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Sample records for calor latente pelo

  1. Estimativa do fluxo de calor latente pelo balanço de energia em cultivo protegido de pimentão

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    Cunha Antonio Ribeiro da

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi caracterizar e relacionar a radiação líquida com o calor latente equivalente, em mm de água, nos cultivos protegido e de campo, na cultura de pimentão. O experimento foi feito em Botucatu, SP. A estimativa do fluxo de calor latente foi feita pelo método do balanço de energia, por meio da razão de Bowen. Foram feitas medidas instantâneas da radiação líquida (Rn, dos fluxos convectivos de calor latente (LE e sensível (H, do fluxo de calor no solo (G, e dos gradientes psicrométricos sobre a cultura. O cultivo protegido, apesar de receber menor quantidade de radiação solar global, foi mais eficiente na conversão da radiação líquida disponível em matéria seca total e na produtividade de frutos. No balanço de energia, o cultivo protegido apresentou razões G/Rn e LE/Rn inferiores e H/Rn superior, com um fluxo de calor latente, equivalente em milímetros, 45,43% menor que no cultivo no campo. Apresentou, ainda, menor quantidade de radiação líquida disponível e menores perdas de energia, mostrando-se mais eficiente no uso da água.

  2. Distúrbios causados pelo frio e pelo calor durante corridas de longa distância

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    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available Muitos corredores amadores e de elite participam todos os anos de corridas de longa distância. Quando estes eventos ocorrem em temperaturas altas ou baixas, aumenta o risco de distúrbios térmicos. Contudo, a hipertermia induzida pelo exercício, a hipotermia, a desidratação e outros problemas relacionados podem ser minimizados através de esclarecimentos e um preparo antes do evento. Este documento fornece recomendações para o diretor médico e outras autoridades da organização das corridas nas seguintes áreas: planejamento, profissionais envolvidos na organização, instalações, suprimentos, equipamento e comunicação; fornecimento de esclarecimentos aos participantes; avaliação do estresse térmico; fornecimento de líquidos; e prevenção de questões legais em potencial. Este posicionamento oficial também descreve as condições predisponentes, as formas de diagnóstico e o tratamento dos quatro distúrbios ambientais mais comuns: exaustão pelo calor, colapso pelo calor, hipotermia e congelamento de extremidades. Os objetivos deste documento são: 1 Educar os organizadores e os participantes de corridas de longa distância a respeito das formas mais comuns de distúrbios térmicos incluindo as condições predisponentes, sinais de alerta, suscetibilidade e a redução de sua incidência; 2 Alertar os organizadores sobre as suas responsabilidades civis em potencial no que concerne à segurança do evento e à prevenção de lesões; 3 Recomendar que os organizadores consultem arquivos locais de meteorologia e planejem eventos em horas que provavelmente causem menos estresse térmico de modo a minimizar os efeitos deletérios sobre os participantes; 4 Estimular os organizadores a alertar os participantes sobre o estresse térmico no dia da corrida e as suas implicações no que tange aos distúrbios causados pelo frio e pelo calor; 5 Informar os organizadores sobre as ações preventivas que podem reduzir a incidência dos

  3. Trombose induzida pelo calor endovenoso: relato de dois casos tratados com rivaroxabana e revisão da literatura

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    Walter Junior Boim de Araujo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Resumo Define-se trombose induzida pelo calor endovenoso como a propagação do trombo a partir de uma veia superficial em direção a uma veia mais profunda. Em geral, é considerada clinicamente insignificante quando não há propagação do trombo para o sistema venoso profundo. Essa condição pode ser tratada com terapia anticoagulante, embora a observação pareça ser suficiente, principalmente para graus menores. Neste estudo, relatamos dois casos de trombose induzida pelo calor endovenoso que teriam indicação de heparina de baixo peso molecular até a resolução do quadro. Porém, optou-se pelo uso da rivaroxabana (15 mg de 12 em 12h, com resolução completa do trombo em 4 semanas (caso 1 e em 7 dias (caso 2. A rivaroxabana pode ser uma alternativa promissora no tratamento da trombose induzida pelo calor endovenoso avançada, pela simplicidade da posologia, sem comprometimento da eficácia ou da segurança. São necessários estudos prospectivos, randomizados e controlados que possibilitem melhor entendimento da condição e o desenvolvimento de recomendações mais definitivas sobre opções de prevenção e tratamento.

  4. Humedad de equilibrio y calor latente de vaporización del ajonjolí. Sésamun indicum L.

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    Julio E. Ospina M.

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available El ajonjolí (Sésamun indicum L., es una oleaginosa originaria de África y cultivada en las regiones tropicales y subtropicales de Asia y América. A los 110 días de sembrada se cosecha la semilla la cual se utiliza como materia prima especialmente en la industria de grasas y aceites comestibles. Actualmente se pierden en Colombia, un alto porcentaje de semillas durante el proceso de secado natura en el campo. Debido a la falta de información técnica, científica en secado y almacenamiento del grana de ajonjolí se procedió a estudiar la metodología para determinar, el contenido de humedad por el método de la estufa, las curvas y modelo para cuantificar la humedad de equilibrio y el calor latente de vaporización.

  5. Lesão do colo do cafeeiro, causada pelo calor Collar injury- young coffe plants caused by heat

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    Coaracy M. Franco

    1961-01-01

    Full Text Available Tem sido observada ocasionalmente uma lesão no colo de cafeeiros novos ao nível do solo. .Estudos dc laboratório mostraram que o caule de cafeeiros novos foram danificados quando ao redor dêle se fêz circular água aquecida às temperaturas de 45 o 50ºC. O aquecimento da superfície do solo, compreendendo o colo de cafeeiro vegetando em laminados, com o auxílio de uma lâmpada de raios infravermelhos, resultou em lesão semelhante àquela observada nas culturas. Essa lesão apareceu em tratamentos cujas temperaturas estiveram entre 44 e 51°C. O fato dessas temperaturas serem freqüentemente observadas em solos expostos ao sol, sugere que a lesão do caule do cafeeiro, observada freqüentemente em cafèzais novos, seja conseqüência do aquecimento excessivo da superfície do solo pelos raios solares.A collar injury of young, field coffee plants at the soil level has been observed occasionally in the summer. The location of the abnormality and the season when it appears .suggested that excessive heating of the soil surface by the sun rays could be its cause. Two experiments were then conducted in the laboratory to investigate this bypothesis. The first experiment consisted in circulating water at the desired temperature around the stem ofyoung coffee plants, using the same apparatus described in a previous paper. In a second experiment the base of the stem and the soil around it was heated by means of a G. E. 250 watts infrared industrial reflector. By changing the distance between the heat source and the plant, different temperatures at the soil surface could be obtained. The results of the first experiment showed that 4 plants out of o that were treated at 45ºC showed injury; the other 2 plants survived without damage. From 5 plants that were treated at 50ºC, 2 showed injury and 3 died shortly after the treatment. All plants subjected to the temperature treatments at 35°C and 40ºC survived without damage, while those treated at 55º

  6. Estudo do Sujamento da Superfície de Transferência de Calor do Evaporador de uma Bomba de Calor aquecido pelo efluente de uma fábrica de pasta para papel

    OpenAIRE

    Fernandes, Sofia Assunção

    2010-01-01

    O presente trabalho tem como principal objectivo a avaliação do sujamento da superfície de transferência de calor do evaporador de uma bomba de calor, quando se utiliza o efluente da fábrica de pasta e papel da Portucel Soporcel em Cacia como fluido de aquecimento. Para a realização deste estudo montou-se uma instalação, composta por uma bomba de calor, um circuito de água de arrefecimento do condensador da bomba de calor e um circuito de água residual quente para o aquecimento do evaporador ...

  7. Influência da temperatura do ar de secagem no calor latente de vaporização de água em feijão macassar (Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp., variedade sempre-verde Influence of the temperature on the latent heat of vaporization of moisture from cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp., always-green variety

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    Wilton P. da Silva

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Em cálculos da quantidade de energia requerida em processos de secagem artificial de um produto agrícola, é necessário o conhecimento de uma expressão para a determinação do calor latente de vaporização (H de água no produto. Normalmente, as expressões para H, encontradas na literatura, são dadas pelo calor latente de vaporização (h de água livre multiplicado por funções que dependem apenas do teor de água do produto. Isso significa que a relação H/h, para um dado produto, só depende do teor de água, o que é uma simplificação, pois se sabe que tal relação depende também da temperatura. Neste artigo, é apresentada uma expressão para o cálculo de H para feijão macassar, variedade sempre-verde, levando em consideração a dependência de H/h com a temperatura. Para tal, foi desenvolvido e utilizado um programa computacional que ajusta, de forma automática, cerca de 500 funções contidas em sua biblioteca, com uma e duas variáveis independentes, a dados experimentais. O programa, que usa regressão não-linear, classifica as melhores funções ajustadas pelo critério do menor qui-quadrado reduzido. O conjunto de testes estatísticos realizados indica que a expressão apresentada neste artigo produz resultados mais precisos na determinação de H para feijão macassar que os de outras equações normalmente encontradas na literatura.In order to determine the energy needed to artificially dry an agricultural product the latent heat of vaporization of moisture in the product, H, must be known. Generally, the expressions for H reported in the literature are of the form H = h(Tf(M, where h(T is the latent heat of vaporization of free water, and f(M is a function of the equilibrium moisture content, M, which is a simplification. In this article, a more general expression for the latent heat of vaporization, namely H = g(M,T, is used to determine H for cowpea, always-green variety. For this purpose, a computer program

  8. Avaliação de fluxos de calor e evapotranspiração pelo modelo SEBAL com uso de dados do sensor ASTER Evaluation of heat fluxes and evapotranspiration using SEBAL model with data from ASTER sensor

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    Thiago Veloso dos Santos

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a eficiência da aplicação do modelo SEBAL em estimar os fluxos de energia em superfície e a evapotranspiração diária, numa extensa área de cultivo de arroz irrigado, no município de Paraíso do Sul, RS, tendo como parâmetros dados do sensor ASTER. As variáveis estudadas constituem importantes parâmetros do tempo e do clima em estudos agrometeorológicos e de racionalização no uso da água. As metodologias convencionais de estimativa desses parâmetros são pontuais e geralmente apresentam incertezas, que aumentam quando o interesse é o comportamento espacial desses parâmetros. Aplicou-se o algoritmo "Surface Energy Balance Algorithm for Land" (SEBAL, em uma imagem do sensor "Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer" (ASTER. As estimativas obtidas foram comparadas com medições em campo, realizadas por uma estação micrometeorológica localizada no interior da área de estudo. As estimativas mais precisas foram as de fluxo de calor sensível e de evapotranspiração diária, e a estimativa que apresentou maior erro foi a do fluxo de calor no solo. A metodologia empregada foi capaz de reproduzir os fluxos de energia em superfície de maneira satisfatória para estudos agrometeorológicos e de rendimento de culturas.The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficiency of SEBAL model in estimating soil surface energy fluxes and daily evapotranspiration for a large area of irrigated rice farms, near the municipality of Paraíso do Sul, RS, Brazil, using data from ASTER sensor. The evaluated variables are important weather and climatic parameters for agrometeorological studies and rationalization of water use. The conventional methodologies for estimating these parameters generally present uncertainties, which increase when concern is in the spatial behavior of such parameters. The Surface Energy Balance Algorithm for Land (SEBAL was applied in an Advanced Spaceborne

  9. Avaliação da biocompatibilidade de implantes mamários de silicone esterilizados por calor seco e pelo óxido de etileno Biocompatibility assessment of silicone gel breast implants sterilized by dry-heat and by ethylene oxide

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    Janice Campos de Azevedo

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Os implantes mamários de silicone têm sido empregados, tanto nas cirurgias de aumento de mama, quanto na reconstrução do tecido mamário. A segurança biológica deste tipo de implante deve ser garantida, pois, em função da esterilização estes materiais, podem sofrer alterações oriundas dos processos esterilizantes por comprometimento da estrutura química dos polímeros. O objetivo deste trabalho consistiu na avaliação da biocompatibilidade de implantes mamários preenchidos com gel de silicone, de superfície lisa e texturizada submetidos à esterilização por calor seco e óxido de etileno. Empregou-se, para tanto, método in vitro, avaliando a citotoxicidade pelo método de captura do vermelho neutro, utilizando a linhagem celular NCTC clone 929. Os resultados obtidos demonstraram não haver comprometimento da biocompatibilidade dos biomateriais submetidos aos dois processos (calor seco e óxido de etileno, assim como comprovaram a eficácia de ambos na esterilização dos implantes.Silicone breast implants have been widely used for mammary augmentation and reconstruction surgery. Biological safety of these implants can be altered by sterilization methods. This study consisted of the biocompatibility assessment of smooth and textured silicone gel breast implants sterilized by dry-heat and ethylene oxide through cell viability, employing neutral red uptake method. The NCTC clone 929 cell were employed and the results showed no cytotoxicity of implants after both sterilization processes.

  10. ISOTERMAS E CALOR ISOSTÉRICO DE ADSORÇÃO DA ÁGUA DO AMIDO DE QUINOA

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    AUGUSTO PUMACAHUA RAMOS

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available A quinoa possui mais de 60% de amido, sendo uma alternativa de extração e comercialização. Para isto é necessário conhecer o comportamento do amido frente à temperatura e umidade relativa do ar. O objetivo desta pesquisa foi avaliar as isotermas de adsorção do amido de quinoa em cinco temperaturas (20, 30, 40, 50 e 60ºC e dez atividades de água (0,036 a 0,907. Os pontos experimentais foram ajustados aos modelos matemáticos GAB, Oswin, Henderson, Peleg e Ferro-Foltan. Foram determinadas as energias de ativação da adsorção da água pelas constantes do modelo GAB e o calor isostérico pelo modelo de Peleg. As isotermas mostraram ser do tipo II na classificação de Brunauer. Os teores de água da monocamada (Xm determinados pelo modelo de GAB variaram de 7,90% a 10,38% base seca (b.s. para temperaturas de 60 e 20°C e as energias de ativação obtidas pelas constantes Xm, C e K do modelo de GAB foram de 300; 160 e 6 kJ/kg, respectivamente. O calor isostérico de adsorção foi de 3732 kJ/kg para umidade de equilíbrio de 0,5% b.s. e diminuiu com o aumento da umidade até valor próximo ao calor latente de vaporização da água pura a 36% b.s. As propriedades determinadas são características de amidos com elevado teor de amilopectina.

  11. Influência do calor armazenado no sistema solo-planta no balanço de energia em pomar de mangueiras Influence of the heat stored in the soil-plant system in the energy balance over a mango orchard

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    Cícera J. R. Borges

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Neste estudo se objetivou a avaliação da contribuição do calor armazenado acima das placas de fluxo de calor no solo e no dossel vegetativo sobre os componentes do balanço de energia, no pomar de mangueiras. Os componentes do balanço de energia foram obtidos pelo método do balanço de energia com base na razão de Bowen. O teste t-Student foi usado para avaliar a existência de diferença significativa entre as médias dos componentes do balanço de energia, obtidas mediante as seguintes condições: (i considerando-se o calor armazenado acima dos fluxímetros e (ii desconsiderando-se o calor armazenado acima dos fluxímetros, cujos resultados indicaram que: 1 o efeito do calor armazenado no dossel vegetativo é irrelevante quando comparado com os outros componentes do balanço de energia em pomar de mangueiras; 2 o calor armazenado acima das placas de calor no solo não interfere significativamente no cálculo dos fluxos de calor sensível e latente nem na evapotranspiração da mangueira irrigada; 3 o fluxo de calor no solo, corrigido com o calor armazenado acima dos fluxímetros, difere estatisticamente a nível de 5% de probabilidade, daquele obtido sem a correção do fluxo.The objective of this study was to investigate the contribution of the heat storage above the soil heat flux plates and within the canopy upon the components of the energy balance in the mango orchard. The Bowen energy-ratio balance method was used for obtaining the energy balance components and evapotranspiration of the mango orchard. The t-Student test was applied to evaluate statistical significance of the difference between energy balance component averages under the following conditions: (i considering and (ii not considering the heat storage above the fluximeters. The results suggested that: 1 the canopy heat storage is irrelevant compared to the other energy balance components; 2 the above soil heat plates heat storage does not influence the sensible and

  12. Calore e termodinamica

    CERN Document Server

    Zemansky, Mark W

    1970-01-01

    Temperatura ; sistemi termodinamici semplici ; lavoro ; il calore e il primo principio ; gas ideali ; teoria cinetica dei gas ideali ; il secondo principio della termodinamica ; reversibilità e temperatura Kelvin ; entropia ; meccanica statistica sostanze pure ; transizioni di fase, elio liquido ed elio solido ; sistemi particolari ; paramagnetismo, fisica delle basse temperature, temperature negative e terzo principio ; superfluidità e superconduttività ; equilibrio chimico ; reazioni con gas ideali ; sistemi eterogenei.

  13. Colapso pelo calor esforço induzido: reconhecimento para salvar vidas e tratamento imediato em instalações atléticas Choque térmico relacionado con el ejercício: reconocimiento y tratamiento locales para salvar vidas Exertional heat stroke: life-saving recognition and onsite treatment in athletic settings

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    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available O prognóstico do colapso pelo calor esforço induzido depende do produto do tempo de duração em que a temperatura central ficou elevada e do grau da elevação. O atleta com EHS que tem pronta descoberta e que é resfriado de maneira eficiente, muito provavelmente irá sobreviver ao episódio com pouco ou nenhum efeito residual. Em contraste, o atleta com apresentação atrasada para o tratamento, especialmente se a área sob a curva de resfriamento for > 60 graus-minuto (centígrados terá um curso complicado e geralmente fatal. Os métodos de condução do resfriamento com imersão em gelo ou água gelada ou envolvimento em toalhas com água gelada proporcionarão uma rápida e consistente redução da temperatura de todo o corpo, que irá salvar tanto os órgãos quanto a vida. O reconhecimento depende em alto grau da suspeita por parte dos próprios atletas, treinadores e pessoal médico local. Em condições de alto risco, os atletas devem se supervisionar, procurando por mudanças sutis que podem ser sinais de EHS.El pronóstico del choque térmico (CT relacionado con el ejercicio depende del producto del periodo de tiempo en que la temperatura central se mantenga elevada y de la magnitud de esta elevación. El atleta con CT que sea diagnosticado y sea rápida y eficientemente refrescado probablemente sobrevivirá al episodio con ninguna o pocas complicaciones. Por otra parte aquel atleta que halla tenido un inicio tardío en el tratamiento con una área por debajo de la curva mayor de 60 grados-minuto (centigrados tendrá complicaciones y de seguro una evolución fatal. Los métodos de enfriamiento con hielo o inmersión en agua fría o toallas con agua helada en rotación permiten una reducción consistente y rápida de la temperatura corporal capaz de preservar los órganos y la vida. El reconocimiento depende del elevado grado de sospecha por parte de los atletas, técnicos y personal de apoyo médico. En condiciones de alto riesgo

  14. Prácticas de Física: Calor de fusión

    OpenAIRE

    Beléndez,Augusto; Bernabeu, Guillermo; Vera Guarinos, Jenaro; Pastor Antón, Carlos; Martín García, Agapito

    1988-01-01

    El objetivo de esta práctica de laboratorio es la determinación del calor latente de fusión del hielo mediante el método de las mezclas así como el aprendizaje del manejo del calorímetro como instrumento de trabajo en experiencias térmicas, fundamentalmente de calorimetría. Para desarrollar la experiencia se introduce en un calorímetro una cierta cantidad de líquido a una temperatura superior a la del ambiente y luego añadir una cantidad de hielo a su temperatura de fusión. Es necesario conoc...

  15. Fluxo de calor sensível em cultivo de feijão-caupi Sensible heat flux in cowpea

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    José R. de S Lima

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho objetivou comparar o fluxo de calor sensível obtido pelo método do balanço de energia-razão de Bowen (H_B e pelo método aerodinâmico (H_A, em uma área de 4 ha cultivada com feijão-caupi em Areia-PB (6º 58' 12" S e 35º 42' 15" O, 620 m. Foram coletados dados de saldo de radiação, fluxo de calor no solo, temperatura e umidade do solo, temperatura e umidade relativa do ar, velocidade do vento e precipitação pluvial, os quais eram lidos a cada minuto, e armazenados, em uma central de aquisição de dados, como médias a cada 30 min, com exceção da pluviometria, cujo valor foi totalizado no período. Obteve-se excelente concordância entre H_A e H_B, com um índice "d " de 0,980, um erro padrão (EP de 14,88 W m-2, e sem diferença significativa entre H_A e H_B, pelo teste t-Student. Deste modo, o método aerodinâmico pode ser usado em conjunto com medidas de saldo de radiação e de fluxo de calor no solo, para se estimar o fluxo de calor latente e, consequentemente, a evapotranspiração da cultura do feijão-caupi, para as condições edafoclimáticas do Brejo Paraibano.A study was performed to compare the bulk aerodynamic (H_A and Bowen ratio energy balance (H_B methods in the estimation of the sensible heat flux in a cowpea crop. Data of net radiation, soil heat flux, soil water content, soil temperature, air temperature, relative humidity, wind speed and rainfall were collected on 30-min time intervals in an area of 4 ha belonging to the municipality of Areia, PB (6º 58' 12" S e 35º 42' 15" W, 620 m. Results showed that there was a good agreement between H_A and H_B with an index "d" of 0.98 and standard error of estimate (SEE of 14.88 W m-2, no significant difference between H_A H_B, by the t-Student test. Thus, the bulk aerodynamic method can be used in conjunction with measurements of net radiation and soil heat flux to estimate the evapotranspiration of the cowpea under soil and climatic condition of

  16. Elementi di trasmissione del calore

    CERN Document Server

    Guglielmini, Giovanni

    1990-01-01

    Introduzione ; concetti fondamentali di conduzione termica ; conduzione termica in regime stazionario ; conduzione termica in regime variabile ; analisi numerica nei problemi do conduzione ; concetti fondamentali di convezione termica ; convezione forzata ; convezione naturale ; scambio termico in ebollizione e condensazione ; concetti fondamentali di radiazione termica ; scambio termico per radiazione ; scambiatori di calore ; problemi termici negli edifici.

  17. Fluxo de seiva pelo método do balanço de calor: base teórica, qualidade das medidas e aspectos práticos Sap flow by heat balance method: theoretical basis, data quality and practical aspects

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    Fábio Ricardo Marin

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available O método do balanço de calor representa uma técnica importante para estudos sobre fisiologia vegetal, agrometeorologia e irrigação. Sua aplicação tem aumentado nos últimos anos em decorrência da maior facilidade de importação de material e equipamentos e do uso mais disseminado dos sistemas automáticos de aquisição de dados. Avanços importantes em diversas áreas de pesquisa têm sido alcançados com a possibilidade de se quantificar o consumo hídrico em plantas isoladas em diferentes escalas de tempo. Com base na teoria do método, esta revisão tem como objetivo apresentar e discutir os procedimentos de instalação, manutenção e de análise e processamento dos dados com vistas ao uso mais adequado da técnica e à obtenção de dados mais confiáveis e coerentes. Aspectos relacionados à influência das condições ambientais no funcionamento do sensor são abordados; são também discutidas diversas recomendações práticas observadas na literatura disponível. O grande número e a diversidade de procedimentos que envolvem a instalação dos sensores, sua manutenção em condições de campo e a análise dos dados conferem ao método grande aplicação na experimentação científica. Entretanto, o uso do método de balanço de calor em larga escala parece inadequado devido à dificuldade de correta operação, o que facilmente compromete a qualidade das medidas.The stem heat balance method has become an important technique in plant physiology, agrometeorology and irrigation science. Its application has increased in the last years due to the development of less expensive automatic data acquisition systems that are widespread. Important advances in several research areas have been reached by quantifying the water consumption by isolated plants in different temporal scales. Based on the theory of the method, this review aims to present and discuss the procedures of installation and maintenance, and data analysis and

  18. Estimativa do balanço de energia em cambarazal e pastagem no norte do Pantanal pelo método da razão de Bowen Estimate of energy balance in cambarazaland pasture in the north of Pantanal by Bowen ratio method

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    Marcelo Sacardi Biudes

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available O estudo do balanço de energia de uma superfície vegetada e a atmosfera é importante para caracterizar o microclima local, identificar interações entre variáveis ambientais e a vegetação, e identificar efeitos das atividades antropogênicas. O objetivo deste trabalho foi estimar a variação sazonal do balanço de energia pelo método da razão de Bowen em uma área de vegetação monodominante de Cambará na RPPN SESC-Pantanal e uma área de pastagem na Fazenda Experimental da UFMT. Os componentes do balanço de energia apresentaram sazonalidade, com maiores médias na estação chuvosa nas duas áreas de estudo. No cambarazal houve maior variação do fluxo de calor latente da estação seca para a chuvosa que na pastagem. Entretanto, a variação sazonal do fluxo de calor sensível foi menor no cambarazal que na pastagem, devido ao efeito termo-regulador do cambarazal, em função da maior biomassa. A energia disponível aos dois sítios foi destinada prioritariamente em fluxo de calor latente, 80,0% no cambarazal e 56,6% na pastagem, seguido pelo fluxo de calor sensível, 19,1 e 42,9%, e pelo fluxo de calor no solo, 0,3 e 7,2%.The energy balance study of a vegetated surface and atmosphere is important to characterize the local microclimate, identify interactions among environmental variables and the vegetation and to identify anthropogenic activities effects. The objective of this work was estimate the seasonality of energy balance by Bowen ratio method in a monodominant vegetation of Cambará area in the RPPN SESC-Pantanal and a pasture area in UFMT's Experimental Farm. The energy balance components presented seasonality, with larger averages at the rainy station in two areas of study. In the cambarazal was a higher variation of the latent heat flux of the dry season for the rainy season that in the pasture. However, the seasonal variation of the sensible heat flux in the cambarazal was lower than in the pasture, due to the thermo

  19. Carnot to Clausius: Caloric to Entropy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newburgh, Ronald

    2009-01-01

    This paper discusses how the Carnot engine led to the formulation of the second law of thermodynamics and entropy. The operation of the engine is analysed both in terms of heat as the caloric fluid and heat as a form of energy. A keystone of Carnot's thinking was the absolute conservation of caloric. Although the Carnot analysis was partly…

  20. Higher Unsaturation and Peroxidizability Indices in Caloric ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this report, Drosophila melanogaster were maintained on caloric restricted and normal diets for varying periods, mitochondrial phospholipid fatty acids were extracted and analyzed. Whilst 10 days and 20 days of caloric restriction did not cause any significant change in mitochondrial phospholipid fatty acid composition, ...

  1. Caloric beverage consumption patterns in Mexican children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rivera Juan A

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mexico has seen a very steep increase in child obesity level. Little is known about caloric beverage intake in this country as well as all other countries outside a few high income countries. This study examines overall patterns and trends in all caloric beverages from two nationally representative surveys from Mexico. Methods The two nationally representative dietary intake surveys (1999 and 2006 from Mexico are used to study caloric beverage intake in 17, 215 children. The volume (ml and caloric energy (kcal contributed by all beverages consumed by the sample subjects were measured. Results are weighted to be nationally representative. Results The trends from the dietary intake surveys showed very large increases in caloric beverages among pre-school and school children. The contribution of whole milk and sugar-sweetened juices was an important finding. Mexican pre-school children consumed 27.8% of their energy from caloric beverages in 2006 and school children consumed 20.7% of their energy from caloric beverages during the same time. The three major categories of beverage intake are whole milk, fruit juice with various sugar and water combinations and carbonated and noncarbonated sugared-beverages. Conclusion The Mexican government, greatly concerned about obesity, has identified the large increase in caloric beverages from whole milk, juices and soft drinks as a key target and is initiating major changes to address this problem. They have already used the data to shift 20 million persons in their welfare and feeding programs from whole to 1.5% fat milk and in a year will shift to nonfat milk. They are using these data to revise school beverage policies and national regulations and taxation policies related to an array of less healthful caloric beverages.

  2. Oxytocin reduces caloric intake in men

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lawson, Elizabeth A; Marengi, Dean A; DeSanti, Rebecca L; Holmes, Tara M; Schoenfeld, David A; Tolley, Christiane J

    2015-01-01

    .... Oxytocin effects on nutrition and metabolism in humans are not well defined. It was hypothesized that oxytocin would reduce caloric intake and appetite and alter levels of appetite-regulating hormones...

  3. Epigenetic regulation of caloric restriction in aging

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Li, Yuanyuan; Daniel, Michael; Tollefsbol, Trygve O

    2011-01-01

    .... The aging process is frequently affected by environmental factors, and caloric restriction is by far the most effective and established environmental manipulation for extending lifespan in various animal models...

  4. Fasting or caloric restriction for healthy aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anton, Stephen; Leeuwenburgh, Christiaan

    2013-10-01

    Aging is associated with a host of biological changes that contribute to a progressive decline in cognitive and physical function, ultimately leading to a loss of independence, and increased risk of mortality. To date, prolonged caloric restriction (i.e., a reduction in caloric intake without malnutrition) is the only non-genetic intervention that has consistently been found to extend both mean and maximal life span across a variety of species. Most individuals have difficulty sustaining prolonged caloric restriction, which has led to a search for alternative approaches that can produce similar to benefits as caloric restriction. A growing body of evidence indicates that fasting periods and intermittent fasting regimens in particular can trigger similar biological pathways as caloric restriction. For this reason, there is increasing scientific interest in further exploring the biological and metabolic effects of intermittent fasting periods, as well as whether long-term compliance may be improved by this type of dietary approach. This special will highlight the latest scientific findings related to the effects of both caloric restriction and intermittent fasting across various species including yeast, fruit flies, worms, rodents, primates, and humans. A specific emphasis is placed on translational research with findings from basic bench to bedside reviewed and practical clinical implications discussed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Annual mean analysis of the tropical heat balance and associations with the Walker circulation Análise média anual do balanço de calor tropical e associações com a circulação de Walker

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Augusto Paixão Veiga

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The present study presents an analysis of the annual mean tropical heat balance and its association with the Walker circulation (WC using NCEP/NCAR Reanalysis data. This study shows the relative importance of diabatic data to produce vertical motion in the tropics and for the WC region. It is shown that ascending motion in the WC's upward branch is determined by the joint effect of latent heating and radiative cooling processes while infrared radiation loss is associated to sink motions on the WC's descending branch. In ascending branches of the WC vertical velocity from reanalysis is overestimated when latent heat is taken into account to drive motions. Radiative cooling is indentified as the main physical process yielding sinking motion in the WC's downward branches. In upward branches of the WC, resulting diabatic processes (latent heat release are balanced by adiabatic expansion (due rising motions. In descending branches of the WC, there is a near balance between radiative cooling (due to longwave emission and heating (due to sinking motions.Este estudo apresenta uma análise do balanço de calor anual médio da região tropical e sua associação com a Circulação de Walker (CW, a partir das reanálises do NCEP/NCAR. Este estudo mostra a importância relativa do aquecimento diabático para gerar movimentos verticais nos trópicos e na região de atuação da CW. Os resultados mostram que o movimento ascendente nos ramos principais da CW é governado pelo efeito conjunto dos processos de aquecimento latente e resfriamento radiativo, enquanto que a perda de radiação infravermelha produz movimento descendente nos ramos secundários da CW. Mostra-se que o aquecimento latente força movimentos ascendentes sobre os ramos principais da CW, todavia, a velocidade vertical observada é superestimada, se apenas o calor latente é levado em consideração para forçar os movimentos. Além disso, o resfriamento radiativo foi identificado como o

  6. Latent tree models

    OpenAIRE

    Zwiernik, Piotr

    2017-01-01

    Latent tree models are graphical models defined on trees, in which only a subset of variables is observed. They were first discussed by Judea Pearl as tree-decomposable distributions to generalise star-decomposable distributions such as the latent class model. Latent tree models, or their submodels, are widely used in: phylogenetic analysis, network tomography, computer vision, causal modeling, and data clustering. They also contain other well-known classes of models like hidden Markov models...

  7. Oxytocin reduces caloric intake in men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawson, Elizabeth A; Marengi, Dean A; DeSanti, Rebecca L; Holmes, Tara M; Schoenfeld, David A; Tolley, Christiane J

    2015-05-01

    Preclinical studies indicate that oxytocin is anorexigenic and has beneficial metabolic effects. Oxytocin effects on nutrition and metabolism in humans are not well defined. It was hypothesized that oxytocin would reduce caloric intake and appetite and alter levels of appetite-regulating hormones. Metabolic effects of oxytocin were also explored. A randomized, placebo-controlled crossover study of single-dose intranasal oxytocin (24 IU) in 25 fasting healthy men was performed. After oxytocin/placebo, subjects selected breakfast from a menu and were given double portions. Caloric content of food consumed was measured. Visual analog scales were used to assess appetite, and blood was drawn for appetite-regulating hormones, insulin, and glucose before and after oxytocin/placebo. Indirect calorimetry assessed resting energy expenditure (REE) and substrate utilization. Oxytocin reduced caloric intake with a preferential effect on fat intake and increased levels of the anorexigenic hormone cholecystokinin without affecting appetite or other appetite-regulating hormones. There was no effect of oxytocin on REE. Oxytocin resulted in a shift from carbohydrate to fat utilization and improved insulin sensitivity. Intranasal oxytocin reduces caloric intake and has beneficial metabolic effects in men without concerning side effects. The efficacy and safety of sustained oxytocin administration in the treatment of obesity warrants investigation. © 2014 The Obesity Society.

  8. Higher Unsaturation and Peroxidizability Indices in Caloric ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The biochemical processes involved in ageing are poorly understood. One of the general approaches to understanding the mechanism of ageing is to study the effect of experimental manipulations on life-span and the properties that are affected by them. Some of these experimental manipulations are caloric restriction and ...

  9. Epigenetic regulation of caloric restriction in aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Michael

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The molecular mechanisms of aging are the subject of much research and have facilitated potential interventions to delay aging and aging-related degenerative diseases in humans. The aging process is frequently affected by environmental factors, and caloric restriction is by far the most effective and established environmental manipulation for extending lifespan in various animal models. However, the precise mechanisms by which caloric restriction affects lifespan are still not clear. Epigenetic mechanisms have recently been recognized as major contributors to nutrition-related longevity and aging control. Two primary epigenetic codes, DNA methylation and histone modification, are believed to dynamically influence chromatin structure, resulting in expression changes of relevant genes. In this review, we assess the current advances in epigenetic regulation in response to caloric restriction and how this affects cellular senescence, aging and potential extension of a healthy lifespan in humans. Enhanced understanding of the important role of epigenetics in the control of the aging process through caloric restriction may lead to clinical advances in the prevention and therapy of human aging-associated diseases.

  10. Latent variable theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borsboom, D.

    2008-01-01

    This paper formulates a metatheoretical framework for latent variable modeling. It does so by spelling out the difference between observed and latent variables. This difference is argued to be purely epistemic in nature: We treat a variable as observed when the inference from data structure to

  11. Latent myofascial trigger points.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Hong-You; Arendt-Nielsen, Lars

    2011-10-01

    A latent myofascial trigger point (MTP) is defined as a focus of hyperirritability in a muscle taut band that is clinically associated with local twitch response and tenderness and/or referred pain upon manual examination. Current evidence suggests that the temporal profile of the spontaneous electrical activity at an MTP is similar to focal muscle fiber contraction and/or muscle cramp potentials, which contribute significantly to the induction of local tenderness and pain and motor dysfunctions. This review highlights the potential mechanisms underlying the sensory-motor dysfunctions associated with latent MTPs and discusses the contribution of central sensitization associated with latent MTPs and the MTP network to the spatial propagation of pain and motor dysfunctions. Treating latent MTPs in patients with musculoskeletal pain may not only decrease pain sensitivity and improve motor functions, but also prevent latent MTPs from transforming into active MTPs, and hence, prevent the development of myofascial pain syndrome.

  12. Intake of calorically sweetened beverages and obesity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, N J; Heitmann, B L

    2009-01-01

    The prevalence of obesity has increased in the past 30 years, and at the same time a steep increase in consumption of soft drinks has been seen. This paper reviews the literature for studies on associations between intake of calorically sweetened beverages and obesity, relative to adjustment...... for energy intake. Conclusions from previous reviews have been inconsistent, but some included many cross-sectional studies or studies supported by sugar industry. A literature search was performed for prospective and experimental studies using Medline and Scirus. Fourteen prospective and five experimental...... not find effects. Eight prospective studies adjusted for energy intake. Seven of these studies reported associations that were essentially similar before and after energy adjustment. In conclusion, a high intake of calorically sweetened beverages can be regarded as a determinant for obesity. However...

  13. Transferencia de calor a lechos empacados

    OpenAIRE

    Beltrán Feged, Alvaro; Bonilla Melendez, Alberto; Cancelado Arias, Miguel

    2012-01-01

    Consideremos el lecho de solidos granulados de la figura 1.El lecho esta a una temperatura u (z,t), y tiene un calor especifico  cs, que se toma constante. z es la altura del lecho, y t es el tiempo. A este lecho entran G unidades de masa de fluido por unidad de tiempo y de área de sección de lecho(1)(2)

  14. Latent classification models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langseth, Helge; Nielsen, Thomas Dyhre

    2005-01-01

    parametric family ofdistributions.  In this paper we propose a new set of models forclassification in continuous domains, termed latent classificationmodels. The latent classification model can roughly be seen ascombining the \\NB model with a mixture of factor analyzers,thereby relaxing the assumptions...... classification model, and wedemonstrate empirically that the accuracy of the proposed model issignificantly higher than the accuracy of other probabilisticclassifiers....

  15. Latent olefin metathesis catalysts

    OpenAIRE

    Monsaert, Stijn; Lozano Vila, Ana; Drozdzak, Renata; Van Der Voort, Pascal; Verpoort, Francis

    2009-01-01

    Olefin metathesis is a versatile synthetic tool for the redistribution of alkylidene fragments at carbon-carbon double bonds. This field, and more specifically the development of task-specific, latent catalysts, attracts emerging industrial and academic interest. This tutorial review aims to provide the reader with a concise overview of early breakthroughs and recent key developments in the endeavor to develop latent olefin metathesis catalysts, and to illustrate their use by prominent exampl...

  16. Latent Structure Agreement Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-11-01

    general approach of Lazarsfeld and Henry [2]. More recently, we have used an EM algorithm 130] related to that described by Goodman [3] and Dawid and...inverting the information matrix [2]. Identifiability Lazarsfeld and Henry [2], Goodman [3], and others discuss identifiability of latent class models...and Irwig [43]. The fixed panel agreement model corresponds closely to traditional latent class analysis applications as described by Lazarsfeld and

  17. Use of non-caloric edulcorants in children

    OpenAIRE

    Calzada León Raúl; Altamirano Bustamante Nelly

    2014-01-01

    We analyze the health normativity for the denomination of non caloric edulcorants in Mexico, and the authorization for the use of natural and synthetic non caloric edulcorants in newborn and until puberty. Special emphasis was given to the consecutive points of safety required in order to assure that they are free of secondary effects. For each non caloric edulcorant available in Mexico, we looked into the studies which mention their side effects in terms of growth and overall.

  18. Use of non-caloric edulcorants in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Calzada León Raúl

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available We analyze the health normativity for the denomination of non caloric edulcorants in Mexico, and the authorization for the use of natural and synthetic non caloric edulcorants in newborn and until puberty. Special emphasis was given to the consecutive points of safety required in order to assure that they are free of secondary effects. For each non caloric edulcorant available in Mexico, we looked into the studies which mention their side effects in terms of growth and overall.

  19. Modeling microscale heat transfer using Calore.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gallis, Michail A.; Rader, Daniel John; Wong, Chung-Nin Channy; Bainbridge, Bruce L.; Torczynski, John Robert; Piekos, Edward Stanley

    2005-09-01

    Modeling microscale heat transfer with the computational-heat-transfer code Calore is discussed. Microscale heat transfer problems differ from their macroscopic counterparts in that conductive heat transfer in both solid and gaseous materials may have important noncontinuum effects. In a solid material, three noncontinuum effects are considered: ballistic transport of phonons across a thin film, scattering of phonons from surface roughness at a gas-solid interface, and scattering of phonons from grain boundaries within the solid material. These processes are modeled for polycrystalline silicon, and the thermal-conductivity values predicted by these models are compared to experimental data. In a gaseous material, two noncontinuum effects are considered: ballistic transport of gas molecules across a thin gap and accommodation of gas molecules to solid conditions when reflecting from a solid surface. These processes are modeled for arbitrary gases by allowing the gas and solid temperatures across a gas-solid interface to differ: a finite heat transfer coefficient (contact conductance) is imposed at the gas-solid interface so that the temperature difference is proportional to the normal heat flux. In this approach, the behavior of gas in the bulk is not changed from behavior observed under macroscopic conditions. These models are implemented in Calore as user subroutines. The user subroutines reside within Sandia's Source Forge server, where they undergo version control and regression testing and are available to analysts needing these capabilities. A Calore simulation is presented that exercises these models for a heated microbeam separated from an ambient-temperature substrate by a thin gas-filled gap. Failure to use the noncontinuum heat transfer models for the solid and the gas causes the maximum temperature of the microbeam to be significantly underpredicted.

  20. A Dissociation between Recognition and Hedonic Value in Caloric and Non-caloric Carbonated Soft Drinks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franco eDelogu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs is considered to be a contributor to diabetes and the epidemic of obesity in many countries. The popularity of non-caloric carbonated soft drinks as an alternative to SSBs may be a factor in reducing the health risks associated with SSBs consumption. This study focuses on the perceptual discrimination of SSBs from artificially sweetened beverages (ASBs. 55 college students rated 14 commercially available carbonated soft drinks in terms of sweetness and likeability. They were also asked to recognize if the drinks contained sugar or a non-caloric artificial sweetener. Overall, participants showed poor accuracy in discriminating drinks’ sweeteners, with significantly lower accuracy for SSBs than ASBs. Interestingly, we found a dissociation between sweetener recognition and drink pleasantness. In fact, in spite of a chance-level discrimination accuracy of SSBs, their taste was systematically preferred to the taste of non-caloric beverages. Our findings support the idea that hedonic value of carbonated soft drinks is dissociable from its identification and that the activation of the pleasure system seems not to require explicit recognition of the sweetener contained in the soft drink. We hypothesize that preference for carbonated soft drinks containing sugar over non-caloric alternatives might be modulated by metabolic factors that are independent from conscious and rational consumers’ choices.

  1. Caloric versus low-caloric sweeteners: Can the body be fooled?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smeets, P.A.M.

    2010-01-01

    Low-caloric artificial sweeteners have been around for several decades now. Still, the debate over their usefulness in decreasing energy intake is ongoing. In principle, replacing sugar-containing foods with 'light' versions will lead to decreased energy intake. However, the reality of food intake

  2. Nutrigenetics and nutrigenomics of caloric restriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abete, Itziar; Navas-Carretero, Santiago; Marti, Amelia; Martinez, J Alfredo

    2012-01-01

    Obesity is a complex disease resulting from a chronic and long-term positive energy balance in which both genetic and environmental factors are involved. Weight-reduction methods are mainly focused on dietary changes and increased physical activity. However, responses to nutritional intervention programs show a wide range of interindividual variation, which is importantly influenced by genetic determinants. In this sense, subjects carrying several obesity-related single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) show differences in the response to calorie-restriction programs. Furthermore, there is evidence indicating that dietary components not only fuel the body but also participate in the modulation of gene expression. Thus, the expression pattern and nutritional regulation of several obesity-related genes have been studied, as well as those that are differentially expressed by caloric restriction. The responses to caloric restriction linked to the presence of SNPs in obesity-related genes are reviewed in this chapter. Also, the influence of energy restriction on gene expression pattern in different tissues is addressed. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Caloric testing by continuous automatic alternating irrigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reker, U

    1980-01-01

    Quantitative caloric test results show a high variability. They were described as questionable by Frenzel (1955) and a review of the test was recommended by Hood (1973). Thus, we developed a new method: continuous automatic alternating irrigation. An irrigator is connected to two water-baths of 30 degrees C and 44 degrees C. A time-relays switches over from one bath to the other every 60 s. The continuous, but alternating, irrigations produce subsequently alternating exponential temperature waves in the temporal bone. The mathematical model shows a quasi-periodicity and sufficient symmetry of the alternating thermal gradient across the canal, except for the first stimulus. After 11 irrigations of 60 s, a short (20 s) "washout" irrigation terminates the sequence. By the five repetitions of each stimulus and the additional possibility of correlating the response to the paper-marked stimulus periodicity the judgement is far more reliable and therefore, in doubtful cases, despite the five-fold data, quicker. The technical device is simple enough for routine use and inexpensive. The results of the caloric test are now much more clear-cut and the correlation to a known clinical pathology is remarkably high.

  4. The reno-protective effects of dietary caloric restriction against ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study has demonstrated that these pathophysiological alterations caused by disturbed glucose homeostasis are reversed by caloric restriction and thus CR may have therapeutic/preventive potential towards the development of diabetic nephropathy. Keywords: dietary caloric restriction; lipid peroxidation; oxidative ...

  5. Latent Semantic Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumais, Susan T.

    2004-01-01

    Presents a literature review that covers the following topics related to Latent Semantic Analysis (LSA): (1) LSA overview; (2) applications of LSA, including information retrieval (IR), information filtering, cross-language retrieval, and other IR-related LSA applications; (3) modeling human memory, including the relationship of LSA to other…

  6. Dynamic Latent Classification Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhong, Shengtong; Martínez, Ana M.; Nielsen, Thomas Dyhre

    as possible. Motivated by this problem setting, we propose a generative model for dynamic classification in continuous domains. At each time point the model can be seen as combining a naive Bayes model with a mixture of factor analyzers (FA). The latent variables of the FA are used to capture the dynamics...

  7. O MARKETING ORIENTADO PELO MERCADO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandro Deretti

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available

  1. Constrained caloric curves and phase transition for hot nuclei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borderie, B., E-mail: borderie@ipno.in2p3.fr [Institut de Physique Nucléaire, CNRS-IN2P3, Université Paris-Sud 11, F-91406 Orsay Cedex (France); Piantelli, S. [INFN Sezione di Firenze, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); Rivet, M.F. [Institut de Physique Nucléaire, CNRS-IN2P3, Université Paris-Sud 11, F-91406 Orsay Cedex (France); Raduta, Ad.R. [National Institute for Physics and Nuclear Engineering, RO-76900 Bucharest-Magurele (Romania); Ademard, G. [Institut de Physique Nucléaire, CNRS-IN2P3, Université Paris-Sud 11, F-91406 Orsay Cedex (France); Bonnet, E. [GANIL, (DSM-CEA/CNRS-IN2P3), F-14076 Caen Cedex (France); Bougault, R. [LPC Caen, ENSICAEN, Université de Caen, CNRS-IN2P3, F-14050 Caen Cedex (France); Chbihi, A.; Frankland, J.D. [GANIL, (DSM-CEA/CNRS-IN2P3), F-14076 Caen Cedex (France); Galichet, E. [Institut de Physique Nucléaire, CNRS-IN2P3, Université Paris-Sud 11, F-91406 Orsay Cedex (France); Conservatoire National des Arts et Métiers, F-75141 Paris Cedex 03 (France); Gruyer, D. [GANIL, (DSM-CEA/CNRS-IN2P3), F-14076 Caen Cedex (France); Guinet, D.; Lautesse, P. [Université Claude Bernard Lyon 1, Institut de Physique Nucléaire, CNRS-IN2P3, F-69622 Villeurbanne Cedex (France); Le Neindre, N.; Lopez, O. [LPC Caen, ENSICAEN, Université de Caen, CNRS-IN2P3, F-14050 Caen Cedex (France); Marini, P. [GANIL, (DSM-CEA/CNRS-IN2P3), F-14076 Caen Cedex (France); and others

    2013-06-10

    Simulations based on experimental data obtained from multifragmenting quasi-fused nuclei produced in central {sup 129}Xe+{sup nat}Sn collisions have been used to deduce event by event freeze-out properties in the thermal excitation energy range 4–12 AMeV [S. Piantelli, et al., INDRA Collaboration, Nucl. Phys. A 809 (2008) 111]. From these properties and the temperatures deduced from proton transverse momentum fluctuations, constrained caloric curves have been built. At constant average volumes caloric curves exhibit a monotonic behaviour whereas for constrained pressures a backbending is observed. Such results support the existence of a first order phase transition for hot nuclei.

  2. Understanding Latent Heat of Vaporization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linz, Ed

    1995-01-01

    Presents a simple exercise for students to do in the kitchen at home to determine the latent heat of vaporization of water using typical household materials. Designed to stress understanding by sacrificing precision for simplicity. (JRH)

  3. Latent failures on biodiesel plants

    OpenAIRE

    Selva S. Rivera; Jorge E. Nunez Mc Leod; Daniela R. Calvo

    2016-01-01

    The process to obtain biodiesel is simple, however it is a chemical process in which toxic and flammable substances are used or variables like temperature or pressure should be controlled to avoid any kind of incident. Literature report accidents where most human errors are related to the confidence of operators by this simplicity. Much of these accidents are influenced by a number of factors involved constituting latent failures. This paper presents a summary of latent failures identified on...

  4. The Infinite Latent Events Model

    CERN Document Server

    Wingate, David; Roy, Daniel; Tenenbaum, Joshua

    2012-01-01

    We present the Infinite Latent Events Model, a nonparametric hierarchical Bayesian distribution over infinite dimensional Dynamic Bayesian Networks with binary state representations and noisy-OR-like transitions. The distribution can be used to learn structure in discrete timeseries data by simultaneously inferring a set of latent events, which events fired at each timestep, and how those events are causally linked. We illustrate the model on a sound factorization task, a network topology identification task, and a video game task.

