H . philander. too, have a range of patterns and colours which ..... choice of the nest-site appears unirilportant, although a preference is shown for sites near ...... Animal Behaviour; a synthesis of ethology and comparative psychology.
Carlos Eduardo Faresin e Silva
Full Text Available We investigated the karyotype of 18 didelphid species captured at 13 localities in the Brazilian Amazon, after conventional staining, C-banding, Ag-NOR and fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH using the 18S rDNA probe. Variations were found in the X chromosome, heterochromatin distribution and the 18S rDNA sequence. The main variation observed was in the position of the centromere in the X chromosome of Caluromys philander Linnaeus, 1758 and Marmosa murina Linnaeus, 1758. For both species, the X chromosome showed a geographical segregation in the pattern of variation between eastern and western Brazil, with a possible contact area in the central Amazon. C-banding on the X chromosome revealed two patterns for the species of Marmosops Matschie, 1916, apparently without geographic or specific relationships. The nucleolus organizer region (NOR of all species was confirmed with the 18S rDNA probe, except on the Y chromosome of Monodelphis touan Shaw, 1800. The distribution of this marker varied only in the genus Marmosa Gray, 1821 [M. murina Thomas, 1905 and M. demerarae Thomas, 1905]. Considering that simple NORs are seen as a plesiomorphic character, we conclude that the species Marmosa spp. and Didelphis marsupialis Linnaeus, 1758 evolved independently to the multiple condition. By increasing the sample, using chromosomal banding, and FISH, we verified that marsupials present intra- and interspecific chromosomal variations, which suggests the occurrence of frequent chromosomal rearrangements in the evolution of this group. This observation contrasts with the chromosomal conservatism expected for didelphids.
María Mónica Díaz
Full Text Available In this work the infestation with I. luciae on Didelphimorphia and Rodentia in different environments of Peruvian Amazon was studied. Didelphimorphia was represented by the family Didelphidae. Specimens belonging to Caluromys lanatus, Didelphis marsupialis, Marmosops sp.2, Metachirus nudicaudatus, Philander andersoni and Philander opossum were infested with adults I. luciae and one Micoureus sp. was infested with larvae. In Rodentia, the infestation with I. luciae nymphs was restricted to Hylaeamys perenensis, Hylaeamys yunganus and Oligoryzomys microtis, while one Oecomys bicolor (all Cricetidae was infested with larvae of this species. The few larvae were found on rodents captured in primary forest. The only significant difference (P No presente trabalho, infestações por Ixodes luciae em Didelphimorphia e Rodentia em diferentes ambientes da Amazônia peruana foram estudadas. Didelphimorphia foi representada pela família Didelphidae. Espécimes pertencentes a Caluromys lanatus, Didelphis marsupialis, Marmosops sp., Metachirus nudicaudatus, Philander andersoni e Philander opossum foram encontrados infestadas por adultos de I. luciae; um Micoureus sp. foi encontrado infestado por larvas. Em Rodentia, a infestação por ninfas de I. luciae estiveram restritas a Hylaeamys perenensis, Hylaeamys yunganus e Oligoryzomys microtis, enquanto que um Oecomys bicolor (todos Cricetidae esteve infestado por larvas de I. luciae. As poucas larvas foram encontradas em roedores capturados na floresta primária. A única diferença significante (P < 0.05 na prevalência de carrapatos adultos em Didelphimorphia foi entre P. andersoni e M. nudicaudatus (distribuição chi-quadrado. A distribuição de carrapatos adultos foi significativamente diferente em P. andersoni quando comparado com M. nudicaudatus, P. opossum e D. marsupialis (teste Kruskal-Wallis. Nenhum efeito significante do mês ou ambiente foi observado em relação à infestação por carrapato
Full Text Available El objetivo de este trabajo fue determinar la presencia del zorro de cuatro ojos (Philander opossum en áreas de producción de piña orgánica (Ananas comusus, en Sa nta Ce cilia de La Cruz, Guanacaste, Costa Ri ca. Las capturas se realizaron con trampas grandes de golpe, en muestreos quincenales desde febrero del 2008 hasta febrero del 2009. Se logró la captura de ocho individuos, desde marzo hasta agosto, lo cual indica que la especie podría tener actividad reproductiva desde finales de la época seca y en la lluviosa. Al menos uno de los individuos consumió piña, según análisis de su contenido estomacal. Si n embargo, el nivel de daño observado en el campo no permite considerar a esta especie como una plaga de la piña, sino una especie oportunista que aprovecha frutos maduros dejados en el campo, después de la cosecha. La colecta de individuos en varios meses del año, indican que esta especie utiliza las plantaciones de piña orgánica como parte de su hábitat, lo cual contradice la idea generalizada que los monocultivos no proveen condiciones mínimas para que las especie s de vida silvestre lo visiten o lo habiten.
Ândrio Zafalon da Silva
Full Text Available Information regarding the similarity of the fauna that colonizes decomposing wildlife is insipient among the different carcass models. Species with different tissues and alimentary diets are hypothesized to be a colonization source of different necrophagous species. To verify this hypothesis, we observed the decomposition of a carcass of Didelphis albiventris Lund, 1841 (Didelphimorphia, Didelphidae, that had been run over by a vehicle. 2,273 adults were reared from specimens at immature stages collected on the carcass. The most representative species belongs to Calliphoridae, Muscidae, Sarcophagidae and Fanniidae, with numeric dominance of Lucilia eximia Wiedemann, 1819 (Diptera, Calliphoridae. Another six species were found, besides non-identified Fanniidae specimens. All species were colonizers of traditionally used forensic models.
Jun 15, 2006 ... then, as a young parent, his two-year-old daughter died in his arms, on the way to the ... especially the way the entire tribe stopped having children as .... He took me to the sea and spoiled me with fancy dinners, which was.
Legey Ana Paula
Full Text Available Philander frenata and Didelphis marsupialis harbor parasitism by Trypanosoma cruzi without developing any apparent disease and on the contrary to D. marsupialis, P. frenata maintains parasitism by T. cruzi II subpopulations. Here we compared the humoral immune response of the two didelphids naturally and experimentally infected with T. cruzi II group, employing SDS-PAGE/Western blot techniques and by an Indirect immunofluorescence assay. We also studied the histopathological pattern of naturally and experimentally infected P. frenata with T. cruzi. P. frenata sera recognized more antigens than D. marsupialis, and the recognition pattern did not show any change over the course of the follow up of both didelphid species. Polypeptides of 66 and 90kDa were the most prominent antigens recognized by both species in the soluble and enriched membrane fractions. P. frenata recognized intensely also a 45kDa antigen. Our findings indicate that: 1 there were no quantitative or qualitative differences in the patent or subpatent phases in the recognition pattern of P. frenata; 2 the significant differences in the recognition pattern of parasitic antigens by P. frenata and D. marsupialis sera suggest that they probably "learned" to live in harmony with T. cruzi by different strategies; 3 although P. frenata do not display apparent disease, tissular lesions tended to be more severe than has been described in D. marsupialis; and 4 Both didelphids probably acquired infection by T. cruzi after their evolutionary divergence.
Ana Paula Legey
Full Text Available Philander opossum and Didelphis marsupialis considered the most ancient mammals and an evolutionary success, maintain parasitism by Trypanosoma cruzi without developing any apparent disease or important tissue lesion. In order to elucidate this well-balanced interaction, we decided to compare the humoral immune response kinetics of the two didelphids naturally and experimentally infected with T. cruzi and immunized by different schedules of parasite antigens, employing an indirect fluorescence antibody test (IFAT. Both didelphids responded with high serological titers to different immunization routes, while the earliest response occurred with the intradermic route. Serological titers of naturally infected P. opossum showed a significant individual variation, while those of D. marsupialis remained stable during the entire follow-up period. The serological titers of the experimentally infected animals varied according to the inoculated strain. Our data suggest that (1 IFAT was sensitive for follow-up of P. opossum in natural and experimental T. cruzi infections; (2 both P. opossum and D. marsupialis are able to mount an efficient humoral immune response as compared to placental mammals; (3 experimentally infected P. opossum and D. marsupialis present distinct patterns of infection, depending on the subpopulation of T. cruzi, (4 the differences observed in the humoral immune responses between P. opossum and D. marsupialis, probably, reflect distinct strategies selected by these animals during their coevolution with T. cruzi.
Full Text Available The didelphimorphs in Mexico are found all over the country except for the Baja California Peninsula. The aim of this study was to use 3 methods to assess the phylogenetic diversity of the species Marmosa mexicana, Tlacuatzin canescens, Caluromys derbianus, Chironectes minimus, Didelphis marsupialis, Didelphis virginiana, Metachirus nudicaudatus, and Philander opossum, and to determine the potential conservation areas for these mammals. Phylogenetic information was included to measure the taxonomic weighting, taxonomic dispersion, and taxonomic distinctness within the Mexican biogeographic provinces. In addition, a gap analysis was performed to show which protected areas contain the didelphimorphs listed under a conservation category. Considering phylogenetic diversity with the former analysis, results indicate that the biogeographic provinces most important for conservation of didelphimorphs are the Gulf of Mexico, the Pacific Coast, and Oaxaca, although Soconusco and Sierra Madre del Sur also have to be considered. We also observed that not all of the richest sites corresponded with current protected areas. This study is important because it employed different conservation approaches based on phylogenetic measures and was focused on Mexican marsupials, of which 1 species is endemic and 2 are of conservation concern.El orden Didelphimorphia se encuentra distribuido en todo México excepto en la península de Baja California. En este trabajo se evaluó la diversidad filogenética para las especies Marmosa mexicana, Tlacuatzin canescens, Caluromys derbianus, Chironectes minimus, Didelphis marsupialis, Didelphis virginiana, Metachirus nudicaudatus y Philander opossum, y se determinaron las áreas potenciales de conservación para estos organismos. Para realizar los análisis de peso taxonómico, dispersión taxonómica y diferenciación taxonómica se incluyó información filogenética. También se realizó un análisis de vacíos y omisiones
Vanessa Abelaira dos Anjos
Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-7925.2010v23n2p211 As informações relativas quanto à similaridade da fauna colonizadora de animais silvestres em decomposição são incipientes entre os diferentes modelos de carcaças. É esperado que espécies que possuam tecidos e dietas alimentares diferentes ao morrerem sejam fontes de colonização de diferentes espécies necrófagas. Para a verificação desta hipótese foi acompanhada a decomposição de uma carcaça de Didelphis albiventris Lund, 1841 (Didelphimorphia, Didelphidae, encontrado morto por atropelamento. Foram criados 2.273 adultos a partir de imaturos coletados na carcaça, representados por espécies pertencentes á Calliphoridae, Muscidae, Sarcophagidae e Fanniidae, com dominância numérica de Lucilia eximia Wiedemann, 1819 (Diptera, Calliphoridae. Outras seis espécies foram encontradas junto de espécimes não identificados de Fanniidae. Todas as espécies encontradas são colonizadoras de modelos tradicionalmente utilizados para estudos de Entomologia Forense.
Predação oportunista de Artibeus planirostris (Spix, 1823 e Carollia perspicillata (Linnaeus, 1758 (Chiroptera, Phyllostomidae por marsupiais e anuro na APA do Rio Curiaú, Amapá, Brasil Opportunistic predation of Artibeus planirostris (Spix, 1823 and Carollia perspicillata (Linnaeus, 1758 (Chiroptera, Phyllostomidae by marsupials and anuran in the APA do Rio Curiaú, Amapá State, Brazil
Isai Jorge de Castro
Full Text Available Durante estudos com morcegos em floresta de várzea na APA do Rio Curiaú, Amapá, Brasil, observamos três casos de predações oportunistas de morcegos frugívoros capturados em redes de neblina. Duas destas predações ocorreram por marsupiais e uma por anuro. Artibeus planirostris (Spix, 1823 (Chiroptera, Phyllostomidae foi predado por Didelphis marsupialis Linnaeus, 1758 e Philander opossum (Linnaeus, 1758 (Didelphimorphia, Didelphidae. Carollia perspicillata (Linnaeus, 1758 (Chiroptera, Phyllostomidae foi predado por Leptodactylus pentadactylus (Laurenti, 1768 (Anura, Leptodactylidae. A vocalização dos morcegos provavelmente atraiu os marsupiais para a rede, onde estes os predaram aproveitando que estavam presos. Este tipo de interação pode ocorrer naturalmente, no entanto, com maior dificuldade de registro.We observed three occasional predations of bats captured in mist nets by marsupials and a frog during studies in a várzea forest in the Amapá state. Artibeus planirostris (Spix, 1823 (Chiroptera, Phyllostomidae was preyed upon by Didelphis marsupialis Linnaeus, 1758 and Philander opossum (Linnaeus, 1758 (Didelphimorphia, Didelphidae. Carollia perspicillata (Linnaeus, 1758 (Chiroptera, Phyllostomidae was preyed on by Leptodactylus pentadactylus (Laurenti, 1768 (Anura, Leptodactylidae. The bats vocalizations probably attracted the marsupials and a frog to the mist nets where they preyed. This interaction form can occur naturally, however, are more difficult to observed.
