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Sample records for calpain

  1. Calpain 3 is important for muscle regeneration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauerslev, Simon; Sveen, Marie-Louise; Duno, Morten

    2012-01-01

    Limb girdle muscular dystrophy (LGMD) type 2A is caused by mutations in the CAPN3 gene and complete lack of functional calpain 3 leads to the most severe muscle wasting. Calpain 3 is suggested to be involved in maturation of contractile elements after muscle degeneration. The aim of this study...

  2. Activation of calpain-1 in human carotid artery atherosclerotic lesions

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    Pedro Luis M

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In a previous study, we observed that oxidized low-density lipoprotein-induced death of endothelial cells was calpain-1-dependent. The purpose of the present paper was to study the possible activation of calpain in human carotid plaques, and to compare calpain activity in the plaques from symptomatic patients with those obtained from patients without symptoms. Methods Human atherosclerotic carotid plaques (n = 29, 12 associated with symptoms were removed by endarterectomy. Calpain activity and apoptosis were detected by performing immunohistochemical analysis and TUNEL assay on human carotid plaque sections. An antibody specific for calpain-proteolyzed α-fodrin was used on western blots. Results We found that calpain was activated in all the plaques and calpain activity colocalized with apoptotic cell death. Our observation of autoproteolytic cleavage of the 80 kDa subunit of calpain-1 provided further evidence for enzyme activity in the plaque samples. When calpain activity was quantified, we found that plaques from symptomatic patients displayed significantly lower calpain activity compared with asymptomatic plaques. Conclusion These novel results suggest that calpain-1 is commonly active in carotid artery atherosclerotic plaques, and that calpain activity is colocalized with cell death and inversely associated with symptoms.

  3. Calpain Activator Dibucaine Induces Platelet Apoptosis

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    Jun Liu

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Calcium-dependent calpains are a family of cysteine proteases that have been demonstrated to play key roles in both platelet glycoprotein Ibα shedding and platelet activation and altered calpain activity is associated with thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura. Calpain activators induce apoptosis in several types of nucleated cells. However, it is not clear whether calpain activators induce platelet apoptosis. Here we show that the calpain activator dibucaine induced several platelet apoptotic events including depolarization of the mitochondrial inner transmembrane potential, up-regulation of Bax and Bak, down-regulation of Bcl-2 and Bcl-XL, caspase-3 activation and phosphatidylserine exposure. Platelet apoptosis elicited by dibucaine was not affected by the broad spectrum metalloproteinase inhibitor GM6001. Furthermore, dibucaine did not induce platelet activation as detected by P-selectin expression and PAC-1 binding. However, platelet aggregation induced by ristocetin or α-thrombin, platelet adhesion and spreading on von Willebrand factor were significantly inhibited in platelets treated with dibucaine. Taken together, these data indicate that dibucaine induces platelet apoptosis and platelet dysfunction.

  4. Conditional disruption of calpain in the CNS alters dendrite morphology, impairs LTP, and promotes neuronal survival following injury

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Amini, Mandana; Ma, Chun-lei; Farazifard, Rasoul; Zhu, Guoqi; Zhang, Yi; Vanderluit, Jacqueline; Zoltewicz, Joanna Susie; Hage, Fadi; Savitt, Joseph M; Lagace, Diane C; Slack, Ruth S; Beique, Jean-Claude; Baudry, Michel; Greer, Peter A; Bergeron, Richard; Park, David S

    2013-01-01

    Ubiquitous classical (typical) calpains, calpain-1 and calpain-2, are Ca(+2)-dependent cysteine proteases, which have been associated with numerous physiological and pathological cellular functions...

  5. Identification of active Plasmodium falciparum calpain to establish screening system for Pf-calpain-based drug development

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    Soh Byoung

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background With the increasing resistance of malaria parasites to available drugs, there is an urgent demand to develop new anti-malarial drugs. Calpain inhibitor, ALLN, is proposed to inhibit parasite proliferation by suppressing haemoglobin degradation. This provides Plasmodium calpain as a potential target for drug development. Pf-calpain, a cysteine protease of Plasmodium falciparum, belongs to calpain-7 family, which is an atypical calpain not harboring Ca2+-binding regulatory motifs. In this present study, in order to establish the screening system for Pf-calpain specific inhibitors, the active form of Pf-calpain was first identified. Methods Recombinant Pf-calpain including catalytic subdomain IIa (rPfcal-IIa was heterologously expressed and purified. Enzymatic activity was determined by both fluorogenic substrate assay and gelatin zymography. Molecular homology modeling was carried out to address the activation mode of Pf-calpain in the aspect of structural moiety. Results Based on the measurement of enzymatic activity and protease inhibitor assay, it was found that the active form of Pf-calpain only contains the catalytic subdomain IIa, suggesting that Pf-calpain may function as a monomeric form. The sequence prediction indicates that the catalytic subdomain IIa contains all amino acid residues necessary for catalytic triad (Cys-His-Asn formation. Molecular modeling suggests that the Pf-calpain subdomain IIa makes an active site, holding the catalytic triad residues in their appropriate orientation for catalysis. The mutation analysis further supports that those amino acid residues are functional and have enzymatic activity. Conclusion The identified active form of Pf-calpain could be utilized to establish high-throughput screening system for Pf-calpain inhibitors. Due to its unique monomeric structural property, Pf-calpain could be served as a novel anti-malarial drug target, which has a high specificity for malaria parasite

  6. Massive expansion of the calpain gene family in unicellular eukaryotes

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    Zhao Sen

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Calpains are Ca2+-dependent cysteine proteases that participate in a range of crucial cellular processes. Dysfunction of these enzymes may cause, for instance, life-threatening diseases in humans, the loss of sex determination in nematodes and embryo lethality in plants. Although the calpain family is well characterized in animal and plant model organisms, there is a great lack of knowledge about these genes in unicellular eukaryote species (i.e. protists. Here, we study the distribution and evolution of calpain genes in a wide range of eukaryote genomes from major branches in the tree of life. Results Our investigations reveal 24 types of protein domains that are combined with the calpain-specific catalytic domain CysPc. In total we identify 41 different calpain domain architectures, 28 of these domain combinations have not been previously described. Based on our phylogenetic inferences, we propose that at least four calpain variants were established in the early evolution of eukaryotes, most likely before the radiation of all the major supergroups of eukaryotes. Many domains associated with eukaryotic calpain genes can be found among eubacteria or archaebacteria but never in combination with the CysPc domain. Conclusions The analyses presented here show that ancient modules present in prokaryotes, and a few de novo eukaryote domains, have been assembled into many novel domain combinations along the evolutionary history of eukaryotes. Some of the new calpain genes show a narrow distribution in a few branches in the tree of life, likely representing lineage-specific innovations. Hence, the functionally important classical calpain genes found among humans and vertebrates make up only a tiny fraction of the calpain family. In fact, a massive expansion of the calpain family occurred by domain shuffling among unicellular eukaryotes and contributed to a wealth of functionally different genes.

  7. Inhibition of calpain blocks the phagosomal escape of Listeria monocytogenes.

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    Gloria Lopez-Castejon

    Full Text Available Listeria monocytogenes is a gram-positive facultative intracellular bacterium responsible for the food borne infection listeriosis, affecting principally the immunocompromised, the old, neonates and pregnant women. Following invasion L. monocytogenes escapes the phagosome and replicates in the cytoplasm. Phagosome escape is central to L. monocytogenes virulence and is required for initiating innate host-defence responses such as the secretion of the cytokine interleukin-1. Phagosome escape of L. monocytogenes is reported to depend upon host proteins such as γ-interferon-inducible lysosomal thiol reductase and the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator. The host cytosolic cysteine protease calpain is required in the life cycle of numerous pathogens, and previous research reports an activation of calpain by L. monocytogenes infection. Thus we sought to determine whether host calpain was required for the virulence of L. monocytogenes. Treatment of macrophages with calpain inhibitors blocked escape of L. monocytogenes from the phagosome and consequently its proliferation within the cytosol. This was independent of any direct effect on the production of bacterial virulence factors or of a bactericidal effect. Furthermore, the secretion of interleukin-1β, a host cytokine whose secretion induced by L. monocytogenes depends upon phagosome escape, was also blocked by calpain inhibition. These data indicate that L. monocytogenes co-opts host calpain to facilitate its escape from the phagosome, and more generally, that calpain may represent a cellular Achilles heel exploited by pathogens.

  8. Inhibition of calpain blocks the phagosomal escape of Listeria monocytogenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez-Castejon, Gloria; Corbett, David; Goldrick, Marie; Roberts, Ian S; Brough, David

    2012-01-01

    Listeria monocytogenes is a gram-positive facultative intracellular bacterium responsible for the food borne infection listeriosis, affecting principally the immunocompromised, the old, neonates and pregnant women. Following invasion L. monocytogenes escapes the phagosome and replicates in the cytoplasm. Phagosome escape is central to L. monocytogenes virulence and is required for initiating innate host-defence responses such as the secretion of the cytokine interleukin-1. Phagosome escape of L. monocytogenes is reported to depend upon host proteins such as γ-interferon-inducible lysosomal thiol reductase and the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator. The host cytosolic cysteine protease calpain is required in the life cycle of numerous pathogens, and previous research reports an activation of calpain by L. monocytogenes infection. Thus we sought to determine whether host calpain was required for the virulence of L. monocytogenes. Treatment of macrophages with calpain inhibitors blocked escape of L. monocytogenes from the phagosome and consequently its proliferation within the cytosol. This was independent of any direct effect on the production of bacterial virulence factors or of a bactericidal effect. Furthermore, the secretion of interleukin-1β, a host cytokine whose secretion induced by L. monocytogenes depends upon phagosome escape, was also blocked by calpain inhibition. These data indicate that L. monocytogenes co-opts host calpain to facilitate its escape from the phagosome, and more generally, that calpain may represent a cellular Achilles heel exploited by pathogens.

  9. Calpain Inhibition Reduces Axolemmal Leakage in Traumatic Axonal Injury

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    János Sándor

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Calcium-induced, calpain-mediated proteolysis (CMSP has recently been implicated to the pathogenesis of diffuse (traumatic axonal injury (TAI. Some studies suggested that subaxolemmal CMSP may contribute to axolemmal permeability (AP alterations observed in TAI. Seeking direct evidence for this premise we investigated whether subaxolemmal CMSP may contribute to axolemmal permeability alterations (APA and pre-injury calpain-inhibition could reduce AP in a rat model of TAI. Horseradish peroxidase (HRP, a tracer that accumulates in axons with APA was administered one hour prior to injury into the lateral ventricle; 30 min preinjury a single tail vein bolus injection of 30 mg/kg MDL-28170 (a calpain inhibitor or its vehicle was applied in Wistar rats exposed to impact acceleration brain injury. Histological detection of traumatically injured axonal segments accumulating HRP and statistical analysis revealed that pre-injury administration of the calpain inhibitor MDL-28170 significantly reduced the average length of HRP-labeled axonal segments. The axono-protective effect of pre-injury calpain inhibition recently demonstrated with classical immunohistochemical markers of TAI was further corroborated in this experiment; significant reduction of the length of labeled axons in the drug-treated rats implicate CMSP in the progression of altered AP in TAI.

  10. Calpain inhibitor nanocrystals prepared using Nano Spray Dryer B-90

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baba, Koichi; Nishida, Kohji

    2012-08-01

    The Nano Spray Dryer B-90 offers a new, simple, and alternative approach for the production of drug nanocrystals. Among attractive drugs, calpain inhibitor that inhibits programmed cell death `apoptosis' is a candidate for curing apoptosis-mediated intractable diseases such as Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease. In this study, the preparation of calpain inhibitor nanocrystals using Nano Spray Dryer B-90 was demonstrated. The particle sizes were controlled by means of selecting mesh aperture sizes. The obtained average particle sizes were in the range of around 300 nm to submicron meter.

  11. Brucella infection inhibits macrophages apoptosis via Nedd4-dependent degradation of calpain2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Guimei; Wei, Pan; Zhao, Yuxi; Guan, Zhenhong; Yang, Li; Sun, Wanchun; Wang, Shuangxi; Peng, Qisheng

    2014-11-07

    The calcium-dependent protease calpain2 is involved in macrophages apoptosis. Brucella infection-induced up-regulation of intracellular calcium level is an essential factor for the intracellular survival of Brucella within macrophages. Here, we hypothesize that calcium-dependent E3 ubiquitin ligase Nedd4 ubiquitinates calpain2 and inhibits Brucella infection-induced macrophage apoptosis via degradation of calpain2.Our results reveal that Brucella infection induces increases in Nedd4 activity in an intracellular calcium dependent manner. Furthermore, Brucella infection-induced degradation of calpain2 is mediated by Nedd4 ubiquitination of calpain2. Brucella infection-induced calpain2 degradation inhibited macrophages apoptosis. Treatment of Brucella infected macrophages with calcium chelator BAPTA or Nedd4 knock-down decreased Nedd4 activity, prevented calpain2 degradation, and resulted in macrophages apoptosis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Vital role of the calpain-calpastatin system for placental-integrity-dependent embryonic survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takano, Jiro; Mihira, Naomi; Fujioka, Ryo; Hosoki, Emi; Chishti, Athar H; Saido, Takaomi C

    2011-10-01

    Although the calpain-calpastatin system has been implicated in a number of pathological conditions, its normal physiological role remains largely unknown. To investigate the functions of this system, we generated conventional and conditional calpain-2 knockout mice. The conventional calpain-2 knockout embryos died around embryonic day 15, preceded by cell death associated with caspase activation and DNA fragmentation in placental trophoblasts. In contrast, conditional knockout mice in which calpain-2 is expressed in the placenta but not in the fetus were spared. These results suggest that calpain-2 contributes to trophoblast survival via suppression of caspase activation. Double-knockout mice also deficient in calpain-1 and calpastatin resulted in accelerated and rescued embryonic lethality, respectively, suggesting that calpain-1 and -2 at least in part share similar in vivo functions under the control of calpastatin. Triple-knockout mice exhibited early embryonic lethality, a finding consistent with the notion that this protease system is vital for embryonic survival.

  13. Calpain 3 is important for muscle regeneration: Evidence from patients with limb girdle muscular dystrophies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Limb girdle muscular dystrophy (LGMD) type 2A is caused by mutations in the CAPN3 gene and complete lack of functional calpain 3 leads to the most severe muscle wasting. Calpain 3 is suggested to be involved in maturation of contractile elements after muscle degeneration. The aim of this study was to investigate how mutations in the four functional domains of calpain 3 affect muscle regeneration. Methods We studied muscle regeneration in 22 patients with LGMD2A with calpain 3 deficiency, in five patients with LGMD2I, with a secondary reduction in calpain 3, and in five patients with Becker muscular dystrophy (BMD) with normal calpain 3 levels. Regeneration was assessed by using the developmental markers neonatal myosin heavy chain (nMHC), vimentin, MyoD and myogenin and counting internally nucleated fibers. Results We found that the recent regeneration as determined by the number of nMHC/vimentin-positive fibers was greatly diminished in severely affected LGMD2A patients compared to similarly affected patients with LGMD2I and BMD. Whorled fibers, a sign of aberrant regeneration, was highly elevated in patients with a complete lack of calpain 3 compared to patients with residual calpain 3. Regeneration is not affected by location of the mutation in the CAPN3 gene. Conclusions Our findings suggest that calpain 3 is needed for the regenerative process probably during sarcomere remodeling as the complete lack of functional calpain 3 leads to the most severe phenotypes. PMID:22443334

  14. Calpain 3 is important for muscle regeneration: Evidence from patients with limb girdle muscular dystrophies

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    Hauerslev Simon

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Limb girdle muscular dystrophy (LGMD type 2A is caused by mutations in the CAPN3 gene and complete lack of functional calpain 3 leads to the most severe muscle wasting. Calpain 3 is suggested to be involved in maturation of contractile elements after muscle degeneration. The aim of this study was to investigate how mutations in the four functional domains of calpain 3 affect muscle regeneration. Methods We studied muscle regeneration in 22 patients with LGMD2A with calpain 3 deficiency, in five patients with LGMD2I, with a secondary reduction in calpain 3, and in five patients with Becker muscular dystrophy (BMD with normal calpain 3 levels. Regeneration was assessed by using the developmental markers neonatal myosin heavy chain (nMHC, vimentin, MyoD and myogenin and counting internally nucleated fibers. Results We found that the recent regeneration as determined by the number of nMHC/vimentin-positive fibers was greatly diminished in severely affected LGMD2A patients compared to similarly affected patients with LGMD2I and BMD. Whorled fibers, a sign of aberrant regeneration, was highly elevated in patients with a complete lack of calpain 3 compared to patients with residual calpain 3. Regeneration is not affected by location of the mutation in the CAPN3 gene. Conclusions Our findings suggest that calpain 3 is needed for the regenerative process probably during sarcomere remodeling as the complete lack of functional calpain 3 leads to the most severe phenotypes.

  15. Calpain-2-mediated PTEN degradation contributes to BDNF-induced stimulation of dendritic protein synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briz, Victor; Hsu, Yu-Tien; Li, Yi; Lee, Erin; Bi, Xiaoning; Baudry, Michel

    2013-01-01

    Memory consolidation has been suggested to be protein synthesis-dependent. Recent data indicate that BDNF-induced dendritic protein synthesis is a key event in memory formation through activation of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway. BDNF also activates calpain, a calcium-dependent cysteine protease, which has been shown to play a critical role in learning and memory. This study was therefore directed at testing the hypothesis that calpain activity is required for BDNF-stimulated local protein synthesis, and at identifying the underlying molecular mechanism. In rat hippocampal slices, cortical synaptoneurosomes, and cultured neurons, BDNF-induced mTOR pathway activation and protein translation were blocked by calpain inhibition. BDNF treatment rapidly reduced levels of hamartin and tuberin, negative regulators of mTOR, in a calpain-dependent manner. Treatment of brain homogenates with purified calpain-1 and calpain-2 truncated both proteins. BDNF treatment increased phosphorylation of both Akt and ERK, but only the effect on Akt was blocked by calpain inhibition. Levels of PTEN (phosphatase and tensin homolog deleted on chromosome ten), a phosphatase that inactivates Akt, were decreased following BDNF treatment, and calpain inhibition reversed this effect. Calpain-2 but not calpain-1 treatment of brain homogenates resulted in PTEN degradation. In cultured cortical neurons, knock-down of calpain-2 but not calpain-1 by siRNA completely suppressed the effect of BDNF on mTOR activation. Our results reveal a critical role for calpain-2 in BDNF-induced mTOR signaling and dendritic protein synthesis via PTEN, hamartin and tuberin degradation. This mechanism therefore provides a link between proteolysis and protein synthesis that might contribute to synaptic plasticity. PMID:23467348

  16. Moderation of calpain activity promotes neovascular integration and lumen formation during VEGF-induced pathological angiogenesis.

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    Mien V Hoang

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Successful neovascularization requires that sprouting endothelial cells (ECs integrate to form new vascular networks. However, architecturally defective, poorly integrated vessels with blind ends are typical of pathological angiogenesis induced by vascular endothelial growth factor-A (VEGF, thereby limiting the utility of VEGF for therapeutic angiogenesis and aggravating ischemia-related pathologies. Here we investigated the possibility that over-exuberant calpain activity is responsible for aberrant VEGF neovessel architecture and integration. Calpains are a family of intracellular calcium-dependent, non-lysosomal cysteine proteases that regulate cellular functions through proteolysis of numerous substrates.In a mouse skin model of VEGF-driven angiogenesis, retroviral transduction with dominant-negative (DN calpain-I promoted neovessel integration and lumen formation, reduced blind ends, and improved vascular perfusion. Moderate doses of calpain inhibitor-I improved VEGF-driven angiogenesis similarly to DN calpain-I. Conversely, retroviral transduction with wild-type (WT calpain-I abolished neovessel integration and lumen formation. In vitro, moderate suppression of calpain activity with DN calpain-I or calpain inhibitor-I increased the microtubule-stabilizing protein tau in endothelial cells (ECs, increased the average length of microtubules, increased actin cable length, and increased the interconnectivity of vascular cords. Conversely, WT calpain-I diminished tau, collapsed microtubules, disrupted actin cables, and inhibited integration of cord networks. Consistent with the critical importance of microtubules for vascular network integration, the microtubule-stabilizing agent taxol supported vascular cord integration whereas microtubule dissolution with nocodazole collapsed cord networks.These findings implicate VEGF-induction of calpain activity and impairment of cytoskeletal dynamics in the failure of VEGF-induced neovessels to form and

  17. Contribution of Calpain and Caspases to Cell Death in Cultured Monkey RPE Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakajima, Emi; Hammond, Katherine B; Hirata, Masayuki; Shearer, Thomas R; Azuma, Mitsuyoshi

    2017-10-01

    AMD is the leading cause of human vision loss after 65 years of age. Several mechanisms have been proposed: (1) age-related failure of the choroidal vasculature leads to loss of RPE; (2) RPE dysfunctions due to accumulation of phagocytized, but unreleased A2E (N-retinylidene-N-retinylethanolamine); (3) zinc deficiency activation of calpain and caspase proteases, leading to cell death. The purpose of the present study is to compare activation of calpain and caspase in monkey RPE cells cultured under hypoxia or with A2E. Monkey primary RPE cells were cultured under hypoxic conditions in a Gaspak pouch or cultured with synthetic A2E. Immunoblotting was used to detect activation of calpain and caspase. Calpain inhibitor, SNJ-1945, and pan-caspase inhibitor, z-VAD-fmk, were used to confirm activation of the proteases. (1) Hypoxia and A2E each decreased viability of RPE cells in a time-dependent manner. (2) Incubation under hypoxia alone induced activation of calpain, but not caspases. SNJ-1945 inhibited calpain activation, but z-VAD-fmk did not. (3) Incubation with A2E alone induced activation of calpain, caspase-9, and caspase-3. SNJ-1945 inhibited calpain activation. z-VAD-fmk inhibited caspase activation, suggesting no interaction between calpain and caspases. Hypoxia activated the calpain pathway, while A2E activated both calpain and caspase pathways in monkey RPE cells. Such knowledge may be utilized in the treatment of AMD if inhibitor drugs against calpain and/or caspase are used to prevent RPE dysfunction caused by hypoxia or A2E.

  18. m-Calpain is required for preimplantation embryonic development in mice

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    Williams Karen

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background μ-calpain and m-calpain are ubiquitously expressed proteases implicated in cellular migration, cell cycle progression, degenerative processes and cell death. These heterodimeric enzymes are composed of distinct catalytic subunits, encoded by Capn1 (μ-calpain or Capn2 (m-calpain, and a common regulatory subunit encoded by Capn4. Disruption of the mouse Capn4 gene abolished both μ-calpain and m-calpain activity, and resulted in embryonic lethality, thereby suggesting essential roles for one or both of these enzymes during mammalian embryogenesis. Disruption of the Capn1 gene produced viable, fertile mice implying that either m-calpain could compensate for the loss of μ-calpain, or that the loss of m-calpain was responsible for death of Capn4-/- mice. Results To distinguish between the alternatives described above, we deleted an essential coding region in the mouse Capn2 gene in embryonic stems cells and transmitted this mutant allele through the mouse germline. Breeding of heterozygous animals failed to produce homozygous mutant live offspring or implanted embryos. A nested PCR genotyping protocol was established, and homozygous preimplantation mutant embryos were detected at the morula but not at the blastocyts stage. Conclusion We conclude that homozygous disruption of the Capn2 gene results in pre-implantation embryonic lethality between the morula and blastocyst stage. This establishes that μ-calpain and m-calpain have distinct functions, and that m-calpain is vital for development of the preimplantation murine embryo.

  19. Characterization of the definitive classical calpain family of vertebrates using phylogenetic, evolutionary and expression analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macqueen, Daniel J.; Wilcox, Alexander H.

    2014-01-01

    The calpains are a superfamily of proteases with extensive relevance to human health and welfare. Vast research attention is given to the vertebrate ‘classical’ subfamily, making it surprising that the evolutionary origins, distribution and relationships of these genes is poorly characterized. Consequently, there exists uncertainty about the conservation of gene family structure, function and expression that has been principally defined from work with mammals. Here, more than 200 vertebrate classical calpains were incorporated in phylogenetic analyses spanning an unprecedented range of taxa, including jawless and cartilaginous fish. We demonstrate that the common vertebrate ancestor had at least six classical calpains, including a single gene that gave rise to CAPN11, 1, 2 and 8 in the early jawed fish lineage, plus CAPN3, 9, 12, 13 and a novel calpain gene, hereafter named CAPN17. We reveal that while all vertebrate classical calpains have been subject to persistent purifying selection during evolution, the degree and nature of selective pressure has often been lineage-dependent. The tissue expression of the complete classic calpain family was assessed in representative teleost fish, amphibians, reptiles and mammals. This highlighted systematic divergence in expression across vertebrate taxa, with most classic calpain genes from fish and amphibians having more extensive tissue distribution than in amniotes. Our data suggest that classical calpain functions have frequently diverged during vertebrate evolution and challenge the ongoing value of the established system of classifying calpains by expression. PMID:24718597

  20. Calpain2 mediates Rab5-driven focal adhesion disassembly and cell migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendoza, Pablo A; Silva, Patricio; Díaz, Jorge; Arriagada, Cecilia; Canales, Jimena; Cerda, Oscar; Torres, Vicente A

    2017-11-03

    The early endosome protein Rab5 was recently shown to promote cell migration by enhancing focal adhesion disassembly through mechanisms that remain elusive. Focal adhesion disassembly is associated to proteolysis of talin, in a process that requires calpain2. Since calpain2 has been found at vesicles and endosomal compartments, we hypothesized that Rab5 stimulates calpain2 activity, leading to enhanced focal adhesion disassembly in migrating cells. We observed that calpain2 co-localizes with EEA1-positive early endosomes and co-immunoprecipitates with EEA1 and Rab5 in A549 lung carcinoma cells undergoing spreading, whereas Rab5 knock-down decreased the accumulation of calpain2 at early endosomal-enriched fractions. In addition, Rab5 silencing decreased calpain2 activity, as shown by cleavage of the fluorogenic substrate tBOC-LM-CMAC and the endogenous substrate talin. Accordingly, Rab5 promoted focal adhesion disassembly in a calpain2-dependent manner, as expression of GFP-Rab5 accelerated focal adhesion disassembly in nocodazole-synchronized cells, whereas pharmacological inhibition of calpain2 with N-acetyl-Leu-Leu-Met prevented both focal adhesion disassembly and cell migration induced by Rab5. In summary, these data uncover Rab5 as a novel regulator of calpain2 activity and focal adhesion proteolysis leading to cell migration.

  1. Nitric oxide inhibits calpain-mediated proteolysis of talin in skeletal muscle cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koh, T. J.; Tidball, J. G.

    2000-01-01

    We tested the hypothesis that nitric oxide can inhibit cytoskeletal breakdown in skeletal muscle cells by inhibiting calpain cleavage of talin. The nitric oxide donor sodium nitroprusside prevented many of the effects of calcium ionophore on C(2)C(12) muscle cells, including preventing talin proteolysis and release into the cytosol and reducing loss of vinculin, cell detachment, and loss of cellular protein. These results indicate that nitric oxide inhibition of calpain protected the cells from ionophore-induced proteolysis. Calpain inhibitor I and a cell-permeable calpastatin peptide also protected the cells from proteolysis, confirming that ionophore-induced proteolysis was primarily calpain mediated. The activity of m-calpain in a casein zymogram was inhibited by sodium nitroprusside, and this inhibition was reversed by dithiothreitol. Previous incubation with the active site-targeted calpain inhibitor I prevented most of the sodium nitroprusside-induced inhibition of m-calpain activity. These data suggest that nitric oxide inhibited m-calpain activity via S-nitrosylation of the active site cysteine. The results of this study indicate that nitric oxide produced endogenously by skeletal muscle and other cell types has the potential to inhibit m-calpain activity and cytoskeletal proteolysis.

  2. Asymmetric Localization of Calpain 2 during Neutrophil Chemotaxis

    OpenAIRE

    Nuzzi, Paul A.; Senetar, Melissa A.; Huttenlocher, Anna

    2007-01-01

    Chemoattractants induce neutrophil polarization through localized polymerization of F-actin at the leading edge. The suppression of rear and lateral protrusions is required for efficient chemotaxis and involves the temporal and spatial segregation of signaling molecules. We have previously shown that the intracellular calcium-dependent protease calpain is required for cell migration and is involved in regulating neutrophil chemotaxis. Here, we show that primary neutrophils and neutrophil-like...

  3. Cleavage of desmin by cysteine proteases: Calpains and cathepsin B

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baron, Caroline; Jacobsen, S.; Purslow, P.P.

    2004-01-01

    a sequential C-terminal degradation pattern characteristic of this dipeptylpeptidase. The substrate primary structure was not found to be essential for regulation of the proteolytic activity of the cysteine peptidases studied. However, the degradation patterns obtained imply that calpains are involved...... in degradation of desmin early post-mortem, targeting the non-helical region of the desmin molecule and resulting in depolymerisation and initial disorganisation of the intermediate filament structures of the muscle cell....

  4. Muscle pathology in 31 patients with calpain 3 gene mutations..

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadaj-Pakleza, Aleksandra A; Dorobek, M; Nestorowicz, K; Ryniewicz, B; Szmidt-Sałkowska, E; Kamińska, A M

    2013-01-01

    At present, more than 20 different forms of limb-girdle muscular dystrophies (LGMDs) are known (at least 7 autosomal dominant and 14 autosomal recessive). Although these different forms show some typical phenotypic characteristics, the existing clinical overlap makes their differential diagnosis difficult. Limb-girdle muscular dystrophy type 2 (LGMD2A) is the most prevalent LGMD in many European as well as Brazilian communities and is caused by mutations in the gene CAPN3. Laboratory testing, such as calpain immunohistochemistry and Western-blot analysis, is not totally reliable, since up to 20% of molecularly confirmed LGMD2A show normal content of calpain 3 and a third of LGMD2A biopsies have normal calpain 3 proteo-lytic activity in the muscle. Thus, genetic testing is considered as the only reliable diagnostic criterion in LGMD2A. In an attempt to find a correlation between genotype and muscle pathology in limb-girdle muscular dystrophy 2A we performed histopathological investigation of a group of 31 patients subdivided according to the type of pathologic CAPN3 gene mutation. In all biopsies typical features of muscular dystrophy such as fiber necrosis and regeneration, variation in fiber size and fibrosis were noted. Lobulated fibers were often encountered in the muscle biopsies of LGMD2A patients. Such fibers were more frequent in patients with 550delA mutation. These findings may be helpful in establishing diagnostic strategies in LGMD.

  5. Inhibition of Starvation-Triggered Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress, Autophagy, and Apoptosis in ARPE-19 Cells by Taurine through Modulating the Expression of Calpain-1 and Calpain-2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yuanyuan; Ren, Shu; Liu, Yuci; Gao, Kun; Liu, Zheng; Zhang, Zhou

    2017-10-14

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a complex disease with multiple initiators and pathways that converge on death for retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells. In this study, effects of taurine on calpains, autophagy, endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, and apoptosis in ARPE-19 cells (a human RPE cell line) were investigated. We first confirmed that autophagy, ER stress and apoptosis in ARPE-19 cells were induced by Earle's balanced salt solution (EBSS) through starvation to induce RPE metabolic stress. Secondly, inhibition of ER stress by 4-phenyl butyric acid (4-PBA) alleviated autophagy and apoptosis, and suppression of autophagy by 3-methyl adenine (3-MA) reduced the cell apoptosis, but the ER stress was minimally affected. Thirdly, the apoptosis, ER stress and autophagy were inhibited by gene silencing of calpain-2 and overexpression of calpain-1, respectively. Finally, taurine suppressed both the changes of the important upstream regulators (calpain-1 and calpain-2) and the activation of ER stress, autophagy and apoptosis, and taurine had protective effects on the survival of ARPE-19 cells. Collectively, this data indicate that taurine inhibits starvation-triggered endoplasmic reticulum stress, autophagy, and apoptosis in ARPE-19 cells by modulating the expression of calpain-1 and calpain-2.

  6. Inhibition of Starvation-Triggered Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress, Autophagy, and Apoptosis in ARPE-19 Cells by Taurine through Modulating the Expression of Calpain-1 and Calpain-2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuanyuan Zhang

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Age-related macular degeneration (AMD is a complex disease with multiple initiators and pathways that converge on death for retinal pigment epithelial (RPE cells. In this study, effects of taurine on calpains, autophagy, endoplasmic reticulum (ER stress, and apoptosis in ARPE-19 cells (a human RPE cell line were investigated. We first confirmed that autophagy, ER stress and apoptosis in ARPE-19 cells were induced by Earle’s balanced salt solution (EBSS through starvation to induce RPE metabolic stress. Secondly, inhibition of ER stress by 4-phenyl butyric acid (4-PBA alleviated autophagy and apoptosis, and suppression of autophagy by 3-methyl adenine (3-MA reduced the cell apoptosis, but the ER stress was minimally affected. Thirdly, the apoptosis, ER stress and autophagy were inhibited by gene silencing of calpain-2 and overexpression of calpain-1, respectively. Finally, taurine suppressed both the changes of the important upstream regulators (calpain-1 and calpain-2 and the activation of ER stress, autophagy and apoptosis, and taurine had protective effects on the survival of ARPE-19 cells. Collectively, this data indicate that taurine inhibits starvation-triggered endoplasmic reticulum stress, autophagy, and apoptosis in ARPE-19 cells by modulating the expression of calpain-1 and calpain-2.

  7. Expression of the gene for large subunit of m-calpain is elevated in ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Calpain is an intracellular nonlysosomal protease involved in essential regulatory or processing functions of the cell, mediated by physiological concentrations of Ca2З. However, in an environment of abnormal intracellular calcium, such as that seen in Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD), calpain is suggested to cause ...

  8. Calpain inhibition prevents amyloid-beta-induced neurodegeneration and associated behavioral dysfunction in rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Granic, Ivica; Nyakas, Csaba; Luiten, Paul G. M.; Eisel, Ulrich L. M.; Halmy, Laszlo G.; Gross, Gerhard; Schoemaker, Hans; Moeller, Achim; Nimmrich, Volker

    2010-01-01

    Amyloid-beta (A beta) is toxic to neurons and such toxicity is - at least in part - mediated via the NMDA receptor. Calpain, a calcium dependent cystein protease, is part of the NMDA receptor-induced neurodegeneration pathway, and we previously reported that inhibition of calpain prevents

  9. Growth and development of skeletal muscle in mu-calpain knockout mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    The calpain system has been identified as a potential candidate in muscle growth and development due to its role in a variety of cellular processes such as cytoskeletal remodeling and myogenesis. The objective of this study was to evaluate growth and development of skeletal muscle in mu-calpain kno...

  10. Calpain inhibitors reduce retinal hypoxia in ischemic retinopathy by improving neovascular architecture and functional perfusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoang, Mien V; Smith, Lois E H; Senger, Donald R

    2011-04-01

    In ischemic retinopathies, underlying hypoxia drives abnormal neovascularization that damages retina and causes blindness. The abnormal neovasculature is tortuous and leaky and fails to alleviate hypoxia, resulting in more pathological neovascularization and retinal damage. With an established model of ischemic retinopathy we found that calpain inhibitors, when administered in moderation, reduced architectural abnormalities, reduced vascular leakage, and most importantly reduced retinal hypoxia. Mechanistically, these calpain inhibitors improved stability and organization of the actin cytoskeleton in retinal endothelial cells undergoing capillary morphogenesis in vitro, and they similarly improved organization of actin cables within new blood vessels in vivo. Hypoxia induced calpain activity in retinal endothelial cells and severely disrupted the actin cytoskeleton, whereas calpain inhibitors preserved actin cables under hypoxic conditions. Collectively, these findings support the hypothesis that hyper-activation of calpains by hypoxia contributes to disruption of the retinal endothelial cell cytoskeleton, resulting in formation of neovessels that are defective both architecturally and functionally. Modest suppression of calpain activity with calpain inhibitors restores cytoskeletal architecture and promotes formation of a functional neovasculature, thereby reducing underlying hypoxia. In sharp contrast to "anti-angiogenesis" strategies that cannot restore normoxia and may aggravate hypoxia, the therapeutic strategy described here does not inhibit neovascularization. Instead, by improving the function of neovascularization to reduce underlying hypoxia, moderate calpain inhibition offers a method for alleviating retinal ischemia, thereby suggesting a new treatment paradigm based on improvement rather than inhibition of new blood vessel growth. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. S-nitrosation of calpains is associated with cardioprotection in myocardial I/R injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Totzeck, Matthias; Korste, Sebastian; Miinalainen, Ilkka; Hendgen-Cotta, Ulrike B; Rassaf, Tienush

    2017-07-01

    Myocardial infarction remains the single leading cause of death worldwide. Upon reperfusion of occluded arteries, deleterious cellular mediators particularly located at the mitochondria level can be activated, thus limiting the outcome in patients. This may lead to the so-called ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury. Calpains are cysteine proteases and mediators of caspase-independent cell death. Recently, they have emerged as central transmitters of cellular injury in several cardiac pathologies e.g. hypertrophy and acute I/R injury. Here we investigated the role of cardiac calpains in acute I/R in relation to mitochondrial integrity and whether calpains can be effectively inhibited by posttranslational modification by S-nitrosation. Taking advantage of the a cardiomyocyte cell line (HL1), we determined S-nitrosation by the Biotin-switch approach, cell viability and intracellular calcium concentration after simulated ischemia and reoxygenation - all in dependence of supplementation with nitrite, which is known as an 'hypoxic nitric oxide (NO) donor'. Likewise, using an in vivo I/R model, calpain S-nitrosation, calpain activity and myocardial I/R injury were characterized in vivo. Nitrite administration resulted in an increased S-nitrosation of calpains, and this was associated with an improved cell-survival. No impact was detected on calcium levels. In line with these in vitro experiments, nitrite initiated calpain S-nitrosation in vivo and caused an infarct sparing effect in an in vivo myocardial I/R model. Using electron microscopy in combination with immuno-gold labeling we determined that calpain 10 increased, while calpain 2 decreased in the course of I/R. Nitrite, in turn, prevented an I/R induced increase of calpains 10 at mitochondria and reduced levels of calpain 1. Lethal myocardial injury remains a key aspect of myocardial I/R. We show that calpains, as key players in caspase-independent apoptosis, increasingly locate at mitochondria following I

  12. Mechanism of Action of Thalassospiramides, A New Class of Calpain Inhibitors

    KAUST Repository

    Lu, Liang

    2015-03-05

    Thalassospiramides comprise a large family of lipopeptide natural products produced by Thalassospira and Tistrella marine bacteria. Here we provide further evidence of their nanomolar inhibitory activity against the human calpain 1 protease. Analysis of structure-activity relationship data supported our hypothesis that the rigid 12-membered ring containing an α,β-unsaturated carbonyl moiety is the pharmacologically active functional group, in contrast to classic electrophilic "warheads" in known calpain inhibitors. Using a combination of chemical modifications, mass spectrometric techniques, site-directed mutagenesis, and molecular modeling, we show the covalent binding of thalassospiramide\\'s α,β-unsaturated carbonyl moiety to the thiol group of calpain\\'s catalytic Cys115 residue by a Michael 1,4-addition reaction. As nanomolar calpain inhibitors with promising selectivity and low toxicity from natural sources are rare, we consider thalassospiramides as promising drug leads.

  13. Expression of the calpain system is associated with poor clinical outcome in gastro-oesophageal adenocarcinomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storr, Sarah J; Pu, Xuan; Davis, Jillian; Lobo, Dileep; Reece-Smith, Alex M; Parsons, Simon L; Madhusudan, Srinivasan; Martin, Stewart G

    2013-11-01

    Surgery is critical in the management of gastro-oesophageal cancer, and the addition of neo-adjuvant chemotherapy has proved to be of benefit. The calpain system has been implicated in tumour progression and response to various anti-cancer therapies, and therefore expression of the system was determined in this tumour type. Two cohorts of gastro-oesophageal adenocarcinomas were investigated for calpain-1, calpain-2, calpain-9 and calpastatin expression using conventional immunohistochemistry. 88 patients who received neo-adjuvant chemotherapy and 140 patients who received surgery alone were investigated using a tissue microarray approach. Calpain-1, calpain-2 and calpastatin expression was associated with adverse cancer-specific survival in the neo-adjuvant cohort (P = 0.004, P = 0.001 and P = 0.012 respectively); which remained significant in multivariate analysis (Hazard ratio (HR) = 0.337; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.140-0.81; P = 0.015, HR = 0.375; 95% CI = 0.165-0.858; P = 0.020 and HR = 0.481; 95% CI = 0.257-0.900; P = 0.022 respectively). Calpain-1 and calpastatin expression was also associated with adverse cancer specific survival in the primary surgery cohort (P = 0.001 and P = 0.013 respectively); which remained significant in multivariate analysis (HR = 0.309; 95% CI = 0.159-0.601; P = 0.001 and HR = 0.418; 95% CI = 0.205-0.850; P = 0.016 respectively). Calpain-9 expression was not associated with cancer-specific survival in the neo-adjuvant and primary surgery cohorts. Determining the expression levels of calpain-1, calpain-2 and calpastatin may provide clinically relevant prognostic information for gastro-oesophageal adenocarcinomas; these findings warrant further studies in larger cohorts of patients.

  14. Vital Role of the Calpain-Calpastatin System for Placental-Integrity-Dependent Embryonic Survival▿†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takano, Jiro; Mihira, Naomi; Fujioka, Ryo; Hosoki, Emi; Chishti, Athar H.; Saido, Takaomi C.

    2011-01-01

    Although the calpain-calpastatin system has been implicated in a number of pathological conditions, its normal physiological role remains largely unknown. To investigate the functions of this system, we generated conventional and conditional calpain-2 knockout mice. The conventional calpain-2 knockout embryos died around embryonic day 15, preceded by cell death associated with caspase activation and DNA fragmentation in placental trophoblasts. In contrast, conditional knockout mice in which calpain-2 is expressed in the placenta but not in the fetus were spared. These results suggest that calpain-2 contributes to trophoblast survival via suppression of caspase activation. Double-knockout mice also deficient in calpain-1 and calpastatin resulted in accelerated and rescued embryonic lethality, respectively, suggesting that calpain-1 and -2 at least in part share similar in vivo functions under the control of calpastatin. Triple-knockout mice exhibited early embryonic lethality, a finding consistent with the notion that this protease system is vital for embryonic survival. PMID:21791606

  15. Effects of calpain genotypes on meat tenderness and carcass traits of Angus bulls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, H Y; Davis, M E

    2011-10-01

    Relationships of the calpain system with meat tenderness and carcass traits were examined for 94 purebred Angus bulls with genotypes of the calpain classified by RFLP (restriction fragment length polymorphism) and SSCP (Single strand conformation polymorphism) analysis. Designing of primers based on the calpain regulatory subunit (CAPNS) and u-calpian (CAPN1) genes. Bulls from 15 months of age were slaughtered, and carcass traits, including fat thickness (FAT); longissimus muscle area (LMA); percentage of kidney, pelvic, and heart fat (KPH); hot carcass weight (HCW); marbling score (MAR); and quality grade (QUL), were analyzed. Measurements regarding meat tenderness involved activities of calpastatin (CAC), u-calpain (UAC), m-calpain (MAC), Warner-Bratzler Shear Force (WBS) and myofibril fragmentation index (MFI). Statistical significances of the calpain genotypes accounted for variations in MAR and QUL at CAPNS locus, and both loci explained variations of UAC and MAC. Significant mean differences in genotypes of CAPNS locus were found for MAR (BB > AB > AA) and QUL (AB > BB > AA). UAC showed significant correlations with MAC, CAC, MFI, FAT, and MAR, and we found that MAC correlated with WBS, FAT, HCW, MAR, and QUL. Strong positive correlation detected between LMA and HCW, and MAR and QUL, and a negative correlation between MFI and MAR was estimated. From the result it may be possible to use the calpain genotypes classified by RFLP and SSCP analysis in marker assisted selection programs to estimate UAC and MAC precisely regardless meat tenderness and to improve MAR and QUL of beef cattle.

  16. Suppression of calpain expression by NSAIDs is associated with inhibition of cell migration in rat duodenum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silver, Kristopher; Littlejohn, A; Thomas, Laurel; Bawa, Bhupinder; Lillich, James D

    2017-05-15

    Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are widely used for the alleviation of pain and inflammation, but these drugs are also associated with a suite of negative side effects. Gastrointestinal (GI) toxicity is particularly concerning since it affects an estimated 70% of individuals taking NSAIDs routinely, and evidence suggests the majority of toxicity is occurring in the small intestine. Traditionally, NSAID-induced GI toxicity has been associated with indiscriminate inhibition of cyclooxygenase isoforms, but other mechanisms, including inhibition of cell migration, intestinal restitution, and wound healing, are likely to contribute to toxicity. Previous efforts demonstrated that treatment of cultured intestinal epithelial cells (IEC) with NSAIDs inhibits expression and activity of calpain proteases, but the effects of specific inhibition of calpain expression in vitro or the effects of NSAIDs on intestinal cell migration in vivo remain to be determined. Accordingly, we examined the effect of suppression of calpain protease expression with siRNA on cell migration in cultured IECs and evaluated the effects of NSAID treatment on epithelial cell migration and calpain protease expression in rat duodenum. Our results show that calpain siRNA inhibits protease expression and slows migration in cultured IECs. Additionally, NSAID treatment of rats slowed migration up the villus axis and suppressed calpain expression in duodenal epithelial cells. Our results are supportive of the hypothesis that suppression of calpain expression leading to slowing of cell migration is a potential mechanism through which NSAIDs cause GI toxicity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Calpain Inhibition Improves Erectile Function in a Rat Model of Cavernous Nerve Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Zhi-Hua; Li, Guo-Hao; Guo, Yong-Lian; Li, Wen-Zhou; Chen, Lin

    2015-01-01

    Erectile dysfunction (ED) after cavernous nerve (CN) injury remains difficult to treat. Calpain plays a critical role in causing neurodegenerative diseases. This study aimed to evaluate whether calpain inhibition preserves erectile function in a rat model of CN injury. Rats underwent sham surgery or CN crush injury. The CN-crushed rats were treated with vehicle or MDL-28170, a specific calpain inhibitor. At 1, 2, 3, and 7 days post-surgery, major pelvic ganglia (MPG) were harvested, followed by the measurement of erectile function, respectively. At 28 days, penile tissue and distal CN were harvested, followed by the measurement of erectile function in rats. Calpain activity in MPG and corpus cavernosum, as well as TGF-β1/Smad2 and collagen content in corpus cavernosum, were measured by western blot. Neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) was observed by immunohistochemistry. Increased calpain activity was observed in MPG and corpus cavernosum. CN crush markedly attenuated the erectile responses and nNOS expression in CN, and these were improved by MDL-28170 treatment. Furthermore, treatment prevented increased TGF-β1/Smad2 and collagen expression in corpus cavernosum. Our results suggested that calpain activation plays a role in pathogenesis of CN injury-associated ED. Calpain inhibition could be a novel approach for preventing the development of ED following CN injury. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  18. Calpain-mediated cleavage of DARPP-32 in Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Kwangmin; Cho, Mi-Hyang; Seo, Jung-Han; Peak, Jongjin; Kong, Kyoung-Hye; Yoon, Seung-Yong; Kim, Dong-Hou

    2015-10-01

    Toxicity induced by aberrant protein aggregates in Alzheimer's disease (AD) causes synaptic disconnection and concomitant progressive neurodegeneration that eventually impair cognitive function. cAMP-response element-binding protein (CREB) is a transcription factor involved in the molecular switch that converts short-term to long-term memory. Although disturbances in CREB function have been suggested to cause memory deficits in both AD and AD animal models, the mechanism of CREB dysfunction is still unclear. Here, we show that the dopamine- and cAMP-regulated phosphoprotein 32 kDa (DARPP-32), a key inhibitor of protein phosphate-1 (PP-1) that regulates CREB phosphorylation, is cleaved by activated calpain in both AD brains and neuronal cells treated with amyloid-β or okadaic acid, a protein phosphatase-2A inhibitor that induces tau hyperphosphorylation and neuronal death. We found that DARPP-32 is mainly cleaved at Thr(153) by calpain and that this cleavage of DARPP-32 reduces CREB phosphorylation via loss of its inhibitory function on PP1. Our results suggest a novel mechanism of DARPP-32-CREB signalling dysregulation in AD. © 2015 The Authors. Aging Cell published by the Anatomical Society and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Calpain 4 is not necessary for LFA-1-mediated function in CD4+ T cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah A Wernimont

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available T cell activation and immune synapse formation require the appropriate activation and clustering of the integrin, LFA-1. Previous work has reported that the calpain family of calcium-dependent proteases are important regulators of integrin activation and modulate T cell adhesion and migration. However, these studies have been limited by the use of calpain inhibitors, which have known off-target effects.Here, we used a LoxP/CRE system to specifically deplete calpain 4, a small regulatory calpain subunit required for expression and activity of ubiquitously expressed calpains 1 and 2, in CD4+ T cells. CD4+ and CD8+ T cells developed normally in Capn4(F/F:CD4-CRE mice and had severely diminished expression of Calpain 1 and 2, diminished talin proteolysis and impaired casein degradation. Calpain 4-deficient T cells showed no difference in adhesion or migration on the LFA-1 ligand ICAM-1 compared to control T cells. Moreover, there was no impairment in conjugation between Capn4(F/F:CD4-CRE T cells and antigen presenting cells, and the conjugates were still capable of polarizing LFA-1, PKC-theta and actin to the immune synapse. Furthermore, T cells from Capn4(F/F:CD4-CRE mice showed normal proliferation in response to either anti-CD3/CD28 coated beads or cognate antigen-loaded splenocytes. Finally, there were no differences in the rates of apoptosis following extrinsic and intrinsic apoptotic stimuli.Our findings demonstrate that calpain 4 is not necessary for LFA-1-mediated adhesion, conjugation or migration. These results challenge previous reports that implicate a central role for calpains in the regulation of T cell LFA-1 function.

  20. Selective pseudohypertrophy of vastus medialis muscles associated with calpain 3 deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vattemi, Gaetano; Neri, Marcella; Marini, Matteo; Gualandi, Francesca; Tonin, Paola; Bertolasi, Laura; Guglielmi, Valeria; Catalli, Claudio; Novelli, Giuseppe; Ferlini, Alessandra; Tomelleri, Giuliano

    2012-09-01

    Calpain 3 deficiency causes limb girdle muscular dystrophy type 2A, which is one of the most common forms of limb girdle muscular dystrophy. Nevertheless, calpainopathy is not always associated with mutations in the specific gene and secondary reduction in protein expression has been described. We report a case of a 43-year-old man who complained of thigh muscle stiffness and had muscle hypertrophy of both vastus medialis with prolonged myotonic contraction by percussion. A muscle biopsy showed dystrophic features and calpain 3 deficiency was shown by immunoblot analysis although mutations in the specific gene were not found. Known cases of secondary calpain 3 protein deficiency were ruled out and mutations in MD1 and MD2 genes were excluded. This patient represents the first case of calpain 3 deficiency with selective pseudohypertrophy of vastus medialis muscles.

  1. Disruption of calpain reduces lipotoxicity-induced cardiac injury by preventing endoplasmic reticulum stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shengcun; Zhang, Lulu; Ni, Rui; Cao, Ting; Zheng, Dong; Xiong, Sidong; Greer, Peter A; Fan, Guo-Chang; Peng, Tianqing

    2016-11-01

    Diabetes and obesity are prevalent in westernized countries. In both conditions, excessive fatty acid uptake by cardiomyocytes induces cardiac lipotoxicity, an important mechanism contributing to diabetic cardiomyopathy. This study investigated the effect of calpain disruption on cardiac lipotoxicity. Cardiac-specific capns1 knockout mice and their wild-type littermates (male, age of 4weeks) were fed a high fat diet (HFD) or normal diet for 20weeks. HFD increased body weight, altered blood lipid profiles and impaired glucose tolerance comparably in both capns1 knockout mice and their wild-type littermates. Calpain activity, cardiomyocyte cross-sectional areas, collagen deposition and triglyceride were significantly increased in HFD-fed mouse hearts, and these were accompanied by myocardial dysfunction and up-regulation of hypertrophic and fibrotic collagen genes as well as pro-inflammatory cytokines. These effects of HFD were attenuated by disruption of calpain in capns1 knockout mice. Mechanistically, deletion of capns1 in HFD-fed mouse hearts and disruption of calpain with calpain inhibitor-III, silencing of capn1, or deletion of capns1 in palmitate-stimulated cardiomyocytes prevented endoplasmic reticulum stress, apoptosis, cleavage of caspase-12 and junctophilin-2, and pro-inflammatory cytokine expression. Pharmacological inhibition of endoplasmic reticulum stress diminished palmitate-induced apoptosis and pro-inflammatory cytokine expression in cardiomyocytes. In summary, disruption of calpain prevents lipotoxicity-induced apoptosis in cardiomyocytes and cardiac injury in mice fed a HFD. The role of calpain is mediated, at least partially, through endoplasmic reticulum stress. Thus, calpain/endoplasmic reticulum stress may represent a new mechanism and potential therapeutic targets for cardiac lipotoxicity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Molecular determinants of survival motor neuron (SMN protein cleavage by the calcium-activated protease, calpain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer L Fuentes

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA is a leading genetic cause of childhood mortality, caused by reduced levels of survival motor neuron (SMN protein. SMN functions as part of a large complex in the biogenesis of small nuclear ribonucleoproteins (snRNPs. It is not clear if defects in snRNP biogenesis cause SMA or if loss of some tissue-specific function causes disease. We recently demonstrated that the SMN complex localizes to the Z-discs of skeletal and cardiac muscle sarcomeres, and that SMN is a proteolytic target of calpain. Calpains are implicated in muscle and neurodegenerative disorders, although their relationship to SMA is unclear. Using mass spectrometry, we identified two adjacent calpain cleavage sites in SMN, S192 and F193. Deletion of small motifs in the region surrounding these sites inhibited cleavage. Patient-derived SMA mutations within SMN reduced calpain cleavage. SMN(D44V, reported to impair Gemin2 binding and amino-terminal SMN association, drastically inhibited cleavage, suggesting a role for these interactions in regulating calpain cleavage. Deletion of A188, a residue mutated in SMA type I (A188S, abrogated calpain cleavage, highlighting the importance of this region. Conversely, SMA mutations that interfere with self-oligomerization of SMN, Y272C and SMNΔ7, had no effect on cleavage. Removal of the recently-identified SMN degron (Δ268-294 resulted in increased calpain sensitivity, suggesting that the C-terminus of SMN is important in dictating availability of the cleavage site. Investigation into the spatial determinants of SMN cleavage revealed that endogenous calpains can cleave cytosolic, but not nuclear, SMN. Collectively, the results provide insight into a novel aspect of the post-translation regulation of SMN.

  3. Calpain-1 knockout reveals broad effects on erythrocyte deformability and physiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wieschhaus, Adam; Khan, Anwar; Zaidi, Asma; Rogalin, Henry; Hanada, Toshihiko; Liu, Fei; De Franceschi, Lucia; Brugnara, Carlo; Rivera, Alicia; Chishti, Athar H.

    2014-01-01

    Pharmacological inhibitors of cysteine proteases have provided useful insights into the regulation of calpain activity in erythrocytes. However, the precise biological function of calpain activity in erythrocytes remains poorly understood. Erythrocytes express calpain-1, an isoform regulated by calpastatin, the endogenous inhibitor of calpains. In the present study, we investigated the function of calpain-1 in mature erythrocytes using our calpain-1-null [KO (knockout)] mouse model. The calpain-1 gene deletion results in improved erythrocyte deformability without any measurable effect on erythrocyte lifespan in vivo. The calcium-induced sphero-echinocyte shape transition is compromised in the KO erythrocytes. Erythrocyte membrane proteins ankyrin, band 3, protein 4.1R, adducin and dematin are degraded in the calcium-loaded normal erythrocytes but not in the KO erythrocytes. In contrast, the integrity of spectrin and its state of phosphorylation are not affected in the calcium-loaded erythrocytes of either genotype. To assess the functional consequences of attenuated cytoskeletal remodelling in the KO erythrocytes, the activity of major membrane transporters was measured. The activity of the K+–Cl− co-transporter and the Gardos channel was significantly reduced in the KO erythrocytes. Similarly, the basal activity of the calcium pump was reduced in the absence of calmodulin in the KO erythrocyte membrane. Interestingly, the calmodulin-stimulated calcium pump activity was significantly elevated in the KO erythrocytes, implying a wider range of pump regulation by calcium and calmodulin. Taken together, and with the atomic force microscopy of the skeletal network, the results of the present study provide the first evidence for the physiological function of calpain-1 in erythrocytes with therapeutic implications for calcium imbalance pathologies such as sickle cell disease. PMID:22870887

  4. Calpain Inhibition Attenuates Adipose Tissue Inflammation and Fibrosis in Diet-induced Obese Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muniappan, Latha; Javidan, Aida; Jiang, Weihua; Mohammadmoradi, Shayan; Moorleghen, Jessica J; Katz, Wendy S; Balakrishnan, Anju; Howatt, Deborah A; Subramanian, Venkateswaran

    2017-10-31

    Adipose tissue macrophages have been proposed as a link between obesity and insulin resistance. However, the mechanisms underlying these processes are not completely defined. Calpains are calcium-dependent neutral cysteine proteases that modulate cellular function and have been implicated in various inflammatory diseases. To define whether activated calpains influence diet-induced obesity and adipose tissue macrophage accumulation, mice that were either wild type (WT) or overexpressing calpastatin (CAST Tg), the endogenous inhibitor of calpains were fed with high (60% kcal) fat diet for 16 weeks. CAST overexpression did not influence high fat diet-induced body weight and fat mass gain throughout the study. Calpain inhibition showed a transient improvement in glucose tolerance at 5 weeks of HFD whereas it lost this effect on glucose and insulin tolerance at 16 weeks HFD in obese mice. However, CAST overexpression significantly reduced adipocyte apoptosis, adipose tissue collagen and macrophage accumulation as detected by TUNEL, Picro Sirius and F4/80 immunostaining, respectively. CAST overexpression significantly attenuated obesity-induced inflammatory responses in adipose tissue. Furthermore, calpain inhibition suppressed macrophage migration to adipose tissue in vitro. The present study demonstrates a pivotal role for calpains in mediating HFD-induced adipose tissue remodeling by influencing multiple functions including apoptosis, fibrosis and inflammation.

  5. Vascular smooth muscle cell spreading onto fibrinogen is regulated by calpains and phospholipase C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulhe, F; Bogyo, A; Chap, H; Perret, B; Racaud-Sultan, C

    2001-11-09

    Fibrinogen deposition and smooth muscle cell migration are important causes of atherosclerosis and angiogenesis. Involvement of calpains in vascular smooth muscle cell adhesion onto fibrinogen was investigated. Using calpain inhibitors, we showed that activation of calpains was required for smooth muscle cell spreading. An increase of (32)P-labeled phosphatidic acid and phosphatidylinositol-3,4-bisphosphate, respective products of phospholipase C and phosphoinositide 3-kinase activities, was measured in adherent cells. Addition of the calpain inhibitor calpeptin strongly decreased phosphatidic acid and phosphatidylinositol-3,4-bisphosphate. However, smooth muscle cell spreading was prevented by the phospholipase C inhibitor U-73122, but poorly modified by phosphoinositide 3-kinase inhibitors wortmannin and LY-294002. Moreover, PLC was found to act upstream of the PI 3-kinase IA isoform. Thus, our data provide the first evidence that calpains are required for smooth muscle cell spreading. Further, phospholipase C activation is pointed as a key step of cell-spreading regulation by calpains. Copyright 2001 Academic Press.

  6. Calpain-like: A Ca(2+) dependent cystein protease in Entamoeba histolytica cell death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monroy, Virginia Sánchez; Flores, Olivia Medel; García, Consuelo Gómez; Maya, Yesenia Chávez; Fernández, Tania Domínguez; Pérez Ishiwara, D Guillermo

    2015-12-01

    Entamoeba histolytica programmed cell death (PCD) induced by G418 is characterized by the release of important amounts of intracellular calcium from reservoirs. Nevertheless, no typical caspases have been detected in the parasite, the PCD phenotype is inhibited by the cysteine protease inhibitor E-64. These results strongly suggest that Ca(2+)-dependent proteases could be involved in PCD. In this study, we evaluate the expression and activity of a specific dependent Ca(2+) protease, the calpain-like protease, by real-time quantitative PCR (RTq-PCR), Western blot assays and a enzymatic method during the induction of PCD by G418. Alternatively, using cell viability and TUNEL assays, we also demonstrated that the Z-Leu-Leu-Leu-al calpain inhibitor reduced the rate of cell death. The results demonstrated 4.9-fold overexpression of calpain-like gene 1.5 h after G418 PCD induction, while calpain-like protein increased almost two-fold with respect to basal calpain-like expression after 3 h of induction, and calpain activity was found to be approximately three-fold higher 6 h after treatment compared with untreated trophozoites. Taken together, these results suggest that this Ca(2+)-dependent protease could be involved in the executory phase of PCD. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Vital Role of the Calpain-Calpastatin System for Placental-Integrity-Dependent Embryonic Survival▿†

    OpenAIRE

    Takano, Jiro; Mihira, Naomi; Fujioka, Ryo; Hosoki, Emi; Chishti, Athar H.; Saido, Takaomi C.

    2011-01-01

    Although the calpain-calpastatin system has been implicated in a number of pathological conditions, its normal physiological role remains largely unknown. To investigate the functions of this system, we generated conventional and conditional calpain-2 knockout mice. The conventional calpain-2 knockout embryos died around embryonic day 15, preceded by cell death associated with caspase activation and DNA fragmentation in placental trophoblasts. In contrast, conditional knockout mice in which c...

  8. Effect of Nutrient Restriction and Re-Feeding on Calpain Family Genes in Skeletal Muscle of Channel Catfish (Ictalurus punctatus)

    OpenAIRE

    Elena Preziosa; Shikai Liu; Genciana Terova; Xiaoyu Gao; Hong Liu; Huseyin Kucuktas; Jeffery Terhune; Zhanjiang Liu

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Calpains, a superfamily of intracellular calcium-dependent cysteine proteases, are involved in the cytoskeletal remodeling and wasting of skeletal muscle. Calpains are generated as inactive proenzymes which are activated by N-terminal autolysis induced by calcium-ions. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In this study, we characterized the full-length cDNA sequences of three calpain genes, clpn1, clpn2, and clpn3 in channel catfish, and assessed the effect of nutrient restriction and ...

  9. Interaction between Calpain-1 and HSP90: New Insights into the Regulation of Localization and Activity of the Protease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Averna, Monica; De Tullio, Roberta; Pedrazzi, Marco; Bavestrello, Margherita; Pellegrini, Matteo; Salamino, Franca; Pontremoli, Sandro; Melloni, Edon

    2015-01-01

    Here we demonstrate that heat shock protein 90 (HSP90) interacts with calpain-1, but not with calpain-2, and forms a discrete complex in which the protease maintains its catalytic activity, although with a lower affinity for Ca2+. Equilibrium gel distribution experiments show that this complex is composed by an equal number of molecules of each protein partner. Moreover, in resting cells, cytosolic calpain-1 is completely associated with HSP90. Since calpain-1, in association with HSP90, retains its proteolytic activity, and the chaperone is displaced by calpastatin also in the absence of Ca2+, the catalytic cleft of the protease is not involved in this association. Thus, calpain-1 can form two distinct complexes depending on the availability of calpastatin in the cytosol. The occurrence of a complex between HSP90 and calpain-1, in which the protease is still activable, can prevent the complete inhibition of the protease even in the presence of high calpastatin levels. We also demonstrate that in basal cell conditions HSP90 and calpain-1, but not calpain-2, are inserted in the multi-protein N-Methyl-D-Aspartate receptor (NMDAR) complex. The amount of calpain-1 at the NMDAR cluster is not modified in conditions of increased [Ca2+]i, and this resident protease is involved in the processing of NMDAR components. Finally, the amount of calpain-1 associated with NMDAR cluster is independent from Ca2+-mediated translocation. Our findings show that HSP90 plays an important role in maintaining a given and proper amount of calpain-1 at the functional sites. PMID:25575026

  10. Influence of early pH decline on calpain activity in porcine muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pomponio, Luigi; Ertbjerg, Per; Karlsson, Anders H

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the influence of post-mortem pH decline on calpain activity and myofibrillar degradation.From 80 pigs, 30 Longissimus dorsi (LD) muscles were selected on the basis of pH values at 3 h post-mortem and classified into groups of 10 as fast, intermediate and slow pH decline....... The rate of pH decline early post-mortem differed between the three groups, but the ultimate pH values were similar at 24 h. Calpain activity and autolysis from 1 to 72 h post-mortem were determined using casein zymography and studied in relation to myofibrillar fragmentation. Colour and drip loss were...... measured. A faster decrease in pH resulted in reduced level of l-calpain activity and increased autolysis of the enzyme, and hence an earlier loss of activity due to activation of l-calpain in muscles with a fast pH decline. Paralleling the l-calpain activation in muscles with a fast pH decline a higher...

  11. Therapeutic Efficacy of E-64-d, a Selective Calpain Inhibitor, in Experimental Acute Spinal Cord Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zifeng Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to investigate the therapeutic effect of calpain inhibitor E-64-d on SCI and to find a new approach to treat SCI. When an SCI rat model was established, it was immediately administered with E-64-d. RT-PCR and Western blotting were used to determine the protein and mRNA levels of calpain 1 and 68-kD NFP. TUNEL staining and NeuN labeling were performed to analyze neuronal apoptosis in the lesion. Immunohistochemistry assay was carried out to observe the expressions of calpain 1 and GFAP. Cyclooxygenase-2 activity was measured to show the immune response status. Locomotor function was evaluated by inclined plane test and Basso, Beattie, and Bresnahan locomotor rating scale. The results showed that calpain 1 was activated after SCI occurred. Treatment with E-64-d decreased expressions of calpain 1 and GFAP, alleviated neuronal apoptosis, inhibited cyclooxygenase-2 activity, and resulted in the promoted locomotor function. Furthermore, combination of E-64-d and MP had better efficacy than did E-64-d or MP alone. E-64-d is expected to be applied to treat SCI, and its alliance with MP may provide a valid strategy for SCI therapy.

  12. PARP1-mediated necrosis is dependent on parallel JNK and Ca2+/calpain pathways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas, Diana L.; Baines, Christopher P.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP1) is a nuclear enzyme that can trigger caspase-independent necrosis. Two main mechanisms for this have been proposed: one involving RIP1 and JNK kinases and mitochondrial permeability transition (MPT), the other involving calpain-mediated activation of Bax and mitochondrial release of apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF). However, whether these two mechanisms represent distinct pathways for PARP1-induced necrosis, or whether they are simply different components of the same pathway has yet to be tested. Mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) were treated with either N-methyl-N′-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine (MNNG) or β-Lapachone, resulting in PARP1-dependent necrosis. This was associated with increases in calpain activity, JNK activation and AIF translocation. JNK inhibition significantly reduced MNNG- and β-Lapachone-induced JNK activation, AIF translocation, and necrosis, but not calpain activation. In contrast, inhibition of calpain either by Ca2+ chelation or knockdown attenuated necrosis, but did not affect JNK activation or AIF translocation. To our surprise, genetic and/or pharmacological inhibition of RIP1, AIF, Bax and the MPT pore failed to abrogate MNNG- and β-Lapachone-induced necrosis. In conclusion, although JNK and calpain both contribute to PARP1-induced necrosis, they do so via parallel mechanisms. PMID:25052090

  13. Calpain mediates pulmonary vascular remodeling in rodent models of pulmonary hypertension, and its inhibition attenuates pathologic features of disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Wanli; Han, Weihong; Greer, Peter A.; Tuder, Rubin M.; Toque, Haroldo A.; Wang, Kevin K.W.; Caldwell, R. William; Su, Yunchao

    2011-01-01

    Pulmonary hypertension is a severe and progressive disease, a key feature of which is pulmonary vascular remodeling. Several growth factors, including EGF, PDGF, and TGF-β1, are involved in pulmonary vascular remodeling during pulmonary hypertension. However, increased knowledge of the downstream signaling cascades is needed if effective clinical interventions are to be developed. In this context, calpain provides an interesting candidate therapeutic target, since it is activated by EGF and PDGF and has been reported to activate TGF-β1. Thus, in this study, we examined the role of calpain in pulmonary vascular remodeling in two rodent models of pulmonary hypertension. These data showed that attenuated calpain activity in calpain-knockout mice or rats treated with a calpain inhibitor resulted in prevention of increased right ventricular systolic pressure, right ventricular hypertrophy, as well as collagen deposition and thickening of pulmonary arterioles in models of hypoxia- and monocrotaline-induced pulmonary hypertension. Additionally, inhibition of calpain in vitro blocked intracellular activation of TGF-β1, which led to attenuated Smad2/3 phosphorylation and collagen synthesis. Finally, smooth muscle cells of pulmonary arterioles from patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension showed higher levels of calpain activation and intracellular active TGF-β. Our data provide evidence that calpain mediates EGF- and PDGF-induced collagen synthesis and proliferation of pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells via an intracrine TGF-β1 pathway in pulmonary hypertension. PMID:22005303

  14. Tissue-Specific Expression of the Chicken Calpain2 Gene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeng-Rong Zhang

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We quantified chicken calpain 2 (CAPN2 expression in two Chinese chicken breeds (mountainous black-bone chicken breed [MB] and a commercial meat type chicken breed [S01] to discern the tissue and ontogenic expression pattern and its effect on muscle metabolism. Real-time quantitative PCR assay was developed for accurate measurement of the CAPN2 mRNA expression in various tissues from chickens of different ages (0, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, and 12 weeks. Results showed that the breast muscle and leg muscle tissues had the highest expression of CAPN2 compared to the other tissues from the same individual (P<.05. Overall, the CAPN2 mRNA level exhibited a “rise” developmental change in all tissues. The S01 chicken had a higher expression of the CAPN2 mRNA in all tissues than the MB chicken. Our results suggest that chicken CAPN2 expression may be related to chicken breeds and tissues.

  15. Calpains: general characteristics and role in various states of the organism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. F. Starodub

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Calpains are a family of cytoplasmic calcium-dependent proteinases with papain-like activity. They participate in a variety of processes in the body: age changes, functioning of endothelium and pulmonary system, regulation of apoptosis and necrosis, development of various hypometabolic states, arterial hypertension, diabetes and chronic kidney disease, tumor growth. It is concluded that calpains, causing limited proteolysis of substrates, play an important role in a wide range of biological phenome­na. Their activity is associated with the response to the calcium-dependent signaling and the effects of aging. Inhibition of calpains activity contributes to inhibition of endothelial dysfunction, cardiovascular disease, formation of structural and functional changes in the kidney tissue, has neuroprotective effect, preventing sarcopenia, reduces inflammatory reactions caused by hyperventilation of the lungs.

  16. Tear me down: Role of calpain in the development of cardiac ventricular hypertrophy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, Cam; Portbury, Andrea; Schisler, Jonathan C.; Willis, Monte S.

    2011-01-01

    Cardiac hypertrophy develops most commonly in response to hypertension and is an independent risk factor for the development of heart failure. The mechanisms by which cardiac hypertrophy may be reversed to reduce this risk have not been fully determined to the point where mechanism-specific therapies have been developed. Recently, proteases in the calpain family have been implicated in regulating the development of cardiac hypertrophy in preclinical animal models. In this review, we summarize the molecular mechanisms by which calpain inhibition has been shown to modulate the development of cardiac (specifically ventricular) hypertrophy. The context within which calpain inhibition might be developed for therapeutic intervention of cardiac hypertrophy is then discussed. PMID:21817165

  17. Neurotropin®inhibits calpain activity upregulated by specific alternation of rhythm in temperature in the mesencephalon of rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujisawa, Hiroki; Numazawa, Takumi; Kawamura, Minoru; Naiki, Mitsuru

    2017-02-15

    Neurotropin® (NTP), an analgesic for chronic pain, has antihyperalgesic effects in specific alternation of rhythm in temperature (SART)-stressed rats. Previous studies have shown that SART stress induces hyperalgesia, as well as post-translational modification of proteins (including substrates for calpain, a calcium-dependent cysteine protease) in the mesencephalon of rats. To better understand the mechanism of action of NTP, we investigated whether SART stress activates calpain in the mesencephalon of rats and whether NTP inhibits this activation. Wistar rats were exposed to SART stress for 5days. NTP (200NU/kg/day) was administered intraperitoneally every day from the onset of SART stress. The mechanical pain threshold was measured using the Randall-Selitto test on the 6th day. Thereafter, the rat mesencephalon was immediately collected and calpain activity was examined using western blot analysis with a calpain cleavage site-specific antibody. SART stress induced hyperalgesia and increased the calpain activity in the mesencephalon of rats. In contrast, NTP treatment attenuated the hyperalgesia and prevented the increase in calpain activity in the mesencephalon of SART-stressed rats. Interestingly, a negative correlation was identified between calpain activity and mechanical pain threshold in SART-stressed rats treated with or without NTP. Furthermore, NTP inhibited calpain activity on mammalian uncoordinated-18 in rat mesencephalon homogenate and Ac-LLY-AFC as substrates in an in vitro cell-free system. Our data demonstrate that NTP treatment prevents SART stress-induced calpain activation in the mesencephalon of rats and suggests that NTP-mediated antihyperalgesia is associated with an inhibition of calpain activity in the mesencephalon. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Dual Vulnerability of Tau to Calpains and Caspase-3 Proteolysis Under Neurotoxic and Neurodegenerative Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming Cheng Liu

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Axonally specific microtubule-associated protein tau is an important component of neurofibrillary tangles found in AD (Alzheimer's disease and other tauopathy diseases such as CTE (chronic traumatic encephalopathy. Such tau aggregate is found to be hyperphosphorylated and often proteolytically fragmented. Similarly, tau is degraded following TBI (traumatic brain injury. In the present study, we examined the dual vulnerability of tau to calpain and caspase-3 under neurotoxic and neurodegenerative conditions. We first identified three novel calpain cleavage sites in rat tau (four-repeat isoform as Ser130 ↓ Lys131, Gly157 ↓ Ala158 and Arg380 ↓ Glu381. Fragment-specific antibodies to target the major calpain-mediated TauBDP-35K (35 kDa tau-breakdown product and the caspase-mediated TauBDP-45K respectively were developed. In rat cerebrocortical cultures treated with excitotoxin [NMDA (N-methyl-D-aspartate], tau is significantly degraded into multiple fragments, including a dominant signal of calpain-mediated TauBDP-35K with minimal caspase-mediated TauBDP-45K. Following apoptosis-inducing EDTA treatment, tau was truncated only to TauBDP-48K/45K-exclusively by caspase. Cultures treated with another apoptosis inducer STS (staurosporine, dual fragmentation by calpain (TauBDP-35K and caspase-3 (TauBDP-45K was observed. Tau was also fragmented in injured rat cortex following TBI in vivo to BDPs of 45-42 kDa (minor, 35 kDa and 15 kDa, followed by TauBDP-25K. Calpain-mediated TauBDP-35K-specific antibody confirmed robust signals in the injured cortex, while caspase-mediated TauBDP-45K-specific antibody only detected faint signals. Furthermore, intravenous administration of a calpain-specific inhibitor SNJ-1945 strongly suppressed the TauBDP-35K formation. Taken together, these results suggest that tau protein is dually vulnerable to calpain and caspase-3 proteolysis under different neurotoxic and injury conditions.

  19. Targeted Gene Inactivation of Calpain-1 Suppresses Cortical Degeneration Due to Traumatic Brain Injury and Neuronal Apoptosis Induced by Oxidative Stress*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Kaori H.; Kozlowski, Dorothy A.; Seidl, Stacey E.; Lance, Steven; Wieschhaus, Adam J.; Sundivakkam, Premanand; Tiruppathi, Chinnaswamy; Chishti, Imran; Herman, Ira M.; Kuchay, Shafi M.; Chishti, Athar H.

    2012-01-01

    Calpains are calcium-regulated cysteine proteases that have been implicated in the regulation of cell death pathways. Here, we used our calpain-1 null mouse model to evaluate the function of calpain-1 in neural degeneration following a rodent model of traumatic brain injury. In vivo, calpain-1 null mice show significantly less neural degeneration and apoptosis and a smaller contusion 3 days post-injury than wild type littermates. Protection from traumatic brain injury corroborated with the resistance of calpain-1 neurons to apoptosis induced by oxidative stress. Biochemical analysis revealed that caspase-3 activation, extracellular calcium entry, mitochondrial membrane permeability, and release of apoptosis-inducing factor from mitochondria are partially blocked in the calpain-1 null neurons. These findings suggest that the calpain-1 knock-out mice may serve as a useful model system for neuronal protection and apoptosis in traumatic brain injury and other neurodegenerative disorders in which oxidative stress plays a role. PMID:22367208

  20. Inhibition of Starvation-Triggered Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress, Autophagy, and Apoptosis in ARPE-19 Cells by Taurine through Modulating the Expression of Calpain-1 and Calpain-2

    OpenAIRE

    Yuanyuan Zhang; Shu Ren; Yuci Liu; Kun Gao; Zheng Liu; Zhou Zhang

    2017-01-01

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a complex disease with multiple initiators and pathways that converge on death for retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells. In this study, effects of taurine on calpains, autophagy, endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, and apoptosis in ARPE-19 cells (a human RPE cell line) were investigated. We first confirmed that autophagy, ER stress and apoptosis in ARPE-19 cells were induced by Earle’s balanced salt solution (EBSS) through starvation to induce RPE me...

  1. Accumulation of human full-length tau induces degradation of nicotinic acetylcholine receptor α4 via activating calpain-2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Yaling; Wang, Yali; Gao, Di; Ye, Jinwang; Wang, Xin; Fang, Lin; Wu, Dongqin; Pi, Guilin; Lu, Chengbiao; Zhou, Xin-Wen; Yang, Ying; Wang, Jian-Zhi

    2016-06-09

    Cholinergic impairments and tau accumulation are hallmark pathologies in sporadic Alzheimer's disease (AD), however, the intrinsic link between tau accumulation and cholinergic deficits is missing. Here, we found that overexpression of human wild-type full-length tau (termed hTau) induced a significant reduction of α4 subunit of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) with an increased cleavage of the receptor producing a ~55kDa fragment in primary hippocampal neurons and in the rat brains, meanwhile, the α4 nAChR currents decreased. Further studies demonstrated that calpains, including calpain-1 and calpain-2, were remarkably activated with no change of caspase-3, while simultaneous suppression of calpain-2 by selective calpain-2 inhibitor but not calpain-1 attenuated the hTau-induced degradation of α4 nAChR. Finally, we demonstrated that hTau accumulation increased the basal intracellular calcium level in primary hippocampal neurons. We conclude that the hTau accumulation inhibits nAChRs α4 by activating calpain-2. To our best knowledge, this is the first evidence showing that the intracellular accumulation of tau causes cholinergic impairments.