  5. Prevention of mammary tumorigenesis by intermittent caloric restriction: does caloric intake during refeeding modulate the response?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleary, Margot P; Hu, Xin; Grossmann, Michael E; Juneja, Subhash C; Dogan, Soner; Grande, Joseph P; Maihle, Nita J

    2007-01-01

    Chronic caloric restriction (CCR) prevents mammary tumorigenesis in rodents, but a protective effect for intermittent caloric restriction (ICR) is less well documented. We recently reported that ICR reduced mammary tumor (MT) incidence of mouse mammary tumor virus-transforming growth factor (MMTV-TGF)-alpha mice to a greater extent than did CCR. Here, we repeated this protocol and obtained serum and tissue samples. Ad libitum (AL) MMTV-TGF-alpha mice were fed AIN-93M diet. Beginning at 10 weeks of age, ICR mice received isocaloric AIN-93M-mod diet (2-fold increases in protein, fat, vitamins, and minerals) at 50% of ad libitum for 3 weeks followed by 3 weeks refeeding with AIN-93M diet. CCR mice were pair-fed AIN-93M:AIN-93M-mod (2:1) matching intakes for restriction/refeeding cycles. Mice were sacrificed for MT size, at 79 (end of 12th restriction) or at 80 (1 week after 12th refeeding) weeks of age. AL and ICR-80 mice had heavier body weights than ICR-79 and CCR mice (P food intakes of ICR and CCR mice were reduced 12% and 15% versus AL mice (P food than did AL mice during refeeding. MT incidence was 84%, 13%, and 27% for AL, ICR, and CCR mice, respectively. MT weight (P < 0.0011) and number (P < 0.01) were higher for AL mice compared with ICR and CCR mice. AL and ICR-80 mice had similar serum IGF-I levels, but only AL values were higher than those of ICR-79 and CCR mice (P < 0.0017). ICR mice had more MT DNA breaks compared with AL and CCR mice, suggesting enhanced apoptosis (P < 0.02). AL mice had higher mammary fat pad ObR and ObRb leptin receptor mRNA expression than did ICR and CCR mice (P < 0.001), but there was no effect on MTs. These results confirm that ICR prevents development of MTs to a greater extent than does CCR, although "overeating" during refeeding may compromise this protection.

  6. Resistência à corrosão de junta dissimilar soldada pelo processo TIG composta pelos aços inoxidáveis AISI 316L e AISI 444

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Henrique Guilherme

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available O aço inoxidável AISI 444 tornou-se uma opção para substituir a liga AISI 316L devido ao seu menor custo e satisfatória resistência à corrosão. Entretanto, o uso da liga AISI 444 no feixe tubular de trocadores de calor acarreta na soldagem de uma junta dissimilar. O presente estudo teve por objetivo avaliar a resistência à corrosão da junta tubo-espelho soldada pelo processo TIG composta pelas ligas AISI 316L e AISI 444. A manufatura das amostras consistiu em replicar o projeto da junta tubo-espelho de trocadores de calor. Realizou-se em juntas soldadas ensaios de sensitização, perda de massa por imersão desde a temperatura ambiente até 90 ºC, e ensaios eletroquímicos de polarização potenciodinâmica nos eletrólitos 0,5 mol/L de HCl e 0,5 mol/L de H2SO4. Os resultados mostraram que a junta dissimilar sofreu corrosão galvânica com maior degradação na zona afetada pelo calor (ZAC do tubo AISI 444. Porém, os mecanismos de corrosão localizada (pite e intergranular demonstraram ser mais ativos para a liga AISI 316L. Conclui-se que a junta dissimilar apresentou melhor resistência à corrosão do que a junta soldada composta unicamente pela liga AISI 316L em temperaturas de até 70 ºC, conforme as condições observadas neste trabalho.

  7. La sifilis latente vesical

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Gómez Martínez

    1948-01-01

    Full Text Available Con este título me propongo presentar los conocimientos y experiencias sacados de la investigación cistoscópica llevada a cabo sobre un total de 400 enfermos examinados en el Departamento de Endoscopia del Hospital de la Samaritana, durante el año de 1946. El autor, describió y publicó por primera vez en Colombia en el año de 1944, 2 casos de sífilis vesical que se presentaron sobre un total de 3.323 pacientes sifilíticos examinados durante los años de 1939, 1940 Y parte de 1941, o sea una incidencia del 1/2 por mil. El porcentaje encontrado sobre enfermos que se quejaban de su aparato urinario fue de 0,30 (1. Entre la numerosa literatura consultada, figuran dos artículos de autores brasileros que nos llamaron mucho la atención, por la frecuencia con que ellos encontraron lesiones vesicales atribuibles a la sífilis y que denominaron "Sífilis latente de la Vejiga". Como sus idea no estaban de acuerdo con los hechos observados por nosotros, ni con la experiencia adquirida en varios años de continuos exámenes cistoscópicos, nos dimos al trabajo de investigar de una manera minuciosa, serena e imparcial, la presencia o ausencia de las lesiones vesicales descritas, lo mismo que la morfología que pudieran tener en nuestro medio.

  8. Apuntes de Transmisión del Calor

    OpenAIRE

    Martín Domingo, Agustín

    2013-01-01

    Esta publicacion está basada en unos apuntes para la parte de Transmisión del Calor de las asignaturas de la ETSAM. Sin embargo, con el tiempo se ha añadido otro material extra que excede ampliamente el contenido del curso.

  9. Dal calore all'entropia una introduzione alla termodinamica

    CERN Document Server

    Vicentini Missoni, Matilde

    1992-01-01

    Panta rei : processi ed equilibrio ; l'universo termodinamico : l'aspetto processuale ; il punto di vista dei processi come bilancio tra proprietà dell'equilibrio ; il fluire dell'energia ; automobili, frigoriferi e pompe di calore : informazioni tecnologiche ; e allora ? l'entropia ; la termostatica come teoria assiomatica ; la termodinamica dei processi.

  10. Isolated directional preponderance of caloric nystagmus: I. Clinical significance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halmagyi, G M; Cremer, P D; Anderson, J; Murofushi, T; Curthoys, I S

    2000-07-01

    To determine the clinical significance of an isolated directional preponderance (DP) on bithermal caloric testing. An isolated caloric DP was defined as a DP, calculated according to the standard Jongkees formula, of > or = 40%, with a spontaneous nystagmus (SN) in darkness of or = 40%. This was followed by a review of the clinical data on the 144 patients identified with such a result and then by a telephone or postal follow-up study of these patients. The study group eventually comprised 114 patients; these were patients in whom a clinical diagnosis could be made at the time the caloric test was done, or who responded to requests for follow-up information. The 34 patients in whom a clinical diagnosis could not be made at the time of the caloric test, and who did not respond to requests for follow-up information, were excluded. A balance disorders clinic in a tertiary referral hospital. All patients underwent standard bithermal caloric testing. Some of the patients also underwent rotational testing. A clinical diagnosis for the cause of the isolated DP, made either at the time of the caloric test or on the basis of information supplied at follow-up by the patient or by the referring physician. Of 114 patients, 39 had benign paroxysmal positioning vertigo, 14 had Ménière's disease, and 5 had migrainous vertigo. Five patients had central nervous system (CNS) disorders, and this was clinically apparent at the time of the caloric test in 4, so that only 1 patient with an isolated DP developed evidence of a CNS disorder after the caloric test was done. In the other 54 patients, no definite diagnosis could be made, but 41 of these 54 were either completely well or much better at follow-up. An isolated DP on caloric testing is usually a transient, benign disorder. About half the patients with an isolated DP have either Ménière's disease or benign paroxysmal positioning vertigo; in most of the other half, no definite diagnosis is made but most of these patients will

  11. Variações no desempenho individual explicadas pelo work engagement ou pelo compromisso organizacional?

    OpenAIRE

    Castro, Maria João Santana de

    2015-01-01

    Dissertação de Mestrado apresentada ao ISPA - Instituto Universitário A presente investigação pretende analisar a relação entre o compromisso organizacional e o work engagement com o desempenho dos colaboradores, seja ele auto-percecionado ou real, para posteriormente avaliar o carácter preditivo desta mesma relação. Assim, o objetivo deste estudo é o de verificar se o desempenho evidenciado pelos indivíduos é influenciado quer pelo compromisso organizacional quer pelo work engagement e, c...

  12. Artigos esterilizados em calor úmido: validação do sistema de guarda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zilah Cândida Pereira das Neves

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Objetivamos identificar o tempo de validade da esterilização dos artigos processados pelo calor úmido, considerando as condições de esterilização e guarda. A validação deu-se através de testes microbiológicos realizados com instrumentais processados numa mesma carga e avaliados em tempos 0, 7, 10, 15 e 25 dias. Foram analisados 30% do instrumental de cada pacote que foi colocado em caldo Mueller Hinton e incubado a 37ºC por 72 horas. A leitura deu-se pela turvação do caldo. Das amostras avaliadas de nove cargas, em nenhuma houve crescimento microbiológico. Concluiu-se que apesar das condições de esterilização e guarda do material não se adequarem totalmente dentro dos parâmetros recomendados pela literatura, a esterilização ocorreu e manteve-se por um período de 25 dias.

  13. Latent geometry of bipartite networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitsak, Maksim; Papadopoulos, Fragkiskos; Krioukov, Dmitri

    2017-03-01

    Despite the abundance of bipartite networked systems, their organizing principles are less studied compared to unipartite networks. Bipartite networks are often analyzed after projecting them onto one of the two sets of nodes. As a result of the projection, nodes of the same set are linked together if they have at least one neighbor in common in the bipartite network. Even though these projections allow one to study bipartite networks using tools developed for unipartite networks, one-mode projections lead to significant loss of information and artificial inflation of the projected network with fully connected subgraphs. Here we pursue a different approach for analyzing bipartite systems that is based on the observation that such systems have a latent metric structure: network nodes are points in a latent metric space, while connections are more likely to form between nodes separated by shorter distances. This approach has been developed for unipartite networks, and relatively little is known about its applicability to bipartite systems. Here, we fully analyze a simple latent-geometric model of bipartite networks and show that this model explains the peculiar structural properties of many real bipartite systems, including the distributions of common neighbors and bipartite clustering. We also analyze the geometric information loss in one-mode projections in this model and propose an efficient method to infer the latent pairwise distances between nodes. Uncovering the latent geometry underlying real bipartite networks can find applications in diverse domains, ranging from constructing efficient recommender systems to understanding cell metabolism.

  14. Fobia: um sintoma marcado pelo real

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katja Linnemann

    Full Text Available O artigo pretende introduzir o questionamento acerca dos sintomas marcados pelo real, a partir da análise do sintoma fóbico do caso clínico de Freud, o “Pequeno Hans”. Por um lado, o sintoma como formação de compromisso (Freud, e como formação do inconsciente (Lacan, vem no lugar de algo que não pode ser sabido pelo sujeito, isto que é recalcado e endereçado ao Outro. Por outro, a fobia traz a particularidade de ser marcada por um real, carente de interdição paterna, sem visar um deciframento por parte do sujeito.

  15. Biomarkers of latent TB infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruhwald, Morten; Ravn, Pernille

    2009-01-01

    For the last 100 years, the tuberculin skin test (TST) has been the only diagnostic tool available for latent TB infection (LTBI) and no biomarker per se is available to diagnose the presence of LTBI. With the introduction of M. tuberculosis-specific IFN-gamma release assays (IGRAs), a new area...... of in vitro immunodiagnostic tests for LTBI based on biomarker readout has become a reality. In this review, we discuss existing evidence on the clinical usefulness of IGRAs and the indefinite number of potential new biomarkers that can be used to improve diagnosis of latent TB infection. We also present...... early data suggesting that the monocyte-derived chemokine inducible protein-10 may be useful as a novel biomarker for the immunodiagnosis of latent TB infection....

  16. Uso de transdutores de fluxo de calor no estudo da transferência de calor em alimentos embalados The use of heat flux transducers to study heat transfer in canned foods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Carciofi

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available A densidade de fluxo de calor que atravessa uma superfície é classicamente determinada mediante a medição das temperaturas apropriadas e da aplicação da Lei de Fourier. Uma alternativa a esse procedimento é a utilização de transdutores de fluxo de calor, os quais geram um sinal elétrico proporcional ao fluxo térmico que os atravessa. Neste trabalho, processos de aquecimento e de resfriamento de alimentos foram estudados em laboratório, utilizando-se um recipiente de vidro cilíndrico para simular uma embalagem. Dois transdutores de fluxo de calor a gradiente tangencial foram previamente instalados no recipiente, revestindo completamente a superfície lateral do mesmo. O recipiente contendo a amostra foi inserido em banho de água circulante à temperatura constante. Os sinais fornecidos pelos transdutores e por termopares inseridos no interior do recipiente foram registrados por um sistema de aquisição de dados computadorizado. Os resultados obtidos com o uso dos transdutores foram comparados com aqueles obtidos através de balanços de energia realizados a partir dos dados experimentais de evolução temporal das temperaturas da amostra junto à superfície interna da embalagem e no centro da mesma. A comparação mostrou que os transdutores de fluxo de calor a gradiente tangencial puderam determinar os fluxos de calor, com tempo de resposta característico dos termopares. Os resultados apresentados mostraram a viabilidade de utilização desses fluxímetros no estudo não destrutivo e não invasivo dos processos de aquecimento e de resfriamento de alimentos, fornecendo informações complementares àquelas obtidas pelo uso de termopares instalados no interior da embalagem.Heat flux determination in thermal processes is classically carried out by appropriate temperature measurements and the application of the Fourier Law. An alternative to this procedure is to determine the heat flux that crosses a surface using heat flux

  17. DESARROLLOS INSTRUMENTALES EN MICROCALORIMETRIA DE CONDUCCIÓN DE CALOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana Giraldo G.

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Se presentan aspectos generales de la microcalorimetría de conducción de calor. Se describe el diseño y la operación de microcalorímetros de conducción de calor estático y de flujo construidos en este laboratorio, los cuales fueron calibrados eléctrica y químicamente. Estos equipos se emplean en la caracterización de sólidos porosos por la técnica de calorimetría de inmersión y en la determinación de entalpias de transferencia de solutos; su uso se ilustra con algunos resultados típicos. Se mencionan además otras aplicaciones que se dan actualmente a estos aparatos.

  18. Perspective food addiction, caloric restriction, and dopaminergic neurotransmission

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stankowska, Arwen Urrsula Malgorzata; Gjedde, Albert

    2013-01-01

    for a reduced cognitive reward condition. The combination of caloric restriction and food addiction imparts a high risk of relapse as a result of further reduction of dopaminergic neurotransmission and the subsequent loss of reward. As with drugs of abuse, ingestion of large quantities of sugar in circumstances...... by the relationship between dopamine receptor availability in the striatum and sensation-seeking in the form of an inverted U, suggested by recent findings, consistent with two opposite states of hypodopaminergic and hyperdopaminergic neuromodulation....

  19. Macronutrients and caloric intake in health and longevity

    OpenAIRE

    Solon-Biet, Samantha M.; Mitchell, Sarah J.; de Cabo, Rafael; Raubenheimer, David; Le Couteur, David G.; Simpson, Stephen J.

    2015-01-01

    Both lifespan and healthspan are influenced by nutrition, with nutritional interventions proving to be robust across a wide range of species. However, the relationship between nutrition, health and aging is still not fully understood. Caloric restriction is the most studied dietary intervention known to extend life in many organisms, but recently the balance of macronutrients has been shown to play a critical role. In this review, we discuss the current understanding regarding the impact of c...

  20. Strenuous exercise with caloric restriction: effect on luteinizing hormone secretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, N I; Young, J C; McArthur, J W; Bullen, B; Skrinar, G S; Turnbull, B

    1995-10-01

    To test whether strenuous exercise with and without caloric restriction alters LH secretion, and whether these changes are apparent in the immediate post-exercise period, LH pulse parameters were studied in four moderately trained eumenorrheic women over three successive menstrual cycles. Blood samples were obtained 5 h before and 5 h after 90 min of running at 74% VO2max. Each test was preceded by a 7-d treatment of controlled diet and exercise (74% VO2max). During CONTROL, subjects were eucaloric on days 1-7, and performed no exercise on days 5-7. During STTI (short-term training increase), subjects were eucaloric and completed 90 min runs on days 5-7. During DIET/STTI, subjects consumed 60% of the calories necessary to maintain weight on days 1-7, and exercised as in STTI. A significant decrease in overall (0700-1830 h) LH pulse frequency during DIET/STTI compared with CONTROL and STTI treatments was observed. No changes were found in mean serum LH levels or peak amplitude. These results suggest that high-volume training combined with caloric restriction may predispose one to exercise-induced changes in LH pulse frequency, while adequate caloric intake may prevent these changes.

  1. Tratamento da tuberculose latente: Revisão das normas, 2006 Treatment of latent tuberculosis infection: Update of guidelines, 2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Duarte

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available A Comissão de Trabalho de Tuberculose da Sociedade Portuguesa de Pneumologia, sentindo a necessidade de criar normas de actuação referentes à terapêutica da tuberculose latente, coordenou a elaboração de um conjunto de recomendações, com vista a uniformizar os procedimentos nesta área. Para a elaboração do presente documento, contou com a colaboração de elementos das sociedades portuguesas de Medicina Interna, de Pediatria e de Doenças Infecciosas. Procedeu-se a uma revisão e actualização das normas para o rastreio e tratamento da tuberculose latente no adulto imunocompetente e na criança, bem como em adultos e crianças infectadas pelo vírus da imunodeficiência humana. As presentes normas devem ser entendidas como linhas gerais de orientação, e a sua aplicação não deve dispensar a análise de cada caso individual.The Tuberculosis Working Group of the Portuguese Society of Pulmonology, feeling the need to develop guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of latent tuberculosis infection, compiled a set of recommendations, in view to standardize procedures on this area. This document was prepared in collaboration with the Portuguese Societies of Internal Medicine, Pediatrics and Infectious Diseases. A review and update of guidelines for tracing and treatment of latent tuberculosis infection was made, concerning immunocompetent children and adults, as well as immunocompromised children and adults due to HIV infection. It is understood that these guidelines are to be used as general recommendations, and they should not replace the individual analysis of each case.

  2. Proper elimination of latent variables

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Polderman, Jan W.

    1997-01-01

    We consider behaviors in which we distinguish two types of variables, manifest variables, the variables that are of interest to the user and latent variables, the variables that are introduced to obtain a first representation. The problem is to find a representation of the manifest behavior, that

  3. Indexing by Latent Semantic Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deerwester, Scott; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Describes a new method for automatic indexing and retrieval called latent semantic indexing (LSI). Problems with matching query words with document words in term-based information retrieval systems are discussed, semantic structure is examined, singular value decomposition (SVD) is explained, and the mathematics underlying the SVD model is…

  4. An In Vivo Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy Study of the Effects of Caloric and Non-Caloric Sweeteners on Liver Lipid Metabolism in Rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssens, Sharon; Ciapaite, Jolita; Wolters, Justina C.; van Riel, Natal A.; Nicolay, Klaas; Prompers, Jeanine J.

    2017-01-01

    We aimed to elucidate the effects of caloric and non-caloric sweeteners on liver lipid metabolism in rats using in vivo magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) and to determine their roles in the development of liver steatosis. Wistar rats received normal chow and either normal drinking water, or

  5. TURISMO E CINEMA: UMA VIAGEM PELOS FILMES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rejane dos Santos Silva

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available O presente artigo propõe uma reflexão a partir da observação dos filmes Diários de Motocicleta e Sob o Sol da Toscana, tem como objetivo verificar as potencialidades turísticas existentes nas representações das citadas obras cinematográficas e perceber se os filmes servem como divulgadores dos destinos turísticos apresentados nas obras fílmicas. Para se chegar a tal percepção, utilizou-se de análise de conteúdo das obras cinematográficas convidando o leitor a viajar pelo filme e percorrer o roteiro realizado pelos protagonistas. Esses filmes foram escolhidos após aplicação de questionários com professores e alunos do oitavo período do curso de turismo da Universidade Federal do Piauí (UFPI, os quais citaram essas obras cinematográficas como sendo filmes que lhes despertaram o desejo de viajar. Após a aplicação desse questionário, obteve-se um total de dez filmes dos quais optou-se por analisar duas obras das mencionadas pelos sujeitos deste trabalho. Além disso, foi realizada uma abordagem bibliográfica sobre o cinema e sua relação com o turismo. Assim, a partir das reflexões aqui realizadas e da verificação das potencialidades turísticas mostradas nos filmes, notou-se que os filmes divulgam os locais exibidos através das paisagens nas imagens.

  6. A Latent Class Model for Rating Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rost, Jurgen

    1985-01-01

    A latent class model for rating data is presented which provides an alternative to the latent trait approach of analyzing test data. It is the analog of Andrich's binomial Rasch model for Lazarsfeld's latent class analysis (LCA). Response probabilities for rating categories follow a binomial distribution and depend on class-specific item…

  7. A Multicomponent Latent Trait Model for Diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Embretson, Susan E.; Yang, Xiangdong

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a noncompensatory latent trait model, the multicomponent latent trait model for diagnosis (MLTM-D), for cognitive diagnosis. In MLTM-D, a hierarchical relationship between components and attributes is specified to be applicable to permit diagnosis at two levels. MLTM-D is a generalization of the multicomponent latent trait…

  8. Variabilidade local e regional da evapotranspiração estimada pelo algoritmo SEBAL Local and regional variability of evapotranspiration estimated by SEBAL algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis C. J. Moreira

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Em face da importância em conhecer a evapotranspiração (ET para uso racional da água na irrigação no contexto atual de escassez desse recurso, algoritmos de estimativa da ET a nível regional foram desenvolvidos utilizando-se de ferramentas de sensoriamento remoto. Este estudo objetivou aplicar o algoritmo SEBAL (Surface Energy Balance Algorithms for Land em três imagens do satélite Landsat 5, do segundo semestre de 2006. As imagens correspondem a áreas irrigadas, floresta nativa densa e a Caatinga do Estado do Ceará (Baixo Acaraú, Chapada do Apodi e Chapada do Araripe. Este algoritmo calcula a evapotranspiração horária a partir do fluxo de calor latente, estimado como resíduo do balanço de energia na superfície. Os valores de ET obtidos nas três regiões foram superiores a 0,60 mm h-1 nas áreas irrigadas ou de vegetação nativa densa. As áreas de vegetação nativa menos densa apresentaram taxa da ET horária de 0,35 a 0,60 mm h-1, e valores quase nulos em áreas degradadas. A análise das médias de evapotranspiração horária pelo teste de Tukey a 5% de probabilidade permitiu evidenciar uma variabilidade significativa local, bem como regional no Estado do Ceará.In the context of water resources scarcity, the rational use of water for irrigation is necessary, implying precise estimations of the actual evapotranspiration (ET. With the recent progresses of remote-sensed technologies, regional algorithms estimating evapotranspiration from satellite observations were developed. This work aimed at applying the SEBAL algorithm (Surface Energy Balance Algorithms for Land at three Landsat-5 images during the second semester of 2006. These images cover irrigated areas, dense native forest areas and caatinga areas in three regions of the state of Ceará (Baixo Acaraú, Chapada do Apodi and Chapada do Araripe. The SEBAL algorithm calculates the hourly evapotranspiration from the latent heat flux, estimated from the surface energy

  9. Fatores associados à intensidade das ondas de calor em mulheres em climatério Factors associated with the intensity of hot flashes in climacteric women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danielle Santos-Sá

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Identificar os fatores associados à intensidade das ondas de calor em mulheres climatéricas em Campinas, São Paulo. MÉTODOS: Análise secundária de banco de dados de estudo descritivo de coorte transversal, de base populacional. Foram selecionadas 334 mulheres com ondas de calor, por amostragem, entre 45-60 anos. Os dados foram coletados por meio de entrevistas domiciliares, com questionários estruturados e pré-testados, fornecidos pela Fundação Internacional de Saúde/Sociedade Internacional de Menopausa, Sociedade Norte-Americana de Menopausa, e adaptados pelos autores, e a intensidade das ondas de calor mensurada por meio do índice circulatório. Avaliou-se a idade, uso de métodos anticoncepcionais, terapia hormonal, laqueadura tubária, índice de massa corpórea, estado menopausal, tempo de menopausa, antecedente de histerectomia, ooforectomia bilateral e tabagismo. Calculou-se a mediana e as freqüências absolutas e relativas, de acordo com o tipo de variável. A medida de associação foi a razão de prevalência (RP. Realizou-se análise bivariada e de regressão múltipla para identificação dos fatores associados à intensidade das ondas de calor, com intervalo de confiança de 95% (IC 95%. RESULTADOS: Mulheres com tempo de menopausa superior a 61 meses (RP: 0,59; IC 95 %: 0,39-0,88 apresentaram chance significativamente menor de referir ondas de calor intensas enquanto o antecedente de ooforectomia bilateral (RP: 1,95; IC 95%: 1,08-3,50 associou-se significativamente à intensidade das ondas de calor. CONCLUSÃO: Os fatores associados às ondas de calor de maior intensidade, tempo de menopausa e ooforectomia bilateral sugerem o hipoestrogenismo como causa comum para as ondas de calor intensas. Mulheres com esses fatores devem receber atenção especializada, minimizando as repercussões negativas das ondas de calor.OBJECTIVE: To identify factors associated with the intensity of hot flashes in 334 climacteric

  10. Analysis of latent structures in linear systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høskuldsson, Agnar

    2004-01-01

    In chemometrics the emphasis is on latent structure models. The latent structure is the part of the data that the modeling task is based upon. This paper is addressing some fundamental issues, when latent structures are used. The paper consists of three parts. The first part is concerned defining...... that are useful, when studying latent structures. It is shown how loading weight vectors are generated and how they can be interpreted in analyzing the latent structure. It is shown how the covariance can be used to get useful ‘apriori’ information on the modeling task. Also some simple methods are presented...

  11. Can we live longer by eating less? A review of caloric restriction and longevity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, Lauren W; Polotsky, Alex J

    2012-04-01

    Caloric restriction, decreasing caloric intake by 20-30%, was first shown to extend life in rats nearly 80 years ago. Since that time, limiting food intake for longevity has been investigated in species from yeast to humans. In yeast and lower animals, caloric restriction has repeatedly been demonstrated to lengthen the life span. Studies of caloric restriction in non-human primates and in humans are ongoing and initial results suggest prolongation of life as well as prevention of age-related disease. There is also data in rodents suggesting that short term caloric restriction has beneficial effects on fertility. Although caloric restriction has many positive effects on health and longevity, quality of life on a restricted diet as well as the ability to maintain that diet long term are concerns that must be considered in humans. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. The Lexicocalorimeter: Gauging public health through caloric input and output on social media

    CERN Document Server

    Alajajian, S E; Reagan, A J; Alajajian, S C; Frank, M R; Mitchell, L; Lahne, J; Danforth, C M; Dodds, P S

    2015-01-01

    We propose and develop a Lexicocalorimeter: an online, interactive instrument for measuring the "caloric content" of social media and other large-scale texts. We do so by constructing extensive yet improvable tables of food and activity related phrases, and respectively assigning them with sourced estimates of caloric intake and expenditure. We show that for Twitter, our naive measures of "caloric input", "caloric output", and the ratio of these measures---"caloric balance"---are all strong correlates with health and well-being demographics for the contiguous United States. Our caloric balance measure outperforms both its constituent quantities, is tunable to specific demographic measures such as diabetes rates, provides a real-time signal reflecting a population's health, and has the potential to be used alongside traditional survey data in the development of public policy and collective self-awareness. Because our Lexicocalorimeter is a linear superposition of principled phrase scores, we also show we can m...

  13. Latent geometry of bipartite networks

    CERN Document Server

    Kitsak, Maksim; Krioukov, Dmitri

    2016-01-01

    Despite the abundance of bipartite networked systems, their organizing principles are less studied, compared to unipartite networks. Bipartite networks are often analyzed after projecting them onto one of the two sets of nodes. As a result of the projection, nodes of the same set are linked together if they have at least one neighbor in common in the bipartite network. Even though these projections allow one to study bipartite networks using tools developed for unipartite networks, one-mode projections lead to significant loss of information and artificial inflation of the projected network with fully connected subgraphs. Here we pursue a different approach for analyzing bipartite systems that is based on the observation that such systems have a latent metric structure: network nodes are points in a latent metric space, while connections are more likely to form between nodes separated by shorter distances. This approach has been developed for unipartite networks, and relatively little is known about its appli...

  14. Latent heat of vehicular motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmadi, Farzad; Berrier, Austin; Habibi, Mohammad; Boreyko, Jonathan

    2016-11-01

    We have used the thermodynamic concept of latent heat, where a system loses energy due to a solid-to-liquid phase transition, to study the flow of a group of vehicles moving from rest. During traffic flow, drivers keep a large distance from the car in front of them to ensure safe driving. When a group of cars comes to a stop, for example at a red light, drivers voluntarily induce a "phase transition" from this "liquid phase" to a close-packed "solid phase." This phase transition is motivated by the intuition that maximizing displacement before stopping will minimize the overall travel time. To test the effects of latent heat on flow efficiency, a drone captured the dynamics of cars flowing through an intersection on a Smart Road where the initial spacing between cars at the red light was systematically varied. By correlating the experimental results with the Optimal Velocity Model (OVM), we find that the convention of inducing phase transitions at intersections offers no benefit, as the lag time (latent heat) of resumed flow offsets the initial increase in displacement. These findings suggest that in situations where gridlock is not an issue, drivers should not decrease their spacing during stoppages in order to maximize safety with no loss in flow efficiency.

  15. Macronutrients and caloric intake in health and longevity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solon-Biet, Samantha M; Mitchell, Sarah J; de Cabo, Rafael; Raubenheimer, David; Le Couteur, David G; Simpson, Stephen J

    2015-07-01

    Both lifespan and healthspan are influenced by nutrition, with nutritional interventions proving to be robust across a wide range of species. However, the relationship between nutrition, health and aging is still not fully understood. Caloric restriction is the most studied dietary intervention known to extend life in many organisms, but recently the balance of macronutrients has been shown to play a critical role. In this review, we discuss the current understanding regarding the impact of calories and macronutrient balance in mammalian health and longevity, and highlight the key nutrient-sensing pathways that mediate the effects of nutrition on health and ageing. © 2015 Society for Endocrinology.

  16. Adolescentes e crack: pelo caminho das pedras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Tomm

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Nos últimos anos, a sociedade tem observado uma rápida expansão no uso de crack, especialmente por adolescentes e jovens. É evidente a necessidade de ouvir esses sujeitos de para melhor compreender sua situação. Para atender a essa necessidade, desenvolvemos uma pesquisa qualitativa descritivo-exploratória cujo foco foi um grupo terapêutico para adolescentes usuários de crack que ocorreu no Centro de Atenção Psicossocial Infanto-Juvenil (CAPSi em uma cidade do interior do Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil. Amparados na modalidade expost-facto, analisamos documentos produzidos nessa instituição. O resultado foi uma cartografia que acompanhou discursivamente os adolescentes pelo "caminho das pedras": os lugares, tratamentos, pessoas, ideias e momentos dos quais falam.

  17. Material-based figure of merit for caloric materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffith, L. D.; Mudryk, Y.; Slaughter, J.; Pecharsky, V. K.

    2018-01-01

    The efficient use of reversible thermal effects in magnetocaloric, electrocaloric, and elastocaloric materials is a promising avenue that can lead to a substantially increased efficiency of refrigeration and heat pumping devices, most importantly, those used in household and commercial cooling applications near ambient temperature. A proliferation in caloric material research has resulted in a wide array of materials where only the isothermal change in entropy in response to a handful of different field strengths over a limited range of temperatures has been evaluated and reported. Given the abundance of such data, there is a clear need for a simple and reliable figure of merit enabling fast screening and down-selection to justify further detailed characterization of those material systems that hold the greatest promise. Based on the analysis of several well-known materials that exhibit vastly different magnetocaloric effects, the Temperature averaged Entropy Change is introduced as a suitable early indicator of the material's utility for magnetocaloric cooling applications, and its adoption by the caloric community is recommended.

  18. High monetary reward rates and caloric rewards decrease temporal persistence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fung, Bowen J; Bode, Stefan; Murawski, Carsten

    2017-02-22

    Temporal persistence refers to an individual's capacity to wait for future rewards, while forgoing possible alternatives. This requires a trade-off between the potential value of delayed rewards and opportunity costs, and is relevant to many real-world decisions, such as dieting. Theoretical models have previously suggested that high monetary reward rates, or positive energy balance, may result in decreased temporal persistence. In our study, 50 fasted participants engaged in a temporal persistence task, incentivised with monetary rewards. In alternating blocks of this task, rewards were delivered at delays drawn randomly from distributions with either a lower or higher maximum reward rate. During some blocks participants received either a caloric drink or water. We used survival analysis to estimate participants' probability of quitting conditional on the delay distribution and the consumed liquid. Participants had a higher probability of quitting in blocks with the higher reward rate. Furthermore, participants who consumed the caloric drink had a higher probability of quitting than those who consumed water. Our results support the predictions from the theoretical models, and importantly, suggest that both higher monetary reward rates and physiologically relevant rewards can decrease temporal persistence, which is a crucial determinant for survival in many species. © 2017 The Authors.

  19. Isla de calor en Toluca, México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Constantino Morales Méndez

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available El clima de la ciudad de Toluca y del mundo ha sido modificado como consecuencia del crecimiento de su población y el aumento de las dimensiones de su distribución territorial. Las variaciones atmosféricas son más acusadas entre los espacios urbanos y rurales a medida que las ciudades son más grandes y su mancha urbana es más extensa,así como de la reducción de la vegetación, el aumento en la calefacción en casas y edificios y por la contaminación del aire. Para identificar los espacios con calor más intenso por la infraestructura urbana, se propone una metodología que consiste en la determinación de los valores de temperatura que se registraron en dos días típicos de invierno y verano, durante el día y la noche,mostrando la distribución de la isla de calor en la zona de estudio, a partir de los datos delas estaciones de la Red Automática de Monitoreo Ambiental (RAMA. Asimismo, se considera el comportamiento y variación de algunas variables atmosféricas como humedad relativa, precipitación y viento, para mostrar su comportamiento relativamente anómalo en la zona urbana.

  20. Role of sleep timing in caloric intake and BMI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baron, Kelly G; Reid, Kathryn J; Kern, Andrew S; Zee, Phyllis C

    2011-07-01

    Sleep duration has been linked to obesity and there is also an emerging literature in animals demonstrating a relationship between the timing of feeding and weight regulation. However, there is a paucity of research evaluating timing of sleep and feeding on weight regulation in humans. The goal of this study was to evaluate the role of sleep timing in dietary patterns and BMI. Participants included 52 (25 females) volunteers who completed 7 days of wrist actigraphy and food logs. Fifty-six percent were "normal sleepers" (midpoint of sleep ≥5:30 AM). Late sleepers had shorter sleep duration, later sleep onset and sleep offset and meal times. Late sleepers consumed more calories at dinner and after 8:00 PM, had higher fast food, full-calorie soda and lower fruit and vegetable consumption. Higher BMI was associated with shorter sleep duration, later sleep timing, caloric consumption after 8:00 PM, and fast food meals. In multivariate models, sleep timing was independently associated with calories consumed after 8:00 PM and fruit and vegetable consumption but did not predict BMI after controlling for sleep duration. Calories consumed after 8:00 PM predicted BMI after controlling for sleep timing and duration. These findings indicate that caloric intake after 8:00 PM may increase the risk of obesity, independent of sleep timing and duration. Future studies should investigate the biological and social mechanisms linking timing of sleep and feeding in order to develop novel time-based interventions for weight management.

  1. Ultraviolet luminescence from latent fingerprints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bramble, S K; Creer, K E; Qiang, W G; Sheard, B

    1993-04-01

    Illumination of latent fingerprints on white paper using 266-nm radiation from a Nd:YAG laser and photographic detection of their ultraviolet fluorescence, produces images with good ridge detail. The detection rate was 69% in a survey of fingerprints from 34 people compared with only 23% using an argon-ion laser at 514 nm. Prolonged exposure to UV light decreased the inherent UV fluorescence intensity but no adverse effects were observed on subsequent treatment with 1,8-diazafluoren-9-one or ninhydrin.

  2. Learning Latent Factor Models of Human Travel

    OpenAIRE

    Guerzhoy, Michael; Hertzmann, Aaron

    2012-01-01

    NIPS Workshop on Social Network and Social Media Analysis; International audience; This paper describes probability models for human travel, using latent factors learned from data. The latent factors represent interpretable properties: travel distance cost, desirability of destinations, and affinity between locations. Individuals are clustered into distinct styles of travel. The latent factors combine in a multiplicative manner, and are learned using Maximum Likelihood. The resulting models e...

  3. Avaliação de transferência de calor e massa em biorreator Airlift de bancada para a produção de ácido clavulânico.

    OpenAIRE

    Marcel Otávio Cerri

    2005-01-01

    A importância do biorreator airlift tem crescido no campo da biotecnologia por aspectos como a sua alta transferência de oxigênio, obtida através de consumo de potência. No presente trabalho foram avaliadas as condições de transferência de calor e massa, bem como a eficiência do condensador na retenção de água, de um biorreator airlift de circulação interna, onde o ar é injetado pelo centro do tubo interno, de bancada de 6 L de capacidade útil. Tal biorreator é dotado de tub...

  4. Tensor Decompositions for Learning Latent Variable Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-08

    for several popular latent variable models Tensor Decompositions for Learning Latent Variable Models Anima Anandkumar1, Rong Ge2, Daniel Hsu3, Sham M...the ARO Award W911NF-12-1-0404. References [AFH+12] A. Anandkumar, D. P. Foster, D. Hsu, S. M. Kakade, and Y.-K. Liu . A spectral algorithm for latent...volume 13. Cambridge University Press, 2005. [PSX11] A. Parikh, L. Song , and E. P. Xing. A spectral algorithm for latent tree graphical models. In

  5. Sensitivity of caloric test and video head impulse as screening test for chronic vestibular complaints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mezzalira, Raquel; Bittar, Roseli Saraiva Moreira; do Carmo Bilécki-Stipsky, Marcia Maria; Brugnera, Cibele; Grasel, Signe Schuster

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: This study compared the results of the caloric test with those of the video head impulse test obtained during the same session and evaluated whether the former can be used to screen for non-acute vestibular dysfunction. METHODS: A total of 157 participants complaining of dizziness with vestibular characteristics of varying durations and clinical courses completed the caloric test and video head impulse test. RESULTS: Significantly more caloric test results than video head impulse test results were abnormal. CONCLUSIONS: The results of the caloric test and video head impulse test are distinct but complement each other. Within our sample, the caloric test was more sensitive for vestibular dysfunction. Therefore, the video head impulse test is not a suitable screening tool of the vestibular system in patients with chronic complaints. PMID:28954005

  6. Fugas de calor y aprovechamiento de efluentes en la optimización de ciclos Brayton totalmente irreversibles

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Herrera, C. A; Rosillo, M.E; Castaño

    2008-01-01

    ... (maquinas irreversibles, flujos disipativos, consumo de potencia en todo trasiego de fluídos, transmisiones de calor a gradientes de temperatura finitos, fugas de calor, desaprovechamiento de efluentes, restricciones en caídas de presión...

  7. Optimization-Based Model Fitting for Latent Class and Latent Profile Analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Guan-Hua; Wang, Su-Mei; Hsu, Chung-Chu

    2011-01-01

    Statisticians typically estimate the parameters of latent class and latent profile models using the Expectation-Maximization algorithm. This paper proposes an alternative two-stage approach to model fitting. The first stage uses the modified k-means and hierarchical clustering algorithms to identify the latent classes that best satisfy the…

  8. Caloric requirements in patients with inflammatory bowel disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barot, L R; Rombeau, J L; Feurer, I D; Mullen, J L

    1982-01-01

    Measured resting energy expenditure (REE) was compared to predicted basal energy expenditure (BEE) in 35 consecutive patients with nonseptic inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and 20 healthy volunteers. Patients with IBD were groups greater or less than 90% ideal body weight (IBW). The BEE in kcal/day was found to be equivalent to the measured REE in both patient groups. It is suggested that the BEE be used to determine caloric requirements in nonseptic patients with inflammatory bowel disease. Patients less than 90% IBW had significantly higher measured energy expenditure (26.4 +/- 1.0) per kg body weight than either controls (21.2 +/- 0.7) or patients greater than or equal to 90% IBW (21.2 +/- 0.8), p less than 0.001. It is suggested that this increased expenditure is due to a combined effect of weight loss and intrinsic disease. PMID:7055399

  9. Caloric Restriction Promotes Structural and Metabolic Changes in the Skin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Fernanda Forni

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Caloric restriction (CR is the most effective intervention known to enhance lifespan, but its effect on the skin is poorly understood. Here, we show that CR mice display fur coat remodeling associated with an expansion of the hair follicle stem cell (HFSC pool. We also find that the dermal adipocyte depot (dWAT is underdeveloped in CR animals. The dermal/vennule annulus vasculature is enlarged, and a vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF switch and metabolic reprogramming in both the dermis and the epidermis are observed. When the fur coat is removed, CR mice display increased energy expenditure associated with lean weight loss and locomotion impairment. Our findings indicate that CR promotes extensive skin and fur remodeling. These changes are necessary for thermal homeostasis and metabolic fitness under conditions of limited energy intake, suggesting a potential adaptive mechanism.

  10. Caloric restriction and the aging process: a critique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohal, Rajindar S; Forster, Michael J

    2014-08-01

    The main objective of this review is to provide an appraisal of the current status of the relationship between energy intake and the life span of animals. The concept that a reduction in food intake, or caloric restriction (CR), retards the aging process, delays the age-associated decline in physiological fitness, and extends the life span of organisms of diverse phylogenetic groups is one of the leading paradigms in gerontology. However, emerging evidence disputes some of the primary tenets of this conception. One disparity is that the CR-related increase in longevity is not universal and may not even be shared among different strains of the same species. A further misgiving is that the control animals, fed ad libitum (AL), become overweight and prone to early onset of diseases and death, and thus may not be the ideal control animals for studies concerned with comparisons of longevity. Reexamination of body weight and longevity data from a study involving over 60,000 mice and rats, conducted by a National Institute on Aging-sponsored project, suggests that CR-related increase in life span of specific genotypes is directly related to the gain in body weight under the AL feeding regimen. Additionally, CR in mammals and "dietary restriction" in organisms such as Drosophila are dissimilar phenomena, albeit they are often presented to be the very same. The latter involves a reduction in yeast rather than caloric intake, which is inconsistent with the notion of a common, conserved mechanism of CR action in different species. Although specific mechanisms by which CR affects longevity are not well understood, existing evidence supports the view that CR increases the life span of those particular genotypes that develop energy imbalance owing to AL feeding. In such groups, CR lowers body temperature, rate of metabolism, and oxidant production and retards the age-related pro-oxidizing shift in the redox state. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All

  11. Low Caloric Sweeteners for Diabetes and Obesity Care and Their

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Asif

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes and obesity are two common human disorders that affecting human health and invite various diseases and disorders in normal body functions. These diseases are very common worldwide. Diabetes occurs when high blood sugar levels develop. This happens when body can’t make and use all of the insulin it needs to blood sugar normally to keep blood sugar levels as normal as possible to control diabetes. Diabetic patients will need to follow a diet plan, do exercise and possibly take insulin injections. As part of eating plan, health care provider, and dietitian may ask to limit the amount of carbohydrates eat each day. Low-calorie sweeteners are one easy tool to help for follow eating plan. Obesity is more susceptible and often been associated with frequent ingestion of high energy food in high amount and high intake of sugars such as fermentable sugars such as sucrose, fructose, glucose, and maltose. Both diseases are may be genetically or due to hormonal imbalances. High energy sweeteners may causes caries in the teeth particularly susceptible to the children. Increased calorie intake associated with sugars and carbohydrates, especially when associated with physical inactivity, has been implicated in obesity. Fortunately, low calorie artificial and natural alternatives of sugars have been developed as alternatives to fermentable sugars and have shown promise in these health issues. Although there are only few artificial sweeteners (saccharin, aspartame, acesulfam potassium, sucralose, cyclamate that have been approved as food additives by the Food and Drug Administration and additional other low-caloric sweeteners (sugar alcohols, neotame, stevia, erythritol, xylitol, tagatose that have FDA-generally recognized as safe. Given the health impact of sugars and other carbohydrates, professionals should be aware of the marketed available low caloric sweeteners and both their benefits and potential risks.

  12. Combined Salt and Caloric Restrictions: Potential Adverse Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homma, Tsuyoshi; Homma, Mika; Huang, Yuefei; Mayurasakorn, Korapat; Rodi, Nurul Mahamad; Hamid, Anis Amalina Abdul; Hurwitz, Shelley; Yao, Tham; Adler, Gail K; Pojoga, Luminita H; Williams, Gordon H; Romero, Jose R

    2017-10-11

    We hypothesized that caloric restriction (CR) and salt restriction (ResS) would have similar effects on reducing cardiovascular risk markers and that combining CR and ResS would be synergistic in modulating these markers. To test our hypothesis, rats were randomized into 2 groups: ad libitum liberal salt diet (ad libitum/high-sodium, 1.6% sodium) or ResS diet (ad libitum/ResS, 0.03% sodium). CR was initiated in half of the rats in each group by reducing caloric intake to 60% while maintaining sodium intake constant (CR/high-sodium, 2.7% sodium or CR/ResS, 0.05% sodium) for 4 weeks. CR in rats on a high-sodium diet improved metabolic parameters, renal transforming growth factor-β and collagen-1α1 and increased plasma adiponectin and renal visfatin and NAD+ protein levels. Although CR produced some beneficial cardiovascular effects (increased sodium excretion and reduced blood pressure), it also was associated with potentially adverse cardiovascular effects. Adrenal zona glomerulosa cell responsiveness and aldosterone levels and activation were inappropriately increased for the volume state of the rodent. Like CR on HS, CR on a ResS diet also produced relative increased zona glomerulosa responsiveness and an increased blood pressure with no improvement in metabolic parameters. These results suggest that combining CR and ResS may decrease the beneficial effects of each alone. Furthermore, CR, regardless of dietary salt intake, inappropriately activates aldosterone production. Thus, caution should be used in combining ResS and CR because the combination may lead to increased cardiovascular risk. © 2017 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley.

  13. Learning Latent Vector Spaces for Product Search

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Gysel, C.; de Rijke, M.; Kanoulas, E.

    2016-01-01

    We introduce a novel latent vector space model that jointly learns the latent representations of words, e-commerce products and a mapping between the two without the need for explicit annotations. The power of the model lies in its ability to directly model the discriminative relation between

  14. A Multinomial Probit Model with Latent Factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Piatek, Rémi; Gensowski, Miriam

    2017-01-01

    We develop a parametrization of the multinomial probit model that yields greater insight into the underlying decision-making process, by decomposing the error terms of the utilities into latent factors and noise. The latent factors are identified without a measurement system, and they can...

  15. Learning latent structure for activity recognition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hu, N.; Englebienne, G.; Lou, Z.; Kröse, B.

    2014-01-01

    We present a novel latent discriminative model for human activity recognition. Unlike the approaches that require conditional independence assumptions, our model is very flexible in encoding the full connectivity among observations, latent states, and activity states. The model is able to capture

  16. A Multinomial Probit Model with Latent Factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Piatek, Rémi; Gensowski, Miriam

    2017-01-01

    We develop a parametrization of the multinomial probit model that yields greater insight into the underlying decision-making process, by decomposing the error terms of the utilities into latent factors and noise. The latent factors are identified without a measurement system, and they can be mean...

  17. Prior Learning Assessment with Latent Semantic Analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kalz, Marco; Van Bruggen, Jan; Giesbers, Bas; Koper, Rob

    2007-01-01

    Kalz, M., Van Bruggen, J., Giesbers, B., & Koper, R. (2007). Prior Learning Assessment with Latent Semantic Analysis. In F. Wild, M. Kalz, J. Van Bruggen & R. Koper (Eds.). Proceedings of the First European Workshop on Latent Semantic Analysis in Technology Enhanced Learning (pp. 24-25). Heerlen,

  18. Prior Learning Assessment with Latent Semantic Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Kalz, Marco; van Bruggen, Jan; Giesbers, Bas; Koper, Rob

    2007-01-01

    Kalz, M., Van Bruggen, J., Giesbers, B., & Koper, R. (2007). Prior Learning Assessment with Latent Semantic Analysis. In F. Wild, M. Kalz, J. Van Bruggen & R. Koper (Eds.). Proceedings of the First European Workshop on Latent Semantic Analysis in Technology Enhanced Learning (pp. 24-25). Heerlen, The Netherlands: Open University of the Netherlands.

  19. Introduction to Latent Class Analysis with Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porcu, Mariano; Giambona, Francesca

    2017-01-01

    Latent class analysis (LCA) is a statistical method used to group individuals (cases, units) into classes (categories) of an unobserved (latent) variable on the basis of the responses made on a set of nominal, ordinal, or continuous observed variables. In this article, we introduce LCA in order to demonstrate its usefulness to early adolescence…

  20. Stability of latent class segments over time

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mueller, Simone

    2011-01-01

    logit model suggests significant changes in the price sensitivity and the utility from environmental claims between both experimental waves. A pooled scale adjusted latent class model is estimated jointly over both waves and the relative size of latent classes is compared across waves, resulting...

  1. Exact tests for some latent traits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Gooijer, J.G.; Yuan, A.

    2008-01-01

    Item response theory is one of the modern test theory with many applications in the educational and psychological testing field. Recent developments made it possible to characterize some desired latent properties in terms of a collection of manifest ones, so that hypothesis tests on these latent

  2. Latent Class and Latent Transition Analysis With Applications in the Social, Behavioral, and Health Sciences

    CERN Document Server

    Collins, Linda M

    2010-01-01

    One of the few books on latent class analysis (LCA) and latent transition analysis (LTA) with a comprehensive treatment of longitudinal latent class models, Latent Class and Latent Transition Analysis reflects improvements in statistical computing as the most up-to-date reference for theoretical, technical, and practical issues in cross-sectional and longitudinal data. Plentiful examples enable the reader to acquire a thorough conceptual and technical understanding and to apply techniques to address empirical research questions. Researchers seeking an advanced introduction to LCA and LTA and g

  3. Latent semantics as cognitive components

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Michael Kai; Mørup, Morten; Hansen, Lars Kai

    2010-01-01

    emotional responses can be encoded in words, we propose a simplified cognitive approach to model how we perceive media. Representing song lyrics in a vector space of reduced dimensionality using LSA, we combine bottom-up defined term distances with affective adjectives, that top-down constrain the latent......Cognitive component analysis, defined as an unsupervised learning of features resembling human comprehension, suggests that the sensory structures we perceive might often be modeled by reducing dimensionality and treating objects in space and time as linear mixtures incorporating sparsity...... semantics according to the psychological dimensions of valence and arousal. Subsequently we apply a Tucker tensor decomposition combined with re-weighted L1 regularization and a Bayesian ARD automatic relevance determination approach to derive a sparse representation of complementary affective mixtures...