Díaz, M. Mónica
Se presenta el resultado de un estudio realizado en la localidad de Iquitos y sus alrededores, un área ubicada en la Amazonía del noreste de Perú. Se ofrece una lista de especies de marsupiales registrados mediante colectas realizadas personalmente, información obtenida de la literatura, y registros confiables. Para cada especie se mencionan las localidades de colecta y presentan comentarios sobre su sistemática e historia natural. Se citan 19 especies para Iquitos, 14 fueron colectadas en...
Full Text Available En este trabajo, informamos los resultados del análisis parasitológico realizado a 40 individuos marsupiales de las especies Caluromys lanatus, Didelphis marsupialis, Marmosops noctivagus, Metachirus nudicaudatus, Marmosa (Micoureus regina, Monodelphis adusta, Philander andersoni y Philander opossum procedentes del departamento de Loreto, Perú. Se determinaron en total 11 especies de helmintos parásitos: Nematoda: Aspidodera sp., Cruzia tentaculata, Physaloptera mirandai, Physaloptera sp., Pterygodermatites sp., Trichuris sp., Turgida turgida, y Viannaia sp.; Trematoda: Podospathalium pedatum; Acanthocephala: Giganthorhynchus ortizi; y Pentastomida: ninfa. Los parásitos Trichuris sp., Pterygodematities sp., Turgida turgida, Viannaia sp. y Podospathalium pedatum son nuevos registros para el Perú. De igual manera, se registran por primera vez las siguientes asociaciones parásitos-huéspedes: Pterygodermatites sp.-Marmosa regina, Viannaia sp.- Marmosops noctivagus, Trichuris sp.-Marmosops cf. noctivagus, Podospathalium pedatum-Monodelphis adusta, Giganthorhynchus ortizi-Marmosops cf. noctivagus, y ninfas de pentastómidos-Marmosa regina y Metachirus nudicaudatus.
Bruna S. Vieira
Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi descrever a morfologia das glândulas salivares de Glironia venusta. Foi utilizado um exemplar coletado no resgate de fauna da Usina Hidroeletrica Teles Pires. Este foi fixado com solução de formaldeído a 10%. Para a análise macroscópica, as glândulas foram dissecadas e fotografadas in situ e para a microscopia foram retirados fragmentos das glândulas. Estes foram desidratados em concentrações crescentes de álcool, diafanizados em xilol, inclusos em parafina e corados com HE. G. venusta apresentou as glândulas mandibulares, parótidas, sublinguais, labiais e zigomáticas. As mandibulares se mostraram como estruturas alongadas, constituídas por lobos não septados e localizadas na porção anterior da região cervical. De formato triangular, a parótida estava localizada na depressão do masseter, ventral à cartilagem auricular. As sublinguais encontravam-se ventrais ao ramo da mandíbula, caudais ao digástrico. Foi observado na porção dorsoposterior à comissura labial, dorsal ao músculo orbicular da boca, as glândulas labiais, que apresentaram formato de "U". Já as glândulas zigomáticas acompanhavam a forma da porção anterior do arco zigomático, na margem infraorbital. As glândulas mandibulares e sublinguais apresentaram ácinos do tipo mucosos, com alguns ácinos serosos. A parótida era constituída por ácinos puramente serosos. Na glândula labial foi observado ácinos do tipo mistos ou seromucosos. Para a glândula zigomática não foi possível a realização da análise microscópica devido problemas de procedimento histológico. As características das glândulas salivares observadas em G. venusta se assemelham a de outros mamíferos onívoros, entretanto, apresentaram pequenas diferenças no que se refere à sua localização e forma.
Núbia P. Pereira
Full Text Available The karyotypes of 23 specimens belonging to 16 species from nine genera of Brazilian marsupials (family Didelphidae were studied. The animals were collected in eight localities of Cerrado or Atlantic Forest biomes in the states of Goiás, Tocantins and São Paulo. The karyotypes were analyzed after conventional Giemsa staining and silver staining of the nucleolus organizer regions (Ag-NORs. New karyotypic data were obtained for Gracilinanus microtarsus (2n = 14, FN = 24, Marmosops paulensis (2n = 14, FN = 24 , Micoreus paraguayanus (2n = 14, FN = 20 and Monodelphis rubida (2n = 18, FN = 32 and are discussed in detail. The karyotypes of G. microtarsus , M. paulensis and M. paraguayanus include three large pairs of submetacentrics (pairs 1, 2 and 3 and a medium-sized metacentric or submetacentric pair 4. Pairs 5 and 6 are small submetacentrics in G. microtarsus and M. paulensis and acrocentrics in M. paraguayanus . M. paulensis presented a single Ag-NOR in pair 6 (6p6p, while M. paraguayanus exhibited multiple Ag-NORs in pairs 5 and 6 (5pq5pq6p6p. There was variation in size and morphology of the sex chromosomes among these species. Monodelphis rubida presented a karyotype with 2n = 18 and FN = 32 composed of a large submetacentric pair 1, a medium-sized metacentric pair 2 and six pairs of submetacentrics (pairs 3 through 8. The X was a small acrocentric and the Y was dot-like. A single Ag-NOR bearing pair (5p5p characterized M. rubida. Relevant karyotypic information was obtained for 19 specimens belonging to 12 species collected in areas sampled for the first time [ Caluromys lanatus and C. philander (2n = 14, FN = 20, Gracilinanus emiliae (2n = 14, FN = 24, Marmosa murina , Metachirus nudicaudatus and Micoureus demerarae (2n = 14, FN = 20, Monodelphis americana (2n = 18, FN = 32 and M. domestica (2n = 18, FN = 20, and Didelphis marsupialis, Philander frenata, P. opossum and P. sp (2n = 22, FN = 20]. Although the karyotypes were relatively
Use of space by neotropical marsupial Didelphis albiventris (Didelphimorphia: Didelphidae in an urban forest fragment Uso do espaço pelo marsupial Neotropical Didelphis albiventris (Didelphimorphia: Didelphidae em um fragmento florestal urbano
Alex J. de Almeida
Full Text Available A population of the Neotropical marsupial Didelphis albiventris (Lund, 1840 living in an urban forest fragment was studied. Population structure and the influence of sex and age on two variables related to habitat use (Daily home range - MCP and Habitat use intensity - UI obtained by the spool-and-line technique were analysed. There were 20 males and 29 females studied (N = 49. No sexual dimorphism was apparent in adult individuals. There were 16 males and 24 females tracked using the spool-and-line device. There were significant differences found in the mean size of the daily home range, which was greater in adults than in sub-adults. Regarding the habitat use intensity there were also significant differences related to age. There were no significant differences in MCP and UI related to the sex of the individuals. Besides the analyzed factors, the variables related to habitat use are possibly influenced by other factors, especially, the ones related to the conservation status of the fragment.Neste estudo foi analisada uma população do marsupial neotropical Didelphis albiventris (Lund, 1840, em um fragmento florestal urbano, e foram analisados aspectos da estrutura da população, e a influência do sexo e da idade em duas variáveis relativas ao uso do hábitat - Área de Vida Diária (MCP e Intensidade de Uso do Hábitat (UI, obtidas com a técnica do carretel de rastreamento. Foram estudados 49 indivíduos marcados, dos quais 20 eram machos e 29 eram fêmeas. Dos animais adultos, não foi encontrado qualquer dimorfismo sexual. De 40 indivíduos rastreados com carretel (16 machos, 24 fêmeas, diferenças significativas no MCP foram encontradas, sendo que os indivíduos adultos apresentaram tamanhos médios maiores que os sub-adultos. Quanto à UI, diferenças significativas foram observadas também relacionadas à idade. Não foram encontradas diferenças entre sexos com relação ao MCP e IU. Além dos fatores analisados, as variáveis relativas ao uso do hábitat possivelmente são influenciadas por outros fatores, especialmente aqueles relacionados ao estado de conservação do fragmento.
Metazoarios parásitos de Tlacuatzin canescens y Marmosa mexicana (Mammalia: Didelphimorphia de México Metazoan parasites of Tlacuatzin canescens and Marmosa mexicana (Mammalia: Didelphimorphia from Mexico
Full Text Available Como parte de un estudio sobre los metazoarios parásitos de mamíferos de México se recolectaron 4 ejemplares de ratones tlacuache: 2 de Tlacuatzin canescens (Allen, 1893 procedentes de Oaxaca y 2 de Marmosa mexicana Merriam, 1897 de Veracruz. Se presentan 5 registros nuevos de hospedero y localidad para ácaros de las especies Ixodes luciae Sénevet, 1940, Ixodes sinaloa Kohls y Clifford, 1966, las pulgas Plusaetis mathesoni (Traub 1950 y Polygenis martinezbaezi Vargas 1951, así como para el cestodo Hymenolepis sp. y por primera vez en México se registra el nematodo Hoineffia simplicispicula Navone, Suriano y Pujol, 1991.As a part of an ongoing project to inventory the metazoan parasites of Mexican mammals, 4 specimens of 2 species of mouse opossums (2 Tlacuatzin canescens [Allen, 1893] and 2 Marmosa mexicana Merriam, 1897, were collected from Oaxaca and Veracuz states, Mexico, respectively. Five new locality and host records are presented for the acari Ixodes luciae Sénevet, 1940, Ixodes sinaloa Kohls and Clifford, 1966, of fleas Plusaetis mathesoni (Traub 1950, and Polygenis martinezbaezi Vargas 1951, as well as the cestode Hymenolepis sp., while the nematode Hoineffia simplicispicula Navone, Suriano and Pujol, 1991, is recorded for the first time in Mexico.
Atrição dental em Didelphis albiventris e D. marsupialis (Marsupialia, Didelphimorphia, Didelphidae do Sul do Brasil Dental wear in Didelphis albiventris and D. marsupialis (Marsupialia, Didelphimorphia, Didelphidae from southern Brazil
Marília da Silva Aguiar
Full Text Available Pesquisou-se o nível de desgaste dental (atrição e/ou abrasão em 168 espécimes de Didelphis albiventris e D. marsupialis (gambás do sul do Brasil. O desgaste foi muito importante, com elevada freqüência de dentina terciária e de exposição da câmara coronária e/ou do canal radicular, devido à associação de fraturas e desgaste, pois as fraturas predispõem ao desgaste e este favorece as fraturas. O grau de desgaste aumentou com a idade dos animais. A ordem crescente na freqüência de dentina terciária nos dentes caudais aos caninos foi: primeiro, segundo e terceiro molares, terceiro e segundo pré-molar, e quarto molar. Diferentemente de outros onívoros, em Didelphis o desgaste dentário parece mais relacionado às fraturas devidas aos alimentos (seguida de atrição/abrasão do que ao contato entre os dentes. Ao contrário da literatura, os molares tribosfênicos não parecem "ideais" para tal dieta onívora, o que é evidenciado pela elevada freqüência de desgaste, fraturas e exposição da câmara coronária ou do canal radicular.This work deals with the study of dental wear down (atrittion and/or abrasion in 168 specimens of Didelphis albiventris and D. marsupialis from Southern Brazil. Wear down was very important, with high frequency of tertiary dentine and exposition of the pulp cavity/radicular canal, due to the association of fractures and wear down. Fractures predispose wear down which, on the other side, favors fractures. The degree of attrition increased with age. The order of growing frequency of tertiary dentin in poscanines was: first, second and third molars, third and second premolars, and finally fourth molar. Differently from others omnivorous in Didelphis tooth wear down seems rather related to fractures due to food (followed by attrition than to teeth contact. Contrary to literature, tribosphenic molars seems not to be "ideals" for such omnivorous diet, as is evident from the high frequency of wear down, fractures and teeth cavities exposition.
