. Isolation and characterization of Faecalibacterium prausnitzii from calves and piglets.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Foditsch

    Full Text Available The goal of our study was to isolate and characterize Faecalibacterium prausnitzii from fecal samples of healthy calves and piglets, in order to develop a novel probiotic for livestock animals. We identified 203 isolates of Faecalibacterium sp., which were clustered in 40 genetically distinct groups. One representative isolate from each cluster was selected for further characterization. The concentrations of the short chain fatty acids (SCFA acetate, butyrate, propionate and isobutyrate in the culture media were measured by gas chromatography. We observed reduction in the concentration of acetate followed by concomitant increase in the concentration of butyrate, suggesting that the isolates were consuming acetate present in the media and producing butyrate. Butyrate production correlated positively with bacterial growth. Since butyrate has many benefits to the colonic epithelial cells, the selection of strains that produce higher amounts of butyrate is extremely important for the development of this potential probiotic. The effect of pH and concentration of bile salts on bacterial growth was also evaluated in order to mimic the conditions encountered by F. prausnitzii in vivo. The optimal pH for growth ranged between 5.5 and 6.7, while most isolates were inhibited by of the lowest concentration of bile salts tested (0.1%. Antimicrobial resistance profile showed that most isolates of Faecalibacterium sp. were resistant against ciprofloxacin and sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim. More than 50% of the isolates were resistant to tetracycline, amikacin, cefepime and cefoxitin. A total of 19 different combinations of multidrug resistance were observed among the isolates. Our results provide new insights into the cultural and physiological characteristics of Faecalibacterium prausnitzii illustrating large variability in short chain fatty acid production, in vitro growth, sensitivity to bile salts, and antibiotic resistance and suggesting that future

  18. NUTRITIONAL ASPECTS RELATED TO THE INTERVAL BETWEEN CALVES

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    G. H C. Guse

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available It is known that the demand for products of bovine origin increases every day in the world, and Brazil, which has the largest commercial herd of cattle on the planet, does not stay behind when it comes to raising beef cattle and milk. Despite our efforts to offer the best product, we are faced with difficult challenges in the country when it comes to climate and soil. The tropical climate, with rainy and dry seasons, ends up greatly damaging the pastures, thus offering less quality nutrients to our herds. As a domino effect, with less nutrients, there is more stress on the animal, which implies a poor reproductive efficiency, which is a crucial factor for effective production. However, there are viable outputs to improve the statistics, and one of them is reducing the interval between calving in cows relating to nutritional aspects, the important theme that the work will address. The nutritional strategy used in the experiment was the supplementation before, during and after the synchronization protocols for IATF. It consisted in the supply of 5g / kg PV / animal / day, a multiple mixture containing 82% ground corn, 8% soybean meal, 4% protected fat (Megalac®, 3% protected urea , 2% calcium carbonate, 0.06% mineral core, 0.04% Sodium Chloride and 0.01% lasalocid sodium 15% (Taurotec®. Supplement delivery started 7 days prior to protocol (D0 and lasted up to 20 after TAI, totaling 38 days. It was observed that the results showed an increase in the pregnancy rate of the primiparas that were supplemented, especially those with ECC below 3 (on the scale of 1 to 5, the percentage variation in the increment was of 2.6 ( ECC ≥3 to 7.1 (ECC = 2.75, presenting lower values in multiparous women. It is evident that, with due planning, observing the moments of nutritional deficit, it is possible to improve the interval between deliveries, thus improving production.

  19. The legg-calve-perthes disease; Morbus Perthes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kramer, J.; Scheurecker, A. [Institut fuer CT- und MRT-Diagnostik, Linz (Austria); Hofmann, S. [Allgemeines und Orthopaedisches LKH, Stolzalpe (Austria); Tschauner, C.

    2002-06-01

    The Legg-Calve-Perthes disease is an idiopathic avascular necro