  2. Evidence supporting the role of calpain in the α-processing of amyloid-β precursor protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Huey T; Sawmiller, Darrell R; Wu, Qi; Maleski, Jerome J; Chen, Ming

    2012-04-13

    Amyloid plaques are a hallmark of the aging and senile dementia brains, yet their mechanism of origins has remained elusive. A central issue is the regulatory mechanism and identity of α-secretase, a protease responsible for α-processing of amyloid-β precursor protein (APP). A remarkable feature of this enzyme is its high sensitivity to a wide range of cellular stimulators, many of which are agonists for Ca(2+) signaling. This feature, together with previous work in our laboratory, has suggested that calpain, a Ca(2+)-dependent protease, plays a key role in APP α-processing. In this study we report that overexpression of the μ-calpain gene in HEK293 cells resulted in a 2.7-fold increase of the protein levels. Measurements of intracellular calpain enzymatic activity revealed that the calpain overexpressing cells displayed a prominent elevation of the activity compared to wild-type cells. When the cells were stimulated by nicotine, glutamate or phorbol 12,13-dibutylester, the activity increase was even more remarkable and sensitive to calpeptin, a calpain inhibitor. Meanwhile, APP secretion from the calpain overexpressing cells was robustly increased under both resting and stimulated conditions over wild-type cells. Furthermore, cell surface biotinylation experiments showed that μ-calpain was clearly detected among the cell surface proteins. These data together support our view that calpain should be a reasonable candidate for α-secretase for further study. This model is discussed with an interesting fact that three other deposited proteins (tau, spectrin and crystalline) are also the known substrates of calpain. Finally we discuss some current misconceptions in senile dementia research. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  3. Calpain system protein expression in carcinomas of the pancreas, bile duct and ampulla.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storr, Sarah J; Zaitoun, Abed M; Arora, Arvind; Durrant, Lindy G; Lobo, Dileep N; Madhusudan, Srinivasan; Martin, Stewart G

    2012-11-09

    Pancreatic cancer, including cancer of the ampulla of Vater and bile duct, is very aggressive and has a poor five year survival rate; improved methods of patient stratification are required. We assessed the expression of calpain-1, calpain-2 and calpastatin in two patient cohorts using immunohistochemistry on tissue microarrays. The first cohort was composed of 68 pancreatic adenocarcinomas and the second cohort was composed of 120 cancers of the bile duct and ampulla. In bile duct and ampullary carcinomas an association was observed between cytoplasmic calpastatin expression and patient age (P = 0.036), and between nuclear calpastatin expression and increased tumour stage (P = 0.026) and the presence of vascular invasion (P = 0.043). In pancreatic cancer, high calpain-2 expression was significantly associated with improved overall survival (P = 0.036), which remained significant in multivariate Cox-regression analysis (hazard ratio = 0.342; 95% confidence interva l = 0.157-0.741; P = 0.007). In cancers of the bile duct and ampulla, low cytoplasmic expression of calpastatin was significantly associated with poor overall survival (P = 0.012), which remained significant in multivariate Cox-regression analysis (hazard ratio = 0.595; 95% confidence interval = 0.365-0.968; P = 0.037). The results suggest that calpain-2 and calpastatin expression is important in pancreatic cancers, influencing disease progression. The findings of this study warrant a larger follow-up study.

  4. Calpain system protein expression in carcinomas of the pancreas, bile duct and ampulla

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Storr Sarah J

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pancreatic cancer, including cancer of the ampulla of Vater and bile duct, is very aggressive and has a poor five year survival rate; improved methods of patient stratification are required. Methods We assessed the expression of calpain-1, calpain-2 and calpastatin in two patient cohorts using immunohistochemistry on tissue microarrays. The first cohort was composed of 68 pancreatic adenocarcinomas and the second cohort was composed of 120 cancers of the bile duct and ampulla. Results In bile duct and ampullary carcinomas an association was observed between cytoplasmic calpastatin expression and patient age (P = 0.036, and between nuclear calpastatin expression and increased tumour stage (P = 0.026 and the presence of vascular invasion (P = 0.043. In pancreatic cancer, high calpain-2 expression was significantly associated with improved overall survival (P = 0.036, which remained significant in multivariate Cox-regression analysis (hazard ratio = 0.342; 95% confidence interva l = 0.157-0.741; P = 0.007. In cancers of the bile duct and ampulla, low cytoplasmic expression of calpastatin was significantly associated with poor overall survival (P = 0.012, which remained significant in multivariate Cox-regression analysis (hazard ratio = 0.595; 95% confidence interval = 0.365-0.968; P = 0.037. Conclusion The results suggest that calpain-2 and calpastatin expression is important in pancreatic cancers, influencing disease progression. The findings of this study warrant a larger follow-up study.

  5. Expression of the gene for large subunit of m-calpain is elevated in ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Genetics; Volume 79; Issue 2. Expression of the gene for large subunit of m-calpain is elevated in skeletal muscle from Duchenne muscular dystrophy patients. Tajamul Hussain Harleen Mangath C. Sundaram M. P. J. S. Anandaraj. Volume 79 Issue 2 August 2000 pp 77-80 ...

  6. Association of the calpain-10 gene with type 2 diabetes in Europeans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tsuchiya, Takafumi; Schwarz, Peter E H; Bosque-Plata, Laura Del

    2006-01-01

    We conducted pooled and meta-analyses of the association of the calpain-10 gene (CAPN10) polymorphisms SNP-43, Indel-19 and SNP-63 individually and as haplotypes with type 2 diabetes (T2D) in 3237 patients and 2935 controls of European ancestry. In the pooled analyses, the common SNP-43*G allele ...

  7. Extrasynaptic NMDA receptors couple preferentially to excitotoxicity via calpain-mediated cleavage of STEP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jian; Kurup, Pradeep; Zhang, Yongfang; Goebel-Goody, Susan M; Wu, Peter H; Hawasli, Ammar H; Baum, Matthew L; Bibb, James A; Lombroso, Paul J

    2009-07-22

    NMDA receptor (NMDAR)-mediated excitotoxicity plays an important role in several CNS disorders, including epilepsy, stroke, and ischemia. Here we demonstrate the involvement of striatal-enriched protein tyrosine phosphatase (STEP) in this critical process. STEP(61) is an alternatively spliced member of the family that is present in postsynaptic terminals. In an apparent paradox, STEP(61) regulates extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) and p38, two proteins with opposing functions; activated p38 promotes cell death, whereas activated ERK1/2 promotes cell survival. We found that synaptic stimulation of NMDARs promoted STEP(61) ubiquitination and degradation, concomitant with ERK1/2 activation. In contrast, extrasynaptic stimulation of NMDARs invoked calpain-mediated proteolysis of STEP(61), producing the truncated cleavage product STEP(33) and activation of p38. The calpain cleavage site on STEP was mapped to the kinase interacting motif, a domain required for substrate binding. As a result, STEP(33) neither interacts with nor dephosphorylates STEP substrates. A synthetic peptide spanning the calpain cleavage site efficiently reduced STEP(61) degradation and attenuated p38 activation and cell death in slice models. Furthermore, this peptide was neuroprotective when neurons were subjected to excitotoxicity or cortical slices were exposed to ischemic conditions. These findings suggest a novel mechanism by which differential NMDAR stimulation regulates STEP(61) to promote either ERK1/2 or p38 activation and identifies calpain cleavage of STEP(61) as a valid target for the development of neuroprotective therapy.

  8. Aspirin Has Antitumor Effects via Expression of Calpain Gene in Cervical Cancer Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang Koo Lee

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Aspirin and other nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs show efficacy in the prevention of cancers. It is known that they can inhibit cyclooxygenases, and some studies have shown that they can induce apoptosis. Our objective in this study was to investigate the mechanism by which aspirin exerts its apoptosis effects in human cervical cancer HeLa cells. The effect of aspirin on the gene expression was studied by differential mRNA display RT-PCR. Among the isolated genes, mu-type calpain gene was upregulated by aspirin treatment. To examine whether calpain mediates the antitumor effects, HeLa cells were stably transfected with the mammalian expression vector pCR3.1 containing mu-type calpain cDNA (pCRCAL/HeLa, and tumor formations were measured in nude mice. When tumor burden was measured by day 49, HeLa cells and pCR/HeLa cells (vector control produced tumors of 2126 mm3 and 1638 mm3, respectively, while pCRCAL/HeLa cells produced markedly smaller tumor of 434 mm3 in volume. The caspase-3 activity was markedly elevated in pCRCAL/HeLa cells. The increased activity levels of caspase-3 in pCRCAL/HeLa cells, in parallel with the decreased tumor formation, suggest a correlation between caspase-3 activity and calpain protein. Therefore, we conclude that aspirin-induced calpain mediates an antitumor effect via caspase-3 in cervical cancer cells.

  9. Phosphorylation prevents C/EBP{beta} from the calpain-dependent degradation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Yuan-yuan; Li, Shu-fen; Qian, Shu-wen; Zhang, You-you; Liu, Yuan; Tang, Qi-Qun; Li, Xi, E-mail: lixi@shmu.edu.cn

    2012-03-16

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Phosphorylation protected C/EBP{beta} from {mu}-calpain-mediated proteolysis in vitro. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Phosphorylation mimic C/EBP{beta} was insensitive to calpain accelerator and inhibitor. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Phosphorylation on Thr{sub 188} contributed more to the stabilization of C/EBP{beta}. -- Abstract: CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein (C/EBP) {beta} plays an important role in proliferation and differentiation of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes. C/EBP{beta} is sequentially phosphorylated during the 3T3-L1 adipocyte differentiation program, first by MAPK/Cyclin A/cdk2 on Thr{sub 188} and subsequently by GSK3{beta} on Ser{sub 184} or Thr{sub 179}. Dual phosphorylation is critical for the gain of DNA binding activity of C/EBP{beta}. In this manuscript, we found that phosphorylation also contributed to the stability of C/EBP{beta}. Both ex vivo and in vitro experiments showed that phosphorylation by MAPK/Cyclin A/cdk2 and GSK3{beta} protected C/EBP{beta} from {mu}-calpain-mediated proteolysis, while phosphorylation on Thr{sub 188} by MAPK/Cyclin A/cdk2 contributed more to the stabilization of C/EBP{beta}, Further studies indicated that phosphorylation mimic C/EBP{beta} was insensitive to both calpain accelerator and calpain inhibitor. Thus, phosphorylation might contribute to the stability as well as the gain of DNA binding activity of C/EBP{beta}.

  10. Extracellular Calpain/Calpastatin Balance Is Involved in the Progression of Pulmonary Hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Feng; Letavernier, Emmanuel; Abid, Shariq; Houssaini, Amal; Czibik, Gabor; Marcos, Elisabeth; Rideau, Dominique; Parpaleix, Aurélien; Lipskaia, Larissa; Amsellem, Valérie; Gellen, Barnabas; Sawaki, Daigo; Derumeaux, Genevieve; Dubois-Randé, Jean-Luc; Delcroix, Marion; Quarck, Rozenn; Baud, Laurent; Adnot, Serge

    2016-09-01

    Excessive growth of pulmonary arterial (PA) smooth muscle cells (SMCs) is a major component of PA hypertension (PAH). The calcium-activated neutral cysteine proteases calpains 1 and 2, expressed by PASMCs, contribute to PH but are tightly controlled by a single specific inhibitor, calpastatin. Our objective was to investigate calpastatin during pulmonary hypertension (PH) progression and its potential role as an intracellular and/or extracellular effector. We assessed calpains and calpastatin in patients with idiopathic PAH and mice with hypoxic or spontaneous (SM22-5HTT(+) strain) PH. To assess intracellular and extracellular roles for calpastatin, we studied effects of the calpain inhibitor PD150606 on hypoxic PH in mice with calpastatin overexpression driven by the cytomegalovirus promoter (CMV-Cast) or C-reactive protein (CRP) promoter (CRP-Cast), inducing increased calpastatin production ubiquitously and in the liver, respectively. Chronically hypoxic and SM22-5HTT(+) mice exhibited increased lung calpastatin and calpain 1 and 2 protein levels and activity, both intracellularly and extracellularly. Prominent calpastatin and calpain immunostaining was found in PASMCs of remodeled vessels in mice and patients with PAH, who also exhibited increased plasma calpastatin levels. CMV-Cast and CRP-Cast mice showed similarly decreased PH severity compared with wild-type mice, with no additional effect of PD150606 treatment. In cultured PASMCs from wild-type and CMV-Cast mice, exogenous calpastatin decreased cell proliferation and migration with similar potency as PD150606 and suppressed fibronectin-induced potentiation. These results indicate that calpastatin limits PH severity via extracellular mechanisms. They suggest a new approach to the development of treatments for PH.

  11. Seasonal variation in red deer (Cervus elaphus) venison (M. longissimus dorsi) drip loss, calpain activity, colour and tenderness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiklund, E; Dobbie, P; Stuart, A; Littlejohn, R P

    2010-11-01

    Sixty four young red deer (Cervus elaphus) stags (colour display life (Pcolour display life. A clear trend of increasing fluid loss during storage, calculated as amount of purge at 14 weeks of storage minus the amount of drip loss at 1 day post-slaughter, was evident, averaging 2.5% (SEM 0.17) over the four groups. The relative activities of the calpastatin-bound calpain, μ-calpain and m-calpain all exhibited a seasonal pattern although there was no evidence (P>0.05) that this affected tenderness. There was a highly significant (P<0.001) negative regression for the average over the four storage times of drip and purge on calpastatin-bound calpain activity. Copyright © 2010 The American Meat Science Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Downregulations of CD36 and Calpain-1, Inflammation, and Atherosclerosis by Simvastatin in Apolipoprotein E Knockout Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Meihui; Liu, Qianqian; Yu, Lan; Yang, Yueyan; Lu, Meili; Wang, Hongxin; Luo, Duosheng; Rong, Xianglu; Tang, Futian; Guo, Jiao

    2017-01-01

    In the previous in vitro study, we found that simvastatin decreased the protein expression of CD36, the scavenger receptor, and calpain-1, the Ca2+-sensitive cysteine protease, in oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL)-treated macrophages. In this in vivo study, we investigated whether simvastatin downregulates the expression of CD36 and calpain-1 and inhibits the inflammation and atherosclerosis in apolipoprotein E knockout (ApoE KO) mice. Twenty male 6-week-old ApoE KO mice were divided into 2 groups: the ApoE KO group and the ApoE KO + simvastatin (ApoE KO + Sim) group. Atherosclerotic lesions were evaluated and the expressions of CD68, CD36, and calpain-1 in aorta were examined. Simvastatin inhibited the atherosclerotic lesion in ApoE KO mice. In addition, simvastatin reduced the contents of oxLDL, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) in serum, decreased the mRNA and protein expressions of CD36 and reduced the mRNA expression of TNF-α and IL-6 in the aortas. Furthermore, simvastatin reduced the calpain activity and the protein expression of calpain-1 in the aorta. The results suggested that the attenuation of atherosclerotic lesions in ApoE KO mice by simvastatin might be associated with the downregulations of CD36 and calpain-1 and with inflammation. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  13. Crystal structure of calpain-3 penta-EF-hand (PEF) domain - a homodimerized PEF family member with calcium bound at the fifth EF-hand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Partha, Sarathy K; Ravulapalli, Ravikiran; Allingham, John S; Campbell, Robert L; Davies, Peter L

    2014-07-01

    Calpains are Ca(2+) dependent intracellular cysteine proteases that cleave a wide range of protein substrates to help implement Ca(2+) signaling in the cell. The major isoforms of this enzyme family, calpain-1 and calpain-2, are heterodimers of a large and a small subunit, with the main dimer interface being formed through their C-terminal penta-EF hand (PEF) domains. Calpain-3, or p94, is a skeletal muscle-specific isoform that is genetically linked to limb-girdle muscular dystrophy. Biophysical and modeling studies with the PEF domain of calpain-3 support the suggestion that full-length calpain-3 exists as a homodimer. Here, we report the crystallization of calpain-3's PEF domain and its crystal structure in the presence of Ca(2+) , which provides evidence for the homodimer architecture of calpain-3 and supports the molecular model that places a protease core at either end of the elongated dimer. Unlike other calpain PEF domain structures, the calpain-3 PEF domain contains a Ca(2+) bound at the EF5-hand used for homodimer association. Three of the four Ca(2+) -binding EF-hands of the PEF domains are concentrated near the protease core, and have the potential to radically change the local charge within the dimer during Ca(2+) signaling. Examination of the homodimer interface shows that there would be steric clashes if the calpain-3 large subunit were to try to pair with a calpain small subunit. Database Structural data are available in the Protein Data Bank database under accession number 4OKH. © 2014 FEBS.

  14. Crystal structure of calpain-3 penta-EF-hand (PEF) domain - a homodimerized PEF family member with calcium bound at the fifth EF-hand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Partha, Sarathy K.; Ravulapalli, Ravikiran; Allingham, John S.; Campbell, Robert L.; Davies, Peter L. [Queens

    2014-08-21

    Calpains are Ca2+dependent intracellular cysteine proteases that cleave a wide range of protein substrates to help implement Ca2+ signaling in the cell. The major isoforms of this enzyme family, calpain-1 and calpain-2, are heterodimers of a large and a small subunit, with the main dimer interface being formed through their C-terminal penta-EF hand (PEF) domains. Calpain-3, or p94, is a skeletal muscle-specific isoform that is genetically linked to limb-girdle muscular dystrophy. Biophysical and modeling studies with the PEF domain of calpain-3 support the suggestion that full-length calpain-3 exists as a homodimer. Here, we report the crystallization of calpain-3's PEF domain and its crystal structure in the presence of Ca2+, which provides evidence for the homodimer architecture of calpain-3 and supports the molecular model that places a protease core at either end of the elongated dimer. Unlike other calpain PEF domain structures, the calpain-3 PEF domain contains a Ca2+ bound at the EF5-hand used for homodimer association. Three of the four Ca2+-binding EF-hands of the PEF domains are concentrated near the protease core, and have the potential to radically change the local charge within the dimer during Ca2+ signaling. Examination of the homodimer interface shows that there would be steric clashes if the calpain-3 large subunit were to try to pair with a calpain small subunit.

  15. Effects of Calcium Ion, Calpains, and Calcium Channel Blockers on Retinitis Pigmentosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitsuru Nakazawa

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent advances in molecular genetic studies have revealed many of the causative genes of retinitis pigmentosa (RP. These achievements have provided clues to the mechanisms of photoreceptor degeneration in RP. Apoptosis is known to be a final common pathway in RP and, therefore, a possible therapeutic target for photoreceptor rescue. However, apoptosis is not a single molecular cascade, but consists of many different reactions such as caspase-dependent and caspase-independent pathways commonly leading to DNA fractionation and cell death. The intracellular concentration of calcium ions is also known to increase in apoptosis. These findings suggest that calpains, one of the calcium-dependent proteinases, play some roles in the process of photoreceptor apoptosis and that calcium channel antagonists may potentially inhibit photoreceptor apoptosis. Herein, the effects of calpains and calcium channel antagonists on photoreceptor degeneration are reviewed.

  16. Calpain 3 is a rapid-action, unidirectional proteolytic switch central to muscle remodeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Morrée, Antoine; Lutje Hulsik, David; Impagliazzo, Antonietta; van Haagen, Herman H H B M; de Galan, Paula; van Remoortere, Alexandra; 't Hoen, Peter A C; van Ommen, Gertjan B; Frants, Rune R; van der Maarel, Silvère M

    2010-08-04

    Calpain 3 (CAPN3) is a cysteine protease that when mutated causes Limb Girdle Muscular Dystrophy 2A. It is thereby the only described Calpain family member that genetically causes a disease. Due to its inherent instability little is known of its substrates or its mechanism of activity and pathogenicity. In this investigation we define a primary sequence motif underlying CAPN3 substrate cleavage. This motif can transform non-related proteins into substrates, and identifies >300 new putative CAPN3 targets. Bioinformatic analyses of these targets demonstrate a critical role in muscle cytoskeletal remodeling and identify novel CAPN3 functions. Among the new CAPN3 substrates are three E3 SUMO ligases of the Protein Inhibitor of Activated Stats (PIAS) family. CAPN3 can cleave PIAS proteins and negatively regulates PIAS3 sumoylase activity. Consequently, SUMO2 is deregulated in patient muscle tissue. Our study thus uncovers unexpected crosstalk between CAPN3 proteolysis and protein sumoylation, with strong implications for muscle remodeling.

  17. Simvastatin inhibited oxLDL-induced proatherogenic effects through calpain-1-PPARγ-CD36 pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xueyan; Yin, Meihui; Yu, Lan; Lu, Meili; Wang, Hongxin; Tang, Futian; Zhang, Yingjie

    2016-12-01

    We previously reported that simvastatin, an inhibitor of HMG-CoA reductase, inhibits atherosclerosis in rats. The present study was designed to investigate the effect of simvastatin on mouse peritoneal macrophage foam cell formation, the early feature of atherosclerosis, and explore its mechanisms. The results showed that simvastatin decreased cholesterol content and DiI-oxLDL (1,1'-didodecyl 3,3,3',3'-indocarbocyanine perchlorate - oxidized low-density lipoprotein) uptake, reduced the levels of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) in the medium, down-regulated the mRNA and protein expression of CD36 (a fatty acid receptor), and reduced the mRNA expressions of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ), TNF-α, and IL-6 in macrophages treated with oxLDL. However, PPARγ agonist troglitazone partly abolished the effects of simvastatin on foam cells. In addition, simvastatin reduced the protein expression of calpain-1, a Ca(2+)-sensitive cysteine protease, in oxLDL-treated macrophages. Furthermore, PD150606, a specific calpain inhibitor, reduced mRNA expressions of PPARγ and CD36 in macrophages treated with oxLDL. Combination of simvastatin and PD150606 had no further effect on mRNA expression of PPARγ and CD36 compared with either alone. However, over-expression of calpain-1 in macrophages partly reversed the simvastatin effects, including cell cholesterol content, mRNA expressions of PPARγ, and CD36. The results suggested that simvastatin inhibits foam cell formation of oxLDL-treated macrophages through a calpain-1-PPARγ-CD36 pathway.

  18. Hypoxia reduces mature hERG channels through calpain up-regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamothe, Shawn M; Song, WonJu; Guo, Jun; Li, Wentao; Yang, Tonghua; Baranchuk, Adrian; Graham, Charles H; Zhang, Shetuan

    2017-11-01

    Human ether-a-go-go-related gene (hERG) encodes the pore-forming subunit of the rapidly activating delayed rectifier potassium current (IKr) potassium channel, which is important for cardiac repolarization. Impairment of hERG function is the primary cause of acquired long QT syndrome, which predisposes individuals to cardiac arrhythmias and sudden death. Patients with hypoxia due to conditions such as cardiac ischemia or obstructive sleep apnea display increased incidence of cardiac arrhythmias and sudden death. We sought to understand the mechanisms that underlie hypoxia-associated cardiac arrhythmias. Using cell biology and electrophysiologic techniques, we found that hypoxic culture of hERG-expressing human embryonic kidney (HEK) cells and neonatal rat cardiomyocytes reduced hERG current/IKr and mature ERG channel expression with a concomitant increase in calpain expression. Calpain was actively released into the extracellular milieu and degraded cell-surface hERG. In contrast to hERG, the ether-a-go-go (EAG) channel was not reduced by hypoxic culture. By making chimeric channels between hERG and EAG, we identified that hypoxia-induced calpain degraded hERG by targeting its extracellular S5-pore linker. The scorpion toxin BeKm-1, which is known to selectively bind to the S5-pore linker of hERG, prevented hypoxia-induced hERG reduction. Our data provide novel information about hypoxia-mediated hERG dysfunction and may have biological and clinical implications in hypoxia-associated diseases.-Lamothe, S. M., Song, W., Guo, J., Li, W., Yang, T., Baranchuk, A., Graham, C. H., Zhang, S. Hypoxia reduces mature hERG channels through calpain up-regulation. © FASEB.

  19. Altered ubiquitin causes perturbed calcium homeostasis, hyperactivation of calpain, dysregulated differentiation, and cataract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ke; Lyu, Lei; Chin, David; Gao, Junyuan; Sun, Xiurong; Shang, Fu; Caceres, Andrea; Chang, Min-Lee; Rowan, Sheldon; Peng, Junmin; Mathias, Richard; Kasahara, Hideko; Jiang, Shuhong; Taylor, Allen

    2015-01-27

    Although the ocular lens shares many features with other tissues, it is unique in that it retains its cells throughout life, making it ideal for studies of differentiation/development. Precipitation of proteins results in lens opacification, or cataract, the major blinding disease. Lysines on ubiquitin (Ub) determine fates of Ub-protein substrates. Information regarding ubiquitin proteasome systems (UPSs), specifically of K6 in ubiquitin, is undeveloped. We expressed in the lens a mutant Ub containing a K6W substitution (K6W-Ub). Protein profiles of lenses that express wild-type ubiquitin (WT-Ub) or K6W-Ub differ by only ∼2%. Despite these quantitatively minor differences, in K6W-Ub lenses and multiple model systems we observed a fourfold Ca(2+) elevation and hyperactivation of calpain in the core of the lens, as well as calpain-associated fragmentation of critical lens proteins including Filensin, Fodrin, Vimentin, β-Crystallin, Caprin family member 2, and tudor domain containing 7. Truncations can be cataractogenic. Additionally, we observed accumulation of gap junction Connexin43, and diminished Connexin46 levels in vivo and in vitro. These findings suggest that mutation of Ub K6 alters UPS function, perturbs gap junction function, resulting in Ca(2+) elevation, hyperactivation of calpain, and associated cleavage of substrates, culminating in developmental defects and a cataractous lens. The data show previously unidentified connections between UPS and calpain-based degradative systems and advance our understanding of roles for Ub K6 in eye development. They also inform about new approaches to delay cataract and other protein precipitation diseases.

  20. Carbamazepine suppresses calpain-mediated autophagy impairment after ischemia/reperfusion in mouse livers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jae-Sung, E-mail: Jae.Kim@surgery.ufl.edu; Wang, Jin-Hee, E-mail: jin-hee.wang@surgery.ufl.edu; Biel, Thomas G., E-mail: Thomas.Biel@surgery.ufl.edu; Kim, Do-Sung, E-mail: do-sung.kim@surgery.med.ufl.edu; Flores-Toro, Joseph A., E-mail: Joseph.Flores-Toro@surgery.ufl.edu; Vijayvargiya, Richa, E-mail: rvijayvargiya@ufl.edu; Zendejas, Ivan, E-mail: ivan.zendejas@surgery.ufl.edu; Behrns, Kevin E., E-mail: Kevin.Behrns@surgery.ufl.edu

    2013-12-15

    Onset of the mitochondrial permeability transition (MPT) plays a causative role in ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury. Current therapeutic strategies for reducing reperfusion injury remain disappointing. Autophagy is a lysosome-mediated, catabolic process that timely eliminates abnormal or damaged cellular constituents and organelles such as dysfunctional mitochondria. I/R induces calcium overloading and calpain activation, leading to degradation of key autophagy-related proteins (Atg). Carbamazepine (CBZ), an FDA-approved anticonvulsant drug, has recently been reported to increase autophagy. We investigated the effects of CBZ on hepatic I/R injury. Hepatocytes and livers from male C57BL/6 mice were subjected to simulated in vitro, as well as in vivo I/R, respectively. Cell death, intracellular calcium, calpain activity, changes in autophagy-related proteins (Atg), autophagic flux, MPT and mitochondrial membrane potential after I/R were analyzed in the presence and absence of 20 μM CBZ. CBZ significantly increased hepatocyte viability after reperfusion. Confocal microscopy revealed that CBZ prevented calcium overloading, the onset of the MPT and mitochondrial depolarization. Immunoblotting and fluorometric analysis showed that CBZ blocked calpain activation, depletion of Atg7 and Beclin-1 and loss of autophagic flux after reperfusion. Intravital multiphoton imaging of anesthetized mice demonstrated that CBZ substantially reversed autophagic defects and mitochondrial dysfunction after I/R in vivo. In conclusion, CBZ prevents calcium overloading and calpain activation, which, in turn, suppresses Atg7 and Beclin-1 depletion, defective autophagy, onset of the MPT and cell death after I/R. - Highlights: • A mechanism of carbamazepine (CBZ)-induced cytoprotection in livers is proposed. • Impaired autophagy is a key event contributing to lethal reperfusion injury. • The importance of autophagy is extended and confirmed in an in vivo model. • CBZ is a potential

  1. Blueberry polyphenols prevent cardiomyocyte death by preventing calpain activation and oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louis, Xavier Lieben; Thandapilly, Sijo Joseph; Kalt, Wilhelmina; Vinqvist-Tymchuk, Melinda; Aloud, Basma Milad; Raj, Pema; Yu, Liping; Le, Hoa; Netticadan, Thomas

    2014-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the efficacy of an aqueous wild blueberry extract and five wild blueberry polyphenol fractions on an in vitro model of heart disease. Adult rat cardiomyocytes were pretreated with extract and fractions, and then exposed to norepinephrine (NE). Cardiomyocyte hypertrophy, cell death, oxidative stress, apoptosis and cardiomyocyte contractile function as well as the activities of calpain, superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) were measured in cardiomyocytes treated with and without NE and blueberry fraction (BF). Four of five blueberry fractions prevented cell death and cardiomyocyte hypertrophy induced by NE. Total phenolic fraction was used for all further analysis. The NE-induced increase in oxidative stress, nuclear condensation, calpain activity and lowering of SOD and CAT activities were prevented upon pretreatment with BF. Reduced contractile function was also significantly improved with BF pretreatment. Blueberry polyphenols prevent NE-induced adult cardiomyocyte hypertrophy and cell death. The protective effects of BF may be in part attributed to a reduction in calpain activity and oxidative stress.

  2. Investigation of biochemical changes of the ovine calpain 3 exon-10 polymorphism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muto, Yukiyo; Morton, Jim; Palmer, David

    2015-12-01

    Calpain 3 (CAPN3) is a tissue specific calpain, and its mRNA is the most expressed calpain isoform in skeletal muscles. Many mutations and polymorphisms within the human CAPN3 gene have been reported and related to limb-girdle muscular dystrophy. Several reports link CAPN3 polymorphisms and meat quality. An association between three allele variants in exon-10 of ovine CAPN3 and the yield of fat trimmed meat cuts has been reported. This research investigated the biochemical significance of polymorphic variation in CAPN3. CAPN3 mRNA sequences were obtained from muscle samples collected from lambs which were homozygous for each of the three alleles. Four single base substitutions were found besides those in exon-10, but none of them, including the variations within exon-10, caused a change in amino acid sequence. The expression of CAPN3 mRNA and the amounts of CAPN3 protein were also compared among genotypes, and no significant differences were found. These results suggest that the reported association of specific allele variants within CAPN3 exon-10 to phenotype variations were not direct effects of CAPN3 polymorphisms. Interspecies analyses of the CAPN3 sequences indicated that the sequence reported here is more likely to be the correct common ovine CAPN3 sequence than the reference sequence. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Calpain-2 Regulates TNF-α Expression Associated with Neuropathic Pain Following Motor Nerve Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shao-Xia; Liao, Guang-Jie; Yao, Pei-Wen; Wang, Shao-Kun; Li, Yong-Yong; Zeng, Wei-An; Liu, Xian-Guo; Zang, Ying

    2018-02-22

    Both calpain-2 (CALP2) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) contribute to persistent bilateral hypersensitivity in animals subjected to L5 ventral root transection (L5-VRT), a model of selective motor fiber injury without sensory nerve damage. However, specific upstream mechanisms regulating TNF-α overexpression and possible relationships linking CALP2 and TNF-α have not yet been investigated in this model. We examined changes in CALP2 and TNF-α protein levels and alterations in bilateral mechanical threshold within 24 h following L5-VRT model injury. We observed robust elevation of CALP2 and TNF-α in bilateral dorsal root ganglias (DRGs) and bilateral spinal cord neurons. CALP2 and TNF-α protein induction by L5-VRT were significantly inhibited by pretreatment using the calpain inhibitor MDL28170. Administration of CALP2 to rats without nerve injury further supported a role of CALP2 in the regulation of TNF-α expression. Although clinical trials of calpain inhibition therapy for alleviation of neuropathic pain induced by motor nerve injury have not yet shown success, our observations linking CALP2 and TNF-α provide a framework of a systems approach based perspective for treating neuropathic pain. Copyright © 2018 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Lesions of entorhinal cortex produce a calpain-mediated degradation of brain spectrin in dentate gyrus. I. Biochemical studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seubert, P; Ivy, G; Larson, J; Lee, J; Shahi, K; Baudry, M; Lynch, G

    1988-09-06

    Lesions of the rat entorhinal cortex cause extensive synaptic restructuring and perturbation of calcium regulation in the dentate gyrus of hippocampus. Calpain is a calcium-activated protease which has been implicated in degenerative phenomena in muscles and in peripheral nerves. In addition, calpain degrades several major structural neuronal proteins and has been proposed to play a critical role in the morphological changes observed following deafferentation. In this report we present evidence that lesions of the entorhinal cortex produce a marked increase in the breakdown of brain spectrin, a substrate for calpain, in the dentate gyrus. Two lines of evidence indicate that this effect is due to calpain activation: (i) the spectrin breakdown products observed following the lesion are indistinguishable from calpain-generated spectrin fragments in vitro; and (ii) their appearance can be reduced by prior intraventricular in fusion of leupeptin, a calpain inhibitor. Levels of spectrin breakdown products are increased as early as 4 h post-lesion, reach maximal values at 2 days, and remain above normal to some degree for at least 27 days. In addition, a small but significant increase in spectrin proteolysis is also observed in the hippocampus contralateral to the lesioned side in the first week postlesion. At 2 days postlesion the total spectrin immunoreactivity (native polypeptide plus breakdown products) increases by 40%, suggesting that denervation of the dentate gyrus produces not only an increased rate of spectrin degradation but also an increased rate of spectrin synthesis. These results indicate that calpain activation and spectrin degradation are early biochemical events following deafferentation and might well participate in the remodelling of postsynaptic structures. Finally, the magnitude of the observed effects as well as the stable nature of the breakdown products provide a sensitive assay for neuronal pathology.

  5. Calpain-3 impairs cell proliferation and stimulates oxidative stress-mediated cell death in melanoma cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele Moretti

    Full Text Available Calpain-3 is an intracellular cysteine protease, belonging to Calpain superfamily and predominantly expressed in skeletal muscle. In human melanoma cell lines and biopsies, we previously identified two novel splicing variants (hMp78 and hMp84 of Calpain-3 gene (CAPN3, which have a significant lower expression in vertical growth phase melanomas and, even lower, in metastases, compared to benign nevi. In the present study, in order to investigate the pathophysiological role played by the longer Calpain-3 variant, hMp84, in melanoma cells, we over-expressed it in A375 and HT-144 cells. In A375 cells, the enforced expression of hMp84 induces p53 stabilization, and modulates the expression of a few p53- and oxidative stress-related genes. Consistently, hMp84 increases the intracellular production of ROS (Reactive Oxygen Species, which lead to oxidative modification of phospholipids (formation of F2-isoprostanes and DNA damage. Such events culminate in an adverse cell fate, as indicated by the decrease of cell proliferation and by cell death. To a different extent, either the antioxidant N-acetyl-cysteine or the p53 inhibitor, Pifithrin-α, recover cell viability and decrease ROS formation. Similarly to A375 cells, hMp84 over-expression causes inhibition of cell proliferation, cell death, and increase of both ROS levels and F2-isoprostanes also in HT-144 cells. However, in these cells no p53 accumulation occurs. In both cell lines, no significant change of cell proliferation and cell damage is observed in cells over-expressing the mutant hMp84C42S devoid of its enzymatic activity, suggesting that the catalytic activity of hMp84 is required for its detrimental effects. Since a more aggressive phenotype is expected to benefit from down-regulation of mechanisms impairing cell growth and survival, we envisage that Calpain-3 down-regulation can be regarded as a novel mechanism contributing to melanoma progression.

  6. Different Roles for Contracture and Calpain in Calcium Paradox-Induced Heart Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jian-Ying; Bi, Sheng-Hui; Xu, Ming; Jin, Zhen-Xiao; Yang, Yang; Jiang, Xiao-Fan; Zhou, Jing-Jun

    2012-01-01

    The Ca2+ paradox represents a good model to study Ca2+ overload injury in ischemic heart diseases. We and others have demonstrated that contracture and calpain are involved in the Ca2+ paradox-induced injury. This study aimed to elucidate their roles in this model. The Ca2+ paradox was elicited by perfusing isolated rat hearts with Ca2+-free KH media for 3 min or 5 min followed by 30 min of Ca2+ repletion. The LVDP was measured to reflect contractile function, and the LVEDP was measured to indicate contracture. TTC staining and the quantification of LDH release were used to define cell death. Calpain activity and troponin I release were measured after Ca2+ repletion. Ca2+ repletion of the once 3-min Ca2+ depleted hearts resulted in almost no viable tissues and the disappearance of contractile function. Compared to the effects of the calpain inhibitor MDL28170, KB-R7943, an inhibitor of the Na+/Ca2+ exchanger, reduced the LVEDP level to a greater extent, which was well correlated with improved contractile function recovery and tissue survival. The depletion of Ca2+ for 5 min had the same effects on injury as the 3-min Ca2+ depletion, except that the LVEDP in the 5-min Ca2+ depletion group was lower than the level in the 3-min Ca2+ depletion group. KB-R7943 failed to reduce the level of LVEDP, with no improvement in the LVDP recovery in the hearts subjected to the 5-min Ca2+ depletion treatment; however, KB-R7943 preserved its protective effects in surviving tissue. Both KB-R7943 and MDL28170 attenuated the Ca2+ repletion-induced increase in calpain activity in 3 min or 5 min Ca2+ depleted hearts. However, only KB-R7943 reduced the release of troponin I from the Ca2+ paradoxic heart. These results provide evidence suggesting that contracture is the main cause for contractile dysfunction, while activation of calpain mediates cell death in the Ca2+ paradox. PMID:23284963

  7. Neuroprotective Effects of Oxytocin Hormone after an Experimental Stroke Model and the Possible Role of Calpain-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etehadi Moghadam, Sepideh; Azami Tameh, Abolfazl; Vahidinia, Zeinab; Atlasi, Mohammad Ali; Hassani Bafrani, Hassan; Naderian, Homayoun

    2018-03-01

    Different mechanisms will be activated during ischemic stroke. Calpain proteases play a pivotal role in neuronal death after ischemia damage through apoptosis. Anti-apoptotic activities of the oxytocin (OT) in different ischemic tissues were reported in previous studies. Recently, a limited number of studies have noted the protective effects of OT in the brain. In the present study, the neuroprotective potential of OT in an animal model of transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (tMCAO) and the possible role of calpain-1 in the penumbra region were assessed. Adult male Wistar rats underwent 1 hour of tMCAO and were treated with nasal administration of OT. After 24 hours of reperfusion, infarct size was evaluated by triphenyltetrazolium chloride. Immunohistochemical staining and Western blotting were used to examine the expression of calpain-1. Nissl staining was performed for brain tissue morphology evaluation. OT reduced the infarct volume of the cerebral cortex and striatum compared with the ischemia control group significantly (P < .05). Calpain-1 overexpression, which was caused by ischemia, decreased after OT administration (P < .05). The number of pyknotic nuclei in neurons increased dramatically in the ischemic area and OT attenuated the apoptosis of neurons in the penumbra region (P < .01). We provided evidence for the neuroprotective role of OT after tMCAO through calpain-1 attenuation. Copyright © 2018 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Calpain-1 Expression in Triple-Negative Breast Cancer: A Potential Prognostic Factor Independent of the Proliferative/Apoptotic Index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shadia M. Al-Bahlani

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC is an aggressive type of breast cancer in which calpain system plays an important role in its cellular processes including apoptosis and proliferation. Although such roles have been assessed in tumor pathogenesis, the correlation of its expression to the proliferating/apoptotic index has not been studied yet. Immunohistochemical staining of calpain-1 was performed on paraffin-embedded tissues to correlate its expression with clinicopathological variables and outcome. The proliferation activity was determined by calculating the percentage of cells expressing the Ki-67 antigen. The apoptotic index was assessed morphologically and biochemically using Haematoxylin & Eosin method and Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labeling assay, respectively. Calpain-1 was significantly expressed in TNBC tissues varying from low to high with a significant correlation to lymph node status but not with the other clinicopathological variables, suggesting its role as a prognostic factor. In addition, a positive correlation was found between both apoptotic counts assays (P<0.001, r=0.547 as well as with proliferation (P=0.045. Calpain-1 expression had no significant correlation with either proliferation (P=0.29 or apoptotic indices (P=0.071 and P=0.100. Determining calpain-1 expression may provide relevant prognostic value for TNBC cancer patients.

  9. Calpain-10 genetic polymorphisms and polycystic ovary syndrome risk: a meta-analysis and meta-regression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Wenjing; Li, Tianren; Hu, Yanjie; Liu, Hongbo; Song, Min

    2013-12-01

    Recent evidences suggest that common functional polymorphisms in the promoter region of the Calpain-10 gene may have an impact on an individual's susceptibility to polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), but individually published results are inconclusive. Our meta-analysis is aimed to provide a more precise estimation of the relationships between Calpain-10 genetic polymorphisms and PCOS risk. An extensive literature search for relevant studies was conducted on PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, Cochrane Library, and CBM databases from inception through April 1st, 2013. This meta-analysis was performed using the STATA 12.0 software. The crude odds ratio (OR) with 95% confidence interval (CI) was calculated. Fourteen case-control studies were included with a total of 2123 PCOS patients and 3612 healthy controls. Nine common SNPs in the Calpain-10 gene were addressed. Our meta-analysis indicated that UCSNP-19, UCSNP-63 and UCSNP-45 polymorphisms in the Calpain-10 gene might be associated with increased PCOS risk. However, no statistically significant association was observed in UCSNP-43, UCSNP-22, UCSNP-43, UCSNP-45, UCSNP-56, UCSNP-58, and UCSNP-110 polymorphisms. Further subgroup analysis by ethnicity revealed that UCSNP-19, UCSNP-63 and UCSNP-45 polymorphisms might decrease the risk of PCOS among Asian populations, but not among Caucasian populations. The current meta-analysis indicates that UCSNP-19, UCSNP-63 and UCSNP-45 polymorphisms in the Calpain-10 gene may be risk factors for PCOS, especially among Asian populations. © 2013.

  10. Calpain-mediated proteolysis of polycystin-1 C-terminus induces JAK2 and ERK signal alterations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hyunho [Transplantation Research Institute, Seoul National University Medical Research Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Department of Medicine, University of Maryland, Baltimore, MD (United States); Kang, Ah-Young [Transplantation Research Institute, Seoul National University Medical Research Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Department of Medicine, Program of Immunology, Graduate School, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Ko, Ah-ra [Clinical Research Center, Samsung Biomedical Research Institute, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Park, Hayne Cho [Transplantation Research Institute, Seoul National University Medical Research Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Research Coordination Center for Rare Diseases, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); So, Insuk [Department of Physiology, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Park, Jong Hoon [Department of Biological Science, Sookmyung Women’s University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Cheong, Hae Il [Research Coordination Center for Rare Diseases, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Department of Pediatrics, Seoul National University Children’s Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kidney Research Institute, Medical Research Center, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Hwang, Young-Hwan [Research Coordination Center for Rare Diseases, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Department of Internal Medicine, Eulji General Hospital, Eulji University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); and others

    2014-01-01

    Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD), a hereditary renal disease caused by mutations in PKD1 (85%) or PKD2 (15%), is characterized by the development of gradually enlarging multiple renal cysts and progressive renal failure. Polycystin-1 (PC1), PKD1 gene product, is an integral membrane glycoprotein which regulates a number of different biological processes including cell proliferation, apoptosis, cell polarity, and tubulogenesis. PC1 is a target of various proteolytic cleavages and proteosomal degradations, but its role in intracellular signaling pathways remains poorly understood. Herein, we demonstrated that PC1 is a novel substrate for μ- and m-calpains, which are calcium-dependent cysteine proteases. Overexpression of PC1 altered both Janus-activated kinase 2 (JAK2) and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) signals, which were independently regulated by calpain-mediated PC1 degradation. They suggest that the PC1 function on JAK2 and ERK signaling pathways might be regulated by calpains in response to the changes in intracellular calcium concentration. - Highlights: • Polycystin-1 is a target of ubiquitin-independent degradation by calpains. • The PEST domain is required for calpain-mediated degradation of polycystin-1. • Polycystin-1 may independently regulate JAK2 and ERK signaling pathways.

  11. [Effect of artenisiae scopariae and poriae powder on calpain-2 expression in liver tissue from rats with obstructive jaundice].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Yubao

    2015-05-01

    To explore the eff ect of artenisiae scopariae and poriae powder (ASPD) on calpain-2 expression in liver tissue from rats with obstructive jaundice. The rat model of obstructive jaundice was established. SD rats was divided into the control group, the obstructive jaundice group, the obstructive jaundice model plus ASPD group, the obstructive jaundice model plus saline group. Th e serum levels of TBIL, ALT, AST and other biochemical indexes were detected. The pathological changes of liver tissue were evaluated by HE staining. The calpain-2 mRNA and protein expression in liver was measured by Real-time PCR and immunohistochemistry or Western blot, respectively. The calpain-2 mRNA and protein expression levels were significantly up-regulated in live tissues from the rats with obstructive jaundice in a time-dependent manner. The ASPD could inhibit the calpain-2 expression in rats with obstructive jaundice concomitant with the decreased liver damage and the improved liver function, suggesting that calpain-2 was involved in endoplasmic reticulum stress-mediated cellular apoptosis and the occurrence of obstructive jaundice. ASPD could be used for patients with obstructive jaundice to promote the recovery of liver function after operation and to reduce the incidence of complications, which provide a theoretical basis for the reasonable application of traditional Chinese medicine in the peroperative period.

  12. A possible therapeutic potential of quercetin through inhibition of μ-calpain in hypoxia induced neuronal injury: a molecular dynamics simulation study

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    Anand Kumar Pandey

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The neuroprotective property of quercetin is well reported against hypoxia and ischemia in past studies. This property of quercetin lies in its antioxidant property with blood-brain barrier permeability and anti-inflammatory capabilities. µ-Calpain, a calcium ion activated intracellular cysteine protease causes serious cellular insult, leading to cell death in various pathological conditions including hypoxia and ischemic stroke. Hence, it may be considered as a potential drug target for the treatment of hypoxia induced neuronal injury. As the inhibitory property of µ-calpain is yet to be explored in details, hence, in the present study, we investigated the interaction of quercetin with µ-calpain through a molecular dynamics simulation study as a tool through clarifying the molecular mechanism of such inhibition and determining the probable sites and modes of quercetin interaction with the µ-calpain catalytic domain. In addition, we also investigated the structure-activity relationship of quercetin with μ-calpain. Affinity binding of quercetin with µ-calpain had a value of –28.73 kJ/mol and a Ki value of 35.87 µM that may be a probable reason to lead to altered functioning of µ-calpain. Hence, quercetin was found to be an inhibitor of µ-calpain which might have a possible therapeutic role in hypoxic injury.

  13. Increased μ-Calpain Activity in Blasts of Common B-Precursor Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia Correlates with Their Lower Susceptibility to Apoptosis.

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    Anna Mikosik

    Full Text Available Childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL blasts are characterized by inhibited apoptosis promoting fast disease progress. It is known that in chronic lymphocytic and acute myeloid leukemias the reduced apoptosis is strongly related with the activity of calpain-calpastatin system (CCS composed of cytoplasmic proteases--calpains--performing the modulatory proteolysis of key proteins involved in cell proliferation and apoptosis, and of their endogenous inhibitor--calpastatin. Here, the CCS protein abundance and activity was for the first time studied in childhood ALL blasts and in control bone marrow CD19+ B cells by semi-quantitative flow cytometry and western blotting of calpastatin fragments resulting from endogenous calpain activity. Significantly higher μ-calpain (CAPN1 gene transcription, protein amounts and activity (but not those of m-calpain, with calpastatin amount and transcription of its gene (CAST greatly varying were observed in CD19(+ ALL blasts compared to control cells. Significant inverse relation between the amount/activity of calpain and spontaneous apoptosis was noted. Patients older than 10 years (considered at higher risk displayed increased amounts and activities of blast calpain. Finally, treatment of blasts with the tripeptide calpain inhibitors II and IV significantly and in dose-dependent fashion increased the percentage of blasts entering apoptosis. Together, these findings make the CCS a potential new predictive tool and therapeutic target in childhood ALL.

  14. Predictions of Cleavability of Calpain Proteolysis by Quantitative Structure-Activity Relationship Analysis Using Newly Determined Cleavage Sites and Catalytic Efficiencies of an Oligopeptide Array.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinkai-Ouchi, Fumiko; Koyama, Suguru; Ono, Yasuko; Hata, Shoji; Ojima, Koichi; Shindo, Mayumi; duVerle, David; Ueno, Mika; Kitamura, Fujiko; Doi, Naoko; Takigawa, Ichigaku; Mamitsuka, Hiroshi; Sorimachi, Hiroyuki

    2016-04-01

    Calpains are intracellular Ca(2+)-regulated cysteine proteases that are essential for various cellular functions. Mammalian conventional calpains (calpain-1 and calpain-2) modulate the structure and function of their substrates by limited proteolysis. Thus, it is critically important to determine the site(s) in proteins at which calpains cleave. However, the calpains' substrate specificity remains unclear, because the amino acid (aa) sequences around their cleavage sites are very diverse. To clarify calpains' substrate specificities, 84 20-mer oligopeptides, corresponding to P10-P10' of reported cleavage site sequences, were proteolyzed by calpains, and the catalytic efficiencies (kcat/Km) were globally determined by LC/MS. This analysis revealed 483 cleavage site sequences, including 360 novel ones. Thekcat/Kms for 119 sites ranged from 12.5-1,710 M(-1)s(-1) Although most sites were cleaved by both calpain-1 and -2 with a similarkcat/Km, sequence comparisons revealed distinct aa preferences at P9-P7/P2/P5'. The aa compositions of the novel sites were not statistically different from those of previously reported sites as a whole, suggesting calpains have a strict implicit rule for sequence specificity, and that the limited proteolysis of intact substrates is because of substrates' higher-order structures. Cleavage position frequencies indicated that longer sequences N-terminal to the cleavage site (P-sites) were preferred for proteolysis over C-terminal (P'-sites). Quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) analyses using partial least-squares regression and >1,300 aa descriptors achievedkcat/Kmprediction withr= 0.834, and binary-QSAR modeling attained an 87.5% positive prediction value for 132 reported calpain cleavage sites independent of our model construction. These results outperformed previous calpain cleavage predictors, and revealed the importance of the P2, P3', and P4' sites, and P1-P2 cooperativity. Furthermore, using our binary-QSAR model

  15. Mechanical stimulation of C2C12 cells increases m-calpain expression, focal adhesion plaque protein degradation and cell differentiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grossi, Alberto; Lawson, Moira Ann

    have shown that m-calpain is necessary for myoblast fusion leading to the formation of muscle fibers and that inhibition of this enzyme restricts myotube formation. Whether there is a link between stretchor load induced signaling and m-calpain expression and activation is not known. Using a magnetic...... documented and has been shown to affect transcription of specific gene sequences, protein synthesis, the immune system and increase in Ca2+ influx. The past 10 years has seen a dramatic increase in the understanding of how proteolytic enzymes such as calpains can affect the growth of muscle. In vivo studies...... bead stimulation assay and a C2C12 mouse myoblast cell population, we have found that mechanical stimulation via laminin receptors leads to an increase in m-calpain expression, an enzyme found to be required for muscle cell fusion. After a short period of stimulation, m-calpain relocates into focal...

  16. Bid and calpains cooperate to trigger oxaliplatin-induced apoptosis of cervical carcinoma HeLa cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anguissola, Sergio; Köhler, Barbara; O'Byrne, Robert; Düssmann, Heiko; Cannon, Mary D; Murray, Frank E; Concannon, Caoimhin G; Rehm, Markus; Kögel, Donat; Prehn, Jochen H M

    2009-11-01

    The Bcl-2 homology 3-only protein Bid is an important mediator of death receptor-induced apoptosis. Recent reports and this study suggest that Bid may also mediate genotoxic drug-induced apoptosis of various human cancer cells. Here, we characterized the role of Bid and the mechanism of Bid activation during oxaliplatin-induced apoptosis of HeLa cervical cancer cells. Small hairpin RNA-mediated silencing of Bid protected HeLa cells against both death receptor- and oxaliplatin-induced apoptosis. Expression of a Bid mutant in which caspase-8 cleavage site was mutated (D59A) reactivated oxaliplatin-induced apoptosis in Bid-deficient cells but failed to reactivate death receptor-induced apoptosis, suggesting that caspase-8-mediated Bid cleavage did not contribute to oxaliplatin-induced apoptosis. Overexpression of bcl-2 or treatment with the pan-caspase inhibitor N-benzyloxycarbonyl-Val-Ala-dl-Asp-fluoromethylketone abolished caspase-2, -8, -9, and -3 activation as well as Bid cleavage in response to oxaliplatin, suggesting that Bid cleavage occurred downstream of mitochondrial permeabilization and was predominantly mediated by caspases. We also detected an early activation of calpains in response to oxaliplatin. Calpain inhibition reduced Bid cleavage, mitochondrial depolarization, and activation of caspase-9, -3, -2, and -8 in response to oxaliplatin. Further experiments, however, suggested that Bid cleavage by calpains was not a prerequisite for oxaliplatin-induced apoptosis: single-cell imaging experiments using a yellow fluorescent protein-Bid-cyan fluorescent protein probe demonstrated translocation of full-length Bid to mitochondria that was insensitive to calpain or caspase inhibition. Moreover, calpain inhibition showed a potent protective effect in Bid-silenced cells. In conclusion, our data suggest that calpains and Bid act in a cooperative, but mutually independent, manner to mediate oxaliplatin-induced apoptosis of HeLa cells.

  17. Particulate matter air pollution disrupts endothelial cell barrier via calpain-mediated tight junction protein degradation

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    Wang Ting

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Exposure to particulate matter (PM is a significant risk factor for increased cardiopulmonary morbidity and mortality. The mechanism of PM-mediated pathophysiology remains unknown. However, PM is proinflammatory to the endothelium and increases vascular permeability in vitro and in vivo via ROS generation. Objectives We explored the role of tight junction proteins as targets for PM-induced loss of lung endothelial cell (EC barrier integrity and enhanced cardiopulmonary dysfunction. Methods Changes in human lung EC monolayer permeability were assessed by Transendothelial Electrical Resistance (TER in response to PM challenge (collected from Ft. McHenry Tunnel, Baltimore, MD, particle size >0.1 μm. Biochemical assessment of ROS generation and Ca2+ mobilization were also measured. Results PM exposure induced tight junction protein Zona occludens-1 (ZO-1 relocation from the cell periphery, which was accompanied by significant reductions in ZO-1 protein levels but not in adherens junction proteins (VE-cadherin and β-catenin. N-acetyl-cysteine (NAC, 5 mM reduced PM-induced ROS generation in ECs, which further prevented TER decreases and atteneuated ZO-1 degradation. PM also mediated intracellular calcium mobilization via the transient receptor potential cation channel M2 (TRPM2, in a ROS-dependent manner with subsequent activation of the Ca2+-dependent protease calpain. PM-activated calpain is responsible for ZO-1 degradation and EC barrier disruption. Overexpression of ZO-1 attenuated PM-induced endothelial barrier disruption and vascular hyperpermeability in vivo and in vitro. Conclusions These results demonstrate that PM induces marked increases in vascular permeability via ROS-mediated calcium leakage via activated TRPM2, and via ZO-1 degradation by activated calpain. These findings support a novel mechanism for PM-induced lung damage and adverse cardiovascular outcomes.

  18. Particulate matter air pollution disrupts endothelial cell barrier via calpain-mediated tight junction protein degradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ting; Wang, Lichun; Moreno-Vinasco, Liliana; Lang, Gabriel D; Siegler, Jessica H; Mathew, Biji; Usatyuk, Peter V; Samet, Jonathan M; Geyh, Alison S; Breysse, Patrick N; Natarajan, Viswanathan; Garcia, Joe G N

    2012-08-29

    Exposure to particulate matter (PM) is a significant risk factor for increased cardiopulmonary morbidity and mortality. The mechanism of PM-mediated pathophysiology remains unknown. However, PM is proinflammatory to the endothelium and increases vascular permeability in vitro and in vivo via ROS generation. We explored the role of tight junction proteins as targets for PM-induced loss of lung endothelial cell (EC) barrier integrity and enhanced cardiopulmonary dysfunction. Changes in human lung EC monolayer permeability were assessed by Transendothelial Electrical Resistance (TER) in response to PM challenge (collected from Ft. McHenry Tunnel, Baltimore, MD, particle size >0.1 μm). Biochemical assessment of ROS generation and Ca2+ mobilization were also measured. PM exposure induced tight junction protein Zona occludens-1 (ZO-1) relocation from the cell periphery, which was accompanied by significant reductions in ZO-1 protein levels but not in adherens junction proteins (VE-cadherin and β-catenin). N-acetyl-cysteine (NAC, 5 mM) reduced PM-induced ROS generation in ECs, which further prevented TER decreases and atteneuated ZO-1 degradation. PM also mediated intracellular calcium mobilization via the transient receptor potential cation channel M2 (TRPM2), in a ROS-dependent manner with subsequent activation of the Ca2+-dependent protease calpain. PM-activated calpain is responsible for ZO-1 degradation and EC barrier disruption. Overexpression of ZO-1 attenuated PM-induced endothelial barrier disruption and vascular hyperpermeability in vivo and in vitro. These results demonstrate that PM induces marked increases in vascular permeability via ROS-mediated calcium leakage via activated TRPM2, and via ZO-1 degradation by activated calpain. These findings support a novel mechanism for PM-induced lung damage and adverse cardiovascular outcomes.

  19. Passive stretch reduces calpain activity through nitric oxide pathway in unloaded soleus muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Peng-Tao; Li, Quan; Sheng, Juan-Juan; Chang, Hui; Song, Zhen; Yu, Zhi-Bin

    2012-08-01

    Unloading in spaceflight or long-term bed rest induces to pronounced atrophy of anti-gravity skeletal muscles. Passive stretch partially resists unloading-induced atrophy of skeletal muscle, but the mechanism remains elusive. The aims of this study were to investigate the hypotheses that stretch tension might increase protein level of neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) in unloaded skeletal muscle, and then nNOS-derived NO alleviated atrophy of skeletal muscle by inhibiting calpain activity. The tail-suspended rats were used to unload rat hindlimbs for 2 weeks, at the same time, left soleus muscle was stretched by applying a plaster cast to fix the ankle at 35° dorsiflexion. Stretch partially resisted atrophy and inhibited the decreased protein level and activity of nNOS in unloaded soleus muscles. Unloading increased frequency of calcium sparks and elevated intracellular resting and caffeine-induced Ca(2+) concentration ([Ca(2+)]i) in unloaded soleus muscle fibers. Stretch reduced frequency of calcium sparks and restored intracellular resting and caffeine-induced Ca(2+) concentration to control levels in unloaded soleus muscle fibers. The increased protein level and activity of calpain as well as the higher degradation of desmin induced by unloading were inhibited by stretch in soleus muscles. In conclusion, these results suggest that stretch can preserve the stability of sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+) release channels which prevents the elevated [Ca(2+)]i by means of keeping nNOS activity, and then the enhanced protein level and activity of calpain return to control levels in unloaded soleus muscles. Therefore, stretch can resist in part atrophy of unloaded soleus muscles.

  20. A calcium- and calpain-dependent pathway determines the response to lenalidomide in myelodysplastic syndromes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Jing; Liu, Xiaona; Bolanos, Lyndsey; Barker, Brenden; Rigolino, Carmela; Cortelezzi, Agostino; Oliva, Esther N; Cuzzola, Maria; Grimes, H Leighton; Fontanillo, Celia; Komurov, Kakajan; MacBeth, Kyle; Starczynowski, Daniel T

    2017-01-01

    Despite the high response rates of individuals with myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) with deletion of chromosome 5q (del(5q)) to treatment with lenalidomide (LEN) and the recent identification of cereblon (CRBN) as the molecular target of LEN, the cellular mechanism by which LEN eliminates MDS clones remains elusive. Here we performed an RNA interference screen to delineate gene regulatory networks that mediate LEN responsiveness in an MDS cell line, MDSL. We identified GPR68, which encodes a G-protein-coupled receptor that has been implicated in calcium metabolism, as the top candidate gene for modulating sensitivity to LEN. LEN induced GPR68 expression via IKAROS family zinc finger 1 (IKZF1), resulting in increased cytosolic calcium levels and activation of a calcium-dependent calpain, CAPN1, which were requisite steps for induction of apoptosis in MDS cells and in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) cells. In contrast, deletion of GPR68 or inhibition of calcium and calpain activation suppressed LEN-induced cytotoxicity. Moreover, expression of calpastatin (CAST), an endogenous CAPN1 inhibitor that is encoded by a gene (CAST) deleted in del(5q) MDS, correlated with LEN responsiveness in patients with del(5q) MDS. Depletion of CAST restored responsiveness of LEN-resistant non-del(5q) MDS cells and AML cells, providing an explanation for the superior responses of patients with del(5q) MDS to LEN treatment. Our study describes a cellular mechanism by which LEN, acting through CRBN and IKZF1, has cytotoxic effects in MDS and AML that depend on a calcium- and calpain-dependent pathway. PMID:27294874

  1. Calpain-mediated cleavage of DARPP-32 in Alzheimer’s disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Kwangmin; Cho, Mi-Hyang; Seo, Jung-Han; Peak, Jongjin; Kong, Kyoung-Hye; Yoon, Seung-Yong; Kim, Dong-Hou

    2015-01-01

    Toxicity induced by aberrant protein aggregates in Alzheimer’s disease (AD) causes synaptic disconnection and concomitant progressive neurodegeneration that eventually impair cognitive function. cAMP-response element-binding protein (CREB) is a transcription factor involved in the molecular switch that converts short-term to long-term memory. Although disturbances in CREB function have been suggested to cause memory deficits in both AD and AD animal models, the mechanism of CREB dysfunction is still unclear. Here, we show that the dopamine- and cAMP-regulated phosphoprotein 32 kDa (DARPP-32), a key inhibitor of protein phosphate-1 (PP-1) that regulates CREB phosphorylation, is cleaved by activated calpain in both AD brains and neuronal cells treated with amyloid-β or okadaic acid, a protein phosphatase-2A inhibitor that induces tau hyperphosphorylation and neuronal death. We found that DARPP-32 is mainly cleaved at Thr153 by calpain and that this cleavage of DARPP-32 reduces CREB phosphorylation via loss of its inhibitory function on PP1. Our results suggest a novel mechanism of DARPP-32–CREB signalling dysregulation in AD. PMID:26178297

  2. Calpain 3 is a rapid-action, unidirectional proteolytic switch central to muscle remodeling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antoine de Morrée

    Full Text Available Calpain 3 (CAPN3 is a cysteine protease that when mutated causes Limb Girdle Muscular Dystrophy 2A. It is thereby the only described Calpain family member that genetically causes a disease. Due to its inherent instability little is known of its substrates or its mechanism of activity and pathogenicity. In this investigation we define a primary sequence motif underlying CAPN3 substrate cleavage. This motif can transform non-related proteins into substrates, and identifies >300 new putative CAPN3 targets. Bioinformatic analyses of these targets demonstrate a critical role in muscle cytoskeletal remodeling and identify novel CAPN3 functions. Among the new CAPN3 substrates are three E3 SUMO ligases of the Protein Inhibitor of Activated Stats (PIAS family. CAPN3 can cleave PIAS proteins and negatively regulates PIAS3 sumoylase activity. Consequently, SUMO2 is deregulated in patient muscle tissue. Our study thus uncovers unexpected crosstalk between CAPN3 proteolysis and protein sumoylation, with strong implications for muscle remodeling.

  3. Bcr-abl regulates Stat5 through Shp2, the interferon consensus sequence binding protein (Icsbp/Irf8), growth arrest specific 2 (Gas2) and calpain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hjort, Elizabeth E.; Huang, Weiqi; Hu, Liping; Eklund, Elizabeth A.

    2016-01-01

    Icsbp/Irf8 is an interferon regulatory transcription factor that functions as a suppressor of myeloid leukemias. Consistent with this activity, Icsbp represses a set of genes encoding proteins that promote cell proliferation/survival. One such gene encodes Gas2, a calpain inhibitor. We previously found that increased Gas2-expression in Bcr-abl+ cells stabilized βcatenin; a Calpain substrate. This was of interest, because βcatenin contributes to disease progression in chronic myeloid leukemia (CML). Calpain has additional substrates implicated in leukemogenesis, including Stat5. In the current study, we hypothesized that Stat5 activity in CML is regulated by Gas2/Calpain. We found that Bcr-abl-induced, Shp2-dependent dephosphorylation of Icsbp impaired repression of GAS2 by this transcription factor. The consequent decrease in Calpain activity stabilized Stat5 protein; increasing the absolute abundance of both phospho and total Stat5. This enhanced repression of the IRF8 promoter by Stat5 in a manner dependent on Icsbp, Gas2 and Calpain, but not Stat5 tyrosine phosphorylation. During normal myelopoiesis, increased expression and phosphorylation of Icsbp inhibits Calpain. In contrast, constitutive activation of Shp2 in Bcr-abl+ cells impairs regulation of Gas2/Calpain by Icsbp, aberrantly stabilizing Stat5 and enhancing IRF8 repression. This novel feedback mechanism enhances leukemogenesis by increasing Stat5 and decreasing Icsbp. Bcr-abl targeted tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) provide long term disease control, but CML is not cured by these agents. Our studies suggest targeting Calpain might be a rational therapeutic approach to decrease persistent leukemia stem cells (LSCs) during TKI-treatment. PMID:27769062

  4. Inhibition of Calpain Prevents N-Methyl-D-aspartate-Induced Degeneration of the Nucleus Basalis and Associated Behavioral Dysfunction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nimmrich, Volker; Szabo, Robert; Nyakas, Csaba; Granic, Ivica; Reymann, Klaus G.; Schroeder, Ulrich H.; Gross, Gerhard; Schoemaker, Hans; Wicke, Karsten; Moeller, Achim; Luiten, Paul

    2008-01-01

    N-Methyl-D-aspartate( NMDA) receptor-mediated excitotoxicity is thought to underlie a variety of neurological disorders, and inhibition of either the NMDA receptor itself, or molecules of the intracellular cascade, may attenuate neurodegeneration in these diseases. Calpain, a calcium-dependent

  5. The effects of different chilling methods on meat quality and calpain activity of pork muscle longissimus dorsi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yang; Huang, Ji-Chao; Huang, Ming; Xu, Bao-Cai; Zhou, Guang-Hong

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of conventional chilling (0 to 4 °C), rapid chilling (RC, -20 °C for 30 min, followed by 0 to 4 °C), and short-duration chilling (0 to 4 °C for 30 min, followed by 25 °C) on meat quality and calpain activity of pork muscle longissimus dorsi (LD). The muscle quality characteristics pH, color, cooking loss, pressing loss and tenderness, and calpain activities were measured 0-, 3-, 12-, and 24-h postmortem. Results show that the RC resulted in a faster temperature decline of the muscle, and prevented the meat pH and Commission Internationale de l'Eclairage L* value from declining during postmortem aging. RC also reduced meat cooking loss and pressing loss compared with the other two chilling methods. However, the chilling methods did not significantly affect meat shear force. During the first 24-h postmortem, there was not a noticeable change in the activity of m-calpain. But μ-calpain activity decreased regardless of chilling method. In the rapidly chilled carcasses, μ-calpain activity remained the same 3- and 12-h postmortem. However, in the short-duration chilled and conventionally chilled carcasses, the activity was visibly reduced. At 24-h postmortem, no clear zones on the gel were observed in all three treatments. Conventional and RC methods are commonly used for pork in commercial practice nowadays. Compared with conventional chilling, the effect of RC on quality parameters of pork varies. In recent years, short-duration chilling (SC) is widely used in many Chinese pig slaughtering facilities. However, few researchers have studied the effect of SD on pork quality. Therefore, the present study investigated the effect of different chilling methods on functionalities or quality of chilled pork meat. © 2011 Institute of Food Technologists®

  6. Effect of nutrient restriction and re-feeding on calpain family genes in skeletal muscle of channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preziosa, Elena; Liu, Shikai; Terova, Genciana; Gao, Xiaoyu; Liu, Hong; Kucuktas, Huseyin; Terhune, Jeffery; Liu, Zhanjiang

    2013-01-01

    Calpains, a superfamily of intracellular calcium-dependent cysteine proteases, are involved in the cytoskeletal remodeling and wasting of skeletal muscle. Calpains are generated as inactive proenzymes which are activated by N-terminal autolysis induced by calcium-ions. In this study, we characterized the full-length cDNA sequences of three calpain genes, clpn1, clpn2, and clpn3 in channel catfish, and assessed the effect of nutrient restriction and subsequent re-feeding on the expression of these genes in skeletal muscle. The clpn1 cDNA sequence encodes a protein of 704 amino acids, Clpn2 of 696 amino acids, and Clpn3 of 741 amino acids. Phylogenetic analysis of deduced amino acid sequences indicate that catfish Clpn1 and Clpn2 share a sequence similarity of 61%; catfish Clpn1 and Clpn3 of 48%, and Clpn2 and Clpn3 of only 45%. The domain structure architectures of all three calpain genes in channel catfish are similar to those of other vertebrates, further supported by strong bootstrap values during phylogenetic analyses. Starvation of channel catfish (average weight, 15-20 g) for 35 days influenced the expression of clpn1 (2.3-fold decrease, Pcatfish skeletal muscle showed significant differences only during the starvation period, with a 1.2- and 1.4- fold increase (P<0.01) after 17 and 35 days of starvation, respectively. We have assessed that fasting and refeeding may provide a suitable experimental model to provide us insight into the role of calpains during fish muscle atrophy and how they respond to changes in nutrient supply.

  7. Propofol Ameliorates Calpain-induced Collapsin Response Mediator Protein-2 Proteolysis in Traumatic Brain Injury in Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yun; Jian, Min-Yu; Wang, Yun-Zhen; Han, Ru-Quan

    2015-01-01

    Background: Collapsin response mediator protein-2 (CRMP2), a multifunctional cytosolic protein highly expressed in the brain, is degraded by calpain following traumatic brain injury (TBI), possibly inhibiting posttraumatic neurite regeneration. Lipid peroxidation (LP) is involved in triggering postinjury CRMP2 proteolysis. We examined the hypothesis that propofol could attenuate LP, calpain-induced CRMP2 degradation, and brain injury after TBI. Methods: A unilateral moderate controlled cortical impact injury was induced in adult male Sprague-Dawley rats. The animals were randomly divided into seven groups: Sham control group, TBI group, TBI + propofol groups (including propofol 1 h, 2 h, and 4 h groups), TBI + U83836E group and TBI + fat emulsion group. The LP inhibitor U83836E was used as a control to identify that antioxidation partially accounts for the potential neuroprotective effects of propofol. The solvent of propofol, fat emulsion, was used as the vehicle control. Ipsilateral cortex tissues were harvested at 24 h post-TBI. Immunofluorescent staining, Western blot analysis, and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick-end labeling were used to evaluate LP, calpain activity, CRMP2 proteolysis and programmed cell death. The data were statistically analyzed using one-way analysis of variance and a paired t-test. Results: Propofol and U83836E significantly ameliorated the CRMP2 proteolysis. In addition, both propofol and U83836E significantly decreased the ratio of 145-kDa αII-spectrin breakdown products to intact 270-kDa spectrin, the 4-hydroxynonenal expression and programmed cell death in the pericontusional cortex at 24 h after TBI. There was no difference between the TBI group and the fat emulsion group. Conclusions: These results demonstrate that propofol postconditioning alleviates calpain-mediated CRMP2 proteolysis and provides neuroprotective effects following moderate TBI potentially by counteracting LP and reducing calpain activation

  8. Acetylcholine Attenuated TNF-α-Induced Apoptosis in H9c2 Cells: Role of Calpain and the p38-MAPK Pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming Zhao

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Previous studies have shown that inflammation is associated with excessive activation of calpains. Acetylcholine (ACh has been reported to inhibit pro-inflammatory cytokine release and protect against cardiomyocyte injury. However, there is no direct evidence regarding whether ACh can regulate calpains to exert cardioprotection. To this end, we investigated the effect of ACh on tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α-induced cardiomyocyte injury and further explored the underlying mechanism. Methods: Flow cytometry and transmission electron microscopy were performed to evaluate apoptosis and cellular ultrastructure. Western blotting was performed to assess changes in protein expression. siRNA was employed to silence specific proteins. Results: TNF-α treatment increased the expression of cleaved caspase-3, calpain-1 and p38-mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38-MAPK. The calpain inhibitor PD150606 and the p38-MAPK inhibitor SB203580 inhibited apoptosis induced by TNF-α. Moreover, SB203580 decreased the expression and activity of calpain-1, possibly related to the up-regulation of calpastatin. ACh significantly inhibited TNF-α-induced cell apoptosis, as evidenced by decreases in caspase-3 cleavage, p38-MAPK phosphorylation, and calpain-1 expression and activity as well as increases in calpastatin expression. These beneficial effects of ACh were abolished by atropine or M2AChR siRNA. Conclusion: Our results suggest that ACh ameliorated TNF-α-induced calpain activation by decreasing p38-MAPK phosphorylation and enhancing calpastatin expression, indicating that calpain may be an important link between inflammatory factors and myocardial cell apoptosis.

  9. Restriction fragment length polymorphism in calpain (CAPN2 gene in crossbred cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Aparecida Cassiano Lara

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available With advances in molecular genetics have been possible to predict the genetic value of the animal, in particular its potential to transmit desired characters to their offspring, including characters difficult to evaluate or with low heritability, as is the case of the meat tenderization. It is known that Bos taurus indicus features differences in meat tenderization, being assigned this variability to their lowest proteolysis post-mortem, as result of high activity of calpastatin. This inhibitor decreases the activity of calpain, which are the enzymes responsible for the degradation of muscle fibers during the maturation of the meat. Moreover, there were previously observed differences in the frequencies of allele A of calpain among European breeds (Hereford, Aberdeen Angus and Holstein and Bos taurus indicus (Gir, Guzerá and Nelore. This variability has been related to tenderness of meat, as cattle with Bos taurus taurus origin have more tender meat than Bos taurus indicus, showing small values of shear force. One explanation is that the Capn2A product could confer greater proteolytic activity than the encoded by the allele Capn2B. If allele A is associated with tender meat, it will be possible the early identification of the animals that have the potential to produce meat with qualities that attend the needs of the consumer market, in order to add economic value to the final product of the animal production chain. For this reason, biochemical and genetic studies related to calpain and calpastatin systems have been considered promising for the clarification of the physiological changes that occur in muscle structure during the period post-mortem, whose results have contributed to the improvement of meat quality. The objectives of this study were to investigate the RFLP in calpain (Capn2 gene and its relation with meat tenderization in 252 crossbred (Bos taurus taurus x Bos taurus indicus. The analyses were carried through by PCR-RFLP technique

  10. Calpain 3 Expression Pattern during Gastrocnemius Muscle Atrophy and Regeneration Following Sciatic Nerve Injury in Rats

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    Ronghua Wu

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Calpain 3 (CAPN3, also known as p94, is a skeletal muscle-specific member of the calpain family that is involved in muscular dystrophy; however, the roles of CAPN3 in muscular atrophy and regeneration are yet to be understood. In the present study, we attempted to explain the effect of CAPN3 in muscle atrophy by evaluating CAPN3 expression in rat gastrocnemius muscle following reversible sciatic nerve injury. After nerve injury, the wet weight ratio and cross sectional area (CSA of gastrocnemius muscle were decreased gradually from 1–14 days and then recovery from 14–28 days. The active form of CAPN3 (~62 kDa protein decreased slightly on day 3 and then increased from day 7 to 14 before a decrease from day 14 to 28. The result of linear correlation analysis showed that expression of the active CAPN3 protein level was negatively correlated with muscle wet weight ratio. CAPN3 knockdown by short interfering RNA (siRNA injection improved muscle recovery on days 7 and 14 after injury as compared to that observed with control siRNA treatment. Depletion of CAPN3 gene expression could promote myoblast differentiation in L6 cells. Based on these findings, we conclude that the expression pattern of the active CAPN3 protein is linked to muscle atrophy and regeneration following denervation: its upregulation during early stages may promote satellite cell renewal by inhibiting differentiation, whereas in later stages, CAPN3 expression may be downregulated to stimulate myogenic differentiation and enhance recovery. These results provide a novel mechanistic insight into the role of CAPN3 protein in muscle regeneration after peripheral nerve injury.

  11. In Silico Affinity Profiling of Neuroactive Polyphenols for Post-Traumatic Calpain Inactivation: A Molecular Docking and Atomistic Simulation Sensitivity Analysis

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    Pradeep Kumar

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Calcium-activated nonlysosomal neutral proteases, calpains, are believed to be early mediators of neuronal damage associated with neuron death and axonal degeneration after traumatic neural injuries. In this study, a library of biologically active small molecular weight calpain inhibitors was used for model validation and inhibition site recognition. Subsequently, two natural neuroactive polyphenols, curcumin and quercetin, were tested for their sensitivity and activity towards calpain’s proteolytic sequence and compared with the known calpain inhibitors via detailed molecular mechanics (MM, molecular dynamics (MD, and docking simulations. The MM and MD energy profiles (SJA6017 < AK275 < AK295 < PD151746 < quercetin < leupeptin < PD150606 < curcumin < ALLN < ALLM < MDL-28170 < calpeptin and the docking analysis (AK275 < AK295 < PD151746 < ALLN < PD150606 < curcumin < leupeptin < quercetin < calpeptin < SJA6017 < MDL-28170 < ALLM demonstrated that polyphenols conferred comparable calpain inhibition profiling. The modeling paradigm used in this study provides the first detailed account of corroboration of enzyme inhibition efficacy of calpain inhibitors and the respective calpain–calpain inhibitor molecular complexes’ energetic landscape and in addition stimulates the polyphenol bioactive paradigm for post-SCI intervention with implications reaching to experimental in vitro, in cyto, and in vivo studies.

  12. Identification of different domains of calpain and calpastatin from chicken blood and their role in post-mortem aging of meat during holding at refrigeration temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswas, A K; Tandon, S; Beura, C K

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a simple, specific and rapid analytical method for accurate identification of calpain and calpastatin from chicken blood and muscle samples. The method is based on liquid-liquid extraction technique followed by casein Zymography detection. The target compounds were extracted from blood and meat samples by tris buffer, and purified and separated on anion exchange chromatography. It has been observed that buffer (pH 6.7) containing 50 mM tris-base appears to be excellent extractant as activity of analytes was maximum for all samples. The concentrations of μ-, m-calpain and calpastatin detected in the extracts of blood, breast and thigh samples were 0.28-0.55, 1.91-2.05 and 1.38-1.52 Unit/g, respectively. For robustness, the analytical method was applied to determine the activity of calpains (μ and m) in eighty postmortem muscle samples. It has been observed that μ-calpain activity in breast and thigh muscles declined very rapidly at 48 h and 24 h, respectively while activity of m-calpain remained stable. Shear force values were also declined with the increase of post-mortem aging showing the presence of ample tenderness of breast and thigh muscles. Finally, it is concluded that the method standardized for the detection of calpain and calpastatin has the potential to be applied to identify post-mortem aging of chicken meat samples. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Effect of nutrient restriction and re-feeding on calpain family genes in skeletal muscle of channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus.