Atrição dental em Didelphis albiventris e D. marsupialis (Marsupialia, Didelphimorphia, Didelphidae) do Sul do Brasil Dental wear in Didelphis albiventris and D. marsupialis (Marsupialia, Didelphimorphia, Didelphidae) from southern Brazil
Marília da Silva Aguiar; Jorge Ferigolo; João Luiz Rossi Junior; Marco Antônio Gioso
Pesquisou-se o nível de desgaste dental (atrição e/ou abrasão) em 168 espécimes de Didelphis albiventris e D. marsupialis (gambás) do sul do Brasil. O desgaste foi muito importante, com elevada freqüência de dentina terciária e de exposição da câmara coronária e/ou do canal radicular, devido à associação de fraturas e desgaste, pois as fraturas predispõem ao desgaste e este favorece as fraturas. O grau de desgaste aumentou com a idade dos animais. A ordem crescente na freqüência de dentina te...
Torres-Montoya, E H; Zazueta-Moreno, J M; Osuna-Martínez, L U; Castillo-Ureta, H; Silva-Hidalgo, G; López-Moreno, H S; Osuna-Ramírez, I; Noguera-Corona, E; Rendón-Maldonado, J G
Gnathostoma turgidum is a nematode parasite that exploits the stomach of Virginian opossums, Didelphis virginiana, in Latin America. The opossum is the definitive host of G. turgidum in the wild. Intrahepatic growth and maturation of the parasite, subsequent migration to the stomach and spontaneous expulsion are common. However, the histopathological lesions caused by G. turgidum are poorly described. A better understanding of the life cycle of this parasite and the pathological changes in natural host-parasite interactions could help to clarify the progression of human infections caused by Gnathostoma binucleatum. The aim of this work was to study morphological changes in the liver and stomach of D. virginiana during natural infection and adult worm expulsion. Three opossums naturally infected with G. turgidum were captured from an endemic area of gnathostomosis. Three uninfected opossums captured from a non-endemic area were used as controls. The opossums were sacrificed at different stages of infection (March, May and December), and a histopathological study of their livers and stomachs was conducted. Injuries in livers were observed by histopathology - areas of necrosis and collagen septa were identified. Parasites caused nodules with necrosis on the periphery of lesions, and collagen fibres were also observed in stomachs. Collagen septa may be caused by antigenic remains of the parasite. Further immunological studies are necessary to verify that stimulation is caused by these factors.
Patricia Villa Nova
Full Text Available The present study acknowledges the diversity of fossil marsupials from the Gruta dos Moura cave, as well as environmental and climatic aspects during the Quaternary. The results show that this is the largest diversity of Pleistocene marsupials recorded in a single cave: Didelphis albiventris, D. aurita, Gracilinanus agilis, G. microtarsus, Marmosa murina, Monodelphis brevicaudata, M. domesticaand Sairadelphys tocantinensis. Furthermore, the described specimens are also part of the only fossil assemblage unequivocally referable to the late Pleistocene. Paleontological studies suggest an intimate association with dry and open environments with high abundance of water sources. Since most of the identified taxa are characteristic of open forests and gallery forests, this could represent the actual environment around the Gruta dos Moura cave. Recent studies identified sympatric occurrences between species from open and dry environments and species from humid forests that were identified among our material and are characteristic of humid regions. Therefore, these species could inhabit gallery forests and capons, or even ecotones, inside a dry and open environment. Moreover, the extinction of Sairadelphyscould also indicate that the climatic and environmental conditions changed or that the past environment was more heterogeneous than the current environment of the region.
Full Text Available The body size of vertebrates isolated on islands can undergo changes due to ecological features of these environments. This study aimed to compare the body size of the common opossum, Didelphis aurita, from different insular populations within the same archipelago in southern Brazil. The opossum populations showed corporal variation and different hypotheses were raised to understand the results. This study constitutes the most detailed body size comparison of a marsupial within different insular populations in the Neotropical zone and the data gathered represents an initial contribution for regional fauna biometric knowledge.
Full Text Available Anomalous colourations occur in many tropical vertebrates. However, they are considered rare in wild populations, with very few records for the majority of animal taxa. We report two new cases of anomalous colouration in mammals. Additionally, we compiled all published cases about anomalous pigmentation registered in Neotropical mammals, throughout a comprehensive review of peer reviewed articles between 1950 and 2010. Every record was classified as albinism, leucism, piebaldism or eventually as undetermined pigmentation. As results, we report the new record of a leucistic specimen of opossum (Didelphis sp. in southern Brazil, as well as a specimen of South American fur seal (Arctocephalus australis with piebaldism in Uruguay. We also found 31 scientific articles resulting in 23 records of albinism, 12 of leucism, 71 of piebaldism and 92 records classified as undetermined pigmentation. Anomalous colouration is apparently rare in small terrestrial mammals, but it is much more common in cetaceans and michrochiropterans. Out of these 198 records, 149 occurred in cetaceans and 30 in bats. The results related to cetaceans suggest that males and females with anomolous pigmentation are reproductively successful and as a consequence their frequencies are becoming higher in natural populations. In bats, this result can be related to the fact these animals orient themselves primarily through echolocation, and their refuges provide protection against light and predation. It is possible that anomalous colouration occurs more frequently in other Neotropical mammal orders, which were not formally reported. Therefore, we encourage researchers to publish these events in order to better understand this phenomenon that has a significant influence on animal survival.
Distribuição geográfica de pequenos mamíferos não voadores nas bacias dos rios Araguaia e Paraná, região centro-sul do Brasil Geographic distribution of small non-volant mammals in the Araguaia and Paraná basins, south-central region of Brazil
Nilton C. Cáceres
Full Text Available Realizaram-se amostragens de pequenos mamíferos em duas bacias hidrográficas do Brasil central pertencentes aos rios Araguaia e Paraná com intuito de descrever a composição de espécies de pequenos mamíferos de hábito florestal e comparar suas distribuições geográficas. Quatorze pontos de coleta foram amostrados, subdivididos em oito na bacia do Rio Paraná e seis na bacia do Rio Araguaia. Foram registradas 20 espécies de pequenos mamíferos na região (oito de marsupiais e 12 de roedores, sendo 16 delas por meio de armadilhas metálicas (5.253 armadilhas-noite e oito delas por meio de armadilhas de queda (224 baldes-noite, totalizando 161 capturas de 139 indivíduos. A bacia do Rio Paraná apresentou 16 espécies (armadilhas-noite: 3.115; baldes-noite: 104 e a bacia do Araguaia apresentou 11 espécies (armadilhas-noite: 2.138; baldes-noite: 120, sendo que as riquezas foram similares quando aplicado o método da rarefação. Das 20 espécies registradas, sete (35% ocorreram em ambas as bacias. Apesar da elevada riqueza de espécies amostrada, destacou-se a elevada abundância do marsupial Didelphis albiventris Lund, 1840. As espécies de marsupiais amostradas foram D. albiventris, Caluromys philander (Linnaeus, 1758, Cryptonanus cf. agricolai Voss, Lunde & Jansa, 2005, Gracilinanus agilis (Burmeister, 1854, G. microtarsus (Wagner, 1842, Lutreolina crassicaudata (Desmarest, 1804, Marmosa murina (Linnaeus, 1758, e Philander opossum (Linnaeus, 1758. As espécies de roedores amostradas foram Akodon gr. cursor, Calomys tener (Winge, 1887, Nectomys rattus (Pelzen, 1883, N. squamipes (Brants, 1827, Oecomys bicolor (Tomes, 1860, Oryzomys maracajuensis Langguth & Bonvicino, 2002, Oryzomys cf. marinhus, O. megacephalus (Fischer, 1814, Oligoryzomys fornesi (Massoia, 1973, Oligoryzomys sp., Proechimys longicaudatus (Rengger, 1830 e P. roberti (Thomas, 1901. A ampliação da distribuição de algumas espécies é discutida, assim como aspectos
Reproductive effort and seasonality associated with male-biased parasitism in Gracilinanus agilis (Didelphimorphia: Didelphidae) infected by Eimeria spp. (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae) in the Brazilian cerrado.
Strona, A L S; Levenhagem, M; Leiner, N O
The aggregation of parasites among hosts is associated with differential host exposure and susceptibility to parasites, which varies according to host gender, body size, reproductive status and environmental factors. We evaluated the role of these factors on infestation by Eimeria spp. (Eimeriidae) in the agile gracile mouse opossum (Gracilinanus agilis), a semelparous didelphid inhabiting neotropical savannahs. Eimeria spp. abundance and prevalence among G. agilis were associated with the breeding status of individuals and to a lesser extent to climatic season, with both sexes presenting higher Eimeria spp. burdens during late breeding/wet season. On the other hand, male-biased parasitism was restricted to dry/mating season. We suggest that male spatial organization and diet may account for increased parasite burdens within this sex, although future studies should evaluate the role of physiological differences associated with androgen hormones. Finally, a rapid increase in Eimeria spp. loads among females during the late breeding/wet season seems associated with seasonal changes in susceptibility, due to breeding costs related to semelparity, and exposure to infective propagules, while male-die off seems to explain maintenance of higher Eimeria spp. burdens within this sex in the same period.
Carolina Bezerra Silva, Ana
A evolução do dimorfismo sexual de forma e tamanho do crânio e mandíbula foi estudada em 31 táxons de marsupiais didelfídeos, a fim de compreender melhor o desenvolvimento desse caráter na família. Para elucidar fatores que poderiam estar condicionando esse dimorfismo nos Didelphidae, foi analisada também a evolução de outros dois elementos: alometrias entre tamanho e forma do crânio e da mandíbula; e bionomia das mesmas 31 espécies. Foi realizado um mapeamento de todos estes caracteres, qual...
Manoel dos Santos Filho
Full Text Available The various aspects of reproduction and population dynamics of Didelphis aurita were studied through capture-recapture on Santa Catarina Island, in southern Brazil. Surveys were carried out from April 1996 to March 1997. The study area was located near the stream of a swamp in a disturbed Atlantic Forest area. On 880 trap-nights, 31 opossums were captured on 108 occasions during one year. The results of this paper indicate a seasonal polyestrous reproduction pattern. Autumn-winter population levels grew on account of juvenile recruitment. The sex ratio favored females in first captures and total captures. Emigration was discussed as being the main reason for the female bias. The effects of sampling procedures over deviation in the pouch young sex ratio of resident females were also discussed.
Prevalence of larvae of the bot fly Cuterebra simulans (Diptera, Oestridae on Gracilinanus microtarsus (Didelphimorphia, Didelphidae in southeastern Cerrado from Brazil Prevalência de parasitismo de larvas de Cuterebra simulans (Diptera, Oestridae em Gracilinanus microtarsus (Didelphimorphia, Didelphidae no Cerrado do sudeste do Brasil
Leonardo Dominici Cruz
Full Text Available The prevalence of Cuterebra simulans bot fly parasitism on marsupial Gracilinanus microtarsus was compared between sexes and seasons of the year. No significant difference was observed between females and males but prevalence was higher in warm-wet season than cool-dry season. This pattern agree with observations of others studies with oestrids flies in southern Neotropical areas, suggesting the occurrence of latitudinal change in the peak of bot flies reproductive activity related to seasons of the year along these systems. This is the first record of C. simulans larvae parasitism on G. microtarsus and its occurrence in southern areas of the Neotropical region.A prevalência de parasitismo das larvas da mosca Cuterebra simulans no marsupial Gracilinanus microtarsus foi comparada entre os sexos e estações do ano. Machos e fêmeas não apresentaram diferenças significativas, mas a prevalência de parasitismo foi mais elevada na estação quenteúmida que na estação fria-seca. Este padrão está de acordo com as observações de outros estudos com moscas da família Oestridae realizados nas áreas ao sul da região Neotropical, sugerindo a ocorrência de mudanças latitudinais nos picos de atividades reprodutivas destas moscas em relação às estações do ano ao longo destes sistemas. Este também é o primeiro registro da ocorrência de C. simulans em áreas mais ao sul da região Neotropical e do parasitismo de suas larvas em G. microtarsus.