  4. Epstein–Barr virus latent genes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Myung-Soo; Kieff, Elliott

    2015-01-01

    Latent Epstein–Barr virus (EBV) infection has a substantial role in causing many human disorders. The persistence of these viral genomes in all malignant cells, yet with the expression of limited latent genes, is consistent with the notion that EBV latent genes are important for malignant cell growth. While the EBV-encoded nuclear antigen-1 (EBNA-1) and latent membrane protein-2A (LMP-2A) are critical, the EBNA-leader proteins, EBNA-2, EBNA-3A, EBNA-3C and LMP-1, are individually essential for in vitro transformation of primary B cells to lymphoblastoid cell lines. EBV-encoded RNAs and EBNA-3Bs are dispensable. In this review, the roles of EBV latent genes are summarized. PMID:25613728

  5. Determinação do calor de dessorção para materiais têxteis - DOI: 10.4025/actascitechnol.v32i1.1025

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gracielle Johann

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho tem como objetivo o cálculo do calor de dessorção da umidade, durante a secagem de materiais têxteis, utilizando o método de Othmer, que correlaciona a pressão de vapor e o calor latente de vaporização. Foram utilizados dados da literatura para as isotermas de dessorção de dois diferentes tipos de materiais têxteis (sarja e meia-malha. Os resultados obtidos apresentaram a quantidade de energia necessária para a dessorção da umidade ligada à fibra dos materiais têxteis durante sua secagem. À medida que a quantidade de umidade livre diminui, a quantidade de energia requerida ao processo de dessorção aumenta. A equação determinada para a obtenção do calor de dessorção, em função da unidade de equilíbrio, apresentou uma correlação de 0,999, para ambos os materiais têxteis, para indicar qualidade nos parâmetros obtidos.

  6. Laboratório caseiro: calorímetro de baixo custo

    OpenAIRE

    Laburú, Carlos Eduardo; UEL - Párana; Rodrigues, Rogério; UEL - Paraná

    1998-01-01

    Este trabalho propõe a construção de um calorímetro de baixo custo, de montagem simples e com materiais facilmente encontrados. Objetiva- se com o calorímetro proposto substituir os normalmente utilizados nos laboratórios de física do secundário. Examina-se a capacidade térmica e o isolamento térmico do calorímetro proposto, comparando-o com um comercial muito utilizado nas escolas.

  7. Impacto ecológico de los intercambiadores de calor de tubo y coraza

    OpenAIRE

    Reyes–Rodríguez, Maida Bárbara; Moya Rodríguez, Jorge Laureano; Cruz Fonticiella, Oscar Miguel

    2014-01-01

    Los intercambiadores de calor del tipo de coraza y tubo constituyen uno de los equipos más importantes en las plantas de procesos químicos. El diseño de los intercambiadores de calor desde el punto de vista termodinámico se basa en dos aspectos fundamentales, el coeficiente global de transferencia de calor y la caída de presión total. En el año 2007 el Científico chino Guo estableció una nueva propiedad termodinámica denominada “Entransía”, la cual expresa la capacidad de un cuerpo de transfe...

  8. Learning Harmonium models with infinite latent features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ning; Zhu, Jun; Sun, Fuchun; Zhang, Bo

    2014-03-01

    Undirected latent variable models represent an important class of graphical models that have been successfully developed to deal with various tasks. One common challenge in learning such models is to determine the number of hidden units that are unknown a priori. Although Bayesian nonparametrics have provided promising results in bypassing the model selection problem in learning directed Bayesian Networks, very little effort has been made toward applying Bayesian nonparametrics to learn undirected latent variable models. In this paper, we present the infinite exponential family Harmonium (iEFH), a bipartite undirected latent variable model that automatically determines the number of latent units from an unbounded pool. We also present two important extensions of iEFH to 1) multiview iEFH for dealing with heterogeneous data, and 2) infinite maximum-margin Harmonium (iMMH) for incorporating supervising side information to learn predictive latent features. We develop variational inference algorithms to learn model parameters. Our methods are computationally competitive because of the avoidance of selecting the number of latent units. Our extensive experiments on real image datasets and text datasets appear to demonstrate the benefits of iEFH and iMMH inherited from Bayesian nonparametrics and max-margin learning. Such results were not available until now and contribute to expanding the scope of Bayesian nonparametrics to learn the structures of undirected latent variable models.

  9. Caloric intake and Alzheimer's disease. Experimental approaches and therapeutic implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasinetti, Giulio Maria; Zhao, Zhong; Qin, Weiping; Ho, Lap; Shrishailam, Yemul; Macgrogan, Donal; Ressmann, Wendy; Humala, Nelson; Liu, Xunxian; Romero, Carmen; Stetka, Breton; Chen, Linghong; Ksiezak-Reding, Hanna; Wang, Jun

    2007-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a rapidly growing public health concern with potentially devastating effects. Presently, there are no known cures or effective preventive strategies. While genetic factors are relevant in early-onset cases, they appear to play less of a role in late-onset sporadic AD cases, the most common form of AD. Due to the fact that the disease typically strikes very late in life, delaying symptoms could be as good as a cure for many people. For example, it is now widely accepted that if the onset of the disease could be delayed by even 5 years, the incidence could be cut in half. Both clinical and epidemiological evidence suggests that modification of lifestyle factors such as nutrition may prove crucial to AD management given the mounting experimental evidence suggesting that brain cells are remarkably responsive to "what somebody is doing". Among other nongenetic factors influencing AD, recent studies strongly support the evidence that caloric intake may play a role in the relative risk for AD clinical dementia. Indeed, the effect of diet in AD has been an area of research that has produced promising results, at least experimentally. Most importantly, as mechanistic pathways are defined and their biochemical functions scrutinized, the evidence supporting a direct link between nutrition and AD neuropathology continues to grow. Our work, as well as that of others, has recently resulted in the development of experimental dietary regimens that might promote, attenuate or even reverse features of AD. Most remarkably, while we found that high caloric intake based on saturated fat promotes AD type Beta-amyloidosis, conversely we found that dietary restriction based on reduced carbohydrate intake is able to prevent it. This evidence is very exciting and is, in part, consistent with current epidemiological studies suggesting that obesity and diabetes are associated with a >4-fold increased risk of developing AD. The clarification of the mechanisms

  10. Extraction of latent images from printed media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sergeyev, Vladislav; Fedoseev, Victor

    2015-12-01

    In this paper we propose an automatic technology for extraction of latent images from printed media such as documents, banknotes, financial securities, etc. This technology includes image processing by adaptively constructed Gabor filter bank for obtaining feature images, as well as subsequent stages of feature selection, grouping and multicomponent segmentation. The main advantage of the proposed technique is versatility: it allows to extract latent images made by different texture variations. Experimental results showing performance of the method over another known system for latent image extraction are given.

  11. Is contextual-potentiated eating dependent on caloric density of food?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Fernández-Aranda

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available One experiment tested whether a specific context could elicit eating in rats as a result of Pavlovian conditioning and whether this effect depended on the caloric density of food. Thirty two deprived rats experienced two contexts. They had access to food in context A, but no food was available in context B. During conditioning, half of the animals received high density caloric food (HD groups whereas the other half, low density caloric food (LD groups. Then, half of the rats in each type of food group was tested in context A and the other half in context B. The results demonstrated an effect of context conditioning only in HD groups. These findings suggest the relevance of both contextual conditioning and caloric density of food in eating behaviour. Implications for the aetiology of binge eating will be discussed.

  12. Relationship between caloric intake and length of hospital stay for infants with bronchiolitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisgerber, Michael C; Lye, Patricia S; Nugent, Melodee; Li, Shun-Hwa; De Fouw, Kari; Gedeit, Rainer; Simpson, Pippa; Gorelick, Marc H

    2013-01-01

    Poor oral intake is a common presenting symptom among infants hospitalized with bronchiolitis. The prevalence, degree, and duration of iminished caloric intake in these infants have not been studied. Our goal was to determine the daily caloric intake among infants admitted with bronchiolitis and to evaluate the relationship between early hospital caloric intake and length of stay (LOS). We conducted a retrospective chart review of infants aged or =183 days. Caloric intake was diminished in the early course of hospitalization for infants who had bronchiolitis and slowest to normalize in infants with the longest LOS. Interventions aimed at decreasing LOS among infants admitted with bronchiolitis should consider the potential significance of nutrition for severely affected infants with this condition.

  13. Palatable Hyper-Caloric Foods Impact on Neuronal Plasticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morin, Jean-Pascal; Rodríguez-Durán, Luis F; Guzmán-Ramos, Kioko; Perez-Cruz, Claudia; Ferreira, Guillaume; Diaz-Cintra, Sofia; Pacheco-López, Gustavo

    2017-01-01

    Neural plasticity is an intrinsic and essential characteristic of the nervous system that allows animals "self-tuning" to adapt to their environment over their lifetime. Activity-dependent synaptic plasticity in the central nervous system is a form of neural plasticity that underlies learning and memory formation, as well as long-lasting, environmentally-induced maladaptive behaviors, such as drug addiction and overeating of palatable hyper-caloric (PHc) food. In western societies, the abundance of PHc foods has caused a dramatic increase in the incidence of overweight/obesity and related disorders. To this regard, it has been suggested that increased adiposity may be caused at least in part by behavioral changes in the affected individuals that are induced by the chronic consumption of PHc foods; some authors have even drawn attention to the similarity that exists between over-indulgent eating and drug addiction. Long-term misuse of certain dietary components has also been linked to chronic neuroimmune maladaptation that may predispose individuals to neurodegenerative conditions such as Alzheimer's disease. In this review article, we discuss recent evidence that shows how consumption of PHc food can cause maladaptive neural plasticity that converts short-term ingestive drives into compulsive behaviors. We also discuss the neural mechanisms of how chronic consumption of PHc foods may alter brain function and lead to cognitive impairments, focusing on prenatal, childhood and adolescence as vulnerable neurodevelopmental stages to dietary environmental insults. Finally, we outline a societal agenda for harnessing permissive obesogenic environments.

  14. Fasting and Caloric Restriction in Cancer Prevention and Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandhorst, Sebastian; Longo, Valter D

    Cancer is the second leading cause of death in the USA and among the leading major diseases in the world. It is anticipated to continue to increase because of the growth of the aging population and prevalence of risk factors such as obesity, smoking, and/or poor dietary habits. Cancer treatment has remained relatively similar during the past 30 years with chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy in combination with surgery remaining the standard therapies although novel therapies are slowly replacing or complementing the standard ones. According to the American Cancer Society, the dietary recommendation for cancer patients receiving chemotherapy is to increase calorie and protein intake. In addition, there are no clear guidelines on the type of nutrition that could have a major impact on cancer incidence. Yet, various forms of reduced caloric intake such as calorie restriction (CR) or fasting demonstrate a wide range of beneficial effects able to help prevent malignancies and increase the efficacy of cancer therapies. Whereas chronic CR provides both beneficial and detrimental effects as well as major compliance challenges, periodic fasting (PF), fasting-mimicking diets (FMDs), and dietary restriction (DR) without a reduction in calories are emerging as interventions with the potential to be widely used to prevent and treat cancer. Here, we review preclinical and preliminary clinical studies on dietary restriction and fasting and their role in inducing cellular protection and chemotherapy resistance.

  15. Retrieved Latent Heating from TRMM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Wei-Kuo; Smith, Eric A.; Houze Jr, Robert

    2008-01-01

    The global hydrological cycle is central to the Earth's climate system, with rainfall and the physics of precipitation formation acting as the key links in the cycle. Two-thirds of global rainfall occurs in the tropics with the associated latent heating (LH) accounting for three-fourths of the total heat energy available to the Earth's atmosphere. In addition, fresh water provided by tropical rainfall and its variability exerts a large impact upon the structure and motions of the upper ocean layer. In the last decade, it has been established that standard products of LH from satellite measurements, particularly TRMM measurements, would be a valuable resource for scientific research and applications. Such products would enable new insights and investigations concerning the complexities of convection system life cycles, the diabatic heating controls and feedbacks related to meso-synoptic circulations and their forecasting, the relationship of tropical patterns of LH to the global circulation and climate, and strategies for improving cloud parameterizations in environmental prediction models. The status of retrieved TRMM LH products, TRMM LH inter-comparison and validation project, current TRMM LH applications and critic issues/action items (based on previous five TRMM LH workshops) is presented in this article.

  16. Development of new eutectic phase change materials and plate-based latent heat thermal energy storage systems for domestic cogeneration applications

    OpenAIRE

    Diarce Belloso, Gonzalo

    2017-01-01

    327 p. La presente tesis doctoral tiene como objetivo el desarrollo de nuevos sistemas de almacenamiento térmico latente para aplicaciones de cogeneración en edificios, con el fin de contribuir al ahorro energético en los mismos. Para ello se han desarrollado las siguientes tareas de investigación: (i) investigar mezclas eutécticas binarias de materiales para desarrollar nuevos PCMs adecuados para almacenar calor en el rango de temperaturas correspondiente a sistemas de calefacción y agua ...

  17. Coeficientes de transferencia de calor y pérdida de eficiencia en intercambiadores de calor de placas durante el enfriamiento del licor amoniacal

    OpenAIRE

    Enrique Torres-Tamayo; Luís E. Quintana-Charlot; Orlando Vega-Arias; Yoalbys Retirado-Mediaceja

    2011-01-01

    En la planta de Recuperación de Amoniaco de la empresa niquelera Ernesto Che Guevara la pérdida de eficiencia del proceso de enfriamiento del licor amoniacal, mediante el uso de intercambiadores de calor de placas, se asocia a la incorrecta estimación de los coeficientes de transferencia de calor y la acumulación de incrustaciones en la superficie de intercambio; lo anterior incrementa el consumo de agua, la energía disponible en el sistema y los costos de mantenimiento. Se realizó una invest...

  18. Comportamentos das Famílias Portuguesas em Épocas de Calor e Durante a Onda de Calor de Agosto de 2003

    OpenAIRE

    Nogueira, Paulo; Paixão, Eleonora; Falcão, José Marinho

    2005-01-01

    Este estudo teve como principal objectivo a caracterização das atitudes e da adopção de medidas de protecção em períodos de calor e em particular conhecer aquelas que efectivamente foram adoptadas durante a onda de calor de Agosto de 2003 (29 de Julho a 15 de Agosto). Foi realizado um inquérito por via postal, aplicando um questionário aos indivíduos de 18 e mais anos das unidades de alojamento (UA), que constituem a amostra ECOS (Em Casa Observamos Saúde) do Observatório Nacional de Saúd...

  19. Comportamentos das famílias portuguesas em épocas de calor e durante a onda de calor de Agosto de 2003

    OpenAIRE

    Nogueira, Paulo Jorge; Paixão, Eleonora de Jesus; Falcão, José Marinho

    2005-01-01

    RESUMO - Este estudo teve como principal objectivo a caracterização das atitudes e da adopção de medidas de protecção em períodos de calor e em particular conhecer aquelas que efectivamente foram adoptadas durante a onda de calor de Agosto de 2003 (29 de Julho a 15 de Agosto). Foi realizado um inquérito por via postal, aplicando um questionário aos indivíduos de 18 e mais anos das unidades de alojamento (UA), que constituem a amostra ECOS (Em Casa Observamos Saúde) do ...

  20. Use of caloric and noncaloric sweeteners in US consumer packaged foods, 2005-2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Shu Wen; Slining, Meghan M; Popkin, Barry M

    2012-11-01

    Our understanding of the use of caloric and noncaloric sweeteners in the US food supply is limited. This study uses full ingredient list and Nutrition Facts label data from Gladson Nutrition Database and nationally representative purchases of consumer packaged foods from Nielsen Homescan in 2005 through 2009 to understand the use of caloric sweeteners (including fruit juice concentrate) and noncaloric sweeteners in consumer packaged foods. Of the 85,451 uniquely formulated foods purchased during 2005 through 2009, 75% contain sweeteners (68% with caloric sweetener only, 1% with noncaloric sweetener only, 6% with both caloric and noncaloric sweeteners). Caloric sweetener are in >95% of cakes/cookies/pies, granola/protein/energy bars, ready-to-eat cereals, sweet snacks, and sugar-sweetened beverages. Noncaloric sweetener are in >33% of yogurts and sport/energy drinks, 42% of waters (plain or flavored), and most dietetic sweetened beverages. Across unique products, corn syrup is the most commonly listed sweetener, followed by sorghum, cane sugar, high-fructose corn syrup, and fruit juice concentrate. Also, 77% of all calories purchased in the United States in 2005-2009 contained caloric sweeteners and 3% contained noncaloric sweeteners, and 73% of the volume of foods purchased contained caloric sweetener and 15% contained noncaloric sweetener. Trends during this period suggest a shift toward the purchase of noncaloric sweetener-containing products. Our study poses a challenge toward monitoring sweetener consumption in the United States by discussing the need and options available to improve measures of caloric sweetener and noncaloric sweetener and additional requirements on Nutrition Facts labels on consumer packaged foods. Copyright © 2012 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Caloric restriction decreases orthostatic tolerance independently from 6° head-down bedrest.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John P Florian

    Full Text Available Astronauts consume fewer calories during spaceflight and return to earth with an increased risk of orthostatic intolerance. Whether a caloric deficiency modifies orthostatic responses is not understood. Thus, we determined the effects of a hypocaloric diet (25% caloric restriction during 6° head down bedrest (an analog of spaceflight on autonomic neural control during lower body negative pressure (LBNP. Nine healthy young men completed a randomized crossover bedrest study, consisting of four (2 weeks each interventions (normocaloric bedrest, normocaloric ambulatory, hypocaloric bedrest, hypocaloric ambulatory, each separated by 5 months. Muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA was recorded at baseline following normocaloric and hypocaloric interventions. Heart rate (HR and arterial pressure were recorded before, during, and after 3 consecutive stages (7 min each of LBNP (-15, -30, -45 mmHg. Caloric and posture effects during LBNP were compared using two-way ANOVA with repeated measures. There was a strong trend toward reduced basal MSNA following caloric restriction alone (normcaloric vs. hypocaloric: 22±3 vs. 14±4 burst/min, p = 0.06. Compared to the normocaloric ambulatory, both bedrest and caloric restriction were associated with lower systolic blood pressure during LBNP (p<0.01; however, HR responses were directionally opposite (i.e., increase with bedrest, decrease with caloric restriction. Survival analysis revealed a significant reduction in orthostatic tolerance following caloric restriction (normocaloric finishers: 12/16; hypocaloric finishers: 6/16; χ2, p = 0.03. Caloric restriction modifies autonomic responses to LBNP, which may decrease orthostatic tolerance after spaceflight.

  2. The comparative effect of fasting with and without caloric restriction in Rat on oxidative stress parameters

    OpenAIRE

    Nurina Tyagita; Taufiqurrachman Nasihun; Titiek Sumarawati

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Fasting, like Islamic Ramadan Fasting, has been associated with health benefits. Islamic Ramadan fasting, a form of caloric restriction (CR) or alternate day fasting that. Studies suggest a comparable effect of ADF and caloric restriction. Despite the fact that fasting can be considered as a form of dietary restriction, fasters tend to have difficulty to reduce their food intake during non-fasting period by overeating leading to the excessive calorie intake. To compare the effec...

  3. Weight Cycling and Cancer: Weighing the Evidence of Intermittent Caloric Restriction and Cancer Risk

    OpenAIRE

    Henry J. Thompson; McTiernan, Anne

    2011-01-01

    Overweight and obese individuals frequently restrict caloric intake to lose weight. The resultant weight loss, however, typically is followed by an equal or greater weight gain, a phenomenon called weight cycling. Most attention to weight cycling has focused on identifying its detrimental effects, but preclinical experiments indicating that intermittent caloric restriction or fasting can reduce cancer risk have raised interest in potential benefits of weight cycling. Although hypothesized adv...

  4. Tratamento da leishmaniose tegumentar americana pelo niridazol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miroslau Constante Baranski

    1970-08-01

    Full Text Available Foi empregue o niridazol um derivado do nitrotiazol, em doze pacientes com leishmaniose tegumentar americana. Em todos êles, o diagnóstico clínico da doença foi confirmado pela biópsia das lesões e em oito dêles também pela positividade da intradetermorreação de Montenegro. Oito pacientes tinham lesões mucosas metastáticas em atividade e lesões cutâneas iniciais cicatrizadas há tempo mais ou menos longo. Dois apresentavam concomitância de lesões cutâneas e mucosas em atividade, e dois tinham lesões cutâneas exclusivas. A duração da doença variou de 2 meses a 32 anos. A posologia diária do niridazol foi uniformememente de 25 mg/kg de pêso corpóreo. O medicamento foi administrado por via oral, em duas tomadas diárias, sempre com o doente internado em hospital. Quando a tolerância o permitia, o paciente recebia cinco séries de tratamento de 10 dias de duração cada, intercaladas por períodos áe suspensão da droga de 10 dias entre uma série e outra. Isso foi possível em 10 dos 12 pacientes. O tratamento foi bem tolerado em 5 doentes e de tolerância regular em 4. Mal tolerado em um paciente pela ocorrência de alucinações e excitação mental e interrompido pela péssima tolerância em dois doentes devido ao aparecimento de convulsões generalizadas com perda da consciência. O tratamento acompanhou-se de grande incidência, de efeitos colaterais. A ocorrência de para-efeitos mais intensos não foi devida às más condições hepáticas. Provas de função hepática. hemogramas, estudos bioquímicos do sangue e exames de urina, realizados antes, durante e após o tratamento, não revelaram alterações significativas. Biópsias hepáticas por punção com agulha em dez doentes, prévias e posteriores ao tratamento, não detectaram lesões hepáticas que pudessem ser atribuídas à medicação. O seguimento dos doentes prolongou-se pelo prazo de dois a 36 meses apos o tratamento. Alterações eletrocardiogr

  5. Use of latent semantic analysis at Otec

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Bruggen, Jan

    2006-01-01

    Van Bruggen, J. (2006). Use of latent semantic analysis at Otec. Presentations discusses the applications of LSA in the Otec RTD program and a number of methodological issues. May, 18, 2006, Hannover, Germany.

  6. Postoral Glucose Sensing, Not Caloric Content, Determines Sugar Reward in C57BL/6J Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zukerman, Steven; Ackroff, Karen

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies suggest that because of their energy value, sugars are more rewarding than non-caloric sweeteners. However, intragastric infusion data indicate that sugars differ in their postoral appetite-stimulating effects. We therefore compared the preference for isocaloric 8% sucrose, glucose, and fructose solutions with that of a non-caloric sweetener solution (0.8% sucralose) in C57BL/6J mice. Brief 2-bottle tests indicated that sucralose was isopreferred to sucrose but more preferred than glucose or fructose. Yet, in long-term tests, the mice preferred sucrose and glucose, but not fructose to sucralose. Additional experiments were conducted with a non-caloric 0.1% sucralose + 0.1% saccharin mixture (S + S), which does not have the postoral inhibitory effects of 0.8% sucralose. The S + S was preferred to fructose in brief and long-term choice tests. S + S was also preferred to glucose and sucrose in brief tests, but the sugars were preferred in long-term tests. In progressive ratio tests, non-deprived and food-deprived mice licked more for glucose but not fructose than for S + S. These findings demonstrate that the nutrient-specific postoral actions, not calories per se, determine the avidity for sugar versus non-caloric sweeteners. Furthermore, sweet taste intensity and potential postoral inhibitory actions must be considered in comparing non-caloric and caloric sweeteners. PMID:25715333

  7. Thermally Stable, Latent Olefin Metathesis Catalysts

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas, Renee M.; Fedorov, Alexey; Keitz, Benjamin K.; Grubbs, Robert H.

    2011-01-01

    Highly thermally stable N-aryl,N-alkyl N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC) ruthenium catalysts were designed and synthesized for latent olefin metathesis. These catalysts showed excellent latent behavior toward metathesis reactions, whereby the complexes were inactive at ambient temperature and initiated at elevated temperatures, a challenging property to achieve with second generation catalysts. A sterically hindered N-tert-butyl substituent on the NHC ligand of the ruthenium complex was found to i...

  8. Handbook of latent variable and related models

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, Sik-Yum

    2011-01-01

    This Handbook covers latent variable models, which are a flexible class of models for modeling multivariate data to explore relationships among observed and latent variables.- Covers a wide class of important models- Models and statistical methods described provide tools for analyzing a wide spectrum of complicated data- Includes illustrative examples with real data sets from business, education, medicine, public health and sociology.- Demonstrates the use of a wide variety of statistical, computational, and mathematical techniques.

  9. Latent nystagmus: vestibular nystagmus with a twist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brodsky, Michael C; Tusa, Ronald J

    2004-02-01

    Latent nystagmus is a horizontal binocular oscillation that is evoked by unequal visual input to the 2 eyes. It develops primarily in humans with congenital esotropia. To investigate the interrelationship between latent and peripheral vestibular nystagmus and their corollary neuroanatomical pathways. Examination of subcortical neuroanatomical pathways producing latent nystagmus and review of the neurophysiological mechanisms by which they become activated in congenital esotropia. The vestibular nucleus presides over motion input from the eyes and labyrinths. Latent nystagmus corresponds to the optokinetic component of ocular rotation that is driven monocularly by nasal optic flow during a turning movement of the body in lateral-eyed animals. Congenital esotropia alters visual pathway development from the visual cortex to subcortical centers that project to the vestibular nucleus, allowing this primitive subcortical motion detection system to generate latent nystagmus under conditions of monocular fixation. Latent nystagmus is the ocular counterpart of peripheral vestibular nystagmus. Its clinical expression in humans proclaims the evolutionary function of the eyes as sensory balance organs.

  10. Palatable Hyper-Caloric Foods Impact on Neuronal Plasticity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morin, Jean-Pascal; Rodríguez-Durán, Luis F.; Guzmán-Ramos, Kioko; Perez-Cruz, Claudia; Ferreira, Guillaume; Diaz-Cintra, Sofia; Pacheco-López, Gustavo

    2017-01-01

    Neural plasticity is an intrinsic and essential characteristic of the nervous system that allows animals “self-tuning” to adapt to their environment over their lifetime. Activity-dependent synaptic plasticity in the central nervous system is a form of neural plasticity that underlies learning and memory formation, as well as long-lasting, environmentally-induced maladaptive behaviors, such as drug addiction and overeating of palatable hyper-caloric (PHc) food. In western societies, the abundance of PHc foods has caused a dramatic increase in the incidence of overweight/obesity and related disorders. To this regard, it has been suggested that increased adiposity may be caused at least in part by behavioral changes in the affected individuals that are induced by the chronic consumption of PHc foods; some authors have even drawn attention to the similarity that exists between over-indulgent eating and drug addiction. Long-term misuse of certain dietary components has also been linked to chronic neuroimmune maladaptation that may predispose individuals to neurodegenerative conditions such as Alzheimer’s disease. In this review article, we discuss recent evidence that shows how consumption of PHc food can cause maladaptive neural plasticity that converts short-term ingestive drives into compulsive behaviors. We also discuss the neural mechanisms of how chronic consumption of PHc foods may alter brain function and lead to cognitive impairments, focusing on prenatal, childhood and adolescence as vulnerable neurodevelopmental stages to dietary environmental insults. Finally, we outline a societal agenda for harnessing permissive obesogenic environments. PMID:28261067

  11. Cardioprotective Signature of Short-Term Caloric Restriction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Noyan

    Full Text Available To understand the molecular pathways underlying the cardiac preconditioning effect of short-term caloric restriction (CR.Lifelong CR has been suggested to reduce the incidence of cardiovascular disease through a variety of mechanisms. However, prolonged adherence to a CR life-style is difficult. Here we reveal the pathways that are modulated by short-term CR, which are associated with protection of the mouse heart from ischemia.Male 10-12 wk old C57bl/6 mice were randomly assigned to an ad libitum (AL diet with free access to regular chow, or CR, receiving 30% less food for 7 days (d, prior to myocardial infarction (MI via permanent coronary ligation. At d8, the left ventricles (LV of AL and CR mice were collected for Western blot, mRNA and microRNA (miR analyses to identify cardioprotective gene expression signatures. In separate groups, infarct size, cardiac hemodynamics and protein abundance of caspase 3 was measured at d2 post-MI.This short-term model of CR was associated with cardio-protection, as evidenced by decreased infarct size (18.5±2.4% vs. 26.6±1.7%, N=10/group; P=0.01. mRNA and miR profiles pre-MI (N=5/group identified genes modulated by short-term CR to be associated with circadian clock, oxidative stress, immune function, apoptosis, metabolism, angiogenesis, cytoskeleton and extracellular matrix (ECM. Western blots pre-MI revealed CR-associated increases in phosphorylated Akt and GSK3ß, reduced levels of phosphorylated AMPK and mitochondrial related proteins PGC-1α, cytochrome C and cyclooxygenase (COX IV, with no differences in the levels of phosphorylated eNOS or MAPK (ERK1/2; p38. CR regimen was also associated with reduced protein abundance of cleaved caspase 3 in the infarcted heart and improved cardiac function.

  12. Replacing sweetened caloric beverages with drinking water is associated with lower energy intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stookey, Jodi D; Constant, Florence; Gardner, Christopher D; Popkin, Barry M

    2007-12-01

    Reduced intake of sweetened caloric beverages (SCBs) is recommended to lower total energy intake. Replacing SCBs with non-caloric diet beverages does not automatically lower energy intake, however. Compensatory increases in other food or beverages reportedly negate benefits of diet beverages. The purpose of this study was to evaluate drinking water as an alternative to SCBs. Secondary analysis of data from the Stanford A TO Z intervention evaluated change in beverage pattern and total energy intake in 118 overweight women (25 to 50 years) who regularly consumed SCBs (>12 ounces/d) at baseline. At baseline and 2, 6, and 12 months, mean daily beverage intake (SCBs, drinking water, non-caloric diet beverages, and nutritious caloric beverages), food composition (macronutrient, water, and fiber content), and total energy intake were estimated using three 24-hour diet recalls. Beverage intake was expressed in relative terms (percentage of beverages). In fixed effects models that controlled for total beverage intake, non-caloric and nutritious caloric beverage intake (percentage of beverages), food composition, and energy expenditure [metabolic equivalent (MET)], replacing SCBs with drinking water was associated with significant decreases in total energy intake that were sustained over time. The caloric deficit attributable to replacing SCBs with water was not negated by compensatory increases in other food or beverages. Replacing all SCBs with drinking water was associated with a predicted mean decrease in total energy of 200 kcal/d over 12 months. The results suggest that replacing SCBs with drinking water can help lower total energy intake in overweight consumers of SCBs motivated to diet.

  13. Human Cytomegalovirus Manipulation of Latently Infected Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinclair, John H.; Reeves, Matthew B.

    2013-01-01

    Primary infection with human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) results in the establishment of a lifelong infection of the host which is aided by the ability of HCMV to undergo a latent infection. One site of HCMV latency in vivo is in haematopoietic progenitor cells, resident in the bone marrow, with genome carriage and reactivation being restricted to the cells of the myeloid lineage. Until recently, HCMV latency has been considered to be relatively quiescent with the virus being maintained essentially as a “silent partner” until conditions are met that trigger reactivation. However, advances in techniques to study global changes in gene expression have begun to show that HCMV latency is a highly active process which involves expression of specific latency-associated viral gene products which orchestrate major changes in the latently infected cell. These changes are argued to help maintain latent infection and to modulate the cellular environment to the benefit of latent virus. In this review, we will discuss these new findings and how they impact not only on our understanding of the biology of HCMV latency but also how they could provide tantalising glimpses into mechanisms that could become targets for the clearance of latent HCMV. PMID:24284875

  14. Efecto del calor aportado en recargues nanoestructurados base hierro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agustín Gualco

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available En los últimos años se han desarrollado consumibles de soldadura que depositan recubrimientos duros de aleaciones base hierro nanoestructuradas de gran resistencia al desgaste abrasivo. Las resistencias al desgaste erosivo y abrasivo están controladas principalmente por la composición química y la microestructura. A su vez, la microestructura del metal depositado puede presentar variaciones con el procedimiento de soldadura empleado, especialmente en relación al aporte térmico. Los parámetros operativos que definen el aporte térmico (tensión, corriente y velocidad de soldadura afectan aspectos como la geometría del cordón (ancho, penetración y sobremonta y la dilución con el material base. El propósito de este trabajo fue estudiar el efecto del calor aportado sobre las características geométricas del cordón, la dilución y la evolución microestructural de una aleación nanoestructurada base hierro, depositada por FCAW. Se soldaron muestras con aportes térmicos de entre 0,5 y 3,5 kJ/mm. Sobre cada cupón soldado se realizó un relevamiento dimensional, se analizó la composición química y se caracterizó la microestructura usando microscopías óptica y electrónica de barrido y difracción de rayos X. También se midieron la microdureza del depósito, el tamaño de cristalita y el grado de dilución. Se observó una gran influencia de las condiciones de proceso sobre la geometría del cordón. La dilución varió entre un 30 y un 40%, la microdureza del depósito se encontró entre 800 y 870 HV1 y el tamaño de cristalita osciló entre 105 y 130 nm, en función de las variables de proceso empleadas. Las mayores durezas y los menores tamaños de cristalita se obtuvieron con el menor aporte térmico, asociado a una menor dilución.

  15. The Lexicocalorimeter: Gauging public health through caloric input and output on social media.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharon E Alajajian

    Full Text Available We propose and develop a Lexicocalorimeter: an online, interactive instrument for measuring the "caloric content" of social media and other large-scale texts. We do so by constructing extensive yet improvable tables of food and activity related phrases, and respectively assigning them with sourced estimates of caloric intake and expenditure. We show that for Twitter, our naive measures of "caloric input", "caloric output", and the ratio of these measures are all strong correlates with health and well-being measures for the contiguous United States. Our caloric balance measure in many cases outperforms both its constituent quantities; is tunable to specific health and well-being measures such as diabetes rates; has the capability of providing a real-time signal reflecting a population's health; and has the potential to be used alongside traditional survey data in the development of public policy and collective self-awareness. Because our Lexicocalorimeter is a linear superposition of principled phrase scores, we also show we can move beyond correlations to explore what people talk about in collective detail, and assist in the understanding and explanation of how population-scale conditions vary, a capacity unavailable to black-box type methods.

  16. Caloric Requirements of Patients With Brain Impairment and Cerebral Palsy Who Are Dependent on Chronic Ventilation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gale, Rena; Namestnic, Julia; Singer, Pierre; Kagan, Ilya

    2017-11-01

    Israeli law mandates chronic ventilator support for children and adolescents who are severely brain impaired and show minimal responses. Feeding protocols in these cases have been based on the caloric requirements of healthy children, deducting calories for lack of activity as well as an individual adjustment according to the cerebral palsy growth curves. However, patients are still inclined to gain excessive weight. Our objective was to determine the caloric requirements of these patients. Sixteen patients hospitalized in a dedicated unit who were ventilated through tracheostomies and fed via gastrostomies were included. Patients were aged 3-24 years; duration of ventilation was 1-7.5 years; and diagnoses included congenital genetic or brain malformations (n = 9), hypoxic accidents (n = 4), and postbacterial or postviral encephalitis (n = 3). Resting energy expenditure (REE) was determined by indirect calorimetry. REE values were compared with the caloric requirements of age-comparable healthy children and the calories actually delivered. Data were analyzed with paired t tests, Pearson correlations, and linear regression. The REE of our patients was 46% lower than the estimated caloric requirements of healthy children. In practice, patients received 32% more calories than that measured by REE. These findings were not affected by age, weight, diagnosis, or length of hospitalization. The caloric expenditure of these patients is very low. A diet guided by indirect calorimetry is proposed to aid in providing optimal nutrition support for this unique population to avoid overfeeding and obesity.

  17. Text Categorization with Latent Dirichlet Allocation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZLACKÝ Daniel

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the text categorization of Slovak text corpora using latent Dirichlet allocation. Our goal is to build text subcorpora that contain similar text documents. We want to use these better organized text subcorpora to build more robust language models that can be used in the area of speech recognition systems. Our previous research in the area of text categorization showed that we can achieve better results with categorized text corpora. In this paper we used latent Dirichlet allocation for text categorization. We divided initial text corpus into 2, 5, 10, 20 or 100 subcorpora with various iterations and save steps. Language models were built on these subcorpora and adapted with linear interpolation to judicial domain. The experiment results showed that text categorization using latent Dirichlet allocation can improve the system for automatic speech recognition by creating the language models from organized text corpora.

  18. Estudo da Ilha de Calor na Região Metropolitana do Rio de Janeiro Usando Dados do MODIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caio Atila Pereira Sena

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available A Região Metropolitana do Rio de Janeiro (RMRJ apresenta uma série de problemas ambientais, dentre eles, a ocorrência de Ilhas de Calor Urbanas (ICU e este trabalho tem como objetivo examinar as características da ICU na RMRJ. Para tal, foram usadas composições de 8 dias de dados de Temperatura Superficial Continental (TSC geradas pelo sensor MODIS (Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer a bordo dos satélites Aqua e Terra no período de janeiro de 2003 a dezembro de 2010. A análise foi feita agrupando-se os dados para as diferentes estações do ano e posteriormente calculando-se a média de TSC para cada estação com o intuito de verificar a variação sazonal da ICU. Observou-se que, algumas zonas apresentaram temperaturas próximas dos 50°C durante a primavera e o verão. Ao longo do outono e do inverno as médias atingiram 40°C sobre a maior parte da região de estudo. Foram registradas amplitudes térmicas de até 25°C entre áreas com diferentes níveis de urbanização, durante a primavera. No verão a amplitude foi de 20°C entre as mesmas áreas. No outono a diferença foi de 15°C e no inverno, de 10°C.

  19. Geographic pathology of latent prostatic carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yatani, R; Chigusa, I; Akazaki, K; Stemmermann, G N; Welsh, R A; Correa, P

    1982-06-15

    Prostates obtained at autopsy from black and white males in the United States of America, from Colombians, from Japanese migrants in Hawaii, and from Japanese in Japan (all over 50 years old) were serially step-sectioned and examined microscopically using identical techniques and diagnostic criteria. The age-adjusted overall prevalence of latent carcinoma was significantly higher in US blacks (36.9%), in US whites (34.6%) and in Colombians (31.5%) than in Japanese in Japan (20.5%). There was no significant difference in prevalence between Japanese migrants in Hawaii (25.6%) and Japanese in Japan. When the carcinomas were subdivided into latent infiltrative type (LIT) and latent non-infiltrative type (LNT), the LIT component reflected upon the overall prevalence of latent carcinoma. There was an increase in the overall prevalence of latent carcinoma and in the prevalence of LIT tumors with age in Japanese migrants to Hawaii and in Japanese of Japan but only a suggestive increase in blacks and whites in the United States. There was no significant relation between age and prevalence in Colombia. In LNT tumors, there was no consistent trend related to race or age. The size of LIT tumors was significantly greater than that of LNT tumors in all races or in each decade of total material. There were many large LIT tumors in blacks and whites in the United States. These results suggest that the prevalence of LIT tumors shows a race variation similar to the incidence of clinical carcinoma of the prostate, and that LNT tumors probably remain latent during the individual's life span.

  20. Ensino-aprendizagem colaborativo mediado pelo Wiki do Moodle Collaborative learning-teaching mediated by Wiki Moodle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilse Abegg

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Mediados pela ferramenta Wiki do Moodle, desenvolvemos atividades a distância no Curso de Física da UFSM com o intuito de produzir um objeto escolar hipermídia tematizado pelo Tema Estruturador do Ensino de Física 2: Calor, Ambiente e usos de Energia (oriundo dos PCN+ , locando o diálogo-problematizador na transversalidade curricular "Meio Ambiente". Problematizamos esta atividade, caracterizada como uma produção colaborativa de hipermídia de divulgação científico-tecnológica, ao longo do período letivo da disciplina Didática I da Física da instância curricular integradora. O trabalho em grupo mediado pelo wiki do Moodle tem sido implementado através do PEA (Planejamento, Execução e Avaliação de forma cíclico-espiralada, estudando os casos. Os resultados indicam boa potencialidade da mediação tecnológica, no âmbito do diálogo-problematizador e empowerment, para este tipo de trabalho escolar colaborativo a distância.Through the wiki Moodle, we developed distance education activities in the Physics Course at UFSM, aiming at producing a hypermedia school subject related to the discipline Physics 2 structuring teaching theme: Heat, Environment and uses of Energy (coming from the PCN+, placing the problematic dialogue in the transversal theme "Environment". We designed this activity, described as a collaborative production of hypermedia for scientific-technological dissemination, over the period of school discipline Didactic I from the Physics Course. The working group mediated by the wiki Moodle has been implemented through the PEA (Planning, Execution, and Assessment. The results are positive on the use of technology mediation concerning problematic dialogue and empowerment, in this type of collaborative and distance education.

  1. SirT1 regulates energy metabolism and response to caloric restriction in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gino Boily

    Full Text Available The yeast sir2 gene and its orthologues in Drosophila and C. elegans have well-established roles in lifespan determination and response to caloric restriction. We have studied mice carrying two null alleles for SirT1, the mammalian orthologue of sir2, and found that these animals inefficiently utilize ingested food. These mice are hypermetabolic, contain inefficient liver mitochondria, and have elevated rates of lipid oxidation. When challenged with a 40% reduction in caloric intake, normal mice maintained their metabolic rate and increased their physical activity while the metabolic rate of SirT1-null mice dropped and their activity did not increase. Moreover, CR did not extend lifespan of SirT1-null mice. Thus, SirT1 is an important regulator of energy metabolism and, like its orthologues from simpler eukaryotes, the SirT1 protein appears to be required for a normal response to caloric restriction.

  2. Determinación del calor de fraguado de cemento por icrocalorimetría

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana Girlado G.

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Se determina el calor de fraguado del cemento Río Claro tipo III (Río Claro, Antioquia, Colombia por microcalorimetría de conducción de calor; así como también los efectos de la glucosa y de la sacarosa en el proceso de fraguado de este material. Al emplear 0,15 y 0,05% ( % en peso de estos aditivos en la preparación de las pastas, se observan retardos considerables en el fraguado de las mismas. Los aditivos también modifican el calor de fraguado: la pasta libre de estos presenta un valor de 38,03 J/g en tanto que la adición de glucosa y sacarosa producen valores menores, excepto en el caso de la sacarosa al 0,05% donde se observa un efecto térmico de 55.80 J/s,

  3. Dietary restriction with and without caloric restriction for healthy aging [version 1; referees: 3 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Changhan Lee

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Caloric restriction is the most effective and reproducible dietary intervention known to regulate aging and increase the healthy lifespan in various model organisms, ranging from the unicellular yeast to worms, flies, rodents, and primates. However, caloric restriction, which in most cases entails a 20–40% reduction of food consumption relative to normal intake, is a severe intervention that results in both beneficial and detrimental effects. Specific types of chronic, intermittent, or periodic dietary restrictions without chronic caloric restriction have instead the potential to provide a significant healthspan increase while minimizing adverse effects. Improved periodic or targeted dietary restriction regimens that uncouple the challenge of food deprivation from the beneficial effects will allow a safe intervention feasible for a major portion of the population. Here we focus on healthspan interventions that are not chronic or do not require calorie restriction.

  4. Teoria Construtal e desempenho térmico de Trocadores de Calor Solo-Ar

    OpenAIRE

    Ruth da Silva Brum

    2016-01-01

    Trocadores de Calor Solo-Ar (TCSA) são dispositivos usados para melhorar o condicionamento térmico de ambientes construídos. Eles funcionam através da ventilação do ar por um ou mais dutos enterrados, utilizando o solo como fonte ou sumidouro de calor. Em virtude da defasagem entre as temperaturas do ar e das camadas superficiais da Terra, é possível resfriar o ar no verão e aquecê-lo no inverno. Seus princípios de operação baseiam-se na mecânica dos fluidos e transferência de calor, áreas on...

  5. INVESTIGAÇÕES EDUCACIONAIS REALIZADAS A PARTIR DO CORPUS LATENTE NA INTERNET. EDUCATIONAL RESEARCH FROM INTERNET LATENT DATA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Ramón Bartolomé Pina

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo desse estudo é analisar o uso de informação latente contida na Internet, em investigações no campo das Ciências Sociais e da Educação. Não se trata de recolher dados “através da Internet”, por exemplo, por meio de questionários. Tampouco são utilizados dados pré-existentes na Internet. São estudos que analisam documentos contidos na Internet, extraindo os dados a partir de análises desses documentos. Pode-se dizer que se trata de um modelo de investigação de “traços”, “cursos” ou “restos” deixados pelos usuários da Internet. Para tanto, foram consultados artigos de pesquisas realizadas a partir desse corpus latente, centrando-se em quatro questões: o que se pode investigar, qual é o contexto em que se encontram estes dados, como selecionar as amostras, que considerações éticas devem ser consideradas? A análise do contexto distingue entre estudos sobre um conteúdo e estudos sobre interação. Também analisa as diferenças entre os sítios “voltados à notícia” e os “voltados ao documento”. São analisadas, em continuidade, os três tipos de populações e os processos de extração das amostras, incluindo a necessidade de correções a posteriori. As conclusões do estudo ressaltam de modo sucinto as possibilidades e oportunidades, assim como os limites desse tipo de investigação. This study aims to analyse the use of latent information in the Internet, as basis for the research in Educational and Social Sciences. Such work is distinguished from those that collect the data “through Internet”, e.g. with questionnaires or forms. It also differs from those using data stored in the Internet. We work with studies that analyse documents in the Internet, extracting data from the analysis of these documents. These documents were once distributed through the Web not knowing this future use as research objects. We can say that it is a research model based on trails left by Internet users

  6. Sex and race differences in caloric intake during sleep restriction in healthy adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spaeth, Andrea M; Dinges, David F; Goel, Namni

    2014-08-01

    Evidence indicates that men and African Americans may be more susceptible to weight gain resulting from sleep loss than women and whites, respectively. Increased daily caloric intake is a major behavioral mechanism that underlies the relation between sleep loss and weight gain. We sought to assess sex and race differences in caloric intake, macronutrient intake, and meal timing during sleep restriction. Forty-four healthy adults aged 21-50 y (mean ± SD: 32.7 ± 8.7 y; n = 21 women, n = 16 whites) completed an in-laboratory protocol that included 2 consecutive baseline nights [10 or 12 h time in bed (TIB)/night; 2200-0800 or 2200-1000] followed by 5 consecutive sleep-restriction nights (4 h TIB/night; 0400-0800). Caloric intake and meal-timing data were collected during the 2 d after baseline sleep and the first 3 d after sleep restriction. During sleep restriction, subjects increased daily caloric intake (P sleep restriction, exhibited a greater increase in caloric intake during sleep restriction (d = 0.62), and consumed a higher percentage of daily calories during late-night hours (d = 0.78, Ps sleep restriction, or meal timing. However, African Americans consumed more carbohydrates, less protein, and more caffeine-free soda and juice than whites did during the study (Ps sleep loss than women due to a larger increase in daily caloric intake, particularly during late-night hours. These findings are relevant to the promotion of public health awareness by highlighting nutritional risk factors and modifiable behaviors for weight gain related to sleep-wake timing. © 2014 American Society for Nutrition.

  7. Moderate exercise training and chronic caloric restriction modulate redox status in rat hippocampus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santin, Katiane; da Rocha, Ricardo Fagundes; Cechetti, Fernanda; Quincozes-Santos, André; de Souza, Daniela Fraga; Nardin, Patrícia; Rodrigues, Letícia; Leite, Marina Concli; Moreira, José Cláudio Fonseca; Salbego, Christianne Gazzana; Gonçalves, Carlos Alberto

    2011-11-03

    Physical activity has been related to antioxidant adaptations, which is associated with health benefits, including those to the nervous system. Additionally, available data suggest exercise and a caloric restriction regimen may reduce both the incidence and severity of neurological disorders. Therefore, our aim was to compare hippocampal redox status and glial parameters among sedentary, trained, caloric-restricted sedentary and caloric-restricted trained rats. Forty male adult rats were divided into 4 groups: ad libitum-fed sedentary (AS), ad libitum-fed exercise training (AE), calorie-restricted sedentary (RS) and calorie-restricted exercise training (RE). The caloric restriction (decrease of 30% in food intake) and exercise training (moderate in a treadmill) were carried out for 3 months. Thereafter hippocampus was surgically removed, and then redox and glial parameters were assessed. Increases in reduced glutathione (GSH) levels and total antioxidant reactivity (TAR) were observed in AE, RS and RE. The nitrite/nitrate levels decreased only in RE. We found a decrease in carbonyl content in AE, RS and RE, while no modifications were detected in thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS). Total reactive antioxidant potential (TRAP), superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, S100B and glial fibrilary acid protein (GFAP) content did not change, but caloric restriction was able to increase glutamine synthetase (GS) activity in RS and glutamate uptake in RS and RE. Exercise training, caloric restriction and both combined can decrease oxidative damage in the hippocampus, possibly involving modulation of astroglial function, and could be used as a strategy for the prevention of neurodegenerative diseases. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Postoral glucose sensing, not caloric content, determines sugar reward in C57BL/6J mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sclafani, Anthony; Zukerman, Steven; Ackroff, Karen

    2015-05-01

    Recent studies suggest that because of their energy value, sugars are more rewarding than non-caloric sweeteners. However, intragastric infusion data indicate that sugars differ in their postoral appetite-stimulating effects. We therefore compared the preference for isocaloric 8% sucrose, glucose, and fructose solutions with that of a non-caloric sweetener solution (0.8% sucralose) in C57BL/6J mice. Brief 2-bottle tests indicated that sucralose was isopreferred to sucrose but more preferred than glucose or fructose. Yet, in long-term tests, the mice preferred sucrose and glucose, but not fructose to sucralose. Additional experiments were conducted with a non-caloric 0.1% sucralose + 0.1% saccharin mixture (S + S), which does not have the postoral inhibitory effects of 0.8% sucralose. The S + S was preferred to fructose in brief and long-term choice tests. S + S was also preferred to glucose and sucrose in brief tests, but the sugars were preferred in long-term tests. In progressive ratio tests, non-deprived and food-deprived mice licked more for glucose but not fructose than for S + S. These findings demonstrate that the nutrient-specific postoral actions, not calories per se, determine the avidity for sugar versus non-caloric sweeteners. Furthermore, sweet taste intensity and potential postoral inhibitory actions must be considered in comparing non-caloric and caloric sweeteners. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. High-throughput search for caloric materials: the CaloriCool approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarkevich, N. A.; Johnson, D. D.; Pecharsky, V. K.