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    Elena Preziosa

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Calpains, a superfamily of intracellular calcium-dependent cysteine proteases, are involved in the cytoskeletal remodeling and wasting of skeletal muscle. Calpains are generated as inactive proenzymes which are activated by N-terminal autolysis induced by calcium-ions. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In this study, we characterized the full-length cDNA sequences of three calpain genes, clpn1, clpn2, and clpn3 in channel catfish, and assessed the effect of nutrient restriction and subsequent re-feeding on the expression of these genes in skeletal muscle. The clpn1 cDNA sequence encodes a protein of 704 amino acids, Clpn2 of 696 amino acids, and Clpn3 of 741 amino acids. Phylogenetic analysis of deduced amino acid sequences indicate that catfish Clpn1 and Clpn2 share a sequence similarity of 61%; catfish Clpn1 and Clpn3 of 48%, and Clpn2 and Clpn3 of only 45%. The domain structure architectures of all three calpain genes in channel catfish are similar to those of other vertebrates, further supported by strong bootstrap values during phylogenetic analyses. Starvation of channel catfish (average weight, 15-20 g for 35 days influenced the expression of clpn1 (2.3-fold decrease, P<0.05, clpn2 (1.3-fold increase, P<0.05, and clpn3 (13.0-fold decrease, P<0.05, whereas the subsequent refeeding did not change the expression of these genes as measured by quantitative real-time PCR analysis. Calpain catalytic activity in channel catfish skeletal muscle showed significant differences only during the starvation period, with a 1.2- and 1.4- fold increase (P<0.01 after 17 and 35 days of starvation, respectively. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: We have assessed that fasting and refeeding may provide a suitable experimental model to provide us insight into the role of calpains during fish muscle atrophy and how they respond to changes in nutrient supply.

  14. Effects of concentric and repeated eccentric exercise on muscle damage and calpain-calpastatin gene expression in human skeletal muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vissing, K.; Overgaard, K.; Nedergaard, A.

    2008-01-01

    , and was compared to a control-group (n = 6). Muscle strength and soreness and plasma creatine kinase and myoglobin were measured before and during 7 days following exercise bouts. Muscle biopsies were collected from m. vastus lateralis of both legs prior to and at 3, 24 h and 7 days after exercise and quantified...... for muscle Ca2+-content and mRNA levels for calpain isoforms and calpastatin. Exercise reduced muscle strength and increased muscle soreness predominantly in the eccentric leg (P creatine kinase and myoglobin were all attenuated after the repeated...... not change at any specific time point post-exercise for either intervention. Our mRNA results suggest a regulation on the calpain-calpastatin expression response to muscle damaging eccentric exercise, but not concentric exercise. Although a repeated bout effect was demonstrated in terms of muscle function...

  15. Modulation of intracellular calcium levels by calcium lactate affects colon cancer cell motility through calcium-dependent calpain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundaramoorthy, Pasupathi; Sim, Jae Jun; Jang, Yeong-Su; Mishra, Siddhartha Kumar; Jeong, Keun-Yeong; Mander, Poonam; Chul, Oh Byung; Shim, Won-Sik; Oh, Seung Hyun; Nam, Ky-Youb; Kim, Hwan Mook

    2015-01-01

    Cancer cell motility is a key phenomenon regulating invasion and metastasis. Focal adhesion kinase (FAK) plays a major role in cellular adhesion and metastasis of various cancers. The relationship between dietary supplementation of calcium and colon cancer has been extensively investigated. However, the effect of calcium (Ca2+) supplementation on calpain-FAK-motility is not clearly understood. We sought to identify the mechanism of FAK cleavage through Ca2+ bound lactate (CaLa), its downstream signaling and role in the motility of human colon cancer cells. We found that treating HCT116 and HT-29 cells with CaLa immediately increased the intracellular Ca2+ (iCa2+) levels for a prolonged period of time. Ca2+ influx induced cleavage of FAK into an N-terminal FAK (FERM domain) in a dose-dependent manner. Phosphorylated FAK (p-FAK) was also cleaved in to its p-N-terminal FAK. CaLa increased colon cancer cells motility. Calpeptin, a calpain inhibitor, reversed the effects of CaLa on FAK and pFAK cleavage in both cancer cell lines. The cleaved FAK translocates into the nucleus and modulates p53 stability through MDM2-associated ubiquitination. CaLa-induced Ca2+ influx increased the motility of colon cancer cells was mediated by calpain activity through FAK and pFAK protein destabilization. In conclusion, these results suggest that careful consideration may be given in deciding dietary Ca2+ supplementation to patient undergoing treatment for metastatic cancer.

  16. Suppression of NHE1 by small interfering RNA inhibits HIF-1α-induced angiogenesis in vitro via modulation of calpain activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mo, Xian-Gang; Chen, Qing-Wei; Li, Xing-Sheng; Zheng, Min-Ming; Ke, Da-Zhi; Deng, Wei; Li, Gui-Qiong; Jiang, Jin; Wu, Zhi-Qin; Wang, Li; Wang, Peng; Yang, Yan; Cao, Guang-Yi

    2011-03-01

    Hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1) orchestrates angiogenesis under hypoxic conditions mainly due to increased expression of such target genes as vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). Na+/H+exchanger-1 (NHE1), a potential HIF target gene product, plays a pivotal role in proliferation, survival, migration, adhesion and so on. However, it is unknown whether NHE1 is involved in HIF-1α-induced angiogenesis. This present study demonstrated that the expression of NHE1 was much higher in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) infected with adenovirus encoding HIF-1α (rAd-HIF) than with vacuum adenovirus (vAd). HIF-1α also increased the expression of VEGF, the expression and activity of calpains, and the intracellular pH. Moreover, small interfering RNA targeting NHE1 (NHE1 siRNA) dramatically decreased the expression of NHE1 and thus lowered the intracellular pH, and it also attenuated the protein expression of calpain-2 but not calpain-1, resulting in the lower calpain activity. Furthermore, HIF-1α enhanced the proliferation, migration and Matrigel tube formation, which were inhibited by NHE1 siRNA. Finally, the inhibitory effect of NHE1 siRNA was reversed by VEGF and the reversibility of the later was abrogated by the calpain inhibitor ALLM. In conclusion, the findings have revealed that NHE1 might participate in HIF-1-induced angiogenesis due, at least in part, to the alteration of the calpain activity, suggesting that NHE1 as well as calpains might represent a potential target of controlling angiogenesis in response to the hypoxic stress under various pathological conditions. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Calpain and STriatal-Enriched protein tyrosine phosphatase (STEP) activation contribute to extrasynaptic NMDA receptor localization in a Huntington's disease mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gladding, Clare M; Sepers, Marja D; Xu, Jian; Zhang, Lily Y J; Milnerwood, Austen J; Lombroso, Paul J; Raymond, Lynn A

    2012-09-01

    In Huntington's disease (HD), the mutant huntingtin (mhtt) protein is associated with striatal dysfunction and degeneration. Excitotoxicity and early synaptic defects are attributed, in part, to altered NMDA receptor (NMDAR) trafficking and function. Deleterious extrasynaptic NMDAR localization and signalling are increased early in yeast artificial chromosome mice expressing full-length mhtt with 128 polyglutamine repeats (YAC128 mice). NMDAR trafficking at the plasma membrane is regulated by dephosphorylation of the NMDAR subunit GluN2B tyrosine 1472 (Y1472) residue by STriatal-Enriched protein tyrosine Phosphatase (STEP). NMDAR function is also regulated by calpain cleavage of the GluN2B C-terminus. Activation of both STEP and calpain is calcium-dependent, and disruption of calcium homeostasis occurs early in the HD striatum. Here, we show increased calpain cleavage of GluN2B at both synaptic and extrasynaptic sites, and elevated extrasynaptic total GluN2B expression in the YAC128 striatum. Calpain inhibition significantly reduced extrasynaptic GluN2B expression in the YAC128 but not wild-type striatum. Furthermore, calpain inhibition reduced whole-cell NMDAR current and the surface/internal GluN2B ratio in co-cultured striatal neurons, without affecting synaptic GluN2B localization. Synaptic STEP activity was also significantly higher in the YAC128 striatum, correlating with decreased GluN2B Y1472 phosphorylation. A substrate-trapping STEP protein (TAT-STEP C-S) significantly increased VGLUT1-GluN2B colocalization, as well as increasing synaptic GluN2B expression and Y1472 phosphorylation. Moreover, combined calpain inhibition and STEP inactivation reduced extrasynaptic, while increasing synaptic GluN2B expression in the YAC128 striatum. These results indicate that increased STEP and calpain activation contribute to altered NMDAR localization in an HD mouse model, suggesting new therapeutic targets for HD.

  18. Calpain-5 gene variants are associated with diastolic blood pressure and cholesterol levels

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    Morón Francisco J

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Genes implicated in common complex disorders such as obesity, type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM or cardiovascular diseases are not disease specific, since clinically related disorders also share genetic components. Cysteine protease Calpain 10 (CAPN10 has been associated with T2DM, hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, increased body mass index (BMI and polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS, a reproductive disorder of women in which isunlin resistance seems to play a pathogenic role. The calpain 5 gene (CAPN5 encodes a protein homologue of CAPN10. CAPN5 has been previously associated with PCOS by our group. In this new study, we have analysed the association of four CAPN5 gene variants(rs948976A>G, rs4945140G>A, rs2233546C>T and rs2233549G>A with several cardiovascular risk factors related to metabolic syndrome in general population. Methods Anthropometric measurements, blood pressure, insulin, glucose and lipid profiles were determined in 606 individuals randomly chosen from a cross-sectional population-based epidemiological survey in the province of Segovia in Central Spain (Castille, recruited to investigate the prevalence of anthropometric and physiological parameters related to obesity and other components of the metabolic syndrome. Genotypes at the four polymorphic loci in CAPN5 gene were detected by polymerase chain reaction (PCR. Results Genotype association analysis was significant for BMI (p ≤ 0.041, diastolic blood pressure (p = 0.015 and HDL-cholesterol levels (p = 0.025. Different CAPN5 haplotypes were also associated with diastolic blood pressure (DBP (0.0005 ≤ p ≤ 0.006 and total cholesterol levels (0.001 ≤ p ≤ 0.029. In addition, the AACA haplotype, over-represented in obese individuals, is also more frequent in individuals with metabolic syndrome defined by ATPIII criteria (p = 0.029. Conclusion As its homologue CAPN10, CAPN5 seems to influence traits related to increased risk for cardiovascular diseases. Our

  19. Susceptibility of Phytomonas serpens to calpain inhibitors in vitro: interference on the proliferation, ultrastructure, cysteine peptidase expression and interaction with the invertebrate host

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Simone Santiago Carvalho; Gonçalves, Diego de Souza; Garcia-Gomes, Aline dos Santos; Gonçalves, Inês Correa; Seabra, Sergio Henrique; Menna-Barreto, Rubem Figueiredo; Lopes, Angela Hampshire de Carvalho Santos; D’Avila-Levy, Claudia Masini; dos Santos, André Luis Souza; Branquinha, Marta Helena

    2016-01-01

    A pleiotropic response to the calpain inhibitor MDL28170 was detected in the tomato parasite Phytomonas serpens. Ultrastructural studies revealed that MDL28170 caused mitochondrial swelling, shortening of flagellum and disruption of trans Golgi network. This effect was correlated to the inhibition in processing of cruzipain-like molecules, which presented an increase in expression paralleled by decreased proteolytic activity. Concomitantly, a calcium-dependent cysteine peptidase was detected in the parasite extract, the activity of which was repressed by pre-incubation of parasites with MDL28170. Flow cytometry and Western blotting analyses revealed the differential expression of calpain-like proteins (CALPs) in response to the pre-incubation of parasites with the MDL28170, and confocal fluorescence microscopy confirmed their surface location. The interaction of promastigotes with explanted salivary glands of the insect Oncopeltus fasciatus was reduced when parasites were pre-treated with MDL28170, which was correlated to reduced levels of surface cruzipain-like and gp63-like molecules. Treatment of parasites with anti-Drosophila melanogaster (Dm) calpain antibody also decreased the adhesion process. Additionally, parasites recovered from the interaction process presented higher levels of surface cruzipain-like and gp63-like molecules, with similar levels of CALPs cross-reactive to anti-Dm-calpain antibody. The results confirm the importance of exploring the use of calpain inhibitors in studying parasites’ physiology. PMID:27925020

  20. Preapoptotic protease calpain-2 is frequently suppressed in adult T-cell leukemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishihara, Makoto; Araya, Natsumi; Sato, Tomoo; Tatsuguchi, Ayako; Saichi, Naomi; Utsunomiya, Atae; Nakamura, Yusuke; Nakagawa, Hidewaki; Yamano, Yoshihisa

    2013-01-01

    Adult T-cell leukemia (ATL) is one of the most aggressive hematologic malignancies caused by human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) infection. The prognosis of ATL is extremely poor; however, effective strategies for diagnosis and treatment have not been established. To identify novel therapeutic targets and diagnostic markers for ATL, we employed focused proteomic profiling of the CD4+CD25+CCR4+ T-cell subpopulation in which HTLV-1–infected cells were enriched. Comprehensive quantification of 14 064 peptides and subsequent 2-step statistical analysis using 29 cases (6 uninfected controls, 5 asymptomatic carriers, 9 HTLV-1–associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis patients, 9 ATL patients) identified 91 peptide determinants that statistically classified 4 clinical groups with an accuracy rate of 92.2% by cross-validation test. Among the identified 17 classifier proteins, α-II spectrin was drastically accumulated in infected T cells derived from ATL patients, whereas its digestive protease calpain-2 (CAN2) was significantly downregulated. Further cell cycle analysis and cell growth assay revealed that rescue of CAN2 activity by overexpressing constitutively active CAN2 (Δ19CAN2) could induce remarkable cell death on ATL cells accompanied by reduction of α-II spectrin. These results support that proteomic profiling of HTLV-1–infected T cells could provide potential diagnostic biomarkers and an attractive resource of therapeutic targets for ATL. PMID:23538341

  1. KERAGAMAN GEN CALPASTATIN, CALPAIN 3 DAN MYOSTATIN PADA DOMBA DI UP3 JONGGOL

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    Cece Sumantri

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to identify the genetic polymorphisms of calpastatin (CAST, calpain 3 (CAPN3 and myostatin (MSTN on local sheep at Jonggol Animal Science Teaching and Research Unit (JASTRU. A total number of 294 blood samples were collected from JASTRU. The identification of polymorhism in CAST and CAPN3 genes performed by using Polymerase Chain Reaction-Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (PCR-RFLP while MSTN gene by using PCR-SSCP methods. The results showed that CAST|MspI, CAST|NcoI and CAPN3|MaeII loci were polymorphic, whereas The MSTN locus was monomorphic for G (1.0. The frequency of allele M (0.87 on the locus (CAST|MspI higher than the N allele (0.13. At locus CAST|NcoI, the frequency of allele M (0.96 higher than the N allele (0.04. At the CAPN3|MaeII, allele G (0.85 and allele T (0.15. Locus CAST|NcoI has higher observed heterozygosity (Ho = 0.92 compared to CAPN3|MaeII and CAST|MspI (Ho = 0.74-0.77, however has lower compared to CAPN3|MaeII and CAST|MspI in expected of heterozygosity (He = 0.08 vs 0.23-0.26 and in index fixation (Fis = -0.04 vs 0.03-0.12.

  2. Concurrent calpain and caspase-3 mediated proteolysis of alpha II-spectrin and tau in rat brain after methamphetamine exposure: a similar profile to traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, Matthew W; Kobeissy, Firas H; Liu, Ming Cheng; Hayes, Ronald L; Gold, Mark S; Wang, Kevin K W

    2005-12-05

    Neurotoxicity in rat cortex and hippocampus following acute methamphetamine administration was characterized and compared to changes following traumatic brain injury. Doses of 10, 20, and 40 mg/kg of methamphetamine produced significant increases in calpain- and caspase-cleaved alpha II-spectrin and tau protein fragments, suggesting cell injury or death. Changes in proteolytic products were significantly increased over vehicle controls. Use of fragment specific biomarkers detected prominent calpain-mediated protein fragments in the cortex and hippocampus while caspase-mediated protein fragments were also detected in the hippocampus. Remarkably, proteolytic product increases at the 40 mg/kg dose after 24 h were as high as those observed in experimental traumatic brain injury. Use of calpain and caspase proteolytic inhibitors may be useful in preventing methamphetamine-induced neurotoxicity.

  3. Rbfox1 downregulation and altered calpain 3 splicing by FRG1 in a mouse model of Facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy (FSHD.

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    Mariaelena Pistoni

    Full Text Available Facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy (FSHD is a common muscle disease whose molecular pathogenesis remains largely unknown. Over-expression of FSHD region gene 1 (FRG1 in mice, frogs, and worms perturbs muscle development and causes FSHD-like phenotypes. FRG1 has been implicated in splicing, and we asked how splicing might be involved in FSHD by conducting a genome-wide analysis in FRG1 mice. We find that splicing perturbations parallel the responses of different muscles to FRG1 over-expression and disease progression. Interestingly, binding sites for the Rbfox family of splicing factors are over-represented in a subset of FRG1-affected splicing events. Rbfox1 knockdown, over-expression, and RNA-IP confirm that these are direct Rbfox1 targets. We find that FRG1 is associated to the Rbfox1 RNA and decreases its stability. Consistent with this, Rbfox1 expression is down-regulated in mice and cells over-expressing FRG1 as well as in FSHD patients. Among the genes affected is Calpain 3, which is mutated in limb girdle muscular dystrophy, a disease phenotypically similar to FSHD. In FRG1 mice and FSHD patients, the Calpain 3 isoform lacking exon 6 (Capn3 E6- is increased. Finally, Rbfox1 knockdown and over-expression of Capn3 E6- inhibit muscle differentiation. Collectively, our results suggest that a component of FSHD pathogenesis may arise by over-expression of FRG1, reducing Rbfox1 levels and leading to aberrant expression of an altered Calpain 3 protein through dysregulated splicing.

  4. Modulation of intracellular calcium levels by calcium lactate affects colon cancer cell motility through calcium-dependent calpain.

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    Pasupathi Sundaramoorthy

    Full Text Available Cancer cell motility is a key phenomenon regulating invasion and metastasis. Focal adhesion kinase (FAK plays a major role in cellular adhesion and metastasis of various cancers. The relationship between dietary supplementation of calcium and colon cancer has been extensively investigated. However, the effect of calcium (Ca2+ supplementation on calpain-FAK-motility is not clearly understood. We sought to identify the mechanism of FAK cleavage through Ca2+ bound lactate (CaLa, its downstream signaling and role in the motility of human colon cancer cells. We found that treating HCT116 and HT-29 cells with CaLa immediately increased the intracellular Ca2+ (iCa2+ levels for a prolonged period of time. Ca2+ influx induced cleavage of FAK into an N-terminal FAK (FERM domain in a dose-dependent manner. Phosphorylated FAK (p-FAK was also cleaved in to its p-N-terminal FAK. CaLa increased colon cancer cells motility. Calpeptin, a calpain inhibitor, reversed the effects of CaLa on FAK and pFAK cleavage in both cancer cell lines. The cleaved FAK translocates into the nucleus and modulates p53 stability through MDM2-associated ubiquitination. CaLa-induced Ca2+ influx increased the motility of colon cancer cells was mediated by calpain activity through FAK and pFAK protein destabilization. In conclusion, these results suggest that careful consideration may be given in deciding dietary Ca2+ supplementation to patient undergoing treatment for metastatic cancer.

  5. Rbfox1 downregulation and altered calpain 3 splicing by FRG1 in a mouse model of Facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy (FSHD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pistoni, Mariaelena; Shiue, Lily; Cline, Melissa S; Bortolanza, Sergia; Neguembor, Maria Victoria; Xynos, Alexandros; Ares, Manuel; Gabellini, Davide

    2013-01-01

    Facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy (FSHD) is a common muscle disease whose molecular pathogenesis remains largely unknown. Over-expression of FSHD region gene 1 (FRG1) in mice, frogs, and worms perturbs muscle development and causes FSHD-like phenotypes. FRG1 has been implicated in splicing, and we asked how splicing might be involved in FSHD by conducting a genome-wide analysis in FRG1 mice. We find that splicing perturbations parallel the responses of different muscles to FRG1 over-expression and disease progression. Interestingly, binding sites for the Rbfox family of splicing factors are over-represented in a subset of FRG1-affected splicing events. Rbfox1 knockdown, over-expression, and RNA-IP confirm that these are direct Rbfox1 targets. We find that FRG1 is associated to the Rbfox1 RNA and decreases its stability. Consistent with this, Rbfox1 expression is down-regulated in mice and cells over-expressing FRG1 as well as in FSHD patients. Among the genes affected is Calpain 3, which is mutated in limb girdle muscular dystrophy, a disease phenotypically similar to FSHD. In FRG1 mice and FSHD patients, the Calpain 3 isoform lacking exon 6 (Capn3 E6-) is increased. Finally, Rbfox1 knockdown and over-expression of Capn3 E6- inhibit muscle differentiation. Collectively, our results suggest that a component of FSHD pathogenesis may arise by over-expression of FRG1, reducing Rbfox1 levels and leading to aberrant expression of an altered Calpain 3 protein through dysregulated splicing.

  6. Effects of a Caspase and a Calpain Inhibitor on Resting Energy Expenditures in Normal and Hypermetabolic Rats: a Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    VANA, P. G.; LAPORTE, H. M.; KENNEDY, R. H.; GAMELLI, R. L.; MAJETSCHAK, M.

    2017-01-01

    Summary Several diseases induce hypermetabolism, which is characterized by increases in resting energy expenditures (REE) and whole body protein loss. Exaggerated protein degradation is thought to be the driving force underlying this response. The effects of caspase and calpain inhibitors on REE in physiological and hypermetabolic conditions, however, are unknown. Thus, we studied whether MDL28170 (calpain inhibitor) or z-VAD-fmk (caspase inhibitor) affect REE under physiological conditions and during hypermetabolism post-burn. Rats were treated five times weekly and observed for 6 weeks. Treatment was started 2 h (early) or 48 h (late) after burn. In normal rats, MDL28170 transiently increased REE to 130 % of normal during week 2–4. z-VAD-fmk reduced REE by 20–25 % throughout the observation period. Within 14 days after burns, REE increased to 130±5 %. Whereas MDL28170/early treatment did not affect REE, MDL28170/late transiently increased REE to 180±10 % of normal by week 4 post-burn. In contrast, with z-VAD-fmk/early REE remained between 90–110 % of normal post-burn. z-VAD-fmk/late did not affect burn-induced increases in REE. These data suggest that caspase cascades contribute to the development of hypermetabolism and that burn-induced hypermetabolism can be pharmacologically modulated. Our data point towards caspase cascades as possible therapeutic targets to attenuate hypermetabolism after burns, and possibly in other catabolic disease processes. PMID:27070748

  7. Genetic disruption of calpain correlates with loss of membrane blebbing and differential expression of RhoGDI-1, cofilin and tropomyosin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Anna Karina; Lametsch, Rene; Elce, John S.

    2008-01-01

    blebbing was significantly reduced in calpain-knockout cells, and genetic rescue fully restored the wild-type phenotype in knockout cells. Proteomic comparison of wild-type and knockout cells identified decreased levels of RhoGDI-1 (Rho GDP-dissociation inhibitor) and cofilin 1, and increased levels...

  8. Human U87 astrocytoma cell invasion induced by interaction of βig-h3 with integrin α5β1 involves calpain-2.

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    Jie Ma

    Full Text Available It is known that βig-h3 is involved in the invasive process of many types of tumors, but its mechanism in glioma cells has not been fully clarified. Using immunofluorescent double-staining and confocal imaging analysis, and co-immunoprecipitation assays, we found that βig-h3 co-localized with integrin α5β1 in U87 cells. We sought to elucidate the function of this interaction by performing cell invasion assays and gelatin zymography experiments. We found that siRNA knockdowns of βig-h3 and calpain-2 impaired cell invasion and MMP secretion. Moreover, βig-h3, integrins and calpain-2 are known to be regulated by Ca(2+, and they are also involved in tumor cell invasion. Therefore, we further investigated if calpain-2 was relevant to βig-h3-integrin α5β1 interaction to affect U87 cell invasion. Our data showed that βig-h3 co-localized with integrin α5β1 to enhance the invasion of U87 cells, and that calpain-2, is involved in this process, acting as a downstream molecule.

  9. Reduced syncytin-1 expression in choriocarcinoma BeWo cells activates the calpain1-AIF-mediated apoptosis, implication for preeclampsia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Qiang; Chen, Haibin; Wang, Fengchao; Brost, Brian C; Li, Jinping; Gao, Yu; Li, Zongfang; Gao, Ya; Jiang, Shi-Wen

    2014-08-01

    Placentas associated with preeclampsia are characterized by extensive apoptosis in trophoblast lineages. Syncytin-1 (HERVWE1) mediates the fusion of cytotrophoblasts to form syncytiotrophoblasts, which assume the placental barrier, fetal-maternal exchange and endocrine functions. While decreased syncytin-1 expression has been observed in preeclamptic placentas, it is not clear if this alteration is involved in trophoblast apoptosis. In the current study, we found that siRNA-mediated knockdown of syncytin-1 led to apoptosis in choriocarcinoma BeWo, a cell line of trophoblastic origin. Characterization of the apoptotic pathways indicated that this effect does not rely on the activation of caspases. Rather, decreased syncytin-1 levels activated the apoptosis inducing factor (AIF) apoptotic pathway by inducing the expression, cleavage, and nuclear translocation of AIF. Moreover, calpain1, the cysteine protease capable of cleaving AIF, was upregulated by syncytin-1 knockdown. Furthermore, treatment with calpain1 inhibitor MDL28170 effectively reversed AIF cleavage, AIF nuclear translocation, and cell apoptosis triggered by syncytin-1 downregulation, verifying the specific action of calpain1-AIF pathway in trophoblast apoptosis. We confirmed that preeclamptic placentas express lower levels of syncytin-1 than normal placentas, and observed an inverse correlation between syncytin-1 and AIF/calpain1 mRNA levels, a result consistent with the in vitro findings. Immunohistochemistry analyses indicated decreased syncytin-1 and increased AIF and calpain1 protein levels in apoptotic cells of preeclamptic placentas. These findings have for the first time revealed that decreased levels of syncytin-1 can trigger the AIF-mediated apoptosis pathway in BeWo cells. This novel mechanism may contribute to the structural and functional deficiencies of syncytium frequently observed in preeclamptic placentas.

  10. Reduced syncytin-1 expression in chriocarcinoma BeWo cells activates the calpain1-AIF-mediated apoptosis, implication for preeclampsia

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    Huang, Qiang; Chen, Haibin; Wang, Fengchao; Brost, Brian C.; Li, Jinping; Gao, Yu; Li, Zongfang; Gao, Ya; Jiang, Shi-Wen

    2015-01-01

    Placentas associated with preeclampsia are characterized by extensive apoptosis in trophoblast lineages. Syncytin-1 (HERVWE1) mediates the fusion of cytotrophoblasts to form syncytiotrophoblasts, which assume the placental barrier, fetal-maternal exchange and endocrine functions. While decreased syncytin-1 expression has been observed in preeclamptic placentas, it is not clear if this alteration is involved in trophoblast apoptosis. In the current study we found that siRNA-mediated knockdown of syncytin-1 led to apoptosis in choriocarcinoma BeWo, a cell line of trophoblastic origin. Characterization of the apoptotic pathways indicated that this effect does not rely on the activation of caspases. Rather, decreased syncytin-1 levels activated the AIF apoptotic pathway by inducing the expression, cleavage, and nuclear translocation of AIF. Moreover, calpain1, the cysteine protease capable of cleaving AIF, was upregulated by syncytin-1 knockdown. Furthermore, treatment with calpain1 inhibitor MDL28170 effectively reversed AIF cleavage, AIF nuclear translocation, and cell apoptosis triggered by syncytin-1 downregulation, verifying the specific action of calpain1-AIF pathway in trophoblast apoptosis. We confirmed that preeclamptic placentas express lower levels of syncytin-1 than normal placentas, and observed an inverse correlation between syncytin-1 and AIF/calpain1 mRNA levels, a result consistent with the in vitro findings. Immunohistochemistry analyses indicated decreased syncytin-1, increased AIF and calpain1 protein levels in apoptotic cells of preeclamptic placentas. These findings have for the first time revealed that decreased levels of syncytin-1 can trigger the AIF-mediated apoptosis pathway in BeWo cells. This novel mechanism may contribute to the structural and functional deficiencies of syncytium frequently observed in preeclamptic placentas. PMID:24413738

  11. Similar to spironolactone, oxymatrine is protective in aldosterone-induced cardiomyocyte injury via inhibition of calpain and apoptosis-inducing factor signaling.

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    Ting-Ting Xiao

    Full Text Available Accumulating evidence indicates that oxymatrine (OMT possesses variously pharmacological properties, especially on the cardiovascular system. We previously demonstrated that activated calpain/apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF-mediated pathway was the key molecular mechanism in aldosterone (ALD induces cardiomyocytes apoptosis. In the present study, we extended the experimentation by investigating the effect of OMT on cardiomyocytes exposed to ALD, as compared to spironolactone (Spiro, a classical ALD receptor antagonist. Cardiomyocytes were pre-incubated with OMT, Spiro or vehicle for 1 h, and then, cardiomyocytes were exposed to ALD 24 h. The cell injury was evaluated by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT assay and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH leakage ratio. Apoptosis was determined by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick-end labeling (TUNEL assay, annexin V/PI staining, and relative caspase-3 activity assay. Furthermore, expression of pro-apoptotic proteins including truncated Bid (tBid, calpain and AIF were evaluated by western blot analysis. ALD stimulation increased cardiomyocytes apoptosis, caspase-3 activity and protein expression of calpain, tBid and AIF in the cytosol (p<0.05. Pre-incubated with cardiomyocytes injury and increased caspase-3 activity were significantly attenuated (p<0.05. Furthermore, OMT suppressed ALD-induced high expression of calpain and AIF. And these effects of OMT could be comparable to Spiro. These findings indicated that OMT might be a potential cardioprotective-agent against excessive ALD-induced cardiotoxicity, at least in part, mediated through inhibition of calpain/AIF signaling.

  12. Calpain and reactive oxygen species targets Bax for mitochondrial permeabilisation and caspase activation in zerumbone induced apoptosis.

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    Praveen K Sobhan

    Full Text Available Fluorescent protein based signaling probes are emerging as valuable tools to study cell signaling because of their ability to provide spatio- temporal information in non invasive live cell mode. Previously, multiple fluorescent protein probes were employed to characterize key events of apoptosis in diverse experimental systems. We have employed a live cell image based approach to visualize the key events of apoptosis signaling induced by zerumbone, the active principle from ginger Zingiber zerumbet, in cancer cells that enabled us to analyze prominent apoptotic changes in a hierarchical manner with temporal resolution. Our studies substantiate that mitochondrial permeabilisation and cytochrome c dependent caspase activation dominate in zerumbone induced cell death. Bax activation, the essential and early event of cell death, is independently activated by reactive oxygen species as well as calpains. Zerumbone failed to induce apoptosis or mitochondrial permeabilisation in Bax knockout cells and over-expression of Bax enhanced cell death induced by zerumbone confirming the essential role of Bax for mitochondrial permeabilsation. Simultaneous inhibition of reactive oxygen species and calpain is required for preventing Bax activation and cell death. However, apoptosis induced by zerumbone was prevented in Bcl 2 and Bcl-XL over-expressing cells, whereas more protection was afforded by Bcl 2 specifically targeted to endoplasmic reticulum. Even though zerumbone treatment down-regulated survival proteins such as XIAP, Survivin and Akt, it failed to affect the pro-apoptotic proteins such as PUMA and BIM. Multiple normal diploid cell lines were employed to address cytotoxic activity of zerumbone and, in general, mammary epithelial cells, endothelial progenitor cells and smooth muscle cells were relatively resistant to zerumbone induced cell death with lesser ROS accumulation than cancer cells.

  13. CRYβA3/A1-Crystallin Knockout Develops Nuclear Cataract and Causes Impaired Lysosomal Cargo Clearance and Calpain Activation.

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    Shylaja Hegde

    Full Text Available βA3/A1-crystallin is an abundant structural protein of the lens that is very critical for lens function. Many different genetic mutations have been shown to associate with different types of cataracts in humans and in animal models. βA3/A1-crystallin has four Greek key-motifs that organize into two crystallin domains. It shown to bind calcium with moderate affinity and has putative calcium-binding site. Other than in the lens, βA3/A1 is also expressed in retinal astrocytes, retinal pigment epithelial (RPE cells, and retinal ganglion cells. The function of βA3/A1-crystallin in the retinal cell types is well studied; however, a clear understanding of the function of this protein in the lens has not yet been established. In the current study, we generated the βA3/A1-crystallin knockout (KO mouse and explored the function of βA3/A1-crystallin in lens development. Our results showed that βA3-KO mice develop congenital nuclear cataract and exhibit persistent fetal vasculature condition. At the cellular level KO lenses show defective lysosomal clearance and accumulation of nuclei, mitochondria, and autophagic cargo in the outer cortical region of the lens. In addition, the calcium level and the expression and activity of calpain-3 were increased in KO lenses. Taken together, these results suggest the lack of βA3-crystallin function in lenses, alters calcium homeostasis which in turn causes lysosomal defects and calpain activation. These defects are responsible for the development of nuclear cataract in KO lenses.

  14. Calpain-Mediated Positional Information Directs Cell Wall Orientation to Sustain Plant Stem Cell Activity, Growth and Development.

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    Liang, Zhe; Brown, Roy C; Fletcher, Jennifer C; Opsahl-Sorteberg, Hilde-Gunn

    2015-09-01

    Eukaryotic development and stem cell control depend on the integration of cell positional sensing with cell cycle control and cell wall positioning, yet few factors that directly link these events are known. The DEFECTIVE KERNEL1 (DEK1) gene encoding the unique plant calpain protein is fundamental for development and growth, being essential to confer and maintain epidermal cell identity that allows development beyond the globular embryo stage. We show that DEK1 expression is highest in the actively dividing cells of seeds, meristems and vasculature. We further show that eliminating Arabidopsis DEK1 function leads to changes in developmental cues from the first zygotic division onward, altered microtubule patterns and misshapen cells, resulting in early embryo abortion. Expression of the embryonic marker genes WOX2, ATML1, PIN4, WUS and STM, related to axis organization, cell identity and meristem functions, is also altered in dek1 embryos. By monitoring cell layer-specific DEK1 down-regulation, we show that L1- and 35S-induced down-regulation mainly affects stem cell functions, causing severe shoot apical meristem phenotypes. These results are consistent with a requirement for DEK1 to direct layer-specific cellular activities and set downstream developmental cues. Our data suggest that DEK1 may anchor cell wall positions and control cell division and differentiation, thereby balancing the plant's requirement to maintain totipotent stem cell reservoirs while simultaneously directing growth and organ formation. A role for DEK1 in regulating microtubule-orchestrated cell wall orientation during cell division can explain its effects on embryonic development, and suggests a more general function for calpains in microtubule organization in eukaryotic cells. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Japanese Society of Plant Physiologists. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. A cardioprotective agent of a novel calpain inhibitor, SNJ-1945, exerts beta1 actions on left ventricular mechanical work and energetics.

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    Yoshikawa, Yoshiro; Zhang, Guo-Xing; Obata, Koji; Matsuyoshi, Hiroko; Asada, Keiji; Taniguchi, Shigeki; Takaki, Miyako

    2010-08-01

    We have previously shown that a newly developed calpain inhibitor, SNJ-1945 (SNJ), with good aqueous solubility prevents the heart from KCl arrest-reperfusion injury associated with the impairment of total Ca(2+) handling by inhibiting the proteolysis of alpha-fodrin as a cardioplegia. The aim of the present study was to investigate certain actions of this calpain inhibitor, SNJ, on left ventricular (LV) mechanical work and energetics in cross-circulated excised rat hearts undergoing blood perfusion with 40 microM SNJ. Mean end-systolic pressure at midrange LV volume and systolic pressure-volume area (PVA) at mLVV (a total mechanical energy/beat) were significantly increased by SNJ perfusion (P work and energetics mediated via beta(1)-adrenergic receptors associated with the enhancement of total Ca(2+) handling in excitation-contraction coupling and with unchanged contractile efficiency. In clinical settings, this pharmacological action of SNJ is beneficial as an additive agent for cardioplegia.

  16. Calpain- and caspase-mediated alphaII-spectrin and tau proteolysis in rat cerebrocortical neuronal cultures after ecstasy or methamphetamine exposure.

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    Warren, Matthew W; Zheng, Wenrong; Kobeissy, Firas H; Cheng Liu, Ming; Hayes, Ronald L; Gold, Mark S; Larner, Stephen F; Wang, Kevin K W

    2007-08-01

    Abuse of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA or Ecstasy) and methamphetamine (Meth or Speed) is a growing international problem with an estimated 250 million users of psychoactive drugs worldwide. It is important to demonstrate and understand the mechanism of neurotoxicity so potential prevention and treatment therapies can be designed. In this study rat primary cerebrocortical neuron cultures were challenged with MDMA and Meth (1 or 2 mM) for 24 and 48 h and compared to the excitotoxin N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA). The neurotoxicity of these drugs, as assessed by microscopy, lactate dehydrogenase release and immunoblot, was shown to be both dose- and time-dependent. Immunoblot analysis using biomarkers of cell death showed significant proteolysis of both alphaII-spectrin and tau proteins. Breakdown products of alphaII-spectrin (SBDPs) of 150, 145, and 120 kDa and tau breakdown products (TBDPs) of 45, 32, 26, and 14 kDa were observed. The use of the protease inhibitors calpain inhibitor SJA6017 and caspase inhibitors z-VAD-fmk and Z-D-DCB, attenuated drug-induced alphaII-spectrin and tau proteolysis. The calpain inhibitor reduced the calpain-induced breakdown products SBDP145 and TBDP14, but there was an offset increase in the caspase-mediated breakdown products SBDP120 and TBDP45. The caspase inhibitors, on the other hand, decreased SBDP120 and TBDP45. These data suggest that both MDMA and Meth trigger concerted proteolytic attacks of the structural proteins by both calpain and caspase family of proteases. The ability of the protease inhibitors to reduce the damage caused by these drugs suggests that the treatment arsenal could include similar drugs as possible tools to combat the drug-induced neurotoxicity in vivo.

  17. [Analgesic effect of calpain inhibitor ALLN on the zymosan-induced paw inflammatory pain and its effect on the expression of cyclooxygenase-2 in the spinal dorsal horn].

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    Wang, Jing-Jie; Chen, Guang-Jun; Chen, Wen; Du, Jin; Luo, Ai-Lun; Huang, Yu-Guang

    2012-02-01

    To examine the analgesic effect of calpain inhibitor ALLN on the zymosan-induced paw inflammatory pain and its effect on the expression of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) in the spinal dorsal horn. Forty-eight Sprague-Dawley rats were equally divided into three groups: control group, sham-operated group, and zymosan group. According to Meller's method, zymosan (1.25 mg) was injected intraplantarly to induce paw inflammation in zymosan group; an equal volume of PBS was administered in the sham-operated group. Mechanical withdrawal threshold (MWT) and maximum thickness of paw were tested or measured before and 0.5, 1, 2, 4, 8, and 24 hours after injection. All rats were killed at different occasions following surgery to examine calpain activity in the spinal dorsal horn with Western blot analysis. Another sixty-four Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into three groups: sham-operated group, zymosan-induced paw inflammation with intraperitoneal dimethyl sulphoxide (DMSO) treatment group, and zymosan-induced paw inflammation with intraperitoneal calpain inhibitor ALLN treatment group. MWT and maximum thickness of paw were tested or measured before and 0.5, 1, 2, 4, 8, and 24 hours after injection. All rats were killed at different occasions following surgery to examine the COX-2 expression in the spinal dorsal horn with Western blot analysis. MWT significantly decreased in the rats with zymosan-induced paw inflammation, while the maximum thickness of paw significantly increased, compared with control and sham-operated rats (P horn was dramatically activated after zymosan injection (P horn compared with DMSO treatment (P effective to attenuate zymosan-induced paw inflammatory pain. Calpain activation may be one aspect of the signaling cascade that increases the COX-2 expression in the spinal cord and contributes to mechanical hyperalgesia after peripheral inflammatory injury.

  18. FRET-FLIM investigation of PSD95-NMDA receptor interaction in dendritic spines; control by calpain, CaMKII and Src family kinase.

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    Kim Doré

    Full Text Available Little is known about the changes in protein interactions inside synapses during synaptic remodeling, as their live monitoring in spines has been limited. We used a FRET-FLIM approach in developing cultured rat hippocampal neurons expressing fluorescently tagged NMDA receptor (NMDAR and PSD95, two essential proteins in synaptic plasticity, to examine the regulation of their interaction. NMDAR stimulation caused a transient decrease in FRET between the NMDAR and PSD95 in spines of young and mature neurons. The activity of both CaMKII and calpain were essential for this effect in both developmental stages. Meanwhile, inhibition of Src family kinase (SFK had opposing impacts on this decrease in FRET in young versus mature neurons. Our data suggest concerted roles for CaMKII, SFK and calpain activity in regulating activity-dependent separation of PSD95 from GluN2A or GluN2B. Finally, we found that calpain inhibition reduced spine growth that was caused by NMDAR activity, supporting the hypothesis that PSD95-NMDAR separation is implicated in synaptic remodeling.

  19. A Functional Interplay between 5-Lipoxygenase and μ-Calpain Affects Survival and Cytokine Profile of Human Jurkat T Lymphocyte Exposed to Simulated Microgravity

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    Valeria Gasperi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A growing body of evidence strongly indicates that both simulated and authentic weightlessness exert a broad range of effects on mammalian tissues and cells, including impairment of immune cell function and increased apoptotic death. We previously reported that microgravity-dependent activation of 5-lipoxygenase (5-LOX might play a central role in the initiation of apoptosis in human T lymphocytes, suggesting that the upregulation of this enzyme might be (at least in part responsible for immunodepression observed in astronauts during space flights. Herein, we supplement novel information about the molecular mechanisms underlying microgravity-triggered apoptotic cell death and immune system deregulation, demonstrating that under simulated microgravity human Jurkat T cells increase the content of cytosolic DNA fragments and cytochrome c (typical hallmarks of apoptosis and have an upregulated expression and activity of µ-calpain. These events were paralleled by the unbalance of interleukin- (IL- 2 and interferon- (INF- γ, anti- and proapoptotic cytokines, respectively, that seemed to be dependent on the functional interplay between 5-LOX and µ-calpain. Indeed, we report unprecedented evidence that 5-LOX inhibition reduced apoptotic death, restored the initial IL-2/INF-γ ratio, and more importantly reverted µ-calpain activation induced by simulated microgravity.

  20. Decreased calpain activity in chronic myeloid leukemia impairs apoptosis by increasing survivin in myeloid progenitors and xiap1 in differentiating granulocytes

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    Huang, Weiqi; Bei, Ling; Hjort, Elizabeth E.; Eklund, Elizabeth A.

    2017-01-01

    Chronic Myeloid Leukemia (CML) is characterized by translocations between chromosomes 9 and 22, resulting in expression of Bcr-abl oncogenes. Although the clinical course of CML was revolutionized by development of Bcr-abl-directed tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs), CML is not cured by these agents. Specifically, the majority of subjects relapsed in clinical trials attempting TKI discontinuation, suggesting persistence of leukemia stem cells (LSCs) even in molecular remission. Identifying mechanisms of CML-LSC persistence may suggest rationale therapeutic targets to augment TKI efficacy and lead to cure. Apoptosis resistance is one proposed mechanism. In prior studies, we identified increased expression of Growth Arrest Specific 2 (Gas2; a Calpain inhibitor) in Bcr-abl+ bone marrow progenitor cells. A number of previously described Calpain substrates might influence apoptosis in CML, including βcatenin and the X-linked Inhibitor of Apoptosis Protein 1 (Xiap1). We previously found Gas2/Calpain dependent stabilization of βcatenin in CML, and increased expression of βcatenin target genes, including Survivin (also an IAP). In the current work, we investigate contributions of Survivin and Xiap1 to Fas-resistance in Bcr-abl+ bone marrow cells. Inhibitors of these proteins are currently in clinical trials for other malignancies, but a role for either IAP in CML-LSC persistence is unknown. PMID:28881589

  1. Changes of protein oxidation, calpain and cytoskeletal proteins (alpha tubulin and pNF-H) levels in rat brain after nerve agent poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    RamaRao, Golime; Acharya, J N; Bhattacharya, B K

    2011-06-24

    Highly toxic organophosphorus (OP) nerve agents, sarin and soman act by inhibiting acetylcholinesterase (AChE) function at neuronal synapses and cause many toxic effects including death within minutes. The effect of nerve agents on protein oxidation, calpain, and cytoskeletal protein levels was not well known. In the present study we investigated these parameters after subcutaneous injection of sarin (120 μg/kg) and soman (80 μg/kg) in the rat brain. Results indicate that several rat brain proteins were intensely oxidized after nerve agent poisoning. Immunoreactivity levels of μ-calpain were significantly elevated in cerebral cortex and cerebellum regions of rat brain from 2.5 h to 30 days. Alpha tubulin levels reduced from 1 to 7 days in the supernatant and 1 to 3 days in the pellet fractions of cerebellum and cerebral cortex, where as phosphorylation of high molecular weight neurofilament (pNF-H) was increased significantly in nerve agent intoxicated rat brains as compared to control rats. AChE activity was inhibited up to 3 days after nerve agent exposure in plasma and brain. Results suggest that altered protein oxidation, calpain and cytoskeletal protein levels are due to multiple mechanisms of nerve agents actions and these changes might be involved in nerve agent induced complex neurotoxicity. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Chronic administration of a leupeptin-derived calpain inhibitor fails to ameliorate severe muscle pathology in a canine model of Duchenne muscular dystrophy

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    Martin K Childers

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Calpains likely play a role in the pathogenesis of Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD. Accordingly, calpain inhibition may provide therapeutic benefit to DMD patients. In the present study, we sought to measure benefit from administration of a novel calpain inhibitor, C101, in a canine muscular dystrophy model. Specifically, we tested the hypothesis that treatment with C101 mitigates progressive weakness and severe muscle pathology observed in young dogs with golden retriever muscular dystrophy (GRMD. Young (6 week-old GRMD dogs were treated daily with either C101 (17mg/kg twice daily oral dose, n=9 or placebo (vehicle only, n=7 for 8 weeks. A battery of functional tests, including tibiotarsal joint angle, muscle/fat composition, and pelvic limb muscle strength were performed at baseline and every two weeks during the 8-week study. Results indicate that C101-treated GRMD dogs maintained strength in their cranial pelvic limb muscles (tibiotarsal flexors while placebo-treated dogs progressively lost strength. However, concomitant improvement was not observed in posterior pelvic limb muscles (tibiotarsal extensors. C101 treatment did not mitigate force drop following repeated eccentric contractions and no improvement was seen in the development of joint contractures, lean muscle mass or muscle histopathology. Taken together, these data do not support the hypothesis that treatment with C101 mitigates progressive weakness or ameliorates severe muscle pathology observed in young dogs with GRMD.

  3. Calpain inhibitors and antioxidants act synergistically to prevent cell necrosis: effects of the novel dual inhibitors (cysteine protease inhibitor and antioxidant) BN 82204 and its pro-drug BN 82270.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pignol, Bernadette; Auvin, Serge; Carré, Denis; Marin, Jean-Grégoire; Chabrier, Pierre-Etienne

    2006-08-01

    Cell death is a common feature observed in neurodegenerative disorders, and is often associated with calpain activation and overproduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS). This study investigated the use of calpain inhibitors and antioxidants in combination to protect cells against necrosis. Maitotoxin (MTX), which induces a massive influx of calcium, was used to provoke neuronal cell death. This toxin increased, in a concentration-dependent manner, both calpain activity and ROS formation. Calpain inhibitors or antioxidants inhibited MTX-induced necrosis only marginally (below 20%), whereas their association protected against cell death by 40-66% in a synergistic manner. BN 82204, which possesses both calpain-cathepsin L inhibitory and antioxidant properties, and its acetylated pro-drug BN 82270, totally protected cells at 100 microm. The pro-drug BN 82270, which had better cell penetration, was twice as effective as the active principle BN 82204 in protecting glioma C6 or neuroblastoma SHSY5Y cells against death. These results suggest the potential therapeutic relevance of using a single molecule with multiple activities (cysteine protease inhibitor/antioxidant), and warrant further in vivo investigations in models of neuronal disorders.

  4. Identification and association of the single nucleotide polymorphisms in calpain3 (CAPN3 gene with carcass traits in chickens

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    Du Hua-Rui

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this study is to screen single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP of chicken Calpain3 (CAPN3 gene and to analyze the potential association between CAPN3 gene polymorphisms and carcass traits in chickens. We screened CAPN3 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP in 307 meat-type quality chicken from 5 commercial pure lines (S01, S02, S03, S05, and D99 and 4 native breeds from Guangdong Province (Huiyang Huxu chicken and Qingyuan Ma chicken and Sichuan Province (Caoke chicken and Shandi Black-bone chicken, China. Results Two SNPs (11818T>A and 12814T>G were detected by single strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP method and were verified by DNA sequencing. Association analysis showed that the 12814T>G genotypes were significantly associated with body weight (BW, carcass weight (CW, breast muscle weight (BMW, and leg muscle weight (LMW. Haplotypes constructed on the two SNPs (H1, TG; H2, TT; H3, AG; and H4, AT were associated with BW, CW (P P Conclusion We speculated that the CAPN3 gene was a major gene affecting chicken muscle growth and carcass traits or it was linked with the major gene(s. Diplotypes H1H2 and H2H2 might be advantageous for carcass traits.

  5. Real-time CARS imaging reveals a calpain-dependent pathway for paranodal myelin retraction during high-frequency stimulation.

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    Terry B Huff

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available High-frequency electrical stimulation is becoming a promising therapy for neurological disorders, however the response of the central nervous system to stimulation remains poorly understood. The current work investigates the response of myelin to electrical stimulation by laser-scanning coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS imaging of myelin in live spinal tissues in real time. Paranodal myelin retraction at the nodes of Ranvier was observed during 200 Hz electrical stimulation. Retraction was seen to begin minutes after the onset of stimulation and continue for up to 10 min after stimulation was ceased, but was found to reverse after a 2 h recovery period. The myelin retraction resulted in exposure of Kv 1.2 potassium channels visualized by immunofluorescence. Accordingly, treating the stimulated tissue with a potassium channel blocker, 4-aminopyridine, led to the appearance of a shoulder peak in the compound action potential curve. Label-free CARS imaging of myelin coupled with multiphoton fluorescence imaging of immuno-labeled proteins at the nodes of Ranvier revealed that high-frequency stimulation induced paranodal myelin retraction via pathologic calcium influx into axons, calpain activation, and cytoskeleton degradation through spectrin break-down.

  6. Calpain inhibition reduces amplitude and accelerates decay of the late sodium current in ventricular myocytes from dogs with chronic heart failure.

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    Albertas Undrovinas

    Full Text Available Calpain is an intracellular Ca²⁺-activated protease that is involved in numerous Ca²⁺ dependent regulation of protein function in many cell types. This paper tests a hypothesis that calpains are involved in Ca²⁺-dependent increase of the late sodium current (INaL in failing heart. Chronic heart failure (HF was induced in 2 dogs by multiple coronary artery embolization. Using a conventional patch-clamp technique, the whole-cell INaL was recorded in enzymatically isolated ventricular cardiomyocytes (VCMs in which INaL was activated by the presence of a higher (1 μM intracellular [Ca²⁺] in the patch pipette. Cell suspensions were exposed to a cell- permeant calpain inhibitor MDL-28170 for 1-2 h before INaL recordings. The numerical excitation-contraction coupling (ECC model was used to evaluate electrophysiological effects of calpain inhibition in silico. MDL caused acceleration of INaL decay evaluated by the two-exponential fit (τ₁ = 42±3.0 ms τ₂ = 435±27 ms, n = 6, in MDL vs. τ₁ = 52±2.1 ms τ₂ = 605±26 control no vehicle, n = 11, and vs. τ₁ = 52±2.8 ms τ₂ = 583±37 ms n = 7, control with vehicle, P<0.05 ANOVA. MDL significantly reduced INaL density recorded at -30 mV (0.488±0.03, n = 12, in control no vehicle, 0.4502±0.0210, n = 9 in vehicle vs. 0.166±0.05pA/pF, n = 5, in MDL. Our measurements of current-voltage relationships demonstrated that the INaL density was decreased by MDL in a wide range of potentials, including that for the action potential plateau. At the same time the membrane potential dependency of the steady-state activation and inactivation remained unchanged in the MDL-treated VCMs. Our ECC model predicted that calpain inhibition greatly improves myocyte function by reducing the action potential duration and intracellular diastolic Ca²⁺ accumulation in the pulse train.Calpain inhibition reverses INaL changes in failing dog ventricular

  7. Pharmacological inhibition of caspase and calpain proteases: a novel strategy to enhance the homing responses of cord blood HSPCs during expansion.

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    V M Sangeetha

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Expansion of hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells (HSPCs is a well-known strategy employed to facilitate the transplantation outcome. We have previously shown that the prevention of apoptosis by the inhibition of cysteine proteases, caspase and calpain played an important role in the expansion and engraftment of cord blood (CB derived HSPCs. We hypothesize that these protease inhibitors might have maneuvered the adhesive and migratory properties of the cells rendering them to be retained in the bone marrow for sustained engraftment. The current study was aimed to investigate the mechanism of the homing responses of CB cells during expansion. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: CB derived CD34(+ cells were expanded using a combination of growth factors with and without Caspase inhibitor -zVADfmk or Calpain 1 inhibitor- zLLYfmk. The cells were analyzed for the expression of homing-related molecules. In vitro adhesive/migratory interactions and actin polymerization dynamics of HSPCs were assessed. In vivo homing assays were carried out in NOD/SCID mice to corroborate these observations. We observed that the presence of zVADfmk or zLLYfmk (inhibitors caused the functional up regulation of CXCR4, integrins, and adhesion molecules, reflecting in a higher migration and adhesive interactions in vitro. The enhanced actin polymerization and the RhoGTPase protein expression complemented these observations. Furthermore, in vivo experiments showed a significantly enhanced homing to the bone marrow of NOD/SCID mice. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Our present study reveals another novel aspect of the regulation of caspase and calpain proteases in the biology of HSPCs. The priming of the homing responses of the inhibitor-cultured HSPCs compared to the cytokine-graft suggests that the modulation of these proteases may help in overcoming the major homing defects prevalent in the expansion cultures thereby facilitating the manipulation of cells for transplant

  8. Distinct molecular regulation of glycogen synthase kinase-3alpha isozyme controlled by its N-terminal region: functional role in calcium/calpain signaling.

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    Azoulay-Alfaguter, Inbar; Yaffe, Yakey; Licht-Murava, Avital; Urbanska, Malgorzata; Jaworski, Jacek; Pietrokovski, Shmuel; Hirschberg, Koret; Eldar-Finkelman, Hagit

    2011-04-15

    Glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK-3) is expressed as two isozymes α and β. They share high similarity in their catalytic domains but differ in their N- and C-terminal regions, with GSK-3α having an extended glycine-rich N terminus. Here, we undertook live cell imaging combined with molecular and bioinformatic studies to understand the distinct functions of the GSK-3 isozymes focusing on GSK-3α N-terminal region. We found that unlike GSK-3β, which shuttles between the nucleus and cytoplasm, GSK-3α was excluded from the nucleus. Deletion of the N-terminal region of GSK-3α resulted in nuclear localization, and treatment with leptomycin B resulted in GSK-3α accumulation in the nucleus. GSK-3α rapidly accumulated in the nucleus in response to calcium or serum deprivation, and accumulation was strongly inhibited by the calpain inhibitor calpeptin. This nuclear accumulation was not mediated by cleavage of the N-terminal region or phosphorylation of GSK-3α. Rather, we show that calcium-induced GSK-3α nuclear accumulation was governed by GSK-3α binding with as yet unknown calpain-sensitive protein or proteins; this binding was mediated by the N-terminal region. Bioinformatic and experimental analyses indicated that nuclear exclusion of GSK-3α was likely an exclusive characteristic of mammalian GSK-3α. Finally, we show that nuclear localization of GSK-3α reduced the nuclear pool of β-catenin and its target cyclin D1. Taken together, these data suggest that the N-terminal region of GSK-3α is responsible for its nuclear exclusion and that binding with a calcium/calpain-sensitive product enables GSK-3α nuclear retention. We further uncovered a novel link between calcium and nuclear GSK-3α-mediated inhibition of the canonical Wnt/β-catenin pathway.

  9. Mechanical Stimulation of C2C12 Cells Increases m-Calpain Expression and Activity, Focal Adhesion Plaque Degradation and Cell Fusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grossi, Alberto; Lawson, Moira Ann; Karlsson, Anders H

    to stretch- or load-induced signaling is now beginning to be understood as a factor which affects gene sequences, protein synthesis and an increase in Ca2+ infux in myocytes. Evidence of the involvement of Ca2+ dependent activity in myoblast fusion, cell membrane and cytoskeleton component reorganization due......Abstract Mechanical Stimulation of C2C12 Cells Increases m-calpain Expression and Activity, Focal Adhesion Plaque Degradation and Cell Fusion A. Grossi, A. H. Karlsson, M. A. Lawson; Department of Dairy and Food Science, Royal Veterinary and Agricultural University, Frederiksberg C, Denmark...

  10. Calpain/SHP-1 interaction by honokiol dampening peritoneal dissemination of gastric cancer in nu/nu mice.

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    Shing Hwa Liu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Honokiol, a small-molecular weight natural product, has previously been reported to activate apoptosis and inhibit gastric tumorigenesis. Whether honokiol inhibits the angiogenesis and metastasis of gastric cancer cells remains unknown. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We tested the effects of honokiol on angiogenic activity and peritoneal dissemination using in vivo, ex vivo and in vitro assay systems. The signaling responses in human gastric cancer cells, human umbilical vascular endothelial cells (HUVECs, and isolated tumors were detected and analyzed. In a xenograft gastric tumor mouse model, honokiol significantly inhibited the peritoneal dissemination detected by PET/CT technique. Honokiol also effectively attenuated the angiogenesis detected by chick chorioallantoic membrane assay, mouse matrigel plug assay, rat aortic ring endothelial cell sprouting assay, and endothelial cell tube formation assay. Furthermore, honokiol effectively enhanced signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT-3 dephosphorylation and inhibited STAT-3 DNA binding activity in human gastric cancer cells and HUVECs, which was correlated with the up-regulation of the activity and protein expression of Src homology 2 (SH2-containing tyrosine phosphatase-1 (SHP-1. Calpain-II inhibitor and siRNA transfection significantly reversed the honokiol-induced SHP-1 activity. The decreased STAT-3 phosphorylation and increased SHP-1 expression were also shown in isolated peritoneal metastatic tumors. Honokiol was also capable of inhibiting VEGF generation, which could be reversed by SHP-1 siRNA transfection. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Honokiol increases expression and activity of SPH-1 that further deactivates STAT3 pathway. These findings also suggest that honokiol is a novel and potent inhibitor of angiogenesis and peritoneal dissemination of gastric cancer cells, providing support for the application potential of honokiol in gastric cancer therapy.

  11. Variation at the Calpain 3 gene is associated with meat tenderness in zebu and composite breeds of cattle

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    Bunch Rowan J

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Quantitative Trait Loci (QTL affecting meat tenderness have been reported on Bovine chromosome 10. Here we examine variation at the Calpain 3 (CAPN3 gene in cattle, a gene located within the confidence interval of the QTL, and which is a positional candidate gene based on the biochemical activity of the protein. Results We identified single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP in the genomic sequence of the CAPN3 gene and tested three of these in a sample of 2189 cattle. Of the three SNP genotyped, the CAPN3:c.1538+225G>T had the largest significant additive effect, with an allele substitution effect in the Brahman of α = -0.144 kg, SE = 0.060, P = 0.016, and the polymorphism explained 1.7% of the residual phenotypic variance in that sample of the breed. Significant haplotype substitution effects were found for all three breeds, the Brahman, the Belmont Red, and the Santa Gertrudis. For the common haplotype, the haplotype substitution effect in the Brahman was α = 0.169 kg, SE = 0.056, P = 0.003. The effect of this gene was compared to Calpastatin in the same sample. The SNP show negligible frequencies in taurine breeds and low to moderate minor allele frequencies in zebu or composite animals. Conclusion These associations confirm the location of a QTL for meat tenderness in this region of bovine chromosome 10. SNP in or near this gene may be responsible for part of the overall difference between taurine and zebu breeds in meat tenderness, and the greater variability in meat tenderness found in zebu and composite breeds. The evidence provided so far suggests that none of these tested SNP are causative mutations.

  12. Neuroprotection of vestibular sensory cells from gentamicin ototoxicity obtained using nitric oxide synthase inhibitors, reactive oxygen species scavengers, brain-derived neurotrophic factors and calpain inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takumida, Masaya; Anniko, Matti; Shimizu, Akira; Watanabe, Hiroshi

    2003-01-01

    In order to devise a new treatment for inner ear disorders, the efficacy of a nitric oxide synthase inhibitor (L-N(G)-nitroarginine methylester [L-NAME]), a radical scavenger (D-methionine), a neurotrophin (brain-derived neurotrophic factor [BDNF]) and a calpain inhibitor (leupeptin) for protection from hair cell damage was investigated. The effects of these drugs on gentamicin-induced production of nitric oxide (NO) and reactive oxygen species (ROS) were studied by means of the fluorescence indicators 4,5-diaminofluorescein diacetate and dihydrotetramethylrosamine. The effect on gentamicin-induced vestibular hair cell damage was examined by using an in vitro LIVE/DEAD system. L-NAME inhibited the production of NO, D-methionine and BDNF restricted the production of ROS and leupeptin inhibited neither NO nor ROS. All the drugs used limited the vestibular hair cell damage caused by gentamicin. The combinations L-NAME + BDNF, L-NAME + leupeptin and D-methionine + BDNF had a significantly stronger preventive effect on hair cell damage. It is suggested that combined treatment with a radical inhibitor and either a neurotrophin or calpain inhibitor may help to treat inner ear disorders more effectively.

  13. Inhibitors of cysteine cathepsin and calpain do not prevent ultraviolet-B-induced apoptosis in human keratinocytes and HeLa cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bang, Bo; Baadsgaard, Ole; Skov, Lone

    2004-01-01

    been demonstrated to play a role in the execution of programmed cell death induced by other stimuli, e.g. TNF-alpha. The purpose of the present study was therefore to investigate whether inhibitors of cysteine cathepsins and calpains could prevent UVB-induced apoptosis in HeLa cells and keratinocytes....... This was done by investigating the effect of the irreversible cysteine protease inhibitor zFA-fmk, the cathepsin B inhibitor CA-074-Me and the calpain inhibitor ALLN on the viability of UVB-irradiated human keratinocytes and HeLa cells. At concentrations of 10 microM and above zVAD-fmk conferred partial dose......-dependent protection against UVB-induced apoptosis in HeLa cells and keratinocytes. Moreover, caspase-3 activity was completely blocked at zVAD-fmk concentrations of 1 microM in HeLa cells. This indicates that caspase-independent mechanisms could be involved in UVB-induced apoptosis. However, the protease inhibitors z...

  14. Comparison of protein degradation, protein oxidation, and μ-calpain activation between pale, soft, and exudative and red, firm, and nonexudative pork during postmortem aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Y; Zhang, W G; Zhou, G H; Guo, B

    2014-08-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the differences in protein modifications between pale, soft, and exudative (PSE) and red, firm, and nonexudative (RFN) pork during postmortem (PM) aging. Longissimus dorsi (LD) including 8 PSE and 8 RFN muscles were individually removed from 16 carcasses. These 16 LD muscles were vacuum packaged at 24 h after slaughter and stored at 4°C for 1, 3, and 5 d. The centrifugation loss, drip loss, color, protein solubility, protein oxidation, protein degradation including desmin, troponin T, and integrin, and μ-calpain activation were determined. The pH of PSE samples was significantly lower than that of RFN samples at both 1 and 24 h PM (P 0.05). In addition, PSE pork presented a lower solubility of sarcoplasmic protein, myofibrillar protein, and total protein than RFN pork except the solubility of myofibrillar protein at d 1 (P degradation products of integrin were detected in PSE pork compared to that of RFN pork at d 1 (P Red, firm, and nonexudative pork presented lower intensity of intact 80 kDa calpain and greater intensity of autolyzed 76 kDa product compared to PSE pork (P degradation including desmin and integrin, and the level of protein solubility in PSE pork could contribute to its low water holding capacity during PM storage.

  15. Variants within the calpain-10 gene on chromosome 2q37 (NIDDM1) and relationships to type 2 diabetes, insulin resistance, and impaired acute insulin secretion among Scandinavian Caucasians

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Søren K; Urhammer, Søren A; Berglund, Lars Erik

    2002-01-01

    Variations in the calpain-10 gene (CAPN10) have been identified among Mexican-Americans, and an at-risk haplotype combination (112/121) defined by three polymorphisms, UCSNP-43, -19, and -63, confers increased risk of type 2 diabetes. Here we examine the three polymorphisms in 1,594 Scandinavian ...

  16. Effects of polymorphisms in the calpastatin and μ-calpain genes on meat tenderness in 3 French beef breeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allais, S; Journaux, L; Levéziel, H; Payet-Duprat, N; Raynaud, P; Hocquette, J F; Lepetit, J; Rousset, S; Denoyelle, C; Bernard-Capel, C; Renand, G

    2011-01-01

    The objectives of the study were to evaluate allelic frequencies and to test the association of polymorphisms in the calpastatin (CAST) and µ-calpain (CAPN1) genes with meat tenderness in 3 French beef breeds. A total of 1,114 Charolais, 1,254 Limousin, and 981 Blonde d'Aquitaine purebred young bulls were genotyped for 3 SNP in the CAST gene and 4 SNP in the CAPN1 gene. Two of these markers, 1 in each gene, can be found in Australian or American commercial genetic tests. Others have previously been reported in American studies or are newly evidenced SNP. The quantitative traits studied were Warner-Bratzler shear force and a tenderness score evaluated by trained sensory panels. All the SNP were informative in the 3 breeds. Associations of individual markers or haplotypes with traits were analyzed. The results differed in the 3 breeds. The G allele of a CAST marker (position 97574679 on Btau4.0) was found to exert a significant effect on the shear force (+0.18 phenotypic SD; RSD) and tenderness score (-0.22 RSD) in the Blonde d'Aquitaine breed. In the same breed, this marker was associated with another CAST SNP (position 97576054 on Btau4.0) such that the GA haplotype appeared to be associated with tougher meat. Two CAPN1 markers (positions 45221250 and 45241089 on Btau4.0) had a significant effect on both traits in the Charolais breed (from |0.11| to |0.25| RSD). In the same breed, these markers were associated with another CAPN1 SNP (position 45219395 on Btau4.0) such that the ACA and AGG haplotypes appeared to be associated with a tender meat and a tougher meat, respectively. Consequently, the present results indicate that the effects of the markers studied are breed-specific and cannot be extended to all Bos taurus breeds. Further studies are also required to identify other more appropriate markers for French beef breeds.

  17. EspC, an Autotransporter Protein Secreted by Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli, Causes Apoptosis and Necrosis through Caspase and Calpain Activation, Including Direct Procaspase-3 Cleavage

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    Antonio Serapio-Palacios

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC has the ability to antagonize host apoptosis during infection through promotion and inhibition of effectors injected by the type III secretion system (T3SS, but the total number of these effectors and the overall functional relationships between these effectors during infection are poorly understood. EspC produced by EPEC cleaves fodrin, paxillin, and focal adhesion kinase (FAK, which are also cleaved by caspases and calpains during apoptosis. Here we show the role of EspC in cell death induced by EPEC. EspC is involved in EPEC-mediated cell death and induces both apoptosis and necrosis in epithelial cells. EspC induces apoptosis through the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway by provoking (i a decrease in the expression levels of antiapoptotic protein Bcl-2, (ii translocation of the proapoptotic protein Bax from cytosol to mitochondria, (iii cytochrome c release from mitochondria to the cytoplasm, (iv loss of mitochondrial membrane potential, (v caspase-9 activation, (vi cleavage of procaspase-3 and (vii an increase in caspase-3 activity, (viii PARP proteolysis, and (ix nuclear fragmentation and an increase in the sub-G1 population. Interestingly, EspC-induced apoptosis was triggered through a dual mechanism involving both independent and dependent functions of its EspC serine protease motif, the direct cleavage of procaspase-3 being dependent on this motif. This is the first report showing a shortcut for induction of apoptosis by the catalytic activity of an EPEC protein. Furthermore, this atypical intrinsic apoptosis appeared to induce necrosis through the activation of calpain and through the increase of intracellular calcium induced by EspC. Our data indicate that EspC plays a relevant role in cell death induced by EPEC.

  18. µ-Calpain conversion of antiapoptotic Bfl-1 (BCL2A1 into a prodeath factor reveals two distinct alpha-helices inducing mitochondria-mediated apoptosis.

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    Juan García Valero

    Full Text Available Anti-apoptotic Bfl-1 and pro-apoptotic Bax, two members of the Bcl-2 family sharing a similar structural fold, are classically viewed as antagonist regulators of apoptosis. However, both proteins were reported to be death inducers following cleavage by the cysteine protease µ-calpain. Here we demonstrate that calpain-mediated cleavage of full-length Bfl-1 induces the release of C-terminal membrane active α-helices that are responsible for its conversion into a pro-apoptotic factor. A careful comparison of the different membrane-active regions present in the Bfl-1 truncated fragments with homologous domains of Bax show that helix α5, but not α6, of Bfl-1 induces cell death and cytochrome c release from purified mitochondria through a Bax/Bak-dependent mechanism. In contrast, both helices α5 and α6 of Bax permeabilize mitochondria regardless of the presence of Bax or Bak. Moreover, we provide evidence that the α9 helix of Bfl-1 promotes cytochrome c release and apoptosis through a unique membrane-destabilizing action whereas Bax-α9 does not display such activities. Hence, despite a common 3D-structure, C-terminal toxic domains present on Bfl-1 and Bax function in a dissimilar manner to permeabilize mitochondria and induce apoptosis. These findings provide insights for designing therapeutic approaches that could exploit the cleavage of endogenous Bcl-2 family proteins or the use of Bfl-1/Bax-derived peptides to promote tumor cell clearance.

  19. The combination of lithium and L-Dopa/Carbidopa reduces MPTP-induced abnormal involuntary movements (AIMs) via calpain-1 inhibition in a mouse model: relevance for Parkinson's disease therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazzara, Carol A.; Riley, Rebeccah R.; Rane, Anand; Andersen, Julie K.; Kim, Yong-Hwan

    2015-01-01

    Lithium has recently been suggested to have neuroprotective effects in several models of neurodegenerative disease including Parkinson’s disease (PD). Levodopa (L-Dopa) replacement therapy remains the most common and effective treatment for PD, although it induces the complication of L-Dopa induced dyskinesia after years of use. Here we examined the potential use of lithium in combination with L-Dopa/Carbidopa for both reducing MPTP-induced abnormal involuntary movements (AIMs) as well as protecting against cell death in MPTP-lesioned mice. Chronic lithium administration (0.127% LiCl in the feed) in the presence of daily L-Dopa/Carbidopa injection for a period of 2 months was sufficient to effectively reduce MPTP-induced AIMs in mice. Mechanistically, lithium was found to suppress MPTP-induced calpain activities in vivo coinciding with down-regulation of calpain-1 but not calpain-2 expression in both the striatum (ST) and the brain stem (BS). Calpain inhibition has previously been associated with increased levels of the rate-limiting enzyme in dopamine synthesis, tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), which is probably mediated by the up-regulation of the transcription factors MEF-2A and 2D. Lithium was found to induce up-regulation of TH expression in the ST and the BS, as well as in N27 rat dopaminergic cells. Further, histone acetyltransferase (HAT) expression was substantially up-regulated by lithium treatment in vitro. These results suggest the potential use of lithium in combination with L-Dopa/Carbidopa not only as a neuroprotectant, but also for reducing AIMs and possibly alleviating potential side-effects associated with the current treatment for PD. PMID:26119916

  20. Quercetin glycosides and chlorogenic acid in highbush blueberry leaf decoction prevent cataractogenesis in vivo and in vitro: Investigation of the effect on calpains, antioxidant and metal chelating properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferlemi, Anastasia-Varvara; Makri, Olga E; Mermigki, Penelope G; Lamari, Fotini N; Georgakopoulos, Constantinos D

    2016-04-01

    The present study investigates whether highbush blueberry leaf polyphenols prevent cataractogenesis and the underlying mechanisms. Chlorogenic acid, quercetin, rutin, isoquercetin and hyperoside were quantified in Vaccinium corymbosum leaf decoction (BBL) using HPLC-DAD. Wistar rats were injected subcutaneously with 20 μmol selenite (Na2SeO3)/kg body weight on postnatal (PN) day 10 (Se, n = 8-10/group) only or also intraperitoneally with 100 mg dry BBL/kg body weight on PN days 11 and 12 (SeBBL group, n = 10). Control group received only normal saline (C). Cataract evaluation revealed that BBL significantly prevented lens opacification. It, also, protected lens from selenite oxidative attack and prevented calpain activation, as well as protein loss and aggregation. In vitro studies showed that quercetin attenuated porcine lens turbidity caused by [Formula: see text] or Ca(2+) and interacted efficiently with those ions according to UV-Vis titration experiments. Finally, rutin, isoquercetin and hyperoside moderately inhibited pure human μ-calpain. Conclusively, blueberry leaf extract, a rich source of bioactive polyphenols, prevents cataractogenesis by their strong antioxidant, chelating properties and through direct/indirect inhibition of lens calpains. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Calpain3 is expressed in a proteolitically active form in papillomavirus-associated urothelial tumors of the urinary bladder in cattle.

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    Sante Roperto

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Calpain 3 (Capn3, also named p94, is a skeletal muscle tissue-specific protein known to be responsible for limb-girdle muscular dystrophy type 2A (LGMD2A. Recent experimental studies have hypothesized a pro-apoptotic role of Capn3 in some melanoma cell lines. So far the link between calpain3 and tumors comes from in vitro studies. The objective of this study was to describe Capn3 activation in naturally occurring urothelial tumors of the urinary bladder in cattle. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Here we describe, for the first time in veterinary and comparative oncology, the activation of Capn3 in twelve urothelial tumor cells of the urinary bladder of cattle. Capn3 protein was initially identified with nanoscale liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (nano LC-MS/MS in a co-immunoprecipitation experiment on E2F3, known to be a transcription factor playing a crucial role in bladder carcinogenesis in humans. Capn3 expression was then confirmed by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR. Finally, the Ca(2+-dependent proteolytic activity of Capn3 was assayed following ion exchange chromatography. Morphologically, Capn3 expression was documented by immunohistochemical methods. In fact numerous tumor cells showed an intracytoplasmic immunoreactivity, which was more rarely evident also at nuclear level. In urothelial tumors, bovine papillomavirus type 2 (BPV-2 DNA was amplified by PCR and the expression of E5 protein, the major oncogenic protein of BVP-2, was detected by western blotting, immunohistochemistry, and immunofluorescence. E2F3 overexpression and pRb protein downregulation were shown by western blotting. CONCLUSION: The role of capn3 protein in urothelial cancer of the urinary bladder remains to be elucidated: further studies would be required to determine the precise function of this protease in tumor development and progression. However, we suggest that activated Capn3 may be involved in molecular

  2. Novel Bioinformatics-Based Approach for Proteomic Biomarkers Prediction of Calpain-2 & Caspase-3 Protease Fragmentation: Application to βII-Spectrin Protein

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Assaad, Atlal; Dawy, Zaher; Nemer, Georges; Kobeissy, Firas

    2017-01-01

    The crucial biological role of proteases has been visible with the development of degradomics discipline involved in the determination of the proteases/substrates resulting in breakdown-products (BDPs) that can be utilized as putative biomarkers associated with different biological-clinical significance. In the field of cancer biology, matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) have shown to result in MMPs-generated protein BDPs that are indicative of malignant growth in cancer, while in the field of neural injury, calpain-2 and caspase-3 proteases generate BDPs fragments that are indicative of different neural cell death mechanisms in different injury scenarios. Advanced proteomic techniques have shown a remarkable progress in identifying these BDPs experimentally. In this work, we present a bioinformatics-based prediction method that identifies protease-associated BDPs with high precision and efficiency. The method utilizes state-of-the-art sequence matching and alignment algorithms. It starts by locating consensus sequence occurrences and their variants in any set of protein substrates, generating all fragments resulting from cleavage. The complexity exists in space O(mn) as well as in O(Nmn) time, where N, m, and n are the number of protein sequences, length of the consensus sequence, and length per protein sequence, respectively. Finally, the proposed methodology is validated against βII-spectrin protein, a brain injury validated biomarker.

  3. Association of Calpain (CAPN) 10 (UCSNP-43, rs3792267) gene polymorphism with elevated serum androgens in young women with the most severe phenotype of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anastasia, Karela; Koika, Vasiliki; Roupas, Nikolaos D; Armeni, Anastasia; Marioli, Dimitra; Panidis, Dimitrios; George, Adonakis; Georgopoulos, Neoklis A

    2015-01-01

    To highlight a possible association of Calpain (CAPN 10) gene UCSNP-43 polymorphism with hormonal and metabolic traits of young women with different phenotypes of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). PCOS women were genotyped for the CAPN 10 gene UCSNP-43 polymorphism. A comparison of clinical and biochemical features of women with PCOS stratified on the basis of the CAPN 10 gene UCSNP-43 variants was assessed. Anthropometric, hormonal and biochemical measurements were carried out in 668 PCOS women and 200 healthy controls. Subjects were also genotyped for the CAPN 10 gene UCSNP-43 polymorphism. The genotype frequency distributions between groups and controls were compared using the chi-square test. The association of the polymorphism with the clinical and biochemical features of the study cohort was estimated as well. No association of the frequency of CAPN 10 gene UCSNP-43 polymorphism with PCOS was detected. No association of the polymorphism with the anthropometric, biochemical and hormonal features was detected both in PCOS and control women. The polymorphism was associated with serum Δ4 androstenedione (p = 0.018), as well as with 17-OH progesterone (17-hydroxyprogesterone) among women with PCOS phenotype A (p = 0.012). CAPN 10 gene polymorphism UCSNP-43 is deprived of a metabolic contribution to cardiovascular disease (CVD). However, due to its association with androgen excess in phenotype A, CAPN 10 gene polymorphism UCSNP-43 could be used as a genetic marker for CVD in young PCOS women.