Anomalous colour in Neotropical mammals: a review with new records for Didelphis sp. (Didelphidae, Didelphimorphia and Arctocephalus australis (Otariidae, Carnivora Coloração anômala em mamíferos Neotropicais: uma revisão com novos registros para Didelphis sp. (Didelphidae, Didelphimorphia e Arctocephalus australis (Otariidae, Carnivora
Full Text Available Anomalous colourations occur in many tropical vertebrates. However, they are considered rare in wild populations, with very few records for the majority of animal taxa. We report two new cases of anomalous colouration in mammals. Additionally, we compiled all published cases about anomalous pigmentation registered in Neotropical mammals, throughout a comprehensive review of peer reviewed articles between 1950 and 2010. Every record was classified as albinism, leucism, piebaldism or eventually as undetermined pigmentation. As results, we report the new record of a leucistic specimen of opossum (Didelphis sp. in southern Brazil, as well as a specimen of South American fur seal (Arctocephalus australis with piebaldism in Uruguay. We also found 31 scientific articles resulting in 23 records of albinism, 12 of leucism, 71 of piebaldism and 92 records classified as undetermined pigmentation. Anomalous colouration is apparently rare in small terrestrial mammals, but it is much more common in cetaceans and michrochiropterans. Out of these 198 records, 149 occurred in cetaceans and 30 in bats. The results related to cetaceans suggest that males and females with anomolous pigmentation are reproductively successful and as a consequence their frequencies are becoming higher in natural populations. In bats, this result can be related to the fact these animals orient themselves primarily through echolocation, and their refuges provide protection against light and predation. It is possible that anomalous colouration occurs more frequently in other Neotropical mammal orders, which were not formally reported. Therefore, we encourage researchers to publish these events in order to better understand this phenomenon that has a significant influence on animal survival.Colorações anômalas ocorrem em muitos vertebrados tropicais. Entretanto, estas são consideradas raras em populações selvagens, havendo poucos registros para a maioria dos táxons. Reportam-se, neste estudo, dois novos casos de coloração anômala em mamíferos. Além disso, por meio de uma extensa revisão bibliográfica, foram compilados os casos publicados sobre coloração anômala em mamíferos neotropicais entre 1950 e 2010. Cada registro foi classificado como albinismo, leucismo, piebaldismo ou, eventualmente, como coloração indeterminada. Como resultados, reportou-se o registro de um espécime leucístico de gambá (Didelphis sp. no sul do Brasil e de um espécime de lobo-marinho sul-americano (Arctocephalus australis com piebaldismo no norte do Uruguai. Também foram analisados 31 artigos científicos, resultando em 23 registros de albinismo, 12 de leucismo, 71 de piebaldismo e 92 registros classificados como de pigmentação indeterminada. A coloração anômala aparentemente é rara em pequenos mamíferos terrestres, mas é muito mais comum em cetáceos e microquirópteros. Dos 198 registros encontrados, 149 ocorreram em cetáceos e 30 em morcegos. No caso dos cetáceos, este resultado sugere que machos e fêmeas com este padrão anômalo de pigmentação são reprodutivamente exitosos e, consequentemente, sua frequência está aumentando nas populações naturais. Com relação aos morcegos, este fenômeno pode estar relacionado ao fato de estes animais orientarem-se primariamente por meio de ecolocalização e seus refúgios oferecerem proteção contra luz e predação. É possível que a coloração anômala ocorra mais frequentemente em outras ordens de mamíferos neotropicais, as quais não foram formalmente reportadas. Desta forma, mostra-se importante encorajar os pesquisadores a publicar estes eventos em vida selvagem para um melhor entendimento deste fenômeno, que tem influência significativa na sobrevivência destes organismos.
Sleeping sites of woolly mouse opossum Micoureus demerarae (Thomas (Didelphimorphia, Didelphidae in the Atlantic Forest of south-eastern Brazil Sítios de dormida da cuíca Micoureus demerarae (Thomas (Didelphimorphia, Didelphidaa na Floresta Atlântica do sudeste do Brasil
Edsel A. Moraes Junior
Full Text Available Micoureus demerarae (Thomas, 1905 is a medium-sized marsupial, around 130 g, with a nocturnal habit and insectivorous-omnivorous diet. From August 2001 to July 2002, seven individuals, three males and four females, were monitored with radio-telemetry in Reserva Biológica União, state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, aiming to investigate and describe the sleeping sites used by this marsupial. Fifty eight sleeping sites were located, most of which (70,7% in palm trees Astrocaryum aculeatissimum (Schott Burret, and the remaining in other tree species (29,3%, a significant difference (chi2 test; p Micoureus demerarae (Thomas, 1905 é um marsupial de tamanho médio, cerca de 130 g, de hábito noturno e arborícola e dieta insetívora-onívora. No período de agosto de 2001 a julho de 2002, sete indivíduos, três machos e quatro fêmeas, foram acompanhados, através de rádio-telemetria, na Reserva Biológica União, Rio de Janeiro, com o objetivo de investigar e descrever os abrigos utilizados por essa espécie de marsupial. Foram localizados 58 abrigos, a maioria dos quais (70,7% em palmeiras Iri Astrocaryum aculeatissimum (Schott Burret e o restante em outras espécies de árvores (29,3%, uma diferença significativa (teste chi2; p < 0,005. Esta preferência por palmeiras não foi significativamente diferente entre os sexos (teste chi2; p = 0,920. Em 31 abrigos (53,4% do total o local exato onde o animal se encontrava pode ser localizado: nas palmeiras os animais sempre estavam alojados no local de inserção dos pecíolos junto ao tronco e a uma altura média de 4,66 ± 1,36 m, enquanto nas demais espécies de árvores, sete animais estavam em emaranhados de cipós e dois em ocos, a uma altura média de 10,67 ± 2,75 m. Esta diferença de altura entre abrigos em iris e não iris foi significativa (teste Mann Whitney; p < 0,001. Os resultados indicam que as palmeiras iris são um importante recurso para M. demerarae. A preferência por A. aculeatissimum se deve provavelmente à maior proteção contra predadores exercida pelos numerosos espinhos presentes nesta espécie.
Full Text Available Previous cytochrome B (CytB mtDNA studies have suggested four species for the opossum genus Philander (four-eyed opossums, three (P. mcilhennyi, P. andersoni and P. opossum from the Amazon and one (P. frenata from the Brazilian Atlantic forest. During a faunal survey nine specimens of Philander sp. and four of Didelphis marsupialis were collected in the Mamirauá Sustainable Reserve, Amazonas State, Brazil. Preliminary analyses based on morphology and geographical distributions were not conclusive, suggesting that Philander specimens could belong to either P. andersoni or P. opossum. In order to elucidate the relationship of this taxon to the remaining Amazonian taxa, seven Philander and two Didelphis specimens animals were sequenced for the cytB mtDNA gene and compared to other previously studied taxa. The maximum likelihood (ML, neighbor-Joining (NJ and maximum parsimony (MP consensus bootstrap trees depicted six groups: Didelphis., P. frenata, P andersoni, P. mcilhennyi, P.o. opossum and Philander sp. and Philander canus in a common assemblage supported by significant bootstrap values, suggesting that the Philander sp. from Mamiraua in fact belongs to the species Philander canus.
Full Text Available Roedores e Marsupiais são componentes importantes da fauna na região Neotropical. Estudos sobre a riqueza e abundância destes animais são raros na Floresta Ombrófila Mista (FOM e aqui apresentamos um inventário conduzido na Floresta Nacional de Piraí do Sul. Esta área possui uma área aproximada de 150 ha, cercada por pastos e plantações de Pinus. A amostragem foi feita através de armadilhas de queda, Sherman e Tomahawk, dispostas nos principais tipos de vegetação encontrados. Pelo menos um casal de cada espécie foi coletado. Como resultado, durante 5.892 armadilhas.noite nós obtivemos um total de 1.049 capturas, representando 17 espécies: Akodon montensis, Bibimys labiosus, Brucepattersonius iheringi, Cryptonanus sp., Didelphis albiventris, D. aurita, Gracilinanus microtarsus, Monodelphis americana, M. scalops, Myocastor coypus, Nectomys squamipes, Oligoryzomys nigripes, Oxymycterus judex, O. nasutus, Sooretamys angouya e Thaptomys nigrita. Capturas por armadilhas de queda representaram 67% do total, e oito espécies foram registradas exclusivamente por este método. Akodon montensis, O. nigripes e T. nigrita foram as espécies mais abundantes.
male and female conspecifics on a visual basis. ... Brain Function, Teleost, telencephalon, Cichlid fish behaviour, limbic system, hippocampus. ...... The effects of forebrain ablations on the behaviour of H. philander cannot be satisfactorily.
Nunes,Cláudia; Ayres,Jose Marcio; Sampaio,Iracilda; Schneider,Horacio
Previous cytochrome B (CytB) mtDNA studies have suggested four species for the opossum genus Philander (four-eyed opossums), three (P. mcilhennyi, P. andersoni and P. opossum) from the Amazon and one (P. frenata) from the Brazilian Atlantic forest. During a faunal survey nine specimens of Philander sp. and four of Didelphis marsupialis were collected in the Mamirauá Sustainable Reserve, Amazonas State, Brazil. Preliminary analyses based on morphology and geographical distributions were not co...
Casartelli, C; Rogatto, S R; Ferrari, I
Three species of marsupials from the Amazon region (Marmosa cinerea, Caluromys lanatus, and Didelphis marsupialis) and two from the region of São Paulo (Didelphis marsupialis and Didelphis albiventris) were studied. The G-banding pattern of the species with 2n = 14 (M. cinerea and C. lanatus......, being located in the telomeric region of one pair and in the centromeric region of the other pair. Caluromys lanatus has centromeric Ag-NORs in one acrocentric and in one submetacentric chromosome pairs. Didelphis marsupialis has three chromosome pairs with telomeric Ag-NORs. In D. albiventris the Ag......) was very similar, as well as the pattern of G-bands in the species with 22 chromosomes (Didelphis). All of the autosomes of M. cinerea and D. albiventris have centromeric C-bands and the Y chromosome is totally C-band positive. The long arm of the M. cinerea X chromosome is completely C-band positive...
Ortiz, P. E.; Teta, P.
A micromammal archaeological sequence (2120 f 120 to 780 f 100 years BP) from Inca Cueva 5 site (23" 05' S - 65" 27' W; 3700 m.a.s.l., Jujuy Province, Argentina) was studied. The following mammalian taxa were recorded: Order Didelphimorphia, Family Didelphidae, Thylamys cf. T. pallidior; Order Rodentia, Family Muridae, Akodon cf. A. albiventer, Andinomys edax, Auliscomys sublimis, Calomys lepidus, Neotomys ebriosus, Phyllotis sp.; Family Caviidae, Cavia cf. C. tschudii, Galea musteloides; Fam...
Liceras de Hidalgo, J L; Sulzer, K R
Six new serovars of Leptospira interrogans were isolated from opossums (Didelphis marsupialis and Philander opossum) trapped in the Peruvian jungle. The proposed names, type strain designation, and serogroup of the serovars, respectively, were: huallaga, strain M-7, Djasiman serogroup; luis, strain M-6, Tarassovi serogroup; machiguenga, strain MMD-3, Icterohaemorrhagiae serogroup; rioja, strain MR-12, Bataviae serogroup; rupa rupa, strain M-3, Sejroe serogroup; and tingomaria, strain M-13, Cy...
Darci Moraes Barros-Battesti
Full Text Available The Atlantic Forest small mammal land fauna, except bats, and the abiotic factors that might have an influence on its composition, were studied in the Itapevi County, State of Sao Paulo, a forested region, partly altered by antropic action, from January, 1995 to June, 1996. The trapping effort consisted of 2,888 trap-nights, resulting in a 4.6% trapping success and consisted of monthly trappings, for five consecutive days. During this period, 134 specimens were captured, of which 46.3% were Didelphimorphia and 53.7% were Rodentia. Eleven species were registered: two Didelphimorphia: Didelphis marsupialis (Linnaeus, 1758 and Marmosops incanus (Lund, 1841, and nine Rodentia: Akodon cursor (Winge, 1887, Bolomys lasiurus (Lund, 1841, Oxymycterus hispidus Pictet, 1843, Oxymycterus nasutus (Waterhouse, 1837, Oligoryzomys nigripes (Olfers, 1818, Oryzomys angouya (Fischer, 1814, Raltus norvegicus (Berkenhout, 1769, Euryzygomatomys spinosus (G. Fischer, 1814 and Cavia aperea Erxleben, 1777. The relative density indices were correlated with meteorological data by Spearman and Pearson coefficients. For marsupials these correlations were not significant. For rodents, the correlations were significant and directly related to lower temperature and rainfall indices (p<0.05. During the dry season the occurrence of small mammals was 50% greater than during the wet season, probably due to foraging strategies in the studied fragment of Atlantic Forest.
Impactos de atropelamentos de animais silvestres no trecho da rodovia SP-215 confrontante ao Parque Estadual de Porto Ferreira – Porto Ferreira, SP (Nota Científica. Impacts roadkills mortality of wild animals in the area of SP-215 highway alongside Porto Ferreira State Park – Porto Ferreira, SP (Scientific Note.