    2018-01-01

    The high-throughput search paradigm adopted by the newly established caloric materials consortium—CaloriCool®—with the goal to substantially accelerate discovery and design of novel caloric materials is briefly discussed. We begin with describing material selection criteria based on known properties, which are then followed by heuristic fast estimates, ab initio calculations, all of which has been implemented in a set of automated computational tools and measurements. We also demonstrate how theoretical and computational methods serve as a guide for experimental efforts by considering a representative example from the field of magnetocaloric materials.

  10. Effect of consuming different caloric sweeteners on bone health and possible mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsanzi, Embedzayi; Fitch, Cindy W; Tou, Janet C

    2008-06-01

    Western diets are high in caloric sweeteners and since the 1980s there has been a shift from the use of sucrose as the predominant sweetener to high-fructose corn syrup. This may have important implications for bone, as sugar consumption has been shown to negatively impact mineral balance. This article reviews the existing scientific evidence regarding the effect of caloric sweeteners and the type of sweetener on bone health and the potential mechanisms of action. A better understanding of the role of sugar consumption on mineral balance and bone can contribute to the determination of dietary recommendations to reduce bone loss and the future risk of osteoporosis.

  11. Análisis estructural de un intercambiador de calor de un reactor avanzado

    OpenAIRE

    García Merino, Carlos

    2008-01-01

    El objetivo fundamental de este proyecto consiste en el estudio estructural de un intercambiador de calor de un reactor avanzado de Generación VI. Este intercambiador de calor es el condensador PCCS (Passive Containment Cooling System), sistema de seguridad de una central nuclear ESBWR. El análisis estructural del condensador se ha realizado analítica y numéricamente. El cálculo analítico utiliza expresiones obtenidas del código ASME, para determinar tensiones por presiones internas. Y el cál...

  12. Isotermas e calor isostérico de sementes de Buchenavia capitata (Vahl) Eichler

    OpenAIRE

    Costa,Lílian Moreira; Resende,Osvaldo; Oliveira,Daniel Emanuel Cabral de; Sousa,Kelly Aparecida de

    2015-01-01

    RESUMODiante da importância do conhecimento da higroscopicidade e do calor isostérico para as operações de secagem e armazenamento, objetivou-se neste trabalho determinar as isotermas de dessorção de sementes de Buchenavia capitata (Vahl) Eichler, bem como ajustar diferentes modelos matemáticos aos dados experimentais, selecionando aquele que melhor representa o fenômeno e, assim, utilizá-lo para determinar o calor isostérico de dessorção. Para obtenção do teor de água de equilíbrio higroscóp...

  13. Effects of Experimental Sleep Restriction on Weight Gain, Caloric Intake, and Meal Timing in Healthy Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spaeth, Andrea M; Dinges, David F; Goel, Namni

    2013-07-01

    Examine sleep restriction's effects on weight gain, daily caloric intake, and meal timing. Repeated-measures experiments assessing body weight at admittance and discharge in all subjects (N = 225) and caloric intake and meal timing across days following 2 baseline nights, 5 sleep restriction nights and 2 recovery nights or across days following control condition nights in a subset of subjects (n = 37). Controlled laboratory environment. Two hundred twenty-five healthy adults aged 22-50 y (n = 198 sleep-restricted subjects; n = 31 with caloric intake data; n = 27 control subjects; n = 6 with caloric intake data). Approximately 8-to-1 randomization to an experimental condition (including five consecutive nights of 4 h time in bed [TIB]/night, 04:00-08:00) or to a control condition (all nights 10 h TIB/night, 22:00-08:00). Sleep-restricted subjects gained more weight (0.97 ± 1.4 kg) than control subjects (0.11 ± 1.9 kg; d = 0.51, P = 0.007). Among sleep-restricted subjects, African Americans gained more weight than Caucasians (d = 0.37, P = 0.003) and males gained more weight than females (d = 0.38, P = 0.004). Sleep-restricted subjects consumed extra calories (130.0 ± 43.0% of daily caloric requirement) during days with a delayed bedtime (04:00) compared with control subjects who did not consume extra calories (100.6 ± 11.4%; d = 0.94, P = 0.003) during corresponding days. In sleep-restricted subjects, increased daily caloric intake was due to more meals and the consumption of 552.9 ± 265.8 additional calories between 22:00-03:59. The percentage of calories derived from fat was greater during late-night hours (22:00-03:59, 33.0 ± 0.08%) compared to daytime (08:00-14:59, 28.2 ± 0.05%) and evening hours (15:00-21:59, 29.4 ± 0.06%; Ps sleep restriction promoted weight gain. Chronically sleep-restricted adults with late bedtimes may be more susceptible to weight gain due to greater daily caloric intake and the consumption of calories during late-night hours

  14. Normal physical activity obliterates the deleterious effects of high-caloric intake

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krogh-Madsen, Rikke; Pedersen, Maria; Solomon, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    A high-caloric intake combined with a sedentary lifestyle is an important player in the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). The present study was undertaken to examine if the level of physical activity has impact on the metabolic effects of a high-caloric (+2,000 kcal/day) intake...... function with regard to capacity of attention. In conclusion, we find evidence to support that habitual physical activity may prevent pathophysiological symptoms associated with diet-induced obesity....

  15. Biotransformación del pelo residual de curtiembres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth Viviana Numpaque

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available La industria de curtiembres genera una alta carga contaminante representada por residuos líquidos, sólidos y gaseosos. Entre los residuos sólidos, el pelo residual es vertido directamente al río Bogotá y/o en rellenos sanitarios, desencadenando serios conflictos de orden ambiental, social y económico. El objetivo de esta investigación fue evaluar la capacidad de los microorganismos del EM y Agroplux en la transformación del pelo residual en compost. Se evaluaron tres tratamientos con pelo residual y materiales orgánicos de plaza en diferentes porcentajes y dos controles, utilizando el diseño completamente al azar, con tres repeticiones. Durante el compostaje se determinaron las variables temperatura, formación de agregados, pH y conductividad eléctrica. El desarrollo de la temperatura ocurrió en ciclos que concordaron con los volteos y re-inoculaciones. En el tercer ciclo el mayor incremento de temperatura fue obtenido en los tres tratamientos, cuando ya se había agotado la mayor parte de los residuos orgánicos. La formación de agregados indicó que el proceso se llevó a efecto principalmente en el tratamiento con 20% de pelo residual más 80% de residuos orgánicos. Además de su color oscuro y la ausencia de olor y fragmentos, el compost producido mediante dicho tratamiento mostró la conductividad eléctrica más baja y un pH casi neutro. Se concluye que los microorganismos del EM y Agroplux tienen capacidad para transformar el pelo residual en compost y por lo tanto representan una alternativa viable para la continuación del funcionamiento de la industria de curtiembres en Villapinzón (Cundinamarca y en otras regiones de Colombia.

  16. Variable importance in latent variable regression models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kvalheim, O.M.; Arneberg, R.; Bleie, O.; Rajalahti, T.; Smilde, A.K.; Westerhuis, J.A.

    2014-01-01

    The quality and practical usefulness of a regression model are a function of both interpretability and prediction performance. This work presents some new graphical tools for improved interpretation of latent variable regression models that can also assist in improved algorithms for variable

  17. Essay Assessment with Latent Semantic Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Tristan

    2003-01-01

    Latent semantic analysis (LSA) is an automated, statistical technique for comparing the semantic similarity of words or documents. In this article, I examine the application of LSA to automated essay scoring. I compare LSA methods to earlier statistical methods for assessing essay quality, and critically review contemporary essay-scoring systems…

  18. An Introduction to Latent Semantic Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landauer, Thomas K; Foltz, Peter W.; Laham, Darrell

    1998-01-01

    Offers an introduction to the theory and implementation of Latent Semantic Analysis (LSA), a theory and method for extracting and representing the contextual-usage meaning of words by statistical computations applied to a large corpus of text. Gives an overview of applications and modeling of human knowledge to which LSA has been applied. (SR)

  19. On identifiability of certain latent class models.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Wieringen, W.N.

    2005-01-01

    Blischke [1962. Moment estimators for the parameters of a mixture of two binomial distributions. Ann. Math. Statist. 33, 444-454] studies a mixture of two binomials, a latent class model. In this article we generalize this model to a mixture of two products of binomials. We show when this

  20. Forensic Chemistry: The Revelation of Latent Fingerprints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friesen, J. Brent

    2015-01-01

    The visualization of latent fingerprints often involves the use of a chemical substance that creates a contrast between the fingerprint residues and the surface on which the print was deposited. The chemical-aided visualization techniques can be divided into two main categories: those that chemically react with the fingerprint residue and those…

  1. Latent Structure of Self-Monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoyle, Rick H.; Lennox, Richard D.

    1991-01-01

    The latent structure of the Self-Monitoring Scale of M. Snyder (1974) is evaluated by comparing several measurement models suggested by previous factor analysis of the scale using sample data from 1,113 college students. Implications of results are discussed in relation to self-monitoring and the use of factor analysis. (SLD)

  2. Saharan Africa: A Latent Class Analysis

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJRH Managing Editor

    1University of Southern California School of Social Work, 669 W. 34th Street, Los Angeles, CA 90089, USA; 2University of ... Abstract. While studies have examined factors associated with condom use behaviors, few have assessed risk perception and condom use among SSA .... approach (latent class analysis) to identify.

  3. Thermally Stable, Latent Olefin Metathesis Catalysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Renee M; Fedorov, Alexey; Keitz, Benjamin K; Grubbs, Robert H

    2011-12-26

    Highly thermally stable N-aryl,N-alkyl N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC) ruthenium catalysts were designed and synthesized for latent olefin metathesis. These catalysts showed excellent latent behavior toward metathesis reactions, whereby the complexes were inactive at ambient temperature and initiated at elevated temperatures, a challenging property to achieve with second generation catalysts. A sterically hindered N-tert-butyl substituent on the NHC ligand of the ruthenium complex was found to induce latent behavior toward cross-metathesis reactions, and exchange of the chloride ligands for iodide ligands was necessary to attain latent behavior during ring-opening metathesis polymerization (ROMP). Iodide-based catalysts showed no reactivity toward ROMP of norbornene-derived monomers at 25 °C, and upon heating to 85 °C gave complete conversion of monomer to polymer in less than 2 hours. All of the complexes were very stable to air, moisture, and elevated temperatures up to at least 90 °C, and exhibited a long catalyst lifetime in solution at elevated temperatures.

  4. Incorporating direct marketing activity into latent attrition models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schweidel, David A.; Knox, George

    2013-01-01

    When defection is unobserved, latent attrition models provide useful insights about customer behavior and accurate forecasts of customer value. Yet extant models ignore direct marketing efforts. Response models incorporate the effects of direct marketing, but because they ignore latent attrition,

  5. Effect of Replacing Sugar with Non-Caloric Sweeteners in Beverages on the Reward Value after Repeated Exposure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Griffioen-Roose, S.; Smeets, P.A.M.; Weijzen, P.L.G.; Rijn, van I.; Bosch, van den I.; Graaf, de C.

    2013-01-01

    Background: The reward value of food is partly dependent on learned associations. It is not yet known whether replacing sugar with non-caloric sweeteners in food is affecting long-term acceptance. Objective: To determine the effect of replacing sugar with non-caloric sweeteners in a nutrient-empty

  6. Bayesian Adaptive Lasso for Ordinal Regression with Latent Variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Xiang-Nan; Wu, Hao-Tian; Song, Xin-Yuan

    2017-01-01

    We consider an ordinal regression model with latent variables to investigate the effects of observable and latent explanatory variables on the ordinal responses of interest. Each latent variable is characterized by correlated observed variables through a confirmatory factor analysis model. We develop a Bayesian adaptive lasso procedure to conduct…

  7. Thermoregulatory, Cardiovascular, and Metabolic Responses to Mild Caloric Restriction in the Brown Norway Rat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caloric restriction (CR) has been demonstrated to prolong the life span of a variety of species. CR-induced reduction in core temperature (Tc) is considered a key mechanism responsible for prolonging life span in rodents; however, little is known on the regulation of CR-induced h...

  8. Biochemical composition and caloric potential of zooplankton from Bay of Bengal

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sreepada, R.A.; Rivonker, C.U.; Parulekar, A.H.

    .62, 4.95, 1.54, 0.43, 4.4 and 4.16 respectively on wet weight basis. A good correlation of caloric potential with protein and lipid indicated to a certain extent that protein and lipid act as metabolic reserves of the zooplankton in the area...

  9. Effects of Caloric Restriction on Cardiac Oxidative Stress and Mitochondrial Bioenergetics: Potential Role of Cardiac Sirtuins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ken Shinmura

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The biology of aging has not been fully clarified, but the free radical theory of aging is one of the strongest aging theories proposed to date. The free radical theory has been expanded to the oxidative stress theory, in which mitochondria play a central role in the development of the aging process because of their critical roles in bioenergetics, oxidant production, and regulation of cell death. A decline in cardiac mitochondrial function associated with the accumulation of oxidative damage might be responsible, at least in part, for the decline in cardiac performance with age. In contrast, lifelong caloric restriction can attenuate functional decline with age, delay the onset of morbidity, and extend lifespan in various species. The effect of caloric restriction appears to be related to a reduction in cellular damage induced by reactive oxygen species. There is increasing evidence that sirtuins play an essential role in the reduction of mitochondrial oxidative stress during caloric restriction. We speculate that cardiac sirtuins attenuate the accumulation of oxidative damage associated with age by modifying specific mitochondrial proteins posttranscriptionally. Therefore, the distinct role of each sirtuin in the heart subjected to caloric restriction should be clarified to translate sirtuin biology into clinical practice.

  10. Caloric variability of Corbicula fluminea (Mollusca, Bivalvia in Rosana Reservoir, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yara Moretto Bagatini

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present study was to investigate temporal and longitudinal variation of caloric density of Corbicula fluminea in Rosana Reservoir. Significant differences concerning the caloric density of C. fluminea were observed throughout the year at the three reservoir sites. The caloric density variation during the year was probably related to reproductive activity, which demanded higher allocation of energy in certain period. The food source used by this species might be an important factor in the caloric value temporal and spatial variation of C. fluminea in Rosana Reservoir.O objetivo deste estudo foi investigar a variação temporal e longitudinal da densidade calórica de C. fluminea no reservatório de Rosana. Diferenças significativas na densidade calórica de C. fluminea foram observadas ao longo do ano e nas três estações do reservatório. A variação na densidade calórica de C. fluminea, durante o ano, provavelmente foi relacionada à atividade reprodutiva, que exige uma maior alocação de energia em determinado período. O recurso alimentar utilizado por esta espécie pode ser um importante fator na variação temporal e espacial do valor calórico de C. fluminea no reservatório de Rosana.

  11. Benefits of caloric restriction in the myenteric neuronal plasticity in aging rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JOICE N.B. PEREIRA

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Aging is a biologic process characterized by progressive damage of structures and functions of organic systems. In gastrointestinal tract, it can involve enteric nervous system, which plays an important role in digestion and absorption of nutrients, causing hastening of intestinal transit thus reducing its absorptive function. Caloric restriction has been used in several studies with the intention of delaying deleterious effects of aging. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of caloric restriction on myenteric neurons of ileum by aging in rats. 30 Wistar rats were grouped as follows: GI (animals aged 6 months fed with normal diet, GII (animals aged 18 months fed with normal diet and GIII (animals aged 18 months subject to 31% of caloric restriction. The rats of the GI group were euthanized at 6 months of age and after experimental period of 12 months animals of the group GII and GIII were euthanized, the ileum of all groups were collected, measured and processed by NADPH-dp and Acetylcholinesterase. Quantitative analysis of neurons revealed that aging promotes the increasing of myenteric neurons NADPH-dp and reduces Acetylcholinesterase neuronal population. However, in the cellular profile area, were not observed significant differences between the groups. The caloric restriction has been efficient and can be used preventively because it minimizes quantitative changes associated with aging on ileum myenteric plexuses.

  12. Benefits of caloric restriction in the myenteric neuronal plasticity in aging rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Joice N B; Mari, Renata B; Stabille, Sandra R; de Faria, Haroldo G; Mota, Thais F M; Ferreira, Walter M

    2014-09-01

    Aging is a biologic process characterized by progressive damage of structures and functions of organic systems. In gastrointestinal tract, it can involve enteric nervous system, which plays an important role in digestion and absorption of nutrients, causing hastening of intestinal transit thus reducing its absorptive function. Caloric restriction has been used in several studies with the intention of delaying deleterious effects of aging. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of caloric restriction on myenteric neurons of ileum by aging in rats. 30 Wistar rats were grouped as follows: GI (animals aged 6 months fed with normal diet), GII (animals aged 18 months fed with normal diet) and GIII (animals aged 18 months subject to 31% of caloric restriction). The rats of the GI group were euthanized at 6 months of age and after experimental period of 12 months animals of the group GII and GIII were euthanized, the ileum of all groups were collected, measured and processed by NADPH-dp and Acetylcholinesterase. Quantitative analysis of neurons revealed that aging promotes the increasing of myenteric neurons NADPH-dp and reduces Acetylcholinesterase neuronal population. However, in the cellular profile area, were not observed significant differences between the groups. The caloric restriction has been efficient and can be used preventively because it minimizes quantitative changes associated with aging on ileum myenteric plexuses.

  13. Gasto energético e consumo calórico em adolescentes do sexo masculino com diferentes níveis de adiposidade corporal Energy expenditure and caloric intake among male adolescents with different levels of body adiposy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Augusto Santos Silva

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Foram comparados o gasto energético e consumo calórico de adolescentes com diferentes níveis de gordura corporal. Estudo transversal com 40 adolescentes de 14 a 16 anos do sexo masculino. Os adolescentes foram divididos em dois grupos, cada um com 20 sujeitos, de acordo com o %G: baixo (%G 20%. O gasto energético foi mensurado por acelerômetros triaxiais e recordatório de atividades diárias. O consumo calórico foi avaliado pelo registro de 24 horas. Os jovens com baixo %G tiveram menor consumo calórico ( = 2408,1 ± 557,9 kcal.dia-1 em comparação aos jovens com alto %G ( = 2931,7 ± 679,2 kcal.dia-1, pEnergy expenditure and caloric intake were compared among adolescents with different levels of adiposity. A cross-sectional study was carried with 40 adolescent boys aged 14 to 16 years. The adolescents were divided into two groups of 20 subjects each, according to % body fat (%BF: low ( 20%. Energy expenditure was measured using accelerometer and daily activity diary. The dietary pattern was evaluated based on 24-h recall. Caloric intake was lower in adolescents with low %F ( = 2408.1 ± 557.9 kcal.day-1 compared to those with high %F ( = 2931.7 ± 679.2 kcal.day-1, p<0.05. In addition, they presented greater relative energy expenditure than adolescents with high %F (p<0.05. High %F adolescents showed larger caloric intake than expenditure, while the opposite was observed among low %F males.

  14. Calibrated heat-pulse method for the assessment of maize water uptake Desenvolvimento do método do "pulso de calor" para determinação da absorção hídrica em milho

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Odair Santos

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available Plant water requirements are important aspects of crop production to be determined in the field, in order to judiciously manage crop water usage. Water uptake by field grown maize (Zea mays L., under well-watered conditions was verified with the heat-pulse system. The temperature difference between two radially inserted thermocouples, one 9 mm above and the other 4 mm below a heater piercing the maize stem, was measured every 0.3 seconds following emission of a heat-pulse. Comparisons of the heat-pulse system outputs, lysimetric measurement and transpiration model estimates were monitored on an hourly and daily basis. At normal and low atmospheric demand daily and hourly values of heat-pulse outputs and lysimetric measurement showed good agreement. Hourly agreement of a modified Penman-Monteith energy balance equation estimate and heat-pulse outputs showed accordance between measurement of sap flow and the plant water-loss theory. Study of the relationship between maize canopy water loss rate and heat velocity in the stem showed that these two parameters were proportional and a calibration factor of 1.51 for full soil foliage coverage was verified.A determinação a campo das necessidades hídricas de plantas é um aspecto importante da produção agrícola, para o manejo correto do uso da água pelos cultivos. A absorção de água por uma cultura de milho (Zea mays L., cultivado a campo, em condições de não limitação hídrica, foi verificada através da técnica do pulso de calor. Após a emissão de um pulso, procedeu-se a medições, a cada 0,3 segundos, do diferencial de temperatura entre dois termopares, inseridos radialmente no caule da planta. O primeiro foi colocado 9 mm acima e o segundo 4 mm abaixo de uma fonte de calor ("heater". Foram feitas comparações entre as medições feitas pela técnica do pulso de calor, lisímetro e estimativas da transpiração computadas em modelo, numa base horária e diária. Comparações entre

  15. The comparative effect of fasting with and without caloric restriction in Rat on oxidative stress parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurina Tyagita

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Fasting, like Islamic Ramadan Fasting, has been associated with health benefits. Islamic Ramadan fasting, a form of caloric restriction (CR or alternate day fasting that. Studies suggest a comparable effect of ADF and caloric restriction. Despite the fact that fasting can be considered as a form of dietary restriction, fasters tend to have difficulty to reduce their food intake during non-fasting period by overeating leading to the excessive calorie intake. To compare the effect of fasting with and without caloric restriction in Sprague Dawley rats. Methods: The rats were assigned to one of three groups: ADF with 70 % calorie intake (30% CR, ADF with 100 % calorie intake (0% CR, and ADF with 140 % calorie intake (excessive calorie intake and AL (fed ad libitum. All groups were subjected to 6 hour fasting per day (9 a.m. until 3 p.m. or 15 days. The plasma sample was taken for MDA level assessment. Urinary 8-oxodG levels were determined by using ELISA. Results: ADF with 30% calorie restriction (F70 group had the lowest MDA level. Measurement of 8-oxodG level showed that group F70 had the highest production of 8-oxodG. There was an inverse relationship between MDA level and 8-oxodG level meaning the lower MDA level, the lower 8-oxodG levels were produced. Conclusion: ADF fasting with 30% caloric restriction reduce the MDA level but increase 8-oxodG levels. This study suggest the beneficial effect of fasting requires decrease in overall caloric intake.

  16. [Comparison of caloric responses between vestibular migraine and Ménière disease patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yuechang; Zhuang, Jianhua; Zhou, Lili; Tong, Bei; Zhou, Xiaowen; Gao, Bo

    2016-01-01

    To compare the features of caloric tests in vestibular migraine (VM) and Menière's disease (MD) patients, and provide objective evidence for differentiating the 2 groups of patients. This case-control study included 11 MD patients with left ear involved and mild to moderate impaired hearing, and 18 matched cases with VM. All participants received caloric tests. Maximum slow phase velocities (SPVmax) were used to describe horizontal and vertical nystagmus respectively and were compared between the 2 groups. Horizontal and vertical canal parasis(CP) were calculated according to respective SPVmax. Unilateral (UW-VR) or bilateral (BW-VR) weakness of vestibular response, and positive unilateral (UVR) or bilateral (BVR) vertical response or negative bilateral vertical response (NBVR) were judged by the boundary point of SPVmax of 5°/s respectively. Total left (LV) or right (RV) Vertical reactions were calculated accoeding to vertical SPVmax,and inter ears difference of vertical responses (IED-VR) calculated from LV minus RV. There were no significant differences in age and gender between the 2 groups. Horizontal SPVmax of all of caloric tests of VM group,except the left cold (LC), were statistically larger than that of MD group (P VR and BW-VR in VM group (5.56%, 0) were significantly lower than that in MD group (27.27%, 18.18%) (P VR in VM group (left intenser: 16.67%, right intenser: 83.33%) was statistically different from that in MD group (left intenser: 36.36%, right intenser: 9.09%, both no difference: 54.55%) (P Vestibular responses of caloric test are more sensitive, and vertical reactions are more easily induced in VM patients than in MD. Caloric test can be used to differentiate the 2 groups of diseases.

  17. Focos de Calor na Mata Atlântica do Estado do Rio de Janeiro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara dos Santos Clemente

    Full Text Available Resumo O estudo avaliou a ocorrência de focos de calor nos remanescentes da Mata Atlântica no estado do Rio de Janeiro, sob o aspecto climático. As informações obtidas da base de dados BDQueimadas, do período de junho de 1998 a dezembro de 2015, sofreram estatística descritiva, exploratória e paramétrica. As maiores ocorrências de focos de calor foram registradas nos meses de agosto, setembro e outubro e, os anos com os maiores registros foram nos ciclos 2010/2011 (16,06% e 2014/2015 (41, 24%, ambos somaram 57,30% da série temporal, referente a La Niña e El Niño nas categorias forte e fraco. O teste paramétrico mostrou uma repetição dos meses de abril e junho nos anos avaliados na série temporal de focos de calor. As regiões de Governo Centro-Sul Fluminense e Médio Paraíba registraram os maiores registros de focos de calor, segundo a avaliação espacial. Nossos resultados demonstram que o acesso a uma base gratuita de dados permite a prevenção de danos causados pelas queimadas e incêndios. Com a evolução dos sensores de temperatura e de algoritmos de tratamento de dados, será possível diferenciar os focos de calor que representam incêndios e queimadas daqueles que indicam, por exemplo, atividade de indústrias.

  18. Assessment of handedness using latent class factor analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merni, Franco; Di Michele, Rocco; Soffritti, Gabriele

    2014-01-01

    Recently several studies in which handedness was evaluated as a latent construct have been performed. In those studies, handedness was modelled using a qualitative latent variable (latent class models), a continuous latent variable (factor models), or both a qualitative latent variable and a continuous latent trait (mixed Rasch models). The aim of this study was to explore the usefulness and effectiveness of an approach in which handedness is treated as a qualitatively scaled latent variable with ordered categories (latent class factor models). This aim was pursued through an exploratory analysis of a dataset containing information on the hand used by 2236 young Italian sportspeople to perform 10 tasks. For comparison purposes, a latent class analysis was carried out. A cross-validation procedure was implemented. The results of all the analyses revealed that the best fit to the observed handedness patterns was obtained using a latent class factor model. Through this model, individuals were assigned to one of four ordered levels of handedness, and a quantitative index of left-handedness for each individual was computed by taking into account the different effect of the 10 tasks. These results provide support for the use of the latent class factor approach for handedness assessment.

  19. Biomedical Literature Exploration through Latent Semantics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo ARAÚJO

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The fast increasing amount of articles published in the biomedical field is creating difficulties in the way this wealth of information can be efficiently exploited by researchers. As a way of overcoming these limitations and potentiating a more efficient use of the literature, we propose an approach for structuring the results of a literature search based on the latent semantic information extracted from a corpus. Moreover, we show how the results of the Latent Semantic Analysis method can be adapted so as to evidence differences between results of different searches. We also propose different visualization techniques that can be applied to explore these results. Used in combination, these techniques could empower users with tools for literature guided knowledge exploration and discovery.

  20. Latent Semantic Indexing for Patent Information

    OpenAIRE

    Ryley, Dr. James

    2007-01-01

    Latent Semantic Indexing (LSI) promises more accurate retrieval of information by incorporating statistical information on term meaning and frequency while retrieving documents as a result of a search. LSI’s precision and accuracy has been proven many times on test corpora, but the world’s patent literature poses a significant challenge in effectively implementing an LSI search engine due the size and heterogeneity of the patent corpus. Some of the factors which must be addressed to realize...

  1. Review of Inferring Latent Attributes from Twitter

    OpenAIRE

    Ludu, Surabhi Singh

    2015-01-01

    This paper reviews literature from 2011 to 2013 on how Latent attributes like gender, political leaning etc. can be inferred from a person's twitter and neighborhood data. Prediction of demographic data can bring value to businesses, can prove instrumental in legal investigation. Moreover, political leanings can be inferred from the wide variety of user data available on-line. The motive of this review is to understand how large data sets can be made from available twitter data. The tweeting ...

  2. Latent variables and route choice behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prato, Carlo Giacomo; Bekhor, Shlomo; Pronello, Cristina

    2012-01-01

    In the last decade, a broad array of disciplines has shown a general interest in enhancing discrete choice models by considering the incorporation of psychological factors affecting decision making. This paper provides insight into the comprehension of the determinants of route choice behavior...... results illustrate that considering latent variables (i.e., memory, habit, familiarity, spatial ability, time saving skills) alongside traditional variables (e.g., travel time, distance, congestion level) enriches the comprehension of route choice behavior....

  3. New Treatment Regimen for Latent Tuberculosis Infection

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-03-15

    In this podcast, Dr. Kenneth Castro, Director of the Division of Tuberculosis Elimination, discusses the December 9, 2011 CDC guidelines for the use of a new regimen for the treatment of persons with latent tuberculosis infection.  Created: 3/15/2012 by National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention (NCHHSTP).   Date Released: 3/15/2012.

  4. Barcelona - Talent Latent 09 / Ahto Sooaru

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Sooaru, Ahto

    2010-01-01

    Fotonäitusest "Talent Latent 09" Barcelonas Arts Santa Monica kunstikeskuses. Loetletud näitusel eksponeeritud fotode autorid. Pikemalt Rafael Milach'i (sünd. 1978), Lucia Ganieva, Javier Marquerie Thomas'i (sünd. 1986), Amaury da Cunha (sünd. 1976) töödest. Lühidalt ka teistest näitustest Arts Santa Monica kunstikeskuses

  5. Probabilistic Latent Variable Models as Nonnegative Factorizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madhusudana Shashanka

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a family of probabilistic latent variable models that can be used for analysis of nonnegative data. We show that there are strong ties between nonnegative matrix factorization and this family, and provide some straightforward extensions which can help in dealing with shift invariances, higher-order decompositions and sparsity constraints. We argue through these extensions that the use of this approach allows for rapid development of complex statistical models for analyzing nonnegative data.

  6. Emerging latent fingerprint technologies: a review

    OpenAIRE

    Jasuja, Om Prakash; Bumbrah, Gurvinder Singh; Sharma, Rakesh Mohan

    2016-01-01

    Gurvinder Singh Bumbrah, Rakesh Mohan Sharma, Om Prakash Jasuja Department of Forensic Science, Punjabi University, Patiala, Punjab, India Abstract: Information regarding state of the art technology is accessible by searching in a systematic manner, and is the preferred way of keeping up to date. In this review, we present the recent developments in the field of latent fingerprint detection. Recent developments in processing methods including optical, physical, and chemical ...

  7. Factors associated with latent fingerprint exclusion determinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulery, Bradford T; Hicklin, R Austin; Roberts, Maria Antonia; Buscaglia, JoAnn

    2017-06-01

    Exclusion is the determination by a latent print examiner that two friction ridge impressions did not originate from the same source. The concept and terminology of exclusion vary among agencies. Much of the literature on latent print examination focuses on individualization, and much less attention has been paid to exclusion. This experimental study assesses the associations between a variety of factors and exclusion determinations. Although erroneous exclusions are more likely to occur on some images and for some examiners, they were widely distributed among images and examiners. Measurable factors found to be associated with exclusion rates include the quality of the latent, value determinations, analysis minutia count, comparison difficulty, and the presence of cores or deltas. An understanding of these associations will help explain the circumstances under which errors are more likely to occur and when determinations are less likely to be reproduced by other examiners; the results should also lead to improved effectiveness and efficiency of training and casework quality assurance. This research is intended to assist examiners in improving the examination process and provide information to the broader community regarding the accuracy, reliability, and implications of exclusion decisions. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  8. Clinical implication of latent myofascial trigger point.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celik, Derya; Mutlu, Ebru Kaya

    2013-08-01

    Myofascial trigger points (MTrPs) are hyperirritable points located within a taut band of skeletal muscle or fascia, which cause referred pain, local tenderness and autonomic changes when compressed. There are fundamental differences between the effects produced by the two basic types of MTrPs (active and latent). Active trigger points (ATrPs) usually produce referred pain and tenderness. In contrast, latent trigger points (LTrPs) are foci of hyperirritability in a taut band of muscle, which are clinically associated with a local twitch response, tenderness and/or referred pain upon manual examination. LTrPs may be found in many pain-free skeletal muscles and may be "activated" and converted to ATrPs by continuous detrimental stimuli. ATrPs can be inactivated by different treatment strategies; however, they never fully disappear but rather convert to the latent form. Therefore, the diagnosis and treatment of LTrPs is important. This review highlights the clinical implication of LTrPs.

  9. First Versus Second Order Latent Growth Curve Models: Some Insights From Latent State-Trait Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geiser, Christian; Keller, Brian; Lockhart, Ginger

    2013-07-01

    First order latent growth curve models (FGMs) estimate change based on a single observed variable and are widely used in longitudinal research. Despite significant advantages, second order latent growth curve models (SGMs), which use multiple indicators, are rarely used in practice, and not all aspects of these models are widely understood. In this article, our goal is to contribute to a deeper understanding of theoretical and practical differences between FGMs and SGMs. We define the latent variables in FGMs and SGMs explicitly on the basis of latent state-trait (LST) theory and discuss insights that arise from this approach. We show that FGMs imply a strict trait-like conception of the construct under study, whereas SGMs allow for both trait and state components. Based on a simulation study and empirical applications to the CES-D depression scale (Radloff, 1977) we illustrate that, as an important practical consequence, FGMs yield biased reliability estimates whenever constructs contain state components, whereas reliability estimates based on SGMs were found to be accurate. Implications of the state-trait distinction for the measurement of change via latent growth curve models are discussed.

  10. Coeficientes de transferencia de calor y pérdida de eficiencia en intercambiadores de calor de placas durante el enfriamiento del licor amoniacal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique Torres-Tamayo

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available En la planta de Recuperación de Amoniaco de la empresa niquelera Ernesto Che Guevara la pérdida de eficiencia del proceso de enfriamiento del licor amoniacal, mediante el uso de intercambiadores de calor de placas, se asocia a la incorrecta estimación de los coeficientes de transferencia de calor y la acumulación de incrustaciones en la superficie de intercambio; lo anterior incrementa el consumo de agua, la energía disponible en el sistema y los costos de mantenimiento. Se realizó una investigación en un intercambiador de calor de placas, con el objetivo de determinar los coeficientes de transferencia y la influencia de las incrustaciones en la pérdida de eficiencia de la instalación. Mediante un procedimiento iterativo se determinó la ecuación del número de Nusselt y su dependencia con el Reynolds y Prandtl, para ello se utilizó un diseño experimental multifactorial y mediciones de los parámetros de trabajo de la instalación en función del tiempo. Los resultados predicen el conocimiento de los coeficientes para el cálculo del número de Nusselt, con los valores de Reynolds y Prandtl, para ambos fluidos (licor amoniacal y agua. Los valores de los coeficientes del licor son inferiores, ello se debe a la presencia de componentes gaseosos. La comparación con resultados de otros autores muestra correspondencia con los de Thonon. Se recomienda la limpieza y mantenimiento de la instalación en un período de 27 días debido a la reducción de la eficiencia térmica hasta valores inferiores al 70 %.

  11. Research on heat pumps in Mexico operating with geothermal energy and waste heat; Investigacion sobre bombas de calor en Mexico operando con energia geotermica y calor de desecho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia-Gutierrez, A; Barragan-Reyes, R.M; Arellano-Gomez, V [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)]. E-mail: aggarcia@iie.org.mx

    2008-01-15

    The Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas and the Comision Federal de Electricidad have done research and development (R&D) on heat pumps (HP) in past years. Tested systems include mechanical compression, absorption and heat-transformers. The main R&D aspects on HP are briefly described, and also a more detailed description about three of the main studies is presented: (a) a mechanical compression HP of the water-water type operated with low-pressure geothermal steam at the Los Azufres; Mich., geothermal field, and designed for purification of brine; (b) an absorption HP for cooling and refrigeration operating with ammonia-water and low-enthalpy geothermal energy, which was tested in the Los Azufres and Cerro Prieto, BC, geothermal fields; and (c) a heat-transformer by absorption-Absorption Heat Pump Type II-tested to assess the performance of several ternary solutions as work fluids. Plans exist to install and test a geothermal heat pump at Cerro Prieto or Mexicali, BC. [Spanish] El Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas y la Comision Federal de Electricidad han realizado trabajo de investigacion y desarrollo (I&D) sobre bombas de calor (BC) en el pasado. Los sistemas probados incluyen compresion mecanica, absorcion y transformadores termicos. Este trabajo describe brevemente los principales aspectos de I&D sobre bombas de calor en forma general, y se da una descripcion mas detallada de tres de los principales estudios: (a) una BC por compresion mecanica tipo agua-agua disenada para purificacion de salmueras operando con vapor geotermico de baja presion en el campo geotermico de Los Azufres, Mich.; (b) una BC por absorcion para enfriamiento y refrigeracion operando con amoniaco-agua y energia geotermica de baja entalpia, la cual fue probada en los campos geotermicos de Los Azufres y Cerro Prieto, BC; y (c) un transformador termico por absorcion -llamado Bomba de Calor por Absorcion Tipo II--, el cual fue probado para evaluar el comportamiento de diversas

  12. Estudio y optimización de los sistemas de intercambio de calor en generación termoeléctrica aplicada al aprovechamiento del calor residual

    OpenAIRE

    Aranguren Garacochea, Patricia

    2015-01-01

    La presente tesis doctoral estudia el aprovechamiento del calor residual mediante generación termoeléctrica para la obtención de potencia eléctrica generada gracias al efecto Seebeck. Dos son las aproximaciones empleadas, la simulación computacional, empleando variables obtenidas experimentalmente y la experimentación de escenarios reales. Ambas dos han obtenido valores muy prometedores para la generación eléctrica a través de los gases residuales. Con el desarrollo de esta tesis doctoral,...

  13. Prácticas de Física: Equivalente en agua de un calorímetro

    OpenAIRE

    Beléndez,Augusto; Bernabeu, Guillermo; Vera Guarinos, Jenaro; Pastor Antón, Carlos; Martín García, Agapito

    1988-01-01

    Esta práctica de laboratorio tiene como objetivo el cálculo del equivalente en agua de un calorímetro con su error, familiarizarse con el uso del mismo y del termómetro. Para el desarrollo de esta práctica se dispone de un calorímetro lleno de agua en el que se ha colocado una resistencia interna. Se hace circular una corriente por la resistencia, de manera que la potencia que disipa la resistencia se convierte en potencia calorífica, por efecto Joule, calentando por un lado el agua en el int...

  14. Incremento de la productividad por recuperación de calor en gases de chimenea de un horno de cubilote

    OpenAIRE

    Mejía Arango, Héctor Daniel; Silva, Claudia; Aristizábal Sierra, Ricardo Emilio

    2003-01-01

    Sobre la base de la primera ley de la termodinámica se realiza el balance de calor para dos cubilotes típicos y para el cubilote de la Universidad de Antioquia, en este último, antes y después de ser instalado y puesto a punto el sistema de recuperación de calor, que opera con dos regeneradores de lecho empacado. Con los resultados obtenidos en el prototipo eco-eficiente se demuestran las ventajas de trabajar un cubilote con sistemas que recuperen calor de los gases de chimenea, resaltando en...

  15. Beneficial Effects of Caloric Restriction on Chronic Kidney Disease in Rodent Models: A Meta-Analysis and Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiao-Meng; Cai, Guang-Yan; Bu, Ru; Wang, Wen-Juan; Bai, Xue-Yuan; Sun, Xue-Feng; Chen, Xiang-Mei

    2015-01-01

    Numerous studies have demonstrated the life-extending effect of caloric restriction. It is generally accepted that caloric restriction has health benefits, such as prolonging lifespan and delaying the onset and progression of CKD in various species, especially in rodent models. Although many studies have tested the efficacy of caloric restriction, no complete quantitative analysis of the potential beneficial effects of reducing caloric intake on the development and progression of CKD has been published. All studies regarding the relationship between caloric restriction and chronic kidney diseases were searched in electronic databases, including PubMed/MEDLINE, EMBASE, Science Citation Index (SCI), OVID evidence-based medicine, Chinese Bio-medical Literature and Chinese science and technology periodicals (CNKI, VIP, and Wan Fang). The pooled odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were calculated by using fixed- or random-effects models. The data from 27 of all the studies mentioned above was used in the Meta analysis. Through the meta-analysis, we found that the parameter of blood urea nitrogen, serum creatinine and urinary protein levels of the AL group was significant higher than that of the CR group, which are 4.11 mg/dl, 0.08mg/dl and 33.20mg/kg/24h, respectively. The incidence of the nephropathy in the caloric restriction (CR) group was significantly lower than that in the ad libitum-fed (AL) group. We further introduced the subgroup analysis and found that the effect of caloric restriction on the occurrence of kidney disease was only significant with prolonged intervention; the beneficial effects of CR on the 60%-caloric-restriction group were greater than on the less-than-60%-caloric-restriction group, and caloric restriction did not show obvious protective effects in genetically modified strains. Moreover, survival rate of the caloric restriction group is much higher than that of the ad libitum-fed (AL) group. Our findings demonstrate for the

  16. Beneficial Effects of Caloric Restriction on Chronic Kidney Disease in Rodent Models: A Meta-Analysis and Systematic Review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Meng Xu

    Full Text Available Numerous studies have demonstrated the life-extending effect of caloric restriction. It is generally accepted that caloric restriction has health benefits, such as prolonging lifespan and delaying the onset and progression of CKD in various species, especially in rodent models. Although many studies have tested the efficacy of caloric restriction, no complete quantitative analysis of the potential beneficial effects of reducing caloric intake on the development and progression of CKD has been published.All studies regarding the relationship between caloric restriction and chronic kidney diseases were searched in electronic databases, including PubMed/MEDLINE, EMBASE, Science Citation Index (SCI, OVID evidence-based medicine, Chinese Bio-medical Literature and Chinese science and technology periodicals (CNKI, VIP, and Wan Fang. The pooled odds ratios (OR and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI were calculated by using fixed- or random-effects models.The data from 27 of all the studies mentioned above was used in the Meta analysis. Through the meta-analysis, we found that the parameter of blood urea nitrogen, serum creatinine and urinary protein levels of the AL group was significant higher than that of the CR group, which are 4.11 mg/dl, 0.08mg/dl and 33.20mg/kg/24h, respectively. The incidence of the nephropathy in the caloric restriction (CR group was significantly lower than that in the ad libitum-fed (AL group. We further introduced the subgroup analysis and found that the effect of caloric restriction on the occurrence of kidney disease was only significant with prolonged intervention; the beneficial effects of CR on the 60%-caloric-restriction group were greater than on the less-than-60%-caloric-restriction group, and caloric restriction did not show obvious protective effects in genetically modified strains. Moreover, survival rate of the caloric restriction group is much higher than that of the ad libitum-fed (AL group.Our findings

  17. Video head-impulse test (vHIT) in dizzy children with normal caloric responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khater, Ahmed Mohammed; Afifi, Pretty O

    2016-08-01

    The caloric test and the video head-impulse test are diagnostic tools to examine dizzy patients through assessing the function of the semicircular canals. There are major differences between the two tests as regards stimulus characteristics, methodology, and function examined. The aim of this study is to evaluate the results of vHIT in children and adolescents with normal caloric test. This work was performed on 63 patients, but 14 were excluded because of technical problems in the caloric test. So, this is a prospective work in 49 patients (27 females and 22 males) with different types of vestibular disease seen because of vertigo in which both procedures were performed the same day. The caloric test was performed with air at two different temperatures in which both ears were irrigated alternately. Then, the video head-impulse test was carried out. Main outcome measures were the gain of vestibulo-ocular reflex, gain asymmetry, and refixation saccades in the vHIT. in all studied cases, caloric test was normal. The mean age of patients was 16 years. By vHIT, in 8 patients (16%) no abnormality was detected, while abnormal findings were found in 41 patients. Single canal affection was seen in 29 patients whereas 12 patients had combined canal affection. The right side was affected in 27 and left side in 22 patients. In single canal affection, isolated horizontal canals were affected in 4, anterior canals in 5 and posterior canals in 20 patients. While in combined canal affection, the affection is seen in the same ear. Moreover the most common pattern seen is affection of left anterior and left posterior canals. The caloric and vHIT is very important tests in diagnosis of dizzy patients. The information from both methods is redundant in some cases but complementary in most. vHIT is a "child friendly," relatively easy-to-use, and simple tool to evaluate each of the 6 semicircular canals. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Desenvolvimento de um modelo fuzzy para determinação do calor latente com aplicação em sistemas de irrigação

    OpenAIRE

    Souza, Orlando Tadeu Lima de [UNESP

    2004-01-01

    The determination of the necessary amount of water is one of the main parameters of an agriculture irrigation system. One of the efficient consequences of the measurements of the system is the increase of productivity, and therefore the profitable advantage of it. The satisfactory amount of water is therefore a very important condition for the growing accomplishment of the plant causing the production, with fewer costs. The aim of this work is the development of a mathematical model, based on...

  19. Pelo Mundo da Música Viva: 1939 a 1951

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Miana Faria

    1998-08-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho é verificar como repercurtiu a inserção e a atuação de Koellreutter, no meio musical carioca, atraves da leitura das colunas do critico Andrade Muricy, publicadas entre 1939 a 1951, periodo que compreendeu a criação, desenvolvimento e dissolução do Música Viva, e a publicação da Carta aberta aos músicos e críticos do Brasil, de Camargo Guarnieri, geradora da maior polêmica veiculda pelos jornais sobre a música de concerto.

  20. ESTIMATIVA DA ERODIBILIDADE DO SOLO PELO MÉTODO INDIRETO

    OpenAIRE

    Dione Cardoso; Fábio Pires

    2017-01-01

    Objetivou-se avaliar a erodibilidade do solo pelo método indireto, baseado nas porcentagens de frações de areia, silte e argila, para quatro classes de solos de alguns municípios localizados no estado do Espírito Santo. Os dados das frações granulométricas do solo foram compilados do Projeto RADAMBRASIL. A equação utilizada para estimar o fator erodibilidade do solo é: Fator K = ((% areia + % silte) / (% argila))/100. A erodibilidade do solo foi superior nos horizontes superficiais em relação...

  1. Is the caloric curve a robust signal of the phase transition in hot nuclei?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vient, E.

    2017-11-01

    The richness of the data set, collected by the INDRA Collaboration during the last twenty years, enabled us to build a set of caloric curves for nuclei of various sizes, by using, for the first time, a single experimental set-up and a single experimental protocol. We will therefore present the different caloric curves ( E^{\\ast}-T obtained by a new calorimetry, for Quasi-Projectiles produced by symmetric or quasi symmetric reactions at different incident energies (Au + Au, Xe + Sn, Ni + Ni). For all these systems, a clear change of the de-excitation process of hot nuclei is observed but this one is neither a plateau nor a back-bending, but a sudden change of slope.

  2. Transferência de calor no escoamento turbulento em desenvolvimento entre placas planas paralelas

    OpenAIRE

    Marcio Bueno dos Santos

    1991-01-01

    O presente trabalho tem por finalidade a análise experimental do problema de convecção forçada entre placas paralelas no escoamento com transição laminar-turbulento, com condições assimétricas do perfil de temperatura. A determinação dos valores locais dos coeficientes de transferência de calor é obtida aplicando-se a técnica se Sublimação de Naftaleno. De acordo com a analogia entre transferência de calor e transferência de massa as condições experimentais correspondem a situação de transfer...

  3. Caloric Intake From Fast Food Among Children and Adolescents in the United States, 2011-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vikraman, Sundeep; Fryar, Cheryl D; Ogden, Cynthia L

    2015-09-01

    Consumption of fast food has been linked to weight gain in adults (1). Fast food has also been associated with higher caloric intake and poorer diet quality in children and adolescents (2). From 1994 through 2006, caloric intake from fast food increased from 10% to 13% among children aged 2-18 years (3). This report presents the most recent data on the percentage of calories consumed from fast food among U.S. children by sex, age group, race and Hispanic origin, poverty status, and weight status. All material appearing in this report is in the public domain and may be reproduced or copied without permission; citation as to source, however, is appreciated.

  4. Current and future employment of the heat pumps; Pompe di calore. Presente e futuro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cassitto, L. [Milan Politecnico, Milan (Italy). Dipt. di Energetica

    2001-12-01

    Heat pumps, mainly the compression type, grant high energy savings together with environment protection because of the free low temperature energy from environment or wasted heat they use. Their large employment depends on the appreciation of the above properties that are will be done. To grant economic savings on using heat pumps, electric energy and natural gas should have fixed and predictable prices. [Italian] Le pompe di calore, in particolare quelle a compressione, hanno elevate prestazioni energetiche e ambientali, grazie all'utilizzo di fonti di calore gratuite a bassa temperatura, naturali o residue di altri processi. La loro diffusione e' legata alla percezione di queste potenzialita' rinunciando alle caldaie tradizionali. Sono indispensabili prezzi dell'energia elettrica e del metano stabili e comunque prevedibili per garantire anche la loro convenienza economica.

  5. Latent Viruses: A Space Travel Hazard??

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, P. D.; Peng, R. S.; Pierson, D.; Lednicky, J.; Butel, J. S.