  4. 2-(4-Methoxyphenyl)ethyl-2-acetamido-2-deoxy-β-D-pyranoside confers neuroprotection in cell and animal models of ischemic stroke through calpain1/PKA/CREB-mediated induction of neuronal glucose transporter 3

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    Yu, Shu; Cheng, Qiong; Li, Lu; Liu, Mei; Yang, Yumin; Ding, Fei, E-mail: dingfei@ntu.edu.cn

    2014-06-15

    Salidroside is proven to be a neuroprotective agent of natural origin, and its analog, 2-(4-Methoxyphenyl)ethyl-2-acetamido-2-deoxy-β-D-pyranoside (named SalA-4 g), has been synthesized in our lab. In this study, we showed that SalA-4 g promoted neuronal survival and inhibited neuronal apoptosis in primary hippocampal neurons exposed to oxygen and glucose deprivation (OGD) and in rats subjected to ischemia by transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO), respectively, and that SalA-4 g was more neuroprotective than salidroside. We further found that SalA-4 g elevated glucose uptake in OGD-injured primary hippocampal neurons and increased the expression and recruitment of glucose transporter 3 (GLUT3) in ischemic brain. Signaling analysis revealed that SalA-4 g triggered the phosphorylation of CREB, and increased the expression of PKA RII in primary hippocampal neurons exposed to OGD injury, while inhibition of PKA/CREB by H-89 alleviated the elevation in glucose uptake and GLUT3 expression, and blocked the protective effects of SalA-4 g. Moreover, SalA-4 g was noted to inhibit intracellular Ca{sup 2+} influx and calpain1 activation in OGD-injured primary hippocampal neurons. Our results suggest that SalA-4 g neuroprotection might be mediated by increased glucose uptake and elevated GLUT3 expression through calpain1/PKA/CREB pathway. - Highlights: • A salidroside (Sal) analog (SalA-4 g) is prepared to be more neuroprotective than Sal. • SalA-4 g protected hippocampal neurons from oxygen and glucose deprivation insult. • SalA-4 g reduced ischemic injury after transient middle cerebral artery occlusion in rats. • Neuroprotection of SalA-4 g was mediated by GLUT3 level via calpain/PKA/CREB pathway.

  5. Common polymorphisms of calpain-10 and the risk of Type 2 Diabetes in a Tunisian Arab population: a case-control study

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    Mahjoub Touhami

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Genetic variations in the calpain-10 gene (CAPN10, in particular the at-risk diplotype (112/121, were previously implicated with increased risk of type 2 diabetes (T2D. Methods We examined the association of CAPN10 UCSNP-43 (rs3792267, UCSNP-19 (rs3842570, and UCSNP-63 (rs5030952 SNPs with T2D in 917 Tunisian T2D patients and 748 non-diabetic controls. CAPN10 genotyping was done by PCR-RFLP. Results Enrichment of UCSNP-19 2R (minor allele and 2R/2R genotype was found in T2D patients; the allele and genotype distribution of UCSNP-43 and UCSNP-63 alleles and genotypes were not significantly different between patient groups and non-diabetic control subjects. Regression analysis demonstrated progressive increases in T2D risk in 3R/2R [OR (95% CI = 1.35 (1.08 - 1.68] and 2R/2R [OR (95% CI = 1.61 (1.20 - 2.18] genotypes. Of the six haplotypes detected, enrichment of haplotype 111 (UCSNP-43/UCSNP-19/UCSNP-63 was seen in patients (Pc = 0.034; the distribution of the other haplotypes was comparable between patients and control subjects; neither haplotype 211 nor haplotype 212 was observed. Furthermore, the frequency of all CAPN10 diplotypes identified, including the "high-risk diplotype (112/121 reported for Mexican-Americans and Northern Europeans, were comparable between patients and controls. Conclusions CAPN10 UCSNP-19 variant, and the 111 haplotype contribute to the risk of T2D in Tunisian subjects; no significant associations between CAPN10 diplotypes and T2D were demonstrated for Tunisians.

  6. Arsenic exposure and calpain-10 polymorphisms impair the function of pancreatic beta-cells in humans: a pilot study of risk factors for T2DM.

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    Andrea Díaz-Villaseñor

    Full Text Available The incidence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM is increasing worldwide and diverse environmental and genetic risk factors are well recognized. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in the calpain-10 gene (CAPN-10, which encodes a protein involved in the secretion and action of insulin, and chronic exposure to inorganic arsenic (iAs through drinking water have been independently associated with an increase in the risk for T2DM. In the present work we evaluated if CAPN-10 SNPs and iAs exposure jointly contribute to the outcome of T2DM. Insulin secretion (beta-cell function and insulin sensitivity were evaluated indirectly through validated indexes (HOMA2 in subjects with and without T2DM who have been exposed to a gradient of iAs in their drinking water in northern Mexico. The results were analyzed taking into account the presence of the risk factor SNPs SNP-43 and -44 in CAPN-10. Subjects with T2DM had significantly lower beta-cell function and insulin sensitivity. An inverse association was found between beta-cell function and iAs exposure, the association being more pronounced in subjects with T2DM. Subjects without T2DM who were carriers of the at-risk genotype SNP-43 or -44, also had significantly lower beta-cell function. The association of SNP-43 with beta-cell function was dependent on iAs exposure, age, gender and BMI, whereas the association with SNP-44 was independent of all of these factors. Chronic exposure to iAs seems to be a risk factor for T2DM in humans through the reduction of beta-cell function, with an enhanced effect seen in the presence of the at-risk genotype of SNP-43 in CAPN-10. Carriers of CAPN-10 SNP-44 have also shown reduced beta-cell function.

  7. [Association analysis of SNP-63 and indel-19 variant in the calpain-10 gene with polycystic ovary syndrome in women of reproductive age].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores-Martínez, Silvia Esperanza; Castro-Martínez, Anna Gabriela; López-Quintero, Andrés; García-Zapién, Alejandra Guadalupe; Torres-Rodríguez, Ruth Noemí; Sánchez-Corona, José

    2015-01-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome is a complex and heterogeneous disease involving both reproductive and metabolic problems. It has been suggested a genetic predisposition in the etiology of this syndrome. The identification of calpain-10 gene (CAPN10) as the first candidate gene for type 2 diabetes mellitus, has focused the interest in investigating their possible relation with the polycystic ovary syndrome, because this syndrome is associated with hyperinsulinemia and insulin resistance, two metabolic abnormalities associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus. To investigate if there is association between the SNP-63 and the variant indel-19 of the CAPN10 gene and polycystic ovary syndrome in women of reproductive age. This study included 101 women (55 with polycystic ovary syndrome and 46 without polycystic ovary syndrome). The genetic variant indel-19 was identified by electrophoresis of the amplified fragments by PCR, and the SNP-63 by PCR-RFLP. The allele and genotype frequencies of the two variants do not differ significatly between women with polycystic ovary syndrome and control women group. The haplotype 21 (defined by the insertion allele of indel-19 variant and C allele of SNP-63) was found with higher frequency in both study groups, being more frequent in the polycystic ovary syndrome patients group, however, this difference was not statistically significant (p = 0.8353). The results suggest that SNP-63 and indel-19 variant of the CAPN10 gene do not represent a risk factor for polycystic ovary syndrome in our patients group. Copyright © 2015. Published by Masson Doyma México S.A.

  8. Assessing optimal neural network architecture for identifying disease-associated multi-marker genotypes using a permutation test, and application to calpain 10 polymorphisms associated with diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    North, B V; Curtis, D; Cassell, P G; Hitman, G A; Sham, P C

    2003-07-01

    Biallelic markers, such as single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), provide greater information for localising disease loci when treated as multilocus haplotypes, but often haplotypes are not immediately available from multilocus genotypes in case-control studies. An artificial neural network allows investigation of association between disease phenotype and tightly linked markers without requiring haplotype phase and without modelling any evolutionary history for the disease-related haplotypes. The network assesses whether marker haplotypes differ between cases and controls to the extent that classification of disease status based on multi-marker genotypes is achievable. The network is "trained" to "recognise" affection status based on supplied marker genotypes, and then for each multi-marker genotype it produces outputs which aim to approximate the associated affection status. Next, the genotypes are permuted relative to affection status to produce many random datasets and the process of training and recording of outputs is repeated. The extent to which the ability to predict affection for the real dataset exceeds that for the random datasets measures the statistical significance of the association between multi-marker genotype and affection. This permutation test performs well with simulated case-control datasets, particularly when major gene effects are present. We have explored the effects of systematically varying different network parameters in order to identify their optimal values. We have applied the permutation test to 4 SNPs of the calpain 10 (CAPN10) gene typed in a case-control sample of subjects with type 2 diabetes, impaired glucose tolerance, and controls. We show that the neural network produces more highly significant evidence for association than do single marker tests corrected for the number of markers genotyped. The use of a permutation test could potentially allow conditional analyses which could incorporate known risk factors alongside marker

  9. Arsenic Exposure and Calpain-10 Polymorphisms Impair the Function of Pancreatic Beta-Cells in Humans: A Pilot Study of Risk Factors for T2DM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz-Villaseñor, Andrea; Cruz, Laura; Cebrián, Arturo; Hernández-Ramírez, Raúl U.; Hiriart, Marcia; García-Vargas, Gonzálo; Bassol, Susana; Sordo, Monserrat; Gandolfi, A. Jay; Klimecki, Walter T.; López-Carillo, Lizbeth; Cebrián, Mariano E.; Ostrosky-Wegman, Patricia

    2013-01-01

    The incidence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is increasing worldwide and diverse environmental and genetic risk factors are well recognized. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the calpain-10 gene (CAPN-10), which encodes a protein involved in the secretion and action of insulin, and chronic exposure to inorganic arsenic (iAs) through drinking water have been independently associated with an increase in the risk for T2DM. In the present work we evaluated if CAPN-10 SNPs and iAs exposure jointly contribute to the outcome of T2DM. Insulin secretion (beta-cell function) and insulin sensitivity were evaluated indirectly through validated indexes (HOMA2) in subjects with and without T2DM who have been exposed to a gradient of iAs in their drinking water in northern Mexico. The results were analyzed taking into account the presence of the risk factor SNPs SNP-43 and -44 in CAPN-10. Subjects with T2DM had significantly lower beta-cell function and insulin sensitivity. An inverse association was found between beta-cell function and iAs exposure, the association being more pronounced in subjects with T2DM. Subjects without T2DM who were carriers of the at-risk genotype SNP-43 or -44, also had significantly lower beta-cell function. The association of SNP-43 with beta-cell function was dependent on iAs exposure, age, gender and BMI, whereas the association with SNP-44 was independent of all of these factors. Chronic exposure to iAs seems to be a risk factor for T2DM in humans through the reduction of beta-cell function, with an enhanced effect seen in the presence of the at-risk genotype of SNP-43 in CAPN-10. Carriers of CAPN-10 SNP-44 have also shown reduced beta-cell function. PMID:23349674

  10. Association of two synonymous splicing-associated CpG single nucleotide polymorphisms in calpain 10 and solute carrier family 2 member 2 with type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karambataki, Maria; Malousi, Andigoni; Tzimagiorgis, Georgios; Haitoglou, Constantinos; Fragou, Aikaterini; Georgiou, Elisavet; Papadopoulou, Foteini; Krassas, Gerasimos E; Kouidou, Sofia

    2017-02-01

    Coding synonymous single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) have attracted little attention until recently. However, such SNPs located in epigenetic, CpG sites modifying exonic splicing enhancers (ESEs) can be informative with regards to the recently verified association of intragenic methylation and splicing. The present study describes the association of type 2 diabetes (T2D) with the exonic, synonymous, epigenetic SNPs, rs3749166 in calpain 10 (CAPN10) glucose transporter (GLUT4) translocator and rs5404 in solute carrier family 2, member 2 (SLC2A2), also termed GLUT2, which, according to prior bioinformatic analysis, strongly modify the splicing potential of glucose transport-associated genes. Previous association studies reveal that only rs5404 exhibits a strong negative T2D association, while data on the CAPN10 polymorphism are contradictory. In the present study DNA from blood samples of 99 Greek non-diabetic control subjects and 71 T2D patients was analyzed. In addition, relevant publicly available cases (40) resulting from examination of 110 Personal Genome Project data files were analyzed. The frequency of the rs3749166 A allele, was similar in the patients and non-diabetic control subjects. However, AG heterozygotes were more frequent among patients (73.24% for Greek patients and 54.55% for corresponding non-diabetic control subjects; P=0.0262; total cases, 52.99 and 75.00%, respectively; P=0.0039). The rs5404 T allele was only observed in CT heterozygotes (Greek non-diabetic control subjects, 39.39% and Greek patients, 22.54%; P=0.0205; total cases, 34.69 and 21.28%, respectively; P=0.0258). Notably, only one genotype, heterozygous AG/CC, was T2D-associated (Greek non-diabetic control subjects, 29.29% and Greek patients, 56.33%; P=0.004; total cases, 32.84 and 56.58%, respectively; P=0.0008). Furthermore, AG/CC was strongly associated with very high (≥8.5%) glycosylated plasma hemoglobin levels among patients (P=0.0002 for all cases). These results reveal

  11. Calpain-Dependent Proteolysis of the Androgen Receptor

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-11-01

    for internal non-commercial research and education use, including for instruction at the authors institution and sharing with colleagues. Other uses...Giovannucci, M.J. Stampfer, K. Krithivas, M. Brown, D. Dahl, A. Brufsky, J. Talcott , C.H. Hennekens, P.W. Kantoff, The CAG repeat within the androgen...Amorino, S.J. Parsons , Neuroendocrine cells in prostate cancer, Critical Reviews in Eukaryotic Gene Expression 14 (2004) 287–300. [43] J.C. Reubi, S

  12. UniProt search blastx result: AK287903 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK287903 J065211G19 O08529|CAN2_MOUSE Calpain-2 catalytic subunit precursor (EC 3.4.22.53) (Calpain...-2 large subunit) (Calcium-activated neutral proteinase 2) (CANP 2) (Calpain M-type) (M-calpain) (Millimolar-calpain...) (80 kDa M-calpain subunit) (CALP80) - Mus musculus (Mouse) 0 ...

  13. UniProt search blastx result: AK287903 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK287903 J065211G19 P17655|CAN2_HUMAN Calpain-2 catalytic subunit precursor (EC 3.4.22.53) (Calpain...-2 large subunit) (Calcium-activated neutral proteinase 2) (CANP 2) (Calpain M-type) (M-calpain) (Millimolar-calpain...) (Calpain large polypeptide L2) - Homo sapiens (Human) 0 ...

  14. SwissProt search result: AK064381 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK064381 002-108-E01 (O08529) Calpain-2 catalytic subunit (EC 3.4.22.53) (Calpain-2... large subunit) (Calcium-activated neutral proteinase 2) (CANP 2) (Calpain M-type) (M-calpain) (Millimolar-calpain) (80 kDa M-calpain subunit) (CALP80) CAN2_MOUSE 5e-53 ...

  15. SwissProt search result: AK064381 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK064381 002-108-E01 (P17655) Calpain-2 catalytic subunit (EC 3.4.22.53) (Calpain-2... large subunit) (Calcium-activated neutral proteinase 2) (CANP 2) (Calpain M-type) (M-calpain) (Millimolar-calpain) (Calpain large polypeptide L2) CAN2_HUMAN 2e-53 ...

  16. SwissProt search result: AK072218 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK072218 J013167O21 (O08529) Calpain-2 catalytic subunit (EC 3.4.22.53) (Calpain-2 ...large subunit) (Calcium-activated neutral proteinase 2) (CANP 2) (Calpain M-type) (M-calpain) (Millimolar-calpain) (80 kDa M-calpain subunit) (CALP80) CAN2_MOUSE 1e-38 ...

  17. SwissProt search result: AK072218 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK072218 J013167O21 (P17655) Calpain-2 catalytic subunit (EC 3.4.22.53) (Calpain-2 ...large subunit) (Calcium-activated neutral proteinase 2) (CANP 2) (Calpain M-type) (M-calpain) (Millimolar-calpain) (Calpain large polypeptide L2) CAN2_HUMAN 6e-40 ...

  18. Ancestral founder mutations in calpain-3 in the Indian Agarwal community: historical, clinical, and molecular perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ankala, Arunkanth; Kohn, Jordan N; Dastur, Rashna; Gaitonde, Pradnya; Khadilkar, Satish V; Hegde, Madhuri R

    2013-06-01

    Clinical heterogeneity of limb-girdle muscular dystrophies (LGMDs, 24 known subtypes), which includes overlapping phenotypes and varying ages of onset and morbidity, adds complexity to clinical and molecular diagnoses. To diagnose LGMD subtype, protein analysis, using immunohistochemistry (IHC) and immunoblotting, was followed by gene sequencing through a panel approach (simultaneous sequencing of known LGMD genes) in 9 patients from unrelated families of the Indian Agarwal community. Haplotype studies were performed by targeted SNP genotyping to establish mutation segregation. We identified 2 founder mutations in CAPN3, a missense (c.2338G>C; p.D780H) and a splice-site (c.2099-1G>T) mutation, on 2 different haplotype backgrounds. The patients were either heterozygous for both or homozygous for either of these mutations. Founder mutations have immediate clinical application, at least in selected population groups. Clinically available gene panels may provide a definitive molecular diagnosis for heterogeneous disorders such as LGMD. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Granulocyte colony-stimulating factor delays neutrophil apoptosis by inhibition of calpains upstream of caspase-3

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Raam, Bram J.; Drewniak, Agata; Groenewold, Vincent; van den Berg, Timo K.; Kuijpers, Taco W.

    2008-01-01

    Neutrophils have a very short life span and undergo apoptosis within 24 hours after leaving the bone marrow. Granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) is essential for the recruitment of fresh neutrophils from the bone marrow but also delays apoptosis of mature neutrophils. To determine the

  20. Dexamethasone enhances necrosis-like neuronal death in ischemic rat hippocampus involving μ-calpain activation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Müller, Georg Johannes; Hasseldam, Henrik; Rasmussen, Rune Skovgaard

    2014-01-01

    Transient forebrain ischemia (TFI) leads to hippocampal CA1 pyramidal cell death which is aggravated by glucocorticoids (GC). It is unknown how GC affect apoptosis and necrosis in cerebral ischemia. We therefore investigated the co-localization of activated caspase-3 (casp-3) with apoptosis- and ...

  1. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK072218 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK072218 J013167O21 At1g55350.4 calpain-type cysteine protease family identical to calpain...-like protein GI:20268660 from [Arabidopsis thaliana]; contains Pfam profiles: PF00648 Calpain family... cysteine protease, PF01067 Calpain large subunit,domain III; identical to cDNA calpain-like protein GI:20268659 1e-150 ...

  2. SwissProt search result: AK064381 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK064381 002-108-E01 (Q07009) Calpain-2 catalytic subunit (EC 3.4.22.53) (Calpain-2... large subunit) (Calcium-activated neutral proteinase 2) (CANP 2) (Calpain M-type) (M-calpain) (Millimolar-calpain) CAN2_RAT 9e-52 ...

  3. SwissProt search result: AK072218 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK072218 J013167O21 (Q92178) Calpain-2 catalytic subunit (EC 3.4.22.53) (Calpain-2 ...large subunit) (Calcium-activated neutral proteinase 2) (CANP 2) (Calpain M-type) (M-calpain) (Millimolar-calpain) CAN2_CHICK 3e-38 ...

  4. UniProt search blastx result: AK287903 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK287903 J065211G19 Q07009|CAN2_RAT Calpain-2 catalytic subunit precursor (EC 3.4.22.53) (Calpain...-2 large subunit) (Calcium-activated neutral proteinase 2) (CANP 2) (Calpain M-type) (M-calpain) (Millimolar-calpain) - Rattus norvegicus (Rat) 0 ...

  5. SwissProt search result: AK064381 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK064381 002-108-E01 (P06814) Calpain-2 catalytic subunit (EC 3.4.22.53) (Calpain-2... large subunit) (Calcium-activated neutral proteinase 2) (CANP 2) (Calpain M-type) (M-calpain) (Millimolar-calpain) (Fragment) CAN2_RABIT 6e-16 ...

  6. UniProt search blastx result: AK287903 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK287903 J065211G19 P06814|CAN2_RABIT Calpain-2 catalytic subunit (EC 3.4.22.53) (Calpain...-2 large subunit) (Calcium-activated neutral proteinase 2) (CANP 2) (Calpain M-type) (M-calpain) (Millimolar-calpain) (Fragment) - Oryctolagus cuniculus (Rabbit) 0 ...

  7. UniProt search blastx result: AK287903 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK287903 J065211G19 Q92178|CAN2_CHICK Calpain-2 catalytic subunit precursor (EC 3.4.22.53) (Calpain...-2 large subunit) (Calcium-activated neutral proteinase 2) (CANP 2) (Calpain M-type) (M-calpain) (Millimolar-calpain) - Gallus gallus (Chicken) 0 ...

  8. SwissProt search result: AK072218 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK072218 J013167O21 (Q07009) Calpain-2 catalytic subunit (EC 3.4.22.53) (Calpain-2 ...large subunit) (Calcium-activated neutral proteinase 2) (CANP 2) (Calpain M-type) (M-calpain) (Millimolar-calpain) CAN2_RAT 4e-38 ...

  9. UniProt search blastx result: AK287903 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK287903 J065211G19 P43367|CAN2_PIG Calpain-2 catalytic subunit (EC 3.4.22.53) (Calpain...-2 large subunit) (Calcium-activated neutral proteinase 2) (CANP 2) (Calpain M-type) (M-calpain) (Millimolar-calpain) (Fragment) - Sus scrofa (Pig) 0 ...

  10. SwissProt search result: AK064381 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK064381 002-108-E01 (Q9GLG1) Calpain-2 catalytic subunit (EC 3.4.22.53) (Calpain-2... large subunit) (Calcium-activated neutral proteinase 2) (CANP 2) (Calpain M-type) (M-calpain) (Millimolar-calpain) CAN2_MACFA 3e-53 ...

  11. SwissProt search result: AK059278 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK059278 001-025-C08 (Q92178) Calpain-2 catalytic subunit (EC 3.4.22.53) (Calpain-2... large subunit) (Calcium-activated neutral proteinase 2) (CANP 2) (Calpain M-type) (M-calpain) (Millimolar-calpain) CAN2_CHICK 1e-11 ...

  12. UniProt search blastx result: AK287903 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK287903 J065211G19 Q9GLG1|CAN2_MACFA Calpain-2 catalytic subunit precursor (EC 3.4.22.53) (Calpain...-2 large subunit) (Calcium-activated neutral proteinase 2) (CANP 2) (Calpain M-type) (M-calpain) (Millimolar-calpain

  13. SwissProt search result: AK064381 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK064381 002-108-E01 (Q92178) Calpain-2 catalytic subunit (EC 3.4.22.53) (Calpain-2... large subunit) (Calcium-activated neutral proteinase 2) (CANP 2) (Calpain M-type) (M-calpain) (Millimolar-calpain) CAN2_CHICK 1e-51 ...

  14. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK121261 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK121261 J023104H13 At1g55350.4 calpain-type cysteine protease family identical to calpain...-like protein GI:20268660 from [Arabidopsis thaliana]; contains Pfam profiles: PF00648 Calpain family... cysteine protease, PF01067 Calpain large subunit,domain III; identical to cDNA calpain-like protein GI:20268659 0.0 ...

  15. SwissProt search result: AK072218 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK072218 J013167O21 (Q9GLG1) Calpain-2 catalytic subunit (EC 3.4.22.53) (Calpain-2 ...large subunit) (Calcium-activated neutral proteinase 2) (CANP 2) (Calpain M-type) (M-calpain) (Millimolar-calpain) CAN2_MACFA 8e-40 ...

  16. SwissProt search result: AK103409 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK103409 J033128E16 (Q92178) Calpain-2 catalytic subunit (EC 3.4.22.53) (Calpain-2 ...large subunit) (Calcium-activated neutral proteinase 2) (CANP 2) (Calpain M-type) (M-calpain) (Millimolar-calpain) CAN2_CHICK 3e-11 ...

  17. SwissProt search result: AK072218 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK072218 J013167O21 (P06814) Calpain-2 catalytic subunit (EC 3.4.22.53) (Calpain-2 ...large subunit) (Calcium-activated neutral proteinase 2) (CANP 2) (Calpain M-type) (M-calpain) (Millimolar-calpain) (Fragment) CAN2_RABIT 2e-16 ...

  18. Effect of ageing and μ-calpain markers on meat quality from Brangus steers finished on pasture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzucco, Juliana Papaleo; Melucci, Lilia M; Villarreal, Edgardo L; Mezzadra, Carlos A; Soria, Liliana; Corva, Pablo; Motter, Mariana M; Schor, Alejandro; Miquel, María C

    2010-11-01

    Brangus steers (n=247) finished on pasture were used to evaluate the effects of post-mortem ageing and polymorphism CAPN1 316 and CAPN1 4751 markers on meat tenderness and objective colour measurements (CIEL*a*b*) of m. Longissimus dorsi. Ageing meat for 7 days decreased shear force (SF) by 13.7% and improved a* (8.4%) and b* (10%) compared to ageing for 1 day. No difference between 7 and 14 days of ageing was found for SF, a* and b*. However, L* increased markedly with ageing. Fitting both markers simultaneously, CAPN1 316 showed association with SF and L* and CAPN1 4751 with a* and b*. Fitting the markers individually, CAPN1 4751 affected all traits and CAPN1 316 showed association with SF and L*. Post-mortem ageing and the use of markers represent two independent and alternative tools that could be used for improving quality of meat from Brangus cattle. Copyright © 2010 The American Meat Science Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Calpain inhibition prevents pacing-induced cellular remodeling in a HL-1 myocyte model for atrial fibrillation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brundel, BJJM; Kampinga, HH; Henning, RH

    2004-01-01

    Objective: Atrial fibrillation (AF) is a progressive disease. Previously, clinical and animal experimental studies in AF revealed a variety of myocyte remodeling processes including L-type Ca(2+) channel reduction and structural changes, which finally result in electrical remodeling and contractile

  20. Accumulation of human full-length tau induces degradation of nicotinic acetylcholine receptor ?4 via activating calpain-2

    OpenAIRE

    Yaling Yin; Yali Wang; Di Gao; Jinwang Ye; Xin Wang; Lin Fang; Dongqin Wu; Guilin Pi; Chengbiao Lu; Xin-Wen Zhou; Ying Yang; Jian-Zhi Wang

    2016-01-01

    Cholinergic impairments and tau accumulation are hallmark pathologies in sporadic Alzheimer?s disease (AD), however, the intrinsic link between tau accumulation and cholinergic deficits is missing. Here, we found that overexpression of human wild-type full-length tau (termed hTau) induced a significant reduction of ?4 subunit of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) with an increased cleavage of the receptor producing a ~55kDa fragment in primary hippocampal neurons and in the rat brains...

  1. Mechanical stimuli activation of calpain is required for myoblast differentiation and occurs via an ERK/MAP kinase signaling pathway

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grossi, Alberto; Karlsson, Anders H; Lawson, Moira Ann

    tissues. Stimulation due to stretch- or load-induced signaling is now beginning to be understood as a factor which affects various signal transduction pathways, gene sequences and protein synthesis. Evidence of the involvement of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascade activation in myoblast...

  2. Mechanical stimulation of C2C12 cells increases m-calpain expression, focal adhesion plaque protein degradation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grossi, Alberto; Karlsson, Anders H; Lawson, Moira Ann

    2008-01-01

    Myogenesis is a complex sequence of events, including the irreversible transition from the proliferation-competent myoblast stage into fused, multinucleated myotubes. During embryonic development, myogenic differentiation is regulated by positive and negative signals from surrounding tissues. Sti...

  3. SwissProt search result: AK099458 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK099458 J013022O12 (P35750) Calpain-1 catalytic subunit (EC 3.4.22.52) (Calpain-1 ...large subunit) (Calcium-activated neutral proteinase 1) (CANP 1) (Calpain mu-type) (muCANP) (Micromolar-calpain) CAN1_PIG 4e-11 ...

  4. SwissProt search result: AK103409 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK103409 J033128E16 (Q27970) Calpain-1 catalytic subunit (EC 3.4.22.52) (Calpain-1 ...large subunit) (Calcium-activated neutral proteinase 1) (CANP 1) (Calpain mu-type) (muCANP) (Micromolar-calpain) CAN1_BOVIN 2e-11 ...

  5. SwissProt search result: AK072218 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK072218 J013167O21 (Q9GLG2) Calpain-1 catalytic subunit (EC 3.4.22.52) (Calpain-1 ...large subunit) (Calcium-activated neutral proteinase 1) (CANP 1) (Calpain mu-type) (muCANP) (Micromolar-calpain) CAN1_MACFA 1e-39 ...

  6. SwissProt search result: AK072218 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK072218 J013167O21 (O35350) Calpain-1 catalytic subunit (EC 3.4.22.52) (Calpain-1 ...large subunit) (Calcium-activated neutral proteinase 1) (CANP 1) (Calpain mu-type) (muCANP) (Micromolar-calpain) CAN1_MOUSE 9e-41 ...

  7. SwissProt search result: AK064381 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK064381 002-108-E01 (O35350) Calpain-1 catalytic subunit (EC 3.4.22.52) (Calpain-1... large subunit) (Calcium-activated neutral proteinase 1) (CANP 1) (Calpain mu-type) (muCANP) (Micromolar-calpain) CAN1_MOUSE 2e-53 ...

  8. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-PABE-11-0002 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-PABE-11-0002 ref|NP_001013789.1| calpain 11 [Mus musculus] gb|AAT27434.1| calpain... 11 [Mus musculus] gb|AAI48638.1| Calpain 11 [synthetic construct] gb|AAI53196.1| Calpain 11 [synthetic construct] NP_001013789.1 2.9 28% ...

  9. SwissProt search result: AK099458 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK099458 J013022O12 (P06815) Calpain-1 catalytic subunit (EC 3.4.22.52) (Calpain-1 ...large subunit) (Calcium-activated neutral proteinase 1) (CANP 1) (Calpain mu-type) (muCANP) (Micromolar-calpain) (Fragment) CAN1_RABIT 2e-11 ...

  10. SwissProt search result: AK103409 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK103409 J033128E16 (P35750) Calpain-1 catalytic subunit (EC 3.4.22.52) (Calpain-1 ...large subunit) (Calcium-activated neutral proteinase 1) (CANP 1) (Calpain mu-type) (muCANP) (Micromolar-calpain) CAN1_PIG 2e-12 ...

  11. SwissProt search result: AK059278 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK059278 001-025-C08 (P97571) Calpain-1 catalytic subunit (EC 3.4.22.52) (Calpain-1... large subunit) (Calcium-activated neutral proteinase 1) (CANP 1) (Calpain mu-type) (muCANP) (Micromolar-calpain) CAN1_RAT 2e-11 ...

  12. SwissProt search result: AK064381 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK064381 002-108-E01 (Q27970) Calpain-1 catalytic subunit (EC 3.4.22.52) (Calpain-1... large subunit) (Calcium-activated neutral proteinase 1) (CANP 1) (Calpain mu-type) (muCANP) (Micromolar-calpain) CAN1_BOVIN 5e-52 ...

  13. SwissProt search result: AK072218 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK072218 J013167O21 (Q27970) Calpain-1 catalytic subunit (EC 3.4.22.52) (Calpain-1 ...large subunit) (Calcium-activated neutral proteinase 1) (CANP 1) (Calpain mu-type) (muCANP) (Micromolar-calpain) CAN1_BOVIN 2e-39 ...

  14. SwissProt search result: AK064381 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK064381 002-108-E01 (P97571) Calpain-1 catalytic subunit (EC 3.4.22.52) (Calpain-1... large subunit) (Calcium-activated neutral proteinase 1) (CANP 1) (Calpain mu-type) (muCANP) (Micromolar-calpain) CAN1_RAT 1e-53 ...

  15. SwissProt search result: AK103409 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK103409 J033128E16 (P07384) Calpain-1 catalytic subunit (EC 3.4.22.52) (Calpain-1 ...large subunit) (Calcium-activated neutral proteinase 1) (CANP 1) (Calpain mu-type) (muCANP) (Micromolar-calpain) CAN1_HUMAN 2e-12 ...

  16. SwissProt search result: AK059278 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK059278 001-025-C08 (P35750) Calpain-1 catalytic subunit (EC 3.4.22.52) (Calpain-1... large subunit) (Calcium-activated neutral proteinase 1) (CANP 1) (Calpain mu-type) (muCANP) (Micromolar-calpain) CAN1_PIG 2e-12 ...

  17. SwissProt search result: AK065151 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK065151 J013002B09 (P06815) Calpain-1 catalytic subunit (EC 3.4.22.52) (Calpain-1 ...large subunit) (Calcium-activated neutral proteinase 1) (CANP 1) (Calpain mu-type) (muCANP) (Micromolar-calpain) (Fragment) CAN1_RABIT 2e-11 ...

  18. SwissProt search result: AK103409 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK103409 J033128E16 (P97571) Calpain-1 catalytic subunit (EC 3.4.22.52) (Calpain-1 ...large subunit) (Calcium-activated neutral proteinase 1) (CANP 1) (Calpain mu-type) (muCANP) (Micromolar-calpain) CAN1_RAT 2e-11 ...

  19. SwissProt search result: AK059278 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK059278 001-025-C08 (O35350) Calpain-1 catalytic subunit (EC 3.4.22.52) (Calpain-1... large subunit) (Calcium-activated neutral proteinase 1) (CANP 1) (Calpain mu-type) (muCANP) (Micromolar-calpain) CAN1_MOUSE 2e-11 ...

  20. SwissProt search result: AK064381 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK064381 002-108-E01 (P35750) Calpain-1 catalytic subunit (EC 3.4.22.52) (Calpain-1... large subunit) (Calcium-activated neutral proteinase 1) (CANP 1) (Calpain mu-type) (muCANP) (Micromolar-calpain) CAN1_PIG 7e-52 ...

  1. SwissProt search result: AK103409 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK103409 J033128E16 (O35350) Calpain-1 catalytic subunit (EC 3.4.22.52) (Calpain-1 ...large subunit) (Calcium-activated neutral proteinase 1) (CANP 1) (Calpain mu-type) (muCANP) (Micromolar-calpain) CAN1_MOUSE 2e-11 ...

  2. SwissProt search result: AK064381 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK064381 002-108-E01 (Q9GLG2) Calpain-1 catalytic subunit (EC 3.4.22.52) (Calpain-1... large subunit) (Calcium-activated neutral proteinase 1) (CANP 1) (Calpain mu-type) (muCANP) (Micromolar-calpain) CAN1_MACFA 1e-52 ...

  3. SwissProt search result: AK103409 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK103409 J033128E16 (Q9GLG2) Calpain-1 catalytic subunit (EC 3.4.22.52) (Calpain-1 ...large subunit) (Calcium-activated neutral proteinase 1) (CANP 1) (Calpain mu-type) (muCANP) (Micromolar-calpain) CAN1_MACFA 2e-12 ...

  4. SwissProt search result: AK059278 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK059278 001-025-C08 (Q9GLG2) Calpain-1 catalytic subunit (EC 3.4.22.52) (Calpain-1... large subunit) (Calcium-activated neutral proteinase 1) (CANP 1) (Calpain mu-type) (muCANP) (Micromolar-calpain) CAN1_MACFA 2e-12 ...

  5. SwissProt search result: AK103409 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK103409 J033128E16 (P06815) Calpain-1 catalytic subunit (EC 3.4.22.52) (Calpain-1 ...large subunit) (Calcium-activated neutral proteinase 1) (CANP 1) (Calpain mu-type) (muCANP) (Micromolar-calpain) (Fragment) CAN1_RABIT 8e-12 ...

  6. SwissProt search result: AK072218 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK072218 J013167O21 (P97571) Calpain-1 catalytic subunit (EC 3.4.22.52) (Calpain-1 ...large subunit) (Calcium-activated neutral proteinase 1) (CANP 1) (Calpain mu-type) (muCANP) (Micromolar-calpain) CAN1_RAT 7e-41 ...

  7. SwissProt search result: AK059278 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK059278 001-025-C08 (Q27970) Calpain-1 catalytic subunit (EC 3.4.22.52) (Calpain-1... large subunit) (Calcium-activated neutral proteinase 1) (CANP 1) (Calpain mu-type) (muCANP) (Micromolar-calpain) CAN1_BOVIN 2e-11 ...

  8. SwissProt search result: AK072218 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK072218 J013167O21 (P07384) Calpain-1 catalytic subunit (EC 3.4.22.52) (Calpain-1 ...large subunit) (Calcium-activated neutral proteinase 1) (CANP 1) (Calpain mu-type) (muCANP) (Micromolar-calpain) CAN1_HUMAN 1e-39 ...

  9. SwissProt search result: AK059278 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK059278 001-025-C08 (P07384) Calpain-1 catalytic subunit (EC 3.4.22.52) (Calpain-1... large subunit) (Calcium-activated neutral proteinase 1) (CANP 1) (Calpain mu-type) (muCANP) (Micromolar-calpain) CAN1_HUMAN 2e-12 ...

  10. SwissProt search result: AK064381 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK064381 002-108-E01 (P07384) Calpain-1 catalytic subunit (EC 3.4.22.52) (Calpain-1... large subunit) (Calcium-activated neutral proteinase 1) (CANP 1) (Calpain mu-type) (muCANP) (Micromolar-calpain) CAN1_HUMAN 2e-52 ...

  11. SwissProt search result: AK072218 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK072218 J013167O21 (P35750) Calpain-1 catalytic subunit (EC 3.4.22.52) (Calpain-1 ...large subunit) (Calcium-activated neutral proteinase 1) (CANP 1) (Calpain mu-type) (muCANP) (Micromolar-calpain) CAN1_PIG 4e-39 ...

  12. SwissProt search result: AK065151 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK065151 J013002B09 (P35750) Calpain-1 catalytic subunit (EC 3.4.22.52) (Calpain-1 ...large subunit) (Calcium-activated neutral proteinase 1) (CANP 1) (Calpain mu-type) (muCANP) (Micromolar-calpain) CAN1_PIG 4e-11 ...

  13. SwissProt search result: AK059278 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK059278 001-025-C08 (P06815) Calpain-1 catalytic subunit (EC 3.4.22.52) (Calpain-1... large subunit) (Calcium-activated neutral proteinase 1) (CANP 1) (Calpain mu-type) (muCANP) (Micromolar-calpain) (Fragment) CAN1_RABIT 6e-12 ...

  14. Arabidopsis CDS blastp result: AK064381 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK064381 002-108-E01 At1g55350.4 calpain-type cysteine protease family identical to calpain...-like protein GI:20268660 from [Arabidopsis thaliana]; contains Pfam profiles: PF00648 Calpain famil...y cysteine protease, PF01067 Calpain large subunit,domain III; identical to cDNA calpain-like protein GI:20268659 0.0 ...

  15. Tetrandrine Induces Apoptosis in Human Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma NPC-TW 039 Cells by Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress and Ca2+/Calpain Pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Kuo-Ching; Lin, Ya-Jing; Hsiao, Yung-Ting; Lin, Meng-Liang; Yang, Jiun-Long; Huang, Yi-Ping; Chu, Yung-Lin; Chung, Jing-Gung

    2017-11-01

    Tetrandrine is an alkaloid extracted from a traditional China medicine plant, and is considered part of food therapy as well. In addition, it has been widely reported to induce apoptotic cell death in many human cancer cells. However, the mechanism of Tetrandrine on human nasopharyngeal carcinoma cells (NPC) is still questioned. In our study, we examined whether Tetrandrine can induce apoptosis of NPC-TW 039 cells. We found that cell morphology was changed after treatment with different concentrations of Tetrandrine. Further, we indicated that the NPC-TW 039 cells viability decreased in a Tetrandrine dose-dependent manner. We also found that tetrandrine induced cell cycle arrest in G0/G1 phase. Tetrandrine induced DNA condensation by DAPI staining as well. In addition, we found that Tetrandrine induced Ca2+ release in the cytosol. At the same time, endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress occurred. Then we used western blotting to examine the protein expression which is associated with mitochondria-mediated apoptotic pathways and caspase-dependent pathways. To further examine whether Ca2+ was released or not with Tetrandrine induced-apoptosis, we used the chelator of Ca2+ and showed that cell viability increased. At the same time, caspase-3 expression was decreased. Furthermore, confocal microscopy examination revealed that Tetrandrine induced expression of ER stress-related proteins GADD153 and GRP78. Our results indicate that Tetrandrine induces apoptosis through calcium-mediated ER stress and caspase pathway in NPC-TW 039 cells. In conclusion, Tetrandrine may could be used for treatment of human nasopharyngeal carcinoma in future. Copyright© 2017, International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. George J. Delinasios), All rights reserved.

  16. A PKM Generated by Calpain Cleavage of a Classical PKC Is Required for Activity-Dependent Intermediate-Term Facilitation in the Presynaptic Sensory Neuron of "Aplysia"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farah, Carole A.; Hastings, Margaret H.; Dunn, Tyler W.; Gong, Katrina; Baker-Andresen, Danay; Sossin, Wayne S.

    2017-01-01

    Atypical PKM, a persistently active form of atypical PKC, is proposed to be a molecular memory trace, but there have been few examinations of the role of PKMs generated from other PKCs. We demonstrate that inhibitors used to inhibit PKMs generated from atypical PKCs are also effective inhibitors of other PKMs. In contrast, we demonstrate that…

  17. Epidemiological and Molecular Characterization of a Mexican Population Isolate with High Prevalence of Limb-Girdle Muscular Dystrophy Type 2A Due to a Novel Calpain-3 Mutation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pantoja-Melendez, Carlos A; Miranda-Duarte, Antonio; Roque-Ramirez, Bladimir; Zenteno, Juan C

    2017-01-01

    Limb-Girdle Muscular Dystrophy type 2 (LGMD2) is a group of autosomally recessive inherited disorders defined by weakness and wasting of the shoulder and pelvic girdle muscles. In the past, several population isolates with high incidence of LGMD2 arising from founder mutation effects have been identified. The aim of this work is to describe the results of clinical, epidemiologic, and molecular studies performed in a Mexican village segregating numerous cases of LGMD2. A population census was conducted in the village to identify all LGMD affected patients. Molecular analysis included genome wide homozygosity mapping using a 250K SNP Affymetrix microarray followed by PCR amplification and direct nucleotide sequencing of the candidate gene. In addition, DNA from 401 randomly selected unaffected villagers was analyzed to establish the carrier frequency of the LGMD2 causal mutation. A total of 32 LGMD2 patients were identified in the village, rendering a disease prevalence of 4.3 (CI: 2.9-5.9) cases per 1,000 habitants (1 in 232). Genome wide homozygosity mapping revealed that affected individuals shared a 6.6 Mb region of homozygosity at chromosome 15q15. The identified homozygous interval contained CAPN3, the gene responsible for LGMD2 type A (LGMD2A). Direct sequencing of this gene revealed homozygosity for a novel c.348C>A mutation (p.Ala116Asp) in DNA from all 20 affected subjects available for genetic screening, except one which was heterozygous for the mutation. In such patient, a heterozygous c.2362AG>TCATCT deletion/insertion was recognized as the second CAPN3 mutation. Western blot and autocatalytic activity analyses in protein lysates from skeletal muscle biopsy obtained from a p.Ala116Asp homozygous patient suggested that this particular mutation increased the autocatalytic activity of CAPN3. Thirty eigth heterozygotes of the p.Ala116Asp mutation were identified among 401 genotyped unaffected villagers, yielding a population carrier frequency of 1 in 11. This study demonstrates that a cluster of patients with LGMD2A in a small Mexican village arises from a novel CAPN3 founder mutation. Evidence of allelic heterogeneity is demonstrated by the recognition of an additional CAPN3 mutation in a single affected. Our study provides an additional example of genetic isolation causing a high prevalence of LGMD and of successful molecular characterization of the disease by means of homozygosity mapping. The identification of a very high carrier frequency of the LGMD2-causing mutation has implications for more rational genetic counseling in this community.

  18. Epidemiological and Molecular Characterization of a Mexican Population Isolate with High Prevalence of Limb-Girdle Muscular Dystrophy Type 2A Due to a Novel Calpain-3 Mutation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos A Pantoja-Melendez

    Full Text Available Limb-Girdle Muscular Dystrophy type 2 (LGMD2 is a group of autosomally recessive inherited disorders defined by weakness and wasting of the shoulder and pelvic girdle muscles. In the past, several population isolates with high incidence of LGMD2 arising from founder mutation effects have been identified. The aim of this work is to describe the results of clinical, epidemiologic, and molecular studies performed in a Mexican village segregating numerous cases of LGMD2. A population census was conducted in the village to identify all LGMD affected patients. Molecular analysis included genome wide homozygosity mapping using a 250K SNP Affymetrix microarray followed by PCR amplification and direct nucleotide sequencing of the candidate gene. In addition, DNA from 401 randomly selected unaffected villagers was analyzed to establish the carrier frequency of the LGMD2 causal mutation. A total of 32 LGMD2 patients were identified in the village, rendering a disease prevalence of 4.3 (CI: 2.9-5.9 cases per 1,000 habitants (1 in 232. Genome wide homozygosity mapping revealed that affected individuals shared a 6.6 Mb region of homozygosity at chromosome 15q15. The identified homozygous interval contained CAPN3, the gene responsible for LGMD2 type A (LGMD2A. Direct sequencing of this gene revealed homozygosity for a novel c.348C>A mutation (p.Ala116Asp in DNA from all 20 affected subjects available for genetic screening, except one which was heterozygous for the mutation. In such patient, a heterozygous c.2362AG>TCATCT deletion/insertion was recognized as the second CAPN3 mutation. Western blot and autocatalytic activity analyses in protein lysates from skeletal muscle biopsy obtained from a p.Ala116Asp homozygous patient suggested that this particular mutation increased the autocatalytic activity of CAPN3. Thirty eigth heterozygotes of the p.Ala116Asp mutation were identified among 401 genotyped unaffected villagers, yielding a population carrier frequency of 1 in 11. This study demonstrates that a cluster of patients with LGMD2A in a small Mexican village arises from a novel CAPN3 founder mutation. Evidence of allelic heterogeneity is demonstrated by the recognition of an additional CAPN3 mutation in a single affected. Our study provides an additional example of genetic isolation causing a high prevalence of LGMD and of successful molecular characterization of the disease by means of homozygosity mapping. The identification of a very high carrier frequency of the LGMD2-causing mutation has implications for more rational genetic counseling in this community.

  19. Systemic and cerebral vascular endothelial growth factor levels increase in murine cerebral malaria along with increased Calpain and caspase activity and can be reduced by erythropoietin treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hempel, Casper; Hoyer, Nils; Kildemoes, Anna

    2014-01-01

    The pathogenesis of cerebral malaria (CM) includes compromised microvascular perfusion, increased inflammation, cytoadhesion, and endothelial activation. These events cause blood-brain barrier disruption and neuropathology and associations with the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF...... increased levels of VEGF in brain and plasma and decreased plasma levels of soluble VEGF receptor 2. EPO treatment normalized VEGF receptor 2 levels and reduced brain VEGF levels. Hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1α was significantly upregulated whereas cerebral HIF-2α and EPO levels remained unchanged...

  20. Variation in exon 10 of the ovine calpain 3 gene (CAPN3) and its association with meat yield in New Zealand Romney sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Q; Forrest, R H; Zhou, H; Frampton, C M; Hickford, J G H

    2013-07-01

    Variation in the ovine CAPN3 gene was analysed using PCR-single strand conformational polymorphism, and its effect on growth and carcass traits was assessed in 513 New Zealand Romney lambs produced by 17 unrelated rams. Among the four allelic variants detected, the presence of variant *02 was found to be associated with an increased proportion of shoulder yield (absent: 32.6±0.01%; present: 33.4±0.03%; P=0.016), and tended to be associated with increased shoulder yield (lean meat yield of the shoulder expressed as a percentage of the hot carcass weight) (absent: 16.6±0.06%; present: 17.02±0.20%; P=0.067). No association was detected with growth traits or other carcass traits. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Assessing Optimal Neural Network Architecture for Identifying Disease-associated Multi-marker Genotypes using a Permutation Test, and Application to Calpain 10 Polymorphisms Associated with Diabetes

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    North B.V; Curtis D; Cassell P.G; Hitman G.A; Sham P.C

    2003-01-01

    .... An artificial neural network allows investigation of association between disease phenotype and tightly linked markers without requiring haplotype phase and without modelling any evolutionary history...

  2. ClEST cluster :Cl_singleton1575 [ClEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Cl_singleton1575 calpain Cimex lectularius nuclear gene 249 GAGACACCACTTGTGAGACTGAGGAACCCATGGGGAAAAG...AAGCTTTACAAACAAAACAGCCA fw16050 1 PREDICTED: calpain-1 catalytic subunit-like [Acyrthosiphon pisum] XP_001944347

  3. Gclust Server: 14333 [Gclust Server

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Cluster Sequences Related Sequences(129) 1268 Calpain family cysteine protease containing protein chr_0_8254545_12;...Sequence length 1268 Representative annotation Calpain family cysteine protease containing protein chr_0_8254545_12;

  4. SwissProt search result: AK072218 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK072218 J013167O21 (Q9VT65) Calpain B (EC 3.4.22.-) (Calcium-activated neutral pro...teinase B) (CANP B) [Contains: Calpain B catalytic subunit 1; Calpain B catalytic subunit 2] CANB_DROME 5e-45 ...

  5. SwissProt search result: AK103409 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK103409 J033128E16 (Q9VT65) Calpain B (EC 3.4.22.-) (Calcium-activated neutral pro...teinase B) (CANP B) [Contains: Calpain B catalytic subunit 1; Calpain B catalytic subunit 2] CANB_DROME 1e-12 ...

  6. SwissProt search result: AK065151 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK065151 J013002B09 (Q9VT65) Calpain B (EC 3.4.22.-) (Calcium-activated neutral pro...teinase B) (CANP B) [Contains: Calpain B catalytic subunit 1; Calpain B catalytic subunit 2] CANB_DROME 7e-12 ...

  7. SwissProt search result: AK064381 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK064381 002-108-E01 (Q9VT65) Calpain B (EC 3.4.22.-) (Calcium-activated neutral pr...oteinase B) (CANP B) [Contains: Calpain B catalytic subunit 1; Calpain B catalytic subunit 2] CANB_DROME 9e-60 ...

  8. SwissProt search result: AK099458 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK099458 J013022O12 (Q9VT65) Calpain B (EC 3.4.22.-) (Calcium-activated neutral pro...teinase B) (CANP B) [Contains: Calpain B catalytic subunit 1; Calpain B catalytic subunit 2] CANB_DROME 6e-12 ...

  9. SwissProt search result: AK059278 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK059278 001-025-C08 (Q9VT65) Calpain B (EC 3.4.22.-) (Calcium-activated neutral pr...oteinase B) (CANP B) [Contains: Calpain B catalytic subunit 1; Calpain B catalytic subunit 2] CANB_DROME 4e-13 ...

  10. Dicty_cDB: SSA204 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ssal-rgf-516-040... 34 1.8 (Q6ZSI9) RecName: Full=Calpain-12; EC=3.4.22.-; &AK127... 34 1.8 AL132848_2( AL132848...(Q9VT65) RecName: Full=Calpain-B; EC=3.4.22.-; AltName:... 33 2.3 A55054( A55054 ) calpain (EC 3.4.22.17) large...mRNA for calpain. 33 2.3 AF062404_1( AF062404 |pid:none) Drosophila melanogaster calpain mR... 33 2.3...melanogaster mRNA for Calpain. 33 2.3 BC042349_1( BC042349 |pid:none) Xenopus laevis calpain 8, mRNA (cD... 33

  11. Dicty_cDB: SSA484 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ssal-rgf-516-040... 34 1.8 (Q6ZSI9) RecName: Full=Calpain-12; EC=3.4.22.-; &AK127... 34 1.8 AL132848_2( AL132848...YAC Y47H10A... 34 1.8 (Q9VT65) RecName: Full=Calpain-B; EC=3.4.22.-; AltName:... 33 2.3 BX649315_3( BX649315...sequence from clone ... 33 2.3 A55054( A55054 ) calpain (EC 3.4.22.17) large chain - fruit fly (D... 33...mRNA for calpain. 33 2.3 AF062404_1( AF062404 |pid:none) Drosophila melanogaster calpain mR... 33 2.3...Z46891_1( Z46891 |pid:none) D.melanogaster mRNA for Calpain. 33 2.3 protein update 2009. 6. 8 PSORT psg: 0.83

  12. Live Imaging of Kv7.2/7.3 Cell Surface Dynamics at the Axon Initial Segment: High Steady-State Stability and Calpain-Dependent Excitotoxic Downregulation Revealed

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benned-Jensen, Tau; Christensen, Rasmus Kordt; Denti, Federico

    2016-01-01

    live imaging. We discovered that they are extraordinarily stable and exhibit a very low surface mobility both during steady state and neuronal stimulation. In the latter case, we also found that neither localization nor cell surface numbers were changed. However, at high glutamate loads, we observed......The voltage-gated K(+) channels Kv7.2 and Kv7.3 are located at the axon initial segment (AIS) and exert strong control over action potential generation. Therefore, changes in their localization or cell surface numbers are likely to influence neuronal signaling. However, nothing is known about...... the cell surface dynamics of Kv7.2/7.3 at steady state or during short-term neuronal stimulation. This is primarily attributable to their membrane topology, which hampers extracellular epitope tagging. Here we circumvent this limitation by fusing an extra phluorin-tagged helix to the N terminus of human Kv...

  13. µ-Calpain, calpastatin, and growth hormone receptor genetic effects on preweaning performance, carcass quality traits, and residual variance of tenderness in Angus cattle selected to increase minor haplotype ... frequencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genetic marker effects and interactions are estimated with poor precision when minor marker allele frequencies are low. An Angus population was subjected to marker assisted selection for multiple years to increase divergent haplotype and minor marker allele frequencies to 1) estimate effect size an...

  14. Dicty_cDB: SFH493 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Full=Calpain 11; EC=3.4.22.-; AltName... 51 1e-04 BC169895_1( BC169895 |pid:none) Xenopus laevis calpain, m...RNA (cDNA... 50 2e-04 BC169897_1( BC169897 |pid:none) Xenopus laevis calpain, mRNA (cDNA... 50 2e-04 AF21219

  15. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U14136-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ... 32 5.2 BC169895_1( BC169895 |pid:none) Xenopus laevis calpain, mRNA (cDNA... 32 6.8 AF148955_1( AF148955... |pid:none) Xenopus laevis calpain, mRNA (cDNA... 32 6.8 ( P20807 ) RecName: Full=Calpain-3; EC=3.4.22.54; A

  16. Gclust Server: 114633 [Gclust Server

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Sequences Related Sequences(45) 156 NP_775113.1 calpain 3 isoform e ; no annotation 1 9.98e-01 0.0 0.0 0...length 156 Representative annotation NP_775113.1 calpain 3 isoform e ; no annotation Number of Sequences

  17. Gclust Server: 4038 [Gclust Server

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Sequences Related Sequences(287) 664 NP_057536.1 calpain 9 isoform 2 ; no annotation 25 1.00e-60 0.0 11.11...length 664 Representative annotation NP_057536.1 calpain 9 isoform 2 ; no annotation Number of Sequences

  18. Gclust Server: 114561 [Gclust Server

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Sequences Related Sequences(45) 156 NP_775112.1 calpain 3 isoform e ; no annotation 1 1.00e-45 0.0 0.0 0...length 156 Representative annotation NP_775112.1 calpain 3 isoform e ; no annotation Number of Sequences

  19. The effects of Capn1 gene inactivation on skeletal muscle growth, development, and atrophy, and the compensatory role of other proteolytic systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myofibrillar protein turnover is a key component of muscle growth and degeneration, requiring proteolytic enzymes to degrade the skeletal muscle proteins. The objective of this study was to investigate the role of the calpain proteolytic system in muscle growth development using µ-calpain knockout (...

  20. Gclust Server: 68425 [Gclust Server

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 68425 CEL_C06G4.2_71981301 Cluster Sequences - 780 clp-1: CaLPain family member (cl...o cluster sequences Cluster Sequences Link to related sequences - Sequence length 780 Representative annotation clp-1: CaLPain

  1. Gclust Server: 94404 [Gclust Server

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 94404 CEL_Y77E11A.11_17544254 Cluster Sequences - 778 clp-7: CaLPain family member ...Link to cluster sequences Cluster Sequences Link to related sequences - Sequence length 778 Representative annotation clp-7: CaLPain

  2. Journal of Genetics | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Expression of the gene for large subunit of m-calpain is elevated in skeletal muscle from Duchenne muscular dystrophy patients · Tajamul Hussain Harleen Mangath C. Sundaram M. P. J. S. Anandaraj · More Details Abstract Fulltext PDF. Calpain is an intracellular nonlysosomal protease involved in essential regulatory or ...

  3. InterProScan Result: FS850482 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available FS850482 FS850482_1_ORF2 916B9899FDE5C5C8 PROFILE PS50203 CALPAIN_CAT 42.998 T IPR0...01300 Peptidase C2, calpain, catalytic domain Molecular Function: calcium-dependent cysteine-type endopeptid

  4. Dicty_cDB: SSC516 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 169895_1( BC169895 |pid:none) Xenopus laevis calpain, mRNA (cDNA... 47 3e-04 BC16...9897_1( BC169897 |pid:none) Xenopus laevis calpain, mRNA (cDNA... 47 3e-04 AB016726_1( AB016726 |pid:none) S

  5. Dicty_cDB: SLC787 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 9895 |pid:none) Xenopus laevis calpain, mRNA (cDNA... 51 1e-04 BC169897_1( BC1698...97 |pid:none) Xenopus laevis calpain, mRNA (cDNA... 51 1e-04 AB016726_1( AB016726 |pid:none) Schistosoma jap

  6. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U13417-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available alignments: (bits) Value ( Q22036 ) RecName: Full=Calpain-5; EC=3.4.22.-; AltName:... 44 0.002 BC044317_1(...BC044317_1( BC044317 |pid:none) Xenopus laevis calpain 1, (mu/I) l... 43 0.004 FN357296_91( FN357296 |pid:none)...genome sequen... 42 0.007 ( P27730 ) RecName: Full=Calpain; EC=3.4.22.-; AltName: F... 42 0.007 FN357491_7(...CD11c +ve... 42 0.009 ( P20807 ) RecName: Full=Calpain-3; EC=3.4.22.54; AltName... 42 0.009 AB117940_1(...AF127764_1( AF127764 |pid:none) Homo sapiens calpain 3 (CAPN3) mRN... 42 0.009 A91671_1( A91671 |pid:none)

  7. Evaluation of Limb-Girdle Muscular Dystrophy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-03-06

    Becker Muscular Dystrophy; Limb-Girdle Muscular Dystrophy, Type 2A (Calpain-3 Deficiency); Limb-Girdle Muscular Dystrophy, Type 2B (Miyoshi Myopathy, Dysferlin Deficiency); Limb-Girdle Muscular Dystrophy, Type 2I (FKRP-deficiency)

  8. Disease: H01798 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available omal dominant neovascular inflammatory vitreoretinopathy (ADNIV) is an inherited autoimmune uveitis and vitr...uk AG, Fingert JH, Braun TA, Daggett HT, Folk JC, Sheffield VC, Stone EM ... TITLE ... Calpain-5 mutations cause autoimmune

  9. Dicty_cDB: VFL249 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available n clp-1; EC=3.4.22.-; &L2... 51 7e-05 BC169895_1( BC169895 |pid:none) Xenopus laevis calpain, mRNA (cDNA... ...51 9e-05 BC169897_1( BC169897 |pid:none) Xenopus laevis calpain, mRNA (cDNA... 51 9e-05 AB016726_1( AB016726

  10. Activation of Bax in three models of retinitis pigmentosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comitato, Antonella; Sanges, Daniela; Rossi, Alessandra; Humphries, Marian M; Marigo, Valeria

    2014-05-13

    The process of photoreceptor cell death in retinitis pigmentosa is still not well characterized, and identification of common mechanisms will be instrumental for development of therapeutic strategies. Here we investigated activation of Bax in rd1, P23H transgenic, and Rho knockout retinas. Bax activation was evaluated by immunofluorescence using anti-activated Bax-specific antibodies and by Western blotting on mitochondrial protein extracts. Knockdown of cathepsin D, calpain 1, and calpain 2 was achieved by short hairpin RNA (shRNA) delivery in rd1 mutant photoreceptors cells differentiated from retinal neurospheres. The mechanism of Bax activation through calpains was evaluated in vivo by intravitreal injection of calpastatin. We defined activation and mitochondrial localization of Bax as well as activation of calpains and cathepsin D in the three models of retinitis pigmentosa. Taking advantage of an in vitro culture system for rd1 mutant photoreceptors, we unraveled the mechanism of Bax activation. We demonstrated that calpain 1 and cathepsin D contributed to activation of Bax and to apoptosis-inducing factor (Aif) nuclear translocation. In vivo interference with calpain activity blocks Bax activation in the rd1 and Rho knockout retinas and reduces activation in the P23H transgenic retina. Activation of Bax was observed in all three models of retinitis pigmentosa and leads to neurodamage by localization at the mitochondrion. Our data suggest that Bax can be envisaged as one of the promising target molecules for restraining photoreceptor degeneration. Copyright 2014 The Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology, Inc.

  11. PEST sequences in the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum: a genomic study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bell Angus

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Inhibitors of the protease calpain are known to have selectively toxic effects on Plasmodium falciparum. The enzyme has a natural inhibitor calpastatin and in eukaryotes is responsible for turnover of proteins containing short sequences enriched in certain amino acids (PEST sequences. The genome of P. falciparum was searched for this protease, its natural inhibitor and putative substrates. Methods The publicly available P. falciparum genome was found to have too many errors to permit reliable analysis. An earlier annotation of chromosome 2 was instead examined. PEST scores were determined for all annotated proteins. The published genome was searched for calpain and calpastatin homologs. Results Typical PEST sequences were found in 13% of the proteins on chromosome 2, including a surprising number of cell-surface proteins. The annotated calpain gene has a non-biological "intron" that appears to have been created to avoid an unrecognized frameshift. Only the catalytic domain has significant similarity with the vertebrate calpains. No calpastatin homologs were found in the published annotation. Conclusion A calpain gene is present in the genome and many putative substrates of this enzyme have been found. Calpastatin homologs may be found once the re-annotation is completed. Given the selective toxicity of calpain inhibitors, this enzyme may be worth exploring further as a potential drug target.

  12. Uloga odnosa kalpaina 3 i titina u etiopatogenezi pojasne mišićne distrofije tip 2A (LGMD2A) [The role of Calpain 3 and Titin relationship in the Ethiopatogenesis of limb girdle muscular dystrophy type 2A (LGMD2A)

    OpenAIRE

    Milić, Astrid

    2007-01-01

    Disertacija je bila usmjerena prema boljem razumijevanju funkcije kalpaina 3, posebice uloge odnosa kalpaina 3 i titina u etiopatogenezi pojasne mišićne distrofije tip 2A (LGMD2A). U cilju poboljšanja trenutno dostupnih LGMD2A dijagnostičkih metoda, kao i onih koji se koriste za osnovna znanstvena istraživanja kalpaina 3, prvi dio disertacije bio je posvećen razvitku i optimizaciji enzimskog testa kojim se istovremeno uz izražaj analizira i autolitička i proteolitička aktivnost kalpaina 3 u i...

  13. Cell-Specific PKM Isoforms Contribute to the Maintenance of Different Forms of Persistent Long-Term Synaptic Plasticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jiangyuan; Adler, Kerry; Farah, Carole Abi; Hastings, Margaret H; Sossin, Wayne S; Schacher, Samuel

    2017-03-08

    Multiple kinase activations contribute to long-term synaptic plasticity, a cellular mechanism mediating long-term memory. The sensorimotor synapse of Aplysia expresses different forms of long-term facilitation (LTF)-nonassociative and associative LTF-that require the timely activation of kinases, including protein kinase C (PKC). It is not known which PKC isoforms in the sensory neuron or motor neuron L7 are required to sustain each form of LTF. We show that different PKMs, the constitutively active isoforms of PKCs generated by calpain cleavage, in the sensory neuron and L7 are required to maintain each form of LTF. Different PKMs or calpain isoforms were blocked by overexpressing specific dominant-negative constructs in either presynaptic or postsynaptic neurons. Blocking either PKM Apl I in L7, or PKM Apl II or PKM Apl III in the sensory neuron 2 d after 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) treatment reversed persistent nonassociative LTF. In contrast, blocking either PKM Apl II or PKM Apl III in L7, or PKM Apl II in the sensory neuron 2 d after paired stimuli reversed persistent associative LTF. Blocking either classical calpain or atypical small optic lobe (SOL) calpain 2 d after 5-HT treatment or paired stimuli did not disrupt the maintenance of persistent LTF. Soon after 5-HT treatment or paired stimuli, however, blocking classical calpain inhibited the expression of persistent associative LTF, while blocking SOL calpain inhibited the expression of persistent nonassociative LTF. Our data suggest that different stimuli activate different calpains that generate specific sets of PKMs in each neuron whose constitutive activities sustain long-term synaptic plasticity. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Persistent synaptic plasticity contributes to the maintenance of long-term memory. Although various kinases such as protein kinase C (PKC) contribute to the expression of long-term plasticity, little is known about how constitutive activation of specific kinase isoforms sustains long

  14. Apple polyphenols extract (APE) improves colon damage in a rat model of colitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Argenio, Giuseppe; Mazzone, Giovanna; Tuccillo, Concetta; Ribecco, Maria T; Graziani, Giulia; Gravina, Antonietta G; Caserta, Sergio; Guido, Stefano; Fogliano, Vincenzo; Caporaso, Nicola; Romano, Marco

    2012-07-01

    Searching for alternative therapies that are effective, safe and less expensive of those currently used for ulcerative colitis, we investigated the efficacy of a polyphenol extract from apple in rat colitis. Rats with trinitrobenzensulphonic acid-induced colitis were treated daily with rectal administration of apple polyphenols 10(-4) M for 14 days. COX-2, TNF-α, tissue transglutaminase and calpain in colon mucosa samples were assessed by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and western blot analyses. To ascertain the role of tissue transglutaminase in mucosal healing, wounded rat fibroblasts were incubated with cystamine (a tissue transglutaminase activity inhibitor). Colitis was associated with increased COX-2, TNF-α, calpain, and tissue transglutaminase mRNA. The protein expression of COX-2, TNF-α and calpain was increased whilst tissue transglutaminase was decreased. Apple extract treatment reduced the severity of colitis (pApple polyphenols reduced the degradation of tissue transglutaminase protein occurring through calpain action. Apple polyphenols-treated wounded fibroblast recovered within 24h showing intense immunoreactivity for tissue transglutaminase. The efficacy of apple extract is mediated by its effects on COX-2 and TNF-α. The unbalance between calpain and tissue transglutaminase may play a role in colonic damage and future therapeutic interventions in ulcerative colitis can target this mechanisms. Copyright © 2012 Editrice Gastroenterologica Italiana S.r.l. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. The effects of Capn1 gene inactivation on skeletal muscle growth, development, and atrophy, and the compensatory role of other proteolytic systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemp, C M; Oliver, W T; Wheeler, T L; Chishti, A H; Koohmaraie, M

    2013-07-01

    Myofibrillar protein turnover is a key component of muscle growth and degeneration, requiring proteolytic enzymes to degrade the skeletal muscle proteins. The objective of this study was to investigate the role of the calpain proteolytic system in muscle growth development using μ-calpain knockout (KO) mice in comparison with control wild-type (WT) mice, and evaluate the subsequent effects of silencing this gene on other proteolytic systems. No differences in muscle development between genotypes were observed during the early stages of growth due to the up regulation of other proteolytic systems. The KO mice showed significantly greater m-calpain protein abundance (P muscle fibers (P muscle. Also, expression of proteins associated with muscle regeneration (neural cell adhesion molecule and myoD) were both reduced in the mature KO mice (P muscle regeneration and, therefore, less muscle damage. These findings indicate the concerted action of proteolytic systems to ensure muscle protein homeostasis in vivo. Furthermore, these data contribute to the existing evidence of the importance of the calpain system's involvement in muscle growth, development, and atrophy. Collectively, these data suggest that there are opportunities to target the calpain system to promote the growth and/or restoration of skeletal muscle mass.

  16. A heterozygous 21-bp deletion in CAPN3 causes dominantly inherited limb girdle muscular dystrophy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vissing, John; Barresi, Rita; Witting, Nanna

    2016-01-01

    Limb girdle muscular dystrophy type 2A is the most common limb girdle muscular dystrophy form worldwide. Although strict recessive inheritance is assumed, patients carrying a single mutation in the calpain 3 gene (CAPN3) are reported. Such findings are commonly attributed to incomplete mutation...... creatine kinase or myoglobin. Muscle weakness was generally milder than observed in limb girdle muscular dystrophy type 2A, but affected the same muscle groups (proximal leg, lumbar paraspinal and medial gastrocnemius muscles). In some cases, the weakness was severely disabling. The 21-bp deletion did...... affecting the calpain 3 homodimer. This renders patients deficient in calpain 3 as in limb girdle muscular dystrophy type 2A, albeit in a milder form in most cases. Based on findings in 10 families, our study indicates that a dominantly inherited pattern of calpainopathy exists, and should be considered...

  17. Calcium plays a key role in paraoxon-induced apoptosis in EL4 cells by regulating both endoplasmic reticulum- and mitochondria-associated pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lan; Du, Yi; Ju, Furong; Ma, Shunxiang; Zhang, Shengxiang

    2016-01-01

    Paraoxon (POX) is one of the most toxic organophosphorus pesticides, but its toxic mechanisms associated with apoptosis remain unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate calcium-associated mechanisms in POX-induced apoptosis in EL4 cells. EL4 cells were exposed to POX for 0-16 h. EGTA was used to chelate Ca(2+ ) in extracellular medium, and heparin and procaine were used to inhibit Ca(2+ )efflux from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Z-ATAD-FMK was used to inhibit caspase-12 activity. The apoptotic rate assay, western blotting and immunocytochemistry (ICC) were used to reveal the mechanisms of POX-induced apoptosis. POX significantly increased the expression and activation of caspase-12 and caspase-3, enhanced expression of calpain 1 and calpain 2, and induced the release of cyt c, but did not change the expression of Grp 78. Inhibiting caspase-12 activity alleviated POX-induced upregulation of calpain 1 and caspase-3, promoted POX-induced upregulation of calpain 2, and reduced POX-induced cyt c release, suggesting that there was a cross-talk between the ER-associated pathway and mitochondria-associated apoptotic signals. Attenuating intracellular calcium concentration with EGTA, heparin or procaine decreased POX-induced upregulation of calpain 1, calpain 2, caspase-12 and caspase-3, and reduced POX-induced cyt c release. After pretreatment with EGTA or procaine, POX significantly promoted expression of Grp 78. Calcium played a key role in POX-induced apoptosis in EL4 cells by regulating both ER- and mitochondria-associated pathways. The cross-talk of ER- and mitochondria-associated pathways was accomplished through calcium signal.

  18. Mutations in CAPN1 Cause Autosomal-Recessive Hereditary Spastic Paraplegia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gan-Or, Ziv; Bouslam, Naima; Birouk, Nazha; Lissouba, Alexandra; Chambers, Daniel B.; Vérièpe, Julie; Androschuck, Alaura; Laurent, Sandra B.; Rochefort, Daniel; Spiegelman, Dan; Dionne-Laporte, Alexandre; Szuto, Anna; Liao, Meijiang; Figlewicz, Denise A.; Bouhouche, Ahmed; Benomar, Ali; Yahyaoui, Mohamed; Ouazzani, Reda; Yoon, Grace; Dupré, Nicolas; Suchowersky, Oksana; Bolduc, Francois V.; Parker, J. Alex; Dion, Patrick A.; Drapeau, Pierre; Rouleau, Guy A.; Bencheikh, Bouchra Ouled Amar

    2016-01-01

    Hereditary spastic paraplegia (HSP) is a genetically and clinically heterogeneous disease characterized by spasticity and weakness of the lower limbs with or without additional neurological symptoms. Although more than 70 genes and genetic loci have been implicated in HSP, many families remain genetically undiagnosed, suggesting that other genetic causes of HSP are still to be identified. HSP can be inherited in an autosomal-dominant, autosomal-recessive, or X-linked manner. In the current study, we performed whole-exome sequencing to analyze a total of nine affected individuals in three families with autosomal-recessive HSP. Rare homozygous and compound-heterozygous nonsense, missense, frameshift, and splice-site mutations in CAPN1 were identified in all affected individuals, and sequencing in additional family members confirmed the segregation of these mutations with the disease (spastic paraplegia 76 [SPG76]). CAPN1 encodes calpain 1, a protease that is widely present in the CNS. Calpain 1 is involved in synaptic plasticity, synaptic restructuring, and axon maturation and maintenance. Three models of calpain 1 deficiency were further studied. In Caenorhabditis elegans, loss of calpain 1 function resulted in neuronal and axonal dysfunction and degeneration. Similarly, loss-of-function of the Drosophila melanogaster ortholog calpain B caused locomotor defects and axonal anomalies. Knockdown of calpain 1a, a CAPN1 ortholog in Danio rerio, resulted in abnormal branchiomotor neuron migration and disorganized acetylated-tubulin axonal networks in the brain. The identification of mutations in CAPN1 in HSP expands our understanding of the disease causes and potential mechanisms. PMID:27153400

  19. Deficiency of Capn4 Gene Inhibits Nuclear Factor-κB (NF-κB) Protein Signaling/Inflammation and Reduces Remodeling after Myocardial Infarction*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Jian; Wei, Meng; Wang, Qiang; Li, Jianmin; Wang, Hao; Liu, Weihua; Lacefield, James C.; Greer, Peter A.; Karmazyn, Morris; Fan, Guo-Chang; Peng, Tianqing

    2012-01-01

    Calpain has been implicated in acute myocardial injury after myocardial infarction (MI). However, the causal relationship between calpain and post-MI myocardial remodeling has not been fully understood. This study examined whether deletion of Capn4, essential for calpain-1 and calpain-2 activities, reduces myocardial remodeling and dysfunction following MI, and if yes, whether these effects of Capn4 deletion are associated with NF-κB signaling and inflammatory responses in the MI heart. A novel mouse model with cardiomyocyte-specific deletion of Capn4 (Capn4-ko) was employed. MI was induced by left coronary artery ligation. Deficiency of Capn4 dramatically reduced the protein levels and activities of calpain-1 and calpain-2 in the Capn4-ko heart. In vivo cardiac function was relatively improved in Capn4-ko mice at 7 and 30 days after MI when compared with their wild-type littermates. Deletion of Capn4 reduced apoptosis, limited infarct expansion, prevented left ventricle dilation, and reduced mortality in Capn4-ko mice. Furthermore, cardiomyocyte cross-sectional areas and myocardial collagen deposition were significantly attenuated in Capn4-ko mice, which were accompanied by down-regulation of hypertrophic genes and profibrotic genes. These effects of Capn4 knock-out correlated with restoration of IκB protein and inhibition of NF-κB activation, leading to suppression of proinflammatory cytokine expression and inflammatory cell infiltration in the Capn4-ko heart after MI. In conclusion, deficiency of Capn4 reduces adverse myocardial remodeling and myocardial dysfunction after MI. These effects of Capn4 deletion may be mediated through prevention of IκB degradation and NF-κB activation, resulting in inhibition of inflammatory responses. PMID:22753411

  20. Deficiency of Capn4 gene inhibits nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) protein signaling/inflammation and reduces remodeling after myocardial infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Jian; Wei, Meng; Wang, Qiang; Li, Jianmin; Wang, Hao; Liu, Weihua; Lacefield, James C; Greer, Peter A; Karmazyn, Morris; Fan, Guo-Chang; Peng, Tianqing

    2012-08-10

    Calpain has been implicated in acute myocardial injury after myocardial infarction (MI). However, the causal relationship between calpain and post-MI myocardial remodeling has not been fully understood. This study examined whether deletion of Capn4, essential for calpain-1 and calpain-2 activities, reduces myocardial remodeling and dysfunction following MI, and if yes, whether these effects of Capn4 deletion are associated with NF-κB signaling and inflammatory responses in the MI heart. A novel mouse model with cardiomyocyte-specific deletion of Capn4 (Capn4-ko) was employed. MI was induced by left coronary artery ligation. Deficiency of Capn4 dramatically reduced the protein levels and activities of calpain-1 and calpain-2 in the Capn4-ko heart. In vivo cardiac function was relatively improved in Capn4-ko mice at 7 and 30 days after MI when compared with their wild-type littermates. Deletion of Capn4 reduced apoptosis, limited infarct expansion, prevented left ventricle dilation, and reduced mortality in Capn4-ko mice. Furthermore, cardiomyocyte cross-sectional areas and myocardial collagen deposition were significantly attenuated in Capn4-ko mice, which were accompanied by down-regulation of hypertrophic genes and profibrotic genes. These effects of Capn4 knock-out correlated with restoration of IκB protein and inhibition of NF-κB activation, leading to suppression of proinflammatory cytokine expression and inflammatory cell infiltration in the Capn4-ko heart after MI. In conclusion, deficiency of Capn4 reduces adverse myocardial remodeling and myocardial dysfunction after MI. These effects of Capn4 deletion may be mediated through prevention of IκB degradation and NF-κB activation, resulting in inhibition of inflammatory responses.