Sonia Aparecida de SOUZA
Full Text Available No presente trabalho foi realizado o monitoramento dos atropelamentos de animais silvestres na rodovia SP–215 no trecho confrontante ao Parque Estadual de Porto Ferreira. Em seis anos foram registrados 72 indivíduos, sendo 17 espécies de mamíferos, 10 de aves, quatro de répteis, uma de anfíbio e três indivíduos não identificados. Dentre esses, lobo-guará Chrysocyon brachyurus, jaguatirica Leopardus pardalis e cuíca-lanosa Caluromys lanatus se encontram na lista das espécies ameaçadas de extinção do Estado de São Paulo. A partir do conhecimento das espécies atingidas, faz-se necessário o desenvolvimento de estudos e propostas de implantação de medidas mitigadoras à presença da rodovia SP–215 para a conservação da fauna.This paper presents the data collected through the monitoring of roadkills on SP–215 highway in the area alongside Porto Ferreira State Park. During six years, 72 roadkills were recorded, including 17 species of mammals, 10 of birds, five of reptiles, one of amphibians and three unidentified individuals. Among those species, maned wolf Chrysocyon brachyurus, ocelot Leopardus pardalis, and Western woolly opossum Caluromys lanatus are included in the threatened species list of the state of São Paulo. After finding out which species are affected, it is necessary to develop studies and proposals for implementing effective mitigation measures for the presence of SP–215 highway in the area in order to preserve the local fauna.
Esmey B.E. Moema
Full Text Available The metacercarial (larval stages of diplostomid digeneans are known to inhabit freshwater fish, causing tissue damage in the process. Due to their widespread diversity, little is known about their life cycle. The classification of these parasitic stages to the species level using only the morphology is very challenging due to the lack of genitalia; they are regarded to be the most important structures in the identification of these organisms. In this study, additional morphological information through light and scanning electron microscopy is given for two different diplostomids found in the cranial cavity of Clarias gariepinus and the vitreous chambers of Tilapia sparrmanii and Pseudocrenilabrus philander. The diplostomid metacercaria inhabiting the cranial cavity of Clarias gariepinus was morphologically identified as Diplostomulum (Tylodelphys mashonenseand an unknown metacercaria of the genus Diplostomumwas found in the vitreous chambers of Pseudocrenilabrus philander and Tilapia sparrmanii. Both parasitic species’ 28S recombinant deoxyribonucleic acid genomic regions were successfully amplified using Dig 125/1500R primer pairs. The assay yielded a product of approximately 1300 base pairs as seen on the gel images. There were 14 nucleotide differences over the entire analysed sequences resulting in a 1.1% (14/1273 nucleotide difference. In line with the morphological characteristics of these parasites, there seemed to be a slight difference in their genetic makeup. The application of molecular techniques on digenetic trematodes seems very promising and may yield great potential in future descriptions of morphologically similar parasitic species.
Jardel Brandão Seibert
Full Text Available We analyzed the diet of two sympatric felids, the oncilla and the margay, in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest. Fecal samples were collected from 2003 to 2005. Of the 52 fecal samples examined, 34 were confirmed to be from the oncilla and 18 of them from the margay. Small mammals (Rodentia and Didelphimorphia were the most important food item, followed by insects and birds. The food habit of the oncilla and the margay in the area were classified as a specialist carnivore, feeding in a variety of prey, which mammals were the most consumed item. The coexistence between those species may involve spatial and temporal segregation and the use of complementary items in the diet. (English
Full Text Available A Mata Atlântica é um dos biomas mais ameaçados do Brasil e o estabelecimento de áreas protegidas é uma das formas para se conservar este bioma. Para legalizar uma unidade de conservação, é preciso conhecer a fauna e flora local. O trabalho objetiva inventariar a mastofauna terrestre em um fragmento de Mata Atlântica, localizado na divisa entre os municípios de Jacareí e São José dos Campos, SP. Foram utilizados dois métodos distintos: método direto (transecto linear e método indireto (parcela de areia. Como resultados foram registrados oito táxons distribuídos em quatro ordens: Cingulata, Carnivora, Didelphimorphia e Rodentia. Os dois métodos foram eficientes para o registro da mastofauna presente na área de estudo.
Yahya Salameh Khraisat
Full Text Available Since the introduction of GPS Navigation systems in the marketplace, consumers and businesses have been coming up with innovative ways to use the technology in their everyday life. GPS Navigation and Tracking systems keep us from getting lost when we are in strange locations, they monitor children when they are away from home, keep track of business vehicles and can even let us know where a philandering partner is at all times. Because of this we attend to build a GPS tracking device to solve the mentioned problems. Our work consists of the GPS module that collects data from satellites and calculates the position information before transmitting them to the user’s PC (of Navigation system or observers (of Tracking System using wireless technology (GSM.
Full Text Available RESUMO Das 1.361 espécies de vertebrados que a Mata Atlântica abriga, 567 são endêmicas. Rodentia e Didelphimorphia somam 71% dos endemismos observados para mamíferos nesse bioma. No Brasil, esses animais ainda carecem de informações básicas a cerca de sua biologia, distribuição, e mesmo riqueza total. Esse trabalho objetivou identificar as espécies de marsupiais e roedores do Parque Estadual Rio da Onça e caracterizar a morfologia dos pelos-guarda e do conjunto cromossômico das mesmas, além de verificar a composição de pequenos mamíferos não voadores em diferentes ambientes e estratos vegetais. Foram realizadas treze campanhas de campo e como esforço adicional, três linhas de armadilhas de queda foram instaladas. O esforço amostral total foi de 6.633 armadilhas e 1.181 baldes distribuídos ao longo de 69 noites de amostragem, que resultaram em 196 capturas de 166 indivíduos de 12 espécies. Foram registradas sete espécies da Ordem Rodentia: Akodon montensis, Delomys sublineatus, Euryoryzomys russatus, Juliomys pictipes, Nectomys squamipes, Oligoryzomys nigripes e Thaptomys nigrita, além de cinco espécies de marsupiais da Ordem Didelphimorphia: Didelphis aurita, Gracilinanus microtarsus, Metachirus nudicaudatus, Marmosa paraguayana e Monodelphis iheringi. Os resultados tricológicos e citogenéticos foram condizentes com os disponíveis na literatura. Quanto à estratificação vertical, somente sete capturas foram feitas em árvore: quatro da espécie Marmosa paraguayana, duas de Didelphis aurita e uma de Akodon montensis. Portanto, para o ambiente de Terras Baixas da área de estudo, a amostragem realizada no extrato arbóreo e arbustivo do sub-bosque não contribuiu para o incremento da lista de espécies.
Tripanosomiasis americana: determinación de riesgo epidemiológico de transmisión en el municipio de Amalfi, Antioquia American trypanosamiasis: determination of epidemiologic transmission risk in Amalfi, Antioquia, Colombia
John Jairo Arboleda
Full Text Available Se presenta por primera vez en antioquia un estudio sobre la enfermedad de Chagas, en el cual se evaluaron simultáneamente los tres componentes fundamentales de esta parasitosis: vector, parásito y reservorio. Se evaluaron 640 domicilios en 9 veredas del municipio de Amalfi, se capturaron 196 triatominos, pertenecientes a las especies Panstrongylus geniculatus (49%, P. rufotuberculatus (47%, Triatoma dispar (3% y Rhodnius pallescens (0.5%. En total se capturaron 33 animales silvestres, pertenecientes a las especies Didelphis marsupialis (8, Marmosa robinsoni (1, Hoplomys gimnurus (3, Dasypus novemcinctus (2, Proechymis sp (13, Oryzomis sp (3, Philander opossum (3, así como 63 perros (Canis lupus. Los indicadores de riesgo de transmisión de Tripanosoma cruzi por triatominos, fueron: dispersión (100%, infestación domiciliaria (14,5%, densidad (30,5%, hacinamiento (204,2% e infección relativa (12,5%. Se obtuvo una alta prevalencia de anticuerpos en los perros de las veredas Montebello (61.1% y La Gardenia (70.0% y serología positiva en un humano adulto. In this paper we report the first Chagas disease study in Antioquia-Colombia, in which the main components of this disease were simultaneously evaluated: vector, parasite and host. Field studies were carried out evaluating 640 houses in nine localities from the municipality of Amalfi; 196 triatomine bugs were captured: Panstrongylus geniculatus (49%, Panstrongylus rufotuberculatus (47%, Triatoma dispar (3% and Rhodnius pallescens (0.5%. Thirty three wild animals were captured: Didelphis marsupialis (8, Marmosa robinsoni (1, Hoplomys gimnurus (3, Dasypus novemcinctus (2, Proechymis sp (13, Oryzomis sp (3, Philander opossum (3 as well as 63 dogs (Canis lupus. Transmission risk indicators for Trypanosoma cruzi were: Dispersion (100%, Domiciliary infestation (14,5%, Insect density (30,5%, crowding (204,2% and Relative infection (12,5%. Of the nine localities studied, Montebello (61.1% and La
Gustavo Borba de Miranda
Full Text Available The threat degree and the ecological importance of terrestrial mammals make clear the need for constantly conducting researches in order to add information to the current knowledge on this theme. This study aimed to provide a list of terrestrial mammal species in an Atlantic Forest remnant located in the Southwestern Paraná state, Brazil. Species richness and occurrence frequency were studied from April to October 2009 using two methods: direct observation and recording of traces. We registered 20 taxa distributed into 7 orders: Artiodactyla, Carnivora, Didelphimorphia, Lagomorpha, Primates, Rodentia, and Xenarthra. Among these, 4 taxa were registered either by direct observation or by recording of traces and the others were registered only through traces. The most frequently occurring species were Didelphis sp. (30.6% and Cerdocyon thous (25.6%. Out of the 20 registered taxa, Leopardus pardalis, Leopardus tigrinus, and Cuniculus paca are listed as vulnerable in the Red Book of Threatened Fauna in Parana State. Although small, the study area may assist in the availability of food and shelter for the fauna of mammals, representing an important element of the regional landscape.
Fugassa, Martin H
Using available reports, a checklist of the recorded helminth parasites of wild mammals from Patagonia was generated. Records of parasites found in Patagonia were included, together with records from mammals in áreas outside of Patagonia but whose range extends into Patagonia. Information about the host, localities, and references were also included. A total of 1323 records (224 Cestoda, 167 Trematoda, 894 Nematoda, 34 Acanthocephala, and 4 Pentastomida) belonging to 452 helminth species (77 Cestoda, 76 Trematoda, 277 Nematoda, 21 Acanthocephala, and 1 Pentastomida) found in 57 native mammals (22 Rodentia, 4 Didelphimorphia 1 Microbiotheria, 7 Chiroptera, 5 Cingulata, and 13 Carnivora) were listed. However, only 10.6 % of the reports were conducted on samples from Patagonia and corresponded to 25% of mammals in the region. In addition, many studies were made on a few species and, for example, 52% corresponded to studies made on Lama guanicoe. This suggests the need to increase efforts to know the parasitic fauna in a peculiar region as is the Patagonia. This is the first compilation of the helminth parasites of mammals in Argentine Patagonia and is important for parasitological and paleoparasitological studies.
Melin, Amanda D; Wells, Konstans; Moritz, Gillian L; Kistler, Logan; Orkin, Joseph D; Timm, Robert M; Bernard, Henry; Lakim, Maklarin B; Perry, George H; Kawamura, Shoji; Dominy, Nathaniel J
Debate on the adaptive origins of primates has long focused on the functional ecology of the primate visual system. For example, it is hypothesized that variable expression of short- (SWS1) and middle-to-long-wavelength sensitive (M/LWS) opsins, which confer color vision, can be used to infer ancestral activity patterns and therefore selective ecological pressures. A problem with this approach is that opsin gene variation is incompletely known in the grandorder Euarchonta, that is, the orders Scandentia (treeshrews), Dermoptera (colugos), and Primates. The ancestral state of primate color vision is therefore uncertain. Here, we report on the genes (OPN1SW and OPN1LW) that encode SWS1 and M/LWS opsins in seven species of treeshrew, including the sole nocturnal scandentian Ptilocercus lowii. In addition, we examined the opsin genes of the Central American woolly opossum (Caluromys derbianus), an enduring ecological analogue in the debate on primate origins. Our results indicate: 1) retention of ultraviolet (UV) visual sensitivity in C. derbianus and a shift from UV to blue spectral sensitivities at the base of Euarchonta; 2) ancient pseudogenization of OPN1SW in the ancestors of P. lowii, but a signature of purifying selection in those of C. derbianus; and, 3) the absence of OPN1LW polymorphism among diurnal treeshrews. These findings suggest functional variation in the color vision of nocturnal mammals and a distinctive visual ecology of early primates, perhaps one that demanded greater spatial resolution under light levels that could support cone-mediated color discrimination. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.