    1999-01-01

    A major issue associated with long-duration space flight is the possibility of infectious disease causing an unacceptable medical risk to crew members. Our proposal is designed to gain information that addresses several issues outlined in the Immunology/Infectious disease critical path. The major hypothesis addressed is that space flight causes alterations in the immune system that may allow latent viruses which are endogenous in the human population to reactivate and shed to higher levels than normal which can affect the health of crew members during a long term space-flight mission. We will initially focus our studies on the human herpesviruses and human polyomaviruses which are important pathogens known to establish latent infections in the human population. Both primary infection and reactivation from latent infection with this group of viruses can cause a variety of illnesses that result in morbidity and occasionally mortality of infected individuals. Effective vaccines exist for only one of the eight known human herpesviruses and the vaccine itself can still reactivate from latent infection. Available antivirals are of limited use and are effective against only a few of the human herpesviruses. Although most individuals display little if any clinical consequences from latent infection, events which alter immune function such as immunosuppressive therapy following solid organ transplantation are known to increase the risk of developing complications as a result of latent virus reactivation. This proposal will measure both the frequency and magnitude of viral shedding and genome loads in the blood from humans participating in activities that serve as ground based models of space flight conditions. Our initial goal is to develop sensitive quantitative competitive PCR- based assays (QC-PCR) to detect the herpesvirus Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), and the polyomaviruses SV40, BKV, and JCV. Using these assays we will establish baseline patterns of viral genome load in

  6. Caloric restriction in lean and obese strains of laboratory rat: effects on body composition, metabolism, growth and overall health

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Data related to obese and lean strains of rat commonly used in the laboratory that are calorically restricted and its effects on physiologic parameters (Body...

  7. Effects of Moderate Aerobic Exercise Combined With Caloric Restriction on Circulating Estrogens and IGF-I in Premenopausal Women

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Williams, Nancy I

    2004-01-01

    ... the primary prevention of breast cancer in women. This study has examined the effects of exercise training combined with caloric restriction, resulting in weight loss, on two hormonal biomarkers for breast cancer i.e...

  8. Caloric Vestibular Stimulation Reduces Pain and Somatoparaphrenia in a Severe Chronic Central Post-Stroke Pain Patient: A Case Study

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Spitoni, Grazia Fernanda; Pireddu, Giorgio; Galati, Gaspare; Sulpizio, Valentina; Paolucci, Stefano; Pizzamiglio, Luigi

    2016-01-01

    .... To date, there is limited evidence for the effective treatments of this disease. Here we used caloric vestibular stimulation to reduce pain and somatoparaphrenia in a 57-year-old woman suffering from central post-stroke pain...

  9. Análise da transferência de calor em paredes compostas por diferentes materiais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciano Pivoto Specht

    Full Text Available O projeto de edificações energeticamente eficientes necessita de conhecimentos sobre a transferência de calor proveniente do ambiente externo, a fim de criar soluções que associem diferentes materiais e espessuras às condições desejadas de conforto térmico. O objetivo deste trabalho é avaliar diversos tipos e disposições de materiais em paredes de tijolos maciços, sob a ótica da térmica de edifícios. Para a realização dos experimentos, modelos em escala real foram confeccionados, instrumentados e acoplados a uma câmara térmica, desenvolvida especialmente para esse fim. O problema de transferência de calor foi modelado pela equação da energia, resolvida em Diferenças Finitas Centrais, utilizando-se o Método Implícito. As difusividades térmicas dos materiais foram calculadas resolvendo o Problema Inverso de transferência de calor. Também foi calculado o fluxo de calor e o custo total de cada alternativa, finalizando-se com a obtenção da relação termoeconômica para cada parede. Através da análise termoeconômica pode-se constatar que, apesar de o investimento inicial ser relativamente maior nas paredes mais espessas e/ou com isolamento térmico, estas apresentam um comportamento térmico muito superior às tradicionais. Notadamente, a parede com EPS na face exterior apresentou o melhor desempenho.

  10. Heat pump for purification of geothermal brines; Bomba de calor para purificacion de salmuera geotermica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santoyo-Gutierrez, S; Barragan-Reyes, R.M; Holland, F.A [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)]. E-mail: rmb@iie.org.mx

    2007-01-15

    Integrated use of geothermal resources is one of the most important goals for the future. Presently geothermal heat pumps offer two benefits: using heat from residual brines and converting these brines into very pure water. Designs and descriptions are presented of an experimental system to purify geothermal brines integrated to an adsorption heat-pump. The system was constructed and tested in the IIE (Institute for Electrical Research) facilities. During the experimental stage, pure water was obtained. Maximum capacity for pure water was 4.3 kg per hour, presenting an Actual Coefficient of Performance (COP)A of 1.4. The results are encouraging to project units at an industrial level for operating with geothermal and/or solar heat. [Spanish] El aprovechamiento integral de los recursos geotermicos en todas sus formas es una de las metas importantes a lograr en los proximos anos. Hoy en dia, el uso de las bombas de calor en la geotermia ofrece un doble beneficio: aprovechan el calor de los fluidos de desecho y tienen la capacidad de transformar la salmuera geotermica en agua de alta pureza. Se presenta el diseno y descripcion de un sistema experimental para purificacion de salmuera geotermica integrado a una bomba de calor por absorcion, el cual fue construido y probado en el Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas. En toda la etapa de experimentacion se obtuvo agua pura. La capacidad maxima alcanzada de produccion de agua pura de este sistema fue de 4.3 kg por hora, mostrando un rendimiento en terminos del Coeficiente Real de Rendimiento (COP)A de 1.4. Estos resultados se consideran alentadores para la proyeccion de unidades a escala industrial que puedan ser operadas con calor geotermico y/o solar.

  11. Caloric Value of Some Forest Fuels of the Southern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter A. Hough

    1969-01-01

    The caloric value of a variety of southern forest fuels was determined in an oxygen bomb calorimeter. High heat values ranged between about 3,600 and 5,200 cal./g. for fuels as sampled and between 4,500 and 5,600 cal./g. for fuels on an ash-free basis. Additional tests of forest fuels from the Southern, Eastern, and North Central United States showed a...

  12. Caloric beverages were major sources of energy among children and adults in Mexico, 1999-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, Dalia; Piernas, Carmen; Barquera, Simon; Rivera, Juan A; Popkin, Barry M

    2014-06-01

    Mexico, with 1 of the highest obesity prevalences in the world, instituted a 10% excise tax for any sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) starting on 1 January 2014. Understanding the recent patterns and trends in beverage intake and sales in Mexico provides both background and baseline data for the importance of SSBs and other beverages in the Mexican diet. We analyzed a single 24-h dietary recall from 2 nationally representative surveys: the Mexican Nutrition Survey 1999 (n = 6049) and the National Health and Nutrition Survey 2012 (n = 10,343). To describe trends and patterns in beverages, we calculated the volume and energy intake per capita and per consumer and the proportion of consumers of each beverage group in each survey. A commercial sales dataset was used to describe beverage sales trends from 1999 to 2012. From 1999 to 2012, total daily energy from beverages increased among children aged 5-11 y (+45.3 kcal), females aged 12-19 y (+57.3 kcal), and adult females aged 20-49 y (+96.4 kcal) (P total daily energy intake per capita in children aged 1-19 y and adults aged ≥20 y, respectively. In 2012, flavored milk beverages, caloric soda, and high-fat milk were the top 3 major contributors to total daily energy intake per capita in all children aged 1-19 y. Caloric soda, caloric coffee/tea, and agua fresca were the top 3 major energy contributors in adults aged ≥20 y. From 1999 to 2012, sales of soda, fruit-flavored drinks, and flavored waters increased. In conclusion, consumption of several beverages with added sugars increased among children and adult females in Mexico. Because caloric soda is currently 1 of the top beverages consumed, a 10% tax on SSBs might help to significantly reduce added sugars intake in Mexico. © 2014 American Society for Nutrition.

  13. Caloric compensation in preschool children: Relationships with body mass and differences by food category.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carnell, S; Benson, L; Gibson, E L; Mais, L A; Warkentin, S

    2017-09-01

    Maintaining a healthy weight may involve compensating for previously consumed calories at subsequent meals. To test whether heavier children demonstrated poorer caloric compensation across a range of conditions, and to explore whether compensation failure was the result of inadequate adjustment of overall intake or specific over-consumption of highly palatable, high energy-density 'junk' foods, we administered two compensation tests to a sample of 4-5 y olds. For Test A, preloads varied only in carbohydrate content and were organoleptically indistinguishable (200 ml orange-flavored beverage [0 kcal vs. 200 kcal]). For Test B, the preloads varied substantially in both macronutrient composition and learned gustatory cues to caloric content (200 ml water [0 kcal] vs. 200 ml strawberry milkshake [200 kcal]). Each preload was followed 30 min later by a multi-item ad-libitum meal containing junk foods (chocolate cookies, cheese-flavored crackers) and core foods (fruits and vegetables, bread rolls, protein foods). Testing took place at the children's own school under normal lunch-time conditions. Children were weighed and measured. Caloric compensation occurred in both tests, in terms of total, junk and core food intake (RMANOVA, all p junk food intake (RMANOVA preload-by-weight group interaction p effect for core foods. Our results suggest that caloric compensation is consistently poorer in heavier children, and that overweight/obese children's preferences for junk foods may overwhelm intake regulation mechanisms within meals containing those foods. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Influence of Caloric Vestibular Stimulation on Body Experience in Healthy Humans

    OpenAIRE

    Andreas eSchönherr; Christian-Albrecht eMay

    2016-01-01

    The vestibular system has more connections with and influence on higher cortical centers than previously thought. These interactions with higher cortical centers and the phenomena that they elicit require a structural intact cerebral cortex. To date, little is known about the role and influence of the vestibular system on one’s body experience. In this study we show that caloric vestibular stimulation (CVS) in healthy participants has an effect on the perceptive component of one’s body experi...

  15. Shifts in the Distribution of Mass Densities Is a Signature of Caloric Restriction in Caenorhabditis elegans

    OpenAIRE

    Alfonso Reina; Anand Bala Subramaniam; Anna Laromaine; Aravinthan D T Samuel; Whitesides, George M.

    2013-01-01

    Although the starvation response of the model multicellular organism Caenorhabditis elegans is a subject of much research, there is no convenient phenotypic readout of caloric restriction that can be applicable to large numbers of worms. This paper describes the distribution of mass densities of populations of C. elegans, from larval stages up to day one of adulthood, using isopycnic centrifugation, and finds that density is a convenient, if complex, phenotypic readout in C. elegans. The dens...

  16. Comparison of caloric and head-impulse tests during the attacks of Meniere's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sun-Uk; Kim, Hyo-Jung; Koo, Ja-Won; Kim, Ji-Soo

    2017-03-01

    To aid in diagnosis of Meniere's disease (MD) during the attacks using caloric and head-impulse tests (HITs). Retrospective case series review. We analyzed the results of bithermal caloric and HITs during the attacks in 16 patients with MD. Quantitative analyses of HITs were conducted using a magnetic search coil technique. In unilateral MD (14 patients, 42 semicircular canals), the head impulse gain of the vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR) was either normal (28 of 42, 67%), decreased (8 of 42, 19%), or increased (6 of 42, 14%) for each semicircular canal in the affected ear. Likewise, the head impulse VOR gain was either normal (29 of 42, 69%), increased (11 of 42, 26%), or decreased (2 of 42, 5%) in the intact ear. The VOR gain for the horizontal canal was significantly lower on the affected side (P = 0.013). However, the VOR gains for the anterior and posterior canals did not differ between the sides (P = 0.270, P = 0.282). In bilateral MD (two patients, 12 semicircular canals), the VOR gain was either decreased (6 of 12, 50%) or normal (6 of 12, 50%) in either ear. In contrast, the caloric responses were usually decreased in the affected ear (7 of 11, 64%, including one with bilateral MD). During the attacks of MD, HITs showed varied results between the ears and among the canals, although the caloric responses were usually decreased in the involved ear. These dissociations suggest a frequency-dependent impairment of canal function or mechanical property of the endolymphatic hydrops during the attacks of MD. 4. Laryngoscope, 127:702-708, 2017. © 2016 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  17. Adipose-immune interactions during obesity and caloric restriction: reciprocal mechanisms regulating immunity and health span

    OpenAIRE

    Dixit, Vishwa Deep

    2008-01-01

    Increasing evidence suggests a tight coupling of metabolic and immune systems. This cross-talk mediated by neuroendocrine peptides as well as numerous cytokines and chemokines is believed to be responsible for integrating energy balance to immune function. These neuroendocrine-immune interactions are heightened during the state of chronic positive energy balance, as seen during obesity, and negative energy balance caused by caloric restriction (CR). Emerging evidence suggests that obesity may...

  18. On updating problems in latent semantic indexing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simon, H.D. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States); Zha, H. [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States). Dept. of Computer Science and Engineering

    1997-11-01

    The authors develop new SVD-updating algorithms for three types of updating problems arising from Latent Semantic Indexing (LSI) for information retrieval to deal with rapidly changing text document collections. They also provide theoretical justification for using a reduced-dimension representation of the original document collection in the updating process. Numerical experiments using several standard text document collections show that the new algorithms give higher (interpolated) average precisions than the existing algorithms and the retrieval accuracy is comparable to that obtained using the complete document collection.

  19. Effects of caloric deprivation and satiety on sensitivity of the gustatory system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zverev Yuriy P

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sensitivity of the gustatory system could be modulated by a number of short-term and long-term factors such as body mass, gender, age, local and systemic diseases and pathological processes, excessive alcohol drinking, drug dependence, smoking, composition of oral fluid, state of oral hygiene, consumption of some foods among many others. A few studies have demonstrated the effects of hunger and caloric satiety on sensitivity of the gustatory system in obese humans and animals. The aim of the present study was to assess the effects of short-term caloric deprivation and satiety on recognition taste thresholds of healthy, non-smoking, non-drinking, non-obese young male subjects. The two-alternative forced-choice technique was used to measure taste threshold. Results Recognition thresholds for sucrose and salt were significantly lower during fasting state than after a meal (t = 2.23, P Conclusions Short-term caloric deprivation in our study model was associated with increased taste sensitivity to sweet and salty substances compared to satiated state while taste sensitivity to bitter substances was not affected by the conditions of measurements. Selective modulation of sensitivity of the gustatory system might reflect the different biological importance of salty, sweet and bitter qualities of taste.

  20. Importance of silvopastoral systems on caloric stress reduction in tropical livestock productions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Navas Panadero

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Livestock systems in Colombia have been developed taking concepts and technologies from the green revolution, where gramineous monocrop is privileged over arboreal cover in grazing lands. This model has not taken into account the climatic conditions of the different tropical ecosystems, in which variables as temperature, relative humidity and evaporation can limit the animal´s productive and reproductive efficiency, besides being a risk factor for illness occurrence in the herd. Bos Taurus and Bos Indicus breeds show termoneutral ranges where its genetic potential can be express. However, out of this comfort area animals can enter in caloric stress which in consequence reduces its performance and sometimes can end up causing death. Silvopastoral systems comprise several functions; it contributes to lessen caloric stress since temperature under the tree canopy can reach between 2 and 9°C lower in comparison to open pastures. Differences in temperature reduction have been found among silvopastoral systems and species, being the tree group arrangements and the species with high density canopy, those with superior effect. Interactions among components should be analyzed in order to design systems that incorporate enough arboreal cover to achieve caloric stress reductions, but without affecting forage production in pastures. Silvopastoral systems contribute to improve animal welfare.

  1. CALOR2012 XVth International Conference on Calorimetry in High Energy Physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akchurin, Nural .

    2015-05-04

    The International Conferences on Calorimetry in High Energy Physics, or the CALOR series, have always been where the calorimeter experts come together to review the state of calorimetry and bring forth new ideas every two years. The fteenth conference, CALOR2012, in Santa Fe was no exception. Although they were built roughly a decade ago, we are now witnessing the exceptional power of the LHC calorimeters and the crucial role they have been playing in the discovery of the 125 GeV Higgs-like boson. As we ruminate on the coming generation of experiments at the next (linear) collider and on the upgrades at the LHC, we are heartened by the substantial advances we made in calorimetry in the last decade. These advances will certainly help uncover new physics in the years to come, not only at colliders but also in astroparticle experiments that take advantage of natural elements such as air, water, and ice. The proceedings were published by the IOP in Journal of Physics, Vol 404 2011. The conference web site is calor2012.ttu.edu.

  2. Normal physical activity obliterates the deleterious effects of a high-caloric intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krogh-Madsen, Rikke; Pedersen, Maria; Solomon, Thomas P J; Knudsen, Sine Haugaard; Hansen, Louise Seier; Karstoft, Kristian; Lehrskov-Schmidt, Louise; Pedersen, Karin Kaereby; Thomsen, Carsten; Holst, Jens Juul; Pedersen, Bente K

    2014-02-01

    A high-caloric intake combined with a sedentary lifestyle is an important player in the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). The present study was undertaken to examine if the level of physical activity has impact on the metabolic effects of a high-caloric (+2,000 kcal/day) intake. Therefore, healthy individuals on a high-caloric intake were randomized to either 10,000 or 1,500 steps/day for 14 days. Step number, total energy expenditure, dietary records, neuropsychological tests, maximal oxygen uptake (Vo2max), whole body dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and abdominal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans, continuous glucose monitoring (CGM), and oral glucose tolerance tests (OGTT) with stable isotopes were performed before and after the intervention. Both study groups gained the same amount of body weight. However, the inactive group accumulated significantly more visceral fat compared with the active group. Following the 2-wk period, the inactive group also experienced a poorer glycemic control, increased endogenous glucose production, decreased hepatic insulin extraction, increased baseline plasma levels of total cholesterol and LDL, and a decreased cognitive function with regard to capacity of attention. In conclusion, we find evidence to support that habitual physical activity may prevent pathophysiological symptoms associated with diet-induced obesity.

  3. Peripheral ghrelin enhances sweet taste food consumption and preference, regardless of its caloric content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Disse, Emmanuel; Bussier, Anne-Lise; Veyrat-Durebex, Christelle; Deblon, Nicolas; Pfluger, Paul T; Tschöp, Matthias H; Laville, Martine; Rohner-Jeanrenaud, Françoise

    2010-09-01

    Ghrelin is one of the most potent orexigens known to date. While the prevailing view is that ghrelin participates in the homeostatic control of feeding, the question arose as to whether consummatory responses evoked by this compound could be related to search for reward. We therefore attempted to delineate the involvement of ghrelin in the modulation of non-caloric but highly rewarding consumption. We tested the effect of intraperitoneally injected ghrelin on the acceptance and preference for a 0.3% saccharin solution using single bottle tests and free-choice preference test procedures in C57BL6/J mice, as well as in mice lacking the ghrelin receptor (GHSR1a -/-) and their wild-type (WT) littermates. In the single bottle tests, peripheral ghrelin consistently increased the consumption of saccharin, independently of availability of caloric food. In the free-choice preference test procedures, ghrelin increased the preference for saccharin in WT mice, while it did had not effect in GHSR1a -/-animals, indicating that the ghrelin receptor pathway is necessary to mediate this parameter. Peripheral ghrelin enhances intake and preference for a sweet food, regardless of whether the food has caloric content. This effect, mediated through the ghrelin receptor pathway, may serve as additional enhancers of energy intake. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Weight cycling and cancer: weighing the evidence of intermittent caloric restriction and cancer risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Henry J; McTiernan, Anne

    2011-11-01

    Overweight and obese individuals frequently restrict caloric intake to lose weight. The resultant weight loss, however, typically is followed by an equal or greater weight gain, a phenomenon called weight cycling. Most attention to weight cycling has focused on identifying its detrimental effects, but preclinical experiments indicating that intermittent caloric restriction or fasting can reduce cancer risk have raised interest in potential benefits of weight cycling. Although hypothesized adverse effects of weight cycling on energy metabolism remain largely unsubstantiated, there is also a lack of epidemiologic evidence that intentional weight loss followed by regain of weight affects chronic-disease risk. In the limited studies of weight cycling and cancer, no independent effect on postmenopausal breast cancer but a modest enhancement of risk for renal cell carcinoma, endometrial cancer, and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma have been reported. An effect of either intermittent caloric restriction or fasting in protecting against cancer is not supported by the majority of rodent carcinogenesis experiments. Collectively, the data argue against weight cycling and indicate that the objective of energy balance-based approaches to reduce cancer risk should be to strive to prevent adult weight gain and maintain body weight within the normal range defined by body mass index.

  5. Multilevel Latent Class Models with Dirichlet Mixing Distribution

    OpenAIRE

    Di, Chong-Zhi; Bandeen-Roche, Karen

    2011-01-01

    Latent class analysis (LCA) and latent class regression (LCR) are widely used for modeling multivariate categorical outcomes in social science and biomedical studies. Standard analyses assume data of different respondents to be mutually independent, excluding application of the methods to familial and other designs in which participants are clustered. In this paper, we consider multilevel latent class models, in which subpopulation mixing probabilities are treated as random effects that vary ...

  6. Temas de Física para Ingeniería: Temperatura y propagación del calor

    OpenAIRE

    Beléndez Vázquez, Augusto

    1992-01-01

    Acústica, fluidos y termodinámica: "Temperatura y propagación del calor". Introducción. Descripciones macroscópica y microscópica de un sistema. Equilibrio térmico y principio cero de la termodinámica. Termómetros y escala de temperaturas del gas ideal. Dilatación térmica. Propagación del calor.

  7. Detecção de manchas de sangue pelo luminol onde houve entintamento das paredes – estudo de caso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geraldo Elias Miranda

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available O luminol é um teste presuntivo para detecção de manchas de sangue, muito sensível, efetivo e seletivo. O objetivo deste trabalho é avaliar a eficácia do luminol na detecção de sangue após o entintamento das paredes em um local onde ocorreu um homicídio. Os peritos se dirigiram para a casa do suspeito e com o uso de uma espátula metálica retiraram parte do revestimento da parede do quarto e após nova aplicação do luminol observaram a mancha branco-azulada, intensa e de duração típica de sangue latente. Os fragmentos retirados da parede foram enviados para o laboratório de DNA que confirmou tratar-se de sangue da vítima. A aplicação dessa técnica no caso em questão encontrando manchas de sangue sob a pintura ajudou a perícia a traçar a dinâmica do evento, ficando mais clara a posição da vítima quando foi alvejada com tiros pelo seu agressor além de ligar aquele local à vítima. O luminol não é capaz de detectar sangue que está sob a tinta da parede. A deteção do sangue latente somente ocorre quando a camada de tinta é retirada.

  8. Qualidade de sementes de tomate influenciada pelos tratamentos térmico e osmótico Tomato seeds quality affected by dry heat and osmotic treatments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávio de Souza Lopes

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available O tratamento térmico via calor seco, visando o controle de patógenos associado às sementes, pode causar danos à qualidade fisiológica das mesmas, que podem ser recuperados, por meio do condicionamento osmótico. Avaliou-se o efeito do tratamento térmico via calor seco na qualidade sanitária e fisiológica das sementes de tomate, assim como a influência do condicionamento osmótico na qualidade fisiológica das sementes submetidas à termoterapia. As sementes das cultivares Quadrado Mix, Topmec e Calmec VFN foram expostas ao tratamento térmico a 70; 72,5 e 75ºC, em estufa com circulação forçada, por períodos de zero, 48; 96 e 120 horas. O período zero, sem a aplicação de calor, foi considerado como testemunha. Posteriormente, estas sementes foram avaliadas quanto à sanidade, condicionadas em solução aerada de polietilenoglicol a 0,0 e -1,0 MPa e submetidas à avaliação do teor de água, da germinação e do vigor. Pelos resultados pode-se concluir que o tratamento térmico via calor seco não foi eficiente em eliminar os patógenos associados às sementes de tomate, dependendo da cultivar avaliada. Períodos prolongados de exposição ao calor seco causaram danos à qualidade fisiológica das sementes de tomate, que não foram recuperados com o subseqüente condicionamento osmótico.The dry heat treatment aiming to control microorganisms in the seeds can cause damage to the physiological quality of seeds. Osmotic conditioning can be useful tool for recovering the physiological quality of the heat treated seeds. The study was carried out to evaluate the effects of dry heat treatments on the tomato seeds sanitary and physiologic quality, as well as to analyze the effect of the osmotic conditioning on seeds submitted to dry heat treatment. The seeds of cultivars Quadrado Mix, Topmec and Calmec VFN were heated at 70; 72.5 and 75ºC by periods of zero, 48; 96 and 120 hours. After the heat treatment, the seeds were evaluated for

  9. Latent mnemonic strengths are latent : A comment on Mickes, Wixted, and Wais

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rouder, J.N.; Pratte, M.S.; Morey, R.D.

    2007-01-01

    Mickes, Wixted, and Wais (2007) proposed a simple test of latent strength variability in recognition memory. They asked participants to rate their confidence using either a 20-point or a 99-point strength scale and plotted distributions of the resulting ratings. They found 25% more variability in

  10. Infrared Spectroscopic Imaging of Latent Fingerprints and Associated Forensic Evidence

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Tsoching; Schultz, Zachary D.; Levin, Ira W.

    2009-01-01

    Fingerprints reflecting a specific chemical history, such as exposure to explosives, are clearly distinguished from overlapping, and interfering latent fingerprints using infrared spectroscopic imaging techniques and multivariate analysis.

  11. Short-term trajectories of use of a caloric-monitoring mobile phone app among patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus in a primary care setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goh, Glenn; Tan, Ngiap Chuan; Malhotra, Rahul; Padmanabhan, Uma; Barbier, Sylvaine; Allen, John Carson; Østbye, Truls

    2015-02-03

    Self-management plays an important role in maintaining good control of diabetes mellitus, and mobile phone interventions have been shown to improve such self-management. The Health Promotion Board of Singapore has created a caloric-monitoring mobile health app, the "interactive Diet and Activity Tracker" (iDAT). The objective was to identify and describe short-term (8-week) trajectories of use of the iDAT app among patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus in a primary care setting in Singapore, and identify patient characteristics associated with each trajectory. A total of 84 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus from a public primary care clinic in Singapore who had not previously used the iDAT app were enrolled. The app was demonstrated and patients' weekly use of the app was monitored over 8 weeks. Weekly use was defined as any record in terms of food entry or exercise workout entry in that week. Information on demographics, diet and exercise motivation, diabetes self-efficacy (Diabetes Empowerment Scale-Short Form), and clinical variables (body mass index, blood pressure, and glycosylated hemoglobin/HbA1c) were collected at baseline. iDAT app use trajectories were delineated using latent-class growth modeling (LCGM). Association of patient characteristics with the trajectories was ascertained using logistic regression analysis. Three iDAT app use trajectories were observed: Minimal Users (66 out of 84 patients, 78.6%, with either no iDAT use at all or use only in the first 2 weeks), Intermittent-Waning Users (10 out of 84 patients, 11.9%, with occasional weekly use mainly in the first 4 weeks), and Consistent Users (8 out of 84 patients, 9.5%, with weekly use throughout all or most of the 8 weeks). The adjusted odds ratio of being a Consistent User, relative to a Minimal User, was significantly higher for females (OR 19.55, 95% CI 1.78-215.42) and for those with higher exercise motivation scores at baseline (OR 4.89, 95% CI 1.80-13.28). The adjusted odds ratio

  12. Potencial de redução da temperatura de superfície pelo aumento do albedo nas diversas regiões brasileiras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominique E. Giordano

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Com o crescimento urbano, as superfícies vegetais são progressivamente substituídas por materiais construtivos que absorvem mais radiação solar e retém o calor, alterando o microclima das cidades, contribuindo para a intensificação da ilha de calor urbano e causando desconforto térmico em regiões mais quentes e nos períodos de verão, além de um maior consumo de energia para refrigeração das edificações. Uma estratégia para reduzir a temperatura de superfície é a utilização de materiais de superfície com maior albedo. Sendo a temperatura de superfície resultado tanto da energia incidente como do albedo, o objetivo deste trabalho foi o de mapear a Irradiância Global Horizontal (IGH média nas diversas regiões brasileiras de maneira a poder correlacioná-la com o potencial de redução da temperatura superficial que se pode atingir com o incremento do albedo, servindo de orientação para a decisão de onde o uso de um maior albedo pode ser efetivamente útil e quanto de melhora isso pode resultar. A metodologia do trabalho consistiu em calcular a IGH Média a partir da base de dados compilada pelo Prof. Maurício Roriz, a partir de dados horários, registrados em 411 estações climatológicas do INMET entre os anos de 2000 e 2010. O potencial de redução de temperatura foi estimado a partir de equação empírica apresentada na literatura da área. O resultado do trabalho foi convertido em mapa temático, utilizando-se do método de krigagem para interpolação dos dados amostrais. Percebe-se a partir dele uma grande variação no potencial de redução da temperatura superficial, tanto entre regiões distintas, quanto para uma mesma latitude. Palavras-Chave: albedo, microclima urbano, ilhas de calor urbano, conforto térmico, eficiência energética.

  13. Prevalence of latent Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection in prisoners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro, Pedro Daibert de; Almeida, Isabela Neves de; Kritski, Afrânio Lineu; Ceccato, Maria das Graças; Maciel, Mônica Maria Delgado; Carvalho, Wânia da Silva; Miranda, Silvana Spindola de

    2016-01-01

    To determine the prevalence of and the factors associated with latent Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection (LTBI) in prisoners in the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil. This was a cross-sectional cohort study conducted in two prisons in Minas Gerais. Tuberculin skin tests were performed in the individuals who agreed to participate in the study. A total of 1,120 individuals were selected for inclusion in this study. The prevalence of LTBI was 25.2%. In the multivariate analysis, LTBI was associated with self-reported contact with active tuberculosis patients within prisons (adjusted OR = 1.51; 95% CI: 1.05-2.18) and use of inhaled drugs (adjusted OR = 1.48; 95% CI: 1.03-2.13). Respiratory symptoms were identified in 131 (11.7%) of the participants. Serological testing for HIV was performed in 940 (83.9%) of the participants, and the result was positive in 5 (0.5%). Two cases of active tuberculosis were identified during the study period. Within the prisons under study, the prevalence of LTBI was high. In addition, LTBI was associated with self-reported contact with active tuberculosis patients and with the use of inhaled drugs. Our findings demonstrate that it is necessary to improve the conditions in prisons, as well as to introduce strategies, such as chest X-ray screening, in order to detect tuberculosis cases and, consequently, reduce M. tuberculosis infection within the prison system. Determinar a prevalência e os fatores associados à infecção latente por Mycobacterium tuberculosis (ILTB) em pessoas privadas de liberdade no Estado de Minas Gerais. Estudo de coorte transversal realizado em duas penitenciárias em Minas Gerais. Foi realizada a prova tuberculínica nos indivíduos que aceitaram participar do estudo. Foram selecionados 1.120 indivíduos para a pesquisa. A prevalência da ILTB foi de 25,2%. Na análise multivariada, a ILTB esteve associada com relato de contato com caso de tuberculose ativa dentro da penitenciária (OR ajustada = 1,51; IC95%: 1

  14. A Framework for Reproducible Latent Fingerprint Enhancements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carasso, Alfred S

    2014-01-01

    Photoshop processing of latent fingerprints is the preferred methodology among law enforcement forensic experts, but that appproach is not fully reproducible and may lead to questionable enhancements. Alternative, independent, fully reproducible enhancements, using IDL Histogram Equalization and IDL Adaptive Histogram Equalization, can produce better-defined ridge structures, along with considerable background information. Applying a systematic slow motion smoothing procedure to such IDL enhancements, based on the rapid FFT solution of a Lévy stable fractional diffusion equation, can attenuate background detail while preserving ridge information. The resulting smoothed latent print enhancements are comparable to, but distinct from, forensic Photoshop images suitable for input into automated fingerprint identification systems, (AFIS). In addition, this progressive smoothing procedure can be reexamined by displaying the suite of progressively smoother IDL images. That suite can be stored, providing an audit trail that allows monitoring for possible loss of useful information, in transit to the user-selected optimal image. Such independent and fully reproducible enhancements provide a valuable frame of reference that may be helpful in informing, complementing, and possibly validating the forensic Photoshop methodology.

  15. Latent heat of traffic moving from rest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farzad Ahmadi, S.; Berrier, Austin S.; Doty, William M.; Greer, Pat G.; Habibi, Mohammad; Morgan, Hunter A.; Waterman, Josam H. C.; Abaid, Nicole; Boreyko, Jonathan B.

    2017-11-01

    Contrary to traditional thinking and driver intuition, here we show that there is no benefit to ground vehicles increasing their packing density at stoppages. By systematically controlling the packing density of vehicles queued at a traffic light on a Smart Road, drone footage revealed that the benefit of an initial increase in displacement for close-packed vehicles is completely offset by the lag time inherent to changing back into a ‘liquid phase’ when flow resumes. This lag is analogous to the thermodynamic concept of the latent heat of fusion, as the ‘temperature’ (kinetic energy) of the vehicles cannot increase until the traffic ‘melts’ into the liquid phase. These findings suggest that in situations where gridlock is not an issue, drivers should not decrease their spacing during stoppages in order to lessen the likelihood of collisions with no loss in flow efficiency. In contrast, motion capture experiments of a line of people walking from rest showed higher flow efficiency with increased packing densities, indicating that the importance of latent heat becomes trivial for slower moving systems.

  16. Caloric Beverages Were Major Sources of Energy among Children and Adults in Mexico, 1999–2012123

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, Dalia; Piernas, Carmen; Barquera, Simon; Rivera, Juan A.; Popkin, Barry M.

    2014-01-01

    Mexico, with 1 of the highest obesity prevalences in the world, instituted a 10% excise tax for any sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) starting on 1 January 2014. Understanding the recent patterns and trends in beverage intake and sales in Mexico provides both background and baseline data for the importance of SSBs and other beverages in the Mexican diet. We analyzed a single 24-h dietary recall from 2 nationally representative surveys: the Mexican Nutrition Survey 1999 (n = 6049) and the National Health and Nutrition Survey 2012 (n = 10,343). To describe trends and patterns in beverages, we calculated the volume and energy intake per capita and per consumer and the proportion of consumers of each beverage group in each survey. A commercial sales dataset was used to describe beverage sales trends from 1999 to 2012. From 1999 to 2012, total daily energy from beverages increased among children aged 5–11 y (+45.3 kcal), females aged 12–19 y (+57.3 kcal), and adult females aged 20–49 y (+96.4 kcal) (P agua fresca (fruit water made in stalls or at home, usually with added sugars), and fruit drinks among children aged 5–11 y and females aged 12–19 y and caloric coffee/tea, soda, and agua fresca among adult females aged 20–49 y. In 2012, beverages represented 17.5% (325 kcal) and 19.0% (382 kcal) of the total daily energy intake per capita in children aged 1–19 y and adults aged ≥20 y, respectively. In 2012, flavored milk beverages, caloric soda, and high-fat milk were the top 3 major contributors to total daily energy intake per capita in all children aged 1–19 y. Caloric soda, caloric coffee/tea, and agua fresca were the top 3 major energy contributors in adults aged ≥20 y. From 1999 to 2012, sales of soda, fruit-flavored drinks, and flavored waters increased. In conclusion, consumption of several beverages with added sugars increased among children and adult females in Mexico. Because caloric soda is currently 1 of the top beverages consumed, a 10% tax

  17. RESPONSABILIDADE PELO FATO DO PRODUTO E DO SERVIÇO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele Romero da Costa*

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho tem ênfase em apresentar a espécie de responsabilidade adotada pelo Código Brasileiro de Defesa do Consumidor para os fornecedores de produtos e serviços,  qual seja a responsabilidade objetiva, demonstrando uma inovação trazida por este diploma para responsabilidade civil do Direito pátrio. Bem como a sua fundamentação e noções gerais a fim de que se identifiquem as relações em que deve ser o código aplicado, entendidas essas como relações de consumo.

  18. Fenotipagem forense pelo DNA através de SNPs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Barreiros Virmond

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available A fenotipagem forense pelo DNA se apresenta como uma abordagem promissora para suprir lacunas na busca de pessoas desconhecidas, em investigações criminais, e na identificação de vítimas de catástrofes e de pessoas desaparecidas. Essa metodologia permite a previsão individual de características externamente visíveis (CEVs a partir de análises com SNPs informativos de fenótipos. Entre esses SNPs, os mais bem descritos são aqueles relacionados com as características de pigmentação, como cor dos olhos, pele e cabelo. Estudos vêm demonstrando o elevado poder de predição dessas CEVs, apresentando resultados satisfatórios na predição da cor de íris castanha e azul e cabelo ruivo, enquanto para as demais ainda são necessárias mais pesquisas para predizer com precisão esses fenótipos. Embora seja muito promissora, a aplicação prática da fenotipagem forense pelo DNA levanta diversas questões de ordem ética e legal. No Brasil, avanços ainda precisam acontecer, uma vez que a população brasileira é heterogênea e grande parte dos marcadores descritos é relacionada às populações europeias. Neste sentido, o Brasil já conta com a Rede Integrada de Bancos de Perfis Genéticos (RIBPG, a qual visa compartilhar e comparar os perfis genéticos entre os bancos do país. Em um futuro próximo essa metodologia estará apta a integrar às rotinas forenses, com grande aplicabilidade e confiabilidade.

  19. Tratamento da criptococose do sistema nervoso pelo Amphotericin B

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dante Giorgi

    1959-12-01

    Full Text Available Os autores descrevem a evolução dos conhecimentos sôbre a meningoen-cefalite produzida pelo Criptococcus neoformans, analisando as dificuldades anteriormente havidas para o diagnóstico em vida, as quais foram superadas depois que se usou rotineiramente a pesquisa do cogumelo no LCR pelo método de coloração de tinta da China e pela cultura. Assinalam, a seguir, o aparecimento do Amphotericin B, novo antibiótico fungicida que veio modificar o prognóstico desta afecção. Apresentam sua experiência com 14 casos de meningite por criptococos diagnosticados em vida e referem pormenorizadamente 2 casos tratados com o Amphotericin B. O primeiro, de paciente portadora desta afecção, evoluindo de maneira crônica, com períodos de exacerbação que melhoram nitidamente com o Amphotericin B e que está com uma sobrevida de 20 meses. O segundo, de paciente portadora de forma aguda desta afecção que teve cura clínica e está com LCR absolutamente normal, com seguimento de 11 meses. Em ambos os casos foi usada a via endovenosa, sendo feitas séries de 10 injeções, cada uma de 50 mg de Amphotericin B em 500 ml de sôro glicosado a 5%. No primeiro caso foram feitas 4 séries e no segundo apenas duas. Não foram registradas reações colaterais de importância. Os autores terminam considerando o Amphotericin B como um elemento que veio tornar muito mais favorável o prognóstico desta afecção até então mortal.

  20. A LATENT TRAIT MODEL FOR DICHOTOMOUS CHOICE DATA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    HOIJTINK, H

    1990-01-01

    The PARELLA model is a probabilistic parallelogram model that can be used for the measurement of latent attitudes or latent preferences. The data analyzed are the dichotomous responses of persons to stimuli, with a one (zero) indicating agreement (disagreement) with the content of the stimulus. The

  1. Prevalence and risk factors of latent Tuberculosis among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Latent Tuberculosis treatment is a key tuberculosis control intervention. Adolescents are a high risk group that is not routinely treated in low income countries. Knowledge of latent Tuberculosis (TB) burden among adolescents may influence policy. Objectives: We determined the prevalence and risk factors of ...

  2. Gene Variants Associated with Antisocial Behaviour: A Latent Variable Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentley, Mary Jane; Lin, Haiqun; Fernandez, Thomas V.; Lee, Maria; Yrigollen, Carolyn M.; Pakstis, Andrew J.; Katsovich, Liliya; Olds, David L.; Grigorenko, Elena L.; Leckman, James F.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to determine if a latent variable approach might be useful in identifying shared variance across genetic risk alleles that is associated with antisocial behaviour at age 15 years. Methods: Using a conventional latent variable approach, we derived an antisocial phenotype in 328 adolescents utilizing data from a…

  3. Spurious Latent Classes in the Mixture Rasch Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexeev, Natalia; Templin, Jonathan; Cohen, Allan S.

    2011-01-01

    Mixture Rasch models have been used to study a number of psychometric issues such as goodness of fit, response strategy differences, strategy shifts, and multidimensionality. Although these models offer the potential for improving understanding of the latent variables being measured, under some conditions overextraction of latent classes may…

  4. Classification criteria of syndromes by latent variable models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Janne

    2010-01-01

    The thesis has two parts; one clinical part: studying the dimensions of human immunodeficiency virus associated lipodystrophy syndrome (HALS) by latent class models, and a more statistical part: investigating how to predict scores of latent variables so these can be used in subsequent regression...

  5. The Latent Variable Approach as Applied to Transitive Reasoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouwmeester, Samantha; Vermunt, Jeroen K.; Sijtsma, Klaas

    2012-01-01

    We discuss the limitations of hypothesis testing using (quasi-) experiments in the study of cognitive development and suggest latent variable modeling as a viable alternative to experimentation. Latent variable models allow testing a theory as a whole, incorporating individual differences with respect to developmental processes or abilities in the…

  6. A Latent Class Approach to Estimating Test-Score Reliability

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Ark, L. Andries; van der Palm, Daniel W.; Sijtsma, Klaas

    2011-01-01

    This study presents a general framework for single-administration reliability methods, such as Cronbach's alpha, Guttman's lambda-2, and method MS. This general framework was used to derive a new approach to estimating test-score reliability by means of the unrestricted latent class model. This new approach is the latent class reliability…

  7. Item Response Theory, Latent Classes and Rule Space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-07-15

    1968) and Latent Class ( Lazarsfeld p.M 5 & Henry, 1968) will be discussed with respect to the demands of modern measurement theory and their...Paper presented at the 22nd International Congress of Psychology, Leipzig. Lazarsfeld , P. F. & Henry, N. W. (1968). Latent structure analysis. Boston

  8. Transforming Selected Concepts into Dimensions in Latent Semantic Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olmos, Ricardo; Jorge-Botana, Guillermo; León, José Antonio; Escudero, Inmaculada

    2014-01-01

    This study presents a new approach for transforming the latent representation derived from a Latent Semantic Analysis (LSA) space into one where dimensions have nonlatent meanings. These meanings are based on lexical descriptors, which are selected by the LSA user. The authors present three analyses that provide examples of the utility of this…

  9. Higher-Order Item Response Models for Hierarchical Latent Traits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Hung-Yu; Wang, Wen-Chung; Chen, Po-Hsi; Su, Chi-Ming

    2013-01-01

    Many latent traits in the human sciences have a hierarchical structure. This study aimed to develop a new class of higher order item response theory models for hierarchical latent traits that are flexible in accommodating both dichotomous and polytomous items, to estimate both item and person parameters jointly, to allow users to specify…

  10. The latent variable approach as applied to transitive reasoning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouwmeester, S.; Vermunt, J.K.; Sijtsma, K.

    2012-01-01

    We discuss the limitations of hypothesis testing using (quasi-) experiments in the study of cognitive development and suggest latent variable modeling as a viable alternative to experimentation. Latent variable models allow testing a theory as a whole, incorporating individual differences with

  11. PROC LCA: A SAS Procedure for Latent Class Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanza, Stephanie T.; Collins, Linda M.; Lemmon, David R.; Schafer, Joseph L.

    2007-01-01

    Latent class analysis (LCA) is a statistical method used to identify a set of discrete, mutually exclusive latent classes of individuals based on their responses to a set of observed categorical variables. In multiple-group LCA, both the measurement part and structural part of the model can vary across groups, and measurement invariance across…

  12. Tweets clustering using latent semantic analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasidi, Norsuhaili Mahamed; Bakar, Sakhinah Abu; Razak, Fatimah Abdul

    2017-04-01

    Social media are becoming overloaded with information due to the increasing number of information feeds. Unlike other social media, Twitter users are allowed to broadcast a short message called as `tweet". In this study, we extract tweets related to MH370 for certain of time. In this paper, we present overview of our approach for tweets clustering to analyze the users' responses toward tragedy of MH370. The tweets were clustered based on the frequency of terms obtained from the classification process. The method we used for the text classification is Latent Semantic Analysis. As a result, there are two types of tweets that response to MH370 tragedy which is emotional and non-emotional. We show some of our initial results to demonstrate the effectiveness of our approach.

  13. Endogenous Opioid-Masked Latent Pain Sensitization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pereira, Manuel P; Donahue, Renee R; Dahl, Jørgen B

    2015-01-01

    UNLABELLED: Following the resolution of a severe inflammatory injury in rodents, administration of mu-opioid receptor inverse agonists leads to reinstatement of pain hypersensitivity. The mechanisms underlying this form of latent pain sensitization (LS) likely contribute to the development...... of chronic pain, but LS has not yet been demonstrated in humans. Using a C57BL/6 mouse model of cutaneous mild heat injury (MHI) we demonstrated a dose-dependent reinstatement of pain sensitization, assessed as primary (P ... naloxone dose (0.021 mg/kg). However, while LS was consistently demonstrated in 21/24 mice, LS was only seen in 4/12 subjects. This difference is likely due to selection bias since the C57BL/6 mouse strain exhibits markedly enhanced pain sensitivity in assays of acute thermal nociception. Future...

  14. Using existing questionnaires in latent class analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Anne Molgaard; Vach, Werner; Kent, Peter

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Latent class analysis (LCA) is increasingly being used in health research, but optimal approaches to handling complex clinical data are unclear. One issue is that commonly used questionnaires are multidimensional, but expressed as summary scores. Using the example of low back pain (LBP......), the aim of this study was to explore and descriptively compare the application of LCA when using questionnaire summary scores and when using single items to subgrouping of patients based on multidimensional data. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Baseline data from 928 LBP patients in an observational study were....... The resulting subgroups were descriptively compared using statistical measures and clinical interpretability. RESULTS: For each health domain, the preferred model solution ranged from five to seven subgroups for the summary-score strategy and seven to eight subgroups for the single-item strategy...

  15. Latent factors and route choice behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prato, Carlo Giacomo

    A behaviourally realistic description of the route choice process should consider variables that are both observable, such as travel time and cost, and unobservable, such as attitudes, perceptions, spatial abilities and network knowledge. This manuscript focuses on automotive route choice behaviour...... by proposing a methodology for collecting and analyzing behavioural indicators and modelling route choices of individuals driving habitually from home to their workplace. A web-based survey was designed to collect attitudinal data and observed route choices among faculty and staff members of Turin Polytechnic....... A reliable dataset was prepared through measures of internal consistency and sampling adequacy, and data were analyzed with a proper application of factor analysis to the route choice context. For the dataset obtained from the survey, six latent constructs affecting driver behaviour were extracted and scores...

  16. Learning Latent Structure in Complex Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørup, Morten; Hansen, Lars Kai

    Latent structure in complex networks, e.g., in the form of community structure, can help understand network dynamics, identify heterogeneities in network properties, and predict ‘missing’ links. While most community detection algorithms are based on optimizing heuristic clustering objectives...... prediction performance of the learning based approaches and other widely used link prediction approaches in 14 networks ranging from medium size to large networks with more than a million nodes. While link prediction is typically well above chance for all networks, we find that the learning based mixed...... membership stochastic block model of Airoldi et al., performs well and often best in our experiments. The added complexity of the LD model improves link predictions for four of the 14 networks....

  17. Latent profile approach to duration of stalking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Björklund, Katja; Häkkänen-Nyholm, Helinä; Sheridan, Lorraine; Roberts, Karl; Tolvanen, Asko

    2010-07-01

    Stalking behavior and victim-stalker relationship are often the principal known factors in a stalking case. Thus, they are of great importance when trying to identify factors contributing to stalking duration. The present study aims to identify distinct subgroups of stalking victims based on measures of behavioral stalking dimensions. These victim subgroups, stalking dimensions, and victim-stalker relationship are examined in relation to stalking duration. Using a sample of 137 university students, latent profile analysis (LPA) revealed five distinct victim subgroups based on stalker behavior dimensions: surveillance, low-profile, social lurker, wide scope, and baseline stalkers. The subgroups were significantly related to stalking duration and explained a considerable amount of the variance along with the stalking dimensions and victim-stalker relationship. Connections to stalking literature and utility of person-orientated methods in stalking research are discussed.

  18. Pretreatment of Latent Prints for Laser Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menzel, E R

    1989-06-01

    The pretreatment procedures for laser detection of latent fingerprints is reviewed. The general features of laser detection and the operational aspects of the examination of physical evidence for laser fingerprint detection are enumerated in the initial sections. The literature review is divided into various pretreatment approaches. Cited studies prior to 1981 are primarily concerned with the demonstration of the viability of laser fingerprint detection, whereas work post-1981 addresses issues of compatibility with the traditional methods of fingerprint development, examination of difficult surfaces, and the routine implementation of laser detection by law enforcement agencies. Related topics of research, review articles, conference reports, case examinations, the research support climate, and future trends are also briefly addressed. Copyright © 1989 Central Police University.

  19. Classification criteria of syndromes by latent variable models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Janne

    2010-01-01

    analyses. Part 1: HALS engages different phenotypic changes of peripheral lipoatrophy and central lipohypertrophy.  There are several different definitions of HALS and no consensus on the number of phenotypes. Many of the definitions consist of counting fulfilled criteria on markers and do not include......, although this is often desired. I have proposed a new method for predicting class membership that, in contrast to methods based on posterior probabilities of class membership, yields consistent estimates when regressed on explanatory variables in a subsequent analysis. There are four different basic models...... within latent variable models: factor analysis, latent class analysis, latent profile analysis and latent trait analysis. I have given a general overview of how to predict scores of latent variables so these can be used in subsequent regression models. Two different principles of predicting scores...

  20. Latent Virus Reactivation in Space Shuttle Astronauts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, S. K.; Crucian, B. E.; Stowe, R. P.; Sams, C.; Castro, V. A.; Pierson, D. L.