  1. Calpastatin ablation aggravates the molecular phenotype in cell and animal models of Huntington disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Jonasz Jeremiasz; Kloock, Simon Johannes; Nagel, Maike; Ortiz-Rios, Midea Malena; Hofmann, Julian; Riess, Olaf; Nguyen, Huu Phuc

    2018-02-02

    Deciphering the molecular pathology of Huntington disease is of particular importance, not only for a better understanding of this neurodegenerative disease, but also to identify potential therapeutic targets. The polyglutamine-expanded disease protein huntingtin was shown to undergo proteolysis, which results in the accumulation of toxic and aggregation-prone fragments. Amongst several classes of proteolytic enzymes responsible for huntingtin processing, the group of calcium-activated calpains has been found to be a significant mediator of the disease protein toxicity. To confirm the impact of calpain-mediated huntingtin cleavage in Huntington disease, we analysed the effect of depleting or overexpressing the endogenous calpain inhibitor calpastatin in HEK293T cells transfected with wild-type or polyglutamine-expanded huntingtin. Moreover, we crossbred huntingtin knock-in mice with calpastatin knockout animals to assess its effect not only on huntingtin cleavage and aggregation but also additional molecular markers. We demonstrated that a reduced or ablated expression of calpastatin triggers calpain overactivation and a consequently increased mutant huntingtin cleavage in cells and in vivo. These alterations were accompanied by an elevated formation of predominantly cytoplasmic huntingtin aggregates. On the other hand, overexpression of calpastatin in cells attenuated huntingtin fragmentation and aggregation. In addition, we observed an enhanced cleavage of DARPP-32, p35 and synapsin-1 in neuronal tissue upon calpain overactivation. Our results corroborate the important role of calpains in the molecular pathogenesis of Huntington disease and endorse targeting these proteolytic enzymes as a therapeutic approach. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Calcium dysregulation in relation to Alzheimer-type pathology in the ageing brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garwood, C; Faizullabhoy, A; Wharton, S B; Ince, P G; Heath, P R; Shaw, P J; Baxter, L; Gelsthorpe, C; Forster, G; Matthews, F E; Brayne, C; Simpson, J E

    2013-12-01

    Calcium dyshomeostasis is implicated in the pathogenesis of several neurodegenerative disorders including Alzheimer's disease. However, much of the previous research has focused on changes in neuronal calcium signalling. In a recent microarray study we identified dysregulation of several key signalling pathways including the Ca(2+) signalling pathway in astrocytes as Alzheimer-type pathology developed. In this study we sought to determine the expression of calpain-10 and calcium/calmodulin-dependent kinase alpha (CamKIIα) in relation to Alzheimer-type pathology in a population-based study. Using post mortem temporal cortex samples derived from the Medical Research Council Cognitive Function and Ageing Study (MRC-CFAS) ageing brain cohort we examined calpain-10 and CamKIIα gene and protein expression using quantitative polymerase chain reaction and immunohistochemistry. We demonstrate that astrocytic expression of calpain-10 is up-regulated, and CamKIIα down-regulated with increasing Braak stage. Using immunohistochemistry we confirm protein expression of calpain-10 in astrocytes throughout the temporal cortex and demonstrate that calpain-10 immunoreactivity is correlated with both local and global measures of Alzheimer-type pathology. In addition, we identify a subpopulation of calpain-10 immunoreactive interlaminar astrocytes that extend processes deep into the cortex. CamKIIα is predominantly neuronal in localization and is associated with the presence of diffuse plaques in the ageing brain. Dysregulated expression of key calcium signalling molecules occurs with progression of Alzheimer-type pathology in the ageing brain, highlighting the need for further functional studies of astrocytic calcium signalling with respect to disease progression. © 2013 British Neuropathological Society.

  3. Degradation of the transcription factors NF-κB, STAT3, and STAT5 is involved in Entamoeba histolytica-induced cell death in Caco-2 colonic epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyeong Ah; Min, Arim; Lee, Young Ah; Shin, Myeong Heon

    2014-10-01

    Entamoeba histolytica is a tissue-invasive protozoan parasite causing dysentery in humans. During infection of colonic tissues, amoebic trophozoites are able to kill host cells via apoptosis or necrosis, both of which trigger IL-8-mediated acute inflammatory responses. However, the signaling pathways involved in host cell death induced by E. histolytica have not yet been fully defined. In this study, we examined whether calpain plays a role in the cleavage of pro-survival transcription factors during cell death of colonic epithelial cells, induced by live E. histolytica trophozoites. Incubation with amoebic trophozoites induced activation of m-calpain in a time- and dose-dependent manner. Moreover, incubation with amoebae resulted in marked degradation of STAT proteins (STAT3 and STAT5) and NF-κB (p65) in Caco-2 cells. However, IκB, an inhibitor of NF-κB, was not cleaved in Caco-2 cells following adherence of E. histolytica. Entamoeba-induced cleavage of STAT proteins and NF-κB was partially inhibited by pretreatment of cells with a cell-permeable calpain inhibitor, calpeptin. In contrast, E. histolytica did not induce cleavage of caspase-3 in Caco-2 cells. Furthermore, pretreatment of Caco-2 cells with a calpain inhibitor, calpeptin (but not the pan-caspase inhibitor, z-VAD-fmk) or m-calpain siRNA partially reduced Entamoeba-induced DNA fragmentation in Caco-2 cells. These results suggest that calpain plays an important role in E. histolytica-induced degradation of NF-κB and STATs in colonic epithelial cells, which ultimately accelerates cell death.

  4. Polymorphism of calpastatin gene in Arabic sheep using PCR- RFLP

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-08-04

    Aug 4, 2008 ... with restriction enzyme MspI and then electrophoresed on 2.5% agarose gel with ethidium bromide and revealed two alleles, allele A and allele B. Data were analysed using ... Calpastatin, which is an endogenous inhibitor (ca+2 de- pendent cysteine proteinase), plays a central role in regulation of calpain ...

  5. Oxidative stress is required for mechanical ventilation-induced protease activation in the diaphragm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smuder, Ashley J.; Wu, Min; Hudson, Matthew B.; Nelson, W. Bradley; Powers, Scott K.

    2010-01-01

    Prolonged mechanical ventilation (MV) results in diaphragmatic weakness due to fiber atrophy and contractile dysfunction. Recent work reveals that activation of the proteases calpain and caspase-3 is required for MV-induced diaphragmatic atrophy and contractile dysfunction. However, the mechanism(s) responsible for activation of these proteases remains unknown. To address this issue, we tested the hypothesis that oxidative stress is essential for the activation of calpain and caspase-3 in the diaphragm during MV. Cause-and-effect was established by prevention of MV-induced diaphragmatic oxidative stress using the antioxidant Trolox. Treatment of animals with Trolox prevented MV-induced protein oxidation and lipid peroxidation in the diaphragm. Importantly, the Trolox-mediated protection from MV-induced oxidative stress prevented the activation of calpain and caspase-3 in the diaphragm during MV. Furthermore, the avoidance of MV-induced oxidative stress not only averted the activation of these proteases but also rescued the diaphragm from MV-induced diaphragmatic myofiber atrophy and contractile dysfunction. Collectively, these findings support the prediction that oxidative stress is required for MV-induced activation of calpain and caspase-3 in the diaphragm and are consistent with the concept that antioxidant therapy can retard MV-induced diaphragmatic weakness. PMID:20203072

  6. Skeletal muscle protease activities in the early growth and development of wild Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lysenko, Liudmila A; Kantserova, Nadezda P; Kaivarainen, Elena I; Krupnova, Marina Yu; Nemova, Nina N

    2017-09-01

    Growth-related dynamics of intracellular protease activities in four year classes of the Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L. 1758) parr and smolts inhabiting salmon rivers of northwestern Russia (the White Sea basin) were studied. Cathepsin B, cathepsin D, proteasome, and calpain activities in the skeletal muscles of salmon were assessed to investigate their relative contribution to the total protein degradation as well as to young fish growth process. It was confirmed that calpain activity dominates in salmon muscles while proteasome plays a minor role, in contrast to terrestrial vertebrates. Calpain and proteasome activities were maximal at the early post-larval stage (in parrs 0+) and declined with age (parrs 1+ through 2+) dropping to the lowest level in salmon smolts. Annual growth increments and proteolytic activities of calpains and proteasome in the muscles of salmon juveniles changed with age in an orchestrated manner, while lysosomal cathepsin activities increased with age. Comparing protease activities and growth increments in salmon parr and smolts we suggested that the partial suppression of the protein degradation could be a mechanism stimulating efficient growth in smoltifying salmon. Growth and smoltification-related dynamics of protease activities was quite similar in salmon populations from studied spawning rivers, such as Varzuga and Indera; however, some habitat-related differences were observed. Growth increments and protease activities varied in salmon parr 0+ (but not on later ages) inhabiting either main rivers or small tributaries apparently due to habitat difference on the resources for fish growth. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Can a functional assay on cytokine kinetics be used for the identification of a disease-related role for Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs) in Ankolysing spondylitis?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlsen, Thomas Gelsing; Kjærsgaard, Pernille; Jørgensen, Trine

    2014-01-01

    Interleukin 1α (IL-1α) is a proinflammatory cytokine that belongs to the IL-1 family. It is produced mainly by macrophages at sites of infection and regarded as an essential regulator of acute inflammation. IL-1α is synthesized as a 33 kDa precursor peptide that is cleaved by a calpain-like prote...

  8. (CAPN1) and HRSP12 allelic variants in beef cattle with carcass traits

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-10-17

    Oct 17, 2011 ... Calpain 1 (CAPN1) and its activator HRSP12 are evaluated as candidate gene for quantitative trait loci. (QTLs) affecting meat tenderness. In this study, SNPs were detected by sequencing in 323 cattle from 9 breeds. The association results showed that the A3553G and T824C loci individually related with.

  9. Domain Modeling: NP_001035911.1 [SAHG[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NP_001035911.1 chr5 Structure of M-calpain in complex with Calpastatin p3bowc_ chr5/NP_001035911....1/NP_001035911.1_apo_513-605.pdb blast 513L,514D,516A,517L,518D,519K,520L,521S,523S,524L,525G,

  10. Domain Modeling: NP_055111.1 [SAHG[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NP_055111.1 chr3 Calpain 1 proteolytic core inactivated by ZLAK-3002, an alpha-keto...amide c2r9fa_ chr3/NP_055111.1/NP_055111.1_holo_203-531.pdb blast 274I,275Y,276T,277V,278S,279S,283K,284Q,28

  11. New allelic variant of the ovine calpastatin gene | Greguła-Kania ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Calpastatin, a specific inhibitor of the calpains, participates in muscle growth and tenderization. Amplified fragment of 12 intron of CAST was used; the gene encoding calpastatin, from 164 lambs from synthetic lines for restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis. Although, CAST has previously been investigated in ...

  12. Deleting Both PHLPP1 and CANP1 Rescues Impairments in Long-Term Potentiation and Learning in Both Single Knockout Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yan; Sun, Jiandong; Wang, Yubin; Lopez, Dulce; Tran, Jennifer; Bi, Xiaoning; Baudry, Michel

    2016-01-01

    Calpain-1 (CANP1) has been shown to play a critical role in synaptic plasticity and learning and memory, as its deletion in mice results in impairment in theta-burst stimulation (TBS)-induced LTP and various forms of learning and memory. Likewise, PHLPP1 (aka SCOP) has also been found to participate in learning and memory, as PHLPP1 overexpression…

  13. Pathoadaptation of the Intracellular Bacteria Shigella and Chlamydia: Virulence, Antivirulence, and Tissue Tropism

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-27

    genes by integration host factor. J. Bacteriol. 179:6537-50 429. Potter DA, Tirnauer JS, Janssen R, Croall DE, Hughes CN, et al. 1998. Calpain...pyroptosis in macrophages. Cell Death Dis 3:e384 495. Seth-Smith HM, Harris SR, Persson K, Marsh P, Barron A, et al. 2009. Co- evolution of genomes and

  14. High pressure treatment of brine enhanced pork affects endopeptidase activity, protein solubility, and peptide formation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grossi, Alberto Blak; Gkarane, Vasiliki; Otte, Jeanette Anita Held

    2012-01-01

    at 600 MPa following storage at 2 °C for up to 8 weeks. In this report a novel protocol for SDS gelatin zymography was established, and an increase of cathepsin B and L activity after HP treatment was shown followed by a decrease during storage. No calpain activity was detected following HP treatment. HP...

  15. InterProScan Result: FS850482 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available FS850482 FS850482_1_ORF2 916B9899FDE5C5C8 PFAM PF00648 Peptidase_C2 8.3e-68 T IPR001300 Peptidase C2, calpai...n, catalytic domain Molecular Function: calcium-dependent cysteine-type endopeptida

  16. Astaxanthin protects against oxidative stress and calcium-induced porcine lens protein degradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Tzu-Hua; Liao, Jiahn-Haur; Hou, Wen-Chi; Huang, Fu-Yung; Maher, Timothy J; Hu, Chao-Chien

    2006-03-22

    Astaxanthin (ASTX), a carotenoid with potent antioxidant properties, exists naturally in various plants, algae, and seafoods. In this study, we investigated the in vitro ability of ASTX to protect porcine lens crystallins from oxidative damage by iron-mediated hydroxyl radicals or by calcium ion-activated protease (calpain), in addition to the possible underlying biochemical mechanisms. ASTX (1 mM) was capable of protecting lens crystallins from being oxidized, as measured by changes in tryptophan fluorescence, in the presence of a Fenton reaction solution containing 0.2 mM Fe2+ and 2 mM H2O2. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis analysis demonstrated that beta(high)-crystallin was the most vulnerable protein under these conditions of free radical exposure. The proteolysis of lens crystallins induced by calcium ion-activated calpain was also inhibited by ASTX (0.03-1 mM) as determined by daily measurement of the light-scattering intensity at 405 nm for five consecutive days. ASTX at 1 mM was as potent as a concentration of 0.1 mM calpain inhibitor E64 in protecting the oxidative damage/hydrolysis of porcine crystallins. At a concentration of 1 mM, ASTX provided better protection than the endogenous antioxidant glutathione in terms of suppressing calcium-induced turbidity of lens proteins. Thin-layer chromatography analysis indicated that ASTX interacted with calcium ions to form complexes, which we believe interfere with the hydrolysis of lens crystallins by calcium-activated calpain. This in vitro study shows that ASTX is capable of protecting porcine lens proteins from oxidative insults and degradation by calcium-induced calpain.

  17. Ethanol enhances tau accumulation in neuroblastoma cells that inducibly express tau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gendron, Tania F.; McCartney, Sharon; Causevic, Ena; Ko, Li-wen; Yen, Shu-Hui

    2008-01-01

    Chronic alcohol consumption causes pathological changes in the brain and neuronal loss. Ethanol toxicity may partially result from the perturbation of microtubule associated proteins, like tau. Tau dysfunction is well known for its involvement in certain neurodegenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer's disease. In the present study, the effect of ethanol on tau was examined using differentiated human neuroblastoma cells that inducibly express the 4R0N isoform of tau via a tetracycline-off expression system. During tau induction, ethanol exposure (1.25-5 mg/ml) dose-dependently increased tau protein levels and reduced cell viability. The increase in cell death likely resulted from tau accumulation since increased levels of tau were sufficient to reduce cell viability and ethanol was toxic to cells expressing tau but not to non-induced controls. Tau accumulation did not result from greater tetracycline-off induction since ethanol neither increased tau mRNA expression nor the expression of the tetracycline-controlled transactivator. Additionally, ethanol increased endogenous tau protein levels in neuroblastoma cells lacking the tetracycline-off induction system for tau. Ethanol delayed tau clearance suggesting ethanol impedes its degradation. Though ethanol inhibited neither cathepsin B, cathepsin D, nor chymotrypsin-like activity, it did significantly reduce calpain 1 expression and activity. Calpain I knockdown by shRNA increased tau levels indicating that calpain participates in tau degradation in this model. Moreover, the activation of calpain, by the calcium ionophore A23187, partially reversed the accumulation of tau resulting from ethanol exposure. Impaired calpain-mediated degradation may thus contribute to the increased accumulation of tau caused by ethanol. PMID:18672021

  18. Effects of cerebrolysin on motor-neuron-like NSC-34 cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keilhoff, Gerburg, E-mail: Gerburg.keilhoff@med.ovgu.de [Institute of Biochemistry and Cell Biology, Otto-von-Guericke University Magdeburg, Leipziger Str. 44, D-39120 Magdeburg (Germany); Lucas, Benjamin; Pinkernelle, Josephine; Steiner, Michael [Institute of Biochemistry and Cell Biology, Otto-von-Guericke University Magdeburg, Leipziger Str. 44, D-39120 Magdeburg (Germany); Fansa, Hisham [Department of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgery, Hand Surgery, Klinikum Bielefeld, Teutoburger Str. 50, D-33604 Bielefeld (Germany)

    2014-10-01

    Although the peripheral nervous system is capable of regeneration, this capability is limited. As a potential means of augmenting nerve regeneration, the effects of cerebrolysin (CL) – a proteolytic peptide fraction – were tested in vitro on the motor-neuron-like NSC-34 cell line and organotypic spinal cord cultures. Therefore, NSC-34 cells were subjected to mechanical stress by changing media and metabolic stress by oxygen glucose deprivation. Afterwards, cell survival/proliferation using MTT and BrdU-labeling (FACS) and neurite sprouting using ImageJ analysis were evaluated. Calpain-1, Src and α-spectrin protein expression were analyzed by Western blot. In organotypic cultures, the effect of CL on motor neuron survival and neurite sprouting was tested by immunohistochemistry. CL had a temporary anti-proliferative but initially neuroprotective effect on OGD-stressed NSC-34 cells. High-dosed or repeatedly applied CL was deleterious for cell survival. CL amplified neurite reconstruction to limited extent, affected calpain-1 protein expression and influenced calpain-mediated spectrin cleavage as a function of Src expression. In organotypic spinal cord slice cultures, CL was not able to support motor neuron survival/neurite sprouting. Moreover, it hampered astroglia and microglia activities. The data suggest that CL may have only isolated positive effects on injured spinal motor neurons. High-dosed or accumulated CL seemed to have adverse effects in treatment of spinal cord injury. Further experiments are required to optimize the conditions for a safe clinical administration of CL in spinal cord injuries. - Highlights: • Cerebrolysin (CL) is anti-proliferative but initially neuroprotective in OGD-stressed NSC-34 cells. • CL amplified neurite reconstruction of NSC-34 cells. • CL affected calpain-1 expression and calpain-mediated spectrin cleavage as function of Src expression. • In organotypic spinal cord cultures, CL hampered motor neuron survival and

  19. BID regulates AIF-mediated caspase-independent necroptosis by promoting BAX activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabon, L; Galán-Malo, P; Bouharrour, A; Delavallée, L; Brunelle-Navas, M-N; Lorenzo, H K; Gross, A; Susin, S A

    2012-02-01

    Alkylating DNA-damage agents such as N-methyl-N'-nitro-N'-nitrosoguanidine (MNNG) trigger necroptosis, a newly defined form of programmed cell death (PCD) managed by receptor interacting protein kinases. This caspase-independent mode of cell death involves the sequential activation of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1), calpains, BAX and AIF, which redistributes from mitochondria to the nucleus to promote chromatinolysis. We have previously demonstrated that the BAX-mediated mitochondrial release of AIF is a critical step in MNNG-mediated necroptosis. However, the mechanism regulating BAX activation in this PCD is poorly understood. Employing mouse embryonic knockout cells, we reveal that BID controls BAX activation in AIF-mediated necroptosis. Indeed, BID is a link between calpains and BAX in this mode of cell death. Therefore, even if PARP-1 and calpains are activated after MNNG treatment, BID genetic ablation abolishes both BAX activation and necroptosis. These PCD defects are reversed by reintroducing the BID-wt cDNA into the BID(-/-) cells. We also demonstrate that, after MNNG treatment, BID is directly processed into tBID by calpains. In this way, calpain non-cleavable BID proteins (BID-G70A or BID-Δ68-71) are unable to promote BAX activation and necroptosis. Once processed, tBID localizes in the mitochondria of MNNG-treated cells, where it can facilitate BAX activation and PCD. Altogether, our data reveal that, as in caspase-dependent apoptosis, BH3-only proteins are key regulators of caspase-independent necroptosis.

  20. Subcellular Targeting as a Determinant of the Efficacy of Photodynamic Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kessel, David

    2017-03-01

    In prior studies, we have identified the ability of low-level lysosomal photodamage to potentiate the phototoxic effect of subsequent photodamage to mitochondria. The mechanism involves calpain-mediated cleavage of the autophagy-associated protein ATG5 to form a proapoptotic fragment (tATG5). In this report, we explore the permissible time lag between the two targeting procedures along with the effect of simultaneously targeting both lysosomes and mitochondria. This was found to be as effective as the sequential protocol with no gap between the irradiation steps. Inhibition of calpain reversed the enhanced efficacy of the "simultaneous" protocol. It appears that even a minor level of lysosomal photodamage can have a significant effect on the efficacy of subsequent mitochondrial photodamage. We propose that these results may explain the efficacy of Photofrin, a photosensitizing product that also targets both lysosomes and mitochondria for photodamage. © 2016 The American Society of Photobiology.

  1. Time course of proteolytic, cytokine, and myostatin gene expression after acute exercise in human skeletal muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louis, Emily; Raue, Ulrika; Yang, Yifan; Jemiolo, Bozena; Trappe, Scott

    2007-11-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the time course induction of select proteolytic [muscle ring finger-1 (MuRF-1), atrogin-1, forkhead box 3A (FOXO3A), calpain-1, calpain-2], myostatin, and cytokine (IL -6, -8, -15, and TNF-alpha) mRNA after an acute bout of resistance (RE) or run (RUN) exercise. Six experienced RE (25 +/- 4 yr, 74 +/- 14 kg, 1.71 +/- 0.11 m) and RUN (25 +/- 4 yr, 72 +/- 5 kg, 1.81 +/- 0.07 m) subjects had muscle biopsies from the vastus lateralis (RE) or gastrocnemius (RUN) before, immediately after, and 1, 2, 4, 8, 12, and 24 h postexercise. RE increased (P suppressed (3.6-fold; P suppression of myostatin. These data provide basic information for the timing of human muscle biopsy samples for gene expression studies involving exercise. Furthermore, this information suggests a greater induction of proteolytic genes following RUN compared with RE.

  2. Inherited progressive limb-girdle muscular dystrophy type 2A (calpainopathy: a review of literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. A. Grishina

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The Russian literature gives inadequate attention to the problem of one of the most common form of autosomal recessive progressive limb-girdle muscular dystrophies type 2A (LGMD2A (calpainopathy. This paper highlights current views on the physiological role of calpain 3 protein, possible pathogenetic mechanisms for the development of myodystrophy, diagnostic criteria, and therapeutic approaches. Clinical neurologists» awareness of LGMD2A will be able to reduce the time to a correct diagnosis, to take measures to slow down the rate of disease progression, to make medical and genetic counselling, a follow-up, and monitoring, as well as to use measures for the physical and social adaptation of a patient. Key words: progressive limb-girdle muscular dystrophy, calpainopathy, calpain 3, inherited myopathy, creatinine phosphokinase, electromyography, muscle magnetic resonance imaging, genetic analysis, muscle biopsy, differential diagnosis.

  3. Small peptides hydrolysis in dry-cured meat

    OpenAIRE

    Mora, Leticia; Gallego, Marta; Escudero, Elizabeth; Reig, Milagro; Aristoy, María Concepción; Toldrá Vilardell, Fidel

    2015-01-01

    Large amounts of different peptides are naturally generated in dry-cured meats as a consequence of the intense proteolysis mechanisms which take place during their processing. In fact, meat proteins are extensively hydrolysed by muscle endo-peptidases (mainly calpains and cathepsins) followed by exo-peptidases (mainly, tri- and di-peptidyl peptidases, dipeptidases, aminopeptidases and carboxypeptidases). The result is a large amount of released free amino acids and a pool of numerous peptides...

  4. Cannabinoid treatment renders neurons less vulnerable than oligodendrocytes in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasseldam, Henrik; Johansen, Flemming Fryd

    2011-01-01

    and demyelination. Furthermore, the cytokines IL-2, IL-6, IL-10, RANTES, and TGF-ß were significantly reduced as were the cellular infiltration with regulatory T cells. We suggest that cannabinoids in low doses are neuroprotective through a reduction in calpain 1 expression. Our study implies that long-term low-dose...... cannabinoid administration to multiple sclerosis (MS) patients could result in some degree of neuroprotection, and thereby slow down the atrophy associated with this disease....

  5. Interactions moléculaires des calpaïnes 1 et 3 avec la région N1 de la titine humaine

    OpenAIRE

    Coulis, Gerald

    2007-01-01

    Calpains are papain-like cystéine protease first identified several years ago. Because they are present in the cytosol of mammalian cells and because they are activated in response to Ca2+ mobilization, they are thought to be involved mainly in cell signalling pathways. They could participate in cellular responses such as apoptosis, proliferation, extracellular matrix adhesion and motility, that have relevance to pathophysiological issues in dystrophies, ischemia, neuronal diseases, tumor pro...

  6. The Human Ether-a-go-go-related Gene (hERG) Potassium Channel Represents an Unusual Target for Protease-mediated Damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamothe, Shawn M; Guo, Jun; Li, Wentao; Yang, Tonghua; Zhang, Shetuan

    2016-09-23

    The human ether-a-go-go-related gene (hERG) encodes the pore-forming subunit of the rapidly activating delayed rectifier potassium channel (IKr), which is important for cardiac repolarization. Dysfunction of hERG causes long QT syndrome and sudden death, which occur in patients with cardiac ischemia. Cardiac ischemia is also associated with activation, up-regulation, and secretion of various proteolytic enzymes. Here, using whole-cell patch clamp and Western blotting analysis, we demonstrate that the hERG/IKr channel was selectively cleaved by the serine protease, proteinase K (PK). Using molecular biology techniques including making a chimeric channel between protease-sensitive hERG and insensitive human ether-a-go-go (hEAG), as well as application of the scorpion toxin BeKm-1, we identified that the S5-pore linker of hERG is the target domain for proteinase K cleavage. To investigate the physiological relevance of the unique susceptibility of hERG to proteases, we show that cardiac ischemia in a rabbit model was associated with a reduction in mature ERG expression and an increase in the expression of several proteases, including calpain. Using cell biology approaches, we found that calpain-1 was actively released into the extracellular milieu and cleaved hERG at the S5-pore linker. Using protease cleavage-predicting software and site-directed mutagenesis, we identified that calpain-1 cleaves hERG at position Gly-603 in the S5-pore linker of hERG. Clarification of protease-mediated damage of hERG extends our understanding of hERG regulation. Damage of hERG mediated by proteases such as calpain may contribute to ischemia-associated QT prolongation and sudden cardiac death. © 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  7. The Human Ether-a-go-go-related Gene (hERG) Potassium Channel Represents an Unusual Target for Protease-mediated Damage*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamothe, Shawn M.; Guo, Jun; Li, Wentao; Yang, Tonghua; Zhang, Shetuan

    2016-01-01

    The human ether-a-go-go-related gene (hERG) encodes the pore-forming subunit of the rapidly activating delayed rectifier potassium channel (IKr), which is important for cardiac repolarization. Dysfunction of hERG causes long QT syndrome and sudden death, which occur in patients with cardiac ischemia. Cardiac ischemia is also associated with activation, up-regulation, and secretion of various proteolytic enzymes. Here, using whole-cell patch clamp and Western blotting analysis, we demonstrate that the hERG/IKr channel was selectively cleaved by the serine protease, proteinase K (PK). Using molecular biology techniques including making a chimeric channel between protease-sensitive hERG and insensitive human ether-a-go-go (hEAG), as well as application of the scorpion toxin BeKm-1, we identified that the S5-pore linker of hERG is the target domain for proteinase K cleavage. To investigate the physiological relevance of the unique susceptibility of hERG to proteases, we show that cardiac ischemia in a rabbit model was associated with a reduction in mature ERG expression and an increase in the expression of several proteases, including calpain. Using cell biology approaches, we found that calpain-1 was actively released into the extracellular milieu and cleaved hERG at the S5-pore linker. Using protease cleavage-predicting software and site-directed mutagenesis, we identified that calpain-1 cleaves hERG at position Gly-603 in the S5-pore linker of hERG. Clarification of protease-mediated damage of hERG extends our understanding of hERG regulation. Damage of hERG mediated by proteases such as calpain may contribute to ischemia-associated QT prolongation and sudden cardiac death. PMID:27502273

  8. Ca2+activity signatures of myelin sheath formation and growth in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baraban, Marion; Koudelka, Sigrid; Lyons, David A

    2018-01-01

    During myelination, individual oligodendrocytes initially over-produce short myelin sheaths, which are either retracted or stabilized. By live-imaging oligodendrocyte Ca 2+ activity in vivo, we find that high-amplitude, long-duration Ca 2+ transients in sheaths prefigure retractions, mediated by calpain. Following stabilization, myelin sheaths grow along axons, and we find that higher-frequency Ca 2+ transient activity in sheaths precedes faster elongation. Our data implicate local Ca 2+ signaling in regulating distinct stages of myelination.

  9. Calpastatin overexpression in the skeletal muscle of mice prevents clenbuterol-induced muscle hypertrophy and phenotypic shift.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douillard, Aymeric; Galbes, Olivier; Begue, Gwenaelle; Rossano, Bernadette; Levin, John; Vernus, Barbara; Bonnieu, Anne; Candau, Robin; Py, Guillaume

    2012-04-01

    Accumulating evidence suggests that the calpain/calpastatin system is involved in skeletal muscle remodelling induced by β(2) -adrenoceptor agonist treatment. In addition to other pathways, the Akt/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway, controlling protein synthesis, and the calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase 2 (CamK2) and AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) pathways, recently identified as calpain substrates, could be relevant in β(2) -adrenoceptor agonist-induced skeletal muscle remodelling. In the present study we investigated muscle hypertrophy and phenotypic shifts, as well as the molecular response of components of the Akt/mTOR pathway (i.e. Akt, eukaryotic initiation factor 4E-binding protein 1 (4E-BP1), ribosomal protein S6 (rpS6), CamK2 and AMPK), in response to calpastatin overexpression in the skeletal muscle of mice treated with 1 mg/kg per day clenbuterol for 21 days. Using gene electrotransfer of a calpastatin expression vector into the tibialis anterior of adult mice, we found that calpastatin overexpression attenuates muscle hypertrophy and phenotypic shifts induced by clenbuterol treatment. At the molecular level, calpastatin overexpression markedly decreased calpain activity, but was ineffective in altering the phosphorylation of Akt, 4E-BP1 and rpS6. In contrast, calpastatin overexpression increased the protein expression of both total AMPK and total CamK2. In conclusion, the results support the contention that the calpain/calpastatin system plays a crucial role in skeletal muscle hypertrophy and phenotypic shifts under chronic clenbuterol treatment, with AMPK and CamK2 probably playing a minor role. Moreover, the calpastatin-induced inhibition of hypertrophy under clenbuterol treatment was not related to a decreased mTOR-dependent initiation of protein translation. © 2012 The Authors Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology and Physiology © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  10. The PEF family proteins sorcin and grancalcin interact in vivo and in vitro

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Christian; Tarabykina, Svetlana; la Cour, Jonas Marstrand

    2003-01-01

    The penta-EF hand (PEF) family of calcium binding proteins includes grancalcin, peflin, sorcin, calpain large and small subunits as well as ALG-2. Systematic testing of the heterodimerization abilities of the PEF proteins using the yeast two-hybrid and glutathione S-transferase pull-down assays...... be a way to regulate and fine tune processes mediated by calcium binding proteins of the penta-EF hand type....

  11. Calpastatin overexpression impairs postinfarct scar healing in mice by compromising reparative immune cell recruitment and activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Feng; Letavernier, Emmanuel; Le Saux, Claude Jourdan; Houssaini, Amal; Abid, Shariq; Czibik, Gabor; Sawaki, Daigo; Marcos, Elisabeth; Dubois-Rande, Jean-Luc; Baud, Laurent; Adnot, Serge; Derumeaux, Geneviève; Gellen, Barnabas

    2015-12-01

    The activation of the calpain system is involved in the repair process following myocardial infarction (MI). However, the impact of the inhibition of calpain by calpastatin, its natural inhibitor, on scar healing and left ventricular (LV) remodeling is elusive. Male mice ubiquitously overexpressing calpastatin (TG) and wild-type (WT) controls were subjected to an anterior coronary artery ligation. Mortality at 6 wk was higher in TG mice (24% in WT vs. 44% in TG, P < 0.05) driven by a significantly higher incidence of cardiac rupture during the first week post-MI, despite comparable infarct size and LV dysfunction and dilatation. Calpain activation post-MI was blunted in TG myocardium. In TG mice, inflammatory cell infiltration and activation were reduced in the infarct zone (IZ), particularly affecting M2 macrophages and CD4(+) T cells, which are crucial for scar healing. To elucidate the role of calpastatin overexpression in macrophages, we stimulated peritoneal macrophages obtained from TG and WT mice in vitro with IL-4, yielding an abrogated M2 polarization in TG but not in WT cells. Lymphopenic Rag1(-/-) mice receiving TG splenocytes before MI demonstrated decreased T-cell recruitment and M2 macrophage activation in the IZ day 5 after MI compared with those receiving WT splenocytes. Calpastatin overexpression prevented the activation of the calpain system after MI. It also impaired scar healing, promoted LV rupture, and increased mortality. Defective scar formation was associated with blunted CD4(+) T-cell and M2-macrophage recruitment. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  12. Tenderizing spent fowl meat with calcium chloride. 3. Biochemical characteristics of tenderized breast meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurmahmudi; Sams, A R

    1997-03-01

    Biochemical characteristics of spent fowl meat injected with calcium chloride or sodium chloride were evaluated. Hot-boned breast fillets were injected to 10% (wt/wt) with 0.3 M CaCl2 or 0.6 M NaCl, tumbled, and aged 24 h. Tumbling was conducted at 20 C, -635 mm Hg, 20 rpm for 1 h. Hot-boned and cold-boned (24 h) fillets were used as controls. One fillet from each carcass was baked and sheared with an Allo-Kramer cell, whereas the other fillet was used for biochemical analysis. Shear values indicated that both CaCl2- and NaCl-treated samples had significantly (P 0.05) to cold-boned samples. The CaCl2 injection treatment significantly elevated (P 0.05) among all treatments, which indicated that CaCl2 or NaCl did not contribute to meat tenderness through degradative changes in collagen. Calpain data indicated that mu-calpain had disappeared by 24 h aging in all treatments. The m-calpain activity was significantly lower (P 0.05) to that of hot-boned controls. Sarcomeres of CaCl2-treated samples were significantly shorter (P 0.05) to those of hot-boned controls, and were shorter than those of NaCl-treated muscles. The sarcomere length and calpain data suggest that CaCl2 tenderized fillets by ionic strength and calcium-specific effects (possibly a proteolytic action), whereas the NaCl solution tenderized by ionic strength effect at a similar conductivity level to that of the CaCl2 solution.

  13. Delivering minocycline into brain endothelial cells with liposome-based technology

    OpenAIRE

    Xing, Changhong; Levchenko, Tatyana; Guo, Shuzhen; Stins, Monique; Torchilin, Vladimir P.; Lo, Eng H.

    2012-01-01

    Minocycline has been proposed as a way to blunt neurovascular injury from matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) during stroke. However, recent clinical trials suggest that high levels of minocycline may have deleterious side-effects. Here, we showed that very high minocycline concentrations damage endothelial cells via calpain/caspase pathways. To alleviate this potential cytotoxicity, we encapsulated minocycline in liposomes. Low concentrations of minocycline could not reduce tumor necrosis facto...

  14. Meat tenderness genetic polymorphisms occurrence and distribution in five Zebu breeds in Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Parra-Bracamonte, Gaspar Manuel; Martínez-González, Juan C.; Sifuentes-Rincón,Ana M.; Moreno-Medina, Victor R.; Ortega-Rivas, Eligio

    2015-01-01

    Background: The Zebu cattle are represented by a diverse group of breeds in México. Traditionally these breeds have been associated with the tough beef characteristic. Validated genetic markers have the potential to be included in marker-assisted selection and management programs in order to improve traits such as beef tenderness. The incidence and distribution of Calpain and Calpastatin polymorphisms strongly associated with beef tenderness were estimated in registered cattle of five Zebu br...

  15. Serum SNTF Increases in Concussed Professional Ice Hockey Players and Relates to the Severity of Postconcussion Symptoms

    OpenAIRE

    Siman, Robert; Shahim, Pashtun; Tegner, Yelverton; Blennow, Kaj; Zetterberg, Henrik; Smith, Douglas H.

    2015-01-01

    Biomarkers for diffuse axonal injury could have utilities for the acute diagnosis and clinical care of concussion, including those related to sports. The calpain-derived αII-spectrin N-terminal fragment (SNTF) accumulates in axons after traumatic injury and increases in human blood after mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) in relation to white matter abnormalities and persistent cognitive dysfunction. However, SNTF has never been evaluated as a biomarker for sports-related concussion. Here, we...

  16. 9-Hydroxyellipticine alters the conformation and DNA binding characteristics of mutated p53 protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugikawa, E; Tsunoda, S; Nakanishi, N; Ohashi, M

    2001-01-01

    The tumor suppressor protein p53 is a phosphoprotein which shows growth and transformation suppression functions. Mutational loss of p53 function is the most frequently detected genetic event in human cancers. We examined whether 9-hydroxyellipticine (9HE), a cytotoxic agent, affected the tertiary structure of mutant p53 and DNA binding characteristics. Although several types of p53 mutants were resistant to degradation by calpain, the p53 mutants treated with 9HE were markedly sensitive to calpain as well as wild-type p53. Furthermore, mutant p53 proteins isolated from 9HE-treated cells regained the ability to bind a wild-type-specific p53 DNA consensus sequence. Wild-type p53 proteins prepared from both untreated and 9HE-treated cells bound the p53 consensus sequence and were degradaded by calpain equally well. These results suggest that 9HE affects the tertiary structure of mutated p53, which results in the restoration of DNA binding characteristics.

  17. Alterations of Ca2+ responsive proteins within cholinergic neurons in aging and AD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riascos, David; Nicholas, Alexander; Samaeekia, Ravand; Yukhnanov, Rustam; Mesulam, M.-Marsel; Bigio, Eileen H.; Weintraub, Sandra; Guo, Ling; Geula, Changiz

    2014-01-01

    The molecular basis of selective neuronal vulnerability in Alzheimer ’s disease (AD) remains poorly understood. Using basal forebrain cholinergic neurons (BFCN) as a model and immunohistochemistry, we have demonstrated significant age-related loss of the calcium binding protein calbindin-D28K (CB) from BFCN, which was associated with tangle formation and degeneration in AD. Here we determined alterations in RNA and protein for CB and other Ca2+ responsive proteins Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase I (CaMKI), growth-associated protein-43 (GAP43), calpain in the basal forebrain. We observed progressive downregulation of CB and CaMKI RNA in laser-captured BFCN in the normal-aged-AD continuum. We also detected progressive loss of CB, CaMKI-Delta, and GAP43 proteins in BF homogenates in aging and AD. Activated μ-calpain, a calcium-sensitive protease that degrades CaMKI and GAP-43, was significantly increased in the normal aged BF and was 10-times higher in AD BF. Overactivation of μ-calpain was confirmed using proteolytic fragments of its substrate spectrin. Substantial age and AD related alterations in Ca2+-sensing proteins most likely contribute to selective vulnerability of BFCN to degeneration in AD. PMID:24461366

  18. [Effect of endotoxin pretreatment-induced glycogen synthase kinase-3 inhibition on glycogen metabolism in rat liver and the mechanism].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiaole; Gong, Jianping; Xu, Faliang

    2014-02-01

    To investigate the changes in the functional activity of glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK-3) in the hepatic tissue after endotoxin (lipopolysaccharide, LPS) tolerance and explore the effects of LPS-induced GSK-3 inhibition on glycogen metabolism in the liver. Male SD rats were randomly divided into normal control, endotoxin pretreatment and GSK-3 inhibitor (lithium chloride) groups with corresponding pretreatments prior to a large dose of LPS challenge (10 mg/kg) to induce liver injury. Glycogen deposition and content in the hepatic tissue was detected using periodic acid-Schiff (PAS) staining and a glycogen quantification kit, respectively. Western blotting was performed for semi-quantitative analysis of protein level and inhibitory phosphorylation of GSK-3, and a Coomassie brilliant blue G-250-based colorimetric assay was used to detect calpain activity in the liver. Glycogen content in the liver decreased significantly after LPS challenge in all the 3 groups (P0.05). Both LPS and lithium chloride pretreatments caused a significant increase of liver glycogen content (P0.05). Large-dose LPS challenge significantly increased the activity of calpain in the liver tissue (P0.05). Endotoxin pretreatment induces inhibitory phosphorylation of GSK-3β and partial cleavage of GSK-3α and promotes the deposition of liver glycogen but does not affect the activity of calpain, which may contribute to an increased glycogen reserve for energy supply in the event of large-dose LPS challenge.

  19. N-Butylphthalide Improves Cognitive Function in Rats after Carbon Monoxide Poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bi, Ming-Jun; Sun, Xian-Ni; Zou, Yong; Ding, Xiao-Yu; Liu, Bin; Zhang, Yue-Heng; Guo, Da-Dong; Li, Qin

    2017-01-01

    Cognitive impairment is the most common neurologic sequelae after carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning, and the previous investigations have demonstrated that N-Butylphthalide (NBP) could exert a broad spectrum of neuroprotective properties. The current study aimed to investigate the effect of NBP on cognitive dysfunction in rats after acute severe CO poisoning. Rats were randomly divided into a normal control group, a CO poisoning group and a CO+NBP group. The animal model of CO poisoning was established by exposure to CO in a chamber, and then all rats received hyperbaric oxygen therapy once daily, while rats in CO+NBP group were administered orally NBP (6 mg/ 100g) by gavage twice a day additionally. The results indicated that CO poisoning could induce cognitive impairment. The ultrastructure of hippocampus was seriously damaged under transmission electron microscopy, and the expressions of calpain 1 and CaMK II proteins were significantly elevated after CO exposure according to the analysis of immunofluorescence staining and western blot. NBP treatment could evidently improve cognitive function, and maintain ultrastructure integrity of hippocampus. The expression levels of both calpain 1 and CaMK II proteins in CO+NBP group were considerably lower than that of CO poisoning group (P CaMK II proteins. The administration of NBP could balance the expressions of calpain 1 and CaMK II proteins and improve cognitive function through maintaining ultrastructural integrity of hippocampus, and thus may play a neuroprotective role in brain tissue in rats with CO poisoning. PMID:28232802

  20. Defects in the CAPN1 Gene Result in Alterations in Cerebellar Development and Cerebellar Ataxia in Mice and Humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yubin; Hersheson, Joshua; Lopez, Dulce; Hammer, Monia; Liu, Yan; Lee, Ka-Hung; Pinto, Vanessa; Seinfeld, Jeff; Wiethoff, Sarah; Sun, Jiandong; Amouri, Rim; Hentati, Faycal; Baudry, Neema; Tran, Jennifer; Singleton, Andrew B; Coutelier, Marie; Brice, Alexis; Stevanin, Giovanni; Durr, Alexandra; Bi, Xiaoning; Houlden, Henry; Baudry, Michel

    2016-06-28

    A CAPN1 missense mutation in Parson Russell Terrier dogs is associated with spinocerebellar ataxia. We now report that homozygous or heterozygous CAPN1-null mutations in humans result in cerebellar ataxia and limb spasticity in four independent pedigrees. Calpain-1 knockout (KO) mice also exhibit a mild form of ataxia due to abnormal cerebellar development, including enhanced neuronal apoptosis, decreased number of cerebellar granule cells, and altered synaptic transmission. Enhanced apoptosis is due to absence of calpain-1-mediated cleavage of PH domain and leucine-rich repeat protein phosphatase 1 (PHLPP1), which results in inhibition of the Akt pro-survival pathway in developing granule cells. Injection of neonatal mice with the indirect Akt activator, bisperoxovanadium, or crossing calpain-1 KO mice with PHLPP1 KO mice prevented increased postnatal cerebellar granule cell apoptosis and restored granule cell density and motor coordination in adult mice. Thus, mutations in CAPN1 are an additional cause of ataxia in mammals, including humans. Copyright © 2016 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Early dystrophin loss is coincident with the transition of compensated cardiac hypertrophy to heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prado, Fernanda P; Dos Santos, Daniele O; Blefari, Valdecir; Silva, Carlos A; Machado, Juliano; Kettelhut, Isis do Carmo; Ramos, Simone G; Baruffi, Marcelo Dias; Salgado, Helio C; Prado, Cibele M

    2017-01-01

    Hypertension causes cardiac hypertrophy, one of the most important risk factors for heart failure (HF). Despite the importance of cardiac hypertrophy as a risk factor for the development of HF, not all hypertrophied hearts will ultimately fail. Alterations of cytoskeletal and sarcolemma-associated proteins are considered markers cardiac remodeling during HF. Dystrophin provides mechanical stability to the plasma membrane through its interactions with the actin cytoskeleton and, indirectly, to extracellular matrix proteins. This study was undertaken to evaluate dystrophin and calpain-1 in the transition from compensated cardiac hypertrophy to HF. Wistar rats were subjected to abdominal aorta constriction and killed at 30, 60 and 90 days post surgery (dps). Cardiac function and blood pressure were evaluated. The hearts were collected and Western blotting and immunofluorescence performed for dystrophin, calpain-1, alpha-fodrin and calpastatin. Statistical analyses were performed and considered significant when pcardiac disease. We showed that decreased expression of dystrophin and increased expression of calpains are coincident and could work as possible therapeutic targets to prevent heart failure as a consequence of cardiac hypertrophy.

  2. Cardiotrophin-1 decreases liver apoptosis through calpastatin induction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herencia, Carmen; Almadén, Yolanda; Ferrín, Gustavo; Martínez-Romero, Rubén; de la Mata, Manuel; Ciria, Ruben; Briceño, Francisco Javier; Muñoz-Castañeda, Juan Rafael

    2015-01-01

    Cardiotrophin-1 (CT1) has been used to prevent cell death in different models of liver injury in rats. D-galactosamine induces cell death in culture rat and human hepatocytes. The present study evaluated the cytoprotective effects of CT1 in an experimental model of apoptosis induced by D-galactosamine in hepatocytes. DNA fragmentation, calpain activity and Western blots of caspase-3, calpastatin and Stat3, and Akt phosphorylation were measured. Stat3 and Akt inhibitors were used to analyze the mechanisms of action of CT1. CT1 caused an increase in Stat3 and Akt phosphorylation and a decrease of DNA fragmentation, calpain activity, and caspase-3 induced by D-galactosamine. The reduction of calpain activity by CT1 was associated with an increase of calpastatin (its endogenous inhibitor). The effects of CT1 were also dependent on the activation of Sta3 or Akt. CT1 decreases cell death through a mechanism related to Stat3 and Akt phosphorylation and activation of calpastatin in D-galactosamine-treated hepatocytes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Dehydroabietic Acid Derivative QC2 Induces Oncosis in Hepatocellular Carcinoma Cells

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    Guang Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. Rosin, the traditional Chinese medicine, is reported to be able to inhibit skin cancer cell lines. In this report, we investigate the inhibitory effect against HCC cells of QC2, the derivative of rosin’s main components dehydroabietic acid. Methods. MTT assay was used to determine the cytotoxicity of QC2. Morphological changes were observed by time-lapse microscopy and transmission electron microscopy and the cytoskeleton changes were observed by laser-scanning confocal microscopy. Cytomembrane integrity and organelles damage were confirmed by detection of the reactive oxygen (ROS, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH, and mitochondrial membrane potential (Δψm. The underlying mechanism was manifested by Western blotting. The oncotic cell death was further confirmed by detection of oncosis related protein calpain. Results. Swelling cell type and destroyed cytoskeleton were observed in QC2-treated HCC cells. Organelle damage was visualized by transmission electron microscopy. The detection of ROS accumulation, increased LDH release, and decreased ATP and Δψm confirmed the cell death. The oncotic related protein calpain was found to increase time-dependently in QC2-treated HCC cells, while its inhibitor PD150606 attenuated the cytotoxicity. Conclusions. Dehydroabietic acid derivative QC2 activated oncosis related protein calpain to induce the damage of cytomembrane and organelles which finally lead to oncosis in HCC cells.

  4. Kihi-to, a herbal traditional medicine, improves Abeta(25–35-induced memory impairment and losses of neurites and synapses

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    Joyashiki Eri

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We previously hypothesized that achievement of recovery of brain function after the injury requires the reconstruction of neuronal networks, including neurite regeneration and synapse reformation. Kihi-to is composed of twelve crude drugs, some of which have already been shown to possess neurite extension properties in our previous studies. The effect of Kihi-to on memory deficit has not been examined. Thus, the goal of the present study is to determine the in vivo and in vitro effects of Kihi-to on memory, neurite growth and synapse reconstruction. Methods Effects of Kihi-to, a traditional Japanese-Chinese traditional medicine, on memory deficits and losses of neurites and synapses were examined using Alzheimer's disease model mice. Improvements of Aβ(25–35-induced neuritic atrophy by Kihi-to and the mechanism were investigated in cultured cortical neurons. Results Administration of Kihi-to for consecutive 3 days resulted in marked improvements of Aβ(25–35-induced impairments in memory acquisition, memory retention, and object recognition memory in mice. Immunohistochemical comparisons suggested that Kihi-to attenuated neuritic, synaptic and myelin losses in the cerebral cortex, hippocampus and striatum. Kihi-to also attenuated the calpain increase in the cerebral cortex and hippocampus. When Kihi-to was added to cells 4 days after Aβ(25–35 treatment, axonal and dendritic outgrowths in cultured cortical neurons were restored as demonstrated by extended lengths of phosphorylated neurofilament-H (P-NF-H and microtubule-associated protein (MAP2-positive neurites. Aβ(25–35-induced cell death in cortical culture was also markedly inhibited by Kihi-to. Since NF-H, MAP2 and myelin basic protein (MBP are substrates of calpain, and calpain is known to be involved in Aβ-induced axonal atrophy, expression levels of calpain and calpastatin were measured. Treatment with Kihi-to inhibited the Aβ(25–35-evoked increase in

  5. Kihi-to, a herbal traditional medicine, improves Abeta(25-35)-induced memory impairment and losses of neurites and synapses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tohda, Chihiro; Naito, Rie; Joyashiki, Eri

    2008-08-16

    We previously hypothesized that achievement of recovery of brain function after the injury requires the reconstruction of neuronal networks, including neurite regeneration and synapse reformation. Kihi-to is composed of twelve crude drugs, some of which have already been shown to possess neurite extension properties in our previous studies. The effect of Kihi-to on memory deficit has not been examined. Thus, the goal of the present study is to determine the in vivo and in vitro effects of Kihi-to on memory, neurite growth and synapse reconstruction. Effects of Kihi-to, a traditional Japanese-Chinese traditional medicine, on memory deficits and losses of neurites and synapses were examined using Alzheimer's disease model mice. Improvements of Abeta(25-35)-induced neuritic atrophy by Kihi-to and the mechanism were investigated in cultured cortical neurons. Administration of Kihi-to for consecutive 3 days resulted in marked improvements of Abeta(25-35)-induced impairments in memory acquisition, memory retention, and object recognition memory in mice. Immunohistochemical comparisons suggested that Kihi-to attenuated neuritic, synaptic and myelin losses in the cerebral cortex, hippocampus and striatum. Kihi-to also attenuated the calpain increase in the cerebral cortex and hippocampus. When Kihi-to was added to cells 4 days after Abeta(25-35) treatment, axonal and dendritic outgrowths in cultured cortical neurons were restored as demonstrated by extended lengths of phosphorylated neurofilament-H (P-NF-H) and microtubule-associated protein (MAP)2-positive neurites. Abeta(25-35)-induced cell death in cortical culture was also markedly inhibited by Kihi-to. Since NF-H, MAP2 and myelin basic protein (MBP) are substrates of calpain, and calpain is known to be involved in Abeta-induced axonal atrophy, expression levels of calpain and calpastatin were measured. Treatment with Kihi-to inhibited the Abeta(25-35)-evoked increase in the calpain level and decrease in the

  6. Alterations in STriatal-Enriched protein tyrosine Phosphatase expression, activation, and downstream signaling in early and late stages of the YAC128 Huntington's disease mouse model.

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    Gladding, Clare M; Fan, Jing; Zhang, Lily Y J; Wang, Liang; Xu, Jian; Li, Edward H Y; Lombroso, Paul J; Raymond, Lynn A

    2014-07-01

    Striatal neurodegeneration and synaptic dysfunction in Huntington's disease are mediated by the mutant huntingtin (mHtt) protein. MHtt disrupts calcium homeostasis and facilitates excitotoxicity, in part by altering NMDA receptor (NMDAR) trafficking and function. Pre-symptomatic (excitotoxin-sensitive) transgenic mice expressing full-length human mHtt with 128 polyglutamine repeats (YAC128 Huntington's disease mice) show increased calpain activity and extrasynaptic NMDAR (Ex-NMDAR) localization and signaling. Furthermore, Ex-NMDAR stimulation facilitates excitotoxicity in wild-type cortical neurons via calpain-mediated cleavage of STriatal-Enriched protein tyrosine Phosphatase 61 (STEP61). The cleavage product, STEP33, cannot dephosphorylate p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), thereby augmenting apoptotic signaling. Here, we show elevated extrasynaptic calpain-mediated cleavage of STEP61 and p38 phosphorylation, as well as STEP61 inactivation and reduced extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase 1/2 phosphorylation (ERK1/2) in the striatum of 6-week-old, excitotoxin-sensitive YAC128 mice. Calpain inhibition reduced basal and NMDA-induced STEP61 cleavage. However, basal p38 phosphorylation was normalized by a peptide disrupting NMDAR-post-synaptic density protein-95 (PSD-95) binding but not by calpain inhibition. In 1-year-old excitotoxin-resistant YAC128 mice, STEP33 levels were not elevated, but STEP61 inactivation and p38 and ERK 1/2 phosphorylation levels were increased. These results show that in YAC128 striatal tissue, enhanced NMDAR-PSD-95 interactions contributes to elevated p38 signaling in early, excitotoxin-sensitive stages, and suggest that STEP61 inactivation enhances MAPK signaling at late, excitotoxin-resistant stages. The YAC128 Huntington's disease mouse model shows early, enhanced susceptibility to NMDA receptor-mediated striatal apoptosis, progressing to late-stage excitotoxicity resistance. This study shows that elevated NMDA

  7. Limb-girdle muscular dystrophy: an immunohistochemical diagnostic approach Distrofias musculares de cinturas: uma abordagem diagnóstica imuno-histoquímica

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    Enio Alberto Comerlato

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available The limb-girdle muscle dystrophy (LGMD represents a heterogeneous group of muscular diseases with dominant and recessive inheritance, individualized by gene mutation. A group of 56 patients, 32 males and 24 females, with suggestive LGMD diagnosis were submitted to clinical evaluation, serum muscle enzymes, electromyography, muscle biopsy, and the immunoidentification (ID of sarcoglycans (SG alpha, beta, gamma and delta, dysferlin and western blot for calpain-3. All the patients had normal ID for dystrophin (rod domain, carboxyl and amine terminal. The alpha-SG was normal in 42 patients, beta-SG in 28, beta-SG in 45, delta-SG in 32, dysferlin in 37 and calpain-3 in 9. There was a reduction in the alpha-SG in 7 patients, beta-SG in 4, gamma-SG in 2, and delta-SG in 8. There was deficiency of alpha-SG in 7 patients, beta-SG in 6, gamma-SG in 9, delta-SG in 5, dysferlin in 8, and calpain-3 in 5. The patients were grouped according the ID as sarcoglycans deficiency 18 cases, dysferlin deficiency 8 cases and calpain-3 deficiency 5 cases. Only the sarcoglycans deficiency group showed calf hypertrophy. The dysferlin deficiency group was more frequent in females and the onset was later than sarcoglycan and calpain-3 deficiency groups. The calpain-3 deficiency group occurred only in males and showed an earlier onset and weaker muscular strength.As distrofias musculares de cinturas (DMC representam grupo heterogêneo de doenças musculares com heranças autossômicas dominante ou recessivas, caracterizadas geneticamente por mutações gênicas específicas. Cinqüenta e seis pacientes, 32 masculinos e 24 femininos, com diagnóstico sugestivo de DMC, foram submetidos a avaliação clínica, dosagem séricas das enzimas musculares, eletromiografia, biópsia muscular e imunoidentificação (ID das proteínas sarcoglicanas (SG alfa, beta, gama e delta, disferlina e calpaína-3. A ID da distrofina (domínio rod e terminais carboxila e amino era normal em todos

  8. The effect of dry-cured salt contents on accumulation of non-volatile compounds during dry-cured goose processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, C Y; Wang, Y; Cao, J X; Chen, Y J; Liu, Y; Sun, Y Y; Pan, D D; Ou, C R

    2016-09-01

    Twenty-four Eastern Zhejiang White Geese were slaughtered, dry-cured by 2 different kinds of salt contents (12 geese with 4% low salt level [LS]; 12 geese with 8% high salt level [HS]) for one d, marinated in brine for one d, and air dry-ripened at 16 °C for 7 d. The effect of dry-curing salt contents on the changes in myofibril proteins, potential proteolysis activities, and total free amino acid (TFAA) in dry-cured goose was investigated. Compared to the raw, cathepsin B+L and calpains activities decreased at the end of dry-curing and the third d of dry-ripening. At the final products, the activities of cathepsin B+L and calpains were about half of those in raw meat. There was no difference in proteolysis activities except for the end of dry-curing (P curing (P < 0.05) for calpains (P < 0.05) between groups. Myosin light chain (MLC) and troponin-I were cleaved. Compared to the raw, TFAA increased by 36.64 and 31.82% in the final products for HS (P < 0.001) and LS (P < 0.01), respectively. The increase of TFAA could be attributed to the proteolysis of myofibril proteins and retained proteolysis activities. No significant difference on TFAA and MLC and troponin-I bands was observed between groups in final products. This means that different proteolysis activities during processing did not cause the difference in quality of final products between groups, and that 4% low salt can be used in future applications. © 2016 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  9. Detoxification and protein quality control markers in the mussel Mytilus edulis (Linnaeus) exposed to crude oil: Salinity-induced modulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lysenko, Liudmila; Sukhovskaya, Irina; Borvinskaya, Ekaterina; Krupnova, Marina; Kantserova, Nadezda; Bakhmet, Igor'; Nemova, Nina

    2015-12-01

    Marine and coastal ecosystems are influenced by oil from chronic contamination or sporadic oil spills. An oil spill was simulated in an aquarium-based experiment designed to reproduce interactions of crude oil with inert environmental components, particularly adhesion on shore gravel and dissolution in sea water. Total experimental oil concentrations were in the range of comparable hydrocarbon concentrations following an oil spill. Furthermore, the possible interaction of a chemical (anthropogenic) stressor, such as oil PAHs, and a "natural" stressor like desalination, was simulated. In order to assess the biological effects of crude oil contamination and desalination (each individually and in combination) on the blue mussel Mytilus edulis L., biochemical responses were estimated including: detoxification capacity by glutathione-S-transferase (GST) activity, reduced glutathione (GSH) level, and protein quality control by autophagy-related proteases cathepsin B (CatB), cathepsin D (CatD), and calcium-dependent calpain-like proteases. Oil treatment stimulated defense system response in the mussels with primary effects on GST and protease-mediated reactions such as the activation of CatB, CatD, and calpains. Most of biomarkers responded to oil in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Additional environmental stress, such as desalination, promoted the oil-induced activation of GST and CatD while resulting in a delay or impairement of the defense response to oil by GSH and proteases CatB and calpains. Thus, biomarker data shows that combined effects of oil compounds and desalination can be realized in both a synergistic and an antagonistic manner. The evaluated interaction between oil pollution effects and sub-optimal salinity on M. edulis indicates the potential risk of maladaptation to the biota of estuaries.

  10. Autophagic signaling and proteolytic enzyme activity in cardiac and skeletal muscle of spontaneously hypertensive rats following chronic aerobic exercise.

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    Elliott M McMillan

    Full Text Available Hypertension is a cardiovascular disease associated with deleterious effects in skeletal and cardiac muscle. Autophagy is a degradative process essential to muscle health. Acute exercise can alter autophagic signaling. Therefore, we aimed to characterize the effects of chronic endurance exercise on autophagy in skeletal and cardiac muscle of normotensive and hypertensive rats. Male Wistar Kyoto (WKY and spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR were assigned to a sedentary condition or 6 weeks of treadmill running. White gastrocnemius (WG of hypertensive rats had higher (p<0.05 caspase-3 and proteasome activity, as well as elevated calpain activity. In addition, skeletal muscle of hypertensive animals had elevated (p<0.05 ATG7 and LC3I protein, LAMP2 mRNA, and cathepsin activity, indicative of enhanced autophagic signaling. Interestingly, chronic exercise training increased (p<0.05 Beclin-1, LC3, and p62 mRNA as well as proteasome activity, but reduced (p<0.05 Beclin-1 and ATG7 protein, as well as decreased (p<0.05 caspase-3, calpain, and cathepsin activity. Left ventricle (LV of hypertensive rats had reduced (p<0.05 AMPKα and LC3II protein, as well as elevated (p<0.05 p-AKT, p-p70S6K, LC3I and p62 protein, which collectively suggest reduced autophagic signaling. Exercise training had little effect on autophagy-related signaling factors in LV; however, exercise training increased (p<0.05 proteasome activity but reduced (p<0.05 caspase-3 and calpain activity. Our results suggest that autophagic signaling is altered in skeletal and cardiac muscle of hypertensive animals. Regular aerobic exercise can effectively alter the proteolytic environment in both cardiac and skeletal muscle, as well as influence several autophagy-related factors in skeletal muscle of normotensive and hypertensive rats.

  11. Distinct Molecular Regulation of Glycogen Synthase Kinase-3α Isozyme Controlled by Its N-terminal Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azoulay-Alfaguter, Inbar; Yaffe, Yakey; Licht-Murava, Avital; Urbanska, Malgorzata; Jaworski, Jacek; Pietrokovski, Shmuel; Hirschberg, Koret; Eldar-Finkelman, Hagit

    2011-01-01

    Glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK-3) is expressed as two isozymes α and β. They share high similarity in their catalytic domains but differ in their N- and C-terminal regions, with GSK-3α having an extended glycine-rich N terminus. Here, we undertook live cell imaging combined with molecular and bioinformatic studies to understand the distinct functions of the GSK-3 isozymes focusing on GSK-3α N-terminal region. We found that unlike GSK-3β, which shuttles between the nucleus and cytoplasm, GSK-3α was excluded from the nucleus. Deletion of the N-terminal region of GSK-3α resulted in nuclear localization, and treatment with leptomycin B resulted in GSK-3α accumulation in the nucleus. GSK-3α rapidly accumulated in the nucleus in response to calcium or serum deprivation, and accumulation was strongly inhibited by the calpain inhibitor calpeptin. This nuclear accumulation was not mediated by cleavage of the N-terminal region or phosphorylation of GSK-3α. Rather, we show that calcium-induced GSK-3α nuclear accumulation was governed by GSK-3α binding with as yet unknown calpain-sensitive protein or proteins; this binding was mediated by the N-terminal region. Bioinformatic and experimental analyses indicated that nuclear exclusion of GSK-3α was likely an exclusive characteristic of mammalian GSK-3α. Finally, we show that nuclear localization of GSK-3α reduced the nuclear pool of β-catenin and its target cyclin D1. Taken together, these data suggest that the N-terminal region of GSK-3α is responsible for its nuclear exclusion and that binding with a calcium/calpain-sensitive product enables GSK-3α nuclear retention. We further uncovered a novel link between calcium and nuclear GSK-3α-mediated inhibition of the canonical Wnt/β-catenin pathway. PMID:21266584

  12. Piperine inhibits ABCA1 degradation and promotes cholesterol efflux from THP-1-derived macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Limei; Palme, Veronika; Rotter, Susanne; Schilcher, Nicole; Cukaj, Malsor; Wang, Dongdong; Ladurner, Angela; Heiss, Elke H; Stangl, Herbert; Dirsch, Verena M; Atanasov, Atanas G

    2017-04-01

    Increased macrophage cholesterol efflux (ChE) is considered to have anti-atherosclerotic effect counteracting cardiovascular disease. The principle pungent ingredient of the fruits of Piper nigrum, piperine, is identified in this study as a ChE inducer in THP-1-derived macrophages, and mechanisms underlying this effect are explored. Without affecting cell viability, piperine concentration-dependently enhances ChE in THP-1-derived macrophages from 25 to 100 μM. The expression level of the key cholesterol transporter protein ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1) is significantly upregulated by piperine, as revealed by western blot analyses. However, two other ChE-mediating transporter proteins, ATP-binding cassette transporter G1 (ABCG1) and scavenger receptor class B member 1 (SR-B1), remain unaffected. Piperine exerts no influence on ABCA1 mRNA levels, but significantly inhibits the degradation of ABCA1, as evident by an increased half-life of the protein in the presence of cycloheximide. Furthermore, it is found that piperine likely interferes with the calpain-mediated ABCA1 degradation pathway and exhibits significant inhibition of calpain activity. Our findings suggest that piperine promotes ChE in THP-1-derived macrophages by upregulation of ABCA1, which might be mediated by inhibition of calpain activity. This novel bioactivity makes the dietary constituent piperine a good candidate to be further explored for therapeutic or preventive applications in the context of atherosclerosis. © 2016 The Authors. Molecular Nutrition & Food Research published by WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Unconjugated bilirubin exposure impairs hippocampal long-term synaptic plasticity.

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    Fang-Yu Chang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Jaundice is one of the most common problems encountered in newborn infants, due to immaturity of hepatic conjugation and transport processes for bilirubin. Although the majority of neonatal jaundice is benign, some neonates with severe hyperbilirubinemia develop bilirubin encephalopathy or kernicterus. Accumulation of unconjugated bilirubin (UCB in selected brain regions may result in temporary or permanent impairments of auditory, motor, or cognitive function; however, the molecular mechanisms by which UCB elicits such neurotoxicity are still poorly understood. The present study is undertaken to investigate whether prolonged exposure of rat organotypic hippocampal slice cultures to UCB alters the induction of long-term synaptic plasticity. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Using electrophysiological recording techniques, we find that exposure of hippocampal slice cultures to clinically relevant concentrations of UCB for 24 or 48 h results in an impairment of CA1 long-term potentiation (LTP and long-term depression (LTD induction in a time- and concentration-dependent manner. Hippocampal slice cultures stimulated with UCB show no changes in the secretion profiles of the pro-inflammatory cytokines, interleukin-1beta and tumor necrosis factor-alpha, or the propidium ioide uptake. UCB treatment produced a significant decrease in the levels of NR1, NR2A and NR2B subunits of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA receptors through a calpain-mediated proteolytic cleavage mechanism. Pretreatment of the hippocampal slice cultures with NMDA receptor antagonist or calpain inhibitors effectively prevented the UCB-induced impairment of LTP and LTD. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results indicate that the proteolytic cleavage of NMDA receptor subunits by calpain may play a critical role in mediating the UCB-induced impairment of long-term synaptic plasticity in the hippocampus. These observations provide new insights into the molecular mechanisms underlying UCB

  14. Involvement of Different networks in mammary gland involution after the pregnancy/lactation cycle: Implications in breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaragozá, Rosa; García-Trevijano, Elena R; Lluch, Ana; Ribas, Gloria; Viña, Juan R

    2015-04-01

    Early pregnancy is associated with a reduction in a woman's lifetime risk for breast cancer. However, different studies have demonstrated an increase in breast cancer risk in the years immediately following pregnancy. Early and long-term risk is even higher if the mother age is above 35 years at the time of first parity. The proinflammatory microenvironment within the mammary gland after pregnancy renders an "ideal niche" for oncogenic events. Signaling pathways involved in programmed cell death and tissue remodeling during involution are also activated in breast cancer. Herein, the major signaling pathways involved in mammary gland involution, signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT3), nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB), transforming growth factor beta (TGFβ), and retinoid acid receptors (RARs)/retinoid X receptors (RXRs), are reviewed as part of the complex network of signaling pathways that crosstalk in a contextual-dependent manner. These factors, also involved in breast cancer development, are important regulatory nodes for signaling amplification after weaning. Indeed, during involution, p65/p300 target genes such as MMP9, Capn1, and Capn2 are upregulated. Elevated expression and activities of these proteases in breast cancer have been extensively documented. The role of these proteases during mammary gland involution is further discussed. MMPs, calpains, and cathepsins exert their effect by modification of the extracellular matrix and intracellular proteins. Calpains, activated in the mammary gland during involution, cleave several proteins located in cell membrane, lysosomes, mitochondria, and nuclei favoring cell death. Besides, during this period, Capn1 is most probably involved in the modulation of preadipocyte differentiation through chromatin remodeling. Calpains can be implicated in cell anchoring loss, providing a proper microenvironment for tumor growth. A better understanding of the role of any of these proteases in tumorigenesis may

  15. Orai1 mediates exacerbated Ca(2+ entry in dystrophic skeletal muscle.

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    Xiaoli Zhao

    Full Text Available There is substantial evidence indicating that disruption of Ca(2+ homeostasis and activation of cytosolic proteases play a key role in the pathogenesis and progression of Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy (DMD. However, the exact nature of the Ca(2+ deregulation and the Ca(2+ signaling pathways that are altered in dystrophic muscles have not yet been resolved. Here we examined the contribution of the store-operated Ca(2+ entry (SOCE for the pathogenesis of DMD. RT-PCR and Western blot found that the expression level of Orai1, the pore-forming unit of SOCE, was significantly elevated in the dystrophic muscles, while parallel increases in SOCE activity and SR Ca(2+ storage were detected in adult mdx muscles using Fura-2 fluorescence measurements. High-efficient shRNA probes against Orai1 were delivered into the flexor digitorum brevis muscle in live mice and knockdown of Orai1 eliminated the differences in SOCE activity and SR Ca(2+ storage between the mdx and wild type muscle fibers. SOCE activity was repressed by intraperitoneal injection of BTP-2, an Orai1 inhibitor, and cytosolic calpain1 activity in single muscle fibers was measured by a membrane-permeable calpain substrate. We found that BTP-2 injection for 2 weeks significantly reduced the cytosolic calpain1 activity in mdx muscle fibers. Additionally, ultrastructural changes were observed by EM as an increase in the number of triad junctions was identified in dystrophic muscles. Compensatory changes in protein levels of SERCA1, TRP and NCX3 appeared in the mdx muscles, suggesting that comprehensive adaptations occur following altered Ca(2+ homeostasis in mdx muscles. Our data indicates that upregulation of the Orai1-mediated SOCE pathway and an overloaded SR Ca(2+ store contributes to the disrupted Ca(2+ homeostasis in mdx muscles and is linked to elevated proteolytic activity, suggesting that targeting Orai1 activity may be a promising therapeutic approach for the prevention and treatment of

  16. Synthesis and extended activity of triazole-containing macrocyclic protease inhibitors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pehere, A.D.; Pietsch, M.; Gütschow, M.

    2013-01-01

    Peptide-derived protease inhibitors are an important class of compounds with the potential to treat a wide range of diseases. Herein, we describe the synthesis of a series of triazole- containing macrocyclic protease inhibitors pre-organized into a b-strand conformation and an evaluation...... of their activity against a panel of proteases. Acyclic azidoalkyne-based aldehydes are also evaluated for comparison. The macrocyclic peptidomimetics showed considerable activity towards calpain II, cathepsin L and S, and the 20S proteasome chymotrypsin-like activity. Some of the first examples of highly potent...

  17. Neuroprotective effects of Polygonum multiflorum extract against glutamate-induced oxidative toxicity in HT22 hippocampal cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ha Neui; Kim, Yu Ri; Jang, Ji Yeon; Choi, Young Whan; Baek, Jin Ung; Hong, Jin Woo; Choi, Yung Hyun; Shin, Hwa Kyoung; Choi, Byung Tae

    2013-10-28

    Dried roots of Polygonum multiflorum have traditionally been used in the retarding of aging process in East Asian countries and its extracts exhibit anti-oxidative activities. Neuroprotective effects of ethyl acetate extract from Polygonum multiflorum (EEPM) were investigated against glutamate-induced oxidative cell death in HT22 hippocampal cells. Cell viability, cytotoxicity, morphological, flow cytometry, and Western blot assays were performed in order to observe alterations of neuronal cell survival or death related pathways. Pretreatment with EEPM resulted in significantly decreased glutamate-induced neurotoxicity and also resulted in drastically inhibited glutamate-induced apoptotic and necrotic neuronal death. To elucidate possible pathways of neuroprotection by EEPM, we explored the activation of mitogen activated protein kinases (MAPKs), phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase, and cAMP responsive element binding protein (CREB). Treatment with glutamate alone led to activation of extracellular regulated kinase (ERK), Jun N-terminal kinase, and p38 during the late phase after glutamate exposure, but pretreatment with EEPM resulted in significantly attenuated activation of these proteins. Pretreatment with EEPM resulted in increased activation of CREB. The specific inhibitors of ERK and p38, PD98059 and SB203580, abrogated the neuroprotective effects of EEPM. When we evaluated calpain I and striatal-enriched protein tyrosine phosphatase (STEP), active form of calpain I was significantly increased after glutamate exposure, and, along with this, active form of STEP showed a decrease. Pretreatment with EEPM resulted in significant recovery of pro-calpain I and active form of STEP caused by glutamate. Co-treatment with calpain inhibitor ALLN and EEPM had a synergistic effect on neuronal death and contributed to blockade of activation of both ERK and p38 with increased activation of CREB. These results suggest that Polygonum multiflorum extract may have neuroprotective

  18. Electrical stimulation affects metabolic enzyme phosphorylation, protease activation and meat tenderization in beef

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, C.B.; Li, J.; Zhou, G.H.

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the response of sarcoplasmic proteins in bovine longissimus muscle to low-voltage electrical stimulation (ES, 80 V, 35 s) after dressing and its contribution to meat tenderization at early postmortem time. Proteome analysis showed that ES resulted......, as well as pH decline and more preferred pH/temperature decline mode. Finally, ES accelerated meat tenderization with lower (P ... tenderization of beef. Our results suggested the possible importance of activation of µ-calpain, phosphorylation of sarcoplasmic proteins and release of lysosomal enzymes for ES-induced tenderization of beef muscle....

  19. Protein degradation systems in platelets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraemer, B F; Weyrich, A S; Lindemann, S

    2013-11-01

    Protein synthesis and degradation are essential processes that allow cells to survive and adapt to their surrounding milieu. In nucleated cells, the degradation and/or cleavage of proteins is required to eliminate aberrant proteins. Cells also degrade proteins as a mechanism for cell signalling and complex cellular functions. Although the last decade has convincingly shown that platelets synthesise proteins, the roles of protein degradation in these anucleate cytoplasts are less clear. Here we review what is known about protein degradation in platelets placing particular emphasis on the proteasome and the cysteine protease calpain.

  20. Lysosomal dysfunction in neurodegenerative diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klaudia Tomala

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Recent data advocate for the implication of lysosomes in the development of programmed cell death. Lysosomal dysfunction decreased the efficiency of autophagosome/lysosome fusion that leads to vacuolation of cells. Autophagic vacuoles containing damaged organelles and altered proteins are hallmarks in most neurodegenerative disorders. These aggregates consequently disrupt cellular homeostasis causing neuronal cell death due apoptosis or necrosis. Moreover calpain mediated or mutation inducted lysosomal rupture result in release of lysosomal cathepsins into the cytoplasm and inducing neuronal cell death. In this review we emphasize the pathophysiological mechanism connecting disrupting autophagy – lysosomal pathway and lysosomal dysfunction in neuronal cell death called lysosomal cell death.

  1. Calcium ion in skeletal muscle: its crucial role for muscle function, plasticity, and disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berchtold, M W; Brinkmeier, H; Müntener, M

    2000-01-01

    . Additionally, the muscle fibers are arranged in compartments that often function as largely independent muscular subunits. All muscle fibers use Ca(2+) as their main regulatory and signaling molecule. Therefore, contractile properties of muscle fibers are dependent on the variable expression of proteins...... in the sarcoplasmic reticulum. In addition, a multitude of Ca(2+)-binding proteins is present in muscle tissue including parvalbumin, calmodulin, S100 proteins, annexins, sorcin, myosin light chains, beta-actinin, calcineurin, and calpain. These Ca(2+)-binding proteins may either exert an important role in Ca(2...

  2. Pretreatment with Pancaspase Inhibitor (Z-VAD-FMK Delays but Does Not Prevent Intraperitoneal Heat-Killed Group B Streptococcus-Induced Preterm Delivery in a Pregnant Mouse Model

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    Ozlem Equils

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Caspases and apoptosis are thought to play a role in infection-associated preterm-delivery. We have shown that in vitro treatment with pancaspase inhibitor Z-VAD-FMK protects trophoblasts from microbial antigen-induced apoptosis. Objective. To examine whether in vivo administration of Z-VAD-FMK would prevent infection-induced preterm-delivery. Methods. We injected 14.5 day-pregnant-mice with heat-killed group B streptococcus (HK-GBS. Apoptosis within placentas and membranes was assessed by TUNEL staining. Calpain expression and caspase-3 activation were assessed by immunohistochemistry. Preterm-delivery was defined as expulsion of a fetus within 48 hours after injection. Results. Intrauterine (i.u. or intraperitoneal (i.p. HK-GBS injection led to preterm-delivery and induced apoptosis in placentas and membranes at 14 hours. The expression of calpain, a caspase-independent inducer of apoptosis, was increased in placenta. Treatment with the specific caspase inhibitor Z-VAD-FMK (i.p. prior to HK-GBS (i.p. delayed but did not prevent preterm-delivery. Conclusion. Caspase-dependent apoptosis appears to play a role in the timing but not the occurrence of GBS-induced preterm delivery in the mouse.

  3. Evolution of EF-hand calcium-modulated proteins. II. Domains of several subfamilies have diverse evolutionary histories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakayama, S.; Moncrief, N. D.; Kretsinger, R. H.

    1992-01-01

    In the first report in this series we described the relationships and evolution of 152 individual proteins of the EF-hand subfamilies. Here we add 66 additional proteins and define eight (CDC, TPNV, CLNB, LPS, DGK, 1F8, VIS, TCBP) new subfamilies and seven (CAL, SQUD, CDPK, EFH5, TPP, LAV, CRGP) new unique proteins, which we assume represent new subfamilies. The main focus of this study is the classification of individual EF-hand domains. Five subfamilies--calmodulin, troponin C, essential light chain, regulatory light chain, CDC31/caltractin--and three uniques--call, squidulin, and calcium-dependent protein kinase--are congruent in that all evolved from a common four-domain precursor. In contrast calpain and sarcoplasmic calcium-binding protein (SARC) each evolved from its own one-domain precursor. The remaining 19 subfamilies and uniques appear to have evolved by translocation and splicing of genes encoding the EF-hand domains that were precursors to the congruent eight and to calpain and to SARC. The rates of evolution of the EF-hand domains are slower following formation of the subfamilies and establishment of their functions. Subfamilies are not readily classified by patterns of calcium coordination, interdomain linker stability, and glycine and proline distribution. There are many homoplasies indicating that similar variants of the EF-hand evolved by independent pathways.

  4. Modulation of DL-. alpha. -amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid/quisqualate receptors by phospholipase A sub 2 : A necessary step in long-term potentiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Massicotte, G.; Baudry, M. (Univ. of Southern California, Los Angeles (United States)); Vanderklish, P.; Lynch, G. (Univ. of California, Irvine (United States))

    1991-03-01

    The effects of kainate (KA)-induced epileptic seizures on the binding properites of hippocampal glutamate receptors, on the modulation of DL-{alpha}-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA)/quisqualate receptor by phospholipase A{sub 2} (PLA{sub 2}), and on the formation of long-term potentiation (LTP) were studied in hippocampal membranes and hippocampal slices. Systemic administration of KA produced specific changes in the binding properties of the AMPA/quisqualate receptors and its regulation. Whereas the binding of various ligands to the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors was not modified by KA treatment, there was a singificant decrease in the maximal number of binding sites for ({sup 3}H)AMPA. The loss of LTP was not due to changes in postsynaptic responses elicited by the bursts that trigger the potentiation effect, thus suggesting that KA treatment disrupts processes that follow N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor activation. Systemic administration of KA was associated with calpain activation as the amount of spectrin breakdown products was increased severalfold in hippocampus but not in cerebellum. Pretreatment of telencephalic membranes with calpain greatly reduced the PLA{sub 2}-induced increase in ({sup 3}H)AMPA binding. The results provide evidence in favor of an essential role of PLA{sub 2} in the development of LTP and suggest that the order of activation of different calcium-dependent processes is critical for producing the final changes underlying LTP.