Acosta-Virgen, Karla; López-Caballero, Jorge; García-Prieto, Luis; Mata-López, Rosario
Abstract From August 2011 to November 2013, 68 opossums (8 Didelphis sp., 40 Didelphis virginiana, 15 Didelphis marsupialis, and 5 Philander opossum) were collected in 18 localities from 12 Mexican states. A total of 12,188 helminths representing 21 taxa were identified (6 trematodes, 2 cestodes, 3 acanthocephalans and 10 nematodes). Sixty-six new locality records, 9 new host records, and one species, the trematode Brachylaima didelphus, is added to the composition of the helminth fauna of the opossums in Mexico. These data, in conjunction with previous records, bring the number of taxa parasitizing the Mexican terrestrial marsupials to 41. Among these species, we recognized a group of helminths typical of didelphids in other parts of the Americas. This group is constituted by the trematode Rhopalias coronatus, the acanthocephalan Oligacanthorhynchus microcephalus and the nematodes Cruzia tentaculata, Gnathostoma turgidum, and Turgida turgida. In general, the helminth fauna of each didelphid species showed a stable taxonomic composition with respect to previously sampled sites. This situation suggests that the rate of accumulation of helminth species in the inventory of these 3 species of terrestrial marsupials in the Neotropical portion of Mexico is decreasing; however, new samplings in the Nearctic portion of this country will probably increase the richness of the helminthological inventory of this group of mammals. PMID:26257556
Wednesday 29 June 2011 at 20:30 CERN Council Chamber Arizona Dream By/de : Emir Kusturica (USA/France, 1993) 142 min With/avec: Johnny Depp, Jerry Lewis, Fay Dunaway, Lily Taylor, Vincent Gallo A romantic comedy about the adventures of an innocent dreamer in the weird and colourful landscape of the American West. Caught between childhood and adulthood he finds himself back in his hometown where he becomes involved with a wealthy widow and her stepdaughter. Original version english; english subtitles Entrance : 2 CHF Projection from DVD http://cineclub.web.cern.ch/Cineclub/ Thursday 7 July 2011 at 20:30 CERN Council Chamber Burn After Reading By/de : Ethan Coen and Joel Coen (USA/UK/France, 2008) 102 min With/avec: George Clooney, Frances McDormand, Brad Pitt, John Malkovich, Tilda Swinton Osbourne Cox, a Balkan expert, is fired at the CIA, so he begins a memoir. His wife wants a divorce and expects her lover, Harry, a philandering State Dep...
Rocha, Rita Gomes; Ferreira, Eduardo; Loss, Ana Carolina; Heller, Rasmus; Fonseca, Carlos; Costa, Leonora Pires
The riverine barrier model suggests that rivers play a significant role in separating widespread organisms into isolated populations. In this study, we used a comparative approach to investigate the phylogeography of 6 didelphid marsupial species in central Brazil. Specifically, we evaluate the role of the mid-Araguaia River in differentiating populations and estimate divergence time among lineages to assess the timing of differentiation of these species, using mitochondrial DNA sequence data. The 6 didelphid marsupials revealed different intraspecific genetic patterns and structure. The 3 larger and more generalist species, Didelphis albiventris, Didelphis marsupialis, and Philander opossum, showed connectivity across the Araguaia River. In contrast the genetic structure of the 3 smaller and specialist species, Gracilinanus agilis, Marmosa (Marmosa) murina, and Marmosa (Micoureus) demerarae was shaped by the mid-Araguaia. Moreover, the split of eastern and western bank populations of the 2 latter species is consistent with the age of Araguaia River sediments formation. We hypothesize that the role of the Araguaia as a riverine barrier is linked to the level of ecological specialization among the 6 didelphid species and differences in their ability to cross rivers or disperse through the associated habitat types. © The American Genetic Association 2015. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Full Text Available From August 2011 to November 2013, 68 opossums (8 Didelphis sp., 40 Didelphis virginiana, 15 Didelphis marsupialis, and 5 Philander opossum were collected in 18 localities from 12 Mexican states. A total of 12,188 helminths representing 21 taxa were identified (6 trematodes, 2 cestodes, 3 acanthocephalans and 10 nematodes. Sixty-six new locality records, 9 new host records, and one species, the trematode Brachylaima didelphus, is added to the composition of the helminth fauna of the opossums in Mexico. These data, in conjunction with previous records, bring the number of taxa parasitizing the Mexican terrestrial marsupials to 41. Among these species, we recognized a group of helminths typical of didelphids in other parts of the Americas. This group is constituted by the trematode Rhopalias coronatus, the acanthocephalan Oligacanthorhynchus microcephalus and the nematodes Cruzia tentaculata, Gnathostoma turgidum, and Turgida turgida. In general, the helminth fauna of each didelphid species showed a stable taxonomic composition with respect to previously sampled sites. This situation suggests that the rate of accumulation of helminth species in the inventory of these 3 species of terrestrial marsupials in the Neotropical portion of Mexico is decreasing; however, new samplings in the Nearctic portion of this country will probably increase the richness of the helminthological inventory of this group of mammals.
Full Text Available This study reports 2 years of the population dynamics and reproduction of a small mammal community using the removal method. The study was conducted in a rural area of the Atlantic Forest, in Sumidouro, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil. The population sizes, age structure and reproduction were studied for the four most common species in the study area. The overall diversity was 1.67 and ranged between 0.8 to 1.67. The species richness was 13 considering the whole study. The most abundant species were the rodents Nectomys squamipes (n = 133, Akodon cursor (n = 74, Oligoryzomys nigripes (n = 25 and the marsupials Didelphis aurita (n = 58 and Philander frenatus (n = 50. Seven other rodents were captured once: Necromys lasiurus, Akodon montensis, Sooretamys angouya, Oecomys catherine, Oxymycterus judex, Euryzygomatomys spinosus and Trinomys iheringi. There were higher peaks for diversity and species richness during the winter (dry months, probably due to higher food availability. The marsupials had a seasonal reproduction with highest population sizes at the end of the rainy seasons. Nectomys squamipes reproduced mostly during rainy periods. Akodon cursor reproduced predominantly in the winter with the highest population peaks occurring during this season. The analysis of the population dynamics of the rodent species indicated that no species behaved as an agricultural pest, probably due to the heterogeneous landscape of high rotativity of vegetable cultivation. Rodent populations were more susceptible to the removal procedure than marsupial ones.
Delir Corrêa Gomes
Full Text Available Nematodes from opossums and rodents captured in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest in the State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil were studied. From the opossums Didelphis aurita Weid-Neuweid, 1826 and Philander opossum (Linnaeus, 1758 the following nematode species were recovered: Viannaia hamata Travassos, 1914, Aspidodera raillieti Travassos, 1913, Cruzia tentaculata (Rudolphi, 1819, Travassos, 1917, Turgida turgida (Rudolphi, 1819 Travassos, 1919, Gongylonemoides marsupialis (Vaz & Pereira, 1934 Freitas & Lent, 1937, Viannaia viannai Travassos, 1914, Spirura guianensis (Ortlepp, 1924 Chitwood, 1938 and from the rodents Akodon cursor (Winger, 1887, Nectomys squamipes (Brants, 1827, Oligoryzomys eliurus (Wagner, 1845 and Oryzomys intermedius (Leche, 1886: Hassalstrongylus epsilon (Travassos, 1937 Durette-Desset, 1971, Syphacia obvelata (Rudolphi, 1802 Seurat, 1916, S. venteli Travassos, 1937, Physaloptera bispiculata Vaz & Pereira, 1935, Litomosoides carinii (Travassos, 1919 Vaz, 1934, Viannaia viannai, Hassalstrongylus epsilon, H. zeta (Travassos, 1937 Durette-Desset, 1971, Stilestrongylus aculeata (Travassos, 1918 Durette-Desset, 1971 S. eta (Travassos, 1937 Durette-Desset, 1971. Highest worm burdens and prevalences were those related to Cruzia tentaculata in marsupials. Stilestrongylus aculeata was referred for the first time in Akodon cursor.
Ortiz, P. E.
Full Text Available A micromammal archaeological sequence (2120 f 120 to 780 f 100 years BP from Inca Cueva 5 site (23" 05' S - 65" 27' W; 3700 m.a.s.l., Jujuy Province, Argentina was studied. The following mammalian taxa were recorded: Order Didelphimorphia, Family Didelphidae, Thylamys cf. T. pallidior; Order Rodentia, Family Muridae, Akodon cf. A. albiventer, Andinomys edax, Auliscomys sublimis, Calomys lepidus, Neotomys ebriosus, Phyllotis sp.; Family Caviidae, Cavia cf. C. tschudii, Galea musteloides; Family Abrocomidae, Abrocoma cinerea; Family Chinchillidae, Lagidium viscacia; Family Octodontidae, Octodontomys gliroides. The taphonomy indicates that the sequence is an owl pellet accumulation inside the cave. The general landscape corresponds to the oriental border of the Puna steppe, with scattered shrub and low brush vegetation. Near the site there are small tree groups of Polylepis australis as well as small streams covered with grass and ciperaceous vegetation known as Â«vegasÂ». Al1 the recorded taxa at Inca Cueva 5 exist today in Puna and Prepuna environments from Jujuy and Salta Provinces and southem Bolivia, excepting Cavia cf. C. tschudii. The modem records of this species in northem Argentina and southern Bolivia come from localities with high montane bunchgrass prairies and forests of the humid Yungas phytogeographical region. The presence of this species in the sequence suggests wetter climatic conditions on this region when the archaeological site was originated. Later drier conditions, caused probably by anthropic influence in the last 500 years, produced the retraction of Cavia tschudii to the moist eastern side of the Andes and its disappeareance of the Puna areas.El sitio arqueológico Inca Cueva 5 se encuentra en la provincia de Jujuy, Argentina, en el borde oriental de la región de la Puna (23" 05' S - 65" 27' W; 3700 m s n m y está fechado entre 2120 f 120 y 780 f 100 años radiocarbónicos AP. El estudio de una pequeña muestra de
Leonardo M. Carneiro
Full Text Available Zeusdelphys complicatus is one of the most enigmatic metatherians from the Itaboraí Basin. The type and only known specimen was previously regarded as the upper dentition of Eobrasilia; an M4 of a new taxon; an M3 of a Kollpaniidae (now regarded as a group of “condylarths”; a probable M1 of an incertae sedis taxon; and as an M1 of a Protodidelphidae. Herein, we present a morphological review of the dental structures of Zeusdelphys complicatus, presenting new interpretations and comparing it with other North and South American taxa. We also perform a phylogenetic analysis in order to test the affinities of Zeusdelphys and the validity of most studied characters. The results recovered Zeusdelphys complicatus as more closely related to Hatcheritherium alpha than to any other metatherian. Glasbiidae were recovered as the sister lineage of Protodidelphidae within Didelphimorphia, as true marsupials. Ectocentrocristus was recovered as the sister taxon of Zeusdelphys + Hatcheritherium, as a Hatcheriformes. The analysis recovered this suborder as an independent lineage from Polydolopimorphia, being more closely related to “Alphadontidae”. The affinities with Protodidelphidae are a result of convergent evolution, as Zeusdelphys is more closely related to Hatcheritherium alpha from the Late Cretaceous of North America. The results support a North American origin for Hatcheriformes. The presence of strong sea-level lowstands and islands in the Caribbean Plate during the Late Cretaceous provide valid data to support a faunal interchange between Americas during the latest Late Cretaceous. Based on the results, Zeusdelphys represents a South American early Eocene surviving Hatcheriformes.