    2011-01-01

    Latent virus reactivation was measured in 17 astronauts (16 male and 1 female) before, during, and after short-duration Space Shuttle missions. Blood, urine, and saliva samples were collected 2-4 months before launch, 10 days before launch (L-10), 2-3 hours after landing (R+0), 3 days after landing (R+14), and 120 days after landing (R+120). Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) DNA was measured in these samples by quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Varicella-zoster virus (VZV) DNA was measured in the 381 saliva samples and cytomegalovirus (CMV) DNA in the 66 urine samples collected from these subjects. Fourteen astronauts shed EBV DNA in 21% of their saliva samples before, during, and after flight, and 7 astronauts shed VZV in 7.4% of their samples during and after flight. It was interesting that shedding of both EBV and VZV increased during the flight phase relative to before or after flight. In the case of CMV, 32% of urine samples from 8 subjects contained DNA of this virus. In normal healthy control subjects, EBV shedding was found in 3% and VZV and CMV were found in less than 1% of the samples. The circadian rhythm of salivary cortisol measured before, during, and after space flight did not show any significant difference between flight phases. These data show that increased reactivation of latent herpes viruses may be associated with decreased immune system function, which has been reported in earlier studies as well as in these same subjects (data not reported here).

  1. LTBI: latent tuberculosis infection or lasting immune responses to M. tuberculosis? A TBNET consensus statement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mack, U.; Migliori, G. B.; Sester, M.; Rieder, H. L.; Ehlers, S.; Goletti, D.; Bossink, A.; Magdorf, K.; Hölscher, C.; Kampmann, B.; Arend, S. M.; Detjen, A.; Bothamley, G.; Zellweger, J. P.; Milburn, H.; Diel, R.; Ravn, P.; Cobelens, F.; Cardona, P. J.; Kan, B.; Solovic, I.; Duarte, R.; Cirillo, D. M.

    2009-01-01

    Tuberculosis control relies on the identification and preventive treatment of individuals who are latently infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis. However, direct identification of latent tuberculosis infection is not possible. The diagnostic tests used to identify individuals latently infected

  2. A Probability Distribution over Latent Causes, in the Orbitofrontal Cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Stephanie C Y; Niv, Yael; Norman, Kenneth A

    2016-07-27

    The orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) has been implicated in both the representation of "state," in studies of reinforcement learning and decision making, and also in the representation of "schemas," in studies of episodic memory. Both of these cognitive constructs require a similar inference about the underlying situation or "latent cause" that generates our observations at any given time. The statistically optimal solution to this inference problem is to use Bayes' rule to compute a posterior probability distribution over latent causes. To test whether such a posterior probability distribution is represented in the OFC, we tasked human participants with inferring a probability distribution over four possible latent causes, based on their observations. Using fMRI pattern similarity analyses, we found that BOLD activity in the OFC is best explained as representing the (log-transformed) posterior distribution over latent causes. Furthermore, this pattern explained OFC activity better than other task-relevant alternatives, such as the most probable latent cause, the most recent observation, or the uncertainty over latent causes. Our world is governed by hidden (latent) causes that we cannot observe, but which generate the observations we see. A range of high-level cognitive processes require inference of a probability distribution (or "belief distribution") over the possible latent causes that might be generating our current observations. This is true for reinforcement learning and decision making (where the latent cause comprises the true "state" of the task), and for episodic memory (where memories are believed to be organized by the inferred situation or "schema"). Using fMRI, we show that this belief distribution over latent causes is encoded in patterns of brain activity in the orbitofrontal cortex, an area that has been separately implicated in the representations of both states and schemas. Copyright © 2016 the authors 0270-6474/16/367817-12$15.00/0.

  3. Assessing Trust and Effectiveness in Virtual Teams: Latent Growth Curve and Latent Change Score Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael D. Coovert

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Trust plays a central role in the effectiveness of work groups and teams. This is the case for both face-to-face and virtual teams. Yet little is known about the development of trust in virtual teams. We examined cognitive and affective trust and their relationship to team effectiveness as reflected through satisfaction with one’s team and task performance. Latent growth curve analysis reveals both trust types start at a significant level with individual differences in that initial level. Cognitive trust follows a linear growth pattern while affective trust is overall non-linear, but becomes linear once established. Latent change score models are utilized to examine change in trust and also its relationship with satisfaction with the team and team performance. In examining only change in trust and its relationship to satisfaction there appears to be a straightforward influence of trust on satisfaction and satisfaction on trust. However, when incorporated into a bivariate coupling latent change model the dynamics of the relationship are revealed. A similar pattern holds for trust and task performance; however, in the bivariate coupling change model a more parsimonious representation is preferred.

  4. Obesity, abdominal obesity, physical activity, and caloric intake in US adults: 1988 to 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladabaum, Uri; Mannalithara, Ajitha; Myer, Parvathi A; Singh, Gurkirpal

    2014-08-01

    Obesity and abdominal obesity are associated independently with morbidity and mortality. Physical activity attenuates these risks. We examined trends in obesity, abdominal obesity, physical activity, and caloric intake in US adults from 1988 to 2010. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed using National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey data. Average body mass index (BMI) increased by 0.37% (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.30-0.44) per year in both women and men. Average waist circumference increased by 0.37% (95% CI, 0.30-0.43) and 0.27% (95% CI, 0.22-0.32) per year in women and men, respectively. The prevalence of obesity and abdominal obesity increased substantially, as did the prevalence of abdominal obesity among overweight adults. Younger women experienced the greatest increases. The proportion of adults who reported no leisure-time physical activity increased from 19.1% (95% CI, 17.3-21.0) to 51.7% (95% CI, 48.9-54.5) in women, and from 11.4% (95% CI, 10.0-12.8) to 43.5% (95% CI, 40.7-46.3) in men. Average daily caloric intake did not change significantly. BMI and waist circumference trends were associated with physical activity level but not caloric intake. The associated changes in adjusted BMIs were 8.3% (95% CI, 6.9-9.6) higher among women and 1.7% (95% CI, 0.68-2.8) higher among men with no leisure-time physical activity compared with those with an ideal level of leisure-time physical activity. Our analyses highlight important dimensions of the public health problem of obesity, including trends in younger women and in abdominal obesity, and lend support to the emphasis placed on physical activity by the Institute of Medicine. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Nutrients, not caloric restriction, extend lifespan in Queensland fruit flies (Bactrocera tryoni).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fanson, Benjamin G; Weldon, Christopher W; Pérez-Staples, Diana; Simpson, Stephen J; Taylor, Phillip W

    2009-09-01

    Caloric restriction (CR) has been widely accepted as a mechanism explaining increased lifespan (LS) in organisms subjected to dietary restriction (DR), but recent studies investigating the role of nutrients have challenged the role of CR in extending longevity. Fuelling this debate is the difficulty in experimentally disentangling CR and nutrient effects due to compensatory feeding (CF) behaviour. We quantified CF by measuring the volume of solution imbibed and determined how calories and nutrients influenced LS and fecundity in unmated females of the Queensland fruit fly, Bactocera tryoni (Diptera: Tephritidae). We restricted flies to one of 28 diets varying in carbohydrate:protein (C:P) ratios and concentrations. On imbalanced diets, flies overcame dietary dilutions, consuming similar caloric intakes for most dilutions. The response surface for LS revealed that increasing C:P ratio while keeping calories constant extended LS, with the maximum LS along C:P ratio of 21:1. In general, LS was reduced as caloric intake decreased. Lifetime egg production was maximized at a C:P ratio of 3:1. When given a choice of separate sucrose and yeast solutions, each at one of five concentrations (yielding 25 choice treatments), flies regulated their nutrient intake to match C:P ratio of 3:1. Our results (i) demonstrate that CF can overcome dietary dilutions; (ii) reveal difficulties with methods presenting fixed amounts of liquid diet; (iii) illustrate the need to measure intake to account for CF in DR studies and (iv) highlight nutrients rather than CR as a dominant influence on LS.

  6. Effect of solid-meal caloric content on gastric emptying kinetics of solids and liquids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urbain, J L; Siegel, J A; Mortelmans, L; van Cutsem, E; van den Maegdenbergh, V; de Roo, M

    1989-08-01

    In this study, we have evaluated the effect of the caloric content of a physiological test meal on the gastric emptying kinetics of solids and liquids. 22 healthy male volunteers were studied in two groups matched for age. After an overnight fast, each volunteer underwent the same test procedure; in the first group (G I), 10 volunteers received a meal consisting of bread, 111In-DTPA water and 1 scrambled egg labeled with 99mTc-labelled sulphur colloid; in the second group (G II) 12 volunteers were given the same meal but with 2 labeled eggs in order to increase the caloric content of the solid phase meal. Simultaneous anterior and posterior images were recorded using a dual-headed gamma camera. Solid and liquid geometric mean data were analyzed to determine the lag phase, the emptying rate and the half-emptying time for both solids and liquids. Solid and liquid gastric half-emptying times were significantly prolonged in G II compared to G I volunteers. For the solid phased, the delay was accounted for by a longer lag phase and a decrease in the equilibrium emptying rate. The emptying rate of the liquid phase was significantly decreased in G II compared to G I. Within each group, no statistically significant difference was observed between solid and liquid emptying rates. We conclude that the caloric content of the solid portion of a meal not only alters the emptying of the solid phase but also affects the emptying of the liquid component of the meal.

  7. [Caloric value and ash content of dominant plants in plantation communities in Heshan of Guangdong, China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Xiao-ping; Cai, Xi-an; Zhao, Ping; Rao, Xing-quan

    2009-03-01

    Different parts of twenty dominant plant species in five plantation communities on the subtropical hilly lands in Heshan of Gunagdong as well as the litters from three of the five plantation communities were sampled, and their gross caloric value (GCV) and ash content were measured by using a PARR-1281 oxygen bomb calorimeter and a muffle furnace. Based on the measurements, the ash-free caloric value (AFCV) of the samples was calculated, and the characteristics of caloric value and ash content of the samples, according to plant part, individual, and plant growth form, were analyzed. The results showed that the GCV and AFCV of leaf, branch, stem wood, stem bark, and root were in the range of 10.7-22.17 kJ x g(-1) and 13.89-23.04 kJ x g(-1), respectively. The GCV and AFCV of leaf were significantly higher than those of other parts (P shrub layer (19.46 kJ x g(-1) > herb layer (18.77 kJ x g(-1)), with indigenous coniferous tree (19.86 kJ x g(-1)) > indigenous broad-leaved tree (19.55 kJ x g(-1)) > exotic eucalyptus (19.18 kJ x g(-1)), while the mean ash content was just the opposite. In Acacia mangium, coniferous, and Schima plantation communities, the GCV and AFCV of litters were higher than those of various plant parts (P mangium and coniferous plantations had higher mean GCV and AFCV than the litters and fresh leaves of tree layer, while the fresh leaves of tree layer in Schima plantation showed higher mean GCV and AFCV.

  8. Lost in processing? Perceived healthfulness, taste and caloric content of whole and processed organic food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prada, Marília; Garrido, Margarida V; Rodrigues, David

    2017-07-01

    The "organic" claim explicitly informs consumers about the food production method. Yet, based on this claim, people often infer unrelated food attributes. The current research examined whether the perceived advantage of organic over conventional food generalizes across different organic food types. Compared to whole organic foods, processed organic foods are less available, familiar and prototypical of the organic food category. In two studies (combined N = 258) we investigated how both organic foods types were perceived in healthfulness, taste and caloric content when compared to their conventional alternatives. Participants evaluated images of both whole (e.g., lettuce) and processed organic food exemplars (e.g., pizza), and reported general evaluations of these food types. The association of these evaluations with individual difference variables - self-reported knowledge and consumption of organic food, and environmental concerns - was also examined. Results showed that organically produced whole foods were perceived as more healthful, tastier and less caloric than those produced conventionally, thus replicating the well-established halo effect of the organic claim in food evaluation. The organic advantage was more pronounced among individuals who reported being more knowledgeable about organic food, consumed it more frequently, and were more environmentally concerned. The advantage of the organic claim for processed foods was less clear. Overall, processed organic (vs. conventional) foods were perceived as tastier, more healthful (Study 1) or equally healthful (Study 2), but also as more caloric. We argue that the features of processed food may modulate the impact of the organic claim, and outline possible research directions to test this assumption. Uncovering the specific conditions in which food claims bias consumer's perceptions and behavior may have important implications for marketing, health and public-policy related fields. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier

  9. Olas de calor e influencia urbana en Madrid y su área metropolitana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernández García, F.

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The frequency and duration of the warmest temperature episodes, a common phenomenon under the continental Mediterranean conditions of the Spanish Southern Meseta, has increased in the Madrid area since the 80´s, although their magnitude remains unchanged. The effect of the urban environment on those extreme events has exacerbated the heat load due to the persistence of the high temperatures along the night time hours. Nevertheless, the diversity of the urban morphology introduces a spatial variability on the strength of this nocturnal heat load, aggravating it in the densely urbanized areas and mitigating it in the vicinities of the green areas.

    La frecuencia y duración de los episodios cálidos extremos, un fenómeno habitual en el clima mediterráneo continental de la Meseta Meridional, ha aumentado en el área de Madrid desde los años noventa, aunque su magnitud permanece constante. En el interior de la aglomeración urbana, el efecto general de la ciudad sobre estos eventos climáticos extremos ha supuesto una exacerbación del calor, no tanto por un aumento de la temperatura máxima, como por una persistencia del calor en las horas nocturnas. No obstante, la diversidad de la morfología urbana introduce variaciones espaciales en la intensidad de este calor nocturno, agravando sus efectos en las áreas densamente urbanizadas y mitigándolos en las proximidades de las áreas verdes.

  10. Roles of Caloric Restriction, Ketogenic Diet and Intermittent Fasting during Initiation, Progression and Metastasis of Cancer in Animal Models: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis: e115147

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mengmeng Lv; Xingya Zhu; Hao Wang; Feng Wang; Wenxian Guan

    2014-01-01

      Background The role of dietary restriction regimens such as caloric restriction, ketogenic diet and intermittent fasting in development of cancers has been detected via abundant preclinical experiments...

  11. The late-luteal leptin level, caloric intake and eating behaviors among women with premenstrual dysphoric disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Chih-Hung; Yen, Cheng-Fang; Long, Cheng-Yu; Kuo, Yu-Ting; Chen, Cheng-Sheng; Yen, Ju-Yu

    2015-06-01

    A marked increased in food intake in the late-luteal phase is a characteristic symptom of premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD). The aim of the study was to evaluate the leptin level, caloric intake, and eating behaviors of women with PMDD across the menstrual cycle among normal-weight and overweight subjects, respectively. A total of 62 women with PMDD and 69 controls were recruited following psychiatric interviewing and underwent prospective investigation. The leptin level, caloric intake, and three factors related to eating behavior were assessed in both the late-luteal and follicular phases. The women with PMDD had greater increases in caloric intake, sweet caloric intake, and uncontrolled eating in the late-luteal phase than the controls. Among the normal-weight women, the leptin level was negatively correlated with caloric intake. The normal-weight women with PMDD had a lower leptin level, a lower leptin/body fat percentage (BFP), a higher caloric intake, and higher uncontrolled eating and emotional eating in the late-luteal phase than the normal-weight controls. Their leptin level was correlated negatively with sweet caloric intake. On the other hand, the overweight women with PMDD had a higher leptin level than the normal-weight women with PMDD and no decline was observed in their leptin level in the late-luteal phase. There were no differences in the leptin level between the overweight women with PMDD and the overweight controls. They also had a higher sweet caloric intake and higher uncontrolled eating and emotional eating than the overweight controls. A decline in the leptin level is associated with late-luteal overeating among normal-weight women with PMDD. Hyperleptinemia and a high sweet caloric intake of overweight women with PMDD should be monitored and addressed in order to attenuate the risk of leptin resistance. The detailed roles of leptin and other psycho-neuro-endocrinology factors in the mechanism of overeating among women with PMDD should

  12. Evaluation of a direct contact heat exchanger; Evaluacion de un intercambiador de calor de contacto directo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siqueiros, J.; Bonilla, O. [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1997-12-31

    In this paper the application areas of the direct contact heat exchangers is discussed, as well as its main characteristics. A description is made of the experimental equipment designed and built at pilot scale including the instrumentation employed. The methodology employed as well as the analysis and the discussion of the results are also presented. [Espanol] Se mencionan las areas de aplicacion de los intercambiadores de calor de contacto directo, asi como sus caracteristicas principales. Se describe el equipo experimental a nivel piloto disenado y construido incluyendo la instrumentacion utilizada. Se presenta la metodologia empleada asi como el analisis y discusion de los resultados.

  13. Diseño de una máquina de rotomoldeo sin aporte de calor

    OpenAIRE

    Montes Cale, Pablo

    2016-01-01

    El presente proyecto consiste en el diseño de una máquina de rotomoldeo sin aporte de calor con la que se puedan generar piezas huecas de plástico de resina autocurable detallando los tipos de estas resinas utilizadas en este sistema al principio. La máquina está construida mediante un sistema modular para facilitar la reparación o el cambio de piezas ante posible rotura. El movimiento de la máquina está gobernado mediante un variador de frecuencia acoplado a un motorreducto...

  14. Identificación de incrustaciones en ciclones recuperadores de calor de hornos DOPOL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Triviño Vázquez, Fernando

    1979-12-01

    Full Text Available Not avaible

    En un ciclón recuperador de calor, situado a la entrada del horno de clinquerización tipo DOPOL, se producían unas incrustaciones sedimentarias que terminaban produciendo la obstrucción del ciclón. Simultáneamente aparecían dificultades de marcha durante el crecimiento, por sedimentación- fusión, de dichas incrustaciones. Finalmente era necesaria la parada del horno para la limpieza del ciclón.

  15. Transferencia molecular de calor, masa y/o cantidad de movimiento

    OpenAIRE

    Betancourt Grajales, Ramiro

    2008-01-01

    Este texto fue diseñado para proveer un tratamiento integrado de las tres áreas del transporte: impulso, calor y masa. Las similitudes entre las leyes de flujo permiten aplicar directamente analogías en el cálculo del transporte haciendo una economía en el esfuerzo docente–discente acorde con las pedagogías intensivas. Muchas de las ecuaciones básicas son matemáticamente idénticas cuando se expresan en términos de las variables y densidades de flujo generalizadas. El texto comienza con tra...

  16. The minimal caloric test asymmetric response in vertigo-free migraine patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliana Teixeira Maranhão

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Vertigo symptoms and subclinical vestibular dysfunctions may occur in migraine. The Minimal Caloric Test (MCT, an easy-to-perform, convenient and yet informative procedure was used to test the vestibular function in 30 vertigo-free migraine patients outside attacks and 30 paired controls. Although not statistically significant, a right-to-left nystagmus duration asymmetry greater than 25% was present in both groups. This difference was greater in the patients group, suggesting the presence of subclinical vestibular imbalance in migraine.

  17. Targeting energy metabolism in brain cancer with calorically restricted ketogenic diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seyfried, Thomas N; Kiebish, Michael; Mukherjee, Purna; Marsh, Jeremy

    2008-11-01

    Information is presented on the calorically restricted ketogenic diet (CRKD) as an alternative therapy for brain cancer. In contrast to normal neurons and glia, which evolved to metabolize ketone bodies as an alternative fuel to glucose under energy-restricted conditions, brain tumor cells are largely glycolytic due to mitochondrial defects and have a reduced ability to metabolize ketone bodies. The CRKD is effective in managing brain tumor growth in animal models and in patients, and appears to act through antiangiogenic, anti-inflammatory, and proapoptotic mechanisms.

  18. Mechanism-Based Modeling of Gastric Emptying Rate and Gallbladder Emptying in Response to Caloric Intake

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guiastrennec, B; Sonne, David Peick; Hansen, M

    2016-01-01

    concentrations, and GBE was developed on data from 33 patients with type 2 diabetes and 33 matched nondiabetic individuals who were administered various test drinks. A feedback action of the caloric content entering the proximal small intestine was identified for the rate of GE. The cholecystokinin...... concentrations were not predictive of GBE, and an alternative model linking the nutrients amount in the upper intestine to GBE was preferred. Relative to fats, the potency on GBE was 68% for proteins and 2.3% for carbohydrates. The model predictions were robust across a broad range of nutritional content and may...

  19. Relationship of Mediterranean diet and caloric intake to phenoconversion in Huntington disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marder, Karen; Gu, Yian; Eberly, Shirley; Tanner, Caroline M; Scarmeas, Nikolaos; Oakes, David; Shoulson, Ira

    2013-11-01

    Adherence to Mediterranean-type diet (MeDi) may delay onset of Alzheimer and Parkinson diseases. Whether adherence to MeDi affects time to phenoconversion in Huntington disease (HD), a highly penetrant, single-gene disorder, is unknown. To determine if MeDi modifies the time to clinical onset of HD (phenoconversion) in premanifest carriers participating in Prospective Huntington at Risk Observational Study (PHAROS), and to examine the effects of body mass index and caloric intake on time to phenoconversion. A prospective cohort study of 41 Huntington study group sites in the United States and Canada involving 1001 participants enrolled in PHAROS between July 1999 and January 2004 who were followed up every 9 months until 2010. A total of 211 participants aged 26 to 57 years had an expanded CAG repeat length (≥ 37). A semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire was administered 33 months after baseline. We calculated daily gram intake for dairy, meat, fruit, vegetables, legumes, cereals, fish, monounsaturated and saturated fatty acids, and alcohol and constructed MeDi scores (0-9); higher scores indicate higher adherence. Demographics, medical history, body mass index, and Unified Huntington's Disease Rating Scale (UHDRS) score were collected. Cox proportional hazards regression models to determine the association of MeDi and phenoconversion. RESULTS Age, sex, caloric intake, education status, and UHDRS motor scores did not differ among MeDi tertiles (0-3, 4-5, and 6-9). The highest body mass index was associated with the lowest adherence to MeDi. Thirty-one participants phenoconverted. In a model adjusted for age, CAG repeat length, and caloric intake, MeDi was not associated with phenoconversion (P for trend = 0.14 for tertile of MeDi, and P = .22 for continuous MeDi). When individual components of MeDi were analyzed, higher dairy consumption (hazard ratio, 2.36; 95% CI, 1.0-5.57; P = .05) and higher caloric intake (P = .04) were associated with risk of

  20. Efectos no-newtonianos en un cambiador de calor comercial de doble tubo para aplicaciones alimentarias

    OpenAIRE

    Molina Sánchez, Alberto Aurelio

    2006-01-01

    El objetivo del presente proyecto es evaluar la importancia que los efectos no newtonianos de los productos alimentarios ejercen sobre el flujo y la transferencia de calor en procesos industriales. En concreto, el estudio se basa en el comportamiento reológico seudoplástico mostrado por el cremogenado de melocotón durante un proceso de enfriamiento. El proyecto consta de una primera parte de recopilación bibliográfica en la que se exponen los conocimientos necesarios para poder llevar a cabo ...

  1. Tecnologías emergentes para la conservación de alimentos sin calor

    OpenAIRE

    Fernández Molina, Juan José; Barbosa-Cánovas, Gustavo V.; Swanson, Barry G.

    2001-01-01

    Not available

    Se han investigado los principios básicos de tres tecnologías emergentes para pasteurizar y esterilizar alimentos sin empleo del calor Mediante numerosos estudios se ha comprobado la efectividad de los campos eléctricos pulsantes de alta intensidad (CEPAI), los pulsos de luz (PL) y los campos magnéticos oscilantes (CMO) en la destrucción de microorganismos y enzimas de sistemas alimentarios. En la inactivación microbiana por CEPA!, el blanco principal es la me...

  2. Coeficientes de transferencia de calor en enfriadores de mineral laterítico a escala piloto

    OpenAIRE

    Ángel Legrá-Legrá; Yudmila Spencer-Rodríguez; Yoalbys Retirado-Mediaceja; Ángel O. Columbié-Navarro; Marbelis Lamorú-Urgellés; Ever Góngora-Leyva

    2009-01-01

    En la Planta de Hornos de Reducción de la empresa niquelera Ernesto Guevara las elevadas temperaturas del mineral reducido a la salida de los enfriadores (coolers) afectan el desarrollo eficiente del proceso de lixiviación. Se realizó una investigación, a escala piloto, en los enfriadores de mineral reducido con el fin de evaluar el comportamiento de los parámetros de transferencia de calor que caracterizan el proceso; para ello se registraron los valores de temperatura del agua y del flujo y...

  3. Caloric stimulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... hearing and balance. The test also checks for damage to the brain stem. ... eye movements do not occur even after ice cold water is given, there may be damage to the: Nerve of the inner ear Balance ...

  4. Data on the interexaminer variation of minutia markup on latent fingerprints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulery, Bradford T; Hicklin, R Austin; Roberts, Maria Antonia; Buscaglia, JoAnn

    2016-09-01

    The data in this article supports the research paper entitled "Interexaminer variation of minutia markup on latent fingerprints" [1]. The data in this article describes the variability in minutia markup during both analysis of the latents and comparison between latents and exemplars. The data was collected in the "White Box Latent Print Examiner Study," in which each of 170 volunteer latent print examiners provided detailed markup documenting their examinations of latent-exemplar pairs of prints randomly assigned from a pool of 320 pairs. Each examiner examined 22 latent-exemplar pairs; an average of 12 examiners marked each latent.

  5. Data on the interexaminer variation of minutia markup on latent fingerprints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bradford T. Ulery

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The data in this article supports the research paper entitled “Interexaminer variation of minutia markup on latent fingerprints” [1]. The data in this article describes the variability in minutia markup during both analysis of the latents and comparison between latents and exemplars. The data was collected in the “White Box Latent Print Examiner Study,” in which each of 170 volunteer latent print examiners provided detailed markup documenting their examinations of latent-exemplar pairs of prints randomly assigned from a pool of 320 pairs. Each examiner examined 22 latent-exemplar pairs; an average of 12 examiners marked each latent.

  6. Dismorfia muscular: A busca pelo corpo hiper musculoso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andréa Pires Azevedo

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available A dismorfia muscular tem sido identificada tanto em homens quanto em mulheres, provocando alterações da perceção da autoimagem e prejuízos socioculturais, e na saúde e bem-estar dos indivíduos. Nesse sentido, o objetivo deste estudo é analisar os aspetos socioculturais, psicológicos e o uso de recursos ergogênicos relacionados à dismorfia muscular, bem como, identificar os riscos promovidos pelo transtorno. Participaram 20 indivíduos, inscritos na rede mundial de computadores. Utilizou-se um questionário para coleta de dados e a análise documental para interpretação das respostas. Os resultados demonstram que as preocupações com a imagem corporal geram insegurança social, baixa autoestima e sentimentos de inferioridade, que seriam resolvidos se a pessoa tivesse corpos belos e fortes. A dismorfia muscular pode aumentar o risco de uso dos esteroides anabolizantes e o uso indiscriminado de suplementos alimentares. Conclui-se que a dismorfia muscular causa sofrimentos e prejuízos psicológicos, socioculturais e, desse modo, compromete a saúde das pessoas.

  7. ESTIMATIVA DA ERODIBILIDADE DO SOLO PELO MÉTODO INDIRETO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dione Cardoso

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se avaliar a erodibilidade do solo pelo método indireto, baseado nas porcentagens de frações de areia, silte e argila, para quatro classes de solos de alguns municípios localizados no estado do Espírito Santo. Os dados das frações granulométricas do solo foram compilados do Projeto RADAMBRASIL. A equação utilizada para estimar o fator erodibilidade do solo é: Fator K = ((% areia + % silte / (% argila/100. A erodibilidade do solo foi superior nos horizontes superficiais em relação aos subsuperficiais para todos os solos avaliados, sendo de 0,0133 t ha h ha-1 MJ-1 mm-1 (Latossolos, 0,0054 t ha h ha-1 MJ-1 mm-1 (Chernossolos, 0,3556 t ha h ha-1 MJ-1 mm-1 (Argissolos e 0,0163 t ha h ha-1 MJ-1 mm-1 (Cambissolos. A correlação entre os horizontes foi de 0,999. Os valores de erodibilidade do solo foram superiores nos horizontes superficiais para todos os solos avaliados. Há diferença estatística entre as classes de solo em relação a sua erodibilidade. Há uma boa correlação da erodibilidade do solo dos horizontes superficiais e subsuperficiais.

  8. Tropical Gravity Wave Momentum Fluxes and Latent Heating Distributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geller, Marvin A.; Zhou, Tiehan; Love, Peter T.

    2015-01-01

    Recent satellite determinations of global distributions of absolute gravity wave (GW) momentum fluxes in the lower stratosphere show maxima over the summer subtropical continents and little evidence of GW momentum fluxes associated with the intertropical convergence zone (ITCZ). This seems to be at odds with parameterizations forGWmomentum fluxes, where the source is a function of latent heating rates, which are largest in the region of the ITCZ in terms of monthly averages. The authors have examined global distributions of atmospheric latent heating, cloud-top-pressure altitudes, and lower-stratosphere absolute GW momentum fluxes and have found that monthly averages of the lower-stratosphere GW momentum fluxes more closely resemble the monthly mean cloud-top altitudes rather than the monthly mean rates of latent heating. These regions of highest cloud-top altitudes occur when rates of latent heating are largest on the time scale of cloud growth. This, plus previously published studies, suggests that convective sources for stratospheric GW momentum fluxes, being a function of the rate of latent heating, will require either a climate model to correctly model this rate of latent heating or some ad hoc adjustments to account for shortcomings in a climate model's land-sea differences in convective latent heating.

  9. Avaliação de sistemas de janela para suporte a decisões de projeto quanto ao equilíbrio de ganhos de luz e calor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamila Mendonça de Lima

    Full Text Available O projeto de janelas considera os efeitos do meio externo, tais como o ganho de calor solar e a iluminação natural, os quais podem ser conflitantes. Este trabalho avalia o desempenho de diferentes alternativas de sistemas de janela para suporte a decisões de projeto quanto ao equilíbrio de ganhos de luz e calor no ambiente interno, com ênfase no uso de escritório no contexto do clima quente e úmido. Para isso, simulações computacionais integradas utilizando os programas Daysim e EnergyPlus foram realizadas, considerando-se o acionamento das lâmpadas apenas quando a luz natural não é suficiente para atender ao uso do ambiente. Foram variados o percentual de área de abertura, o tipo de vidro e o ângulo de sombreamento, simultaneamente, identificando-se soluções de compromisso quanto aos critérios de disponibilidade e uniformidade da luz e demanda de energia elétrica no ambiente. O controle solar pelo uso de dispositivo de proteção solar apresentou resultados substancialmente melhores que o controle solar apenas pela redução da transmissão da radiação solar do vidro. A avaliação realizada contribui para o aprofundamento da compreensão do impacto de diferentes variáveis de projeto nos fenômenos que caracterizam o desempenho da abertura de uma edificação.

  10. The latent rationality of risky decisions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Japp, K.P. [Bielefeld Univ. (Germany). Faculty for Sociology

    1999-12-01

    . So rationality will stay latent as the operation of re-entry. It may become manifest as legitimating of something else, for instance as rational choice. In everyday life re-entries emerge as compromise. But compromises conceal the relevant difference. In scientific life re-entries emerge as mixed scanning. But mixed scanning displays a mix, not a difference. And it is always a difference which makes a difference. This remains latent.

  11. Sensory intolerance: latent structure and psychopathologic correlates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Steven; Conelea, Christine A; McKay, Dean; Crowe, Katherine B; Abramowitz, Jonathan S

    2014-07-01

    Sensory intolerance refers to high levels of distress evoked by everyday sounds (e.g., sounds of people chewing) or commonplace tactile sensations (e.g., sticky or greasy substances). Sensory intolerance may be associated with obsessive-compulsive (OC) symptoms, OC-related phenomena, and other forms of psychopathology. Sensory intolerance is not included as a syndrome in current diagnostic systems, although preliminary research suggests that it might be a distinct syndrome. First, to investigate the latent structure of sensory intolerance in adults; that is, to investigate whether it is syndrome-like in nature, in which auditory and tactile sensory intolerance co-occur and are associated with impaired functioning. Second, to investigate the psychopathologic correlates of sensory intolerance. In particular, to investigate whether sensory intolerance is associated with OC-related phenomena, as suggested by previous research. A sample of 534 community-based participants were recruited via Amazon.com's Mechanical Turk program. Participants completed measures of sensory intolerance, OC-related phenomena, and general psychopathology. Latent class analysis revealed two classes of individuals: those who were intolerant of both auditory and tactile stimuli (n=150), and those who were relatively undisturbed by auditory or tactile stimuli (n=384). Sensory-intolerant individuals, compared to those who were comparatively sensory tolerant, had greater scores on indices of general psychopathology, more severe OC symptoms, a higher likelihood of meeting caseness criteria for OC disorder, elevated scores on measures of OC-related dysfunctional beliefs, a greater tendency to report OC-related phenomena (e.g., a greater frequency of tics), and more impairment on indices of social and occupational functioning. Sensory-intolerant individuals had significantly higher scores on OC symptoms even after controlling for general psychopathology. Consistent with recent research, these findings

  12. Latent Herpes Viruses Reactivation in Astronauts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Satish K.; Pierson, Duane L.

    2008-01-01

    Space flight has many adverse effects on human physiology. Changes in multiple systems, including the cardiovascular, musculoskeletal, neurovestibular, endocrine, and immune systems have occurred (12, 32, 38, 39). Alterations in drug pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics (12), nutritional needs (31), renal stone formation (40), and microbial flora (2) have also been reported. Evidence suggests that the magnitude of some changes may increase with time in space. A variety of changes in immunity have been reported during both short (.16 days) and long (>30 days) space missions. However, it is difficult to determine the medical significance of these immunological changes in astronauts. Astronauts are in excellent health and in superb physical condition. Illnesses in astronauts during space flight are not common, are generally mild, and rarely affect mission objectives. In an attempt to clarify this issue, we identified the latent herpes viruses as medically important indicators of the effects of space flight on immunity. This chapter demonstrates that space flight leads to asymptomatic reactivation of latent herpes viruses, and proposes that this results from marked changes in neuroendocrine function and immunity caused by the inherent stressfullness of human space flight. Astronauts experience uniquely stressful environments during space flight. Potential stressors include confinement in an unfamiliar, crowded environment, isolation, separation from family, anxiety, fear, sleep deprivation, psychosocial issues, physical exertion, noise, variable acceleration forces, increased radiation, and others. Many of these are intermittent and variable in duration and intensity, but variable gravity forces (including transitions from launch acceleration to microgravity and from microgravity to planetary gravity) and variable radiation levels are part of each mission and contribute to a stressful environment that cannot be duplicated on Earth. Radiation outside the Earth

  13. Uso de transdutores de fluxo de calor no estudo da transferência de calor em alimentos embalados The use of heat flux transducers to study heat transfer in canned foods

    OpenAIRE

    Carciofi, B.; S. Güths; J. B. Laurindo

    2002-01-01

    A densidade de fluxo de calor que atravessa uma superfície é classicamente determinada mediante a medição das temperaturas apropriadas e da aplicação da Lei de Fourier. Uma alternativa a esse procedimento é a utilização de transdutores de fluxo de calor, os quais geram um sinal elétrico proporcional ao fluxo térmico que os atravessa. Neste trabalho, processos de aquecimento e de resfriamento de alimentos foram estudados em laboratório, utilizando-se um recipiente de vidro cilíndrico para simu...

  14. Computing simulated endolymphatic flow thermodynamics during the caloric test using normal and hydropic duct models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rey-Martinez, Jorge; McGarvie, Leigh; Pérez-Fernández, Nicolás

    2017-03-01

    The obtained simulations support the underlying hypothesis that the hydrostatic caloric drive is dissipated by local convective flow in a hydropic duct. To develop a computerized model to simulate and predict the internal fluid thermodynamic behavior within both normal and hydropic horizontal ducts. This study used a computational fluid dynamics software to simulate the effects of cooling and warming of two geometrical models representing normal and hydropic ducts of one semicircular horizontal canal during 120 s. Temperature maps, vorticity, and velocity fields were successfully obtained to characterize the endolymphatic flow during the caloric test in the developed models. In the normal semicircular canal, a well-defined endolymphatic linear flow was obtained, this flow has an opposite direction depending only on the cooling or warming condition of the simulation. For the hydropic model a non-effective endolymphatic flow was predicted; in this model the velocity and vorticity fields show a non-linear flow, with some vortices formed inside the hydropic duct.

  15. Remission of anosognosia for right hemiplegia and neglect after caloric vestibular stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronchi, Roberta; Rode, Gilles; Cotton, François; Farnè, Alessandro; Rossetti, Yves; Jacquin-Courtois, Sophie

    2013-01-01

    Neglect and related phenomena, as anosognosia for hemiplegia and somatoparaphrenia, are often associated to right-hemisphere lesions. These deficits can be alleviated by caloric vestibular stimulation, but little is known about the efficacy of this physiological intervention on neglect following left-hemisphere lesions. Here we report the case of an ambidextrous left brain-damaged patient with severe right personal and extrapersonal neglect, anosognosia for right hemiplegia and somatoparaphrenia. These symptoms co-occurred with more typical manifestations of left-brain damage, such as aphasia and apraxia. Neurological examination revealed right hemiplegia, hemianesthesia and hemianopia. Visuo-spatial tests for personal and extrapersonal neglect, as well as an anosognosia questionnaire, were submitted before and after caloric vestibular stimulation. Results showed a dramatic improvement of anosognosia for hemiplegia and neglect; no change was observed for the remaining deficits. The results confirm the notion of the selectivity of vestibular stimulation for neglect and related disorders and extend this notion by showing that similar effects can be obtained after lesion of the left hemisphere, suggesting that similar mechanisms are responsible for left- and right-sided neglect. Such a peculiar association of language and visuo-spatial disorders jointly present after a left-sided lesion opens the question of the link between handedness and lateralization of cognitive functions.

  16. Modeling body mass variation: incorporating social influence into calculations of caloric intake and energy expenditure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Hernández, Ana María; Huerta-Quintanilla, Rodrigo

    2014-01-01

    Variations in individual body mass and composition have long been a key focus in the health sciences, particularly now that overweight and obesity are considered as public health problems. We study a mathematical model that describes body mass variations which are determined by the energy balance between caloric intake and total energy expenditure. To calculate the change in caloric intake and energy expenditure over time, we proposed a relationship for each of these quantities, and we used measured values that are reported in the literature for the initial conditions. To account for small variations in the daily energy balance of an individual, we include social interactions as the multiplication of two terms: social proximity and social influence. We observe that social interactions have a considerable effect when the body mass of an individual is quite constant and social interactions take random values. However, when an individual's mass value changes (either increases or decreases), social interactions do not have a notable effect. In our simulation, we tested two different models that describe the body mass composition, and it resulted that one fits better the data.

  17. Caloric vestibular stimulation as a treatment for conversion disorder: A case report and medical hypothesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael eNoll-Hussong

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Conversion disorder is a medical condition in which a person has paralysis, blindness, or other neurological symptoms that cannot be clearly explained physiologically. To date, there is neither specific nor conclusive treatment. In this paper, we draw together a number of disparate pieces of knowledge to propose a novel intervention to provide transient alleviation for this condition. As caloric vestibular stimulation (CVS has been demonstrated to modulate transiently a variety of cognitive functions associated with brain activations, especially in the temporal-parietal cortex, anterior cingulate cortex, and insular cortex, there is evidence to assume an effect in specific mental disorders. Therefore, we go on to hypothesize that lateralized cold vestibular caloric stimulation will be effective in treating conversion disorder and we present provisional evidence from one patient that supports this conclusion. If our hypothesis is correct, this will be the first time in psychiatry and neurology that a clinically well-known mental disorder, long considered difficult to understand and to treat, is relieved by a simple or common, non-invasive medical procedure.

  18. Coeficientes de transferencia de calor en enfriadores de mineral laterítico a escala piloto

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ángel Legrá-Legrá

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available En la Planta de Hornos de Reducción de la empresa niquelera Ernesto Guevara las elevadas temperaturas del mineral reducido a la salida de los enfriadores (coolers afectan el desarrollo eficiente del proceso de lixiviación. Se realizó una investigación, a escala piloto, en los enfriadores de mineral reducido con el fin de evaluar el comportamiento de los parámetros de transferencia de calor que caracterizan el proceso; para ello se registraron los valores de temperatura del agua y del flujo y la temperatura del mineral, tanto a la entrada como a la salida de la instalación, para valores de flujos de 10 y 19 l/min. Como resultado se obtuvo el procedimiento de cálculo para determinar los coeficientes superficiales de transferencia de calor por unidad de longitud. Se encontró que en los enfriadores de mineral reducido predominan la conducción y radiación del mineral a la pared interior del cilindro cubierta por el sólido así como la convección y evaporación del agua al medio que permite dirigir las acciones hacia estos elementos para aumentar la eficiencia de la instalación.

  19. In-shell pistachio nuts reduce caloric intake compared to shelled nuts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honselman, Carla S; Painter, James E; Kennedy-Hagan, Karla J; Halvorson, Amber; Rhodes, Kathy; Brooks, Tamatha L; Skwir, Kaitlin

    2011-10-01

    It was hypothesized that consuming in-shell pistachios, compared to shelled pistachios, causes individuals to consume less. A convenience sample of students at a mid-western university (n=140) was recruited, asking them to evaluate a variety of brands of pistachios. A survey at the end of class determined fullness and satisfaction. Subjects entering the classroom were given a 16-ounce cup and asked to self-select a portion of pistachios. Portion weight was recorded and subjects consumed pistachios at their leisure during class. At class end, pistachios remaining in the cup were weighed and total consumption by weight was determined. The caloric content of each portion was then calculated. In condition one, subjects offered in-shell pistachios consumed an average of 125 calories. In condition two, subjects offered shelled pistachios consumed an average of 211 calories; a difference of 86 calories. Subjects in condition one consumed 41% fewer calories compared to subjects in condition two (p≤.01). Fullness and satisfaction ratings were not significantly different (p≥.01). Caloric intake was influenced by the initial form of the food. The difference in calories consumed may be due to the additional time needed to shell the nuts or the extra volume perceived when consuming in-shell nuts. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Is caloric restriction associated with development of eating-disorder symptoms? Results from the CALERIE trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, Donald A; Martin, Corby K; Anton, Stephen D; York-Crowe, Emily; Han, Hongmei; Redman, Leanne; Ravussin, Eric

    2008-01-01

    This study tested a secondary hypothesis of the CALERIE trial (Heilbronn et al., 2006) that a 12-month period of intentional dietary restriction would be associated with an increase in eating disorder symptoms. To test this hypothesis, 48 overweight adults were randomly assigned to four treatment arms in a 12-month study: (1) 25% calorie restriction, (2) 12.5% calorie restriction and 12.5% increased energy expenditure by structured exercise, (3) low-calorie diet, and (4) healthy diet (no-calorie restriction). Primary outcome measures for the study were changes in: eating disorder symptoms, mood, dietary restraint, body weight, and energy balance. All three dietary restriction arms were associated with increased dietary restraint and negative energy balance, but not with increased ED symptoms or other harmful psychological effects. Participants in the three calorie restriction arms lost significant amounts of body weight. The psychological and behavioral effects were maintained during a 6-month follow-up period. These results did not support the hypothesis that caloric restriction causes increased eating disorder symptoms in overweight adults. In general, caloric restriction had either benign or beneficial psychological and behavioral effects. (Copyright) 2008 APA.

  1. AMP activated protein kinase is indispensable for myocardial adaptation to caloric restriction in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai Chen

    Full Text Available Caloric restriction (CR is a robust dietary intervention known to enhance cardiovascular health. AMP activated protein kinase (AMPK has been suggested to mediate the cardioprotective effects of CR. However, this hypothesis remains to be tested by using definitive loss-of-function animal models. In the present study, we subjected AMPKα2 knockout (KO mice and their wild type (WT littermates to a CR regimen that reduces caloric intake by 20%-40% for 4 weeks. CR decreased body weight, heart weight and serum levels of insulin in both WT and KO mice to the same degree, indicating the effectiveness of the CR protocol. CR activated cardiac AMPK signaling in WT mice, but not in AMPKα2 KO mice. Correspondingly, AMPKα2 KO mice had markedly reduced cardiac function during CR as determined by echocardiography and hemodynamic measurements. The compromised cardiac function was associated with increased markers of oxidative stress, endoplasmic reticulum stress and myocyte apoptosis. Mechanistically, CR down-regulated the expression of ATP5g2, a subunit of mitochondrial ATP synthase, and reduced ATP content in AMPKα2 KO hearts, but not in WT hearts. In addition, CR accelerated cardiac autophagic flux in WT mice, but failed to do so in AMPKα2 KO mice. These results demonstrated that without AMPK, CR triggers adverse effects that can lead to cardiac dysfunction, suggesting that AMPK signaling pathway is indispensible for energy homeostasis and myocardial adaptation to CR, a dietary intervention that normally produces beneficial cardiac effects.

  2. Transferencia de calor en la colada continua de aceros. I parte. El molde

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cicutti, C.

    1997-10-01

    Full Text Available The continuous casting mold plays the important role of receiving the liquid steel and allowing an uniform and defect free solidified skin to be developed. In this work, the different heat transfer mechanisms which are present from the liquid steel to the mold cooling water are reviewed. The effect of operating variables on heat extraction and the relationship between global and distributed heat flux are also analyzed.

    El molde de colada continua cumple la importante función de recibir el acero líquido y permitir que se desarrolle una capa solidificada uniforme y libre de defectos. En este trabajo se revisan los distintos mecanismos implicados en el proceso de transferencia de calor, desde el acero líquido hasta el agua de refrigeración del molde. Se analiza también el efecto de las distintas variables de funcionamiento en la extracción calórica producida y la relación entre el flujo global de calor y su distribución a lo largo del molde.

  3. The calorically restricted ketogenic diet, an effective alternative therapy for malignant brain cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhou Weihua

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Malignant brain cancer persists as a major disease of morbidity and mortality in adults and is the second leading cause of cancer death in children. Many current therapies for malignant brain tumors fail to provide long-term management because they ineffectively target tumor cells while negatively impacting the health and vitality of normal brain cells. In contrast to brain tumor cells, which lack metabolic flexibility and are largely dependent on glucose for growth and survival, normal brain cells can metabolize both glucose and ketone bodies for energy. This study evaluated the efficacy of KetoCal®, a new nutritionally balanced high fat/low carbohydrate ketogenic diet for children with epilepsy, on the growth and vascularity of a malignant mouse astrocytoma (CT-2A and a human malignant glioma (U87-MG. Methods Adult mice were implanted orthotopically with the malignant brain tumors and KetoCal® was administered to the mice in either unrestricted amounts or in restricted amounts to reduce total caloric intake according to the manufacturers recommendation for children with refractory epilepsy. The effects KetoCal® on tumor growth, vascularity, and mouse survival were compared with that of an unrestricted high carbohydrate standard diet. Results KetoCal® administered in restricted amounts significantly decreased the intracerebral growth of the CT-2A and U87-MG tumors by about 65% and 35%, respectively, and significantly enhanced health and survival relative to that of the control groups receiving the standard low fat/high carbohydrate diet. The restricted KetoCal® diet reduced plasma glucose levels while elevating plasma ketone body (β-hydroxybutyrate levels. Tumor microvessel density was less in the calorically restricted KetoCal® groups than in the calorically unrestricted control groups. Moreover, gene expression for the mitochondrial enzymes, β-hydroxybutyrate dehydrogenase and succinyl-CoA: 3-ketoacid Co

  4. The calorically restricted ketogenic diet, an effective alternative therapy for malignant brain cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Weihua; Mukherjee, Purna; Kiebish, Michael A; Markis, William T; Mantis, John G; Seyfried, Thomas N

    2007-02-21

    Malignant brain cancer persists as a major disease of morbidity and mortality in adults and is the second leading cause of cancer death in children. Many current therapies for malignant brain tumors fail to provide long-term management because they ineffectively target tumor cells while negatively impacting the health and vitality of normal brain cells. In contrast to brain tumor cells, which lack metabolic flexibility and are largely dependent on glucose for growth and survival, normal brain cells can metabolize both glucose and ketone bodies for energy. This study evaluated the efficacy of KetoCal, a new nutritionally balanced high fat/low carbohydrate ketogenic diet for children with epilepsy, on the growth and vascularity of a malignant mouse astrocytoma (CT-2A) and a human malignant glioma (U87-MG). Adult mice were implanted orthotopically with the malignant brain tumors and KetoCal was administered to the mice in either unrestricted amounts or in restricted amounts to reduce total caloric intake according to the manufacturers recommendation for children with refractory epilepsy. The effects KetoCal on tumor growth, vascularity, and mouse survival were compared with that of an unrestricted high carbohydrate standard diet. KetoCal administered in restricted amounts significantly decreased the intracerebral growth of the CT-2A and U87-MG tumors by about 65% and 35%, respectively, and significantly enhanced health and survival relative to that of the control groups receiving the standard low fat/high carbohydrate diet. The restricted KetoCal diet reduced plasma glucose levels while elevating plasma ketone body (beta-hydroxybutyrate) levels. Tumor microvessel density was less in the calorically restricted KetoCal groups than in the calorically unrestricted control groups. Moreover, gene expression for the mitochondrial enzymes, beta-hydroxybutyrate dehydrogenase and succinyl-CoA: 3-ketoacid CoA transferase, was lower in the tumors than in the contralateral normal

  5. General and persistent effects of high-intensity sweeteners on body weight gain and caloric compensation in rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swithers, Susan E.; Baker, Chelsea R.; Davidson, T.L.