  5. A role for the protein tyrosine phosphatase CD45 in macrophage adhesion through the regulation of paxillin degradation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joëlle St-Pierre

    Full Text Available CD45 is a protein tyrosine phosphatase expressed on all cells of hematopoietic origin that is known to regulate Src family kinases. In macrophages, the absence of CD45 has been linked to defects in adhesion, however the molecular mechanisms involved remain poorly defined. In this study, we show that bone marrow derived macrophages from CD45-deficient mice exhibit abnormal cell morphology and defective motility. These defects are accompanied by substantially decreased levels of the cytoskeletal-associated protein paxillin, without affecting the levels of other proteins. Degradation of paxillin in CD45-deficient macrophages is calpain-mediated, as treatment with a calpain inhibitor restores paxillin levels in these cells and enhances cell spreading. Inhibition of the tyrosine kinases proline-rich tyrosine kinase (Pyk2 and focal adhesion kinase (FAK, kinases that are capable of mediating tyrosine phosphorylation of paxillin, also restored paxillin levels, indicating a role for these kinases in the CD45-dependent regulation of paxillin. These data demonstrate that CD45 functions to regulate Pyk2/FAK activity, likely through the activity of Src family kinases, which in turn regulates the levels of paxillin to modulate macrophage adhesion and migration.

  6. Specific knockdown of delta-sarcoglycan gene in C2C12 in vitro causes post-translational loss of other sarcoglycans without mechanical stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honda, Michiyo; Hosoda, Mari; Kanzawa, Nobuyuki; Tsuchiya, Takahide; Toyo-oka, Teruhiko

    2009-03-01

    The precise role of delta-sarcoglycan (SG) that is constitutively expressed in skeletal muscle cells and may serve for maintaining the sarcolemmal integrity has not been identified. The delta-SG protein is at first among SG complex. To specifically identify the role in C(2)C(12) cells during the myogenesis, we screened several RNA interference (RNAi) candidates at first, and knocked down both levels of the mRNA and protein, employing adenovirus-mediated RNAi. We found no morphological alteration at both myoblast and myotube stages by suppression of delta-SG. The specific knockdown of delta-SG accompanied a concomitant decrease of alpha-, beta-, and gamma-SGs preserving normal levels of each transcript. As for the localization, alpha-, beta-, and gamma-SGs were weakly stained on the cell membrane in delta-SG knockdown cells, whereas each SG in control cell was localized both on the cell membrane and myoplasm abundantly. This enhanced post-translational loss would represent similitude of the progression of cardiomuscular diseases in vitro. Different from cardiac muscle cells, skeletal muscle cell culture without muscle contraction may imply that mechanical stress per se is not primarily involved in the progression of limb-girdle muscular dystrophy. Furthermore, we have observed translocation of calpain-2 to cell membrane in delta-SG knockdown cells, suggesting that Ca(2+)-sensitive proteases, calpains closely take part in post-translational proteolysis.

  7. Glutamate excitotoxicity inflicts paranodal myelin splitting and retraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Yan; Sun, Wenjing; Shi, Yunzhou; Shi, Riyi; Cheng, Ji-Xin

    2009-08-20

    Paranodal myelin damage is observed in white matter injury. However the culprit for such damage remains unknown. By coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering imaging of myelin sheath in fresh tissues with sub-micron resolution, we observed significant paranodal myelin splitting and retraction following glutamate application both ex vivo and in vivo. Multimodal multiphoton imaging further showed that glutamate application broke axo-glial junctions and exposed juxtaparanodal K+ channels, resulting in axonal conduction deficit that was demonstrated by compound action potential measurements. The use of 4-aminopyridine, a broad-spectrum K+ channel blocker, effectively recovered both the amplitude and width of compound action potentials. Using CARS imaging as a quantitative readout of nodal length to diameter ratio, the same kind of paranodal myelin retraction was observed with applications of Ca2+ ionophore A23187. Moreover, exclusion of Ca2+ from the medium or application of calpain inhibitor abolished paranodal myelin retraction during glutamate exposure. Examinations of glutamate receptor agonists and antagonists further showed that the paranodal myelin damage was mediated by NMDA and kainate receptors. These results suggest that an increased level of glutamate in diseased white matter could impair paranodal myelin through receptor-mediated Ca2+ overloading and subsequent calpain activation.

  8. Glutamate excitotoxicity inflicts paranodal myelin splitting and retraction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Fu

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Paranodal myelin damage is observed in white matter injury. However the culprit for such damage remains unknown. By coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering imaging of myelin sheath in fresh tissues with sub-micron resolution, we observed significant paranodal myelin splitting and retraction following glutamate application both ex vivo and in vivo. Multimodal multiphoton imaging further showed that glutamate application broke axo-glial junctions and exposed juxtaparanodal K+ channels, resulting in axonal conduction deficit that was demonstrated by compound action potential measurements. The use of 4-aminopyridine, a broad-spectrum K+ channel blocker, effectively recovered both the amplitude and width of compound action potentials. Using CARS imaging as a quantitative readout of nodal length to diameter ratio, the same kind of paranodal myelin retraction was observed with applications of Ca2+ ionophore A23187. Moreover, exclusion of Ca2+ from the medium or application of calpain inhibitor abolished paranodal myelin retraction during glutamate exposure. Examinations of glutamate receptor agonists and antagonists further showed that the paranodal myelin damage was mediated by NMDA and kainate receptors. These results suggest that an increased level of glutamate in diseased white matter could impair paranodal myelin through receptor-mediated Ca2+ overloading and subsequent calpain activation.

  9. A novel benzofuran derivative, ACDB, induces apoptosis of human chondrosarcoma cells through mitochondrial dysfunction and endoplasmic reticulum stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Chen-Ming; Chen, Chien-Yu; Lu, Tingting; Sun, Yi; Li, Weimin; Huang, Yuan-Li; Tsai, Chun-Hao; Chang, Chih-Shiang; Tang, Chih-Hsin

    2016-12-13

    Chondrosarcoma is one of the bone tumor with high mortality in respond to poor radiation and chemotherapy treatment. Here, we analyze the antitumor activity of a novel benzofuran derivative, 2-amino-3-(2-chlorophenyl)-6-(4-dimethylaminophenyl)benzofuran-4-yl acetate (ACDB), in human chondrosarcoma cells. ACDB increased the cell apoptosis of human chondrosarcomas without harm in chondrocytes. ACDB also enhanced endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, which was characterized by varieties in the cytosolic calcium levels and induced the expression of glucose-regulated protein (GRP) and calpain. Furthermore, the ACDB-induced chondrosarcoma apoptosis was associated with the upregulation of the B cell lymphoma-2 (Bcl-2) family members including pro- and anti-apoptotic proteins, downregulation of dysfunctional mitochondria that released cytochrome C, and subsequent activation of caspases-3. In addition, the ACDB-mediated cellular apoptosis was suppressed by transfecting cells with glucose-regulated protein (GRP) and calpain siRNA or treating cells with ER stress chelators and caspase inhibitors. Interestingly, animal experiments illustrated a reduction in the tumor volume following ACDB treatment. Together, these results suggest that ACDB may be a novel tumor suppressor of chondrosarcoma, and this study demonstrates that the novel antitumor agent, ACDB, induced apoptosis by mitochondrial dysfunction and ER stress in human chondrosarcoma cells in vitro and in vivo.

  10. A precise temporal dissection of monosodium glutamate-induced apoptotic events in newborn rat retina in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dénes, Viktória; Lakk, Mónika; Czotter, Nikoletta; Gábriel, Róbert

    2011-08-01

    Although L-glutamate is the main excitatory neurotransmitter in the retina, excess glutamate level triggers severe neuronal damages. Therefore, monosodium glutamate has been used to probe neurodegenerative mechanisms but precise toxicity schedule is not available in vivo. We report, for the first time, a temporal analysis of apoptotic processes induced by subcutaneously applied monosodium glutamate. We investigated the glutamate triggered subcellular processes over a time scale of 48 h in neonatal retina. We employed immunoblots to measure the level of activated apoptotic factors and immunocytochemistry to reveal the dying cells. Upregulation of active caspase-9 started at 3 h and peaked at 6 h post-injection. Activations of caspase-3, caspase-6 and caspase-7 consistent with their late-phase roles increased at 6 h post-injection. The apoptotic processes were terminated by 24 h post-injection. Caspase 12 and calpain-2 seemed unaffected by subcutaneous monosodium glutamate administration. Uniquely, we found that the ubiquitous calpain-1 is not expressed in newborn rat retina.

  11. Piroxicam and c-phycocyanin prevent colon carcinogenesis by inhibition of membrane fluidity and canonical Wnt/β-catenin signaling while up-regulating ligand dependent transcription factor PPARγ.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saini, Manpreet Kaur; Sanyal, Sankar Nath

    2014-06-01

    The colon cancer tissues from DMH treated rats exhibited higher membrane potential, fluidity and changed lipid order as examined by Merocyanine 540 and 1,6-diphenyl-1,3,5-hexatriene, respectively. A transition from gel to liquid crystalline state was observed by Laurdan fluorescence and also reduced fluorescence quenching of NBD-PE as contributed in the decreased membrane lipid phase separation. With piroxicam, a traditional NSAID and c-phycocyanin, a biliprotein from Spirulina platensis, these effects were normalized. An augmented intracellular Ca(+2) had contributed to the drug mediated apoptosis which is supported by an elevated calpain-9 expression. Histopathologically, a large pool of secreted acid/neutral mucopolysaccrides as well as the presence of blood vessels and dysplastic crypts signifies invasive mucinous adenocarcinoma while both the drugs reduced these neoplastic alterations. Wnt/β-catenin pathway was also found to be up-regulated which served as a crucial indicator for cancer cell growth. A concomitant down regulation of PPARγ was noted in DMH treatment which is associated with tumor progression. The expression of PPARα and δ, the other two isoforms of PPAR family was also modulated. We conclude that piroxicam and c-phycocyanin exert their anti-neoplastic effects via regulating membrane properties, raising calpain-9 and PPARγ expression while suppressing Wnt/β-catenin signaling in experimental colon carcinogenesis. Crown Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  12. Probenecid protects against cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury by inhibiting lysosomal and inflammatory damage in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, R; Wang, J; Xu, Y; Yin, B; He, F; Du, Y; Peng, G; Luo, B

    2015-08-20

    Probenecid has been used for decades to treat gout, and recent studies have revealed it is also a specific inhibitor of the pannexin-1 channel. It has been reported that the pannexin-1 channel is involved in ischemic injury. Here, we investigated the neuroprotective effect and the possible mechanisms of action of probenecid in global cerebral ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury in rats. Twenty minutes of transient global cerebral I/R injury was induced using the four-vessel occlusion (4-VO) method in male Sprague-Dawley rats. Different doses of probenecid were administered intravenously, intraperitoneally, or by gavage before or after reperfusion. Probenecid via all three routes protected against CA1 neuronal death when given before reperfusion. This protective effect continued when probenecid was given at 2h after reperfusion, but not at 6h. Interestingly, the protective effect regained if probenecid was given continuously for 7days after reperfusion. The release of cathepsin B and overexpression of calpain-1 after reperfusion were inhibited, while the upregulation of Hsp70 was strengthened by probenecid pre-treatment. Furthermore, the activation and proliferation of microglia and astrocytes after I/R injury were suppressed by continuous given for 7days, but only partly by a single dose at 6h of reperfusion. Thus, our data indicate that probenecid protects against transient global cerebral I/R injury probably by inhibiting calpain-cathepsin pathway and the inflammatory reaction. Copyright © 2015 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Epigenetic revival of a dead cardiomyocyte through mitochondrial interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunkel, George H; Chaturvedi, Pankaj; Tyagi, Suresh C

    2015-08-01

    Mitochondrial dysfunction has been reported to underline heart failure, and our earlier report suggests that mitochondrial fusion and fission contributes significantly to volume overload heart failure. Although ample studies highlight mitochondrial dysfunction to be a major cause, studies are lacking to uncover the role of mitochondrial epigenetics, i.e. epigenetic modifications of mtDNA in cardiomyocyte function. Additionally, mitochondrial proteases like calpain and Lon proteases are underexplored. Cardiomyopathies are correlated to mitochondrial damage via increased reactive oxygen species production and free calcium within cardiomyocytes. These abnormalities drive increased proteolytic activity from matrix metalloproteinases and calpains, respectively. These proteases degrade the cytoskeleton of the cardiomyocyte and lead to myocyte death. mtDNA methylation is another factor that can lead to myocyte death by silencing several genes of mitochondria or upregulating the expression of mitochondrial proteases by hypomethylation. Cardiomyocyte resuscitation can occur through mitochondrial interventions by decreasing the proteolytic activity and reverting back the epigenetic changes in the mtDNA which lead to myocyte dysfunction. Epigenetic changes in the mtDNA are triggered by environmental factors like pollution and eating habits with cigarette smoking. An analysis of mitochondrial epigenetics in cigarette-smoking mothers will reveal an underlying novel mechanism leading to mitochondrial dysfunction and eventually heart failure. This review is focused on the mitochondrial dysfunction mechanisms that can be reverted back to resuscitate cardiomyocytes.

  14. Hyperosmotic Stress Induces Tau Proteolysis by Caspase-3 Activation in SH-SY5Y Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivera-Santa Catalina, Marta; Caballero-Bermejo, Montaña; Argent, Ricardo; Alonso, Juan C; Cuenda, Ana; Lorenzo, María J; Centeno, Francisco

    2016-12-01

    Tau is a microtubule-associated protein implicated in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease and other related tauopathies. In this subset of neurodegenerative disorders, Tau auto-assembles into insoluble fibrils that accumulate in neurons as paired helical filaments (PHFs), promoting cellular dysfunction and cytotoxic effects. Growing evidence suggests that abnormal post-translational regulation, mainly hyperphosphorylation and aberrant cleavage, drives Tau to this pathological state. In this work we show that sorbitol-induced hyperosmotic stress promotes Tau proteolysis in SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells. The appearance of cleaved Tau was preceded by the activation of μ-calpain, the proteasome system and caspase-3. Tau proteolysis was completely prevented by caspase-3 inhibition but unaffected by neither the proteasome system nor μ-calpain activity blockade. Concomitantly, hyperosmotic stress induced apoptosis in SH-SY5Y cells, which was efficiently avoided by the inhibition of caspase-3 activity. Altogether, our results provide the first evidence that Tau protein is susceptible to caspase-3 proteolysis under hyperosmotic stress and suggest a positive relationship between Tau proteolysis and apoptosis in SH-SY5Y cells. J. Cell. Biochem. 117: 2781-2790, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Prenatal alcohol-induced neuroapoptosis in rat brain cerebral cortex: protective effect of folic acid and betaine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sogut, Ibrahim; Uysal, Onur; Oglakci, Aysegul; Yucel, Ferruh; Kartkaya, Kazim; Kanbak, Gungor

    2017-03-01

    Alcohol consumption in pregnancy may cause fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) in the infant. This study aims to investigate prenatal alcohol exposure related neuroapoptosis on the cerebral cortex tissues of newborn rats and possible neuroprotective effects of betaine, folic acid, and combined therapy. Pregnant rats were divided into five experimental groups: control, ethanol, ethanol + betaine, ethanol + folic acid, and ethanol + betaine + folic acid combined therapy groups. We measured cytochrome c release, caspase-3, calpain and cathepsin B and L. enzyme activities. In order to observe apoptotic cells in the early stages, TUNEL method was chosen together with histologic methods such as assessing the diameters of the apoptotic cells, their distribution in unit volume and volume proportion of cortical intact neuron nuclei. Calpain, caspase-3 activities, and cytochrome c levels were significantly increased in alcohol group while cathepsin B and L. activities were also found to be elevated albeit not statistically significant. These increases were significantly reversed by folic acid and betaine + folic acid treatments. While ethanol increased the number of apoptotic cells, this increase was prevented in ethanol + betaine and ethanol + betaine + folic acid groups. Morphometric examination showed that the mean diameter of apoptotic cells was increased with ethanol administration while this increase was reduced by betaine and betaine + folic acid treatments. We observed that ethanol is capable of triggering apoptotic cell death in the newborn rat brains. Furthermore, folic acid, betaine, and combined therapy of these supplements may reduce neuroapoptosis related to prenatal alcohol consumption, and might be effective on preventing fetal alcohol syndrome in infants.

  16. Molecular fingerprint of high fat diet induced urinary bladder metabolic dysfunction in a rat model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Oberbach

    Full Text Available AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Diabetic voiding dysfunction has been reported in epidemiological dimension of individuals with diabetes mellitus. Animal models might provide new insights into the molecular mechanisms of this dysfunction to facilitate early diagnosis and to identify new drug targets for therapeutic interventions. METHODS: Thirty male Sprague-Dawley rats received either chow or high-fat diet for eleven weeks. Proteomic alterations were comparatively monitored in both groups to discover a molecular fingerprinting of the urinary bladder remodelling/dysfunction. Results were validated by ELISA, Western blotting and immunohistology. RESULTS: In the proteome analysis 383 proteins were identified and canonical pathway analysis revealed a significant up-regulation of acute phase reaction, hypoxia, glycolysis, β-oxidation, and proteins related to mitochondrial dysfunction in high-fat diet rats. In contrast, calcium signalling, cytoskeletal proteins, calpain, 14-3-3η and eNOS signalling were down-regulated in this group. Interestingly, we found increased ubiquitin proteasome activity in the high-fat diet group that might explain the significant down-regulation of eNOS, 14-3-3η and calpain. CONCLUSIONS/INTERPRETATION: Thus, high-fat diet is sufficient to induce significant remodelling of the urinary bladder and alterations of the molecular fingerprint. Our findings give new insights into obesity related bladder dysfunction and identified proteins that may indicate novel pathophysiological mechanisms and therefore constitute new drug targets.

  17. The physical and biochemical changes in springbok (Antidorcas marsupialis) Longissimus thoracis et lumborum and Biceps femoris muscle during ageing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    North, M K; Frylinck, L; Hoffman, L C

    2015-12-01

    This study aimed to determine the optimum ageing period for vacuum-packed springbok (Antidorcas marsupialis) Longissimus thoracis et lumborum (LTL) and Biceps femoris (BF) muscle stored at 5.4 ± 1.0°C. Portions of muscle from seven male and six female springbok were aged 1, 2, 5, 8, 14 or 21 days. The Warner Bratzler shear force declined most during the first five days post-mortem (PM), while purge and cooking losses increased significantly with ageing. Calpains I and II and calpastatin activity declined significantly up to five days PM, suggesting that they may be responsible for tenderization. Cathepsins B, BL and H activity increased significantly during ageing. The BF muscle had significantly higher pH, lower purge loss, higher cooking loss, higher WBSF and higher calpain and calpastatin activity than the LTL. No significant differences between the genders or muscles were found for the collagen content or collagen solubility. Springbok LTL and BF muscles should not be aged for longer than five days. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Molecular fingerprint of high fat diet induced urinary bladder metabolic dysfunction in a rat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberbach, Andreas; Jehmlich, Nico; Schlichting, Nadine; Heinrich, Marco; Lehmann, Stefanie; Wirth, Henry; Till, Holger; Stolzenburg, Jens-Uwe; Völker, Uwe; Adams, Volker; Neuhaus, Jochen

    2013-01-01

    Diabetic voiding dysfunction has been reported in epidemiological dimension of individuals with diabetes mellitus. Animal models might provide new insights into the molecular mechanisms of this dysfunction to facilitate early diagnosis and to identify new drug targets for therapeutic interventions. Thirty male Sprague-Dawley rats received either chow or high-fat diet for eleven weeks. Proteomic alterations were comparatively monitored in both groups to discover a molecular fingerprinting of the urinary bladder remodelling/dysfunction. Results were validated by ELISA, Western blotting and immunohistology. In the proteome analysis 383 proteins were identified and canonical pathway analysis revealed a significant up-regulation of acute phase reaction, hypoxia, glycolysis, β-oxidation, and proteins related to mitochondrial dysfunction in high-fat diet rats. In contrast, calcium signalling, cytoskeletal proteins, calpain, 14-3-3η and eNOS signalling were down-regulated in this group. Interestingly, we found increased ubiquitin proteasome activity in the high-fat diet group that might explain the significant down-regulation of eNOS, 14-3-3η and calpain. Thus, high-fat diet is sufficient to induce significant remodelling of the urinary bladder and alterations of the molecular fingerprint. Our findings give new insights into obesity related bladder dysfunction and identified proteins that may indicate novel pathophysiological mechanisms and therefore constitute new drug targets.

  19. Non-conventional apoptotic response to ionising radiation mediated by N-methyl D-aspartate receptors in immature neuronal cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samari, Nada; De Saint-Georges, Louis; Pani, Giuseppe; Baatout, Sarah; Leyns, Luc; Benotmane, Mohammed Abderrafi

    2013-03-01

    During cortical development, N-methyl D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors are highly involved in neuronal maturation and synapse establishment. Their implication in the phenomenon of excitotoxicity has been extensively described in several neurodegenerative diseases due to the permissive entry of Ca2+ ions and massive accumulation in the intracellular compartment, which is highly toxic to cells. Ionising radiation is also a source of stress to the cells, particularly immature neurons. Their capacity to induce cell death has been described for various cell types either by directly damaging the DNA or indirectly through the generation of reactive oxygen species responsible for the activation of a battery of stress response effectors leading in certain cases, to cell death. In this study, in order to determine whether a link exists between NMDA receptors-mediated excitotoxicity and radiation-induced cell death, we evaluated radiation-induced cell death in vitro and in vivo in maturing neurons during the fetal period. Cell death induction was assessed by TUNEL, caspase-3 activity and DNA ladder assays, with or without the administration of dizocilpine (MK-801), a non-competitive NMDA receptor antagonist which blocks neuronal Ca2+ influx. To further investigate the possible involvement of Ca2+-dependent enzyme activation, known to occur at high Ca2+ concentrations, we examined the protective effect of a calpain inhibitor on cell death induced by radiation. Doses ranging from 0.2 to 0.6 Gy of X-rays elicited a clear apoptotic response that was prevented by the injection of dizocilpine (MK-801) or calpain inhibitor. These data demonstrate the involvement of NMDA receptors in radiation-induced neuronal death by the activation of downstream effectors, including calpain-related pathways. An increased apoptotic process elicited by radiation, occurring independently of the normal developmental scheme, may eliminate post-mitotic but immature neuronal cells and deeply impair the

  20. Role of calmodulin-calmodulin kinase II, cAMP/protein kinase A and ERK 1/2 on Aeromonas hydrophila-induced apoptosis of head kidney macrophages.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaitali Banerjee

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The role of calcium (Ca2+ and its dependent protease calpain in Aeromonas hydrophila-induced head kidney macrophage (HKM apoptosis has been reported. Here, we report the pro-apoptotic involvement of calmodulin (CaM and calmodulin kinase II gamma (CaMKIIg in the process. We observed significant increase in CaM levels in A. hydrophila-infected HKM and the inhibitory role of BAPTA/AM, EGTA, nifedipine and verapamil suggested CaM elevation to be Ca2+-dependent. Our studies with CaM-specific siRNA and the CaM inhibitor calmidazolium chloride demonstrated CaM to be pro-apoptotic that initiated the downstream expression of CaMKIIg. Using the CaMKIIg-targeted siRNA, specific inhibitor KN-93 and its inactive structural analogue KN-92 we report CaM-CaMKIIg signalling to be critical for apoptosis of A. hydrophila-infected HKM. Inhibitor studies further suggested the role of calpain-2 in CaMKIIg expression. CaMK Kinase (CaMKK, the other CaM dependent kinase exhibited no role in A. hydrophila-induced HKM apoptosis. We report increased production of intracellular cAMP in infected HKM and our results with KN-93 or KN-92 implicate the role of CaMKIIg in cAMP production. Using siRNA to PKACA, the catalytic subunit of PKA, anti-PKACA antibody and H-89, the specific inhibitor for PKA we prove the pro-apoptotic involvement of cAMP/PKA pathway in the pathogenicity of A. hydrophila. Our inhibitor studies coupled with siRNA approach further implicated the role of cAMP/PKA in activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1 and 2 (ERK 1/2. We conclude that the alteration in intracellular Ca2+ levels initiated by A. hydrophila activates CaM and calpain-2; both pathways converge on CaMKIIg which in turn induces cAMP/PKA mediated ERK 1/2 phosphorylation leading to caspase-3 mediated apoptosis of infected HKM.

  1. Proteolytic systems' expression during myogenesis and transcriptional regulation by amino acids in gilthead sea bream cultured muscle cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vélez, Emilio J; Azizi, Sheida; Verheyden, Dorothy; Salmerón, Cristina; Lutfi, Esmail; Sánchez-Moya, Albert; Navarro, Isabel; Gutiérrez, Joaquim; Capilla, Encarnación

    2017-01-01

    Proteolytic systems exert an important role in vertebrate muscle controlling protein turnover, recycling of amino acids (AA) or its use for energy production, as well as other functions like myogenesis. In fish, proteolytic systems are crucial for the relatively high muscle somatic index they possess, and because protein is the most important dietary component. Thus in this study, the molecular profile of proteolytic markers (calpains, cathepsins and ubiquitin-proteasome system (UbP) members) were analyzed during gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata) myogenesis in vitro and under different AA treatments. The gene expression of calpains (capn1, capn3 and capns1b) decreased progressively during myogenesis together with the proteasome member n3; whereas capn2, capns1a, capns1b and ubiquitin (ub) remained stable. Contrarily, the cathepsin D (ctsd) paralogs and E3 ubiquitin ligases mafbx and murf1, showed a significant peak in gene expression at day 8 of culture that slightly decreased afterwards. Moreover, the protein expression analyzed for selected molecules presented in general the same profile of the mRNA levels, which was confirmed by correlation analysis. These data suggest that calpains seem to be more important during proliferation, while cathepsins and the UbP system appear to be required for myogenic differentiation. Concerning the transcriptional regulation by AA, the recovery of their levels after a short starvation period did not show effects on cathepsins expression, whereas it down-regulated the expression of capn3, capns1b, mafbx, murf1 and up-regulated n3. With regards to AA deficiencies, the major changes occurred at day 2, when leucine limitation suppressed ctsb and ctsl expression. Besides at the same time, both leucine and lysine deficiencies increased the expression of mafbx and murf1 and decreased that of n3. Overall, the opposite nutritional regulation observed, especially for the UbP members, points out an efficient and complementary role of these

  2. Effects of TRH and its analogues on primary cortical neuronal cell damage induced by various excitotoxic, necrotic and apoptotic agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jantas, D; Jaworska-Feil, L; Lipkowski, A W; Lason, W

    2009-10-01

    The tripeptide thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH, pGlu-His-Pro-NH2) has been shown to possess neuroprotective activity in in vitro and in vivo models. Since its potential utility is limited by relatively rapid metabolism, metabolically stabilized analogues have been constructed. In the present study we investigated the influence of TRH and its three stable analogues: Montirelin (MON, CG-3703), RGH-2202 (L-6-keto-piperidine-2carbonyl-l-leucyl-l-prolinamide) and Z-TRH (N-carbobenzyloxy-pGlutamyl-Histydyl-Proline) in various models of mouse cortical neuronal cell injury. Twenty four hour pre-treatment with TRH and its analogues in low micromolar concentrations attenuated the neuronal cell death evoked by excitatory amino acids (EAAs: glutamate, NMDA, kainate, quisqualate) and hydrogen peroxide. All the peptides showed neuroprotective action on staurosporine (St)-evoked apoptotic neuronal cell death, but this effect was caspase-3 independent. Interestingly, in mixed neuronal-glial cell preparations only MON decreased St- and glutamate-evoked neurotoxicity. None of the peptides inhibited the doxorubicin- and lactacystin-induced neuronal cortical cell death, agents acting via activation of death receptor (FAS) or inhibition of proteasome function, respectively. Furthermore, we found that neither inhibitors of PI3-K (wortmannin, LY 294002) nor MAPK/ERK1/2 (PD 098059, U 0126) were able to inhibit neuroprotective properties of TRH and MON in St model of apoptosis. The protection mediated by TRH and MON it that model was also not connected with influence of peptides on the pro-apoptotic GSK-3beta and JNK protein kinase expression and activity. Further studies showed that calpains, calcium-activated proteases were induced by Glu, but not by St in cortical neurons. Moreover, the Glu-evoked increase in spectrin alpha II cleavage product induced by calpains was blocked by TRH. The obtained data showed that the potency of TRH and its analogues in inhibiting EAAs- and H(2)O(2

  3. Effects of controlled mechanical ventilation on sepsis-induced diaphragm dysfunction in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maes, Karen; Stamiris, Angela; Thomas, Debby; Cielen, Nele; Smuder, Ashley; Powers, Scott K; Leite, Felipe S; Hermans, Greet; Decramer, Marc; Hussain, Sabah N; Gayan-Ramirez, Ghislaine

    2014-12-01

    Diaphragm dysfunction develops during severe sepsis as a consequence of hemodynamic, metabolic, and intrinsic abnormalities. Similarly, 12 hours of controlled mechanical ventilation also promotes diaphragm dysfunction. Importantly, patients with sepsis are often treated with mechanical ventilation for several days. It is unknown if controlled mechanical ventilation exacerbates sepsis-induced diaphragm dysfunction, and this forms the basis for these experiments. We investigate the effects of 12-hour controlled mechanical ventilation on contractile function, fiber dimension, cytokine production, proteolysis, autophagy, and oxidative stress in the diaphragm of septic rats. Randomized controlled experiment. Animal research laboratory. Adult male Wistar rats. Treatment with a single intraperitoneal injection of either saline or Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide (5 mg/kg). After 12 hours, the saline-treated animals (controlled mechanical ventilation) and half of the septic animals (lipopolysaccharide + controlled mechanical ventilation) were submitted to 12 hours of controlled mechanical ventilation while the remaining septic animals (lipopolysaccharide) were breathing spontaneously for 12 hours. They were compared to a control group. All animals were studied 24 hours after saline or lipopolysaccharide administration. Twenty-four hours after saline or lipopolysaccharide administration, diaphragm contractility was measured in vitro. We also measured diaphragm muscle fiber dimensions from stained cross sections, and inflammatory cytokines were determined by proteome array. Activities of calpain, caspase-3, and proteasome, expression of 20S-proteasome α subunits, E2 conjugases, E3 ligases, and autophagy were measured with immunoblotting and quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Lipopolysaccharide and/or controlled mechanical ventilation independently decreased diaphragm contractility and fiber dimensions and increased diaphragm interleukin-6 production, protein

  4. The combination of a histone deacetylase inhibitor with the BH3-mimetic GX15-070 has synergistic antileukemia activity by activating both apoptosis and autophagy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Yue; Kadia, Tapan; Tong, Weigang; Zhang, Ming; Jia, Yu; Yang, Hui; Hu, Yumin; Viallet, Jean; O'Brien, Susan; Garcia-Manero, Guillermo

    2010-10-01

    We analyzed the cellular and molecular effects of two different histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACi), MGCD0103 and vorinostat, in combination with GX15-070, a BH3-mimetic, in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) cell lines and primary AML cells, and demonstrated that the combination has a synergistic antileukemia effect. We observed that in addition to apoptosis, autophagy also accounts for the observed nonapoptotic decrease of cell viability. Mechanistically, we established a role for calpain activity and ER-located caspase signaling in the induction of both autophagy and apoptosis following this combination of drugs. These findings reveal that for this specific combination, autophagy plays a positive role in inducing cytotoxicity, and that the involved ER signaling networks, as well as their clinical relevance, should be further studied in both preclinical and clinical trials of leukemia and other malignancies.

  5. cDNA analyses of CAPN3 enhance mutation detection and reveal a low prevalence of LGMD2A patients in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duno, M.; Sveen, M.L.; Schwartz, M.

    2008-01-01

    suspected to have LGMD2A, based on western blot results. Four of these patients were shown to have LGMD2I upon molecular analysis, whereas 16 of the remaining 42 patients harbored mutations in CAPN3 by both direct genomic sequencing and cDNA analyses. In 10 patients, we identified both mutant alleles....... In three other, only one heterozygous mutation could be identified on the genomic level; however, CAPN3 cDNA analyses demonstrated homozygosity for the mutant allele, indicating the presence of an unidentified allele that somehow compromise correct CAPN3 RNA processing. In the three remaining patients......, only a single heterozygous mutation could be identified both at the genomic level and on full-length CAPN3 cDNA. All three patients exhibited a highly abnormal western blot for calpain-3 and clinical characteristics of LGMD2A. Only three of the genetically confirmed LGMD2A patients were of Danish...

  6. Type 2 diabetes: principles of pathogenesis and therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stumvoll, Michael; Goldstein, Barry J; van Haeften, Timon W

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus has become an epidemic, and virtually no physician is without patients who have the disease. Whereas insulin insensitivity is an early phenomenon partly related to obesity, pancreas beta-cell function declines gradually over time already before the onset of clinical hyperglycaemia. Several mechanisms have been proposed, including increased non-esterified fatty acids, inflammatory cytokines, adipokines, and mitochondrial dysfunction for insulin resistance, and glucotoxicity, lipotoxicity, and amyloid formation for beta-cell dysfunction. Moreover, the disease has a strong genetic component, but only a handful of genes have been identified so far: genes for calpain 10, potassium inward-rectifier 6.2, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma, insulin receptor substrate-1, and others. Management includes not only diet and exercise, but also combinations of anti-hyperglycaemic drug treatment with lipid-lowering, antihypertensive, and anti platelet therapy.

  7. Leucine affects the fibroblastic Vero cells stimulating the cell proliferation and modulating the proteolysis process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, Estela Maria; Gomes-Marcondes, Maria Cristina Cintra

    2010-01-01

    Branched-chain amino acids, especially leucine, exert regulatory influences on protein and carbohydrate metabolism, ribosome biogenesis and gene expression. This study investigated the effects of leucine in fibroblastic cells analysing viability, proliferation, morphology, proteolysis enzymes activities and protein turnover. After exposure to culture medium enriched with 25 or 50 microM leucine for 24, 48 and 72 h, Vero cells have no alterations on viability and morphology. Leucine-treated cells showed increase on alkaline phosphatase activity and proliferation. The protein synthesis was slightly increased, whereas the protein degradation showed a deep reduction after leucine incubation. The chymotrypsin-like, cathepsin B and H and calpain activities were decreased in leucine-treated cells. In conclusion, the proteolytic pathways and the total protein degradation were modulated by leucine in Vero cells. Our observations support the concept that Vero cells may represent a new model for protein turnover study.

  8. Cell-Autonomous Ca2+ Flashes Elicit Pulsed Contractions of an Apical Actin Network to Drive Apical Constriction during Neural Tube Closure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neophytos Christodoulou

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Neurulation is a critical period in all vertebrates and results in the formation of the neural tube, which gives rise to the CNS. Apical constriction is one of the fundamental morphogenetic movements that drives neural tube closure. Using live imaging, we show that apical constriction during the neurulation is a stepwise process driven by cell-autonomous and asynchronous contraction pulses followed by stabilization steps. Our data suggest that contraction events are triggered by cell-autonomous Ca2+ flashes and are driven by a transient contractile apical pool of actin. In addition, we provide evidence that the cell autonomy and asynchrony of contraction are required for the correct spatial distribution of constriction and, as a result, are critical for tissue morphogenesis. Finally, we identify Calpain2 as a regulator of apical constriction and show that it is required for the stabilization step, but is dispensable during contraction.

  9. Cell-Autonomous Ca(2+) Flashes Elicit Pulsed Contractions of an Apical Actin Network to Drive Apical Constriction during Neural Tube Closure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christodoulou, Neophytos; Skourides, Paris A

    2015-12-15

    Neurulation is a critical period in all vertebrates and results in the formation of the neural tube, which gives rise to the CNS. Apical constriction is one of the fundamental morphogenetic movements that drives neural tube closure. Using live imaging, we show that apical constriction during the neurulation is a stepwise process driven by cell-autonomous and asynchronous contraction pulses followed by stabilization steps. Our data suggest that contraction events are triggered by cell-autonomous Ca(2+) flashes and are driven by a transient contractile apical pool of actin. In addition, we provide evidence that the cell autonomy and asynchrony of contraction are required for the correct spatial distribution of constriction and, as a result, are critical for tissue morphogenesis. Finally, we identify Calpain2 as a regulator of apical constriction and show that it is required for the stabilization step, but is dispensable during contraction. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. A Review of Selected Genes with Known Effects on Performance and Health of Cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Casas

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available There are genetic conditions that influence production in dairy and beef cattle. The objective of this review was to describe relevant genetic conditions that have been associated with productivity and health in cattle. Genes or genomic regions that have been identified as a candidate for the condition will be included, and the genetic basis of the condition will be defined. Genes and genetic conditions included in this review are Bovine Leukocyte Adhesion Deficiency (BLAD, Deficiency of the Uridine Monophosphate Synthase (DUMPS, Bovine Chronic Interstitial Nephritis (BCIN, Horn development, Myostatin, Complex Vertebral malformation, Leptin, Osteopetrosis, Apoptosis Peptide Activating Factor 1, Chondrodysplastic Dwarfism, Caseins, Calpastatin, Umbilical Hernia, Lactoglobulin, Citrullinemia, Cholesterol Deficiency, Prions, Thyroglobulin, Diaglycerol Acyltransferase, Syndactyly, Maple Syrup Urine Disease, Slick Hair, Factor XI Deficiency, and Mu-Calpain. This review is not meant to be comprehensive, and relevant information is provided to ascertain genetic markers associated with the conditions.

  11. Biphasic function of focal adhesion kinase in endothelial tube formation induced by fibril-forming collagens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Junko; Shigematsu, Satoshi; Yamauchi, Keishi; Takeda, Teiji; Yamazaki, Masanori; Kakizawa, Tomoko; Hashizume, Kiyoshi

    2008-10-03

    Migration and tube formation of endothelial cells are important in angiogenesis and require a coordinated response to the extra-cellular matrix (ECM) and growth factor. Since focal adhesion kinase (FAK) integrates signals from both ECM and growth factor, we investigated its role in angiogenesis. Type I and II collagens are fibril-forming collagens and stimulate human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) to form tube structure. Although knockdown of FAK restrained cell motility and resulted in inhibition of tube formation, FAK degradation and tube formation occurred simultaneously after incubation with fibril-forming collagens. The compensation for the FAK degradation by a calpain inhibitor or transient over-expression of FAK resulted in disturbance of tube formation. These phenomena are specific to fibril-forming collagens and mediated via alpha2beta1 integrin. In conclusion, our data indicate that FAK is functioning in cell migration, but fibril-forming collagen-induced FAK degradation is necessary for endothelial tube formation.

  12. Genetics of type 2 diabetes mellitus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Lars; Pedersen, Oluf

    2005-01-01

    and classified into MODY1-6 according to the mutated genes that by being expressed in the pancreatic beta-cells confirm at the molecular level the clinical presentation of MODY as a predominantly insulin secretory deficient form of diabetes mellitus. Genomewide linkage studies of presumed polygenic type 2......Throughout the last decade, molecular genetic studies of non-autoimmune diabetes mellitus have contributed significantly to our present understanding of this disease's complex aetiopathogenesis. Monogenic forms of diabetes (maturity-onset diabetes of the young, MODY) have been identified...... diabetic populations indicate that loci on chromosomes 1q, 5q, 8p, 10q, 12q and 20q contain susceptibility genes. Yet, so far, the only susceptibility gene, calpain-10 (CAPN10), which has been identified using genomewide linkage studies, is located on chromosome 2q37. Mutation analyses of selected...

  13. Epigenetics and Signaling Pathways in Glaucoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela C. Gauthier

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Glaucoma is the most common cause of irreversible blindness worldwide. This neurodegenerative disease becomes more prevalent with aging, but predisposing genetic and environmental factors also contribute to increased risk. Emerging evidence now suggests that epigenetics may also be involved, which provides potential new therapeutic targets. These three factors work through several pathways, including TGF-β, MAP kinase, Rho kinase, BDNF, JNK, PI-3/Akt, PTEN, Bcl-2, Caspase, and Calcium-Calpain signaling. Together, these pathways result in the upregulation of proapoptotic gene expression, the downregulation of neuroprotective and prosurvival factors, and the generation of fibrosis at the trabecular meshwork, which may block aqueous humor drainage. Novel therapeutic agents targeting these pathway members have shown preliminary success in animal models and even human trials, demonstrating that they may eventually be used to preserve retinal neurons and vision.

  14. Contribution of muscle proteinases to meat tenderization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, S T

    1998-07-01

    The exact mechanisms involved in the postmortem meat tenderization process and the nature of changes associated with improvement in tenderness are complex and not fully understood. Based on the relevant evidence thus far obtained, the focus of this review is on clarifying the factors affecting meat tenderness, particularly the toughening and tenderness phases, possible endogenous proteinases involved in meat tenderization and how these proteinases contribute to meat tenderization. Of the different biochemical and ultrastructural changes occurring in the meat tenderization process, myofibril disruption at the Z-disk and contractile proteins are discussed in detail. This myofibril disruption can perhaps be ascribed to the synergistic action of calcium-dependent proteinases (both mu- and m-calpains) and lysosomal proteinases, especially the cathepsins B and L.

  15. Mechanisms and pathophysiological significance of eryptosis, the suicidal erythrocyte death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Elisabeth; Lang, Florian

    2015-03-01

    Eryptosis, the suicidal erythrocyte death characterized by cell shrinkage and cell membrane scrambling, is stimulated by Ca(2+) entry through Ca(2+)-permeable, PGE2-activated cation channels, by ceramide, caspases, calpain, complement, hyperosmotic shock, energy depletion, oxidative stress, and deranged activity of several kinases (e.g. AMPK, GK, PAK2, CK1α, JAK3, PKC, p38-MAPK). Eryptosis is triggered by intoxication, malignancy, hepatic failure, diabetes, chronic renal insufficiency, hemolytic uremic syndrome, dehydration, phosphate depletion, fever, sepsis, mycoplasma infection, malaria, iron deficiency, sickle cell anemia, thalassemia, glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency, and Wilson's disease. Eryptosis may precede and protect against hemolysis but by the same token result in anemia and deranged microcirculation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. BID-dependent release of mitochondrial SMAC dampens XIAP-mediated immunity against Shigella.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andree, Maria; Seeger, Jens M; Schüll, Stephan; Coutelle, Oliver; Wagner-Stippich, Diana; Wiegmann, Katja; Wunderlich, Claudia M; Brinkmann, Kerstin; Broxtermann, Pia; Witt, Axel; Fritsch, Melanie; Martinelli, Paola; Bielig, Harald; Lamkemeyer, Tobias; Rugarli, Elena I; Kaufmann, Thomas; Sterner-Kock, Anja; Wunderlich, F Thomas; Villunger, Andreas; Martins, L Miguel; Krönke, Martin; Kufer, Thomas A; Utermöhlen, Olaf; Kashkar, Hamid

    2014-10-01

    The X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein (XIAP) is a potent caspase inhibitor, best known for its anti-apoptotic function in cancer. During apoptosis, XIAP is antagonized by SMAC, which is released from the mitochondria upon caspase-mediated activation of BID. Recent studies suggest that XIAP is involved in immune signaling. Here, we explore XIAP as an important mediator of an immune response against the enteroinvasive bacterium Shigella flexneri, both in vitro and in vivo. Our data demonstrate for the first time that Shigella evades the XIAP-mediated immune response by inducing the BID-dependent release of SMAC from the mitochondria. Unlike apoptotic stimuli, Shigella activates the calpain-dependent cleavage of BID to trigger the release of SMAC, which antagonizes the inflammatory action of XIAP without inducing apoptosis. Our results demonstrate how the cellular death machinery can be subverted by an invasive pathogen to ensure bacterial colonization. © 2014 The Authors.

  17. Reduced amyloidogenic processing of the amyloid beta-protein precursor by the small-molecule Differentiation Inducing Factor-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myre, Michael A; Washicosky, Kevin; Moir, Robert D; Tesco, Giuseppina; Tanzi, Rudolph E; Wasco, Wilma

    2009-04-01

    The detection of cell cycle proteins in Alzheimer's disease (AD) brains may represent an early event leading to neurodegeneration. To identify cell cycle modifiers with anti-Abeta properties, we assessed the effect of Differentiation-Inducing Factor-1 (DIF-1), a unique, small-molecule from Dictyostelium discoideum, on the proteolysis of the amyloid beta-protein precursor (APP) in a variety of different cell types. We show that DIF-1 slows cell cycle progression through G0/G1 that correlates with a reduction in cyclin D1 protein levels. Western blot analysis of DIF-treated cells and conditioned medium revealed decreases in the levels of secreted APP, mature APP, and C-terminal fragments. Assessment of conditioned media by sandwich ELISA showed reduced levels of Abeta40 and Abeta42, also demonstrating that treatment with DIF-1 effectively decreases the ratio of Abeta42 to Abeta40. In addition, DIF-1 significantly diminished APP phosphorylation at residue T668. Interestingly, site-directed mutagenesis of APP residue Thr668 to alanine or glutamic acid abolished the effect of DIF-1 on APP proteolysis and restored secreted levels of Abeta. Finally, DIF-1 prevented the accumulation of APP C-terminal fragments induced by the proteasome inhibitor lactacystin, and calpain inhibitor N-acetyl-leucyl-leucyl-norleucinal (ALLN). Our findings suggest that DIF-1 affects G0/G1-associated amyloidogenic processing of APP by a gamma-secretase-, proteasome- and calpain-insensitive pathway, and that this effect requires the presence of residue Thr668.

  18. Helicobacter pylori VacA disrupts apical membrane-cytoskeletal interactions in gastric parietal cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fengsong; Xia, Peng; Wu, Fang; Wang, Dongmei; Wang, Wei; Ward, Tarsha; Liu, Ya; Aikhionbare, Felix; Guo, Zhen; Powell, Michael; Liu, Bingya; Bi, Feng; Shaw, Andrew; Zhu, Zhenggang; Elmoselhi, Adel; Fan, Daiming; Cover, Timothy L; Ding, Xia; Yao, Xuebiao

    2008-09-26

    Helicobacter pylori persistently colonize the human stomach and have been linked to atrophic gastritis and gastric carcinoma. Although it is well known that H. pylori infection can result in hypochlorhydria, the molecular mechanisms underlying this phenomenon remain poorly understood. Here we show that VacA permeabilizes the apical membrane of gastric parietal cells and induces hypochlorhydria. The functional consequences of VacA infection on parietal cell physiology were studied using freshly isolated rabbit gastric glands and cultured parietal cells. Secretory activity of parietal cells was judged by an aminopyrine uptake assay and confocal microscopic examination. VacA permeabilization induces an influx of extracellular calcium, followed by activation of calpain and subsequent proteolysis of ezrin at Met(469)-Thr(470), which results in the liberation of ezrin from the apical membrane of the parietal cells. VacA treatment inhibits acid secretion by preventing the recruitment of H,K-ATPase-containing tubulovesicles to the apical membrane of gastric parietal cells. Electron microscopic examination revealed that VacA treatment disrupts the radial arrangement of actin filaments in apical microvilli due to the loss of ezrin integrity in parietal cells. Significantly, expression of calpain-resistant ezrin restored the functional activity of parietal cells in the presence of VacA. Proteolysis of ezrin in VacA-infected parietal cells is a novel mechanism underlying H. pylori-induced inhibition of acid secretion. Our results indicate that VacA disrupts the apical membrane-cytoskeletal interactions in gastric parietal cells and thereby causes hypochlorhydria.

  19. Helicobacter pylori VacA Disrupts Apical Membrane-Cytoskeletal Interactions in Gastric Parietal Cells*S⃞

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fengsong; Xia, Peng; Wu, Fang; Wang, Dongmei; Wang, Wei; Ward, Tarsha; Liu, Ya; Aikhionbare, Felix; Guo, Zhen; Powell, Michael; Liu, Bingya; Bi, Feng; Shaw, Andrew; Zhu, Zhenggang; Elmoselhi, Adel; Fan, Daiming; Cover, Timothy L.; Ding, Xia; Yao, Xuebiao

    2008-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori persistently colonize the human stomach and have been linked to atrophic gastritis and gastric carcinoma. Although it is well known that H. pylori infection can result in hypochlorhydria, the molecular mechanisms underlying this phenomenon remain poorly understood. Here we show that VacA permeabilizes the apical membrane of gastric parietal cells and induces hypochlorhydria. The functional consequences of VacA infection on parietal cell physiology were studied using freshly isolated rabbit gastric glands and cultured parietal cells. Secretory activity of parietal cells was judged by an aminopyrine uptake assay and confocal microscopic examination. VacA permeabilization induces an influx of extracellular calcium, followed by activation of calpain and subsequent proteolysis of ezrin at Met469-Thr470, which results in the liberation of ezrin from the apical membrane of the parietal cells. VacA treatment inhibits acid secretion by preventing the recruitment of H,K-ATPase-containing tubulovesicles to the apical membrane of gastric parietal cells. Electron microscopic examination revealed that VacA treatment disrupts the radial arrangement of actin filaments in apical microvilli due to the loss of ezrin integrity in parietal cells. Significantly, expression of calpain-resistant ezrin restored the functional activity of parietal cells in the presence of VacA. Proteolysis of ezrin in VacA-infected parietal cells is a novel mechanism underlying H. pylori-induced inhibition of acid secretion. Our results indicate that VacA disrupts the apical membrane-cytoskeletal interactions in gastric parietal cells and thereby causes hypochlorhydria. PMID:18625712

  20. Valsartan reduces AT1-AA-induced apoptosis through suppression oxidative stress mediated ER stress in endothelial progenitor cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Z-C; Qi, J; Liu, L-M; Li, J; Xu, H-Y; Liang, B; Li, B

    2017-03-01

    Valsartan has been reported to have the function of treating hypertension and improving the prognosis of patients. Many studies indicated that valsartan can also increase angiotensin II, andosterone and plasma renin activity (PRA). Autoantibodies against the angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AT1-AA) have been showed to increase reactive oxygen species (ROS) and calcium (Ca2+) and result in apoptosis in vascular smooth muscle cells. In this study, we attempted to explore the effect of valsartan on AT1-AA-induced apoptosis in endothelial progenitor cells. Endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) were cultured. The cytotoxicity was determined by MTT assay. EPCs apoptosis was determined by DAPI staining and flow cytometry. Reactive oxygen species, intracellular calcium concentration and calpain activity were measured using Fluostar Omega Spectrofluorimeter. The expression of p-ERK, p-eIF-2a, CHOP, Bcl-2 and caspase-3 were detected by Western blot. MTT assays showed valsartan significantly inhibited AT1-AA- induced decline of the viability of EPCs. DAPI staining and flow cytometry results indicated valsartan inhibited AT1-AA-induced decline of the viability of EPCs via inhibiting AT1-AA-induced apoptosis. Furthermore, the increasing of reactive oxygen species, intracellular calcium and calpain activity induced by AT1-AA in EPCs were also recovered after pre-treated with valsartan. Meanwhile, the upregulation of p-ERK, p-eIF-2a and CHOP, downregulation of Bcl-2, and activation of Caspase-3 caused by AT1-AA were reversed after pre-incubated with valsartan. Valsartan could inhibit AT1-AA-induced apoptosis through inhibiting oxidative stress mediated ER stress in EPCs.

  1. Reduced amyloidogenic processing of the amyloid β-protein precursor by the small-molecule Differentiation Inducing Factor-1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myre, Michael A.; Washicosky, Kevin; Moir, Robert D.; Tesco, Giuseppina; Tanzi, Rudolph E.; Wasco, Wilma

    2013-01-01

    The detection of cell cycle proteins in Alzheimer’s disease (AD) brains may represent an early event leading to neurodegeneration. To identify cell cycle modifiers with anti-Aβ properties, we assessed the effect of Differentiation-Inducing Factor-1 (DIF-1), a unique, small-molecule from Dictyostelium discoideum, on the proteolysis of the amyloid β-protein precursor (APP) in a variety of different cell types. We show that DIF-1 slows cell cycle progression through G0/G1 that correlates with a reduction in cyclin D1 protein levels. Western blot analysis of DIF-treated cells and conditioned medium revealed decreases in the levels of secreted APP, mature APP, and C-terminal fragments. Assessment of conditioned media by sandwich ELISA showed reduced levels of Aβ40 and Aβ42, also demonstrating that treatment with DIF-1 effectively decreases the ratio of Aβ42 to Aβ40. In addition, DIF-1 significantly diminished APP phosphorylation at residue T668. Interestingly, site-directed mutagenesis of APP residue Thr668 to alanine or glutamic acid abolished the effect of DIF-1 on APP proteolysis and restored secreted levels of Aβ. Finally, DIF-1 prevented the accumulation of APP C-terminal fragments induced by the proteasome inhibitor lactacystin, and calpain inhibitor N-acetyl-leucyl-leucyl-norleucinal (ALLN). Our findings suggest that DIF-1 affects G0/G1-associated amyloidogenic processing of APP by a γ-secretase-, proteasome- and calpain-insensitive pathway, and that this effect requires the presence of residue Thr668. PMID:19154786

  2. CAPN3-mediated processing of C-terminal titin replaced by pathological cleavage in titinopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charton, Karine; Sarparanta, Jaakko; Vihola, Anna; Milic, Astrid; Jonson, Per Harald; Suel, Laurence; Luque, Helena; Boumela, Imène; Richard, Isabelle; Udd, Bjarne

    2015-07-01

    Mutations in the extreme C-terminus of titin (TTN), situated in the sarcomeric M-band, cause tibial muscular dystrophy (TMD) and limb-girdle muscular dystrophy 2J (LGMD2J). The mutations ultimately cause a loss of C-terminal titin, including a binding site for the protease calpain 3 (CAPN3), and lead to a secondary CAPN3 deficiency in LGMD2J muscle. CAPN3 has been previously shown to bind C-terminal titin and to use it as a substrate in vitro. Interestingly, mutations in CAPN3 underlie limb-girdle muscular dystrophy 2A (LGMD2A). Here, we aimed to clarify the relationship of CAPN3 and M-band titin in normal and pathological muscle. In vitro analyses identified several CAPN3 cleavage sites in C-terminal titin that were defined by protein sequencing. Furthermore, cleavage products were detected in normal muscle extracts by western blotting and in situ by immunofluorescence microscopy. The TMD/LGMD2J mutation FINmaj proved to alter this processing in vitro, while binding of CAPN3 to mutant titin was preserved. Unexpectedly, the pathological loss of M-band titin due to TMD/LGMD2J mutations was found to be independent of CAPN3, whereas the involvement of ubiquitous calpains is likely. We conclude that proteolytic processing of C-terminal titin by CAPN3 may have an important role in normal muscle, and that this process is disrupted in LGMD2A and in TMD/LGMD2J due to CAPN3 deficiency and to the loss of C-terminal titin, respectively. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Oncogenic ras-induced down-regulation of autophagy mediator Beclin-1 is required for malignant transformation of intestinal epithelial cells.

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    Yoo, Byong Hoon; Wu, Xue; Li, Yongling; Haniff, Mehnaaz; Sasazuki, Takehiko; Shirasawa, Senji; Eskelinen, Eeva-Liisa; Rosen, Kirill V

    2010-02-19

    Detachment of non-malignant epithelial cells from the extracellular matrix causes their growth arrest and, ultimately, death. By contrast, cells composing carcinomas, cancers of epithelial origin, can survive and proliferate without being attached to the extracellular matrix. These properties of tumor cells represent hallmarks of malignant transformation and are critical for cancer progression. Previously we identified several mechanisms by which ras, a major oncogene, blocks detachment-induced apoptosis of intestinal epithelial cells, but mechanisms by which Ras promotes proliferation of those cells that remain viable following detachment are unknown. We show here that detachment of non-malignant intestinal epithelial cells promotes formation of autophagosomes, vacuole-like structures that mediate autophagy (a process of cellular self-cannibalization), and that oncogenic ras prevents this autophagosome formation. We also found that ras activates a GTPase RhoA, that RhoA promotes activation of a protease calpain, and that calpain triggers degradation of Beclin-1, a critical mediator of autophagy, in these cells. The reversal of the effect of ras on Beclin-1 (achieved by expression of exogenous Beclin-1) promoted autophagosome formation following cell detachment, significantly reduced the fraction of detached cells in the S phase of the cell cycle and their rate of proliferation without affecting their viability. Furthermore, RNA interference-induced Beclin-1 down-regulation in non-malignant intestinal epithelial cells prevented detachment-dependent reduction of the fraction of these cells in the S phase of the cell cycle. Thus, ras oncogene promotes proliferation of those malignant intestinal epithelial cells that remain viable following detachment via a distinct novel mechanism that involves Ras-induced down-regulation of Beclin-1.

  4. Oncogenic ras-induced Down-regulation of Autophagy Mediator Beclin-1 Is Required for Malignant Transformation of Intestinal Epithelial Cells*

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    Yoo, Byong Hoon; Wu, Xue; Li, Yongling; Haniff, Mehnaaz; Sasazuki, Takehiko; Shirasawa, Senji; Eskelinen, Eeva-Liisa; Rosen, Kirill V.

    2010-01-01

    Detachment of non-malignant epithelial cells from the extracellular matrix causes their growth arrest and, ultimately, death. By contrast, cells composing carcinomas, cancers of epithelial origin, can survive and proliferate without being attached to the extracellular matrix. These properties of tumor cells represent hallmarks of malignant transformation and are critical for cancer progression. Previously we identified several mechanisms by which ras, a major oncogene, blocks detachment-induced apoptosis of intestinal epithelial cells, but mechanisms by which Ras promotes proliferation of those cells that remain viable following detachment are unknown. We show here that detachment of non-malignant intestinal epithelial cells promotes formation of autophagosomes, vacuole-like structures that mediate autophagy (a process of cellular self-cannibalization), and that oncogenic ras prevents this autophagosome formation. We also found that ras activates a GTPase RhoA, that RhoA promotes activation of a protease calpain, and that calpain triggers degradation of Beclin-1, a critical mediator of autophagy, in these cells. The reversal of the effect of ras on Beclin-1 (achieved by expression of exogenous Beclin-1) promoted autophagosome formation following cell detachment, significantly reduced the fraction of detached cells in the S phase of the cell cycle and their rate of proliferation without affecting their viability. Furthermore, RNA interference-induced Beclin-1 down-regulation in non-malignant intestinal epithelial cells prevented detachment-dependent reduction of the fraction of these cells in the S phase of the cell cycle. Thus, ras oncogene promotes proliferation of those malignant intestinal epithelial cells that remain viable following detachment via a distinct novel mechanism that involves Ras-induced down-regulation of Beclin-1. PMID:19778902

  5. Oxidative and proteolysis-related parameters of skeletal muscle from hamsters with experimental pulmonary emphysema: a comparison between papain and elastase induction

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    Brunnquell, Cláudia R; Vieira, Nichelle A; Sábio, Laís R; Sczepanski, Felipe; Cecchini, Alessandra L; Cecchini, Rubens; Guarnier, Flávia A

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate whether emphysema induced by elastase or papain triggers the same effects on skeletal muscle, related to oxidative stress and proteolysis, in hamsters. For this purpose, we evaluated pulmonary lesions, body weight, muscle loss, oxidative stress (thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances, total and oxidized glutathiones, chemiluminescence stimulated by tert-butyl hydroperoxide and carbonyl proteins), chymotrypsin-like and calpain-like proteolytic activities and muscle fibre cross-sectional area in the gastrocnemius muscles of emphysemic hamsters. Two groups of animals received different intratracheal inductions of experimental emphysema: by 40 mg/ml papain (EP) or 5.2 IU/100 g animal (EE) elastase (n = 10 animals/group). The control group received intratracheal instillation of 300 μl sterile NaCl 0.9%. Compared with the control group, the EP group had reduced muscle weight (18.34%) and the EE group had increased muscle weight (8.37%). Additionally, tert-butyl hydroperoxide-initiated chemiluminescence, carbonylated proteins and chymotrypsin-like proteolytic activity were all elevated in the EP group compared to the CS group, while total glutathione was decreased compared to the EE group. The EE group showed more fibres with increased cross-sectional areas and increased calpain-like activity. Together, these data show that elastase and papain, when used to induce experimental models of emphysema, lead to different speeds and types of adaptation. These findings provide more information on choosing a suitable experimental model for studying skeletal muscle adaptations in emphysema. PMID:26102076

  6. Molecular mechanisms of gallic acid-induced growth inhibition, apoptosis, and necrosis in hypertrophic scar fibroblasts.

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    Hsieh, Shu-Chung; Wu, Chun-Chi; Hsu, Shih-Lan; Yen, Jung-Hsing

    2017-06-15

    To explore the effect and molecular mechanism of gallic acid (GA) on the cytostatic and cytotoxicity of hypertrophic scar fibroblasts (HSFs). HSFs were treated with a serial dose of GA for indicated time. The cytostatic and cytotoxicity of GA were evaluated by microscopy, trypan blue exclusion assay and LDH releasing. The mechanisms of GA-induced cytostatic were examined by cell cycle distribution assay and the expression of cell cycle-relative protein. GA-elicited apoptosis were verified by TUNEL assay, mitochondria membrane potential, caspase activity and the expression of apoptosis-relative protein. GA-induced necrosis was confirmed by lysosome rupture using acridine orange stain. Various blockers, including intracellular calcium chelator; BAPTA-AM, IP3R blocker; 2-APB, calpain inhibitor, ALLM and ALLN were used to address the signaling cascade in GA-induced HSF necrosis. GA-induced growth inhibition, apoptosis, and necrosis in HSFs depend on increasing dose. HSFs treated with GA at non-cytotoxic concentrations (50 to 75μM) significant increased both the S- and G2/M-phase HSFs population, and this event was accompanied with down-regulation of cyclin A, cyclin B, CDK1 and CDK2. Incubation of HSFs with 100-150μM of GA induced apoptosis through Bcl2/Bax-mitochondrial-dependent pathway. While the concentrations up to 200μM of GA that elicited necrosis via a calcium/calpain I/lysosome rupture signaling axis. Interestingly, GA at 200μM did not harm to keratinocyte. These results revealed that GA might have the potential to be developed as a treatment for patients with hypertrophic scar. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. An association between the Calpastatin (CAST) gene and keratoconus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaohui; Bykhovskaya, Yelena; Tang, Yongming G.; Picornell, Yoana; Haritunians, Talin; Aldave, Anthony J.; Szczotka-Flynn, Loretta; Iyengar, Sudha K.; Rotter, Jerome I.; Taylor, Kent D.; Rabinowitz, Yaron S.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Keratoconus is a genetically heterogeneous corneal dystrophy. Previously, we performed two genome-wide linkage scans in a four generation autosomal dominant pedigree and repeatedly mapped a keratoconus locus to a genomic region located on chromosome 5q overlapping the gene encoding the inhibitor of calpains, calpastatin (CAST). To test whether variants in CAST gene are involved in genetic susceptibility to keratoconus we performed genetic testing of polymorphic markers in CAST gene in family and case-control panels of patients with keratoconus. Methods We genotyped SNPs (Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms) located in CAST gene in 262 patients in 40 Caucasian keratoconus families and in a Caucasian case-control panel with 304 cases and 518 controls. Generalized estimating equation models accounting for familial correlations implemented in GWAF program were used for association testing in families. Logistic regression models implemented in PLINK were performed to test associations in case-control samples. Results Genetic testing of first set of seven SNPs in familial samples revealed two tentative nominally significant markers (rs4869307 p=0.03; rs27654: p=0.07). Additional genotyping of twelve tightly spaced SNPs identified CAST SNP rs4434401 to be associated with keratoconus in both familial and case-control panels with p values of 0.005 and 0.05, respectively; and with combined meta p value of familial and case-control cohorts of 0.002, or, after Bonferroni correction, 0.04. Conclusions Linkage analysis and genetic association support involvement of CAST gene in the genetic susceptibility to keratoconus. In-silico analysis of CAST expression suggests differential regulation of calpain/calpastatin system in cornea as a potential mechanism of functional defect. PMID:23449483

  8. Brain ischaemia induces shedding of a BDNF-scavenger ectodomain from TrkB receptors by excitotoxicity activation of metalloproteinases and γ-secretases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tejeda, Gonzalo S; Ayuso-Dolado, Sara; Arbeteta, Raquel; Esteban-Ortega, Gema M; Vidaurre, Oscar G; Díaz-Guerra, Margarita

    2016-04-01

    Stroke remains a leading cause of death and disability in the world with limited therapies available to restrict brain damage or improve functional recovery after cerebral ischaemia. A promising strategy currently under investigation is the promotion of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) signalling through tropomyosin-related kinase B (TrkB) receptors, a pathway essential for neuronal survival and function. However, TrkB and BDNF-signalling are impaired by excitotoxicity, a primary pathological process in stroke also associated with neurodegenerative diseases. Pathological imbalance of TrkB isoforms is critical in neurodegeneration and is caused by calpain processing of BDNF high affinity full-length receptor (TrkB-FL) and an inversion of the transcriptional pattern of the Ntrk2 gene, to favour expression of the truncated isoform TrkB-T1 over TrkB-FL. We report here that both TrkB-FL and neuronal TrkB-T1 also undergo ectodomain shedding by metalloproteinases activated after ischaemic injury or excitotoxic damage of cortical neurons. Subsequently, the remaining membrane-bound C-terminal fragments (CTFs) are cleaved by γ-secretases within the transmembrane region, releasing their intracellular domains (ICDs) into the cytosol. Therefore, we identify TrkB-FL and TrkB-T1 as new substrates of regulated intramembrane proteolysis (RIP), a mechanism that highly contributes to TrkB-T1 regulation in ischaemia but is minor for TrkB-FL which is mainly processed by calpain. However, since the secreted TrkB ectodomain acts as a BDNF scavenger and significantly alters BDNF/TrkB signalling, the mechanism of RIP could contribute to neuronal death in excitotoxicity. These results are highly relevant since they reveal new targets for the rational design of therapies to treat stroke and other pathologies with an excitotoxic component. Copyright © 2015 Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. Retinal Cell Death Caused by Sodium Iodate Involves Multiple Caspase-Dependent and Caspase-Independent Cell-Death Pathways

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    Jasmin Balmer

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Herein, we have investigated retinal cell-death pathways in response to the retina toxin sodium iodate (NaIO3 both in vivo and in vitro. C57/BL6 mice were treated with a single intravenous injection of NaIO3 (35 mg/kg. Morphological changes in the retina post NaIO3 injection in comparison to untreated controls were assessed using electron microscopy. Cell death was determined by TdT-mediated dUTP-biotin nick end labeling (TUNEL staining. The activation of caspases and calpain was measured using immunohistochemistry. Additionally, cytotoxicity and apoptosis in retinal pigment epithelial (RPE cells, primary retinal cells, and the cone photoreceptor (PRC cell line 661W were assessed in vitro after NaIO3 treatment using the ApoToxGlo™ assay. The 7-AAD/Annexin-V staining was performed and necrostatin (Nec-1 was administered to the NaIO3-treated cells to confirm the results. In vivo, degenerating RPE cells displayed a rounded shape and retracted microvilli, whereas PRCs featured apoptotic nuclei. Caspase and calpain activity was significantly upregulated in retinal sections and protein samples from NaIO3-treated animals. In vitro, NaIO3 induced necrosis in RPE cells and apoptosis in PRCs. Furthermore, Nec-1 significantly decreased NaIO3-induced RPE cell death, but had no rescue effect on treated PRCs. In summary, several different cell-death pathways are activated in retinal cells as a result of NaIO3.

  10. C-myb Plays an Essential Role in the Protective Function of IGF-1 on Cytotoxicity Induced by Aβ25-35 via the PI3K/Akt Pathway.

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    Zhang, Jingyu; Shu, Yongwei; Qu, Yang; Zhang, Lina; Chu, Tingting; Zheng, Yonghui; Zhao, Hong

    2017-12-01

    There have been numerous reports about neurodegenerative diseases, including Alzheimer's disease. Nevertheless, the molecules responsible for the neurodegeneration in Alzheimer's disease are basically unknown. Recent findings indicate that the cellular myeloblastosis (c-myb) regulates neural progenitor cell proliferation. In the current study, the function of insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) against cell toxicity in SH-SY5Y cells induced by β-amyloid 25-35 (Aβ25-35) and its molecular mechanism were investigated. It was found that p25 protein production was raised by Aβ25-35 (25 μM), similar to the increased expression of μ-calpain. The results also showed that Aβ25-35 reduced c-myb, elevated tau hyper-phosphorylation, and induced death of SH-SY5Y cells. Loss of cell viability and apoptosis of SH-SY5Y cells induced by Aβ25-35 were attenuated by IGF-1 pretreatment in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, IGF-1 blocked μ-calpain expression, which was induced by Aβ25-35 and reduced p25 formation and tau hyper-phosphorylation. Moreover, the expression of c-myb in SH-SY5Y cells was increased by combining IGF-1 with Aβ25-35 or IGF-1 alone. The neuroprotective function of IGF-1 was attenuated in the SH-SY5Y cells, which were transfected with a c-myb small interfering RNA. Furthermore, LY294002, a specific PI3K inhibitor, reduced c-myb expression and abolished IGF-1's protective function in SH-SY5Y cell apoptosis induced by Aβ25-35. The facts above indicate that c-myb has a role in IGF-1-mediated protection from Aβ25-35-induced cytotoxicity via the PI3K/Akt pathway.

  11. Understanding Early Post-Mortem Biochemical Processes Underlying Meat Color and pH Decline in the Longissimus thoracis Muscle of Young Blond d'Aquitaine Bulls Using Protein Biomarkers.

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    Gagaoua, Mohammed; Terlouw, E M Claudia; Micol, Didier; Boudjellal, Abdelghani; Hocquette, Jean-François; Picard, Brigitte

    2015-08-05

    Many studies on color biochemistry and protein biomarkers were undertaken in post-mortem beef muscles after ≥24 hours. The present study was conducted on Longissimus thoracis muscles of 21 Blond d'Aquitaine young bulls to evaluate the relationships between protein biomarkers present during the early post-mortem and known to be related to tenderness and pH decline and color development. pH values at 45 min, 3 h, and 30 h post-mortem were correlated with three, seven, and six biomarkers, respectively. L*a*b* color coordinates 24 h post-mortem were correlated with nine, five, and eight protein biomarkers, respectively. Regression models included Hsp proteins and explained between 47 and 59% of the variability between individuals in pH and between 47 and 65% of the variability in L*a*b* color coordinates. Proteins correlated with pH and/or color coordinates were involved in apoptosis or had antioxidative or chaperone activities. The main results include the negative correlations between pH45 min, pH3 h, and pHu and Prdx6, which may be explained by the antioxidative and phospholipase activities of this biomarker. Similarly, inducible Hsp70-1A/B and μ-calpain were correlated with L*a*b* coordinates, due to the protective action of Hsp70-1A/B on the proteolytic activities of μ-calpain on structural proteins. Correlations existed further between MDH1, ENO3, and LDH-B and pH decline and color stability probably due to the involvement of these enzymes in the glycolytic pathway and, thus, the energy status of the cell. The present results show that research using protein indicators may increase the understanding of early post-mortem biological mechanisms involved in pH and beef color development.

  12. Cdk5 Is Essential for Amphetamine to Increase Dendritic Spine Density in Hippocampal Pyramidal Neurons

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    Soledad Ferreras

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Psychostimulant drugs of abuse increase dendritic spine density in reward centers of the brain. However, little is known about their effects in the hippocampus, where activity-dependent changes in the density of dendritic spine are associated with learning and memory. Recent reports suggest that Cdk5 plays an important role in drug addiction, but its role in psychostimulant’s effects on dendritic spines in hippocampus remain unknown. We used in vivo and in vitro approaches to demonstrate that amphetamine increases dendritic spine density in pyramidal neurons of the hippocampus. Primary cultures and organotypic slice cultures were used for cellular, molecular, pharmacological and biochemical analyses of the role of Cdk5/p25 in amphetamine-induced dendritic spine formation. Amphetamine (two-injection protocol increased dendritic spine density in hippocampal neurons of thy1-green fluorescent protein (GFP mice, as well as in hippocampal cultured neurons and organotypic slice cultures. Either genetic or pharmacological inhibition of Cdk5 activity prevented the amphetamine–induced increase in dendritic spine density. Amphetamine also increased spine density in neurons overexpressing the strong Cdk5 activator p25. Finally, inhibition of calpain, the protease necessary for the conversion of p35 to p25, prevented amphetamine’s effect on dendritic spine density. We demonstrate, for the first time, that amphetamine increases the density of dendritic spine in hippocampal pyramidal neurons in vivo and in vitro. Moreover, we show that the Cdk5/p25 signaling and calpain activity are both necessary for the effect of amphetamine on dendritic spine density. The identification of molecular mechanisms underlying psychostimulant effects provides novel and promising therapeutic approaches for the treatment of drug addiction.

  13. Chloroacetic acid triggers apoptosis in neuronal cells via a reactive oxygen species-induced endoplasmic reticulum stress signaling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Tien-Hui; Su, Chin-Chuan; Tang, Feng-Cheng; Chen, Chun-Hung; Yen, Cheng-Chieh; Fang, Kai-Min; Lee, kuan-I; Hung, Dong-Zong; Chen, Ya-Wen

    2015-01-05

    Chloroacetic acid (CA), a chlorinated analog of acetic acid and an environmental toxin that is more toxic than acetic, dichloroacetic, or trichloroacetic acids, is widely used in chemical industries. Furthermore, CA has been found to be the major disinfection by-products (DBPs) of drinking water. CA has been reported to be highly corrosive and to induce severe tissue injuries (including nervous system) that lead to death in mammals. However, the effects and underlying mechanisms of CA-induced neurotoxicity remain unknown. In the present study, we found that CA (0.5-2.0 mM) significantly increased LDH release, decreased the number of viable cells (cytotoxicity) and induced apoptotic events (including: increases in the numbers of apoptotic cells, the membrane externalization of phosphatidylserine (PS), and caspase-3/-7 activity) in Neuro-2a cells. CA (1.5 mM; the approximate to LD50) also triggered ER stress, which was identified by monitoring several key molecules that are involved in the unfolded protein responses (including the increase in the expressions of p-PERK, p-IRE-1, p-eIF2α, ATF-4, ATF-6, CHOP, XBP-1, GRP 78, GRP 94, and caspase-12) and calpain activity. Transfection of GRP 78- and GRP 94-specific si-RNA effectively abrogated CA-induced cytotoxicity, caspase-3/-7 and caspase-12 activity, and GRP 78 and GRP 94 expression in Neuro-2a cells. Additionally, pretreatment with 2.5 mM N-acetylcysteine (NAC; a glutathione (GSH) precursor) dramatically suppressed the increase in lipid peroxidation, cytotoxicity, apoptotic events, calpain and caspase-12 activity, and ER stress-related molecules in CA-exposed cells. Taken together, these results suggest that the higher concentration of CA exerts its cytotoxic effects in neuronal cells by triggering apoptosis via a ROS-induced ER stress signaling pathway. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Acute death of astrocytes in blast-exposed rat organotypic hippocampal slice cultures.

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    Anna P Miller

    Full Text Available Blast traumatic brain injury (bTBI affects civilians, soldiers, and veterans worldwide and presents significant health concerns. The mechanisms of neurodegeneration following bTBI remain elusive and current therapies are largely ineffective. It is important to better characterize blast-evoked cellular changes and underlying mechanisms in order to develop more effective therapies. In the present study, our group utilized rat organotypic hippocampal slice cultures (OHCs as an in vitro system to model bTBI. OHCs were exposed to either 138 ± 22 kPa (low or 273 ± 23 kPa (high overpressures using an open-ended helium-driven shock tube, or were assigned to sham control group. At 2 hours (h following injury, we have characterized the astrocytic response to a blast overpressure. Immunostaining against the astrocytic marker glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP revealed acute shearing and morphological changes in astrocytes, including clasmatodendrosis. Moreover, overlap of GFAP immunostaining and propidium iodide (PI indicated astrocytic death. Quantification of the number of dead astrocytes per counting area in the hippocampal cornu Ammonis 1 region (CA1, demonstrated a significant increase in dead astrocytes in the low- and high-blast, compared to sham control OHCs. However only a small number of GFAP-expressing astrocytes were co-labeled with the apoptotic marker Annexin V, suggesting necrosis as the primary type of cell death in the acute phase following blast exposure. Moreover, western blot analyses revealed calpain mediated breakdown of GFAP. The dextran exclusion additionally indicated membrane disruption as a potential mechanism of acute astrocytic death. Furthermore, although blast exposure did not evoke significant changes in glutamate transporter 1 (GLT-1 expression, loss of GLT-1-expressing astrocytes suggests dysregulation of glutamate uptake following injury. Our data illustrate the profound effect of blast overpressure on astrocytes in

  15. Licochalcone A induces T24 bladder cancer cell apoptosis by increasing intracellular calcium levels.

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    Yang, Xinhui; Jiang, Jiangtao; Yang, Xinyan; Han, Jichun; Zheng, Qiusheng

    2016-07-01

    Licochalcone A (LCA) has been reported to significantly inhibit cell proliferation, increase reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels, and induce apoptosis of T24 human bladder cancer cells via mitochondria and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress-triggered signaling pathways. Based on these findings, the present study aimed to investigate the mechanisms by which LCA induces apoptosis of T24 cells. Cultured T24 cells were treated with LCA, and cell viability was measured using the sulforhodamine B assay. Apoptosis was detected by flow cytometry with Annexin V/propidium iodide staining, and by fluorescent microscopy with Hoechst 33258 staining. The levels of intracellular free calcium ions were determined using Fluo-3 AM dye marker. Intracellular ROS levels were assessed using the 2',7'-dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate probe assay. The mitochondrial membrane potential was measured using 5,5',6,6'-tetrachloro-1,1',3,3'-tetraethyl benzimidazole carbocyanine iodide. Furthermore, the mRNA expression levels of B‑cell lymphoma (Bcl)‑extra large, Bcl‑2‑associated X protein, Bcl‑2‑interacting mediator of cell death, apoptotic protease activating factor‑1 (Apaf‑1), calpain 2, cysteinyl aspartate specific proteinase (caspase)‑3, caspase‑4 and caspase‑9 were determined using reverse transcription semiquantitative and quantitative polymerase chain reaction analyses. Treatment with LCA inhibited proliferation and induced apoptosis of T24 cells, and increased intracellular Ca2+ levels and ROS production. Furthermore, LCA induced mitochondrial dysfunction, decreased mitochondrial membrane potential, and increased the mRNA expression levels of Apaf‑1, caspase‑9 and caspase‑3. Exposure of T24 cells to LCA also triggered calpain 2 and caspase‑4 activation, resulting in apoptosis. These findings indicated that LCA increased intracellular Ca2+ levels, which may be associated with mitochondrial dysfunction. In addition, the ER stress pathway may be

  16. Cantharidin Induces Apoptosis Through the Calcium/PKC-Regulated Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress Pathway in Human Bladder Cancer Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Chin-Chuan; Liu, Shing-Hwa; Lee, Kuan-I; Huang, Kou-Tong; Lu, Tien-Hui; Fang, Kai-Min; Wu, Chin-Ching; Yen, Cheng-Chieh; Lai, Chih-Ho; Su, Yi-Chang; Huang, Chun-Fa

    2015-01-01

    Bladder cancer is a common malignancy worldwide. However, there is still no effective therapy for bladder cancer. In this study, we investigated the cytotoxic effects of cantharidin [a natural toxin produced (pure compound) from Chinese blister beetles (Mylabrisphalerata or Mylabriscichorii) and Spanish flies (Cantharis vesicatoria)] in human bladder cancer cell lines (including: T24 and RT4 cells). Treatment of human bladder cancer cells with cantharidin significantly decreased cell viability. The increase in the expressions of caspase-3 activity and cleaved form of caspase-9/-7/-3 were also increased in cantharidin-treated T24 cells. Furthermore, cantharidin increased the levels of phospho-eIF2α and Grp78 and decreased the protein expression of procaspase-12, which was accompanied by the increase in calpain activity in T24 cells. Cantharidin was capable of increasing the intracellular Ca (2+) and the phosphorylation of protein kinase C (PKC) in T24 cells. The addition of BAPTA/AM (a Ca (2+) chelator) and RO320432 (a selective cell-permeable PKC inhibitor) effectively reversed the increase in caspase-3 and calpain activity, the phosphorylation levels of PKC and eIF2α and Grp78 protein expression, and the decrease in procaspase-12 expression induced by cantharidin. Importantly, cantharidin significantly decreased the tumor volume (a dramatic 71% reduction after 21 days of treatment) in nude mice xenografted with T24 cells. Taken together, these results indicate cantharidin induced human bladder cancer cell apoptosis through a calcium/PKC-regulated ER stress pathway. These findings suggest that cantharidin may be a novel and potential anticancer agent targeting on bladder cancer cells.