Rita de Cassia Bianchi
Full Text Available This study identifies the food habits of the margay, Leopardus wiedii (Schinz, 1821, and the jaguarundi, Puma yagouaroundi (É. Geoffroy Saint-Hilare, 1803, in the Vale do Rio Doce Natural Reserve and in the Sooretama Biological Reserve, Espírito Santo, Brazil. We determined the diet of both species by the analysis of scats. Fecal samples were collected from April 1995 to September 2000 and identified based on the presence of hairs that were ingested during self-grooming. Scats were oven-dried and washed on a sieve, and the screened material was identified using a reference collection. Of the 59 fecal samples examined, 30 were confirmed to be from the margay and nine of them from the jaguarundi. Mammals were the most consumed items in the diet of the margay, occurring in 77% of the fecal samples, followed by birds (53% and reptiles (20%. Among the mammals consumed, marsupials (Didelphimorphia were the most common item (66%. In the diet of the jaguarundi, birds were the most consumed items and occurred in 55% of the fecal samples; mammals and reptiles occurred in 41% and in 17% of the fecal samples, respectively. From this work we conclude that the margay and jaguarundi fed mainly upon small vertebrates in the Vale do Rio Doce Natural Reserve and in the Sooretama Biological Reserve. Although sample sizes are therefore insufficient for quantitative comparisons, margays prey more frequently upon arboricolous mammals than jaguarundis, which in turn prey more frequently upon birds and reptiles than margays. This seems to reflect a larger pattern throughout their geographic range
Márcia Regina Wolfart
Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-7925.2013v26n4p111 O grau de ameaça e a importância ecológica dos mamíferos terrestres evidenciam a necessidade da constante realização de pesquisas com o intuito de acrescentar informações ao conhecimento atual sobre esse tema. Este estudo teve por objetivo fornecer uma lista de espécies de mamíferos terrestres em um remanescente de Mata Atlântica localizado no sudoeste do estado do Paraná. A riqueza de espécies e a frequência de ocorrência foram estudadas de abril a outubro de 2009, utilizando dois métodos: observação direta e registro de vestígios. Foram registrados 20 táxons distribuídos em sete ordens: Artiodactyla, Carnivora, Didelphimorphia, Lagomorpha, Primates, Rodentia e Xenarthra. Dentre estes, quatro táxons foram registrados tanto por observação direta quanto pelo registro de vestígios e os demais foram registrados somente por meio de vestígios. As espécies com ocorrência mais frequente foram Didelphis sp. (30,6% e Cerdocyon thous (25,6%. Dos 20 táxons registrados, Leopardus pardalis, Leopardus tigrinus e Cuniculus paca constam como vulneráveis no Livro Vermelho da Fauna Ameaçada no Estado do Paraná. Apesar de pequena, a área de estudo deve auxiliar na disponibilidade de alimento e abrigo para a mastofauna, representando um importante elemento da paisagem regional.
Gonçalves, Fernando; Bovendorp, Ricardo S; Beca, Gabrielle; Bello, Carolina; Costa-Pereira, Raul; Muylaert, Renata L; Rodarte, Raisa R; Villar, Nacho; Souza, Rafael; Graipel, Maurício E; Cherem, Jorge J; Faria, Deborah; Baumgarten, Julio; Alvarez, Martín R; Vieira, Emerson M; Cáceres, Nilton; Pardini, Renata; Leite, Yuri L R; Costa, Leonora P; Mello, Marco A R; Fischer, Erich; Passos, Fernando C; Varzinczak, Luiz H; Prevedello, Jayme A; Cruz-Neto, Ariovaldo P; Carvalho, Fernando; Percequillo, Alexandre R; Paviolo, Agustin; Nava, Alessandra; Duarte, José M B; de la Sancha, Noé U; Bernard, Enrico; Morato, Ronaldo G; Ribeiro, Juliana F; Becker, Rafael G; Paise, Gabriela; Tomasi, Paulo S; Vélez-Garcia, Felipe; Melo, Geruza L; Sponchiado, Jonas; Cerezer, Felipe; Barros, Marília A S; de Souza, Albérico Q S; Dos Santos, Cinthya C; Giné, Gastón A F; Kerches-Rogeri, Patricia; Weber, Marcelo M; Ambar, Guilherme; Cabrera-Martinez, Lucía V; Eriksson, Alan; Silveira, Maurício; Santos, Carolina F; Alves, Lucas; Barbier, Eder; Rezende, Gabriela C; Garbino, Guilherme S T; Rios, Élson O; Silva, Adna; Nascimento, Alexandre Túlio A; de Carvalho, Rodrigo S; Feijó, Anderson; Arrabal, Juan; Agostini, Ilaria; Lamattina, Daniela; Costa, Sebastian; Vanderhoeven, Ezequiel; de Melo, Fabiano R; de Oliveira Laroque, Plautino; Jerusalinsky, Leandro; Valença-Montenegro, Mônica M; Martins, Amely B; Ludwig, Gabriela; de Azevedo, Renata B; Anzóategui, Agustin; da Silva, Marina X; Figuerêdo Duarte Moraes, Marcela; Vogliotti, Alexandre; Gatti, Andressa; Püttker, Thomas; Barros, Camila S; Martins, Thais K; Keuroghlian, Alexine; Eaton, Donald P; Neves, Carolina L; Nardi, Marcelo S; Braga, Caryne; Gonçalves, Pablo R; Srbek-Araujo, Ana Carolina; Mendes, Poliana; de Oliveira, João A; Soares, Fábio A M; Rocha, Patrício A; Crawshaw, Peter; Ribeiro, Milton C; Galetti, Mauro
Measures of traits are the basis of functional biological diversity. Numerous works consider mean species-level measures of traits while ignoring individual variance within species. However, there is a large amount of variation within species and it is increasingly apparent that it is important to consider trait variation not only between species, but also within species. Mammals are an interesting group for investigating trait-based approaches because they play diverse and important ecological functions (e.g., pollination, seed dispersal, predation, grazing) that are correlated with functional traits. Here we compile a data set comprising morphological and life history information of 279 mammal species from 39,850 individuals of 388 populations ranging from -5.83 to -29.75 decimal degrees of latitude and -34.82 to -56.73 decimal degrees of longitude in the Atlantic forest of South America. We present trait information from 16,840 individuals of 181 species of non-volant mammals (Rodentia, Didelphimorphia, Carnivora, Primates, Cingulata, Artiodactyla, Pilosa, Lagomorpha, Perissodactyla) and from 23,010 individuals of 98 species of volant mammals (Chiroptera). The traits reported include body mass, age, sex, reproductive stage, as well as the geographic coordinates of sampling for all taxa. Moreover, we gathered information on forearm length for bats and body length and tail length for rodents and marsupials. No copyright restrictions are associated with the use of this data set. Please cite this data paper when the data are used in publications. We also request that researchers and teachers inform us of how they are using the data. © 2018 by the Ecological Society of America.
Ardente, Natália Carneiro; Ferreguetti, Átilla Colombo; Gettinger, Donald; Leal, Pricila; Mendes-Oliveira, Ana Cristina; Martins-Hatano, Fernanda; Bergallo, Helena Godoy
The Carajás National Forest contains some of the largest iron ore deposits in the world. The majority of the minerals are found below a plant community known as Savana Metalófila, or "Canga", which represents only 3% of the landscape within the Carajás National Forest (CNF). The aim of our study was to understand the diversity of community of non-volant small mammals in the two predominant vegetation types: Ombrophilous Forest and Canga, and to examine how mining impacts these communities. Sampling was conducted from January 2010 to August 2011 in 11 sampling sites divided by the total area of Canga and 12 sampling sites in the forest, totalizing 23 sites. Of these, 12 sites (Canga and Forest) were considered impacted areas located close to the mine (mine. We recorded 28 species, 11 from the Order Didelphimorphia and 17 from the Order Rodentia. The two forest types shared 68.42% of the species found in the CNF. A gradient analysis (Non-metric multidimensional scaling) revealed that the first axis clearly separated the non-flying small mammal communities by vegetation type. Occupancy models showed that the detectability of species was affected by the distance from the mining activities. Of all the small mammals analyzed, 10 species were positively affected by the distance from mining in areas impacted (e.g. more likely to be detected farther from mining areas) and detectability was lower in impacted areas. However, three species were negatively affected by the distance from mining, with higher detectability in the impacted areas, and seven species showed no effect of their proximity to mining operations. To date, there are no studies in Brazil about the impact of mining on mammals or other vertebrates. This study reveals that the effect of mining may go beyond the forest destruction caused by the opening of the mining pits, but also may negatively affect sensitive wildlife species.
M. Amelia Chemisquy
Full Text Available ABSTRACT Dental anomalies have been investigated and reported for most orders of mammals, including marsupials. Previous works in Didelphis albiventris Lund, 1840 only described one kind of malformation or just a few observations from some collections, thus the type and presence of anomalies for this species was underestimated. The aim of this contribution is to describe and analyze several dental anomalies found in specimens of Didelphis albiventris from Argentina, Uruguay and Brazil. Dental anomalies were classified in three categories: supernumerary or missing teeth, morphological anomalies in size and shape, and teeth in unusual positions. We found 32 individuals of D. albiventris with anomalies out of 393 analyzed specimens (8.14%, some specimens with more than one anomaly. A similar proportion of specimens from Argentina and Uruguay presented anomalies, while in specimens from Brazil anomalies were less common. Anomalies were more commonly found in the upper toothrow and in molars, being supernumerary teeth and molars with unusual crown-shape the most common ones. The percentage of specimens with anomalies found for D. albiventris is higher than previously reported for the species, and other Didelphimorphia. Inbreeding and limited gene flow do not appear as possible explanations for the elevated percentage of anomalies, especially due to the ecological characteristics of Didelphis albiventris. Developmental instability and fluctuating asymmetry could be some of the causes for the anomalies found in this species, mostly since the habitat used by D. albiventris tends to be unstable and disturbed. Dental anomalies were mostly found in areas of the toothrow where occlusion is relaxed or does not prevent teeth from interlocking during mastication, and consequently have no functional value.
Hammann, A. C.; Gnanadesikan, A.
upwelling acting on a mean temperature field contribute the largest term to SST variability (Köberle & Philander 1994; Li & Philander 1996). We examine whether it is changes in the surface currents (driven by the annual cycle of winds) or changes in the mean temperature fields (driven by enhanced penetration of solar radiation) that drive the differences between the coupled models. We do this using a simple linear equatorial-wave model, which, when forced with an annual harmonic of wind stresses, reproduces the essential characteristics of annual ocean current anomalies. The model solves the linearized Boussinesq equations by expansion into discrete modes in all spatial dimensions (McCreary 1981; Lighthill 1969). Both the wind forcing and the (laterally homogeneous) background density profile are constructed as approximations to the coupled model fields. The annual perturbation currents from the wave model are then used to advect the mean temperature fields from the coupled model experiments. While the difference in the mean stratification explains the difference between the 'green' and 'blue' cases. For the other two cases, it appears that changes in the annual wind fields need also be taken into account. An initial hypothesis is that the hemispheric asymmetry in the annual amplitude of wind stress curl that is most important in setting the amplitude of the annual cycle on the equator.