    2009-01-01

    In four experiments, we assessed the generality of previous findings (Swithers & Davidson, 2008) that increased caloric intake, body weight gain, and reduced caloric compensation are exhibited by rats that consume a diet containing a nonnutritive, high intensity sweetener. In this earlier work, rats consumed a diet in which saccharin was mixed in low-fat yogurt, and animals were provided with a fixed amount of the yogurt. The present experiments showed that the effects of saccharin on energy intake and body weight gain are also obtained when rats were given Acesulfame Potassium (AceK), a nonnutritive high intensity sweetener that is chemically distinct from saccharin. Increased energy intake and body weight gain and impaired caloric compensation were also obtained with a saccharin-sweetened base diet (refried beans) that was calorically similar, but nutritionally distinct from low-fat yogurt. The present studies also extended earlier findings by showing that body weight differences persist after saccharin-sweetened diets are discontinued and following a shift to a diet sweetened with glucose. In addition, rats first exposed to a diet sweetened with glucose still gain additional weight when subsequently exposed to a saccharin sweetened diet. The effect of saccharin on caloric compensation was more complex in that it appeared to depend on the type of diet (yogurt or beans) in which saccharin was consumed prior to testing. The results of these experiments add support to the hypothesis that exposure to weak or non-predictive relationships between sweet tastes and caloric consequences may lead to positive energy balance. PMID:19634935

  6. Transferencia de calor en el secado solar a la intemperie de menas lateríticas ferroniquelíferas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoalbys Retirado-Mediaceja

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available En Moa, las menas lateríticas son sometidas a secado solar a la intemperie para reducirles el contenido de humedad antes de incorporarlas al proceso de secado térmico convencional. Este artículo evalúa los procesos de transferencia de calor fundamentales que tienen lugar durante el secado natural con el propósito de determinar el modo predominante de transferencia de calor. En dos pilas de menas lateríticas expuestas a secado solar natural se midieron las variables climatológicas y termodinámicas que influyen en la transferencia de calor por convección y radiación durante el secado y se calcularon, además, los criterios adimensionales para determinar el tipo predominante de convección. Se comprobó que durante el secado solar a la intemperie predomina la convección y que en las condiciones de experimentación analizadas la radiación tuvo una incidencia secundaria. Los resultados evidenciaron que el calor se transfiere por convección libre, forzada y mixta, predominando la forzada, para la cual los coeficientes de transferencia de calor mínimos y máximos mostraron pequeñas variaciones entre ambas pilas. Los flujos de calor por convección promedios fueron 978,74 y 1 156,58 W/m2 , mientras que los flujos por radiación ascendieron a 324,71 y 355,36 W/m2 para las pilas #1 y #2, respectivamente.

  7. Overeat today, skip the scale tomorrow: An examination of caloric intake predicting nonadherence to daily self-weighing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanenbaum, Molly L; Ross, Kathryn M; Wing, Rena R

    2016-11-01

    Daily self-weighing is an effective weight loss strategy. Little is known about "micro" factors influencing nonadherence to self-weighing (e.g., daily overeating). It was hypothesized that increased caloric intake on a given day would increase odds of not self-weighing the following day. Daily self-reports of weight and caloric intake were collected from 74 adults with overweight and obesity (mean BMI = 31.2 ± 4.5 kg/m2 , age = 50.6 ± 10 years, 69% female, 87% Caucasian) throughout a 12-week Internet-based weight management intervention. Multilevel logistic regression investigated odds of nonadherence to self-weighing on a given day based on the previous day's caloric intake. Self-monitoring adherence was high (weights: 87%; calories: 85%); adherence was associated with greater 12-week weight loss (weighing: r = -0.24, P = 0.04; calories: r = -0.26, P = 0.04). Increased caloric intake on a given day, relative to the individual's average intake, was associated with increased odds of nonadherence to self-weighing the next day (F(1,5106)  = 12.66, P = 0.0004, β = 0.001). For example, following a day of eating 300 calories more than usual, odds of not self-weighing increased by 1.33. Odds of nonadherence to self-weighing increased following a day with higher-than-usual caloric intake. Weight management interventions collecting daily self-monitoring data could provide support to participants who report increased caloric intake to prevent self-weighing nonadherence. © 2016 The Obesity Society.

  8. Photoacoustic and Colorimetric Visualization of Latent Fingerprints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Kai; Huang, Peng; Yi, Chenglin; Ning, Bo; Hu, Song; Nie, Liming; Chen, Xiaoyuan; Nie, Zhihong

    2015-12-22

    There is a high demand on a simple, rapid, accurate, user-friendly, cost-effective, and nondestructive universal method for latent fingerprint (LFP) detection. Herein, we describe a combination imaging strategy for LFP visualization with high resolution using poly(styrene-alt-maleic anhydride)-b-polystyrene (PSMA-b-PS) functionalized gold nanoparticles (GNPs). This general approach integrates the merits of both colorimetric imaging and photoacoustic imaging. In comparison with the previous methods, our strategy is single-step and does not require the signal amplification by silver staining. The PSMA-b-PS functionalized GNPs have good stability, tunable color, and high affinity for universal secretions (proteins/polypeptides/amino acids), which makes our approach general and flexible for visualizing LFPs on different substrates (presumably with different colors) and from different people. Moreover, the unique optical property of GNPs enables the photoacoustic imaging of GNPs-deposited LFPs with high resolution. This allows observation of level 3 hyperfine features of LFPs such as the pores and ridge contours by photoacoustic imaging. This technique can potentially be used to identify chemicals within LFP residues. We believe that this dual-modality imaging of LFPs will find widespread use in forensic investigations and medical diagnostics.

  9. Predicting Component Failures Using Latent Dirichlet Allocation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hailin Liu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Latent Dirichlet Allocation (LDA is a statistical topic model that has been widely used to abstract semantic information from software source code. Failure refers to an observable error in the program behavior. This work investigates whether semantic information and failures recorded in the history can be used to predict component failures. We use LDA to abstract topics from source code and a new metric (topic failure density is proposed by mapping failures to these topics. Exploring the basic information of topics from neighboring versions of a system, we obtain a similarity matrix. Multiply the Topic Failure Density (TFD by the similarity matrix to get the TFD of the next version. The prediction results achieve an average 77.8% agreement with the real failures by considering the top 3 and last 3 components descending ordered by the number of failures. We use the Spearman coefficient to measure the statistical correlation between the actual and estimated failure rate. The validation results range from 0.5342 to 0.8337 which beats the similar method. It suggests that our predictor based on similarity of topics does a fine job of component failure prediction.

  10. Predictive properties of the video head impulse test: measures of caloric symmetry and self-report dizziness handicap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCaslin, Devin L; Jacobson, Gary P; Bennett, Marc L; Gruenwald, Jill M; Green, Andrea P

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to determine whether a predictable relationship existed between self-reported dizziness handicap and video Head Impulse Test (vHIT) results in a large sample of patients reporting to a dizziness clinic. Secondary objectives included describing the characteristics of the vHIT ipsilesional and contralesional vestibulo-ocular reflex slow-phase velocity in patients with varying levels of canal paresis. Finally, the authors calculated the sensitivity and specificity of the vHIT for detecting horizontal semicircular canal impairment using the caloric test as the "gold standard." Participants were 115 adults presenting to a tertiary medical care center with symptoms of dizziness. Participants were administered a measure of self-report dizziness handicap (i.e., Dizziness Handicap Inventory) and underwent caloric testing and vHIT at the same appointment. Results showed that (1) there were no significant group differences (i.e., vHIT normal versus vHIT abnormal) in the Dizziness Handicap Inventory total score, (2) both ipsilesional and contralateral velocity gain decreased with increases in caloric paresis, and (3) a caloric asymmetry of 39.5% was determined to be the cutoff that maximized discrimination of vHIT outcome. The level of self-reported dizziness handicap is not predicted by the outcome of the vHIT, which is consistent with the majority of published reports describing the poor relationship between quantitative tests of vestibular function and dizziness handicap. Further, the study findings have demonstrated that vHIT and caloric data are not redundant, and each test provides unique information regarding the functional integrity of the horizontal semicircular canal at different points on the frequency spectrum. The vHIT does offer some advantages over caloric testing, but at the expense of sensitivity. The vHIT can be completed in less time, is not noxious to the patient, and requires very little laboratory space. However, the

  11. Inferior vestibular neuritis: 3 cases with clinical features of acute vestibular neuritis, normal calorics but indications of saccular failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Økstad Siri

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Vestibular neuritis (VN is commonly diagnosed by demonstration of unilateral vestibular failure, as unilateral loss of caloric response. As this test reflects the function of the superior part of the vestibular nerve only, cases of pure inferior nerve neuritis will be lost. Case presentations We describe three patients with symptoms suggestive of VN, but normal calorics. All 3 had unilateral loss of vestibular evoked myogenic potential. A slight, asymptomatic position dependent nystagmus, with the pathological ear down, was observed. Conclusion We believe that these patients suffer from pure inferior nerve vestibular neuritis.

  12. Addressing the policy cacophony does not require more evidence: an argument for reframing obesity as caloric overconsumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelley, Jacob J

    2012-11-30

    Numerous policies have been proposed to address the public health problem of obesity, resulting in a policy cacophony. The noise of so many policy options renders it difficult for policymakers to determine which policies warrant implementation. This has resulted in calls for more and better evidence to support obesity policy. However, it is not clear that evidence is the solution. This paper argues that to address the policy cacophony it is necessary to rethink the problem of obesity, and more specifically, how the problem of obesity is framed. This paper argues that the frame "obesity" be replaced by the frame "caloric overconsumption", concluding that the frame caloric overconsumption can overcome the obesity policy cacophony. Frames are important because they influence public policy. Understood as packages that define issues, frames influence how best to approach a problem. Consequently, debates over public policy are considered battles over framing, with small shifts in how an issue is framed resulting in significant changes to the policy environment. This paper presents a rationale for reframing the problem of obesity as caloric overconsumption. The frame "obesity" contributes to the policy cacophony by including policies aimed at both energy output and energy input. However, research increasingly demonstrates that energy input is the primary cause of obesity, and that increases in energy input are largely attributable to the food environment. By focusing on policies that aim to prevent increases in energy input, the frame caloric overconsumption will reduce the noise of the obesity policy cacophony. While the proposed frame will face some challenges, particularly industry opposition, policies aimed at preventing caloric overconsumption have a clearer focus, and can be more politically palatable if caloric overconsumption is seen as an involuntary risk resulting from the food environment. The paper concludes that policymakers will be able to make better sense

  13. Addressing the policy cacophony does not require more evidence: an argument for reframing obesity as caloric overconsumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shelley Jacob J

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Numerous policies have been proposed to address the public health problem of obesity, resulting in a policy cacophony. The noise of so many policy options renders it difficult for policymakers to determine which policies warrant implementation. This has resulted in calls for more and better evidence to support obesity policy. However, it is not clear that evidence is the solution. This paper argues that to address the policy cacophony it is necessary to rethink the problem of obesity, and more specifically, how the problem of obesity is framed. This paper argues that the frame “obesity” be replaced by the frame “caloric overconsumption”, concluding that the frame caloric overconsumption can overcome the obesity policy cacophony. Discussion Frames are important because they influence public policy. Understood as packages that define issues, frames influence how best to approach a problem. Consequently, debates over public policy are considered battles over framing, with small shifts in how an issue is framed resulting in significant changes to the policy environment. This paper presents a rationale for reframing the problem of obesity as caloric overconsumption. The frame “obesity” contributes to the policy cacophony by including policies aimed at both energy output and energy input. However, research increasingly demonstrates that energy input is the primary cause of obesity, and that increases in energy input are largely attributable to the food environment. By focusing on policies that aim to prevent increases in energy input, the frame caloric overconsumption will reduce the noise of the obesity policy cacophony. While the proposed frame will face some challenges, particularly industry opposition, policies aimed at preventing caloric overconsumption have a clearer focus, and can be more politically palatable if caloric overconsumption is seen as an involuntary risk resulting from the food environment. Summary

  14. Transferencia de calor en el secado solar a la intemperie de menas lateríticas ferroniquelíferas

    OpenAIRE

    Yoalbys Retirado-Mediaceja; Marbelis Lamorú-Urgelles; Ever Góngora-Leyva; Enrique Torres-Tamayo; Benigno Leyva-de la Cruz; Daynelis García-Batista

    2011-01-01

    En Moa, las menas lateríticas son sometidas a secado solar a la intemperie para reducirles el contenido de humedad antes de incorporarlas al proceso de secado térmico convencional. Este artículo evalúa los procesos de transferencia de calor fundamentales que tienen lugar durante el secado natural con el propósito de determinar el modo predominante de transferencia de calor. En dos pilas de menas lateríticas expuestas a secado solar natural se midieron las variables climatológicas y termodinám...

  15. Habilidades motoras de cadeirantes influenciadas pelo controle de tronco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Luísa Castelo Branco Gomes

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi analisar a efetividade de um protocolo de treinamento de estabilização segmentar lombar (ESL no controle de tronco e nas habilidades em cadeira de rodas (CR em indivíduos paraplégicos. A amostra foi composta por 5 homens (31,2±12,9 anos com lesão medular abaixo de T6. O deslocamento total (DT e as amplitudes ântero-posterior (AP e médio-lateral (ML do centro de pressão (CP foram analisados por meio de uma plataforma de força, em duas posições de teste (mãos no joelho e braços cruzados e as habilidades na cadeira de rodas foram analisadas pelo Wheelchair Skills Test (WST, pré e pós protocolo de treinamento de ESL. A análise estatística foi realizada no software SPSS (15.0, utilizando o teste ANOVA para α ≤ 0,05. Na comparação pré e pós-treino, houve redução significativa do deslocamento total do CP na posição sentada com mãos nos joelhos (P<0,01 e braços cruzados (P<0,01. Não se observou mudança nas habilidades com CR do WST entre as avaliações pré e pós treinamento em nenhum dos níveis estudados. O protocolo de treinamento de ESL proposto foi efetivo para a melhora do controle de tronco, mas não modificou as habilidades no manejo de cadeira de rodas em indivíduos paraplégicos.

  16. Latent Work and Latent Heat of the Liquid/Vapor Transformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-08-01

    vapor under pressure or in differential form dM1(t) dt + dM2 (t) dt = 0 . (7) We define the latent heat of condensation Lx (t) in the process “x” by the...as (η1 − η2) dM1 dt + ∑ I MI dηI dt = 1 T dQ dt . (40) 10 The variable dM2 /dt can be eliminated between Eqs. 34 and 35 to read ∑ I MI ρ2I dρI dt + ( 1

  17. A Non-Gaussian Spatial Generalized Linear Latent Variable Model

    KAUST Repository

    Irincheeva, Irina

    2012-08-03

    We consider a spatial generalized linear latent variable model with and without normality distributional assumption on the latent variables. When the latent variables are assumed to be multivariate normal, we apply a Laplace approximation. To relax the assumption of marginal normality in favor of a mixture of normals, we construct a multivariate density with Gaussian spatial dependence and given multivariate margins. We use the pairwise likelihood to estimate the corresponding spatial generalized linear latent variable model. The properties of the resulting estimators are explored by simulations. In the analysis of an air pollution data set the proposed methodology uncovers weather conditions to be a more important source of variability than air pollution in explaining all the causes of non-accidental mortality excluding accidents. © 2012 International Biometric Society.

  18. Classification criteria of syndromes by latent variable models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Janne

    2010-01-01

    displaying isolated peripheral lipoatrophy and another displaying both peripheral lipoatrophy and central lipohypertrophy. When patient characteristics were included the results indicated that smoking status is an essential variable in explaining why some patients do not get the central lipohypertrophy part...... of the syndrome. Thus, the results suggested that peripheral lipoatrophy and central lipohypertophy are interrelated phenotypes rather than two independent phenotypes. Part 2: Latent class regression relates explanatory variables to latent classes. In this model no measure of the latent class variable is obtained...... are shown to be superior depending on whether the latent variable is a dependent or an independent variable. Both these types of scores are extended to the situation of differential item functioning. Analytically I have showed that the scores result in consistent estimates when used properly in subsequent...

  19. A developmental study of latent absolute pitch memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakubowski, Kelly; Müllensiefen, Daniel; Stewart, Lauren

    2017-03-01

    The ability to recall the absolute pitch level of familiar music (latent absolute pitch memory) is widespread in adults, in contrast to the rare ability to label single pitches without a reference tone (overt absolute pitch memory). The present research investigated the developmental profile of latent absolute pitch (AP) memory and explored individual differences related to this ability. In two experiments, 288 children from 4 to12 years of age performed significantly above chance at recognizing the absolute pitch level of familiar melodies. No age-related improvement or decline, nor effects of musical training, gender, or familiarity with the stimuli were found in regard to latent AP task performance. These findings suggest that latent AP memory is a stable ability that is developed from as early as age 4 and persists into adulthood.

  20. Understanding the sufficiency of information for latent fingerprint value determinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulery, Bradford T; Hicklin, R Austin; Kiebuzinski, George I; Roberts, Maria Antonia; Buscaglia, Joann

    2013-07-10

    A latent print examiner's assessment of the value, or suitability, of a latent impression is the process of determining whether the impression has sufficient information to make a comparison. A "no value" determination preemptively states that no individualization or exclusion determination could be made using the impression, regardless of quality of the comparison prints. Factors contributing to a value determination include clarity and the types, quantity, and relationships of features. These assessments are made subjectively by individual examiners and may vary among examiners. We modeled the relationships between value determinations and feature annotations made by 21 certified latent print examiners on 1850 latent impressions. Minutia count was strongly associated with value determinations. None of the models resulted in a stronger intraexaminer association with "value for individualization" determinations than minutia count alone. The association between examiner annotation and value determinations is greatly limited by the lack of reproducibility of both annotation and value determinations. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  1. Localized Dictionaries Based Orientation Field Estimation for Latent Fingerprints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao Yang; Jianjiang Feng; Jie Zhou

    2014-05-01

    Dictionary based orientation field estimation approach has shown promising performance for latent fingerprints. In this paper, we seek to exploit stronger prior knowledge of fingerprints in order to further improve the performance. Realizing that ridge orientations at different locations of fingerprints have different characteristics, we propose a localized dictionaries-based orientation field estimation algorithm, in which noisy orientation patch at a location output by a local estimation approach is replaced by real orientation patch in the local dictionary at the same location. The precondition of applying localized dictionaries is that the pose of the latent fingerprint needs to be estimated. We propose a Hough transform-based fingerprint pose estimation algorithm, in which the predictions about fingerprint pose made by all orientation patches in the latent fingerprint are accumulated. Experimental results on challenging latent fingerprint datasets show the proposed method outperforms previous ones markedly.

  2. A solar air collector with integrated latent heat thermal storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charvat, Pavel; Ostry, Milan; Mauder, Tomas; Klimes, Lubomir

    2012-04-01

    Simulations of the behaviour of a solar air collector with integrated latent heat thermal storage were performed. The model of the collector was created with the use of coupling between TRNSYS 17 and MATLAB. Latent heat storage (Phase Change Material - PCM) was integrated with the solar absorber. The model of the latent heat storage absorber was created in MATLAB and the model of the solar air collector itself was created in TRNSYS with the use of TYPE 56. The model of the latent heat storage absorber allows specification of the PCM properties as well as other parameters. The simulated air collector was the front and back pass collector with the absorber in the middle of the air cavity. Two variants were considered for comparison; the light-weight absorber made of sheet metal and the heat-storage absorber with the PCM. Simulations were performed for the climatic conditions of the Czech Republic (using TMY weather data).

  3. Latent tuberculosis infection in health care workers: review article

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davood Mansury

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The members of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC known as causative agents of human tuberculosis. Tuberculosis infection is one of the most important occupational risks for healthcare workers (HCWs in most countries, such as Iran. In general, there are two types of tuberculosis, they include: latent infection and active TB. Latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI means: a patient is infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis but, the patient does not have active tuberculosis, clinical symptoms and radiological findings. According to studies, TB infection from patients to health care workers, depending on geographic region and economic situation is two to five times more than general population. The lowest incidence and the highest rates of LTBI prevalence among HCWs were 7% in Mashhad and 82.8% in Zahedan respectively. The risk factor acquisition of TB infection was a significant relationship with certain hospital wards (lung disease unit, laboratory, etc., Increasing age and duration of employment. And results of this study show that TB is a significant problem among HCWs in Iran. Infection control and personal protective measures with training programs to patients and HCW is required to reduce the occupational risk of TB. Early detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and prevention treatment in people with latent TB are key elements in control of tuberculosis. Until now, different methods for detection of latent tuberculosis infection has been introduced that are not gold standard none of them. However, the most important methods, tuberculin skin test and the tests that based on measuring the production of interferon gamma are recommended, but each one of them has advantages and disadvantages. However, in all the articles of the tuberculin skin test is used for screening and early diagnosis of latent tuberculosis infection. So, the aim of this study was to Incidence and prevalence of latent tuberculosis infection in health care workers and

  4. Latent-failure risk estimates for computer control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, William R.; Folsom, Rolfe A.; Green, Owen R.

    1991-01-01

    It is shown that critical computer controls employing unmonitored safety circuits are unsafe. Analysis supporting this result leads to two additional, important conclusions: (1) annual maintenance checks of safety circuit function do not, as widely believed, eliminate latent failure risk; (2) safety risk remains even if multiple, series-connected protection circuits are employed. Finally, it is shown analytically that latent failure risk is eliminated when continuous monitoring is employed.

  5. One-Year Behavioral Treatment of Obesity: Comparison of Moderate and Severe Caloric Restriction and the Effects of Weight Maintenance Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wadden, Thomas A.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Compared weight losses of 49 obese women assigned to 52-week behavioral program combined with moderate or severe caloric restriction. Those in severe caloric restriction group lost significantly more weight during first 26 weeks but regained some weight. Reports of binge eating declined in both groups, and no relationship was observed between…

  6. Caloric Intake from Fast Food among Children and Adolescents in the United States, 2011-2012. NCHS Data Brief. Number 213

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vikraman, Sundeep; Fryar, Cheryl D.; Ogden, Cynthia L.

    2015-01-01

    Consumption of fast food has been linked to weight gain in adults. Fast food has also been associated with higher caloric intake and poorer diet quality in children and adolescents. From 1994 through 2006, caloric intake from fast food increased from 10% to 13% among children aged 2-18 years. This report presents the most recent data on the…

  7. Latent Transition Analysis with a Mixture Item Response Theory Measurement Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Sun-Joo; Cohen, Allan S.; Kim, Seock-Ho; Bottge, Brian

    2010-01-01

    A latent transition analysis (LTA) model was described with a mixture Rasch model (MRM) as the measurement model. Unlike the LTA, which was developed with a latent class measurement model, the LTA-MRM permits within-class variability on the latent variable, making it more useful for measuring treatment effects within latent classes. A simulation…

  8. A Flexible Latent Class Approach to Estimating Test-Score Reliability

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Palm, Daniël W.; van der Ark, L. Andries; Sijtsma, Klaas

    2014-01-01

    The latent class reliability coefficient (LCRC) is improved by using the divisive latent class model instead of the unrestricted latent class model. This results in the divisive latent class reliability coefficient (DLCRC), which unlike LCRC avoids making subjective decisions about the best solution and thus avoids judgment error. A computational…

  9. Mode Choice Model for Public Transport with Categorized Latent Variables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Chen

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Mode choice model for public transport, which integrates structural equation model (SEM and discrete choice model (DCM with categorized latent variables, was presented in this paper. Apart from identifying those important latent variables that affect mode choice for public transport, the objective of this study was also to develop an improved disaggregative model that better explains travel behavior of those decision-makers in choosing public transport. After extensive observations, selective latent variable sets which consist of latent variable components were chosen together with explicit variables in formulating the utility functions. Data collected in Chengdu city, China, were used to calibrate and validate the model. Results showed that the impact of fare on mode choice of public transport escalated in the SEM-DCM integrated model compared with the traditional logit model. The goodness of fit for the integrated model with latent variable sets is 0.201 higher than that of the traditional logit model, which proves that latent variables have an obvious impact on mode choice behavior, and the SEM-DCM integrated model has higher accuracy and stronger explanatory ability. The results are especially helpful for public transport operators to achieve higher mode share split by improving the service quality of public transport in terms of providing more convenience and better service environment for public transport users.

  10. Comparing the context specificity of extinction and latent inhibition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Ralph R; Laborda, Mario A; Polack, Cody W; Miguez, Gonzalo

    2015-12-01

    Exposure to a cue alone either before (i.e., latent inhibition treatment) or after (i.e., extinction) the cue is paired with an unconditioned stimulus results in attenuated conditioned responding to the cue. Here we report two experiments in which potential parallels between the context specificity of the effects of extinction and latent inhibition treatments were directly compared in a lick suppression preparation with rats. The reversed ordering of conditioning and nonreinforcement in extinction and latent inhibition designs allowed us to examine the effect of training order on the context specificity of what is learned given phasic reinforcement and nonreinforcement of a target cue. Experiment 1 revealed that when conditioned-stimulus (CS) conditioning and CS nonreinforcement were administered in the same context, both extinction and latent inhibition treatments had reduced impacts on test performance, relative to excitatory conditioning when testing occurred outside the treatment context. Similarly, Experiment 2 showed that when conditioning was administered in one context and nonreinforcement was administered in a second context, the effects of both extinction and latent inhibition treatments were attenuated when testing occurred in a neutral context, relative to the context in which the CS was nonreinforced. The observed context specificity of extinction and latent inhibition treatments has been previously reported in both cases, but not in a single experiment under otherwise identical conditions. The results of the two experiments convergently suggest that memory of nonreinforcement becomes context dependent after a cue is both reinforced and nonreinforced, independent of the order of training.

  11. Accelerated muscle fatigability of latent myofascial trigger points in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Hong-You; Arendt-Nielsen, Lars; Madeleine, Pascal

    2012-07-01

    Muscle fatigue is prevalent in acute and chronic musculoskeletal pain conditions in which myofascial trigger points (MTPs) are involved. The aim of this study was to investigate the association of latent MTPs with muscle fatigue. Intramuscular electromyographic (EMG) recordings were obtained from latent MTPs and non-MTPs together with surface EMG recordings from the upper trapezius muscles during sustained isometric muscle contractions in 12 healthy subjects. Normalized root mean square (RMS) EMG amplitude and mean power frequency (MNF) were analyzed. The rate of perceived exertion and pain intensity from MTP side and non-MTP side were recorded. Pain intensity on the MTP side was significantly higher than the non-MTP side (P latent MTPs showed an early onset of decrease in MNF and a significant decrease at the end of fatiguing contraction as compared with non-MTPs (P latent MTPs presented with an early onset of the increase in RMS amplitude and the increase was significantly higher than that from non-MTPs at the end of sustained isometric contraction (P latent MTP is associated with an accelerated development of muscle fatigue and simultaneously overloading active motor units close to an MTP. Elimination of latent MTPs and inactivation of active MTPs may effectively reduce accelerated muscle fatigue and prevent overload spreading within a muscle. Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. A two year randomized controlled trial of human caloric restriction: feasibility and effects on predictors of health span and longevity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: Caloric restriction (CR), energy intake reduced below ad libitum (AL) intake, increases life span in many species. The implications for humans can be clarified by randomized controlled trials of CR. Methods: To determine CRs feasibility, safety, and effects on predictors of longevity, di...

  13. Caloric content of leaves of five tree species from the riparian vegetation in a forest fragment from South Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro Fabrício Fiori

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Aim: The measurement of the caloric content evidences the amount of energy that remains in the leaf and that can be released to the aquatic trophic chain. We assessed the energy content of leaves from five riparian tree species of a forest fragment in south Brazil and analyzed whether leaf caloric content varied between leaf species and between seasons (dry and wet. The studied sites are located in Northwest of Paraná State, inside a Semi-Deciduous Forest fragment beside two headwater streams. Methods Sampling sites were located along the riparian vegetation of these two water bodies, and due to its proximity and absence of statistical differences of caloric values, analyzed as one compartment. Results Caloric content varied significantly among species and among all pairs of species, with exception of Nectandra cuspidata Ness and Calophyllum brasiliensis Cambess. Two species presented significant differences between seasons, Sloanea guianensis (Aubl. Ben and Calophyllum brasiliensis Cambess. Conclusions The absence of significant seasonal differences of energy content for some species may be due to the characteristics of the tropical forest, in which temperature did not varied dramatically between seasons. However, the energy differed between species and seasons for some species, emphasizing the necessity of a preliminary inspection of energy content, before tracing energy fluxes instead of using a single value to all species from riparian vegetation.

  14. Short-term caloric restriction normalizes hypothalamic neuronal responsiveness to glucose ingestion in patients with type 2 diabetes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Teeuwisse, W.M.; Widya, R.L.; Paulides, M.; Lamb, H.J.; Smit, J.W.A.; Roos, A. de; Buchem, M.A. van; Pijl, H.; Grond, J. van der

    2012-01-01

    The hypothalamus is critically involved in the regulation of feeding. Previous studies have shown that glucose ingestion inhibits hypothalamic neuronal activity. However, this was not observed in patients with type 2 diabetes. Restoring energy balance by reducing caloric intake and losing weight are

  15. Weight loss in obese men by caloric restriction and high-dose diazoxide-mediated insulin suppression.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boekel, G.A.J van; Loves, S.; Sorge, A van; Ruinemans-Koerts, J.; Rijnders, T.; Boer, H. de

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine the concept whether high-dose diazoxide (DZX)-mediated insulin suppression, in combination with moderate caloric restriction and increased physical activity, can establish a weight loss of at least 15% in obese hyperinsulinaemic men. DESIGN: Open, uncontrolled, 6-month pilot

  16. Caloric Restriction in Lean and Obese Strains of Laboratory Rat: Effects on Body Composition, Metabolism, Growth, and Overall Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    NEW FINDINGS: What is the central question of this study? How do lean and obese rats respond physiologically to caloric restriction? What is the main finding and its importance? Obese rats show marked benefits compared with lean animals. Reduced body fat is associated with improv...

  17. Comparison of Vestibular Evoked Myogenic Potential and Caloric Tests Findings in Noise Induced Hearing Loss-Affected and Healthy Individuals

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    Farinoosh Fakharnia

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Balance disturbance is one of the non-auditory effects of noisy industrial environments that is usually neglected. The aim of the current study was to investigate the effect of occupational noise on vestibular system among workers with noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL, based on both vestibular evoked myogenic potentials (VEMP and caloric tests.Methods: Thirty male workers with noise-induced hearing loss and thirty male matched controls were examined by VEMP and caloric tests. Study parameters included unilateral weakness, p13 and n23 latencies, and p13-n23 amplitude. Caloric test was performed only for 20 patients.Results: No significant difference was observed in unilateral weakness between the two groups. On the other hand, the difference in mean latencies of p13 in the right ear (p=0.003 and left ear (p=0.01 was significant between the two groups. However, the difference in n23 latency was significant only in the right ear (p=0.03. There was no significant difference between groups in p13-n23 amplitude.Conclusion: It seems that pars inferior of vestibule is the susceptible part in individuals with NIHL. In general, abnormal findings in both VEMP and caloric tests were more common compared to functional symptoms such as vertigo, which may be due to central compensation and the symmetry of the disorder.

  18. The effect of non-caloric sweeteners on cognition, choice, and post-consumption satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Sarah E; Prokosch, Marjorie L; Morin, Amanda; Rodeheffer, Christopher D

    2014-12-01

    Consumers often turn to non-caloric sweeteners (NCS) as a means of promoting a healthy body weight. However, several studies have now linked their long-term use to increased weight gain, raising the question of whether these products produce unintended psychological, physiological, or behavioral changes that have implications for weight management goals. In the following, we present the results of three experiments bearing on this issue, testing whether NCS-consumption influences how individuals think about and respond to food. Participants in each of our three experiments were randomly assigned to consume a sugar-sweetened beverage, an unsweetened beverage, or a beverage sweetened with NCS. We then measured their cognition (Experiment 1), product choice (Experiment 2), and subjective responses to a sugar-sweetened food (Experiment 3). Results revealed that consuming NCS-sweetened beverages influences psychological processes in ways that - over time - may increase calorie intake. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Tunable magneto-caloric effect in Gd1-xTbx heterostructures thin film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, C. H.; El Hadri, M. S.; Hamedoun, M.; Benyoussef, A.; Mounkachi, O.; Mangin, S.

    2017-12-01

    The magnetic and magneto-caloric properties of (Gd1-xTbx) alloy thin films and [Gd/Tb] multilayers have been investigated. All the samples had a total thickness of 100 nm and were deposited by DC sputtering. By changing the composition of the system, the ordering temperature (Tc) and the magnetic entropy changes of the compounds could be tuned. The results show that the Tc of the alloy thin films is close to 270 K for x = 0.2. Moreover, creating [Gd/Tb] multilayers with the same thickness and concentration of the studied Gd80Tb20 alloy film enables to strongly increase the relative cooling power, and reach values twice as big as from the corresponding alloys. These results suggest that nanostructuring of [Gd/Tb] multilayers may be a promising route to tailor the magnetocaloric response of materials.

  20. Assessment of potentially harmful elements pollution in the Calore River basin (Southern Italy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuzolo, Daniela; Cicchella, Domenico; Catani, Vittorio; Giaccio, Lucia; Guagliardi, Ilaria; Esposito, Libera; De Vivo, Benedetto

    2017-06-01

    The geographical distribution of concentration values for harmful elements was determined in the Campania region, Italy. The study area consists of the drainage basin of the River Calore, a tributary of the river Volturno, the largest Southern Italian river. The results provide reliable analytical data allowing a quantitative assessment of the trace element pollution threat to the ecosystem and human health. Altogether 562 stream sediment samples were collected at a sampling density of 1 site per 5 km2. All samples were air-dried, sieved to urban settlements and industrial areas. The enrichment factor of these elements is 3-4 times higher than the background values. The southwestern area of the basin is characterized by a moderate/high degree of contamination, just where the two busiest roads of the area run and the highest concentration of industries occurs.

  1. Effects of Caloric Restriction on Cardiovascular Aging in Non-human Primates and Humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruzen, Christina; Colman, Ricki J.

    2009-01-01

    Synopsis Approximately one in three Americans has some form of cardiovascular disease (CVD), accounting for one of every 2.8 deaths in the United States in 2004. Two of the major risk factors for CVD are advancing age and obesity. An intervention able to positively impact both aging and obesity, such as caloric restriction (CR), may prove extremely useful in the fight against CVD. CR is the only environmental or lifestyle intervention that has repeatedly been shown to increase maximum life span and to retard aging in laboratory rodents. In this article, we review evidence that CR in nonhuman primates and humans has a positive effect on risk factors for CVD. PMID:19944270

  2. Aging and Caloric Restriction Research: A Biological Perspective With Translational Potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priya Balasubramanian

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Aging as a research pursuit is fairly new compared with traditional lines of medical research. A growing field of investigators is focused on understanding how changes in tissue biology, physiology, and systemic homeostasis, conspire to create increased vulnerability to disease as a function of age. Aging research as a discipline is necessarily broad; in part because aging itself is multi-faceted and in part because different model systems are employed to define the underlying biology. In this review we outline aspects of aging research that are likely to uncover the pivotal events leading to age-related disease vulnerability. We focus on studies of human aging and discuss the value of research on caloric restriction, an intervention with proven efficacy in delaying aging. We propose that studies such as these will deliver target factors and processes that create vulnerability in human aging, an advance that would potentially be transformative in clinical care.

  3. Caloric Restriction as a Strategy to Improve Vascular Dysfunction in Metabolic Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Concha F. García-Prieto

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Caloric restriction (CR has proved to be the most effective and reproducible dietary intervention to increase healthy lifespan and aging. A reduction in cardiovascular disease (CVD risk in obese subjects can be already achieved by a moderate and sustainable weight loss. Since pharmacological approaches for body weight reduction have, at present, a poor long-term efficacy, CR is of great interest in the prevention and/or reduction of CVD associated with obesity. Other dietary strategies changing specific macronutrients, such as altering carbohydrates, protein content or diet glycemic index have been also shown to decrease the progression of CVD in obese patients. In this review, we will focus on the positive effects and possible mechanisms of action of these strategies on vascular dysfunction.

  4. Repletion of TNFα or leptin in calorically restricted mice suppresses post-restriction hyperphagia

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    Catherine Hambly

    2012-01-01

    The causes of post-restriction hyperphagia (PRH represent a target for drug-based therapies to prevent obesity. However, the factors causing PRH are poorly understood. We show that, in mice, the extent of PRH was independent of the time under restriction, but depended on its severity, suggesting that PRH was driven by signals from altered body composition. Signals related to fat mass were important drivers. Circulating levels of leptin and TNFα were significantly depleted following caloric restriction (CR. We experimentally repleted their levels to match those of controls, and found that in both treatment groups the level of PRH was significantly blunted. These data establish a role for TNFα and leptin in the non-pathological regulation of energy homeostasis. Signals from adipose tissue, including but not limited to leptin and TNFα, regulate PRH and might be targets for therapies that support people engaged in CR to reduce obesity.

  5. Caloric restriction suppresses apoptotic cell death in the mammalian cochlea and leads to prevention of presbycusis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Someya, Shinichi; Yamasoba, Tatsuya; Weindruch, Richard; Prolla, Tomas A; Tanokura, Masaru

    2007-10-01

    Presbycusis is characterized by an age-related progressive decline of auditory function, and arises mainly from the degeneration of hair cells or spiral ganglion (SG) cells in the cochlea. Here we show that caloric restriction suppresses apoptotic cell death in the mouse cochlea and prevents late onset of presbycusis. Calorie restricted (CR) mice, which maintained body weight at the same level as that of young control (YC) mice, retained normal hearing and showed no cochlear degeneration. CR mice also showed a significant reduction in the number of TUNEL-positive cells and cleaved caspase-3-positive cells relative to middle-age control (MC) mice. Microarray analysis revealed that CR down-regulated the expression of 24 apoptotic genes, including Bak and Bim. Taken together, our findings suggest that loss of critical cells through apoptosis is an important mechanism of presbycusis in mammals, and that CR can retard this process by suppressing apoptosis in the inner ear tissue.

  6. Adiabatic measurements of magneto-caloric effects in pulsed high magnetic fields up to 55 T

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kihara, T.; Kohama, Y.; Hashimoto, Y.; Katsumoto, S.; Tokunaga, M.

    2013-07-01

    Magneto-caloric effects (MCEs) measurement system in adiabatic condition is proposed to investigate the thermodynamic properties in pulsed magnetic fields up to 55 T. With taking the advantage of the fast field-sweep rate in pulsed field, adiabatic measurements of MCEs were carried out at various temperatures. To obtain the prompt response of the thermometer in the pulsed field, a thin film thermometer is grown directly on the sample surfaces. The validity of the present setup was demonstrated in the wide temperature range through the measurements on Gd at about room temperature and on Gd3Ga5O12 at low temperatures. The both results show reasonable agreement with the data reported earlier. By comparing the MCE data with the specific heat data, we could estimate the entropy as functions of magnetic field and temperature. The results demonstrate the possibility that our approach can trace the change in transition temperature caused by the external field.

  7. Repletion of TNFα or leptin in calorically restricted mice suppresses post-restriction hyperphagia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hambly, Catherine; Duncan, Jacqueline S.; Archer, Zoë A.; Moar, Kim M.; Mercer, Julian G.; Speakman, John R.

    2012-01-01

    SUMMARY The causes of post-restriction hyperphagia (PRH) represent a target for drug-based therapies to prevent obesity. However, the factors causing PRH are poorly understood. We show that, in mice, the extent of PRH was independent of the time under restriction, but depended on its severity, suggesting that PRH was driven by signals from altered body composition. Signals related to fat mass were important drivers. Circulating levels of leptin and TNFα were significantly depleted following caloric restriction (CR). We experimentally repleted their levels to match those of controls, and found that in both treatment groups the level of PRH was significantly blunted. These data establish a role for TNFα and leptin in the non-pathological regulation of energy homeostasis. Signals from adipose tissue, including but not limited to leptin and TNFα, regulate PRH and might be targets for therapies that support people engaged in CR to reduce obesity. PMID:21954068

  8. Neuroimaging Biomarkers of Caloric Restriction on Brain Metabolic and Vascular Functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Ai-Ling; Parikh, Ishita; Hoffman, Jared D; Ma, David

    2017-03-01

    Non-invasive neuroimaging methods have been developed as powerful tools for identifying in vivo brain functions for studies in humans and animals. Here we review the imaging biomarkers that are being used to determine the changes within brain metabolic and vascular functions induced by caloric restriction (CR), and their potential usefulness for future studies with dietary interventions in humans. CR causes an early shift in brain metabolism of glucose to ketone bodies, and enhances ATP production, neuronal activity and cerebral blood flow (CBF). With age, CR preserves mitochondrial activity, neurotransmission, CBF, and spatial memory. CR also reduces anxiety in aging mice. Neuroimaging studies in humans show that CR restores abnormal brain activity in the amygdala of women with obesity and enhances brain connectivity in old adults. Neuroimaging methods have excellent translational values and can be widely applied in future studies to identify dietary effects on brain functions in humans.

  9. Acute caloric restriction counteracts hepatic bile acid and cholesterol deficiency in morbid obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straniero, S; Rosqvist, F; Edholm, D; Ahlström, H; Kullberg, J; Sundbom, M; Risérus, U; Rudling, M

    2017-05-01

    Bile acid (BA) synthesis is regulated by BA signalling in the liver and by fibroblast growth factor 19 (FGF19), synthesized and released from the intestine. In morbid obesity, faecal excretion and hepatic synthesis of BAs and cholesterol are strongly induced and caloric restriction reduces their faecal excretion considerably. We hypothesized that the high intestinal food mass in morbidly obese subjects promotes faecal excretion of BAs and cholesterol, thereby creating a shortage of both BAs and cholesterol in the liver. Ten morbidly obese women (BMI 42 ± 2.6 kg m-2 ) were monitored on days 0, 3, 7, 14 and 28 after beginning a low-calorie diet (800-1100 kcal day-1 ). Serum was collected and liver size and fat content determined. Synthesis of BAs and cholesterol was evaluated from serum markers, and the serum levels of lipoproteins, BAs, proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9), insulin, glucose and FGF19 were monitored. Fifty-four nonobese women (BMI cholesterol and serum levels of BAs and PCSK9 were elevated in the obese group compared to controls. Already after 3 days on a low-calorie diet, BA and cholesterol synthesis and serum BA and PCSK9 levels normalized, whereas LDL cholesterol increased. FGF19 and triglyceride levels were unchanged, and liver volume was reduced by 10%. The results suggest that hepatic BAs and cholesterol are deficient in morbid obesity. Caloric restriction rapidly counteracts these deficiencies, normalizing BA and cholesterol synthesis and circulating PCSK9 levels, indicating that overproduction of cholesterol in enlarged peripheral tissues cannot explain this phenotype. We propose that excessive food intake promotes faecal loss of BAs and cholesterol contributing to their hepatic deficiencies. © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Internal Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Association for Publication of The Journal of Internal Medicine.

  10. Cognitive performances are selectively enhanced during chronic caloric restriction or resveratrol supplementation in a primate.

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    Alexandre Dal-Pan

    Full Text Available Effects of an 18-month treatment with a moderate, chronic caloric restriction (CR or an oral supplementation with resveratrol (RSV, a potential CR mimetic, on cognitive and motor performances were studied in non-human primates, grey mouse lemurs (Microcebus murinus.Thirty-three adult male mouse lemurs were assigned to three different groups: a control (CTL group fed ad libitum, a CR group fed 70% of the CTL caloric intake, and an RSV group (RSV supplementation of 200 mg.kg(-1.day(-1 fed ad libitum. Three different cognitive tests, two motor tests, one emotional test and an analysis of cortisol level were performed in each group.Compared to CTL animals, CR or RSV animals did not show any change in motor performances evaluated by rotarod and jump tests, but an increase in spontaneous locomotor activity was observed in both groups. Working memory was improved by both treatments in the spontaneous alternation task. Despite a trend for CR group, only RSV supplementation increased spatial memory performances in the circular platform task. Finally, none of these treatments induced additional stress to the animals as reflected by similar results in the open field test and cortisol analyses compared to CTL animals.The present data provided the earliest evidence for a beneficial effect of CR or RSV supplementation on specific cognitive functions in a primate. Taken together, these results suggest that RSV could be a good candidate to mimic long-term CR effects and support the growing evidences that nutritional interventions can have beneficial effects on brain functions even in adults.

  11. Cognitive Performances Are Selectively Enhanced during Chronic Caloric Restriction or Resveratrol Supplementation in a Primate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchal, Julia; Picq, Jean-Luc; Aujard, Fabienne

    2011-01-01

    Effects of an 18-month treatment with a moderate, chronic caloric restriction (CR) or an oral supplementation with resveratrol (RSV), a potential CR mimetic, on cognitive and motor performances were studied in non-human primates, grey mouse lemurs (Microcebus murinus). Thirty-three adult male mouse lemurs were assigned to three different groups: a control (CTL) group fed ad libitum, a CR group fed 70% of the CTL caloric intake, and an RSV group (RSV supplementation of 200 mg.kg−1.day−1) fed ad libitum. Three different cognitive tests, two motor tests, one emotional test and an analysis of cortisol level were performed in each group. Compared to CTL animals, CR or RSV animals did not show any change in motor performances evaluated by rotarod and jump tests, but an increase in spontaneous locomotor activity was observed in both groups. Working memory was improved by both treatments in the spontaneous alternation task. Despite a trend for CR group, only RSV supplementation increased spatial memory performances in the circular platform task. Finally, none of these treatments induced additional stress to the animals as reflected by similar results in the open field test and cortisol analyses compared to CTL animals. The present data provided the earliest evidence for a beneficial effect of CR or RSV supplementation on specific cognitive functions in a primate. Taken together, these results suggest that RSV could be a good candidate to mimic long-term CR effects and support the growing evidences that nutritional interventions can have beneficial effects on brain functions even in adults. PMID:21304942

  12. Effects of caloric restriction on nitrogen and carbon stable isotope ratios in adult rat bone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Kimberly L; Rowland, Neil E; Krigbaum, John

    2014-10-15

    Stable isotope analysis is a valuable technique for dietary estimation in ecological and archaeological research, yet many variables can potentially affect tissue stable isotope signatures. Controlled feeding studies across a range of species have consistently demonstrated impacts of caloric restriction on tissue stable isotope ratios, but most have focused on juvenile, fasting, and/or starving individuals, and most have utilized soft tissues despite the importance of bone for paleodietary analyses. The goal of this study was to determine whether temporally defined, moderate food restriction could affect stable carbon and/or nitrogen isotope ratios in adult mammalian bone - a tissue that arguably reflects long-term dietary signals. Adult rats fed a standard laboratory diet were restricted to 45% of ad libitum intakes for 3 or 6 months. Relevant anatomical and physiological parameters were measured to confirm that the restriction protocol resulted in significant nutritional stress and to provide independent data to facilitate interpretation of stable isotope ratios. Femoral bone δ(13)Ccollagen, δ(15)Ncollagen, and δ(13)Capatite values were determined by isotope ratio mass spectrometry. Calorie-restricted animals exhibited a small, yet significant enrichment in (15)Ncollagen compared with control animals, reflecting protein-calorie stress. While the δ(13)Ccollagen values did not differ, the δ(13)Capatite values revealed less enrichment in (13)C than in controls, reflecting catabolism of body fat. Independent anatomical and physiological data from these same individuals support these interpretations. Results indicate that moderate caloric restriction does not appreciably undermine broad interpretations of dietary signals in adult mammalian bone. Significant variability among individuals or groups, however, is best explained by marked differences in energy intake over variable timescales. An inverse relationship between the δ(13)Capatite and δ(15)Ncollagen

  13. Caloric intake during the perioperative period and growth failure in infants with congenital heart disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholson, George T; Clabby, Martha L; Kanter, Kirk R; Mahle, William T

    2013-02-01

    Infants with congenital heart disease have impaired weight gain during the first several months of life. Efforts have focused on improving weight gain and nutritional status during the first months of life. Close examination of the data suggests that the immediate postoperative period is problematic. Etiology of this early growth failure should be identified to develop effective interventions. This is a retrospective study of neonates who underwent modified systemic-to-pulmonary artery shunt, including Norwood palliation, at Children's Healthcare of Atlanta between January 2009 and July 2011. We analyzed growth from time of surgical intervention to hospital discharge. Measures of calculated weight-for-age Z-score (WAZ score) were performed using the World Health Organization's Anthro Software (version 3.2.2, January 2011; WHO, Geneva, Switzerland). Seventy-three patients were identified. Eight patients did not meet inclusion criteria. Complete data were collected on the remaining 65 patients. Median caloric intake patients received was 50.4 [interquartile range (IQR) 41.6 to 63.6] calories/kg/day while exclusively on parental nutrition. At hospital discharge, the median WAZ score was -2.0 (IQR -2.7 to -1.2) representing an overall median WAZ score decrease of -1.3 (IQR -1.7 to -0.7) from time of shunt palliation to hospital discharge. Despite studies showing poor weight gain in infants with congenital heart disease after neonatal palliation, this study reports the impact of hospital-based nutritional practices on weight gain in infants during the immediate postoperative period. Our data demonstrate that actual caloric intake during the cardiac intensive care unit stay is substantially below what is recommended.

  14. Effects of caloric restriction and overnight fasting on cycling endurance performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Lisa M; Rossi, Kelly A; Ward, Emily; Jadwin, Emily; Miller, Todd A; Miller, Wayne C

    2009-03-01

    In addition to aerobic endurance and anaerobic capacity, high power-to-weight ratio (PWR) is important for cycling performance. Cyclists often try to lose weight before race season to improve body composition and optimize PWR. Research has demonstrated body fat-reducing benefits of exercise after fasting overnight. We hypothesized that fasted-state exercise in calorie-restricted trained cyclists would not result in performance decrements and that their PWR would improve significantly. We also hypothesized that substrate use during fasted-state submaximal endurance cycling would shift to greater reliance on fat. Ten trained, competitive cyclists completed a protocol consisting of baseline testing, 3 weeks of caloric restriction (CR), and post-CR testing. The testing sessions measured pre- and post-CR values for resting metabolic rate (RMR), body composition, VO2, PWR and power-to-lean weight ratio (PLWR), and power output, as well as 2-hour submaximal cycling performance, rating of perceived exertion (RPE), and respiratory exchange ratio (RER). There were no significant differences between baseline and post-CR for submaximal trial RER, power output, VO2, RMR, VO2max, or workload at VO2max. However, RPE was significantly lower, and PWR was significantly higher post-CR, whereas RER did not change. The cyclists' PWR and body composition improved significantly, and their overall weight, fat weight, and body fat percentage decreased. Lean mass was maintained. The cyclists' RPE decreased significantly during 2 hours of submaximal cycling post-CR, and there was no decrement in submaximal or maximal cycling performance after 3 weeks of CR combined with overnight fasting. Caloric restriction (up to 40% for 3 weeks) and exercising after fasting overnight can improve a cyclist's PWR without compromising endurance cycling performance.