  17. Involvement of the proteasome in IL-1beta induced suppression of islets of Langerhans in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sternesjö, Johnny; Karlsen, Allan E; Sandler, Stellan

    2003-01-01

    The cytokine IL-1beta suppresses rodent islets of Langerhans in vitro. Presently we used inhibitors of the proteasome to investigate if these compounds could counteract the suppressive effects of the cytokine. Thus, isolated rat islets were cultured and pre-treated with proteasome inhibitors and subsequently exposed for 48 h to 25 U/ml human IL-1beta. After this period functional tests were carried out. The rate of glucose oxidation (pmol/10 islets x 90 min) was suppressed by IL-1beta (115 +/- 17 vs. control 380 +/- 57). Pre-treatment with 10 microM of the proteasome inhibitor MG115 (N-carbobenzoxyl-leu-leu-norvalinal) and 100 microM of the calpain inhibitor norLEU (N-acetyl-leu-leu-norleucinal; known to affect proteasome activity) counteracted the suppressive effects (253 +/- 17 and 262 +/- 10 respectively). The calpain inhibitor alIMET (N-acetyl-leu-leu-methional) had no effect. MG115 (10 microM) and norLEU (100 microM) blocked nitric oxide formation induced by IL-1beta, while alIMET was without effect. We also investigated if IL-1beta could influence the expression of two inducible proteasome subunits, namely LMP2 and LMP7, and found that the cytokine increased the mRNA expression of the proteasome subunit LMP2 in islets, and that the proteasome inhibitor MG115 prevented this increase. In conclusion our study shows that IL-1beta increases the transcription of the proteasome subunit LMP2, and that the proteasome is involved in IL-1beta induced suppression of islet function. Moreover, the observation that inhibitors of the proteasome protect islets against IL-1beta induced inhibition of glucose metabolism, suggests that these compounds might be worthwile to explore in future therapies against the development of type 1 diabetes.

  18. Poly (ADP-ribose polymerase plays an important role in intermittent hypoxia-induced cell death in rat cerebellar granule cells

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    Chiu Sheng-Chun

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Episodic cessation of airflow during sleep in patients with sleep apnea syndrome results in intermittent hypoxia (IH. Our aim was to investigate the effects of IH on cerebellar granule cells and to identify the mechanism of IH-induced cell death. Methods Cerebellar granule cells were freshly prepared from neonatal Sprague-Dawley rats. IH was created by culturing the cerebellar granule cells in the incubators with oscillating O2 concentration at 20% and 5% every 30 min for 1-4 days. The results of this study are based on image analysis using a confocal microscope and associated software. Cellular oxidative stress increased with increase in IH. In addition, the occurrence of cell death (apoptosis and necrosis increased as the duration of IH increased, but decreased in the presence of an iron chelator (phenanthroline or poly (ADP-ribose polymerase (PARP inhibitors [3-aminobenzamide (3-AB and DPQ]. The fluorescence of caspase-3 remained the same regardless of the duration of IH, and Western blots did not detect activation of caspase-3. However, IH increased the ratio of apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF translocation to the nucleus, while PARP inhibitors (3-AB reduced this ratio. Results According to our findings, IH increased oxidative stress and subsequently leading to cell death. This effect was at least partially mediated by PARP activation, resulting in ATP depletion, calpain activation leading to AIF translocation to the nucleus. Conclusions We suggest that IH induces cell death in rat primary cerebellar granule cells by stimulating oxidative stress PARP-mediated calpain and AIF activation.

  19. Redox-control of the alarmin, Interleukin-1α

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    Donald A. McCarthy

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The pro-inflammatory cytokine Interleukin-1α (IL-1α has recently emerged as a susceptibility marker for a wide array of inflammatory diseases associated with oxidative stress including Alzheimer's, arthritis, atherosclerosis, diabetes and cancer. In the present study, we establish that expression and nuclear localization of IL-1α are redox-dependent. Shifts in steady-state H2O2 concentrations (SS-[H2O2] resulting from enforced expression of manganese superoxide dismutase (SOD2 drive IL-1α mRNA and protein expression. The redox-dependent expression of IL-1α is accompanied by its increased nuclear localization. Both IL-1α expression and its nuclear residency are abrogated by catalase co-expression. Sub-lethal doses of H2O2 also cause IL-1α nuclear localization. Mutagenesis revealed IL-1α nuclear localization does not involve oxidation of cysteines within its N terminal domain. Inhibition of the processing enzyme calpain prevents IL-1α nuclear localization even in the presence of H2O2. H2O2 treatment caused extracellular Ca2+ influx suggesting oxidants may influence calpain activity indirectly through extracellular Ca2+ mobilization. Functionally, as a result of its nuclear activity, IL-1α overexpression promotes NF-kB activity, but also interacts with the histone acetyl transferase (HAT p300. Together, these findings demonstrate a mechanism by which oxidants impact inflammation through IL-1α and suggest that antioxidant-based therapies may prove useful in limiting inflammatory disease progression.

  20. Both high level pressure support ventilation and controlled mechanical ventilation induce diaphragm dysfunction and atrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, Matthew B; Smuder, Ashley J; Nelson, W Bradley; Bruells, Christian S; Levine, Sanford; Powers, Scott K

    2012-04-01

    Previous workers have demonstrated that controlled mechanical ventilation results in diaphragm inactivity and elicits a rapid development of diaphragm weakness as a result of both contractile dysfunction and fiber atrophy. Limited data exist regarding the impact of pressure support ventilation, a commonly used mode of mechanical ventilation-that permits partial mechanical activity of the diaphragm-on diaphragm structure and function. We carried out the present study to test the hypothesis that high-level pressure support ventilation decreases the diaphragm pathology associated with CMV. Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned to one of the following five groups:1) control (no mechanical ventilation); 2) 12 hrs of controlled mechanical ventilation (12CMV); 3) 18 hrs of controlled mechanical ventilation (18CMV); 4) 12 hrs of pressure support ventilation (12PSV); or 5) 18 hrs of pressure support ventilation (18PSV). We carried out the following measurements on diaphragm specimens: 4-hydroxynonenal-a marker of oxidative stress, active caspase-3 (casp-3), active calpain-1 (calp-1), fiber type cross-sectional area, and specific force (sp F). Compared with the control, both 12PSV and 18PSV promoted a significant decrement in diaphragmatic specific force production, but to a lesser degree than 12CMV and 18CMV. Furthermore, 12CMV, 18PSV, and 18CMV resulted in significant atrophy in all diaphragm fiber types as well as significant increases in a biomarker of oxidative stress (4-hydroxynonenal) and increased proteolytic activity (20S proteasome, calpain-1, and caspase-3). Furthermore, although no inspiratory effort occurs during controlled mechanical ventilation, it was observed that pressure support ventilation resulted in large decrement, approximately 96%, in inspiratory effort compared with spontaneously breathing animals. High levels of prolonged pressure support ventilation promote diaphragmatic atrophy and contractile dysfunction. Furthermore, similar to controlled

  1. The NF-κB Inhibitor Curcumin Blocks Sepsis-Induced Muscle Proteolysis

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    Vitaliy Poylin

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available We tested the hypothesis that treatment of rats with curcumin prevents sepsis-induced muscle protein degradation. In addition, we determined the influence of curcumin on different proteolytic pathways that are activated in septic muscle (i.e., ubiquitin-proteasome-, calpain-, and cathepsin L-dependent proteolysis and examined the role of NF-κB and p38/MAP kinase inactivation in curcumin-induced inhibition of muscle protein breakdown. Rats were made septic by cecal ligation and puncture or were sham-operated. Groups of rats were treated with three intraperitoneal doses (600 mg/kg of curcumin or corresponding volumes of solvent. Protein breakdown rates were measured as release of tyrosine from incubated extensor digitorum longus muscles. Treatment with curcumin prevented sepsis-induced increase in muscle protein breakdown. Surprisingly, the upregulated expression of the ubiquitin ligases atrogin-1 and MuRF1 was not influenced by curcumin. When muscles from septic rats were treated with curcumin in vitro, proteasome-, calpain-, and cathepsin L-dependent protein breakdown rates were reduced, and nuclear NF-κB/p65 expression and activity as well as levels of phosphorylated (activated p38 were decreased. Results suggest that sepsis-induced muscle proteolysis can be blocked by curcumin and that this effect may, at least in part, be caused by inhibited NF-κB and p38 activities. The results also suggest that there is not an absolute correlation between changes in muscle protein breakdown rates and changes in atrogin-1 and MuRF1 expression during treatment of muscle wasting.

  2. Effects of duration of vitamin C supplementation during the finishing period on postmortem protein degradation, tenderness, and meat color of the longissimus muscle of calf-fed steers consuming a 0.31 or 0.59% sulfur diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pogge, D J; Lonergan, S M; Hansen, S L

    2015-05-01

    High-S (HS) diets have been identified as a causative agent in the development of oxidative stress in cattle, which in postmortem muscle can negatively alter meat quality. Vitamin C (VC) is a potent antioxidant produced endogenously by cattle; however, exogenous supplementation of VC may be useful when HS diets are fed to cattle. The objective of this study was to examine the impact of duration of VC supplementation, for the first 56, 90, or 127 d, during the finishing period on meat color and tenderness of the longissimus thoracis (LT) collected from calf-fed steers consuming a 0.31 or 0.59% S diet. Angus steers ( n= 42) were stratified to pens by initial BW (304 ± 13 kg) and GeneMax marbling score (4.3 ± 0.12), and each pen was randomly assigned to 1 of 7 treatments (6 steers/pen, 1 pen/treatment), including HS (0.59% S, a combination of dried distillers grains plus solubles and sodium sulfate) control (HS CON), HS CON + 10 g VC·steer·(-1)d(-1) for the first 56 d (HS VC56), 90 d (HS VC90), or 127 d (HS VC127), low S (LS; 0.31% S) + 10 g VC·steer·(-1)d(-1) for the first 56 d (LS VC56), 90 d (LS VC90), or 127 d (LS VC127). Steers were harvested (n = 40) and, after a 24-h chill, rib sections (LT) were collected. pH was determined on each rib section before division into 3 sections for determination of 1) 7-d retail display and color and Warner-Bratzler shear force (WBSF), 2) 14-d WBSF determination, and 3) protein degradation and collagen content (2 d postmortem). Data were analyzed by ANOVA as a completely randomized design, with the fixed effect of treatment. Individual feed intake was recorded, and steer was the experimental unit. The HS steers had a greater and lesser percent of the 80- and 76-kDa subunits of calpain-1 (P ≤ 0.05), respectively, and tended to have less (P = 0.08) troponin T degradation (d2), and more (P = 0.02) collagen than LS steers. Increasing days of VC supplementation decreased (P = 0.05) the percentage of the 80 kDa subunit of

  3. Early cytoskeletal protein modifications precede overt structural degeneration in the DBA/2J mouse model of glaucoma

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    Gina Nicole Wilson

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Axonal transport deficits precede structural loss in glaucoma and other neurodegenerations. Impairments in structural support, including modified cytoskeletal proteins and microtubule-destabilizing elements, could be initiating factors in glaucoma pathogenesis. We investigated the time course of changes in protein levels and post-translational modifications in the DBA/2J mouse model of glaucoma. Using anterograde tract tracing of the retinal projection, we assessed major cytoskeletal and transported elements as a function of transport integrity in different stages of pathological progression. Using capillary-based electrophoresis, single- and multiplex immunosorbent assays, and immunofluorescence, we quantified hyperphosphorylated neurofilament-heavy chain, phosphorylated tau (ptau, calpain-mediated spectrin breakdown product (145/150kDa, β –tubulin, and amyloid-β42 proteins based on age and transport outcome to the superior colliculus (SC, the main retinal target in mice. Phosphorylated neurofilament-heavy chain (pNF-H was elevated within the optic nerve (ON and SC of 8-10 month-old DBA/2J mice, but was not evident in the retina until 12-15 months, suggesting that cytoskeletal modifications first appear in the distal retinal projection. As expected, higher pNF-H levels in the SC and retina were correlated with axonal transport deficits. Elevations in hyperphosphorylated tau (ptau occurred in ON and SC between 3-8 month of age while retinal ptau accumulations occurred at 12-15 months in DBA/2J mice. In vitro co-immunoprecipitation experiments suggested increased affinity of ptau for the retrograde motor complex protein, dynactin. We observed a transport-related decrease of β-tubulin in ON of 10-12 month-old DBA/2J mice, suggesting destabilized microtubule array. Elevations in calpain-mediated spectrin breakdown product were seen in ON and SC at the earliest age examined, well before axonal transport loss is evident. Finally, transport

  4. Alternative Conformational Model of a Seed Protein DeK1 for Better Understanding of Structure-Function Relationship

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    Surya Bhushan Kumar

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Understanding of the cell development and differentiation processes in plant seeds in general is poor. One gene, among others, that predominantly regulates the aleurone cell formation, differentiation and specification in seeds is called defective kernel (DeK1 and several cell biology and genetic experiments have unequivocally established this fact. However, the mechanism behind such processes is still unclear and understanding the protein functionality of DeK1 is vital to elucidating its role in endosperm cell development. Only preliminary investigations have been performed for just one domain of the protein in vitro and its functional implications have been highlighted lately. An initial attempt at in silico modeling of the protein has shown promise and necessitated thorough investigation of the protein to help understand structure-function relationship in details thus corroborating experimental findings and laying foundation for further studies. DeK1 sequences in public databases were used as raw material for elaborate computational analysis of the protein. DeK1 is a multi-pass membrane protein with interesting structural features and the present analysis provides an alternative model for DeK1 structure that can help pan both in vitro and in vivo studies. The transmembrane helices were shown to have a number of conserved charged and polar residues that can form salt bridges and help in ligand binding or transmitting an external signal in addition to maintaining structural integrity. The protein possesses a big loop of about 280-300 amino acid residues on the cytoplasmic side of the membrane. It has a number of putative phosphorylation sites, multiple cysteine residues and a high density of charged residues, all of which could be important for protein-protein interaction and signaling pathways. The loop has a nuclear localization propensity as well. The long C-terminal tail of DeK1 with homology to calpain domain may be activated by the big

  5. Differentially expressed proteins in the skin mucus of Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) upon natural infection with Vibrio anguillarum

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Vibriosis caused by V. anguillarum is a commonly encountered disease in Atlantic cod farms and several studies indicate that the initiation of infection occurs after the attachment of the pathogen to the mucosal surfaces (gut, skin and gills) of fish. Therefore it is necessary to investigate the role of different mucosal components in fish upon V. anguillarum infection. The present study has two parts; in the first part we analyzed the differential expression of skin mucus proteins from Atlantic cod naturally infected with V. anguillarum using two dimensional gel electrophoresis coupled with mass spectrometry. In the second part, a separate bath challenge experiment with V. anguillarum was conducted to assess the mRNA levels of the genes in skin tissue, corresponding to the selected proteins identified in the first part. Results Comparative proteome analysis of skin mucus of cod upon natural infection with V. anguillarum revealed key immune relevant proteins like calpain small subunit 1, glutathione-S-transferase omega 1, proteasome 26S subunit, 14-kDa apolipoprotein, beta 2-tubulin, cold inducible RNA binding protein, malate dehydrogenase 2 (mitochondrial) and type II keratin that exhibited significant differential expression. Additionally a number of protein spots which showed large variability amongst individual fish were also identified. Some of the proteins identified were mapped to the immunologically relevant JNK (c-Jun N-terminal kinases) signalling pathway that is connected to cellular events associated with pathogenesis. A bath challenge experiment with V. anguillarum showed differential expression of beta 2-tubulin, calpain small subunit 1, cold inducible RNA binding protein, flotillin1, and glutathione S-transferase omega 1 transcripts in the skin tissue of cod during early stages of infection. Conclusions Differentially expressed proteins identified in the cod skin mucus point towards their possible involvement in V. anguillarum pathogenesis

  6. miR-124 suppresses proliferation and invasion of nasopharyngeal carcinoma cells through the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway by targeting Capn4

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    Hu H

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Haili Hu,1,* Guanghui Wang,1,* Congying Li2 1Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Huaihe Hospital of Henan University, 2Department of Otorhinolaryngology, School of Medicine, Kaifeng University, Kaifeng, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Background: Recent studies have demonstrated that microRNA 124 (miR-124 acts as a tumor suppressor in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC; however, the exact molecular mechanism by which miR-124 exerts tumor suppression has not been well elucidated.Materials and methods: We performed quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR to measure the expression of metastasis associated lung adenocarcinoma transcript 1, miR-124, and calpain small subunit 1 (Capn4 mRNAs in NPC cell lines. We also performed western blot analysis to detect the levels of Capn4. Furthermore, we performed MTT assay and transwell invasion assay to determine the proliferation and invasion ability of two NPC cell lines, namely, HONE1 and CNE2 cells, respectively. The verification of targets of miR-124 was performed using prediction softwares and luciferase reporter analysis.Results: According to our results, the expression of Capn4 was found to be elevated, whereas the expression of miR-124 was lowered in NPC cell lines compared with normal nasopharyngeal cells. When we preformed overexpression of miR-124, it suppressed the proliferation and invasion of NPC cells. Moreover, miR-124 suppressed the expression of Capn4 by targeting Capn4 in HONE1 and CNE2 cells. When we preformed overexpression of Capn4, it reversed the inhibitory effect of miR-124 on the proliferation and invasion of NPC cells. Furthermore, miR-124–Capn4 axis decreased the levels of β-catenin, cyclin D1, and c-Myc, the components of the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway.Conclusion: The suppression of proliferation and invasion of NPC cells by miR-124 were achieved by the regulation of Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway by targeting Capn4. The results of

  7. Oral treatment with herbal formula B307 alleviates cardiac failure in aging R6/2 mice with Huntington’s disease via suppressing oxidative stress, inflammation, and apoptosis

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    Lin CL

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Ching-Lung Lin,1 Sheue-Er Wang,2 Chih-Hsiang Hsu,1 Shuenn-Jyi Sheu,3 Chung-Hsin Wu1 1Department of Life Science, National Taiwan Normal University, Taipei, 2Department of Pathological Inspection, Soeurs de Saint Paul de Chartres Medical Corporate Body, Taoyuan City, 3Brion Research Institute of Taiwan, New Taipei City, Taiwan Abstract: Cardiac failure is often observed in aging patients with Huntington’s disease (HD. However, conventional pharmacological treatments for cardiac failure in HD patients have rarely been studied. Chinese herbal medicines, especially combined herbal formulas, have been widely used to treat cardiac dysfunctions over the centuries. Thus, we assess whether oral treatment with herbal formula B307 can alleviate cardiac failure in transgenic mice with HD. After oral B307 or vehicle treatment for 2 weeks, cardiac function and cardiomyocytes in 12-week-old male R6/2 HD mice and their wild-type littermate controls (WT were examined and then compared via echocardiography, immunohistochemistry, and Western blotting. We found that cardiac performance in aging R6/2 HD mice had significantly deteriorated in comparison with their WT (P<0.01. Cardiac expressions of superoxide dismutase 2 (SOD2 and B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2 in aging R6/2 HD mice were significantly lower than their WT (P<0.01, but cardiac expressions of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α, neurotrophin-3 (3-NT, 4-hydroxynonenal (4-HNE, Bcl-2-associated X protein (Bax, calpain, caspase 12, caspase 9, and caspase 3 of aging R6/2 HD mice were significantly higher than their WT (P<0.05. Furthermore, we found that cardiac performance in aging R6/2 HD mice had significantly improved under oral B307 treatment (P<0.05. Cardiac expressions of SOD2 and Bcl-2 of aging R6/2 HD mice were significantly higher under oral B307 treatment (P<0.01, but cardiac expressions of TNF-α, 3-NT, 4-HNE, Bax, calpain, caspase 12, caspase 9, and caspase 3 of aging R6/2 HD mice were significantly

  8. Effect of free thymol on differential gene expression in gastric mucosa of the young pig.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colombo, M; Priori, D; Gandolfi, G; Boatto, G; Nieddu, M; Bosi, P; Trevisi, P

    2014-05-01

    Thymol is the most common molecule in thyme and has been proposed as an oral alternative to antibiotics in the feed of pigs and broilers. The knowledge of the in vivo physiological effects of thymol on tissues is limited, particularly its impact on the gastric mucosa, where it is primarily absorbed when it is orally supplied. In this study, thymol (TH, 50 mg/ kg BW) or a placebo (CO) was introduced directly into the stomach of 8 weaned pigs that were slaughtered 12 h later and sampled for gastric oxyntic and pyloric mucosa. The analysis of whole transcript expression was performed using Affymetrix© Porcine Gene 1.1 ST array strips. Affymetrix Transcripts IDs were associated with 13 406 human gene names based on Sus scrofa Ensemble. Gene Set Enrichment Analysis was performed, comparing TH and CO pigs. For each gene set, the normalized enrichment score (NES) was defined as significant when the false discovery rate % was enriched in the oxyntic and pyloric mucosa, respectively. Several gene sets involved in mitosis and its regulation ranked near the top, primarily in the oxyntic mucosa; the gene set DIGESTION ranked first and ninth in the pyloric and oxyntic mucosa, respectively. Within this group, somatostatin (SST), SST receptors, peptide transporter 1 (SLC15A1) and calpain 9 (gastrointestinal tract-specific calpain) were the most strongly upregulated genes. Thymol reduced the enrichment of 120 and 59 gene sets in the oxyntic and pyloric mucosa, respectively. Several gene sets related to ion transport and channeling and aqueous pores across membranes, including short transient receptor potential (TRP) channel 4, potassium voltage-gated channel members 1 and 2, and ryanodine receptors 2 and 3, were less enriched. The downregulation of these genes sensitive to thymol in vitro could depend on the thymol dose and contact with the gastric tissues that causes an adaptive response with their reduced activation. Conversely, the activation of the TRPA1 gene (ranked 1072 and

  9. Differentially expressed proteins in the skin mucus of Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) upon natural infection with Vibrio anguillarum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajan, Binoy; Lokesh, Jep; Kiron, Viswanath; Brinchmann, Monica F

    2013-05-14

    Vibriosis caused by V. anguillarum is a commonly encountered disease in Atlantic cod farms and several studies indicate that the initiation of infection occurs after the attachment of the pathogen to the mucosal surfaces (gut, skin and gills) of fish. Therefore it is necessary to investigate the role of different mucosal components in fish upon V. anguillarum infection. The present study has two parts; in the first part we analyzed the differential expression of skin mucus proteins from Atlantic cod naturally infected with V. anguillarum using two dimensional gel electrophoresis coupled with mass spectrometry. In the second part, a separate bath challenge experiment with V. anguillarum was conducted to assess the mRNA levels of the genes in skin tissue, corresponding to the selected proteins identified in the first part. Comparative proteome analysis of skin mucus of cod upon natural infection with V. anguillarum revealed key immune relevant proteins like calpain small subunit 1, glutathione-S-transferase omega 1, proteasome 26S subunit, 14-kDa apolipoprotein, beta 2-tubulin, cold inducible RNA binding protein, malate dehydrogenase 2 (mitochondrial) and type II keratin that exhibited significant differential expression. Additionally a number of protein spots which showed large variability amongst individual fish were also identified. Some of the proteins identified were mapped to the immunologically relevant JNK (c-Jun N-terminal kinases) signalling pathway that is connected to cellular events associated with pathogenesis. A bath challenge experiment with V. anguillarum showed differential expression of beta 2-tubulin, calpain small subunit 1, cold inducible RNA binding protein, flotillin1, and glutathione S-transferase omega 1 transcripts in the skin tissue of cod during early stages of infection. Differentially expressed proteins identified in the cod skin mucus point towards their possible involvement in V. anguillarum pathogenesis. The role of some of these

  10. Early Cytoskeletal Protein Modifications Precede Overt Structural Degeneration in the DBA/2J Mouse Model of Glaucoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Gina N.; Smith, Matthew A.; Inman, Denise M.; Dengler-Crish, Christine M.; Crish, Samuel D.

    2016-01-01

    Axonal transport deficits precede structural loss in glaucoma and other neurodegenerations. Impairments in structural support, including modified cytoskeletal proteins, and microtubule-destabilizing elements, could be initiating factors in glaucoma pathogenesis. We investigated the time course of changes in protein levels and post-translational modifications in the DBA/2J mouse model of glaucoma. Using anterograde tract tracing of the retinal projection, we assessed major cytoskeletal and transported elements as a function of transport integrity in different stages of pathological progression. Using capillary-based electrophoresis, single- and multiplex immunosorbent assays, and immunofluorescence, we quantified hyperphosphorylated neurofilament-heavy chain, phosphorylated tau (ptau), calpain-mediated spectrin breakdown product (145/150 kDa), β–tubulin, and amyloid-β42 proteins based on age and transport outcome to the superior colliculus (SC; the main retinal target in mice). Phosphorylated neurofilament-heavy chain (pNF-H) was elevated within the optic nerve (ON) and SC of 8–10 month-old DBA/2J mice, but was not evident in the retina until 12–15 months, suggesting that cytoskeletal modifications first appear in the distal retinal projection. As expected, higher pNF-H levels in the SC and retina were correlated with axonal transport deficits. Elevations in hyperphosphorylated tau (ptau) occurred in ON and SC between 3 and 8 month of age while retinal ptau accumulations occurred at 12–15 months in DBA/2J mice. In vitro co-immunoprecipitation experiments suggested increased affinity of ptau for the retrograde motor complex protein dynactin. We observed a transport-related decrease of β-tubulin in ON of 10–12 month-old DBA/2J mice, suggesting destabilized microtubule array. Elevations in calpain-mediated spectrin breakdown product were seen in ON and SC at the earliest age examined, well before axonal transport loss is evident. Finally, transport

  11. Autophagy-associated atrophy and metabolic remodeling of the mouse diaphragm after short-term intermittent hypoxia.

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    Christian Giordano

    Full Text Available Short-term intermittent hypoxia (IH is common in patients with acute respiratory disorders. Although prolonged exposure to hypoxia induces atrophy and increased fatigability of skeletal muscle, the response to short-term IH is less well known. We hypothesized that the diaphragm and limb muscles would adapt differently to short-term IH given that hypoxia stimulates ventilation and triggers a superimposed exercise stimulus in the diaphragm.We determined the structural, metabolic, and contractile properties of the mouse diaphragm after 4 days of IH (8 hours per day, 30 episodes per hour to a FiO2 nadir=6%, and compared responses in the diaphragm to a commonly studied reference limb muscle, the tibialis anterior. Outcome measures included muscle fiber size, assays of muscle proteolysis (calpain, ubiquitin-proteasome, and autophagy pathways, markers of oxidative stress and mitochondrial function, quantification of intramyocellular lipid and lipid metabolism genes, type I myosin heavy chain (MyHC expression, and in vitro contractile properties.After 4 days of IH, the diaphragm alone demonstrated significant atrophy (30% decrease of myofiber size together with increased LC3B-II protein (2.4-fold and mRNA markers of the autophagy pathway (LC3B, Gabarapl1, Bnip3, whereas active calpain and E3 ubiquitin ligases (MuRF1, atrogin-1 were unaffected in both muscles. Succinate dehydrogenase activity was significantly reduced by IH in both muscles. However, only the diaphragm exhibited increased intramyocellular lipid droplets (2.5-fold after IH, along with upregulation of genes linked to activated lipid metabolism. In addition, although the diaphragm showed evidence for acute fatigue immediately following IH, it underwent an adaptive fiber type switch toward slow type I MyHC-expressing fibers, associated with greater intrinsic endurance of the muscle during repetitive stimulation in vitro.Short-term IH induces preferential atrophy in the mouse diaphragm

  12. Geranylated 4-Phenylcoumarins Exhibit Anticancer Effects against Human Prostate Cancer Cells through Caspase-Independent Mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suparji, Noor Shahirah; Chan, Gomathi; Sapili, Hani; Arshad, Norhafiza M.; In, Lionel L. A.; Awang, Khalijah; Hasima Nagoor, Noor

    2016-01-01

    Geranylated 4-phenylcoumarins, DMDP-1 & -2 isolated from Mesua elegans were investigated for anticancer potential against human prostate cancer cells. Treatment with DMDP-1 & -2 resulted in cell death in a time and dose dependent manner in an MTT assay on all cancer cell lines tested with the exception of lung adenocarcinoma cells. DMDP-1 showed highest cytotoxic efficacy in PC-3 cells while DMDP-2 was most potent in DU 145 cells. Flow cytometry indicated that both coumarins were successful to induce programmed cell death after 24 h treatment. Elucidation on the mode-of-action via protein arrays and western blotting demonstrated death induced without any significant expressions of caspases, Bcl-2 family proteins and cleaved PARP, thus suggesting the involvement of caspase-independent pathways. In identifying autophagy, analysis of GFP-LC3 showed increased punctate in PC-3 cells pre-treated with CQ and treated with DMDP-1. In these cells decreased expression of autophagosome protein, p62 and cathepsin B further confirmed autophagy. In contrary, the DU 145 cells pre-treated with CQ and treated with DMDP-2 has reduced GFP-LC3 punctate although the number of cells with obvious GFP-LC3 puncta was significantly increased in the inhibitor-treated cells. The increase level of p62 suggested leakage of cathepsin B into the cytosol to trigger potential downstream death mediators. This correlated with increased expression of cathepsin B and reduced expression after treatment with its inhibitor, CA074. Also auto-degradation of calpain-2 upon treatment with DMDP-1 &-2 and its inhibitor alone, calpeptin compared with the combination treatment, further confirmed involvement of calpain-2 in PC-3 and DU 145 cells. Treatment with DMDP-1 & -2 also showed up-regulation of total and phosphorylated p53 levels in a time dependent manner. Hence, DMDP-1 & -2 showed ability to activate multiple death pathways involving autophagy, lysosomal and endoplasmic reticulum death proteins which could

  13. Eryptosis in lead-exposed workers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aguilar-Dorado, Itzel-Citlalli [Biochemistry Department, Centro de Investigación y Estudios Avanzados IPN, México, DF (Mexico); Hernández, Gerardo [Section of Methodology of Science, Centro de Investigación y Estudios Avanzados IPN, México, DF (Mexico); Quintanar-Escorza, Martha-Angelica [Faculty of Medicine, UJED, Durango, DGO (Mexico); Maldonado-Vega, María [CIATEC, León, GTO (Mexico); Rosas-Flores, Margarita [Biochemistry Department, Centro de Investigación y Estudios Avanzados IPN, México, DF (Mexico); Calderón-Salinas, José-Víctor, E-mail: jcalder@cinvestav.mx [Biochemistry Department, Centro de Investigación y Estudios Avanzados IPN, México, DF (Mexico)

    2014-12-01

    Eryptosis is a physiological phenomenon in which old and damaged erythrocytes are removed from circulation. Erythrocytes incubated with lead have exhibited major eryptosis. In the present work we found evidence of high levels of eryptosis in lead exposed workers possibly via oxidation. Blood samples were taken from 40 male workers exposed to lead (mean blood lead concentration 64.8 μg/dl) and non-exposed workers (4.2 μg/dl). The exposure to lead produced an intoxication characterized by 88.3% less δ-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (δALAD) activity in lead exposed workers with respect to non-lead exposed workers. An increment of oxidation in lead exposed workers was characterized by 2.4 times higher thiobarbituric acid-reactive substance (TBARS) concentration and 32.8% lower reduced/oxidized glutathione (GSH/GSSG) ratio. Oxidative stress in erythrocytes of lead exposed workers is expressed in 192% higher free calcium concentration [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub i} and 1.6 times higher μ-calpain activity with respect to non-lead exposed workers. The adenosine triphosphate (ATP) concentration was not significantly different between the two worker groups. No externalization of phosphatidylserine (PS) was found in non-lead exposed workers (< 0.1%), but lead exposed workers showed 2.82% externalization. Lead intoxication induces eryptosis possibly through a molecular pathway that includes oxidation, depletion of reduced glutathione (GSH), increment of [Ca{sup 2+}], μ-calpain activation and externalization of PS in erythrocytes. Identifying molecular signals that induce eryptosis in lead intoxication is necessary to understand its physiopathology and chronic complications. - Graphical abstract: Fig. 1. (A) Blood lead concentration (PbB) and (B) phosphatidylserine externalization on erythrocyte membranes of non-lead exposed (□) and lead exposed workers (■). Values are mean ± SD. *Significantly different (P < 0.001). - Highlights: • Erythrocytes of lead exposed workers

  14. The histone deacetylase inhibitor MGCD0103 induces apoptosis in B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia cells through a mitochondria-mediated caspase activation cascade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Khoury, Victoria; Moussay, Etienne; Janji, Bassam; Palissot, Valérie; Aouali, Nasséra; Brons, Nicolaas H C; Van Moer, Kris; Pierson, Sandrine; Van Dyck, Eric; Berchem, Guy

    2010-05-01

    Clinical trials have shown activity of the isotype-selective histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor MGCD0103 in different hematologic malignancies. There are data to support the use of HDAC inhibitors in association with other cancer therapies. To propose a rational combination therapy, it is necessary to depict the molecular basis behind the cytotoxic effect of MGCD0103. In this study, we found that MGCD0103 was substantially more toxic in neoplastic B cells relative to normal cells, and we described the death pathways activated by MGCD0103 in B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) cells from 32 patients. MGCD0103 decreased the expression of Mcl-1 and induced translocation of Bax to the mitochondria, mitochondrial depolarization, and release of cytochrome c in the cytosol. Caspase processing in the presence of the caspase inhibitor Q-VD-OPh and time course experiments showed that caspase-9 was the apical caspase. Thus, MGCD0103 induced the intrinsic pathway of apoptosis in CLL cells. Moreover, MGCD0103 treatment resulted in the activation of a caspase cascade downstream of caspase-9, caspase-dependent amplification of mitochondrial depolarization, activation of calpain, and Bax cleavage. We propose a model whereby the intrinsic pathway of apoptosis triggered by MGCD0103 in CLL is associated with a mitochondrial death amplification loop.

  15. THE COMBINATION OF A HISTONE DEACETYLASE INHIBITOR WITH THE BH3-MIMETIC GX15-070 HAS SYNERGISTIC ANTILEUKEMIA ACTIVITY BY ACTIVATING BOTH APOPTOTSIS AND AUTOPHAGY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Yue; Kadia, Tapan; Tong, Weigang; Zhang, Ming; Jia, Yu; Yang, Hui; Hu, Yumin; Viallet, Jean; O’Brien, Susan; Garcia-Manero, Guillermo

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Single agent histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACi) have limited clinical activity in human leukemia. Although the way HDACi exert their antileukemia effect is not fully understood, it is accepted that induction of apoptosis is important. We hypothesized therefore that combination of an HDACi with a pro-apoptotic agent, such as the BH3 domain mimetic GX15-070, could result in enhanced antileukemia activity. Experimental Design We analyzed the cellular and molecular effects of two different HDACi (MGCD0103 and vorinostat) in combination with GX15-070 in leukemia cell lines and primary AML cells. Results We demonstrated that the combination had synergistic antileukemia effect both in cell lines and primary AML cells. Using molecular markers and electron microscopy, we observed that in addition to apoptosis, autophagy accounts for the non-apoptotic decrease of cell viability, an effect that could be inhibited by chloroquine, an inhibitor of autophagy. Finally, we established a role for calpain activity in the induction of both autophagy and apoptosis of this combination. Conclusions The combination of and HDACi and GX15-070 has synergistic antileukemia activity and effect is mediated both by induction of apoptosis and autophagy. The combination should be studied in clinical trials of leukemia and the role of autophagy in leukemia therapy needs to be better understood. PMID:20538760

  16. The combination of a histone deacetylase inhibitor with the Bcl-2 homology domain-3 mimetic GX15-070 has synergistic antileukemia activity by activating both apoptosis and autophagy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Yue; Kadia, Tapan; Tong, Weigang; Zhang, Ming; Jia, Yu; Yang, Hui; Hu, Yumin; Tambaro, Francesco Paolo; Viallet, Jean; O'Brien, Susan; Garcia-Manero, Guillermo

    2010-08-01

    Single-agent histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACi) have limited clinical activity in human leukemia. Although the way HDACi exert their antileukemia effect is not fully understood, it is accepted that induction of apoptosis is important. We hypothesized, therefore, that combination of an HDACi with a proapoptotic agent, such as the Bcl-2 homology domain-3 mimetic GX15-070, could result in enhanced antileukemia activity. We analyzed the cellular and molecular effects of two different HDACi (MGCD0103 and vorinostat) in combination with GX15-070 in leukemia cell lines and primary acute myelogenous leukemia cells. We showed that the combination had synergistic antileukemia effect both in leukemia cell lines and in primary acute myelogenous leukemia cells. Using molecular markers and electron microscopy, we observed that in addition to apoptosis, autophagy accounts for the nonapoptotic decrease in cell viability, an effect that could be inhibited by chloroquine, an inhibitor of autophagy. Finally, we established a role for calpain activity in the induction of both autophagy and apoptosis by this combination. The combination of an HDACi and GX15-070 has synergistic antileukemia activity, and the effect is mediated by induction of apoptosis and autophagy. The combination should be studied in clinical trials of leukemia and the role of autophagy in leukemia therapy needs to be better understood. (c) 2010 AACR.

  17. Recent advances in understanding/managing eosinophilic esophagitis in adults [v1; ref status: indexed, http://f1000r.es/5rn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David A. Katzka

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available It is an exciting time for research in eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE. As a new and increasingly prevalent disease, it is receiving considerable attention in the medical world, resulting in a flood of new insights. Clearly, a genetic predisposition seems likely with the identification of abnormalities in thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP, calpain14, and eotaxin-3 genes. There are also well-defined abnormalities described in esophageal epithelial barrier function in these patients. The relationship between gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD and EoE remains unclear, but emerging data suggest that the concept of proton pump inhibitor responsive esophageal eosinophilia (PPIREE may retain less importance, as this subset of patients becomes a likely subset of EoE in general. Finally, we approach the looming issue of long-term maintenance therapy. Although we lack adequate specific data on how to provide long-term pharmacologic treatment, studies clearly show that for most patients, this is a progressive disease that warrants such consideration.

  18. A novel function for the IκB inhibitor Cactus in promoting Dorsal nuclear localization and activity in the Drosophila embryo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso, Maira Arruda; Fontenele, Marcio; Lim, Bomyi; Bisch, Paulo Mascarello; Shvartsman, Stanislav Y; Araujo, Helena Marcolla

    2017-08-15

    The evolutionarily conserved Toll signaling pathway controls innate immunity across phyla and embryonic patterning in insects. In the Drosophila embryo, Toll is required to establish gene expression domains along the dorsal-ventral axis. Pathway activation induces degradation of the IκB inhibitor Cactus, resulting in a ventral-to-dorsal nuclear gradient of the NFκB effector Dorsal. Here, we investigate how cactus modulates Toll signals through its effects on the Dorsal gradient and on Dorsal target genes. Quantitative analysis using a series of loss- and gain-of-function conditions shows that the ventral and lateral aspects of the Dorsal gradient can behave differently with respect to Cactus fluctuations. In lateral and dorsal embryo domains, loss of Cactus allows more Dorsal to translocate to the nucleus. Unexpectedly, cactus loss-of-function alleles decrease Dorsal nuclear localization ventrally, where Toll signals are high. Overexpression analysis suggests that this ability of Cactus to enhance Toll stems from the mobilization of a free Cactus pool induced by the Calpain A protease. These results indicate that Cactus acts to bolster Dorsal activation, in addition to its role as a NFκB inhibitor, ensuring a correct response to Toll signals. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  19. BDA-410 Treatment Reduces Body Weight and Fat Content by Enhancing Lipolysis in Sedentary Senescent Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereyra, Andrea S; Wang, Zhong-Min; Messi, Maria Laura; Zhang, Tan; Wu, Hanzhi; Register, Thomas C; Forbes, Elizabeth; Devarie-Baez, Nelmi O; Files, Daniel Clark; Abba, Martin C; Furdui, Cristina; Delbono, Osvaldo

    2017-08-01

    Loss of muscle mass and force with age leads to fall risk, mobility impairment, and reduced quality of life. This article shows that BDA-410, a calpain inhibitor, induced loss of body weight and fat but not lean mass or skeletal muscle proteins in a cohort of sedentary 23-month-old mice. Food and water intake and locomotor activity were not modified, whereas BDA-410 treatment decreased intramyocellular lipid and perigonadal fat, increased serum nonesterified fatty acids, and upregulated the genes mediating lipolysis and oxidation, lean phenotype, muscle contraction, muscle transcription regulation, and oxidative stress response. This finding is consistent with our recent report that lipid accumulation in skeletal myofibers is significantly correlated with slower fiber-contraction kinetics and diminished power in obese older adult mice. A proteomic analysis and immunoblot showed downregulation of the phosphatase PPP1R12B, which increases phosphorylated myosin half-life and modulates the calcium sensitivity of the contractile apparatus. This study demonstrates that BDA-410 exerts a beneficial effect on skeletal muscle contractility through new, alternative mechanisms, including enhanced lipolysis, upregulation of "lean phenotype-related genes," downregulation of the PP1R12B phosphatase, and enhanced excitation-contraction coupling. This single compound holds promise for treating age-dependent decline in muscle composition and strength. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Protection against myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury in clinical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Dorado, David; Rodríguez-Sinovas, Antonio; Ruiz-Meana, Marisol; Inserte, Javier

    2014-05-01

    Even when reperfusion therapy is applied as early as possible, survival and quality of life are compromised in a considerable number of patients with ST-segment elevation acute myocardial infarction. Some cell death following transient coronary occlusion occurs during reperfusion, due to poor handling of calcium in the sarcoplasmic reticulum-mitochondria system, calpain activation, oxidative stress, and mitochondrial failure, all promoted by rapid normalization of intracellular pH. Various clinical trials have shown that infarct size can be limited by nonpharmacological strategies--such as ischemic postconditioning and remote ischemic conditioning--or by drugs--such as cyclosporine, insulin, glucagon-like peptide-1 agonists, beta-blockers, or stimulation of cyclic guanosine monophosphate synthesis. However, some clinical studies have yielded negative results, largely due to a lack of consistent preclinical data or a poor design, especially delayed administration. Large-scale clinical trials are therefore necessary, particularly those with primary clinical variables and combined therapies that consider age, sex, and comorbidities, to convert protection against reperfusion injury into a standard treatment for patients with ST-segment elevation acute myocardial infarction. Copyright © 2014 Sociedad Española de Cardiología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  1. Upregulation of ICAM-1 Expression on J774.2 Macrophages by Endotoxin Involves Activation of NF-κB but not Protein Tyrosine Kinase: Comparison to Induction of iNOS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hartmut Ruetten

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available This study compares the signal transduction pathway which leads to the upregulation of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1 expression with that of the increase in the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS protein and activity caused by endotoxin in cultured J774.2 macrophages. Treatment of J774.2 cells with lipopolysaccharide E. coli (LPS induced a concentration-dependent increase in the expression of ICAM-1 on the cell surface within 4 h and an increase in iNOS protein and activity at 24 h. The upregulation of ICAM-1 expression on J774.2 macrophages caused by LPS was significantly inhibited by pretreatment of the cells with inhibitors of the activation of the nuclear transcription factor NF-κB, such as L-1-tosylamido-2-phenylethylchloromethyl ketone (TPCK, pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (PDTC, rotenone or calpain inhibitor I, but not by the tyrosine kinase inhibitors, tyrphostin AG126 or genistein. In contrast, genistein or tyrphostin AG126 also prevented the induction of iNOS protein and activity in J774.2 macrophages elicited by LPS. Thus, the increase in the expression of ICAM-1 on J774.2 macrophages by endotoxin involves the activation of NFκB, but not of protein tyrosine kinase.

  2. Effects of chronic administration of clenbuterol on contractile properties and calcium homeostasis in rat extensor digitorum longus muscle.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pascal Sirvent

    Full Text Available Clenbuterol, a β2-agonist, induces skeletal muscle hypertrophy and a shift from slow-oxidative to fast-glycolytic muscle fiber type profile. However, the cellular mechanisms of the effects of chronic clenbuterol administration on skeletal muscle are not completely understood. As the intracellular Ca2+ concentration must be finely regulated in many cellular processes, the aim of this study was to investigate the effects of chronic clenbuterol treatment on force, fatigue, intracellular calcium (Ca2+ homeostasis and Ca2+-dependent proteolysis in fast-twitch skeletal muscles (the extensor digitorum longus, EDL, muscle, as they are more sensitive to clenbuterol-induced hypertrophy. Male Wistar rats were chronically treated with 4 mg.kg-1 clenbuterol or saline vehicle (controls for 21 days. Confocal microscopy was used to evaluate sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ load, Ca2+-transient amplitude and Ca2+ spark properties. EDL muscles from clenbuterol-treated animals displayed hypertrophy, a shift from slow to fast fiber type profile and increased absolute force, while the relative force remained unchanged and resistance to fatigue decreased compared to control muscles from rats treated with saline vehicle. Compared to control animals, clenbuterol treatment decreased Ca2+-transient amplitude, Ca2+ spark amplitude and frequency and the sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ load was markedly reduced. Conversely, calpain activity was increased by clenbuterol chronic treatment. These results indicate that chronic treatment with clenbuterol impairs Ca2+ homeostasis and this could contribute to the remodeling and functional impairment of fast-twitch skeletal muscle.

  3. Small peptides hydrolysis in dry-cured meats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mora, Leticia; Gallego, Marta; Escudero, Elizabeth; Reig, Milagro; Aristoy, M-Concepción; Toldrá, Fidel

    2015-11-06

    Large amounts of different peptides are naturally generated in dry-cured meats as a consequence of the intense proteolysis mechanisms which take place during their processing. In fact, meat proteins are extensively hydrolysed by muscle endo-peptidases (mainly calpains and cathepsins) followed by exo-peptidases (mainly, tri- and di-peptidyl peptidases, dipeptidases, aminopeptidases and carboxypeptidases). The result is a large amount of released free amino acids and a pool of numerous peptides with different sequences and lengths, some of them with interesting sequences for bioactivity. This manuscript is presenting the proteomic identification of small peptides resulting from the hydrolysis of four target proteins (glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, beta-enolase, myozenin-1 and troponin T) and discusses the enzymatic routes for their generation during the dry-curing process. The results indicate that the hydrolysis of peptides follows similar exo-peptidase mechanisms. In the case of dry-fermented sausages, most of the observed hydrolysis is the result of the combined action of muscle and microbial exo-peptidases except for the hydrolysis of di- and tri-peptides, mostly due to microbial di- and tri-peptidases, and the release of amino acids at the C-terminal that appears to be mostly due to muscle carboxypeptidases. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Characterisation in vivo of ways of induced deaths by p53, in the male germinal cells; Caracterisation in vivo des voies de mort induites par la p53, dans les cellules germinales males

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coureuil, M

    2006-10-15

    The male germinal cells constitute a heterogeneous cell population including pre-meiotic proliferating cells (spermatogonia) and meiotic cells and post meiotic cells in differentiation (spermatocytes and spermatids). We study the involvement in vivo of the p53 protein in the death of these cells with the help of two models, (1) a transgenic model of infertility, MTp53, in which the p53 is over expressed in the differentiated cells and induced their death, (2) the response of these cells to gamma irradiation, where only the spermatogonia die by apoptosis dependent of p53. We showed that the caspases (cysteine-aspartic proteases) are involved in the terminal differentiation of normal germinal cells. But in the MTp53 model, the p53 induces the death of differentiated cells via the activation of calpains and not of caspases. We studied the response of spermatogonia, to gamma irradiation by a transcriptomic approach, by DNA chips and semi-quantitative RT-PCR. we showed that the puma and dr5 genes are induced by the p53 after irradiation. more, the study of mice invalidated for trail ( the dr5 ligand) or for puma, allowed to demonstrate that the two effectors are essential to the activation of intrinsic and extrinsic ways of apoptosis. (N.C.)

  5. The role of Ca2+ influx in endocytic vacuole formation in pancreatic acinar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voronina, Svetlana; Collier, David; Chvanov, Michael; Middlehurst, Ben; Beckett, Alison J; Prior, Ian A; Criddle, David N; Begg, Malcolm; Mikoshiba, Katsuhiko; Sutton, Robert; Tepikin, Alexei V

    2015-02-01

    The inducers of acute pancreatitis trigger a prolonged increase in the cytosolic Ca(2+) concentration ([Ca(2+)]c), which is responsible for the damage to and eventual death of pancreatic acinar cells. Vacuolization is an important indicator of pancreatic acinar cell damage. Furthermore, activation of trypsinogen occurs in the endocytic vacuoles; therefore the vacuoles can be considered as 'initiating' organelles in the development of the cell injury. In the present study, we investigated the relationship between the formation of endocytic vacuoles and Ca(2+) influx developed in response to the inducers of acute pancreatitis [bile acid taurolithocholic acid 3-sulfate (TLC-S) and supramaximal concentration of cholecystokinin-8 (CCK)]. We found that the inhibitor of STIM (stromal interaction molecule)/Orai channels, GSK-7975A, effectively suppressed both the Ca(2+) influx (stimulated by inducers of pancreatitis) and the formation of endocytic vacuoles. Cell death induced by TLC-S or CCK was also inhibited by GSK-7975A. We documented the formation of endocytic vacuoles in response to store-operated Ca(2+) entry (SOCE) induced by thapsigargin [TG; inhibitor of sarcoplasmic/endoplasmic reticulum (ER) Ca(2+) pumps] and observed strong inhibition of TG-induced vacuole formation by GSK-7975A. Finally, we found that structurally-unrelated inhibitors of calpain suppress formation of endocytic vacuoles, suggesting that this Ca2+-dependent protease is a mediator between Ca(2+) elevation and endocytic vacuole formation.

  6. Prenatal Stress Induces Long-Term Effects in Cell Turnover in the Hippocampus-Hypothalamus-Pituitary Axis in Adult Male Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baquedano, Eva; García-Cáceres, Cristina; Diz-Chaves, Yolanda; Lagunas, Natalia; Calmarza-Font, Isabel; Azcoitia, Iñigo; Garcia-Segura, Luis M.; Argente, Jesús; Chowen, Julie A.; Frago, Laura M.

    2011-01-01

    Subchronic gestational stress leads to permanent modifications in the hippocampus-hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis of offspring probably due to the increase in circulating glucocorticoids known to affect prenatal programming. The aim of this study was to investigate whether cell turnover is affected in the hippocampus-hypothalamus-pituitary axis by subchronic prenatal stress and the intracellular mechanisms involved. Restraint stress was performed in pregnant rats during the last week of gestation (45 minutes; 3 times/day). Only male offspring were used for this study and were sacrificed at 6 months of age. In prenatally stressed adults a decrease in markers of cell death and proliferation was observed in the hippocampus, hypothalamus and pituitary. This was associated with an increase in insulin-like growth factor-I mRNA levels, phosphorylation of CREB and calpastatin levels and inhibition of calpain -2 and caspase -8 activation. Levels of the anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2 were increased and levels of the pro-apoptotic factor p53 were reduced. In conclusion, prenatal restraint stress induces a long-term decrease in cell turnover in the hippocampus-hypothalamus-pituitary axis that might be at least partly mediated by an autocrine-paracrine IGF-I effect. These changes could condition the response of this axis to future physiological and pathophysiological situations. PMID:22096592

  7. Association between type 2 diabetes mellitus, biochemical factors and UCSNP-43 polymorphisms of CALPIN-10 gene in patients with atherosclerosis of coronary artery disease in Southern Iran population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senemar, Sara; Edraki, Mohammad Reza; Toosi, Samane

    2016-01-01

    Genetic variations in the calpain 10 gene (CALPIN-10), single nucleotide polymorphisms-43 (SNP-43), have increased the risk of type 2 diabete mellitus (T2DM) and coronary artery disease (CAD). We studied the control and CAD groups for association of association of SNP-43 in the CALPIN-10 gene with T2DM and other risk factors of its complications. Overall, we examined 452 individuals, 224 patients with CAD and 228 healthy subjects for CAD in Iranian population. All the subjects were genotyped for the CALPIN-10, SNP-43 by polymorphism chain reaction (PCR) and restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) methods, using biochemical methods to detect fasting glucose and other biochemical factors in the blood sample. We assessed frequencies of SNP-43 alleles between CAD and normal population groups. In CAD patients, the GG allele was significantly associated with T2DM and GG allele was causing high level of glucose. But in control group, there was no relationship between them. Between clinical and biochemical risk factors with different genotypes there was no significant difference in the compared group. The results of our study suggest no significant association between SNP-43 and the risk of T2DM. In other words, CALPIN-10 did not show a major diabetes gene pool capacity in normal southern Iranian population.

  8. Cutting Edge: Piezo1 Mechanosensors Optimize Human T Cell Activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chinky Shiu Chen; Raychaudhuri, Deblina; Paul, Barnali; Chakrabarty, Yogaditya; Ghosh, Amrit Raj; Rahaman, Oindrila; Talukdar, Arindam; Ganguly, Dipyaman

    2018-02-15

    TCRs recognize peptides on MHC molecules and induce downstream signaling, leading to activation and clonal expansion. In addition to the strength of the interaction of TCRs with peptides on MHC molecules, mechanical forces contribute to optimal T cell activation, as reflected by the superior efficiency of immobilized TCR-cross-linking Abs compared with soluble Abs in TCR triggering, although a dedicated mechanotransduction module is not identified. We found that the professional mechanosensor protein Piezo1 is critically involved in human T cell activation. Although a deficiency in Piezo1 attenuates downstream events on ex vivo TCR triggering, a Piezo1 agonist can obviate the need to immobilize TCR-cross-linking Abs. Piezo1-driven Ca 2+ influx, leading to calpain activation and organization of cortical actin scaffold, links this mechanosensor to optimal TCR signaling. Thus, we discovered a hitherto unknown regulatory mechanism for human T cell activation and provide the first evidence, to our knowledge, for the involvement of Piezo1 mechanosensors in immune regulation. Copyright © 2018 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.

  9. The efficiency of electrical stimulation to counteract the negative effects of β-agonists on meat tenderness of feedlot cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hope-Jones, M; Strydom, P E; Frylinck, L; Webb, E C

    2010-11-01

    Beta agonists used as growth enhancers are known to affect the aging potential of beef muscle negatively. On the other hand, procedures like electrical stimulation could accelerate rigor and the aging process. In this study, 20 out of 40 young steers received no beta agonist (C), the remaining twenty steers received a beta agonist (zilpaterol hydrochloride) (Z) for the 30 days prior to slaughter followed by 4 days withdrawal. After slaughter carcasses were split, the left side electrically stimulated (ES) and the right side not stimulated (NES). Samples were aged for 3 or 14 days post mortem. Parameters included Warner Bratzler shear force (WBSF), myofibril filament length (MFL), sarcomere length and calpastatin and calpain enzyme activity. Zilpaterol resulted in increased (Peffect of high calpastatin activity on the aging potential of Z loins. ES can therefore be implemented to improve meat tenderness in zilpaterol supplemented steers, although steers without zilpaterol will still have an advantage in final tenderness. Copyright © 2010 The American Meat Science Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Nisin ZP, a Bacteriocin and Food Preservative, Inhibits Head and Neck Cancer Tumorigenesis and Prolongs Survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamarajan, Pachiyappan; Hayami, Takayuki; Matte, Bibiana; Liu, Yang; Danciu, Theodora; Ramamoorthy, Ayyalusamy; Worden, Francis; Kapila, Sunil; Kapila, Yvonne

    2015-01-01

    The use of small antimicrobial peptides or bacteriocins, like nisin, to treat cancer is a new approach that holds great promise. Nisin exemplifies this new approach because it has been used safely in humans for many years as a food preservative, and recent laboratory studies support its anti-tumor potential in head and neck cancer. Previously, we showed that nisin (2.5%, low content) has antitumor potential in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) in vitro and in vivo. The current studies explored a naturally occurring variant of nisin (nisin ZP; 95%, high content) for its antitumor effects in vitro and in vivo. Nisin ZP induced the greatest level of apoptosis in HNSCC cells compared to low content nisin. HNSCC cells treated with increasing concentrations of nisin ZP exhibited increasing levels of apoptosis and decreasing levels of cell proliferation, clonogenic capacity, and sphere formation. Nisin ZP induced apoptosis through a calpain-dependent pathway in HNSCC cells but not in human oral keratinocytes. Nisin ZP also induced apoptosis dose-dependently in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) with concomitant decreases in vascular sprout formation in vitro and reduced intratumoral microvessel density in vivo. Nisin ZP reduced tumorigenesis in vivo and long-term treatment with nisin ZP extended survival. In addition, nisin treated mice exhibited normal organ histology with no evidence of inflammation, fibrosis or necrosis. In summary, nisin ZP exhibits greater antitumor effects than low content nisin, and thus has the potential to serve as a novel therapeutic for HNSCC.

  11. Bicarbonate-Dependent Secretion and Proteolytic Processing of Recombinant Myocilin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aroca-Aguilar, José-Daniel; Martínez-Redondo, Francisco; Martín-Gil, Alba; Pintor, Jesús; Coca-Prados, Miguel; Escribano, Julio

    2013-01-01

    Myocilin is an extracellular glycoprotein of poorly understood function. Mutations of this protein are involved in glaucoma, an optic neuropathy characterized by a progressive and irreversible visual loss and frequently associated with elevated intraocular pressure. We previously showed that recombinant myocilin undergoes an intracellular proteolytic processing by calpain II which cleaves the central region of the protein, releasing one N- and one C-terminal fragment. Myocilin cleavage is reduced by glaucoma mutations and it has been proposed to participate in intraocular pressure modulation. To identify possible factors regulating the proteolytic processing of recombinant myocilin, we used a cellular model in which we analyzed how different culture medium parameters (i.e., culture time, cell density, pH, bicarbonate concentration, etc.) affect the presence of the extracellular C-terminal fragment. Extracellular bicarbonate depletion associated with culture medium acidification produced a reversible intracellular accumulation of full-length recombinant myocilin and incremented its intracellular proteolytic processing, raising the extracellular C-terminal fragment percentage. It was also determined that myocilin intracellular accumulation depends on its N-terminal region. These data suggest that aqueous humor bicarbonate variations could also modulate the secretion and cleavage of myocilin present in ocular tissues. PMID:23342144

  12. Insights into the oligomerization process of the C-terminal domain of human plasma membrane Ca²+-ATPase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benetti, Federico; Mičetić, Ivan; Carsughi, Flavio; Spinozzi, Francesco; Bubacco, Luigi; Beltramini, Mariano

    2011-02-15

    Plasma membrane calcium pumps (PMCAs) sustain a primary transport system for the specific removal of cytosolic calcium ions from eukaryotic cells. PMCAs are characterized by the presence of a C-terminal domain referred to as a regulatory domain. This domain is target of several regulatory mechanisms: activation by Ca²+-calmodulin complex and acidic phospholipids, phosphorylation by kinase A and C, proteolysis by calpain and oligomerization. As far as oligomerization is concerned, the C-terminal domain seems to be crucial for this process. We have cloned the C-terminal domain of the human PMCA isoform 1b, and characterized its properties in solution. The expressed protein maintains its tendency to oligomerize in aqueous solutions, but it is dissociated by amphipathic molecules such as diacylglycerol and sodium dodecyl sulphate. The presence of sodium dodecyl sulphate stabilizes the domain as a compact structure in monomeric form retaining the secondary structure elements, as shown by small angle neutron scattering and circular dichroism measurements. The importance of oligomerization for the regulation of PMCA activity and intracellular calcium concentration is discussed. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Resveratrol Induces Apoptosis-Like Death and Prevents In Vitro and In Vivo Virulence of Entamoeba histolytica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pais-Morales, Jonnatan; Betanzos, Abigail; García-Rivera, Guillermina; Chávez-Munguía, Bibiana; Shibayama, Mineko; Orozco, Esther

    2016-01-01

    Entamoeba histolytica causes amoebiasis, an infection that kills 100,000 individuals each year. Metronidazole and its derivatives are currently used against this protozoan, but these drugs present adverse effects on human health. Here, we investigated the effect of resveratrol (a natural compound) on E. histolytica trophozoites viability, as well as its influence on the parasite virulence. Trophozoites growth was arrested by 72 μM resveratrol and the IC50 was determined as 220 μM at 48 h. Cells appeared smaller, rounded and in clusters, with debris-containing vacuoles and with abnormally condensed chromatin. Resveratrol triggered reactive oxygen species production. It caused lipid peroxidation and produced phosphatidylserine externalization and DNA fragmentation this latter evidenced by TUNEL assays. It also provoked an increase of intracellular Ca2+ concentration, activated calpain and decreased superoxide dismutase activity, indicating that an apoptosis-like event occurred; however, autophagy was not detected. Cytopathic activity, phagocytosis, encystment and in vivo virulence were diminished dramatically by pre-incubation of trophozoites with resveratrol, evidencing that resveratrol attenuated the trophozoite virulence in vitro. Interestingly, after the inoculation of virulent trophozoites, animals treated with the drug did not develop or developed very small abscesses. Our findings propose that resveratrol could be an alternative to contend amoebiasis.

  14. Anthranilate Fluorescence Marks a Calcium-Propagated Necrotic Wave That Promotes Organismal Death in C. elegans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coburn, Cassandra; Allman, Erik; Mahanti, Parag; Benedetto, Alexandre; Cabreiro, Filipe; Pincus, Zachary; Matthijssens, Filip; Araiz, Caroline; Mandel, Abraham; Vlachos, Manolis; Edwards, Sally-Anne; Fischer, Grahame; Davidson, Alexander; Pryor, Rosina E.; Stevens, Ailsa; Slack, Frank J.; Tavernarakis, Nektarios; Braeckman, Bart P.; Schroeder, Frank C.; Nehrke, Keith; Gems, David

    2013-01-01

    For cells the passage from life to death can involve a regulated, programmed transition. In contrast to cell death, the mechanisms of systemic collapse underlying organismal death remain poorly understood. Here we present evidence of a cascade of cell death involving the calpain-cathepsin necrosis pathway that can drive organismal death in Caenorhabditis elegans. We report that organismal death is accompanied by a burst of intense blue fluorescence, generated within intestinal cells by the necrotic cell death pathway. Such death fluorescence marks an anterior to posterior wave of intestinal cell death that is accompanied by cytosolic acidosis. This wave is propagated via the innexin INX-16, likely by calcium influx. Notably, inhibition of systemic necrosis can delay stress-induced death. We also identify the source of the blue fluorescence, initially present in intestinal lysosome-related organelles (gut granules), as anthranilic acid glucosyl esters—not, as previously surmised, the damage product lipofuscin. Anthranilic acid is derived from tryptophan by action of the kynurenine pathway. These findings reveal a central mechanism of organismal death in C. elegans that is related to necrotic propagation in mammals—e.g., in excitotoxicity and ischemia-induced neurodegeneration. Endogenous anthranilate fluorescence renders visible the spatio-temporal dynamics of C. elegans organismal death. PMID:23935448

  15. Grape seed and skin extract as an adjunct to xenical therapy reduces obesity, brain lipotoxicity and oxidative stress in high fat diet fed rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmoudi, Mohamed; Charradi, Kamel; Limam, Ferid; Aouani, Ezzedine

    2016-05-05

    Obesity is a public health problem and a major risk factor for metabolic syndrome. This study was designed to assess the effectiveness of grape seed and skin extract (GSSE) and Xenical (Xe) on high fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity and brain lipotoxicity. Rats were rendered obese and then treated either with vehicle (control) or GSSE (4g/kg bw) or Xe (1, 2, 4 or 8mg/kg bw) or (GSSE+Xe) and monitored for weight loss during 3 months. Animals were then sacrificed and their brain utilised for the evaluation of lipotoxicity-induced oxidative stress as well as the putative protection offered by GSSE and Xe treatment. As expected HFD-induced body and adipose tissue weight gain, dyslipidemia, accumulation of lipid into the brain, a drop in adiponectin, increased oxidative stress and disruption of Mn, Ca2+ and of related enzyme activities as glutamine synthetase and calpain. Xe alone exerted anti-obesity effect during the first 2 months and became inefficient thereafter. GSSE per se exhibited potent anti-obesity effect whereas the combination (GSSE+Xe), by acting in concert, was the most efficient against obesity and brain lipotoxicity. GSSE acted partially through its anti-oxidative properties, whereas Xe did not. Combining GSSE with Xe improved outcomes in body weight and fat reduction as well as in brain lipotoxicity. Copyright © 2016 Asia Oceania Association for the Study of Obesity. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. L-type calcium channels regulate filopodia stability and cancer cell invasion downstream of integrin signalling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacquemet, Guillaume; Baghirov, Habib; Georgiadou, Maria; Sihto, Harri; Peuhu, Emilia; Cettour-Janet, Pierre; He, Tao; Perälä, Merja; Kronqvist, Pauliina; Joensuu, Heikki; Ivaska, Johanna

    2016-12-02

    Mounting in vitro, in vivo and clinical evidence suggest an important role for filopodia in driving cancer cell invasion. Using a high-throughput microscopic-based drug screen, we identify FDA-approved calcium channel blockers (CCBs) as potent inhibitors of filopodia formation in cancer cells. Unexpectedly, we discover that L-type calcium channels are functional and frequently expressed in cancer cells suggesting a previously unappreciated role for these channels during tumorigenesis. We further demonstrate that, at filopodia, L-type calcium channels are activated by integrin inside-out signalling, integrin activation and Src. Moreover, L-type calcium channels promote filopodia stability and maturation into talin-rich adhesions through the spatially restricted regulation of calcium entry and subsequent activation of the protease calpain-1. Altogether we uncover a novel and clinically relevant signalling pathway that regulates filopodia formation in cancer cells and propose that cycles of filopodia stabilization, followed by maturation into focal adhesions, directs cancer cell migration and invasion.

  17. Neuronal Nicotinic Receptors as New Targets for Amphetamine-Induced Oxidative Damage and Neurotoxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Escubedo

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Amphetamine derivatives such as methamphetamine (METH and 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, “ecstasy” are widely abused drugs in a recreational context. This has led to concern because of the evidence that they are neurotoxic in animal models and cognitive impairments have been described in heavy abusers. The main targets of these drugs are plasmalemmal and vesicular monoamine transporters, leading to reverse transport and increased monoamine efflux to the synapse. As far as neurotoxicity is concerned, increased reactive oxygen species (ROS production seems to be one of the main causes. Recent research has demonstrated that blockade of a7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChR inhibits METH- and MDMA-induced ROS production in striatal synaptosomes which is dependent on calcium and on NO-synthase activation. Moreover, a7 nAChR antagonists (methyllycaconitine and memantine attenuated in vivo the neurotoxicity induced by METH and MDMA, and memantine prevented the cognitive impairment induced by these drugs. Radioligand binding experiments demonstrated that both drugs have affinity to a7 and heteromeric nAChR, with MDMA showing lower Ki values, while fluorescence calcium experiments indicated that MDMA behaves as a partial agonist on a7 and as an antagonist on heteromeric nAChR. Sustained Ca increase led to calpain and caspase-3 activation. In addition, modulatory effects of MDMA on a7 and heteromeric nAChR populations have been found.

  18. Dehydroabietic Acid Derivative QC4 Induces Gastric Cancer Cell Death via Oncosis and Apoptosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongjun Luo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. QC4 is the derivative of rosin’s main components dehydroabietic acid (DHA. We investigated the cytotoxic effect of QC4 on gastric cancer cells and revealed the mechanisms beneath the induction of cell death. Methods. The cytotoxic effect of QC4 on gastric cancer cells was evaluated by CCK-8 assay and flow cytometry. The underlying mechanisms were tested by administration of cell death related inhibitors and detection of apoptotic and oncosis related proteins. Cytomembrane integrity and organelles damage were confirmed by lactate dehydrogenase (LDH leakage assay, mitochondrial function test, and cytosolic free Ca2+ concentration detection. Results. QC4 inhibited cell proliferation dose- and time-dependently and destroyed cell membrane integrity, activated calpain-1 autolysis, and induced apoptotic protein cleavage in gastric cancer cells. The detection of decreased ATP and mitochondrial membrane potential, ROS accumulation, and cytosolic free Ca2+ elevation confirmed organelles damage in QC4-treated gastric cancer cells. Conclusions. DHA derivative QC4 induced the damage of cytomembrane and organelles which finally lead to oncosis and apoptosis in gastric cancer cells. Therefore, as a derivative of plant derived small molecule DHA, QC4 might become a promising agent in gastric cancer therapy.

  19. Diagnostic protein biomarkers for severe, moderate and mild traumatic brain injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streeter, Jackson; Hayes, Ronald L.; Wang, Kevin K. W.

    2011-06-01

    Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) is a major problem in military and civilian medicine. Yet, there are no simple non-invasive diagnostics for TBI. Our goal is to develop and clinically validate blood-based biomarker assays for the diagnosis, prognosis and management of mild, moderate and severe TBI patients. These assays will ultimately be suitable for deployment to far-forward combat environments. Using a proteomic and systems biology approach, we identified over 20 candidate biomarkers for TBI and developed robust ELISAs for at least 6 candidate biomarkers, including Ubiquitin C-terminal hydrolase- L1 (UCH-L1), Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein (GFAP) and a 145 kDa breakdown products of αII-spectrin (SBDP 145) generated by calpain proteolysis. In a multi-center feasibility study (Biomarker Assessment For Neurotrauma Diagnosis And Improved Triage System (BANDITS), we analyzed CSF and blood samples from 101 adult patients with severe TBI [Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) patients and 5 moderate TBI patients [GCS 9-15] from 2 sites in a pilot study. We identified that serum levels of UCH-L1, GFAP and SBDP145 have strong diagnostic and prognostic properties for severe TBI over controls. Similarly initial post-TBI serum levels (< 6 h) of UCH-L1 and GFAP have diagnostic characteristics for moderate and mild TBI. We are now furthering assay production, refining assay platforms (both benchtop and point-ofcare/ handheld) and planning a pivotal clinical study to seek FDA approval of these TBI diagnostic assays.

  20. Mitigation of muscular dystrophy in mice by SERCA overexpression in skeletal muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goonasekera, Sanjeewa A; Lam, Chi K; Millay, Douglas P; Sargent, Michelle A; Hajjar, Roger J; Kranias, Evangelia G; Molkentin, Jeffery D

    2011-03-01

    Muscular dystrophies (MDs) comprise a group of degenerative muscle disorders characterized by progressive muscle wasting and often premature death. The primary defect common to most MDs involves disruption of the dystrophin-glycoprotein complex (DGC). This leads to sarcolemmal instability and Ca(2+) influx, inducing cellular necrosis. Here we have shown that the dystrophic phenotype observed in δ-sarcoglycan–null (Sgcd(–/–)) mice and dystrophin mutant mdx mice is dramatically improved by skeletal muscle–specific overexpression of sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+) ATPase 1 (SERCA1). Rates of myofiber central nucleation, tissue fibrosis, and serum creatine kinase levels were dramatically reduced in Sgcd(–/–) and mdx mice with the SERCA1 transgene, which also rescued the loss of exercise capacity in Sgcd(–/–) mice. Adeno-associated virus–SERCA2a (AAV-SERCA2a) gene therapy in the gastrocnemius muscle of Sgcd(–/–) mice mitigated dystrophic disease. SERCA1 overexpression reversed a defect in sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+) reuptake that characterizes dystrophic myofibers and reduced total cytosolic Ca(2+). Further, SERCA1 overexpression almost completely rescued the dystrophic phenotype in a mouse model of MD driven solely by Ca(2+) influx. Mitochondria isolated from the muscle of SERCA1-Sgcd(–/–) mice were no longer swollen and calpain activation was reduced, suggesting protection from Ca(2+)-driven necrosis. Our results suggest a novel therapeutic approach using SERCA1 to abrogate the altered intracellular Ca(2+) levels that underlie most forms of MD.

  1. A novel recombinant 6Aβ15-THc-C chimeric vaccine (rCV02) mitigates Alzheimer's disease-like pathology, cognitive decline and synaptic loss in aged 3 × Tg-AD mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yun-Zhou; Liu, Si; Wang, Hai-Chao; Shi, Dan-Yang; Xu, Qing; Zhou, Xiao-Wei; Sun, Zhi-Wei; Huang, Pei-Tang

    2016-06-03

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disorder that impairs memory and cognition. Targeting amyloid-β (Aβ) may be currently the most promising immunotherapeutic strategy for AD. In this study, a recombinant chimeric 6Aβ15-THc-C immunogen was formulated with alum adjuvant as a novel Aβ B-cell epitope candidate vaccine (rCV02) for AD. We examined its efficacy in preventing the cognitive deficit and synaptic impairment in 3 × Tg-AD mice. Using a toxin-derived carrier protein, the rCV02 vaccine elicited robust Aβ-specific antibodies that markedly reduced AD-like pathology and improved behavioral performance in 3 × Tg-AD mice. Along with the behavioral improvement in aged 3 × Tg-AD mice, rCV02 significantly decreased calpain activation concurrent with reduced soluble Aβ or oligomeric forms of Aβ, probably by preventing dynamin 1 and PSD-95 degradation. Our data support the hypothesis that reducing Aβ levels in rCV02-immunized AD mice increases the levels of presynaptic dynamin 1 and postsynaptic PSD-95 allowing functional recovery of cognition. In conclusion, this novel and highly immunogenic rCV02 shows promise as a new candidate prophylactic vaccine for AD and may be useful for generating rapid and strong Aβ-specific antibodies in AD patients with pre-existing memory Th cells generated after immunization with conventional tetanus toxoid vaccine.

  2. [Regulatory mechanisms in focal cerebral ischemia. New possibilities in neuroprotective therapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagy, Zoltán; Simon, László; Bori, Zoltán

    2002-03-20

    Permanent or temporary disruption of cerebral blood flow rapidly depletes brain regions of their limited energy reserves (glycogen, glucose, oxygen, ATP) leading to an energy crisis. Tissue damage occurs due to the energy crisis. The central part of the damage, the ischaemic "core" region is surrounded by zones of the shell-like penumbra. Necrotic, as well as apoptotic cell death could be identified in the penumbra. Going away from the ischaemic core different neurochemical processes are occurring by space and time. "Immediate early response" genes (c-fos, fos-B, c-Jun, krox 20, 24) are activated, heatshock proteins (hsp 70, 72, HSF, HSE, HIF), cytokines (TNF-alpha, IL-1 beta), inflammatory factors (COX), adhesion and glial factors (ICAM-1, ELAM-1, P-selectin), vasoactive factors (IL-6, -10, PAF), reactive oxigen radicals and connected factors (O2, OH, NO, NOS, SOD) are produced within minutes and hours. Cell deaths, necrosis and apoptosis due to the activation of calpains, caspases and nucleases occur in days. In parallel, growth factors and plasticity proteins (BDNF, NGF, TGF-beta, VEGF, PDGF, GAP-43) are activated as a basis of functional rehabilitation.

  3. Cardiac troponin T degradation in serum is catalysed by human thrombin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streng, Alexander S; de Boer, Douwe; van Doorn, William P T M; Kocken, Jordy M M; Bekers, Otto; Wodzig, Will K W H

    2016-12-02

    Cardiac troponin T (cTnT) has been shown to be present in fragmented forms in human serum after acute myocardial infarction (AMI). While calpain-1 and caspase-3 have been identified as intracellular proteases able to cleave the N-terminus of cTnT, it is still unclear which proteases are responsible for the extensive and progressive cTnT fragmentation observed in serum of AMI-patients. In this pilot study we have investigated the possibility that human thrombin may be involved in this process. Purified human cTnT was spiked in unprocessed and deproteinated serum in the presence or absence of either purified human thrombin or PPACK thrombin inhibitor. After immunoprecipitation, SDS-PAGE and Western blotting we observed an increase in cTnT fragmentation when purified thrombin was added to deproteinated serum. Consequently, the addition of thrombin inhibitor to unprocessed serum resulted in a decrease of cTnT fragmentation. Our results suggest that multiple enzymes are involved in cTnT degradation, and that thrombin plays an important role. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Comparison of the peptidase activity in the oncosphere excretory/secretory products of Taenia solium and Taenia saginata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimic, Mirko J; Infantes, Jesús; López, César; Velásquez, Jeanette; Farfán, Marilú; Pajuelo, Mónica; Sheen, Patricia; Verastegui, Manuela; Gonzalez, Armando; Garciá, Hector H; Gilman, Robert H

    2007-08-01

    We compared the peptidase activities of the excretory/secretory (E/S) antigens of oncospheres of Taenia solium and related, but nonpathogenic, Taenia saginata. Taenia solium and T. saginata oncospheres were cultured, and the spent media of 24-, 48-, 72-, and 96-hr fractions were analyzed. Activities for serine peptidases (chymotrypsin-, trypsin-, and elastase-like), cysteine peptidases (cathepsin B-, cathepsin L-, and calpaine-like), and aminopeptidase (B-like peptidases) were tested fluorometrically with peptides coupled to 7-amino-4-methylcoumarin. In both species, the E/S antigens showed cysteine, serine, and aminopeptidase activities. Although no particular peptidase had high activity in T. solium, and was absent in T. saginata, or vice versa, different patterns of activity were found. A chymotrypsin-like peptidase showed the highest activity in both parasites, and it had 10 times higher activity in T. solium than in T. saginata. Trypsin-like and cathepsin B-like activities were significantly higher in T. solium. Minimal levels of cathepsin B were present in both species, and higher levels of elastase-like and cathepsin L-like activity were observed in T. saginata. Taenia solium and T. saginata have different levels and temporal activities of proteolytic enzymes that could play a modulator role in the host specificity for larval invasion through penetration of the intestinal mucosa.