Edsel Amorim Moraes Junior
Full Text Available From August 2001 to July 2002 the home range and movements of seven Micoureus demerarae (Thomas, 1905 (three males and four females were investigated using radio tracking in the União Biological Reserve, state of Rio de Janeiro, south-eastern Brazil. A total of 436 locations was obtained and home range estimated with fixed Kernel (95% of data points, and minimum convex polygon (MCP methods, with 100 and 95% of data points. Male home ranges estimated by MCP (100% ranged from 5.4-24.2 ha and females from 0.3-10.7 ha. Corresponding figures calculated with Kernel (95% were 4-10.9 ha for males and 1.3-5.9 ha for females. Animals travelled on average 423 m/night, with males travelling significantly further (582.8 m/night than females (335.1 m/night (t test, t = 3.609, p = 0.001. We concluded that radio tracking produced much larger home ranges than those estimated with traditional live-trapping techniques, suggesting that the latter might underestimate ranging when the area covered with traps is relatively small (ca. 1 ha or less. Radio tracking also indicated that M. demerarae, although predominantly arboreal and weighting only ca. 130 g., has movements similar in magnitude to larger-sized terrestrial didelphimorph marsupials, such as Didelphis Linnaeus, 1758, Philander Linnaeus, 1758 and Metachirus (Desmarest, 1817.No período de agosto de 2001 a julho de 2002 a área de uso e o movimento de sete Micoureus demerarae (Thomas, 1905 (três machos e quatro fêmeas foram acompanhados, através de rádio-telemetria, na Reserva Biológica União, Rio de Janeiro, sudeste do Brasil. Foi obtido um total de 436 localizações e estimou-se a área de uso através dos métodos Kernel fixo (95% das localizações e polígono mínimo convexo (PMC, com 100 e 95% das localizações. A área de uso dos machos estimada pelo PMC (100% variou de 5,4-24,2 ha e fêmeas de 0,3-10,7 ha. Áreas calculadas com Kernel (95% foram 4-10,9 ha para machos e 1,3-5,9 ha para f
Orozco, María Marcela; Miccio, Luciano; Enriquez, Gustavo Fabián; Iribarren, Fabián Eduardo; Gürtler, Ricardo Esteban
The transmission of pathogens between domestic dogs and generalist wildlife species may be modified by environmental degradation, biodiversity losses, host densities, and increased contact rates in remnant forest patches. A serologic survey of canine parvovirus (CPV) in rural domestic dogs and wild mammals was conducted in two neighboring rural areas (disturbed and protected) from Pampa del Indio, northeastern Argentina, between 2008 and 2011. A total of 174 domestic dogs and 26 wild mammals-4 crab-eating foxes (Cerdocyon thous), 3 crab-eating raccoons (Procyon cancrivorus), 17 white-eared opossums (Didelphis albiventris), and 2 gray four-eyed opossums (Philander opossum)-were examined for antibodies to CPV using a hemagglutination inhibition assay. Domestic dogs were numerous and their movements unrestricted. The main function of dogs differed significantly between areas, with more dogs used for herding or hunting around the protected area. The seroprevalence of antibodies to CPV in dogs from both areas was very high (93.9-94.6%) and increased steeply with age. Nearly all carnivores and marsupials showed high exposure to CPV. Although a higher exposure to CPV was expected in wild mammals from disturbed areas as a result of enhanced contact between dogs and wildlife, no significant differences were found between areas. To the authors' knowledge, this study is the first to document exposure to CPV of free-ranging Pr. cancrivorus, D. albiventris, and Ph. opossum, and include a detailed demographic study of the domestic dog populations living in the area. This study highlights that dogs and wildlife have potential opportunities for contact and shows that the edges of the protected area may be as suitable as other fragmented areas for the transmission of CPV. Rural domestic dogs may pose serious threats to the health and conservation of wild carnivores in both disturbed and protected areas, especially in the Gran Chaco, where habitat fragmentation is severely
Full Text Available Aunque Costa Rica ha sido biológicamente bien estudiada, pocas áreas tiene inventarios de mamíferos completos y actualizados,lo que es para llevar a cabo estudios ecológicos y de conservación. La región de San Vito es considerada entre las mas importantes para la investigación científica en el país, debido a la presencia del Jardín Botánico Wilson y la Estación Biológica Las Cruces. Sin embargo, el conocimiento de la mastofauna es incompleto. Por lo tanto se evaluó intensamente los mamíferos de San Vito, y se compiló una lista de especies, con una evaluación de su composición, abundancia relativa, distribución en los habitats, y su estado de conservación. Se registraron 105 especies, que representaron a 85 géneros, 29 familias y 10 órdenes. Los mamíferos no voladores representaron 62 especies, 59 géneros, 23 familias y 9 órdenes. Los murciélagos pertenecieron a 6 familias, 26 géneros y 43 especies. La extensa deforestación y cacería son factores que han causado la extinción local de 7especies, pero la región todavía mantiene un número relativamente alto de su diversidad original, incluyendo a especie raras. Pocas especies fueron comunes o abundantes. La riqueza de especies fue alta en el bosque y los fragmentos de bosque, y más baja en las plantaciones de café, pastizales inducidos y vegetación secundaria. Alrededor del 21% (13 de las espcies estan incluidad en el libro rojo de la UICN. Tres especies (Saimiri oerstedii, Tapirus bairdii y Sylvilagus dicei son consideradas en peligro y dos (Myrmecophaga trydactila y Caluromys derbianus como amenazadas:de estas, dos especies (T. bairdii and M. trydactila se encuentran localmente extintas. Las otras especies son consideradas de bajo riesgo (i. e. Chironectes minimus o con poca información (i. e. Lontra longicaudis . Adicionalmente, 24 especies (39% están incluidas en CITES.Diversity, natural history and conservation of mammals from San Vito de Coto Brus, Costa
Barros, Juliana Helena S; Xavier, Samanta Cristina C; Bilac, Daniele; Lima, Valdirene Santos; Dario, Maria Augusta; Jansen, Ana Maria
Trypanosoma cruzi is a parasitic protozoan responsible for Chagas disease. Seven different Discrete Typing Units (DTUs) of T. cruzi are currently identified in nature: TcI-TcVI, and TcBat whose distribution patterns in nature, hosts/reservoirs and eco-epidemiological importance are still little known. Here, we present novel data on the geographic distribution and diversity of mammalian hosts and vectors of T. cruzi DTUs TcIII and TcIV. In this study, we analyzed 61 T. cruzi isolates obtained from 18 species of mammals (five orders) and two Hemiptera genera. Samples were collected from five Brazilian biomes (Pantanal, Caatinga, Cerrado, Atlantic Rainforest, and Amazon) previously characterized as Z3 or mixed infection (TcI-Z3) by mini-exon gene PCR. To identify TcIII and TcIV genotypes, we applied restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis to the PCR-amplified histone 3 gene. DTUs TcIII and TcIV were identified in single and mixed infections from wide dispersion throughout five Brazilian biomes studied, with TcIV being the most common. Pantanal was the biome that displayed the largest number of samples characterized as TcIII and TcIV in single and mixed infections, followed by Atlantic Rainforest and Amazon. Species from the Didelphimorphia order displayed the highest frequency of infection and were found in all five biomes. We report, for the first time, the infection of a species of the Artiodactyla order by DTU TcIII. In addition, we describe new host species: five mammals (marsupials and rodents) and two genera of Hemiptera. Our data indicate that DTUs TcIII and TcIV are more widespread and infect a larger number of mammalian species than previously thought. In addition, they are transmitted in restricted foci and cycles, but in different microhabitats and areas with distinct ecological profiles. Finally, we show that DTUs TcIII and TcIV do not present any specific association with biomes or host species. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.
Gonçalves, Fernando; Hannibal, Wellington; Godoi, Mauricio N; Martins, Fernando I; Oliveira, Roniel F; Figueiredo, Valquiria V; Casella, Janaina; de Sá, Érica F G G
The data set represents the first attempt at a large-scale inventory of non-volant mammals, with potential applications to performing macroecological studies, developing conservation strategies, and undertaking population and community ecology research, but also to evaluate the ecological consequences of fragmentation and defaunation. Our objectives for compiling these data were to summarize information about inventories of non-volant mammals in the critically important area of the Upper Paraná River Basin by focusing on species richness and index of frequency of occurrence and to identify gaps in knowledge regarding non-volant mammal communities in order to guide future sampling efforts. The data set comprises studies on communities of non-volant mammals from 52 locations covering more than 1,000 km 2 and comprises portion of four Brazilian states in the Upper Paraná River Basin. We listed 81 species of non-volant mammals distributed among 58 genera, 22 families, and 9 orders. Rodentia (28 species) was the richest order, followed by Carnivora (17 spp.) and Didelphimorphia (15 spp.). The richest family was Cricetidae (20 spp.), followed by Didelphidae (15 spp.), and Dasypodidae and Felidae (six spp.). Considering national conservation status, one species are considered endangered and 16 vulnerable. Considering global conservation status, 7 species are considered vulnerable, 10 are considered near threatened, and 6 are data deficient. According to the index of frequency of occurrence, Myrmecophaga tridactyla was the most frequent species, occurring at 88.64% of all sites, while 25 species were considered very restricted, occurring in just 2.56% of all sites. In general, the non-volant mammal fauna was composed of mainly very restricted (VR, 25 species) and localized species (L, 25 species), which account for 61.7% of the known species, while 38.3% are restricted (R, 8 species), common (C, 16 species), and widespread (W, 7 species). Seven marsupials and five
Auad, Guillermo; Miller, Arthur J.; White, Warren B.
tendency is nearly zero and the steady balance involves simply horizontal advection and the surface heat flux, which at these latitudes has a damping role in the model. An important finding of this study is the identification of two interdecadal timescales, roughly 10 and 20 years, both similar to those reported by other investigators in recent years. [Tourre et al., 1998; Latif and Barnett, 1994; Robertson, 1995; White et al, 1997; Gu and Philander, 1997; Jacobs et al., 1994]. The 20-year timescale is only present in diabatic heat budget components, while the 10-year timescale is present in both diabatic and adiabatic components. The 10-year timescale can also be seen in the surface heat flux time series, but it occurs in the ocean adiabatic components which demonstrates the importance of oceanic adjustment through Rossby wave dynamics on decadal timescales.
Over the past six years I have made the transition from research oceanographer to an educator and public outreach specialist. The transition has been rewarding but difficult. On the way I had to learn the vocabulary and concepts of education (e.g. authentic assessment), effective web-page styles, and the difference between science and education--they are very different. I also met many enthusiastic and caring teachers who greatly eased my transition to educator. Some lessons learned. First, partner with experts. Successful outreach is a team effort. I was luck to have the opportunity to work closely with a great professor of education, Robert James, a wonderful middle-school teacher and Presidential Awardee, Margaret Hammer, and talented students, Jon Reisch and Don Johnson, from our School of ArchitectureAƒAøAøâ_sA¬Aøâ_zAøs Visualization Laboratory, who combined art and technology. Second, if you are a scientist, realize that scientists are too critical. We look for the one right answer, and for the flaws in data and theory. Educators look for the many ways to present ideas, all equally valid, and they value the worth of all students. AƒAøAøâ_sA¬A.â_oSo radical are the differences between the worlds of science and human affairs that their demands are sometimes in conflict.AƒAøAøâ_sA¬A_A¿A 1/2 -Philander: Our Affair With El Nino, p.5. Second, the web is a very efficient way of reaching many people. Thus, web skills are essential. Third, I am learning to be humble. There is much I need to learn. The skills necessary to be a successful research scientist are not sufficient for being a successful educator. Fourth, assess, assess, and assess. DonAƒAøAøâ_sA¬Aøâ_zAøt assume that what you create serves its purpose. Get feedback from educators, students, and scientists of all levels of experience.
Gusev, Anatoly; Moshonkin, Sergey; Diansky, Nikolay; Zalesny, Vladimir
The algorithm is presented of splitting the total evolutionary equations for the turbulence kinetic energy (TKE) and turbulence dissipation frequency (TDF), which is used to parameterize the viscosity and diffusion coefficients in ocean circulation models. The turbulence model equations are split into the stages of transport-diffusion and generation-dissipation. For the generation-dissipation stage, the following schemes are implemented: the explicit-implicit numerical scheme, analytical solution and the asymptotic behavior of the analytical solutions. The experiments were performed with different mixing parameterizations for the modelling of Arctic and the Atlantic climate decadal variability with the eddy-permitting circulation model INMOM (Institute of Numerical Mathematics Ocean Model) using vertical grid refinement in the zone of fully developed turbulence. The proposed model with the split equations for turbulence characteristics is similar to the contemporary differential turbulence models, concerning the physical formulations. At the same time, its algorithm has high enough computational efficiency. Parameterizations with using the split turbulence model make it possible to obtain more adequate structure of temperature and salinity at decadal timescales, compared to the simpler Pacanowski-Philander (PP) turbulence parameterization. Parameterizations with using analytical solution or numerical scheme at the generation-dissipation step of the turbulence model leads to better representation of ocean climate than the faster parameterization using the asymptotic behavior of the analytical solution. At the same time, the computational efficiency left almost unchanged relative to the simple PP parameterization. Usage of PP parametrization in the circulation model leads to realistic simulation of density and circulation with violation of T,S-relationships. This error is majorly avoided with using the proposed parameterizations containing the split turbulence model
López Alonso, Diego; Ortiz-Rodríguez, Isabel M
Some researchers support the belief that man evolved philandering behavior because of the greater reproductive success of promiscuous males. According to this idea, deserting behavior from the man should be expected along with null paternal involvement in offspring care. Paradoxically however, the average offspring investment in the human male is far higher than that of any other male mammal, including other primates. In our work, we have addressed this conundrum by employing evolutionary game theory, using objective payoffs instead of, as are commonly used, arbitrary payoffs. Payoffs were computed as reproductive successes by a model based on trivial probabilities, implemented within the Barreto's Population Dynamics Toolbox (2014). The evolution of the parent conflict was simulated by a game with two players (the woman and the man). First, a simple game was assayed with two strategies, 'desert-unfaithful' and 'care-faithful'. Then, the game was played with a third mixed strategy, 'care-unfaithful'. The two-strategy game results were mainly determined by the offspring survival rate (s) and the non-paternity rate (z), with remaining factors playing a secondary role. Starting from two empirical estimates for both rates (s = 0.617 and z = 0.033) and decreasing the offspring mortality from near 0.4 to 0.1, the results were consistent with a win for the 'care-faithful' strategy. The 'desert-unfaithful' strategy only won at unrealistically high non-paternity rates (z>0.2). When three-strategy games were played, the mixed strategy of 'care-unfaithful' man could win the game in some less frequent cases. Regardless of the number of game strategies, 'care' fathers always won. These results strongly suggest that offspring mortality was the key factor in the evolution of paternal investment within the Homo branch. The 'care-faithful' strategy would have been the main strategy in human evolution but 'care-unfaithful' men did evolve at a lesser frequency. It can therefore be