  5. Myelin Recovery in Multiple Sclerosis: The Challenge of Remyelination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podbielska, Maria; Banik, Naren L.; Kurowska, Ewa; Hogan, Edward L.

    2013-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is the most common demyelinating and an autoimmune disease of the central nervous system characterized by immune-mediated myelin and axonal damage, and chronic axonal loss attributable to the absence of myelin sheaths. T cell subsets (Th1, Th2, Th17, CD8+, NKT, CD4+CD25+ T regulatory cells) and B cells are involved in this disorder, thus new MS therapies seek damage prevention by resetting multiple components of the immune system. The currently approved therapies are immunoregulatory and reduce the number and rate of lesion formation but are only partially effective. This review summarizes current understanding of the processes at issue: myelination, demyelination and remyelination—with emphasis upon myelin composition/architecture and oligodendrocyte maturation and differentiation. The translational options target oligodendrocyte protection and myelin repair in animal models and assess their relevance in human. Remyelination may be enhanced by signals that promote myelin formation and repair. The crucial question of why remyelination fails is approached is several ways by examining the role in remyelination of available MS medications and avenues being actively pursued to promote remyelination including: (i) cytokine-based immune-intervention (targeting calpain inhibition), (ii) antigen-based immunomodulation (targeting glycolipid-reactive iNKT cells and sphingoid mediated inflammation) and (iii) recombinant monoclonal antibodies-induced remyelination. PMID:24961530

  6. Role of ER stress response in photodynamic therapy: ROS generated in different subcellular compartments trigger diverse cell death pathways.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irena Moserova

    Full Text Available We have analyzed the molecular mechanisms of photoinduced cell death using porphyrins with similar structure differing only in the position of the ethylene glycol (EG chain on the phenyl ring. Meta- and para-positioned EG chains targeted porphyrins to different subcellular compartments. After photoactivation, both types of derivatives induced death of tumor cells via reactive oxygen species (ROS. Para derivatives pTPP(EG4 and pTPPF(EG4 primarily accumulated in lysosomes activated the p38 MAP kinase cascade, which in turn induced the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway. In contrast, meta porphyrin derivative mTPP(EG4 localized in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER induced dramatic changes in Ca(2+ homeostasis manifested by Ca(2+ rise in the cytoplasm, activation of calpains and stress caspase-12 or caspase-4. ER stress developed into unfolded protein response. Immediately after irradiation the PERK pathway was activated through phosphorylation of PERK, eIF2α and induction of transcription factors ATF4 and CHOP, which regulate stress response genes. PERK knockdown and PERK deficiency protected cells against mTPP(EG4-mediated apoptosis, confirming the causative role of the PERK pathway.

  7. Eye lens in aging and diabetes: effect of quercetin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefek, Milan; Karasu, Cimen

    2011-10-01

    Old age is accompanied by a number of pathological eye conditions. Cataract is the most common age-related eye complication. Because the lens becomes naturally more opaque over time, aging is the most important risk factor for developing cataract, which is a major cause of blindness in the world. Cataractogenesis is also one of the earliest secondary complications of diabetes mellitus. The lens is a closed system with limited capability to repair or regenerate itself. Current evidence supports the view that cataractogenesis is a multifactorial process. Oxidative stress and its sequelae are clearly involved in the etiology of senile cataract, whereas mechanisms related to glucose toxicity, namely oxidative stress, processes of nonenzymatic glycation, and enhanced polyol pathway contribute significantly to the development of the eye complications under conditions of diabetes. There is an urgent need for inexpensive, nonsurgical approaches to the treatment of cataract. Recently, considerable attention has been devoted to the search for phytochemical therapeutics. Several pharmacological actions of natural flavonoids may operate in preventing cataract because flavonoids are capable of affecting multiple mechanisms or etiological factors responsible for the development of sight-threatening ocular diseases. The flavonol quercetin is the most widely consumed flavonoid in the human diet. In this article, quercetin is reviewed as an agent that could reduce the risk of cataract formation via affecting multiple pathways pertinent to eye lens opacification, including oxidative stress, nonenzymatic glycation, the polyol pathway, lens calpain proteases, and epithelial cell signaling. In addition, the bioavailability of quercetin to the lens is considered.

  8. Resveratrol Induces Apoptosis-Like Death and Prevents In Vitro and In Vivo Virulence of Entamoeba histolytica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pais-Morales, Jonnatan; Betanzos, Abigail; García-Rivera, Guillermina; Chávez-Munguía, Bibiana; Shibayama, Mineko; Orozco, Esther

    2016-01-01

    Entamoeba histolytica causes amoebiasis, an infection that kills 100,000 individuals each year. Metronidazole and its derivatives are currently used against this protozoan, but these drugs present adverse effects on human health. Here, we investigated the effect of resveratrol (a natural compound) on E. histolytica trophozoites viability, as well as its influence on the parasite virulence. Trophozoites growth was arrested by 72 μM resveratrol and the IC50 was determined as 220 μM at 48 h. Cells appeared smaller, rounded and in clusters, with debris-containing vacuoles and with abnormally condensed chromatin. Resveratrol triggered reactive oxygen species production. It caused lipid peroxidation and produced phosphatidylserine externalization and DNA fragmentation this latter evidenced by TUNEL assays. It also provoked an increase of intracellular Ca2+ concentration, activated calpain and decreased superoxide dismutase activity, indicating that an apoptosis-like event occurred; however, autophagy was not detected. Cytopathic activity, phagocytosis, encystment and in vivo virulence were diminished dramatically by pre-incubation of trophozoites with resveratrol, evidencing that resveratrol attenuated the trophozoite virulence in vitro. Interestingly, after the inoculation of virulent trophozoites, animals treated with the drug did not develop or developed very small abscesses. Our findings propose that resveratrol could be an alternative to contend amoebiasis. PMID:26731663

  9. Pyrazinone protease inhibitor metabolites from Photorhabdus luminescens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hyun Bong; Crawford, Jason M

    2016-08-01

    Photorhabdus luminescens is a bioluminescent entomopathogenic bacterium that undergoes phenotypic variation and lives in mutualistic association with nematodes of the family Heterorhabditidae. The pair infects and kills insects, and during their coordinated lifecycle, the bacteria produce an assortment of specialized metabolites to regulate its mutualistic and pathogenic roles. As part of our search for new specialized metabolites from the Photorhabdus genus, we examined organic extracts from P. luminescens grown in an amino-acid-rich medium based on the free amino-acid levels found in the circulatory fluid of its common insect prey, the Galleria mellonella larva. Reversed-phase HPLC/UV/MS-guided fractionation of the culture extracts led to the identification of two new pyrazinone metabolites, lumizinones A (1) and B (2), together with two N-acetyl dipeptides (3 and 4). The lumizinones were produced only in the phenotypic variant associated with nematode development and insect pathogenesis. Their chemical structures were elucidated by analysis of 1D and 2D NMR and high-resolution ESI-QTOF-MS spectral data. The absolute configurations of the amino acids in 3 and 4 were determined by Marfey's analysis. Compounds 1-4 were evaluated for their calpain protease inhibitory activity, and lumizinone A (1) showed inhibition with an IC50 (half-maximal inhibitory concentration) value of 3.9 μm.

  10. Developmental downregulation of LIS1 expression limits axonal extension and allows axon pruning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanako Kumamoto

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The robust axonal growth and regenerative capacities of young neurons decrease substantially with age. This developmental downregulation of axonal growth may facilitate axonal pruning and neural circuit formation but limits functional recovery following nerve damage. While external factors influencing axonal growth have been extensively investigated, relatively little is known about the intrinsic molecular changes underlying the age-dependent reduction in regeneration capacity. We report that developmental downregulation of LIS1 is responsible for the decreased axonal extension capacity of mature dorsal root ganglion (DRG neurons. In contrast, exogenous LIS1 expression or endogenous LIS1 augmentation by calpain inhibition restored axonal extension capacity in mature DRG neurons and facilitated regeneration of the damaged sciatic nerve. The insulator protein CTCF suppressed LIS1 expression in mature DRG neurons, and this reduction resulted in excessive accumulation of phosphoactivated GSK-3β at the axon tip, causing failure of the axonal extension. Conversely, sustained LIS1 expression inhibited developmental axon pruning in the mammillary body. Thus, LIS1 regulation may coordinate the balance between axonal growth and pruning during maturation of neuronal circuits.

  11. Myelin Recovery in Multiple Sclerosis: The Challenge of Remyelination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward L. Hogan

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Multiple sclerosis (MS is the most common demyelinating and an autoimmune disease of the central nervous system characterized by immune-mediated myelin and axonal damage, and chronic axonal loss attributable to the absence of myelin sheaths. T cell subsets (Th1, Th2, Th17, CD8+, NKT, CD4+CD25+ T regulatory cells and B cells are involved in this disorder, thus new MS therapies seek damage prevention by resetting multiple components of the immune system. The currently approved therapies are immunoregulatory and reduce the number and rate of lesion formation but are only partially effective. This review summarizes current understanding of the processes at issue: myelination, demyelination and remyelination—with emphasis upon myelin composition/ architecture and oligodendrocyte maturation and differentiation. The translational options target oligodendrocyte protection and myelin repair in animal models and assess their relevance in human. Remyelination may be enhanced by signals that promote myelin formation and repair. The crucial question of why remyelination fails is approached is several ways by examining the role in remyelination of available MS medications and avenues being actively pursued to promote remyelination including: (i cytokine-based immune-intervention (targeting calpain inhibition, (ii antigen-based immunomodulation (targeting glycolipid-reactive iNKT cells and sphingoid mediated inflammation and (iii recombinant monoclonal antibodies-induced remyelination.

  12. Real-time single cell analysis of Bid cleavage and translocation in cisplatin-induced apoptosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lei; Xing, Da; Pei, Yihui; Chen, Wei R.

    2007-02-01

    Cancer cell apoptosis can be induced by cisplatin, an efficient anticancer agent. However, its mechanism is not fully understood. Bcl-2 homology domain (BH) 3-only proteins couple stress signals to mitochondrial apoptotic pathways. Calpain-mediated cleavage of the BH3-only protein Bid into a 14 kD truncated protein (tBid) has been implicated in cisplatin-induced apoptotic pathway. We utilized a recombinant fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) Bid probe to determine the kinetics of Bid cleavage during cisplatin-induced apoptosis in ASTC-a-1 cells. The cells were also co-transfected with Bid-CFP and DsRed-Mit to dynamically detect tBid translocation. Cells showed a cleavage of the Bid-FRET probe occurring at about 4-5 h after treated with 20 µM cisplatin. Cleavage of the Bid-FRET probe coincided with a translocation of tBid from the cytosolic to the mitochondria, and the translocation lasted about 1.5 h. Using real-time single-cell analysis, we first observed the kinetics of Bid cleavage and translocation to mitochondria in living cells during cisplatin-induced apoptosis.

  13. A Caenorhabditis elegans wild type defies the temperature-size rule owing to a single nucleotide polymorphism in tra-3.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan E Kammenga

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Ectotherms rely for their body heat on surrounding temperatures. A key question in biology is why most ectotherms mature at a larger size at lower temperatures, a phenomenon known as the temperature-size rule. Since temperature affects virtually all processes in a living organism, current theories to explain this phenomenon are diverse and complex and assert often from opposing assumptions. Although widely studied, the molecular genetic control of the temperature-size rule is unknown. We found that the Caenorhabditis elegans wild-type N2 complied with the temperature-size rule, whereas wild-type CB4856 defied it. Using a candidate gene approach based on an N2 x CB4856 recombinant inbred panel in combination with mutant analysis, complementation, and transgenic studies, we show that a single nucleotide polymorphism in tra-3 leads to mutation F96L in the encoded calpain-like protease. This mutation attenuates the ability of CB4856 to grow larger at low temperature. Homology modelling predicts that F96L reduces TRA-3 activity by destabilizing the DII-A domain. The data show that size adaptation of ectotherms to temperature changes may be less complex than previously thought because a subtle wild-type polymorphism modulates the temperature responsiveness of body size. These findings provide a novel step toward the molecular understanding of the temperature-size rule, which has puzzled biologists for decades.

  14. Self-regulated alternative splicing at the AHNAK locus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Morrée, Antoine; Droog, Marjolein; Grand Moursel, Laure; Bisschop, Ilona J M; Impagliazzo, Antonietta; Frants, Rune R; Klooster, Rinse; van der Maarel, Silvère M

    2012-01-01

    AHNAK is a 700-kDa protein involved in cytoarchitecture and calcium signaling. It is secondarily reduced in muscle of dysferlinopathy patients and accumulates in muscle of calpainopathy patients, both affected by a muscular dystrophy. AHNAK directly interacts with dysferlin. This interaction is lost on cleavage of AHNAK by the protease calpain 3, explaining the molecular observations in patients. Currently, little is known of AHNAK regulation. We describe the self-regulation of multiple mRNA transcripts emanating from the AHNAK locus in muscle cells. We show that the AHNAK gene consists of a 17-kb exon flanked by multiple small exons. This genetic structure is shared by AHNAK2 and Periaxin, which share a common ancestor. Two major AHNAK transcripts are differentially expressed during muscle differentiation that encode for a small (17-kDa) and a large (700-kDa) protein isoform. These proteins interact in the cytoplasm, but the small AHNAK is also present in the nucleus. During muscle differentiation the small AHNAK is strongly increased, thereby establishing a positive feedback loop to regulate mRNA splicing of its own locus. A small 17-kDa isoform of Periaxin similarly traffics between the cytoplasm and the nucleus to regulate mRNA splicing. Thus, AHNAK constitutes a novel mechanism in post-transcriptional control of gene expression.

  15. Pericyte-expressed Tie2 controls angiogenesis and vessel maturation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teichert, Martin; Milde, Laura; Holm, Annegret; Stanicek, Laura; Gengenbacher, Nicolas; Savant, Soniya; Ruckdeschel, Tina; Hasanov, Zulfiyya; Srivastava, Kshitij; Hu, Junhao; Hertel, Stella; Bartol, Arne; Schlereth, Katharina; Augustin, Hellmut G

    2017-07-18

    The Tie receptors with their Angiopoietin ligands act as regulators of angiogenesis and vessel maturation. Tie2 exerts its functions through its supposed endothelial-specific expression. Yet, Tie2 is also expressed at lower levels by pericytes and it has not been unravelled through which mechanisms pericyte Angiopoietin/Tie signalling affects angiogenesis. Here we show that human and murine pericytes express functional Tie2 receptor. Silencing of Tie2 in pericytes results in a pro-migratory phenotype. Pericyte Tie2 controls sprouting angiogenesis in in vitro sprouting and in vivo spheroid assays. Tie2 downstream signalling in pericytes involves Calpain, Akt and FOXO3A. Ng2-Cre-driven deletion of pericyte-expressed Tie2 in mice transiently delays postnatal retinal angiogenesis. Yet, Tie2 deletion in pericytes results in a pronounced pro-angiogenic effect leading to enhanced tumour growth. Together, the data expand and revise the current concepts on vascular Angiopoietin/Tie signalling and propose a bidirectional, reciprocal EC-pericyte model of Tie2 signalling.

  16. cAMP and EPAC are key players in the regulation of the signal transduction pathway involved in the α-hemolysin autophagic response.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Belén Mestre

    Full Text Available Staphylococcus aureus is a microorganism that causes serious diseases in the human being. This microorganism is able to escape the phagolysosomal pathway, increasing intracellular bacterial survival and killing the eukaryotic host cell to spread the infection. One of the key features of S. aureus infection is the production of a series of virulence factors, including secreted enzymes and toxins. We have shown that the pore-forming toxin α-hemolysin (Hla is the S. aureus-secreted factor responsible for the activation of the autophagic pathway and that this response occurs through a PI3K/Beclin1-independent form. In the present report we demonstrate that cAMP has a key role in the regulation of this autophagic response. Our results indicate that cAMP is able to inhibit the autophagy induced by Hla and that PKA, the classical cAMP effector, does not participate in this regulation. We present evidence that EPAC and Rap2b, through calpain activation, are the proteins involved in the regulation of Hla-induced autophagy. Similar results were obtained in cells infected with different S. aureus strains. Interestingly, in this report we show, for the first time to our knowledge, that both EPAC and Rap2b are recruited to the S. aureus-containing phagosome. We believe that our findings have important implications in understanding innate immune processes involved in intracellular pathogen invasion of the host cell.

  17. cAMP and EPAC Are Key Players in the Regulation of the Signal Transduction Pathway Involved in the α-Hemolysin Autophagic Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mestre, María Belén; Colombo, María Isabel

    2012-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is a microorganism that causes serious diseases in the human being. This microorganism is able to escape the phagolysosomal pathway, increasing intracellular bacterial survival and killing the eukaryotic host cell to spread the infection. One of the key features of S. aureus infection is the production of a series of virulence factors, including secreted enzymes and toxins. We have shown that the pore-forming toxin α-hemolysin (Hla) is the S. aureus–secreted factor responsible for the activation of the autophagic pathway and that this response occurs through a PI3K/Beclin1-independent form. In the present report we demonstrate that cAMP has a key role in the regulation of this autophagic response. Our results indicate that cAMP is able to inhibit the autophagy induced by Hla and that PKA, the classical cAMP effector, does not participate in this regulation. We present evidence that EPAC and Rap2b, through calpain activation, are the proteins involved in the regulation of Hla-induced autophagy. Similar results were obtained in cells infected with different S. aureus strains. Interestingly, in this report we show, for the first time to our knowledge, that both EPAC and Rap2b are recruited to the S. aureus–containing phagosome. We believe that our findings have important implications in understanding innate immune processes involved in intracellular pathogen invasion of the host cell. PMID:22654658

  18. Hyperthermia Induces Apoptosis through Endoplasmic Reticulum and Reactive Oxygen Species in Human Osteosarcoma Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun-Han Hou

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Osteosarcoma (OS is a relatively rare form of cancer, but OS is the most commonly diagnosed bone cancer in children and adolescents. Chemotherapy has side effects and induces drug resistance in OS. Since an effective adjuvant therapy was insufficient for treating OS, researching novel and adequate remedies is critical. Hyperthermia can induce cell death in various cancer cells, and thus, in this study, we investigated the anticancer method of hyperthermia in human OS (U-2 OS cells. Treatment at 43 °C for 60 min induced apoptosis in human OS cell lines, but not in primary bone cells. Furthermore, hyperthermia was associated with increases of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS and caspase-3 activation in U-2 OS cells. Mitochondrial dysfunction was followed by the release of cytochrome c from the mitochondria, and was accompanied by decreased anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL, and increased pro-apoptotic proteins Bak and Bax. Hyperthermia triggered endoplasmic reticulum (ER stress, which was characterized by changes in cytosolic calcium levels, as well as increased calpain expression and activity. In addition, cells treated with calcium chelator (BAPTA-AM blocked hyperthermia-induced cell apoptosis in U-2 OS cells. In conclusion, hyperthermia induced cell apoptosis substantially via the ROS, ER stress, mitochondria, and caspase pathways. Thus, hyperthermia may be a novel anticancer method for treating OS.

  19. Transcriptome analysis provides insights into hepatic responses to moderate heat stress in the rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yongjuan; Huang, Jinqiang; Liu, Zhe; Zhou, Yanjing; Xia, Binpeng; Wang, Yongjie; Kang, Yujun; Wang, Jianfu

    2017-07-01

    The rainbow trout is an economically important fish in the world. The limited stress tolerance of this species to high summer-like temperatures usually leads to mass mortality and great economic loss. However, there is limited information on the mechanisms underlying moderate heat responses in the liver of the rainbow trout. Here, we performed transcriptome profiling of rainbow trout liver under moderate heat stress by using the Hiseq™ 4000 sequencing platform. More than 277 million clean reads were obtained from 6 libraries and aligned against the rainbow trout genome. A total of 128 unique transcripts were differentially expressed in the liver under heat-stress and control conditions, many heat shock protein genes for thermoregulation and some novel genes involved in heat stress were identified. Nine of the differently expressed genes were further validated by qRT-PCR. Gene ontology and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes analyses revealed that several pathways, including those for protein metabolism, energy metabolism, and immune system, were influenced by heat stress. Moreover, an important protein-processing pathway in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) was identified, and the key role of ER-associated degradation and function of calpain as an upstream regulator of apoptosis were confirmed under heat stress. The results of this study provide a comprehensive overview of heat stress-induced transcriptional patterns in rainbow trout liver and would be particularly useful for further studies on the molecular mechanisms underlying responses to heat stress in this species. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  20. 20(R)-Ginsenoside Rg3 protects SH-SY5Y cells against apoptosis induced by oxygen and glucose deprivation/reperfusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Bo; Chen, Peng; Xie, Yu; Li, Shude; Zhang, Xiaochao; Yang, Renhua; Wang, Guihua; Shen, Zhiqiang; Wang, Hui

    2017-08-15

    As shown in our previous studies, 20(R)-ginsenoside Rg3 [20(R)-Rg3] exerts a neuroprotective effect on a rat model of transient focal cerebral ischemia, and the mechanism through which it decreases the mRNA expression of calpain I and caspase-3 has been delineated. However, researchers do not know whether 20(R)-Rg3 exhibits a neuroprotective effect following oxygen-glucose deprivation and reperfusion (OGD/R) injury in vitro. In the present study, 20(R)-Rg3 increased cell viability, decreased the LDH leakage rate, and inhibited the apoptosis rate in a concentration-dependent manner. In addition, 20(R)-Rg3 markedly decreased cleaved caspase-3 protein expression. Furthermore, 20(R)-Rg3 significantly decreased the Bax mRNA and protein levels and increased the levels of Bcl-2 mRNA and protein, subsequently decreasing the Bax/Bcl-2 protein ratio. Based on these findings, 20(R)-Rg3 exerts a neuroprotective effect against OGD/R-induced apoptosis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Dietary protein deficiency reduces lysosomal and nonlysosomal ATP-dependent proteolysis in muscle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tawa, N. E. Jr; Kettelhut, I. C.; Goldberg, A. L.

    1992-01-01

    When rats are fed a protein deficient (PD) diet for 7 days, rates of proteolysis in skeletal muscle decrease by 40-50% (N. E. Tawa, Jr., and A. L. Goldberg. Am. J. Physiol. 263 (Endocrinol. Metab. 26): E317-325, 1992). To identify the underlying biochemical adaptations, we measured different proteolytic processes in incubated muscles. The capacity for intralysosomal proteolysis, as shown by sensitivity to methylamine or lysosomal protease inhibitors, fell 55-75% in muscles from PD rats. Furthermore, extracts of muscles of PD rats showed 30-70% lower activity of many lysosomal proteases, including cathepsins B, H, and C, and carboxypeptidases A and C, as well as other lysosomal hydrolases. The fall in cathepsin B and proteolysis was evident by 3 days on the PD diet, and both returned to control levels 3 days after refeeding of the normal diet. In muscles maintained under optimal conditions, 80-90% of protein breakdown occurs by nonlysosomal pathways. In muscles of PD rats, this ATP-dependent process was also 40-60% slower. Even though overall proteolysis decreased in muscles of PD rats, their capacity for Ca(2+)-dependent proteolysis increased (by 66%), as did the activity of the calpains (+150-250%). Thus the lysosomal and the ATP-dependent processes decrease coordinately and contribute to the fall in muscle proteolysis in PD animals.

  2. Protein and Amino Acid Supplementation Does Not Alter Proteolytic Gene Expression following Immobilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer A. Bunn

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To determine if supplementation of protein and amino acids (PAA decreases skeletal muscle expression of atrophy-related genes, muscle mass, and strength during immobilization in humans. Methods. Twenty males wore a lower-limb immobilization boot for 28 days and consumed either a PAA supplement (28 g protein or carbohydrate placebo (28 g maltodextrose, while consuming their normal daily diet. Testing sessions included dietary analysis, lower-leg girth and body composition measurements, strength testing, and gastrocnemius muscle biopsies. Muscle was analyzed for mRNA expression of markers in the ubiquitin and calpain systems, myostatin, TNF-α, and NF-κB. Results. All genes of interest increased over time (P<.05, but there was no difference between groups. Lower-leg girth decreased over time (P=0.02; however, there were no significant changes in body composition or strength. Conclusion. Short-term lower-limb disuse, despite the absence of significant muscle atrophy, is associated with increases in skeletal muscle gene expression of several proteolysis-related genes. These changes do not appear to be altered by oral PAA supplementation.

  3. Programmed cellular necrosis mediated by the pore-forming alpha-toxin from Clostridium septicum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine L Kennedy

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Programmed necrosis is a mechanism of cell death that has been described for neuronal excitotoxicity and ischemia/reperfusion injury, but has not been extensively studied in the context of exposure to bacterial exotoxins. The alpha-toxin of Clostridium septicum is a beta-barrel pore-forming toxin and a potent cytotoxin; however, the mechanism by which it induces cell death has not been elucidated in detail. We report that alpha-toxin formed Ca(2+-permeable pores in murine myoblast cells, leading to an increase in intracellular Ca(2+ levels. This Ca(2+ influx did not induce apoptosis, as has been described for other small pore-forming toxins, but a cascade of events consistent with programmed necrosis. Ca(2+ influx was associated with calpain activation and release of cathepsins from lysosomes. We also observed deregulation of mitochondrial activity, leading to increased ROS levels, and dramatically reduced levels of ATP. Finally, the immunostimulatory histone binding protein HMGB1 was found to be released from the nuclei of alpha-toxin-treated cells. Collectively, these data show that alpha-toxin initiates a multifaceted necrotic cell death response that is consistent with its essential role in C. septicum-mediated myonecrosis and sepsis. We postulate that cellular intoxication with pore-forming toxins may be a major mechanism by which programmed necrosis is induced.

  4. Neutrophil and Alveolar Macrophage-Mediated Innate Immune Control of Legionella pneumophila Lung Infection via TNF and ROS.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pascal Ziltener

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Legionella pneumophila is a facultative intracellular bacterium that lives in aquatic environments where it parasitizes amoeba. However, upon inhalation of contaminated aerosols it can infect and replicate in human alveolar macrophages, which can result in Legionnaires' disease, a severe form of pneumonia. Upon experimental airway infection of mice, L. pneumophila is rapidly controlled by innate immune mechanisms. Here we identified, on a cell-type specific level, the key innate effector functions responsible for rapid control of infection. In addition to the well-characterized NLRC4-NAIP5 flagellin recognition pathway, tumor necrosis factor (TNF and reactive oxygen species (ROS are also essential for effective innate immune control of L. pneumophila. While ROS are essential for the bactericidal activity of neutrophils, alveolar macrophages (AM rely on neutrophil and monocyte-derived TNF signaling via TNFR1 to restrict bacterial replication. This TNF-mediated antibacterial mechanism depends on the acidification of lysosomes and their fusion with L. pneumophila containing vacuoles (LCVs, as well as caspases with a minor contribution from cysteine-type cathepsins or calpains, and is independent of NLRC4, caspase-1, caspase-11 and NOX2. This study highlights the differential utilization of innate effector pathways to curtail intracellular bacterial replication in specific host cells upon L. pneumophila airway infection.

  5. Resveratrol Induces Apoptosis-Like Death and Prevents In Vitro and In Vivo Virulence of Entamoeba histolytica.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonnatan Pais-Morales

    Full Text Available Entamoeba histolytica causes amoebiasis, an infection that kills 100,000 individuals each year. Metronidazole and its derivatives are currently used against this protozoan, but these drugs present adverse effects on human health. Here, we investigated the effect of resveratrol (a natural compound on E. histolytica trophozoites viability, as well as its influence on the parasite virulence. Trophozoites growth was arrested by 72 μM resveratrol and the IC50 was determined as 220 μM at 48 h. Cells appeared smaller, rounded and in clusters, with debris-containing vacuoles and with abnormally condensed chromatin. Resveratrol triggered reactive oxygen species production. It caused lipid peroxidation and produced phosphatidylserine externalization and DNA fragmentation this latter evidenced by TUNEL assays. It also provoked an increase of intracellular Ca2+ concentration, activated calpain and decreased superoxide dismutase activity, indicating that an apoptosis-like event occurred; however, autophagy was not detected. Cytopathic activity, phagocytosis, encystment and in vivo virulence were diminished dramatically by pre-incubation of trophozoites with resveratrol, evidencing that resveratrol attenuated the trophozoite virulence in vitro. Interestingly, after the inoculation of virulent trophozoites, animals treated with the drug did not develop or developed very small abscesses. Our findings propose that resveratrol could be an alternative to contend amoebiasis.

  6. Retinoic Acid Induces Apoptosis of Prostate Cancer DU145 Cells through Cdk5 Overactivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mei-Chih Chen

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Retinoic acid (RA has been believed to be an anticancer drug for a long history. However, the molecular mechanisms of RA actions on cancer cells remain diverse. In this study, the dose-dependent inhibition of RA on DU145 cell proliferation was identified. Interestingly, RA treatment triggered p35 cleavage (p25 formation and Cdk5 overactivation, and all could be blocked by Calpain inhibitor, Calpeptin (CP. Subsequently, RA-triggered DU145 apoptosis detected by sub-G1 phase accumulation and Annexin V staining could also be blocked by CP treatment. Furthermore, RA-triggered caspase 3 activation and following Cdk5 over-activation were destroyed by treatments of both CP and Cdk5 knockdown. In conclusion, we report a new mechanism in which RA could cause apoptosis of androgen-independent prostate cancer cells through p35 cleavage and Cdk5 over-activation. This finding may contribute to constructing a clearer image of RA function and bring RA as a valuable chemoprevention agent for prostate cancer patients.

  7. Biosynthetic multitasking facilitates thalassospiramide structural diversity in marine bacteria

    KAUST Repository

    Ross, Avena C.

    2013-01-23

    Thalassospiramides A and B are immunosuppressant cyclic lipopeptides first reported from the marine α-proteobacterium Thalassospira sp. CNJ-328. We describe here the discovery and characterization of an extended family of 14 new analogues from four Tistrella and Thalassospira isolates. These potent calpain 1 protease inhibitors belong to six structure classes in which the length and composition of the acylpeptide side chain varies extensively. Genomic sequence analysis of the thalassospiramide-producing microbes revealed related, genus-specific biosynthetic loci encoding hybrid nonribosomal peptide synthetase/polyketide synthases consistent with thalassospiramide assembly. The bioinformatics analysis of the gene clusters suggests that structural diversity, which ranges from the 803.4 Da thalassospiramide C to the 1291.7 Da thalassospiramide F, results from a complex sequence of reactions involving amino acid substrate channeling and enzymatic multimodule skipping and iteration. Preliminary biochemical analysis of the N-terminal nonribosomal peptide synthetase module from the Thalassospira TtcA megasynthase supports a biosynthetic model in which in cis amino acid activation competes with in trans activation to increase the range of amino acid substrates incorporated at the N terminus. © 2012 American Chemical Society.

  8. Association of calpastatin gene polymorphisms and meat quality traits in pig.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ropka-Molik, K; Bereta, A; Tyra, M; Różycki, M; Piórkowska, K; Szyndler-Nędza, M; Szmatoła, T

    2014-06-01

    Calpastatin is associated with the rate of post mortem degradation of structural proteins due to the regulation of calpain activity. In the present research, the associations between polymorphisms within 6th intron of porcine CAST gene and several meat quality traits were analyzed. The CAST gene polymorphisms affected meat colour, pH, water holding-capacity (WHC) and texture parameters (toughness, firmness, cohesiveness, chewiness, and resilience) measured in longissimus dorsi and semimembranosus muscles. The analysis performed on the most numerous breeds maintained in Poland, suggested that the most interesting polymorphisms were CAST/HpaII and CAST/RsaI, which had the greatest effect on WHC regardless of the breed analyzed and had an effect on meat pH, firmness and toughness for most breeds. Interestingly, for almost all breeds, the significant effect of both mutations on intramuscular fat content (IMF) was detected. The provided data confirmed the use of CAST gene as a genetic marker in breeding programmes which allows performing a selection focussed on improving the quality of pork. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Effects of Agelas oroides and Petrosia ficiformis crude extracts on human neuroblastoma cell survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferretti, Cristina; Marengo, Barbara; De Ciucis, Chiara; Nitti, Mariapaola; Pronzato, Maria Adelaide; Marinari, Umberto Maria; Pronzato, Roberto; Manconi, Renata; Domenicotti, Cinzia

    2007-01-01

    Among marine sessile organisms, sponges (Porifera) are the major producers of bioactive secondary metabolites that defend them against predators and competitors and are used to interfere with the pathogenesis of many human diseases. Some of these biological active metabolites are able to influence cell survival and death, modifying the activity of several enzymes involved in these cellular processes. These natural compounds show a potential anticancer activity but the mechanism of this action is largely unknown. In this study, we investigated the effects of two Mediterranean sponges, Agelas oroides and Petrosia ficiformis on the viability of human neuroblastoma cells. Upon treatment with the methanolic extract of Petrosia ficiformis, a marked cytotoxic effect was observed at any concentration or time of exposure. In contrast, a time- and dose-dependent effect was monitored for Agelas oroides that induced the development of apoptotic features and ROS production in LAN5 cells. These events were suppressed by calpeptin or zVAD and by vitamin C suggesting that the cell death caused by Agelas oroides was calpain- and caspase-dependent and of oxidative nature. Comet assay showed that this methanolic extract was not able to produce a genotoxic effect. Future studies will be applied to investigate the effect of isolated bioactive compounds from crude extract of this sponge which are potentially useful for cancer therapeutics.

  10. Passive immunization reduces behavioral and neuropathological deficits in an alpha-synuclein transgenic model of Lewy body disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliezer Masliah

    Full Text Available Dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB and Parkinson's Disease (PD are common causes of motor and cognitive deficits and are associated with the abnormal accumulation of alpha-synuclein (α-syn. This study investigated whether passive immunization with a novel monoclonal α-syn antibody (9E4 against the C-terminus (CT of α-syn was able to cross into the CNS and ameliorate the deficits associated with α-syn accumulation. In this study we demonstrate that 9E4 was effective at reducing behavioral deficits in the water maze, moreover, immunization with 9E4 reduced the accumulation of calpain-cleaved α-syn in axons and synapses and the associated neurodegenerative deficits. In vivo studies demonstrated that 9E4 traffics into the CNS, binds to cells that display α-syn accumulation and promotes α-syn clearance via the lysosomal pathway. These results suggest that passive immunization with monoclonal antibodies against the CT of α-syn may be of therapeutic relevance in patients with PD and DLB.

  11. Neuroprotective effects of 2,3,5,4'-tetrahydoxystilbene-2-O-β-D-glucoside from Polygonum multiflorum against glutamate-induced oxidative toxicity in HT22 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sun Young; Ahn, Sung Min; Wang, Ziyu; Choi, Young Whan; Shin, Hwa Kyoung; Choi, Byung Tae

    2017-01-04

    Since ancient times, Polygonum multiflorum Thunb. has been used to treat premature grey hair, dizziness, and blurred vision in East Asia. A major bioactive constituent of this medicinal herb, 2,3,5,4'-tetrahydoxystilbene-2-O-β-D-glucoside (THSG), has antioxidant activity and exerts beneficial effects on cognition and memory. The purpose of the current study was to determine if THSG affects hippocampal neuronal cell death and mitochondrial function following exposure to oxidative stress. HT22 hippocampal cells with or without THSG pretreatment were exposed to glutamate, and the effects on cell viability and expression of molecules related to apoptotic cell death were examined using biochemical techniques, flow cytometry, western immunoblotting, and real-time polymerase chain reaction. Pretreatment with THSG significantly attenuated glutamate-induced loss of cell viability and release of lactate dehydrogenase as well as apoptotic cell death. THSG inhibited generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), expression of heme oxygenase-1, and activation of caspase-3 and calpain-1 proteases, all of which were increased by glutamate. THSG inhibited glutamate-induced disruption of mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) and voltage-dependent anion channel-1. It also regulated the ratio of Bax to Bcl-2. These results indicate that THSG has a marked neuroprotective effect against glutamate-induced hippocampal damage by decreasing ROS production and stabilizing MMP. These findings suggest the potential of THSG as a new therapeutic agent for the treatment of cognitive disorders. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Triggers, Inhibitors, Mechanisms, and Significance of Eryptosis: The Suicidal Erythrocyte Death

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    Elisabeth Lang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Suicidal erythrocyte death or eryptosis is characterized by erythrocyte shrinkage, cell membrane blebbing, and cell membrane scrambling with phosphatidylserine translocation to the erythrocyte surface. Triggers of eryptosis include Ca2+ entry, ceramide formation, stimulation of caspases, calpain activation, energy depletion, oxidative stress, and dysregulation of several kinases. Eryptosis is triggered by a wide variety of xenobiotics. It is inhibited by several xenobiotics and endogenous molecules including NO and erythropoietin. The susceptibility of erythrocytes to eryptosis increases with erythrocyte age. Phosphatidylserine exposing erythrocytes adhere to the vascular wall by binding to endothelial CXC-Motiv-Chemokin-16/Scavenger-receptor for phosphatidylserine and oxidized low density lipoprotein (CXCL16. Phosphatidylserine exposing erythrocytes are further engulfed by phagocytosing cells and are thus rapidly cleared from circulating blood. Eryptosis eliminates infected or defective erythrocytes thus counteracting parasitemia in malaria and preventing detrimental hemolysis of defective cells. Excessive eryptosis, however, may lead to anemia and may interfere with microcirculation. Enhanced eryptosis contributes to the pathophysiology of several clinical disorders including metabolic syndrome and diabetes, malignancy, cardiac and renal insufficiency, hemolytic uremic syndrome, sepsis, mycoplasma infection, malaria, iron deficiency, sickle cell anemia, thalassemia, glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency, and Wilson’s disease. Facilitating or inhibiting eryptosis may be a therapeutic option in those disorders.

  13. Associations of polymorphisms in four candidate genes with carcass and/or meat-quality traits in two meat-type chicken lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yanfa; Liu, Ranran; Lu, Xiqing; Hu, Yaodong; Zhao, Guiping; Zheng, Maiqing; Chen, Jilan; Wang, Hongrong; Wen, Jie

    2013-01-01

    The associations between polymorphisms of five genes, calpain 1 (CAPN1), follicle stimulating hormone beta (FSHB), follicle stimulating hormone receptor (FSHR), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARG), and retinol binding protein 7 (RBP7), and live weight, carcass composition, and meat-quality traits were estimated from two meat-type chickens lines (n=311). Except for the variants of the FSHR gene, 11 SNPs of the other four genes and two diplotypes of PPARG were associated with one or more traits excluding shear factor (SF). SNP C31566680T of the CAPN1 gene was significantly associated with live weight (LW) carcass traits. The SNP A4580859C of FSHB gene was significantly associated with breast muscle weight (BrW) and LW. One of the PPARG SNPs, C5070948T, was associated with intramuscular fat content in breast (IMFbr). Diplotype P1 of the PPARG gene was significantly associated with LW and all carcass traits. P3 were significantly associated with abdominal fat weight (AbFW). SNPs in RBP7 were only associated with BrW. These results indicate that the four genes were associated with these traits and have promise as genetic markers for future marker-assisted selection. Supplementary materials for this paper are available online.

  14. Activity and expression of nitric oxide synthase in pork skeletal muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Rui; Li, Yu-pin; Zhang, Wan-gang; Fu, Qing-quan; Liu, Nian; Zhou, Guang-hong

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the biochemical changes of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) in pork skeletal muscles during postmortem storage. Longissimus thoracis (LT), psoas major (PM) and semimembranosus (SM) muscles of pork were removed immediately after slaughter and stored under vacuum condition at 4°C for 0, 1 and 3d. Results showed that all three muscles exhibited NOS activity until 1d while SM muscle retained NOS activity after 3d of storage. The content of nNOS in SM muscle was stable across 3d of storage while decreased intensity of nNOS was detected at 1 and 3d of aging in PM and LT muscles due to the degradation of calpain. Immunostaining showed that nNOS was located at not only sarcolemma but also cytoplasm at 0 and 1d of storage. Our data suggest that postmortem muscles possess NOS activity and nNOS expression depends on muscle type. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Mechanisms of water-holding capacity of meat: The role of postmortem biochemical and structural changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huff-Lonergan, Elisabeth; Lonergan, Steven M

    2005-09-01

    Unacceptable water-holding capacity costs the meat industry millions of dollars annually. However, limited progress has been made toward understanding the mechanisms that underlie the development of drip or purge. It is clear that early postmortem events including rate and extent of pH decline, proteolysis and even protein oxidation are key in influencing the ability of meat to retain moisture. Much of the water in the muscle is entrapped in structures of the cell, including the intra- and extramyofibrillar spaces; therefore, key changes in the intracellular architecture of the cell influence the ability of muscle cells to retain water. As rigor progresses, the space for water to be held in the myofibrils is reduced and fluid can be forced into the extramyofibrillar spaces where it is more easily lost as drip. Lateral shrinkage of the myofibrils occurring during rigor can be transmitted to the entire cell if proteins that link myofibrils together and myofibrils to the cell membrane (such as desmin) are not degraded. Limited degradation of cytoskeletal proteins may result in increased shrinking of the overall muscle cell, which is ultimately translated into drip loss. Recent evidence suggests that degradation of key cytoskeletal proteins by calpain proteinases has a role to play in determining water-holding capacity. This review will focus on key events in muscle that influence structural changes that are associated with water-holding capacity.

  16. Granzyme B-dependent proteolysis acts as a switch to enhance the proinflammatory activity of IL-1α.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Afonina, Inna S

    2011-10-21

    Granzyme B is a cytotoxic lymphocyte-derived protease that plays a central role in promoting apoptosis of virus-infected target cells, through direct proteolysis and activation of constituents of the cell death machinery. However, previous studies have also implicated granzymes A and B in the production of proinflammatory cytokines, via a mechanism that remains undefined. Here we show that IL-1α is a substrate for granzyme B and that proteolysis potently enhanced the biological activity of this cytokine in vitro as well as in vivo. Consistent with this, compared with full-length IL-1α, granzyme B-processed IL-1α exhibited more potent activity as an immunoadjuvant in vivo. Furthermore, proteolysis of IL-1α within the same region, by proteases such as calpain and elastase, was also found to enhance its biological potency. Thus, IL-1α processing by multiple immune-related proteases, including granzyme B, acts as a switch to enhance the proinflammatory properties of this cytokine.

  17. Deletion of GLUT1 and GLUT3 Reveals Multiple Roles for Glucose Metabolism in Platelet and Megakaryocyte Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trevor P. Fidler

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Anucleate platelets circulate in the blood to facilitate thrombosis and diverse immune functions. Platelet activation leading to clot formation correlates with increased glycogenolysis, glucose uptake, glucose oxidation, and lactic acid production. Simultaneous deletion of glucose transporter (GLUT 1 and GLUT3 (double knockout [DKO] specifically in platelets completely abolished glucose uptake. In DKO platelets, mitochondrial oxidative metabolism of non-glycolytic substrates, such as glutamate, increased. Thrombosis and platelet activation were decreased through impairment at multiple activation nodes, including Ca2+ signaling, degranulation, and integrin activation. DKO mice developed thrombocytopenia, secondary to impaired pro-platelet formation from megakaryocytes, and increased platelet clearance resulting from cytosolic calcium overload and calpain activation. Systemic treatment with oligomycin, inhibiting mitochondrial metabolism, induced rapid clearance of platelets, with circulating counts dropping to zero in DKO mice, but not wild-type mice, demonstrating an essential role for energy metabolism in platelet viability. Thus, substrate metabolism is essential for platelet production, activation, and survival.

  18. Methylmercury-induced neurotoxicity and apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceccatelli, Sandra; Daré, Elisabetta; Moors, Michaela

    2010-11-05

    Methylmercury is a widely distributed environmental toxicant with detrimental effects on the developing and adult nervous system. Due to its accumulation in the food chain, chronic exposure to methylmercury via consumption of fish and sea mammals is still a major concern for human health, especially developmental exposure that may lead to neurological alterations, including cognitive and motor dysfunctions. Mercury-induced neurotoxicity and the identification of the underlying mechanisms has been a main focus of research in the neurotoxicology field. Three major mechanisms have been identified as critical in methylmercury-induced cell damage including (i) disruption of calcium homeostasis, (ii) induction of oxidative stress via overproduction of reactive oxygen species or reduction of antioxidative defenses and (iii) interactions with sulfhydryl groups. In vivo and in vitro studies have provided solid evidence for the occurrence of neural cell death, as well as cytoarchitectural alterations in the nervous system after exposure to methylmercury. Signaling cascades leading to cell death induced by methylmercury involve the release of mitochondrial factors, such as cytochrome c and AIF with subsequent caspase-dependent or -independent apoptosis, respectively; induction of calcium-dependent proteases calpains; interaction with lysosomes leading to release of cathepsins. Interestingly, several pathways can be activated in parallel, depending on the cell type. In this paper, we provide an overview of recent findings on methylmercury-induced neurotoxicity and cell death pathways that have been described in neural and endocrine cell systems. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Bicarbonate-dependent secretion and proteolytic processing of recombinant myocilin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José-Daniel Aroca-Aguilar

    Full Text Available Myocilin is an extracellular glycoprotein of poorly understood function. Mutations of this protein are involved in glaucoma, an optic neuropathy characterized by a progressive and irreversible visual loss and frequently associated with elevated intraocular pressure. We previously showed that recombinant myocilin undergoes an intracellular proteolytic processing by calpain II which cleaves the central region of the protein, releasing one N- and one C-terminal fragment. Myocilin cleavage is reduced by glaucoma mutations and it has been proposed to participate in intraocular pressure modulation. To identify possible factors regulating the proteolytic processing of recombinant myocilin, we used a cellular model in which we analyzed how different culture medium parameters (i.e., culture time, cell density, pH, bicarbonate concentration, etc. affect the presence of the extracellular C-terminal fragment. Extracellular bicarbonate depletion associated with culture medium acidification produced a reversible intracellular accumulation of full-length recombinant myocilin and incremented its intracellular proteolytic processing, raising the extracellular C-terminal fragment percentage. It was also determined that myocilin intracellular accumulation depends on its N-terminal region. These data suggest that aqueous humor bicarbonate variations could also modulate the secretion and cleavage of myocilin present in ocular tissues.

  20. Neutrophil and Alveolar Macrophage-Mediated Innate Immune Control of Legionella pneumophila Lung Infection via TNF and ROS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziltener, Pascal; Reinheckel, Thomas; Oxenius, Annette

    2016-01-01

    Legionella pneumophila is a facultative intracellular bacterium that lives in aquatic environments where it parasitizes amoeba. However, upon inhalation of contaminated aerosols it can infect and replicate in human alveolar macrophages, which can result in Legionnaires’ disease, a severe form of pneumonia. Upon experimental airway infection of mice, L. pneumophila is rapidly controlled by innate immune mechanisms. Here we identified, on a cell-type specific level, the key innate effector functions responsible for rapid control of infection. In addition to the well-characterized NLRC4-NAIP5 flagellin recognition pathway, tumor necrosis factor (TNF) and reactive oxygen species (ROS) are also essential for effective innate immune control of L. pneumophila. While ROS are essential for the bactericidal activity of neutrophils, alveolar macrophages (AM) rely on neutrophil and monocyte-derived TNF signaling via TNFR1 to restrict bacterial replication. This TNF-mediated antibacterial mechanism depends on the acidification of lysosomes and their fusion with L. pneumophila containing vacuoles (LCVs), as well as caspases with a minor contribution from cysteine-type cathepsins or calpains, and is independent of NLRC4, caspase-1, caspase-11 and NOX2. This study highlights the differential utilization of innate effector pathways to curtail intracellular bacterial replication in specific host cells upon L. pneumophila airway infection. PMID:27105352

  1. Activities of non-lysosomal proteolytic systems in skeletal and cardiac muscle during burn induced hypermetabolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Yee M.; La Porte, Heather M.; Szilagyi, Andrea; Bach, Harold H.; Ke-He, Li; Kennedy, Richard H.; Gamelli, Richard L.; Shankar, Ravi; Majetschak, Matthias

    2014-01-01

    Objective To assess the activity of non-lysosomal proteolytic systems in skeletal and cardiac muscle during burn induced hypermetabolism in rats. Methods Rats underwent 30% TBSA scald burn or sham injury and were observed for up to 42 days. Body weights and resting energy expenditures (REE) were determined weekly. Skeletal (soleus/pectoral) muscle and hearts were harvested on days 0 (=control), 7, 14, 21 and 42 post burn. Calpain, caspase-1, -3/7, -6, -8, -9 and proteasome peptidase activities were measured in tissue extracts. Results Hypermetabolism developed within 3 weeks after burns, as documented by increased REEs and decreased body weights on post burn days 21–42 (pcascades during burn induced hypermetabolism constitutes a uniform response in skeletal and cardiac muscle and may contribute to enhanced metabolic protein turnover. Activation of myocardial proteasome activities may reflect persistent cardiac stress. Further exploration of caspase cascades and the proteasome as therapeutic targets to influence long term consequences of burn induced hypermetabolism appears justified. PMID:24879398

  2. Candida albicans and Candida parapsilosis rapidly up-regulate galectin-3 secretion by human gingival epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamai, Riyoko; Kiyoura, Yusuke

    2014-02-01

    Galectin-3 is a β-galactoside-binding C-type lectin that plays an important role in innate immunity. The purpose of this study was to determine whether Candida albicans and Candida parapsilosis up-regulate galectin-3 secretion by human gingival epithelial cells and gingival fibroblasts. Ca9-22, a human gingival epithelial cell line, and human gingival fibroblasts were incubated in the presence or absence of C. albicans or C. parapsilosis without serum. Levels of secreted human galectin-3 in culture supernatants were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. We also pretreated Ca9-22 cells with cytochalasin D (an actin polymerization inhibitor), ALLN (a calpain inhibitor) and LY294002 [a phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase (PI3K) inhibitor] to determine whether the up-regulation of galectin-3 secretion was mediated by cytoskeletal changes, protease activity, or PI3K signaling. Galectin-3 secretion was significantly and rapidly up-regulated by live C. albicans and C. parapsilosis, as well as heat-killed C. albicans. In addition, cytochalasin D, LY294002 and ALLN did not inhibit the up-regulation in galectin-3 secretion. These results suggest that both live and heat-killed C. albicans and C. parapsilosis may increase the activity of the innate immune system and invasion by other microorganisms via up-regulation of galectin-3 secretion.

  3. Solution structure, membrane interactions, and protein binding partners of the tetraspanin Sm-TSP-2, a vaccine antigen from the human blood fluke Schistosoma mansoni.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Xinying; Schulte, Leigh; Loukas, Alex; Pickering, Darren; Pearson, Mark; Mobli, Mehdi; Jones, Alun; Rosengren, Karl J; Daly, Norelle L; Gobert, Geoffrey N; Jones, Malcolm K; Craik, David J; Mulvenna, Jason

    2014-03-07

    The tetraspanins (TSPs) are a family of integral membrane proteins that are ubiquitously expressed at the surface of eukaryotic cells. TSPs mediate a range of processes at the surface of the plasma membrane by providing a scaffold for the assembly of protein complexes known as tetraspanin-enriched microdomains (TEMs). We report here the structure of the surface-exposed EC2 domain from Sm-TSP-2, a TSP from Schistosoma mansoni and one of the better prospects for the development of a vaccine against schistosomiasis. This is the first solution structure of this domain, and our investigations of its interactions with lipid micelles provide a general model for interactions between TSPs, membranes, and other proteins. Using chemical cross-linking, eight potential protein constituents of Sm-TSP-2-mediated TEMs were also identified. These include proteins important for membrane maintenance and repair, providing further evidence for the functional role of Sm-TSP-2- and Sm-TSP-2-mediated TEMs. The identification of calpain, Sm29, and fructose-bisphosphate aldolase, themselves potential vaccine antigens, suggests that the Sm-TSP-2-mediated TEMs could be disrupted via multiple targets. The identification of further Sm-TSP-2-mediated TEM proteins increases the available candidates for multiplex vaccines and/or novel drugs targeting TEMs in the schistosome tegument.

  4. Solution Structure, Membrane Interactions, and Protein Binding Partners of the Tetraspanin Sm-TSP-2, a Vaccine Antigen from the Human Blood Fluke Schistosoma mansoni*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Xinying; Schulte, Leigh; Loukas, Alex; Pickering, Darren; Pearson, Mark; Mobli, Mehdi; Jones, Alun; Rosengren, Karl J.; Daly, Norelle L.; Gobert, Geoffrey N.; Jones, Malcolm K.; Craik, David J.; Mulvenna, Jason

    2014-01-01

    The tetraspanins (TSPs) are a family of integral membrane proteins that are ubiquitously expressed at the surface of eukaryotic cells. TSPs mediate a range of processes at the surface of the plasma membrane by providing a scaffold for the assembly of protein complexes known as tetraspanin-enriched microdomains (TEMs). We report here the structure of the surface-exposed EC2 domain from Sm-TSP-2, a TSP from Schistosoma mansoni and one of the better prospects for the development of a vaccine against schistosomiasis. This is the first solution structure of this domain, and our investigations of its interactions with lipid micelles provide a general model for interactions between TSPs, membranes, and other proteins. Using chemical cross-linking, eight potential protein constituents of Sm-TSP-2-mediated TEMs were also identified. These include proteins important for membrane maintenance and repair, providing further evidence for the functional role of Sm-TSP-2- and Sm-TSP-2-mediated TEMs. The identification of calpain, Sm29, and fructose-bisphosphate aldolase, themselves potential vaccine antigens, suggests that the Sm-TSP-2-mediated TEMs could be disrupted via multiple targets. The identification of further Sm-TSP-2-mediated TEM proteins increases the available candidates for multiplex vaccines and/or novel drugs targeting TEMs in the schistosome tegument. PMID:24429291

  5. Establishment and Characterization of a Newly Established Diabetic Gerbil Line.

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    Xiaohong Li

    Full Text Available We aimed to selectively breed a spontaneous diabetic gerbil when a sub-line of inbred gerbil showed increased blood glucose levels was found recently. Then we investigated the characteristics including the serum insulin, triglyceride, cholesterol, leptin, adiponectin and explored the underlying molecular mechanism for the diabetic phenotype.The spontaneous diabetic line of gerbils was selectively inbreed the sub-line of gerbil by monitoring blood glucose of each animal. The serum insulin, adiponectin, and leptin levels were tested using an ELISA kit. The expression levels of GLUT4, Akt, leptin, adiponectin, and calpain 10 (CAPN10 were tested by western blot and Quantitative Real-time PCR (qPCR in liver, skeletal muscle, and white adipose.Our results show that the percentages of animals with FPG≥5.2 (mmol/l, PG2h≥6.8 (mmol/l and both FPG≥5.2 and PG2h≥6.8 (mmol/l were increased with the number of breeding generations from F0 (21.33% to F6 (38.46%. These diabetic gerbils exhibited insulin resistance and leptin resistance as well as decreased adiponectin level in the serum. We also observed decreased expression of adiponectin and increased expression of leptin in the skeletal muscle, respectively.These results indicate that we have primarily established a spontaneous diabetic gerbil line, and the diabetic phenotypes may have been accounted for by altered expression of leptin and adiponectin.

  6. [Polymorphism of exon 4 in the CANP-3 gene in patients with primary myopathies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipatova, N A; Krakhmaleva, I N; Shishkin, S S; Shakhovskaia, N I; Podnikova, N I; Lunga, I N; Tarksh, M A; Gerasimova, N L

    1999-12-01

    The structures of the gene for calpain (CANP-3) and of the DMD gene were analyzed in patients with primary myopathies [limb-girdle muscular distrophy (LGMD) and Duchenne-Becker myodystrophy (DBM)] from various regions of Russia. Via amplification of DNA isolated from the peripheral blood lymphocytes of 74 patients, extended deletions were found in 18 out of 55 patients with DBM. In none of the 19 patients with LGMD, were extended deletions in the CANP-3 gene found. In most patients with LGMD, the amplification of the promoter region and exons 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, and 6 of the CANP-3 gene yielded a single product of corresponding length, but in six patients (three sib pairs), amplification of exon 4 of the CANP-3 gene yielded two products of different size. The following single-strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP) analysis revealed a pronounced polymorphism of exon 4 of the CANP-3 gene in 14 out of 19 patients with LGMD. This structure of exon 4 of the CANP-3 gene was found neither in 16 patients with DBM who had deletions in the DMD gene nor in 16 patients with DBM who had no deletions in the DMD gene.

  7. The cGMP/PKG pathway as a common mediator of cardioprotection: translatability and mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inserte, Javier; Garcia-Dorado, David

    2015-04-01

    Cardiomyocyte cell death occurring during myocardial reperfusion (reperfusion injury) contributes to final infarct size after transient coronary occlusion. Different interrelated mechanisms of reperfusion injury have been identified, including alterations in cytosolic Ca(2+) handling, sarcoplasmic reticulum-mediated Ca(2+) oscillations and hypercontracture, proteolysis secondary to calpain activation and mitochondrial permeability transition. All these mechanisms occur during the initial minutes of reperfusion and are inhibited by intracellular acidosis. The cGMP/PKG pathway modulates the rate of recovery of intracellular pH, but has also direct effect on Ca(2+) oscillations and mitochondrial permeability transition. The cGMP/PKG pathway is depressed in cardiomyocytes by ischaemia/reperfusion and preserved by ischaemic postconditioning, which importantly contributes to postconditioning protection. The present article reviews the mechanisms and consequences of the effect of ischaemic postconditioning on the cGMP/PKG pathway, the different pharmacological strategies aimed to stimulate it during myocardial reperfusion and the evidence, limitations and promise of translation of these strategies to the clinical practice. Overall, the preclinical and clinical evidence suggests that modulation of the cGMP/PKG pathway may be a therapeutic target in the context of myocardial infarction. © 2014 The British Pharmacological Society.

  8. Nitroimidazole derivatives of polypyridyl ruthenium complexes: Towards understanding their anticancer activity and mode of action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazuryk, Olga; Krysiak-Foria, Oksana; Żak, Agnieszka; Suzenet, Franck; Ptak-Belowska, Agata; Brzozowski, Tomasz; Stochel, Grażyna; Brindell, Małgorzata

    2017-04-01

    The mechanism of cell death induced by the ruthenium polypyridyl complexes comprising two 4,7-diphenyl-1,10-phenanthroline ligands as well as one unmodified 2,2'-bipyridyl or modified with 2-nitroimidazole moiety attached by shorter (C3H6) or longer (C6H12) linker was investigated. Cytotoxicity and proliferation assays revealed that the studied Ru polypyridyl complexes are more toxic against human pancreas carcinoma PANC-1 cell line than normal human keratinocytes HaCaT with IC50 of 3-5μM. The Ru complexes despite accumulation in mitochondria do not lead to mitochondrial disfunction, though decreasing of mitochondrial Ca(2+) causes mitochondria membrane hyperpolarization. The Ru polypyridyl conjugates induce some phenotypical characteristic of apoptosis, such as condensation of chromatin or phosphatidylserine translocation, however no caspase or calpain activation in the studied cell lines was observed, indicating that detected cell death does not occur via mitochondria- or ER-activated pathways. Caspase-independent cell death is caused by enormous ROS formation, mainly hydrogen peroxide and peroxyl radicals as well as by intracellular Ca(2+) homeostasis disruption. Accumulation of the Ru compounds inhibits the completion of DNA synthesis, arresting cells in S-phase of cell cycle. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Triggers, Inhibitors, Mechanisms, and Significance of Eryptosis: The Suicidal Erythrocyte Death

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Elisabeth

    2015-01-01

    Suicidal erythrocyte death or eryptosis is characterized by erythrocyte shrinkage, cell membrane blebbing, and cell membrane scrambling with phosphatidylserine translocation to the erythrocyte surface. Triggers of eryptosis include Ca2+ entry, ceramide formation, stimulation of caspases, calpain activation, energy depletion, oxidative stress, and dysregulation of several kinases. Eryptosis is triggered by a wide variety of xenobiotics. It is inhibited by several xenobiotics and endogenous molecules including NO and erythropoietin. The susceptibility of erythrocytes to eryptosis increases with erythrocyte age. Phosphatidylserine exposing erythrocytes adhere to the vascular wall by binding to endothelial CXC-Motiv-Chemokin-16/Scavenger-receptor for phosphatidylserine and oxidized low density lipoprotein (CXCL16). Phosphatidylserine exposing erythrocytes are further engulfed by phagocytosing cells and are thus rapidly cleared from circulating blood. Eryptosis eliminates infected or defective erythrocytes thus counteracting parasitemia in malaria and preventing detrimental hemolysis of defective cells. Excessive eryptosis, however, may lead to anemia and may interfere with microcirculation. Enhanced eryptosis contributes to the pathophysiology of several clinical disorders including metabolic syndrome and diabetes, malignancy, cardiac and renal insufficiency, hemolytic uremic syndrome, sepsis, mycoplasma infection, malaria, iron deficiency, sickle cell anemia, thalassemia, glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency, and Wilson's disease. Facilitating or inhibiting eryptosis may be a therapeutic option in those disorders. PMID:25821808

  10. Influence of supplementing vitamin C to yearling steers fed a high sulfur diet during the finishing period on meat color, tenderness and protein degradation, and fatty acid profile of the longissimus muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pogge, Danielle J; Lonergan, Steven M; Hansen, Stephanie L

    2014-08-01

    The objective was to determine the influence of vitamin C (VC) supplemented for approximately 102 d during the finishing period on color, tenderness, and fatty acid profile of longissimus thoracis (LT; n=136) from steers fed a 0.55% sulfur diet. Treatments included 4 supplemental VC concentrations: 1) 0 (CON), 2) 5 (5VC), 3) 10 (10VC), or 4) 20 (20VC) gVC·h(-1)∙d(-1) in a common diet. Increasing supplemental VC decreased (Pvitamin E and tended to increase (P≤0.07) calcium and iron content of steaks. No VC (P≥0.25) effect was noted for WBSF, calpain-1 autolysis, troponin T degradation, or most fatty acid profiles. A quadratic effect (P≤0.03) was observed for cholesterol and CLA content of LT. Under the conditions of our study, supplementing VC to steers fed a 0.55% sulfur diet late in the finishing period did not influence color or tenderness, but increased the vitamin E content. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. PARP-1 cleavage fragments: signatures of cell-death proteases in neurodegeneration

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    Alexander Jonathan S

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The normal function of poly (ADP-ribose polymerase-1 (PARP-1 is the routine repair of DNA damage by adding poly (ADP ribose polymers in response to a variety of cellular stresses. Recently, it has become widely appreciated that PARP-1 also participates in diverse physiological and pathological functions from cell survival to several forms of cell death and has been implicated in gene transcription, immune responses, inflammation, learning, memory, synaptic functions, angiogenesis and aging. In the CNS, PARP inhibition attenuates injury in pathologies like cerebral ischemia, trauma and excitotoxicity demonstrating a central role of PARP-1 in these pathologies. PARP-1 is also a preferred substrate for several 'suicidal' proteases and the proteolytic action of suicidal proteases (caspases, calpains, cathepsins, granzymes and matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs on PARP-1 produces several specific proteolytic cleavage fragments with different molecular weights. These PARP-1 signature fragments are recognized biomarkers for specific patterns of protease activity in unique cell death programs. This review focuses on specific suicidal proteases active towards PARP-1 to generate signature PARP-1 fragments that can identify key proteases and particular forms of cell death involved in pathophysiology. The roles played by some of the PARP-1 fragments and their associated binding partners in the control of different forms of cell death are also discussed.

  12. Individual and combined effects of CAPN1, CAST, LEP and GHR gene polymorphisms on carcass characteristics and meat quality in Holstein bulls

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    S. Ardicli

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the association of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs with carcass characteristics and meat quality traits in selected candidate genes in Holstein bulls. Five SNPs in four genes, i.e. calpain 1 (CAPN1, calpastatin (CAST, leptin (LEP and growth hormone receptor (GHR, were genotyped in 400 purebred bulls using PCR-RFLP. Statistically significant associations were as follows: CAPN1 G316A with live weight, carcass weight, back fat thickness, m. longissimus thoracis et lumborum area and carcass measurements; CAPN1 V530I with pH and L∗; CAST S20T with live weight, inner chest depth and b∗ value; and GHR with ph, a∗ and h∗. In addition, significant genotypic interactions were observed for dressing percentage (LEP A80V  ×  CAST S20T, pH (CAPN1 V530I  ×  GHR S555G and LEP A80V  ×  GHR S555G and rump width (CAPN1 V530I  ×  CAST S20T. There was no association between the LEP A80V marker and any of the traits evaluated, nor was there any association of the tested SNPs with chest width, C∗ and marbling score. The present results could therefore be indicative for future studies on meat yield and quality.

  13. Genetic polymorphisms related to meat traits in purebred and crossbred Nelore cattle Polimorfismos genéticos relacionados às características da carne em bovinos Nelore puros e cruzados

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    Rogério Abdallah Curi

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to estimate the allelic and genotypic frequencies of CAST/XmnI, a calpastatin gene polymorphism, and CAPN530, a calpain 1 large subunit gene polymorphism, in different beef genetic groups (Nelore and Nelore x Bos taurus, and to investigate associations between these polymorphisms and carcass and meat traits. Three hundred animals - comprising 114 Nelore, 67 Angus x Nelore, 44 Rubia Gallega x Nelore, 41 Canchim, 19 Brangus three-way cross and 15 Braunvieh three-way cross- were genotyped by PCR-RFLP and phenotyped for rib-eye area (REA, back-fat thickness (BT, intramuscular fat (IF, shear force (SF and myofibrillar fragmentation index (MFI. The occurrence of the two alleles of the CAST/XmnI and CAPN530 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in a B. indicus breed, which permitted association studies in purebred and crossbred Nelore cattle, was first shown in the present work. No relationship was found between the CAST or CAPN1 SNPs and growth-related traits (REA or fat deposition (BT and IF, since calpastatin and µ-calpain are not physiologically involved with these traits. Moreover, the association results between genotypes and aged meat tenderness (assessed by SF and MFI showed that these markers are useless in assisted selection for purebred Nelore and their crosses with B. taurus.O presente trabalho objetivou estimar, em bovinos de corte de diferentes grupos genéticos (Nelore e Nelore x Bos taurus, as frequências alélicas e genotípicas dos polimorfismos CAST/XmnI, do gene da calpastatina, e CAPN530, do gene da calpaína, bem como avaliar a ocorrência de associações entre esses polimorfismos e características da carcaça e da carne produzida. Trezentos animais - 114 Nelore, 67 Angus x Nelore, 44 Rubia Galega x Nelore, 41 Canchim, 19 tricross Brangus e 15 tricross Braunvieh - foram genotipados por PCR-RFLP e fenotipados para área de olho de lombo (AOL, cobertura de gordura subcutânea (CGS, gordura

  14. Tetanic contraction induces enhancement of fatigability and sarcomeric damage in atrophic skeletal muscle and its underlying molecular mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Zhi-Bin

    2013-11-01

    intracellular resting Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i) in unloaded soleus muscles. High [Ca2+]i activated calpain-1 which induced a higher degradation of desmin. Desmin degradation may loose connections between adjacent myofibrils and further misaligned Z-disc during repeated tetanic contractions. Passive stretch in unloaded muscle could preserve the stability of sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ release channels by means of keeping nNOS activity, and decrease the enhanced protein level and activity of calpain to control levels in unloaded soleus muscles. Therefore, passive stretch restored normal appearance of Z-disc and resisted in part atrophy of unloaded soleus muscles. The above results indicate that enhanced fatigability of high-frequency tetanic contraction is associated to the alteration in K+ channel characteristics, and elevated SERCA activity and slow to fast transition of myosin heavy chain (MHC) isoforms increases fatigability of intermittent tetanic contraction in atrophic soleus muscle. The sarcomeric damage induced by tetanic contraction can be retarded by stretch in atrophic soleus muscles.

  15. Genipin alleviates sepsis‐induced liver injury by restoring autophagy

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    Cho, Hong‐Ik; Kim, So‐Jin; Choi, Joo‐Wan

    2016-01-01

    Background and Purpose Autophagy is an essential cytoprotective system that is rapidly activated in response to various stimuli including inflammation and microbial infection. Genipin, an aglycon of geniposide found in gardenia fruit, is well known to have anti‐inflammatory, antibacterial and antioxidative properties. This study examined the protective mechanisms of genipin against sepsis, with particular focus on the autophagic signalling pathway. Experimental Approach Mice were subjected to sepsis by caecal ligation and puncture (CLP). Genipin (1, 2.5 and 5 mg·kg−1) or vehicle (saline) was injected i.v. immediately (0 h) after CLP, and chloroquine (60 mg·kg−1), an autophagy inhibitor, was injected i.p. 1 h before CLP. Blood and liver tissues were isolated 6 h after CLP. Key Results Genipin improved survival rate and decreased serum levels of aminotransferases and pro‐inflammatory cytokines after CLP; effects abolished by chloroquine. The liver expression of autophagy‐related protein (Atg)12‐Atg5 conjugate increased after CLP, and this increase was enhanced by genipin. CLP decreased Atg3 protein liver expression, and genipin attenuated this decrease. CLP impaired autophagic flux, as indicated by increased liver expression of microtubule‐associated protein‐1 light chain 3‐II and sequestosome‐1/p62 protein; this impaired autophagic flux was restored by genipin, and chloroquine abolished this effect. Genipin also attenuated the decreased expression of lysosome‐associated membrane protein‐2 and Rab7 protein and increased expression of calpain 1 protein induced by CLP in the liver. Conclusions and Implications Our findings suggest that genipin protects against septic injury by restoring impaired autophagic flux. Therefore, genipin might be a potential therapeutic agent for the treatment of sepsis. PMID:26660048

  16. Genipin alleviates sepsis-induced liver injury by restoring autophagy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Hong-Ik; Kim, So-Jin; Choi, Joo-Wan; Lee, Sun-Mee

    2016-03-01

    Autophagy is an essential cytoprotective system that is rapidly activated in response to various stimuli including inflammation and microbial infection. Genipin, an aglycon of geniposide found in gardenia fruit, is well known to have anti-inflammatory, antibacterial and antioxidative properties. This study examined the protective mechanisms of genipin against sepsis, with particular focus on the autophagic signalling pathway. Mice were subjected to sepsis by caecal ligation and puncture (CLP). Genipin (1, 2.5 and 5 mg·kg(-1) ) or vehicle (saline) was injected i.v. immediately (0 h) after CLP, and chloroquine (60 mg·kg(-1) ), an autophagy inhibitor, was injected i.p. 1 h before CLP. Blood and liver tissues were isolated 6 h after CLP. Genipin improved survival rate and decreased serum levels of aminotransferases and pro-inflammatory cytokines after CLP; effects abolished by chloroquine. The liver expression of autophagy-related protein (Atg)12-Atg5 conjugate increased after CLP, and this increase was enhanced by genipin. CLP decreased Atg3 protein liver expression, and genipin attenuated this decrease. CLP impaired autophagic flux, as indicated by increased liver expression of microtubule-associated protein-1 light chain 3-II and sequestosome-1/p62 protein; this impaired autophagic flux was restored by genipin, and chloroquine abolished this effect. Genipin also attenuated the decreased expression of lysosome-associated membrane protein-2 and Rab7 protein and increased expression of calpain 1 protein induced by CLP in the liver. Our findings suggest that genipin protects against septic injury by restoring impaired autophagic flux. Therefore, genipin might be a potential therapeutic agent for the treatment of sepsis. © 2015 The British Pharmacological Society.

  17. Novel Therapeutic and Prevention Approaches for Schistosomiasis: Review

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    Rashika A.F. El Ridi

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Schistosomiasis is a debilitating disease affecting approximately 600 million people in 74 developing countries, with 800 million, mostly children at risk. To circumvent the threat of having praziquantel (PZQ as the only drug used for treatment, several PZQ derivatives were synthesized, and drugs destined for other parasites were used with success. A plethora of plant-derived oils and extracts were found to effectively kill juvenile and adult schistosomes, yet none was progressed to pre- and clinical studies except an oleo-gum resin extracted from the stem of Commiphora molmol, myrrh, which action was challenged in several trials. We have proposed an essential fatty acid, a component of our diet and cells, the polyunsaturated fatty acid arachidonic acid (ARA as a remedy for schistosomiasis, due to its ability to activate the parasite tegument-bound neutral sphingomyelinase, with subsequent hydrolysis of the apical lipid bilayer sphingomyelin molecules, allowing access of specific antibody molecules, and eventual worm attrition. This concept was convincingly supported using larval and adult Schistosoma mansoni and Schistosoma haematobium worms in in vitro experiments, and in vivo studies in inbred mice and outbred hamsters. Even if ARA proves to be an entirely effective and safe therapy for schistosomiasis, it will not prevent reinfection, and accordingly, the need for developing an effective vaccine remains an urgent priority. Our studies have supported the status of S. mansoni calpain, glutathione-S-transferase, aldolase, triose phosphate isomerase, glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase, enolase, and 2-cys peroxiredoxin as vaccine candidates, as they are larval excreted-secreted products and, contrary to the surface membrane molecules, are entirely accessible to the host immune system effector elements. We have proposed that the use of these molecules, in conjunction with Th2 cytokines-inducing adjuvants for recruiting and activating

  18. Cytotoxic effects of curcumin in human retinal pigment epithelial cells.

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    Margrit Hollborn

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Curcumin from turmeric is an ingredient in curry powders. Due to its antiinflammatory, antioxidant and anticarcinogenic effects, curcumin is a promising drug for the treatment of cancer and retinal diseases. We investigated whether curcumin alters the viability and physiological properties of human retinal pigment epithelial (RPE cells in vitro. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Cellular proliferation was investigated with a bromodeoxy-uridine immunoassay, and chemotaxis was investigated with a Boyden chamber assay. Cell viability was determined by trypan blue exclusion. Apoptosis and necrosis rates were determined with a DNA fragmentation ELISA. Gene expression was determined by real-time PCR, and secretion of VEGF and bFGF was examined with ELISA. The phosphorylation level of proteins was revealed by Western blotting. The proliferation of RPE cells was slightly increased by curcumin at 10 µM and strongly reduced by curcumin above 50 µM. Curcumin at 50 µM increased slightly the chemotaxis of the cells. Curcumin reduced the expression and secretion of VEGF under control conditions and abolished the VEGF secretion induced by PDGF and chemical hypoxia. Whereas low concentrations of curcumin stimulated the expression of bFGF and HGF, high concentrations caused downregulation of both factors. Curcumin decreased dose-dependently the viability of RPE cells via induction of early necrosis (above 10 µM and delayed apoptosis (above 1 µM. The cytotoxic effect of curcumin involved activation of caspase-3 and calpain, intracellular calcium signaling, mitochondrial permeability, oxidative stress, increased phosphorylation of p38 MAPK and decreased phosphorylation of Akt protein. CONCLUSION: It is concluded that curcumin at concentrations described to be effective in the treatment of tumor cells and in inhibiting death of retinal neurons (∼10 µM has adverse effects on RPE cells. It is suggested that, during the intake of curcumin as

  19. Ca2+-dependent down-regulation of human histamine H1receptors in Chinese hamster ovary cells.

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    Hishinuma, Shigeru; Komazaki, Hiroshi; Tsukamoto, Hayato; Hatahara, Hirokazu; Fukui, Hiroyuki; Shoji, Masaru

    2018-01-01

    G q/11 protein-coupled human histamine H 1 receptors in Chinese hamster ovary cells stimulated with histamine undergo clathrin-dependent endocytosis followed by proteasome/lysosome-mediated down-regulation. In this study, we evaluated the effects of a sustained increase in intracellular Ca 2+ concentrations induced by a receptor-bypassed stimulation with ionomycin, a Ca 2+ ionophore, on the endocytosis and down-regulation of H 1 receptors in Chinese hamster ovary cells. All cellular and cell-surface H 1 receptors were detected by the binding of [ 3 H]mepyramine to intact cells sensitive to the hydrophobic and hydrophilic H 1 receptor ligands, mepyramine and pirdonium, respectively. The pretreatment of cells with ionomycin markedly reduced the mepyramine- and pirdonium-sensitive binding sites of [ 3 H]mepyramine, which were completely abrogated by the deprivation of extracellular Ca 2+ and partially by a ubiquitin-activating enzyme inhibitor (UBEI-41), but were not affected by inhibitors of calmodulin (W-7 or calmidazolium) and protein kinase C (chelerythrine or GF109203X). These ionomycin-induced changes were also not affected by inhibitors of receptor endocytosis via clathrin (hypertonic sucrose) and caveolae/lipid rafts (filipin or nystatin) or by inhibitors of lysosomes (E-64, leupeptin, chloroquine, or NH 4 Cl), proteasomes (lactacystin or MG-132), and a Ca 2+ -dependent non-lysosomal cysteine protease (calpain) (MDL28170). Since H 1 receptors were normally detected by confocal immunofluorescence microscopy with an antibody against H 1 receptors, even after the ionomycin treatment, H 1 receptors appeared to exist in a form to which [ 3 H]mepyramine was unable to bind. These results suggest that H 1 receptors are apparently down-regulated by a sustained increase in intracellular Ca 2+ concentrations with no process of endocytosis and lysosomal/proteasomal degradation of receptors. © 2017 International Society for Neurochemistry.

  20. Repair of traumatic plasmalemmal damage to neurons and other eukaryotic cells

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    George D Bittner

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The repair (sealing of plasmalemmal damage, consisting of small holes to complete transections, is critical for cell survival, especially for neurons that rarely regenerate cell bodies. We first describe and evaluate different measures of cell sealing. Some measures, including morphological/ultra-structural observations, membrane potential, and input resistance, provide very ambiguous assessments of plasmalemmal sealing. In contrast, measures of ionic current flow and dye barriers can, if appropriately used, provide more accurate assessments. We describe the effects of various substances (calcium, calpains, cytoskeletal proteins, ESCRT proteins, mUNC-13, NSF, PEG and biochemical pathways (PKA, PKC, PLC, Epac, cytosolic oxidation on plasmalemmal sealing probability, and suggest that substances, pathways, and cellular events associated with plasmalemmal sealing have undergone a very conservative evolution. During sealing, calcium ion influx mobilizes vesicles and other membranous structures (lysosomes, mitochondria, etc. in a continuous fashion to form a vesicular plug that gradually restricts diffusion of increasingly smaller molecules and ions over a period of seconds to minutes. Furthermore, we find no direct evidence that sealing occurs through the collapse and fusion of severed plasmalemmal leaflets, or in a single step involving the fusion of one large wound vesicle with the nearby, undamaged plasmalemma. We describe how increases in perikaryal calcium levels following axonal transection account for observations that cell body survival decreases the closer an axon is transected to the perikaryon. Finally, we speculate on relationships between plasmalemmal sealing, Wallerian degeneration, and the ability of polyethylene glycol (PEG to seal cell membranes and rejoin severed axonal ends – an important consideration for the future treatment of trauma to peripheral nerves. A better knowledge of biochemical pathways and cytoplasmic structures