  15. Micromorfologia de pelos aristiformes de roedores das Famílias Cricetidae e Echimyidae (Mammalia, Rodentia)

    OpenAIRE

    Duarte, Tarcísio de Souza

    2013-01-01

    A tricotaxonomia é ramo da ciência que utiliza os padrões micromorfológicos dos pelos aplicados na identificação de espécies. Tal técnica tem sido muito útil no levantamentos de fauna, estudos de ecologia alimentar, análises forenses, entre outros. Dentre os diversos tipos de pelos, os chamados aristiformes são típicos de roedores das famílias Echimyidae, Cricetidae, Heteromyidae e Erethizonthidae. Este tipo de pelo é pouco estudado,limitando-se a alguns trabalhos com microscopia eletrônica d...

  16. Low-versus high-glycemic index diets in women: effects on caloric requirement, substrate utilization and insulin sensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clapp, James F; Lopez, Beth

    2007-09-01

    Lowering dietary glycemic index appears to have positive health effects in obese and/or insulin resistant individuals. However, detailed studies in lean young men show no effect. This study was designed to test the null hypothesis that a diet rich in low-glycemic carbohydrate has no effect on lipid profile, caloric requirements, fat oxidation, or insulin sensitivity in adult women when compared to one rich in high-glycemic carbohydrate. The metabolic feeding protocol used was conducted in both a free-living and in-patient setting using a randomized crossover design. Seven women were studied on each of 2 diets in which 60% of the calories were from either high- or low-glycemic carbohydrate sources. Each diet lasted 20 days with measurements of caloric requirement, resting metabolic rate, glucose and insulin responses to diet and activity, insulin sensitivity, and lipid profile over the last 7 days. Caloric requirement was determined by bomb calorimetry. Other techniques included indirect calorimetry, hydrodensitometry, stable isotope tracers, and the euglycemic clamp. On the low-glycemic index diet the women's caloric requirements were 11% +/- 1% higher, fat oxidation at fasted rest supplied an average of 45% +/- 4% versus 28% +/- 5% of oxidative requirements, average glucose and insulin levels were approximately 40% lower, low density lipoproteins (LDL) and leptin concentrations were lower, and various indices of insulin sensitivity were > 20% higher. In this group of adult women, a diet that lowered glycemic index well below that typically found in western diets increased both daily caloric requirement and fat oxidation, decreased insulin and glucose concentrations and increased insulin sensitivity.

  17. Latent Virus Reactivation: From Space to Earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Satish K.; Cohrs, Randall J.; Gilden, Donald H.; Tyring, Stephen K.; Castro, Victoria A.; Ott, C. Mark; Pierson, Duane L.

    2010-01-01

    Reactivation of latent viruses is a recognized consequence of decreased immunity. More recently viral reactivation has been identified as an important in vivo indicator of clinically relevant immune changes. Viral reactivation can be determined quickly and easily by the presence of virus in saliva and other body fluids. Real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is a highly sensitive and specific molecular method to detect the presence of specific viral DNA. Studies in astronauts demonstrated that herpes simplex virus type 1(HSV-1), Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV), cytomegalovirus (CMV), and varicella zoster virus (VZV) reactivate at rates above normal during and after spaceflight in response to moderately decreased T-cell immunity. This technology was expanded to patients on Earth beginning with human immune deficiency virus (HIV) immuno-compromised patients. The HIV patients shed EBV in saliva at rates 9-fold higher than observed in astronauts demonstrating that the level of EBV shedding reflects the severity of impaired immunity. Whereas EBV reactivation is not expected to produce serious effects in astronauts on missions of 6 months or less, VZV reactivation in astronauts could produce shingles. Reactivation of live, infectious VZV in astronauts with no symptoms was demonstrated in astronauts during and after spaceflight. We applied our technology to study VZV-induced shingles in patients. In a study of 54 shingles patients, we showed salivary VZV was present in every patient on the day antiviral (acyclovir) treatment was initiated. Pain and skin lesions decreased with antiviral treatment. Corresponding decreases in levels of VZV were also observed and accompanied recovery. Although the level of VZV in shingles patients before the treatment was generally higher than those found in astronauts, lower range of VZV numbers in shingles patients overlapped with astronaut s levels. This suggests a potential risk of shingles to astronauts resulting from reactivation of VZV. In

  18. Latent autoimmune diabetes of adulthood: case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, Cristen P; Fitzgerald, Brian; Hawes, Emily M

    2017-01-01

    polyglandular autoimmune syndrome type IIIa. It serves as a reminder that clinicians should remember that patients with one autoimmune disease (in this case, h/o Graves' disease) are at higher risk for diabetes and other endocrine autoimmune diseases and should be screened appropriately. Clinicians should keep latent type 1 diabetes in the differential in adulthood to ensure proper and timely treatment.

  19. Accuracy and reliability of forensic latent fingerprint decisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulery, Bradford T.; Hicklin, R. Austin; Buscaglia, JoAnn; Roberts, Maria Antonia

    2011-01-01

    The interpretation of forensic fingerprint evidence relies on the expertise of latent print examiners. The National Research Council of the National Academies and the legal and forensic sciences communities have called for research to measure the accuracy and reliability of latent print examiners’ decisions, a challenging and complex problem in need of systematic analysis. Our research is focused on the development of empirical approaches to studying this problem. Here, we report on the first large-scale study of the accuracy and reliability of latent print examiners’ decisions, in which 169 latent print examiners each compared approximately 100 pairs of latent and exemplar fingerprints from a pool of 744 pairs. The fingerprints were selected to include a range of attributes and quality encountered in forensic casework, and to be comparable to searches of an automated fingerprint identification system containing more than 58 million subjects. This study evaluated examiners on key decision points in the fingerprint examination process; procedures used operationally include additional safeguards designed to minimize errors. Five examiners made false positive errors for an overall false positive rate of 0.1%. Eighty-five percent of examiners made at least one false negative error for an overall false negative rate of 7.5%. Independent examination of the same comparisons by different participants (analogous to blind verification) was found to detect all false positive errors and the majority of false negative errors in this study. Examiners frequently differed on whether fingerprints were suitable for reaching a conclusion. PMID:21518906

  20. Variation in amino acid and lipid composition of latent fingerprints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croxton, Ruth S; Baron, Mark G; Butler, David; Kent, Terry; Sears, Vaughn G

    2010-06-15

    The enhancement of latent fingerprints, both at the crime scene and in the laboratory using an array of chemical, physical and optical techniques, permits their use for identification. Despite the plethora of techniques available, there are occasions when latent fingerprints are not successfully enhanced. An understanding of latent fingerprint chemistry and behaviour will aid the improvement of current techniques and the development of novel ones. In this study the amino acid and fatty acid content of 'real' latent fingerprints collected on a non-porous surface was analysed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Squalene was also quantified in addition. Hexadecanoic acid, octadecanoic acid and cis-9-octadecenoic acid were the most abundant fatty acids in all samples. There was, however, wide variation in the relative amounts of each fatty acid in each sample. It was clearly demonstrated that touching sebum-rich areas of the face immediately prior to fingerprint deposition resulted in a significant increase in the amount of fatty acids and squalene deposited in the resulting 'groomed' fingerprints. Serine was the most abundant amino acid identified followed by glycine, alanine and aspartic acid. The significant quantitative differences between the 'natural' and 'groomed' fingerprint samples seen for fatty acids were not observed in the case of the amino acids. This study demonstrates the variation in latent fingerprint composition between individuals and the impact of the sampling protocol on the quantitative analysis of fingerprints. (c) 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Differentiation of active and latent trigger points by thermography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diakow, P R

    1992-09-01

    This study tested whether two distinct thermographic patterns attributed to myofascial trigger points could distinguish between active and latent trigger points. A retrospective chart survey was undertaken with thermographic data divided into two groups: a) increased thermal emission only over the trigger point and b) over the area of pain referral. The criterion standard used in a blinded comparison was physical examination findings separating active from latent trigger points. All cases were drawn from a private practice referral center for thermographic evaluation of neck and low back injuries. A sample of 65 cases showing physical examination findings of trigger points was chosen from 229 consecutive motor vehicle accident case files. There was moderate agreement between the two methods of differentiating active from latent latent trigger points (Kappa = 0.44) with a specificity of 0.70 and a sensitivity of 0.74. When cases in which spinal segmental dysfunction were eliminated, the agreement increased (Kappa = 0.54) with specificity of 0.82 and sensitivity of 0.74. Thermography may be a useful tool in distinguishing active from latent trigger points, but the thermal imaging of spinal joint dysfunction may be a compounding factor.

  2. Skin Resistivity Value of Upper Trapezius Latent Trigger Points.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skorupska, Elżbieta; Zawadziński, Jarosław; Bednarek, Agata; Samborski, Włodzimierz

    2015-01-01

    The skin resistivity (SkR) measurement is commonly recommended for acupoints measurement, but for trigger points (TrPs) only one study is available. The purpose of the study was to evaluate SkR for latent TrPs compared to non-TrPs and the surrounding tissue. Forty-two healthy volunteers with unilateral latent upper trapezius TrPs (12 men, 30 women) aged 21-23 (mean age: 22.1 ± 0.6 y) participated in the study. Keithley electrometer 610B was used for measuring SkR (Ag/AgCl self-adhesive, disposable ground electrode: 30 mm diameter). SkR was measured for latent TrPs and compared to opposite non-TrPs sites and the surrounding tissue. The SkR decrease of TrPs-positive sites as compared to TrPs-negative sites and the surrounding tissue was confirmed. However, no statistically significant difference in the SkR value occurred when all data were analyzed. The same was confirmed after gender division and for TrPs-positive subjects examined for referred pain and twitch response presence. SkR reactive changes at latent TrPs are possible but the results were not consistent with the previous study. Thus, caution in applying SkR to latent TrPs isolation is recommended and its clinical use should not be encouraged yet. Further studies, especially on active TrPs, are yet required.

  3. Study of noninvasive detection of latent fingerprints using UV laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hong-xia; Cao, Jing; Niu, Jie-qing; Huang, Yun-gang; Mao, Lin-jie; Chen, Jing-rong

    2011-06-01

    Latent fingerprints present a considerable challenge in forensics, and noninvasive procedure that captures a digital image of the latent fingerprints is significant in the field of criminal investigation. The capability of photography technologies using 266nm UV Nd:YAG solid state laser as excitation light source to provide detailed images of unprocessed latent fingerprints is demonstrated. Unprocessed latent fingerprints were developed on various non-absorbent and absorbing substrates. According to the special absorption, reflection, scattering and fluorescence characterization of the various residues in fingerprints (fatty acid ester, protein, and carbosylic acid salts etc) to the UV light to weaken or eliminate the background disturbance and increase the brightness contrast of fingerprints with the background, and using 266nm UV laser as excitation light source, fresh and old latent fingerprints on the surface of four types of non-absorbent objects as magazine cover, glass, back of cellphone, wood desktop paintwork and two types of absorbing objects as manila envelope, notebook paper were noninvasive detected and appeared through reflection photography and fluorescence photography technologies, and the results meet the fingerprint identification requirements in forensic science.

  4. Models of latent tuberculosis: Their salient features, limitations, and development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamlesh Patel

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Latent tuberculosis is a subclinical condition caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis, which affects about one-third of the population across the world. To abridge the chemotherapy of tuberculosis, it is necessary to have active drugs against latent form of M. tuberculosis. Therefore, it is imperative to devise in vitro and models of latent tuberculosis to explore potential drugs. In vitro models such as hypoxia, nutrient starvation, and multiple stresses are based on adverse conditions encountered by bacilli in granuloma. Bacilli experience oxygen depletion condition in hypoxia model, whereas the nutrient starvation model is based on deprivation of total nutrients from a culture medium. In the multiple stress model dormancy is induced by more than one type of stress. In silico mathematical models have also been developed to predict the interactions of bacilli with the host immune system and to propose structures for potential anti tuberculosis compounds. Besides these in vitro and in silico models, there are a number of in vivo animal models like mouse, guinea pig, rabbit, etc. Although they simulate human latent tuberculosis up to a certain extent but do not truly replicate human infection. All these models have their inherent merits and demerits. However, there is no perfect model for latent tuberculosis. Therefore, it is imperative to upgrade and refine existing models or develop a new model. However, battery of models will always be a better alternative to any single model as they will complement each other by overcoming their limitations.

  5. Models of Latent Tuberculosis: Their Salient Features, Limitations, and Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Kamlesh; Jhamb, Sarbjit Singh; Singh, Prati Pal

    2011-01-01

    Latent tuberculosis is a subclinical condition caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis, which affects about one-third of the population across the world. To abridge the chemotherapy of tuberculosis, it is necessary to have active drugs against latent form of M. tuberculosis. Therefore, it is imperative to devise in vitro and models of latent tuberculosis to explore potential drugs. In vitro models such as hypoxia, nutrient starvation, and multiple stresses are based on adverse conditions encountered by bacilli in granuloma. Bacilli experience oxygen depletion condition in hypoxia model, whereas the nutrient starvation model is based on deprivation of total nutrients from a culture medium. In the multiple stress model dormancy is induced by more than one type of stress. In silico mathematical models have also been developed to predict the interactions of bacilli with the host immune system and to propose structures for potential anti tuberculosis compounds. Besides these in vitro and in silico models, there are a number of in vivo animal models like mouse, guinea pig, rabbit, etc. Although they simulate human latent tuberculosis up to a certain extent but do not truly replicate human infection. All these models have their inherent merits and demerits. However, there is no perfect model for latent tuberculosis. Therefore, it is imperative to upgrade and refine existing models or develop a new model. However, battery of models will always be a better alternative to any single model as they will complement each other by overcoming their limitations. PMID:22219558

  6. UM EXPERIMENTO RELATIVAMENTE SIMPLES E RÁPIDO DE CINÉTICA DA DESTRUIÇÃO DE LEVEDURAS PELO CALOR A RELATIVITY SIMPLE AND RAPID METHOD OF THERMAL DESTRUCTION OF YEATS CELLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walter BORZANI

    1998-10-01

    Full Text Available Descreve-se um experimento simples e rápido que permite calcular a constante de velocidade de destruição térmica de leveduras (fermento prensado a uma temperatura na faixa de 55ºC a 60°C, e estudar a influência de fatores nessa constante.A simple and rapid method that permits to evaluate the rate constant of thermal destruction of yeast cells (pressed yeast at a temperature between 55ºC and 60ºC, and also to study the influence of experimental conditions on the above rate constant, is described.

  7. Interpretação e utilidade da prova calórica Interpretation and use of caloric testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Utsch Gonçalves

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available A prova calórica é o teste da avaliação otoneurológica que verifica a integridade do reflexo vestíbulo-ocular e possibilita avaliar cada labirinto separadamente. Os principais aspectos relacionados à realização, interpretação e utilidade da prova calórica foram revistos. MÉTODOS: Realizou-se revisão sistemática sobre as publicações ocorridas nos últimos cem anos sobre o assunto. Incluíram-se artigos originais transversais e longitudinais, de revisão e meta-análise. Excluíram-se revisões de papeleta, relatos de caso e editoriais. Os descritores utilizados foram: prova calórica, nistagmo, sistema vestibular, preponderância direcional, predomínio labiríntico, teste calórico monotermal, teste calórico com água gelada, fenômeno de Bell. Pesquisou-se as bases de dados COCHRAINE, MEDLINE, LILACS, CAPES. RESULTADOS: De 818 resumos de artigos, selecionou-se inicialmente 93 que preenchiam os critérios de inclusão. A leitura dos artigos resultou na seleção final de 55. Na análise dos artigos, enfatizou-se na discussão fundamentos da prova calórica, tipos de estimulação utilizados, prova calórica monotermal e com água gelada, questões relacionadas à interpretação dos resultados, variáveis e artefatos. COMENTÁRIOS FINAIS: os valores de referência utilizados na prova calórica podem variar de serviço para serviço, com ponto de corte definido a partir de estudos locais. Semiotécnica cuidadosa é fundamental para elevar a sensibilidade do exame.Caloric testing is an otoneurologic evaluation of the status of the vestibular-ocular reflex; it allows an evaluation of each labyrinth separately. The main aspects on the use and interpretation of caloric testing are reviewed. METHOD: A systematic review of papers published in the past one hundred years on caloric testing was undertaken. The inclusion criteria were: cross-sectional, longitudinal, original articles, reviews and meta-analyses. Reviews of patient charts

  8. Fatores associados às ondas de calor em mulheres climatéricas: inquérito populacional domiciliar Factors associated with hot flashes in climacteric women: a population-based study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danielle Santos-Sá

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: identificar os fatores associados à ocorrência de ondas de calor em mulheres climatéricas residentes em Campinas, São Paulo. MÉTODOS: análise secundária de banco de dados de estudo descritivo de corte transversal, de base populacional. Foram selecionadas 456 mulheres por processo de amostragem, com idade entre 45-60 anos de idade. Os dados foram coletados por meio de entrevistas domiciliares, com questionários estruturados e pré-testados, fornecidos pela Fundação Internacional de Saúde/Sociedade Internacional de Menopausa e Sociedade Norte-Americana de Menopausa e adaptados pelos autores. As variáveis analisadas foram idade, cor, uso de métodos anticoncepcionais e terapia hormonal, laqueadura tubárea, índice de massa corpórea, estado menopausal, tempo de menopausa, histerectomia e tabagismo. Foram calculados a média, desvio padrão, mediana e razão de prevalência (RP. Realizou-se análise de regressão múltipla, utilizando o processo de seleção passo a passo, com intervalo de confiança de 95% (IC 95%. RESULTADOS: na análise bivariada, mulheres na pós-menopausa (RP: 1,42; IC 95%: 1,06-1,90 e histerectomizadas (RP: 1,50; IC 95%: 1,05-2,14 apresentaram chance significativamente maior de ocorrência de ondas de calor. A análise de regressão múltipla não mostrou associação significativa entre a presença de ondas de calor e as variáveis avaliadas. CONCLUSÃO: os resultados mostraram coerência com estudos anteriores, ou seja, ainda não é possível indicar os fatores que estão associados à ocorrência de ondas de calor.PURPOSE: to identify factors associated with the occurrence of hot flashes in climacteric women living in Campinas, São Paulo. METHODS: data bank secondary analysis of a cross-sectional descriptive population-based study. The selection of 456 women aged 45-60 years was done through area cluster sampling. Data were collected via home interviews using structured, pre-tested questionnaires

  9. Latent Tuberculosis in Pregnancy: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malhamé, Isabelle; Cormier, Maxime; Sugarman, Jordan; Schwartzman, Kevin

    2016-01-01

    In countries with low tuberculosis (TB) incidence, immigrants from higher incidence countries represent the major pool of individuals with latent TB infection (LTBI). The antenatal period represents an opportunity for immigrant women to access the medical system, and hence for potential screening and treatment of LTBI. However, such screening and treatment during pregnancy remains controversial. In order to further understand the prevalence, natural history, screening and management of LTBI in pregnancy, we conducted a systematic literature review addressing the screening and treatment of LTBI, in pregnant women without known HIV infection. A systematic review of 4 databases (Embase, Embase Classic, Medline, Cochrane Library) covering articles published from January 1st 1980 to April 30th 2014. Articles in English, French or Spanish with relevant information on prevalence, natural history, screening tools, screening strategies and treatment of LTBI during pregnancy were eligible for inclusion. Articles were excluded if (1) Full text was not available (2) they were case series or case studies (3) they focused exclusively on prevalence, diagnosis and treatment of active TB (4) the study population was exclusively HIV-infected. Of 4,193 titles initially identified, 208 abstracts were eligible for review. Of these, 30 articles qualified for full text review and 22 were retained: 3 cohort studies, 2 case-control studies, and 17 cross-sectional studies. In the USA, the estimated prevalence of LTBI ranged from 14 to 48% in women tested, and tuberculin skin test (TST) positivity was associated with ethnicity. One study suggested that incidence of active TB was significantly increased during the 180 days postpartum (Incidence rate ratio, 1.95 (95% CI 1.24-3.07). There was a high level of adherence with both skin testing (between 90-100%) and chest radiography (93-100%.). In three studies from low incidence settings, concordance between TST and an interferon-gamma release

  10. Latent Tuberculosis in Pregnancy: A Systematic Review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabelle Malhamé

    Full Text Available In countries with low tuberculosis (TB incidence, immigrants from higher incidence countries represent the major pool of individuals with latent TB infection (LTBI. The antenatal period represents an opportunity for immigrant women to access the medical system, and hence for potential screening and treatment of LTBI. However, such screening and treatment during pregnancy remains controversial.In order to further understand the prevalence, natural history, screening and management of LTBI in pregnancy, we conducted a systematic literature review addressing the screening and treatment of LTBI, in pregnant women without known HIV infection.A systematic review of 4 databases (Embase, Embase Classic, Medline, Cochrane Library covering articles published from January 1st 1980 to April 30th 2014. Articles in English, French or Spanish with relevant information on prevalence, natural history, screening tools, screening strategies and treatment of LTBI during pregnancy were eligible for inclusion. Articles were excluded if (1 Full text was not available (2 they were case series or case studies (3 they focused exclusively on prevalence, diagnosis and treatment of active TB (4 the study population was exclusively HIV-infected.Of 4,193 titles initially identified, 208 abstracts were eligible for review. Of these, 30 articles qualified for full text review and 22 were retained: 3 cohort studies, 2 case-control studies, and 17 cross-sectional studies. In the USA, the estimated prevalence of LTBI ranged from 14 to 48% in women tested, and tuberculin skin test (TST positivity was associated with ethnicity. One study suggested that incidence of active TB was significantly increased during the 180 days postpartum (Incidence rate ratio, 1.95 (95% CI 1.24-3.07. There was a high level of adherence with both skin testing (between 90-100% and chest radiography (93-100%.. In three studies from low incidence settings, concordance between TST and an interferon

  11. Estudo comparativo do comprimento renal em ratos obtido pelo ultra-som e pelo paquímetro Rats kidney length comparative study, obtained by ultrasound and pachimeter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elaine Mika Kamigawa

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi comparar o comprimento renal em ratos obtido pelo ultra-som e pelo paquímetro. Foi medido o comprimento renal de 36 rins de 18 ratos Wistar, machos, adultos, com peso médio de 208 gramas. As medidas foram realizadas por dois observadores, denominados observador 1 e observador 2. Os valores obtidos por ultra-som dos observadores 1 e 2 foram, em média, respectivamente, 1.92 cm e 1.92 cm para o rim direito e 1.91 cm e 1.92 cm para o rim esquerdo. Essa diferença não foi significante. Os valores obtidos por ultra-som e por paquímetro, pelo observador 1, dos rins direito e esquerdo foram, em média, 1.92 cm e 1.80 cm. Essa diferença foi significante, mostrando que o comprimento obtido pelo ultra-som foi maior que pelo paquímetro. Concluiu-se que o comprimento renal no rato, obtido pelo ultra-som, é maior do que o observado pelo paquímetro.The aim of this experiment was to compare the kidney length in rats obtained by ultrasound and pachimeter. Length measurement was taken from 36 kidneys of 18 208-grams-average-weight Wistar male adult rats. The measurements were taken by two observers. The average values obtained by observer 1 and 2 through ultrasound were, respectively 1.92 cm / 1.92cm for the right kidney and 1.91 cm and 1.92 cm for the left kidney. This difference is not significant. The average values obtained through ultrasound and pachimeter by observer 1 were 1.92 cm for the right kidney and 1.80cm for the left kidney. This difference is significant. The conclusion is that the rat kidney length obtained through ultrasound is higher that the one observed by pachimeter.

  12. Current management options for latent tuberculosis: a review

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    Norton BL

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Brianna L Norton, David P HollandDepartment of Medicine, Division of Infectious Diseases, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC, USAAbstract: Tuberculosis remains the world’s second leading infectious cause of death, with nearly one-third of the global population latently infected. Treatment of latent tuberculosis infection is a mainstay of tuberculosis-control efforts in low-to medium-incidence countries. Isoniazid monotherapy has been the standard of care for decades, but its utility is impaired by poor completion rates. However, new, shorter-course regimens using rifamycins improve completion rates and are cost-saving compared with standard isoniazid monotherapy. We review the currently available therapies for latent tuberculosis infection and their toxicities and include a brief economic comparison of the different regimens.Keywords: isoniazid, rifampin, rifapentine, tuberculin skin test, interferon-gamma release assay

  13. Rare Earth Fluorescent Nanomaterials for Enhanced Development of Latent Fingerprints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Meng; Li, Ming; Yu, Aoyang; Wu, Jian; Mao, Chuanbin

    2015-12-30

    The most commonly found fingerprints at crime scenes are latent and, thus, an efficient method for detecting latent fingerprints is very important. However, traditional developing techniques have drawbacks such as low developing sensitivity, high background interference, complicated operation, and high toxicity. To tackle this challenge, we have synthesized two kinds of rare earth fluorescent nanomaterials, including the fluoresce red-emitting YVO4:Eu nanocrystals and green-emitting LaPO4:Ce,Tb nanobelts, and then used them as fluorescent labels for the development of latent fingerprints with high sensitivity, high contrast, high selectivity, high efficiency, and low background interference, on various substrates including noninfiltrating materials, semi-infiltrating materials, and infiltrating materials.

  14. A combined feature latent semantic model for scene classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yue; Wang, Runsheng

    2009-10-01

    Due to vast growth of image databases, scene image classification methods have become increasingly important in computer vision areas. We propose a new scene image classification framework based on combined feature and a latent semantic model which is based on the Latent Dirichlet Allocation (LDA) in the statistical text literature. Here the model is applied to visual words representation for images. We use Gibbs sampling for parameter estimation and use several different numbers of topics at the same time to obtain the latent topic representation of images. We densely extract multi-scale patches from images and get the combined feature on these patches. Our method is unsupervised. It can also well represent semantic characteristic of images. We demonstrate the effectiveness of our approach by comparing it to those used in previous work in this area. Experiments were conducted on three often used image databases, and our method got better results than the others.

  15. Determinación experimental mediante DSC de las estabilidades térmicas y las capacidades caloríficas: quinua, kiwicha y cañihua

    OpenAIRE

    Romero Carrión, Violeta; Tirado Rengifo, Arminda; Dávalos Prado, Juan

    2015-01-01

    El objetivo fue determinar mediante Calorímetría diferencial de barrido (“Differential Scanning Calorimetry”, DSC) el calor específico y los parámetros termofísicos de la descomposición completa y la gelatinización, de la quinua (Chenopodium quinoa, kiwicha (Amaranthus caudatus) y la cañihua (Chenopodium pallidicaule). Para la determinación del calor específico se usaron cápsulas de aluminio y tomando de referencia el c.e del zafiro, observándose picos en el termograma, entre 50 y 60°C y calo...

  16. Effects of Latent Toxoplasmosis on Autoimmune Thyroid Diseases in Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaňková, Šárka; Procházková, Lucie; Flegr, Jaroslav; Calda, Pavel; Springer, Drahomíra; Potluková, Eliška

    2014-01-01

    Background Toxoplasmosis, one of the most common zoonotic diseases worldwide, can induce various hormonal and behavioural alterations in infected hosts, and its most common form, latent toxoplasmosis, influences the course of pregnancy. Autoimmune thyroid diseases (AITD) belong to the well-defined risk factors for adverse pregnancy outcomes. The aim of this study was to investigate whether there is a link between latent toxoplasmosis and maternal AITD in pregnancy. Methods Cross-sectional study in 1248 consecutive pregnant women in the 9–12th gestational weeks. Serum thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), thyroperoxidase antibodies (TPOAb), and free thyroxine (FT4) were assessed by chemiluminescence; the Toxoplasma status was detected by the complement fixation test (CFT) and anti-Toxoplasma IgG enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Results Overall, 22.5% of the women were positive for latent toxoplasmosis and 14.7% were screened positive for AITD. Women with latent toxoplasmosis had more often highly elevated TPOAb than the Toxoplasma-negative ones (p = 0.004), and latent toxoplasmosis was associated with decrease in serum TSH levels (p = 0.049). Moreover, we found a positive correlation between FT4 and the index of positivity for anti-Toxoplasma IgG antibodies (p = 0.033), which was even stronger in the TPOAb-positive Toxoplasma-positive women, (p = 0.014), as well as a positive correlation between FT4 and log2 CFT (p = 0.009). Conclusions Latent toxoplasmosis was associated with a mild increase in thyroid hormone production in pregnancy. The observed Toxoplasma-associated changes in the parameters of AITD are mild and do not seem to be clinically relevant; however, they could provide new clues to the complex pathogenesis of autoimmune thyroid diseases. PMID:25350671

  17. Effects of latent toxoplasmosis on autoimmune thyroid diseases in pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaňková, Šárka; Procházková, Lucie; Flegr, Jaroslav; Calda, Pavel; Springer, Drahomíra; Potluková, Eliška

    2014-01-01

    Toxoplasmosis, one of the most common zoonotic diseases worldwide, can induce various hormonal and behavioural alterations in infected hosts, and its most common form, latent toxoplasmosis, influences the course of pregnancy. Autoimmune thyroid diseases (AITD) belong to the well-defined risk factors for adverse pregnancy outcomes. The aim of this study was to investigate whether there is a link between latent toxoplasmosis and maternal AITD in pregnancy. Cross-sectional study in 1248 consecutive pregnant women in the 9-12th gestational weeks. Serum thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), thyroperoxidase antibodies (TPOAb), and free thyroxine (FT4) were assessed by chemiluminescence; the Toxoplasma status was detected by the complement fixation test (CFT) and anti-Toxoplasma IgG enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Overall, 22.5% of the women were positive for latent toxoplasmosis and 14.7% were screened positive for AITD. Women with latent toxoplasmosis had more often highly elevated TPOAb than the Toxoplasma-negative ones (p = 0.004), and latent toxoplasmosis was associated with decrease in serum TSH levels (p = 0.049). Moreover, we found a positive correlation between FT4 and the index of positivity for anti-Toxoplasma IgG antibodies (p = 0.033), which was even stronger in the TPOAb-positive Toxoplasma-positive women, (p = 0.014), as well as a positive correlation between FT4 and log2 CFT (p = 0.009). Latent toxoplasmosis was associated with a mild increase in thyroid hormone production in pregnancy. The observed Toxoplasma-associated changes in the parameters of AITD are mild and do not seem to be clinically relevant; however, they could provide new clues to the complex pathogenesis of autoimmune thyroid diseases.

  18. Interexaminer variation of minutia markup on latent fingerprints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulery, Bradford T; Hicklin, R Austin; Roberts, Maria Antonia; Buscaglia, JoAnn

    2016-07-01

    Latent print examiners often differ in the number of minutiae they mark during analysis of a latent, and also during comparison of a latent with an exemplar. Differences in minutia counts understate interexaminer variability: examiners' markups may have similar minutia counts but differ greatly in which specific minutiae were marked. We assessed variability in minutia markup among 170 volunteer latent print examiners. Each provided detailed markup documenting their examinations of 22 latent-exemplar pairs of prints randomly assigned from a pool of 320 pairs. An average of 12 examiners marked each latent. The primary factors associated with minutia reproducibility were clarity, which regions of the prints examiners chose to mark, and agreement on value or comparison determinations. In clear areas (where the examiner was "certain of the location, presence, and absence of all minutiae"), median reproducibility was 82%; in unclear areas, median reproducibility was 46%. Differing interpretations regarding which regions should be marked (e.g., when there is ambiguity in the continuity of a print) contributed to variability in minutia markup: especially in unclear areas, marked minutiae were often far from the nearest minutia marked by a majority of examiners. Low reproducibility was also associated with differences in value or comparison determinations. Lack of standardization in minutia markup and unfamiliarity with test procedures presumably contribute to the variability we observed. We have identified factors accounting for interexaminer variability; implementing standards for detailed markup as part of documentation and focusing future training efforts on these factors may help to facilitate transparency and reduce subjectivity in the examination process. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  19. Effects of latent toxoplasmosis on autoimmune thyroid diseases in pregnancy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šárka Kaňková

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Toxoplasmosis, one of the most common zoonotic diseases worldwide, can induce various hormonal and behavioural alterations in infected hosts, and its most common form, latent toxoplasmosis, influences the course of pregnancy. Autoimmune thyroid diseases (AITD belong to the well-defined risk factors for adverse pregnancy outcomes. The aim of this study was to investigate whether there is a link between latent toxoplasmosis and maternal AITD in pregnancy. METHODS: Cross-sectional study in 1248 consecutive pregnant women in the 9-12th gestational weeks. Serum thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH, thyroperoxidase antibodies (TPOAb, and free thyroxine (FT4 were assessed by chemiluminescence; the Toxoplasma status was detected by the complement fixation test (CFT and anti-Toxoplasma IgG enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA. RESULTS: Overall, 22.5% of the women were positive for latent toxoplasmosis and 14.7% were screened positive for AITD. Women with latent toxoplasmosis had more often highly elevated TPOAb than the Toxoplasma-negative ones (p = 0.004, and latent toxoplasmosis was associated with decrease in serum TSH levels (p = 0.049. Moreover, we found a positive correlation between FT4 and the index of positivity for anti-Toxoplasma IgG antibodies (p = 0.033, which was even stronger in the TPOAb-positive Toxoplasma-positive women, (p = 0.014, as well as a positive correlation between FT4 and log2 CFT (p = 0.009. CONCLUSIONS: Latent toxoplasmosis was associated with a mild increase in thyroid hormone production in pregnancy. The observed Toxoplasma-associated changes in the parameters of AITD are mild and do not seem to be clinically relevant; however, they could provide new clues to the complex pathogenesis of autoimmune thyroid diseases.

  20. Looking at the label and beyond: the effects of calorie labels, health consciousness, and demographics on caloric intake in restaurants

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Recent legislation has required calorie labels on restaurant menus as a means of improving Americans’ health. Despite the growing research in this area, no consensus has been reached on the effectiveness of menu labels. This suggests the possibility of heterogeneity in responses to caloric labels across people with different attitudes and demographics. The purpose of this study was to explore the potential relationships between caloric intake and diners’ socio-economic characteristics and attitudes in a restaurant field experiment that systematically varied the caloric information printed on the menus. Methods We conducted a field experiment in a full service restaurant where patrons were randomly assigned to one of three menu treatments which varied the amount of caloric information printed on the menus (none, numeric, or symbolic calorie label). At the conclusion of their meals, diners were asked to complete a brief survey regarding their socio-economic characteristics, attitudes, and meal selections. Using regression analysis, we estimated the number of entrée and extra calories ordered by diners as a function of demographic and attitudinal variables. Additionally, irrespective of the menu treatment to which a subject was assigned, our study identified which types of people are likely to be low-, medium-, and high-calorie diners. Results Results showed that calorie labels have the greatest impact on those who are least health conscious. Additionally, using a symbolic calorie label can further reduce the caloric intake of even the most health conscious patrons. Finally, calorie labels were more likely to influence the selection of the main entrée as opposed to supplemental items such as drinks and desserts. Conclusions If numeric calorie labels are implemented (as currently proposed), they are most likely to influence consumers who are less health conscious – probably one of the key targets of this legislation. Unfortunately, numeric labels did

  1. High Caloric Diet for ALS Patients: High Fat, High Carbohydrate or High Protein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarvin Sanaie

    2015-01-01

    . They showed that patients in the highcarbohydrate/high-calorie groups gained 0.39 kg more weight per month, compared with 0.11kg per month in the control group, and there was an average weight loss of 0.46 kg per month in the high-fat/high-calorie group. However, there are some concerns that highcarbohydrate low-fat diets might increase the risk of ALS and these findings should be interpreted with caution (4. Furthermore, according to Wills et al. high fat-high caloric diets could not be ideal regimens for these patients due to the associated gastrointestinal complications (3. Dorst and associates, in their study, showed that high caloric food supplement with high fat is suitable to establish body weight compared to high carbohydrate formula. Hence, it seems that high protein-high caloric diets could be more appropriate options for both improving negative nitrogen balance and decreasing muscle atrophy in patients with ALS based on the pathophysiology of proteinenergy malnutrition and hypermetabolism which is thought to be due to mitochondria problem. The multifactorial pathophysiology of ALS has resulted in hypotheses that there may be subgroups of patients, eventually defined by a specific underlying etiology or clinical presentation, which selectively respond to a particular regimen. Consequently, further RCTs with larger sample size are required to clarify the best regimen for weight gain and improved survival in ALS patients and it seems that personalized nutritional support or combined regimens might be the best way and could improve the quality of life considering the complex pathophysiology of malnutrition.

  2. Skin Resistivity Value of Upper Trapezius Latent Trigger Points

    OpenAIRE

    Elżbieta Skorupska; Jarosław Zawadziński; Agata Bednarek; Włodzimierz Samborski

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. The skin resistivity (SkR) measurement is commonly recommended for acupoints measurement, but for trigger points (TrPs) only one study is available. The purpose of the study was to evaluate SkR for latent TrPs compared to non-TrPs and the surrounding tissue. Material and Methods. Forty-two healthy volunteers with unilateral latent upper trapezius TrPs (12 men, 30 women) aged 21–23 (mean age: 22.1 ± 0.6 y) participated in the study. Keithley electrometer 610B was used for measuri...

  3. Hippocampus NMDA receptors selectively mediate latent extinction of place learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Jarid; Gabriele, Amanda; Packard, Mark G

    2016-09-01

    Extinction of maze learning may be achieved with or without the animal performing the previously acquired response. In typical "response extinction," animals are given the opportunity to make the previously acquired approach response toward the goal location of the maze without reinforcement. In "latent extinction," animals are not given the opportunity to make the previously acquired response and instead are confined to the previous goal location without reinforcement. Previous evidence indicates that the effectiveness of these protocols may depend on the type of memory being extinguished. Thus, one aim of the present study was to further examine the effectiveness of response and latent extinction protocols across dorsolateral striatum (DLS)-dependent response learning and hippocampus-dependent place learning tasks. In addition, previous neural inactivation experiments indicate a selective role for the hippocampus in latent extinction, but have not investigated the precise neurotransmitter mechanisms involved. Thus, the present study also examined whether latent extinction of place learning might depend on NMDA receptor activity in the hippocampus. In experiment 1, adult male Long-Evans rats were trained in a response learning task in a water plus-maze, in which animals were reinforced to make a consistent body-turn response to reach an invisible escape platform. Results indicated that response extinction, but not latent extinction, was effective at extinguishing memory in the response learning task. In experiment 2, rats were trained in a place learning task, in which animals were reinforced to approach a consistent spatial location containing the hidden escape platform. In experiment 2, animals also received intra-hippocampal infusions of the NMDA receptor antagonist 2-amino-5-phosphopentanoic acid (AP5; 5.0 or 7.5 ug/0.5 µg) or saline vehicle immediately before response or latent extinction training. Results indicated that both extinction protocols were

  4. Investigating design: A comparison of manifest and latent approaches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cash, Philip; Snider, Chris

    2014-01-01

    them together and explicitly investigating their complementarity in the design domain. This is realised using an example artificial observation study. In addition to discussing underlying relationships between the approaches, this paper identifies key opportunities for improving design research methods......This paper contributes to the on-going focus on improving design research methods, by exploring and synthesising two key interrelated research approaches e manifest and latent. These approaches are widely used individually in design research, however, this paper represents the first work bringing...... by more explicitly combining both manifest and latent elements. Finally, a number of combinatory approaches are proposed based on a conceptual framework. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved....

  5. Latent Semantic Analysis of the Languages of Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Ryan Anthony

    We use Latent Semantic Analysis as a basis to study the languages of life. Using this approach we derive techniques to discover latent relationships between organisms such as significant motifs and evolutionary features. Doubly Singular Value Decomposition is defined and the significance of this adaptation is demonstrated by finding a phylogeny of twenty prokaryotes. Minimal Killer Words are used to define families of organisms from negative information. The application of these words makes it possible to automatically retrieve the coding frame of a sequence from any organism.

  6. Multimodal visual dictionary learning via heterogeneous latent semantic sparse coding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chenxiao; Ding, Guiguang; Zhou, Jile; Guo, Yuchen; Liu, Qiang

    2014-11-01

    Visual dictionary learning as a crucial task of image representation has gained increasing attention. Specifically, sparse coding is widely used due to its intrinsic advantage. In this paper, we propose a novel heterogeneous latent semantic sparse coding model. The central idea is to bridge heterogeneous modalities by capturing their common sparse latent semantic structure so that the learned visual dictionary is able to describe both the visual and textual properties of training data. Experiments on both image categorization and retrieval tasks demonstrate that our model shows superior performance over several recent methods such as K-means and Sparse Coding.

  7. Gene variants associated with antisocial behaviour: a latent variable approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentley, Mary Jane; Lin, Haiqun; Fernandez, Thomas V; Lee, Maria; Yrigollen, Carolyn M; Pakstis, Andrew J; Katsovich, Liliya; Olds, David L; Grigorenko, Elena L; Leckman, James F

    2013-10-01

    The aim of this study was to determine if a latent variable approach might be useful in identifying shared variance across genetic risk alleles that is associated with antisocial behaviour at age 15 years. Using a conventional latent variable approach, we derived an antisocial phenotype in 328 adolescents utilizing data from a 15-year follow-up of a randomized trial of a prenatal and infancy nurse-home visitation programme in Elmira, New York. We then investigated, via a novel latent variable approach, 450 informative genetic polymorphisms in 71 genes previously associated with antisocial behaviour, drug use, affiliative behaviours and stress response in 241 consenting individuals for whom DNA was available. Haplotype and Pathway analyses were also performed. Eight single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) from eight genes contributed to the latent genetic variable that in turn accounted for 16.0% of the variance within the latent antisocial phenotype. The number of risk alleles was linearly related to the latent antisocial variable scores. Haplotypes that included the putative risk alleles for all eight genes were also associated with higher latent antisocial variable scores. In addition, 33 SNPs from 63 of the remaining genes were also significant when added to the final model. Many of these genes interact on a molecular level, forming molecular networks. The results support a role for genes related to dopamine, norepinephrine, serotonin, glutamate, opioid and cholinergic signalling as well as stress response pathways in mediating susceptibility to antisocial behaviour. This preliminary study supports use of relevant behavioural indicators and latent variable approaches to study the potential 'co-action' of gene variants associated with antisocial behaviour. It also underscores the cumulative relevance of common genetic variants for understanding the aetiology of complex behaviour. If replicated in future studies, this approach may allow the identification of a

  8. A Latent Implementation Error Detection Method for Software Validation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiantao Zhou

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Model checking and conformance testing play an important role in software system design and implementation. From the view of integrating model checking and conformance testing into a tightly coupled validation approach, this paper presents a novel approach to detect latent errors in software implementation. The latent errors can be classified into two kinds, one is called as Unnecessary Implementation Trace, and the other is called as Neglected Implementation Trace. The method complements the incompleteness of security properties for software model checking. More accurate models are characterized to leverage the effectiveness of the model-based software verification and testing combined method.

  9. Heat transfer in simple houses; Transferencia de calor en casas habitacion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Porta, Miguel Angel; Rubio, Eduardo; Fernandez, Jose Luis [Centro de Investigaciones Biologicas del Noroeste, Baja California Sur, (Mexico); Gomez Munoz, Victor [Centro Interdiciplinario de Ciencias Marinas, Baja California Sur (Mexico)

    2000-07-01

    A lumped parameter model is used to represent, with a high degree of precision, the temperature and comfort evolution with the time of a simple house, under any hot, extreme weather variation. Results are validated by experimental work in physical models, built to scale 1:2, with materials and building techniques typical of social interest housing in Baja California, Mexico. With the mathematical model properly calibrated, adequately validated heat transfer coefficients between walls, ceiling and windows are calculated. Sensitivity analyses lead to values of heat loads in simple houses with varying shapes, orientation, shading devices, and construction materials and techniques. Energy balance in the present work is achieved by means of three simultaneous equations, each depicting energy equilibrium in one of the basic building elements: the window glazing, the building materials, and inside air. Simultaneous solution of the equations is accomplished with of the Kutta method, which yields the representative temperature along the day of each of the components, while heat flow among them is calculated, together with thermal exchange with the environment. Comfort levels, energy consumption and saving are hence easily derived, and the economical pertinence of passive elements can be evaluated. [Spanish] Este trabajo presenta un modelo matematico de parametros concentrados que representa, de manera apropiada, el comportamiento de una casa habitacion tipica a lo largo de un dia cualquiera. Los resultados se validan mediante la experimentacion en modelo fisico, donde se ensayan casetas de material y dimensiones similares a las casas de interes social, a escala 1:2. Una vez que se ha calibrado el modelo, se pueden determinar, mediante corridas apropiadas en computadora, los coeficientes especificos de transferencia de calor en muros, ventanas y techo. Los analisis subsecuentes de sensibilidad producen informacion util para conocer los requerimientos energeticos de cada casa

  10. Hepatic mitochondrial energetics during catch-up fat after caloric restriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crescenzo, Raffaella; Bianco, Francesca; Falcone, Italia; Prisco, Marina; Dulloo, Abdul G; Liverini, Giovanna; Iossa, Susanna

    2010-08-01

    The objective of the study was to investigate whether changes in liver mitochondrial energetics could underlie the enhanced energetic efficiency that drives accelerated body fat recovery (catch-up fat) during refeeding after caloric restriction. Rats were subjected to caloric restriction (50% of ad libitum intake) for 15 days and then refed for 1 or 2 weeks on an amount of chow equal to that of controls matched for weight at the onset of refeeding. Whole-body metabolism was characterized by energy balance and body composition determinations as well as by indirect calorimetric measurements of 24-hour energy expenditure, substrate oxidation, and whole-body de novo lipogenesis estimated from nonprotein respiratory quotient. Hepatic mitochondrial energetics were determined from measurements of liver mitochondrial mass, respiratory capacities, and proton leak (both basal and fatty acid stimulated), whereas hepatic oxidative status was assessed from measurements of hepatic mitochondrial lipid peroxidation, aconitase, and superoxide dismutase activity. Furthermore, hepatic lipogenic capacity was determined from assays of fatty acid synthase activity. Compared with controls, isocalorically refed rats showed an elevated energetic efficiency and body fat gain over both week 1 and week 2 of refeeding, as well as a lower 24-hour energy expenditure and higher rates of whole-body de novo lipogenesis at the end of both week 1 and week 2 of refeeding. Analysis of the liver revealed that after 1 week (but not after 2 weeks) of refeeding, the mitochondrial mass (but not mitochondrial density) was lower in refed rats than in controls, associated with higher state 3 mitochondrial respiratory capacity, increased superoxide dismutase activity, as well as higher fatty acid synthase activity. These results suggest that, although at the whole-body level elevations in energy efficiency and de novo lipogenesis are coordinated toward catch-up fat, the overall hepatic mitochondrial energetic

  11. Accumulation of long-chain glycosphingolipids during aging is prevented by caloric restriction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María José Hernández-Corbacho

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Chronic kidney disease and end-stage renal disease are major causes of morbidity and mortality that are seen far more commonly in the aged population. Interestingly, kidney function declines during aging even in the absence of underlying renal disease. Declining renal function has been associated with age-related cellular damage and dysfunction with reports of increased levels of apoptosis, necrosis, and inflammation in the aged kidney. Bioactive sphingolipids have been shown to regulate these same cellular processes, and have also been suggested to play a role in aging and cellular senescence. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We hypothesized that alterations in kidney sphingolipids play a role in the declining kidney function that occurs during aging. To begin to address this, the sphingolipid profile was measured in young (3 mo, middle aged (9 mo and old (17 mo C57BL/6 male mice. Interestingly, while modest changes in ceramides and sphingoid bases were evident in kidneys from older mice, the most dramatic elevations were seen in long-chain hexosylceramides (HexCer and lactosylceramides (LacCer, with C14- and C16-lactosylceramides elevated as much as 8 and 12-fold, respectively. Increases in long-chain LacCers during aging are not exclusive to the kidney, as they also occur in the liver and brain. Importantly, caloric restriction, previously shown to prevent the declining kidney function seen in aging, inhibits accumulation of long-chain HexCer/LacCers and prevents the age-associated elevation of enzymes involved in their synthesis. Additionally, long-chain LacCers are also significantly elevated in human fibroblasts isolated from elderly individuals. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: This study demonstrates accumulation of the glycosphingolipids HexCer and LacCer in several different organs in rodents and humans during aging. In addition, data demonstrate that HexCer and LacCer metabolism is regulated by caloric restriction. Taken together

  12. EFEITO DAS ONDAS DE CALOR NA AGRICULTURA – SAFRA 2013/2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melhores Trabalhos .

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Ao aquecimento global, considerado decorrência do fenômeno popularmente conhecido como efeito estufa, têm sido atribuidas muitas das anomalias climáticas que ultimamente vêm afetando  municípios, regiões, países e até continentes inteiros. Uma dessas anomalias do clima refere-se às recentes ondas de calor ocorridas no verão de 2013/2014, agora findando, registradas nas estações meteorológicas e no desconforto de pessoas, plantas e animais que habitam a região sul da América do Sul, onde estão situados o Estado do Rio Grande do Sul e, nele,  o Município de Cruz Alta. Diante do exposto, este trabalho, na forma de artigo, tem por objetivo descrever e analisar a ocorrência de alguns desastres naturais, resultantes de fenômenos meteorológicos eventuais ou recorrentemente verificados e registrados no Estado e no Município, todos quase sempre capazes de afetar seu desenvolvimento socioeconômico. Os danos anuais causados por diferentes desastres meteorológicos sobre a agricultura são calculados, em termos globais ou mundiais, na ordem de mais 41 bilhões de dólares. Ao se efetuar uma análise sobre causas e efeitos dos fenômenos meteorológicos que incidem sobre a agricultura, tendo por base parte das informações bibliográficas, documentais e midiáticas consultadas para a elaboração deste artigo, tem-se que levar em consideração que esses fenômenos manifestam-se diferenciadamente quanto à quantização de danos e percentualidade de perdas que podem ocasionar aos cultivos agrícolas. Enquanto que os prejuízos causados por granizos, geadas e secas, por exemplo, podem ser avaliados por sintomas manifestos nas plantas (quebra e ruptura de partes de hastes e colmos, necrose foliar; congelamento de tecidos e de folhas, cobertura de gelo sobre plantas e solo; e murcha de folhas, redução de crescimento, etc. e pela visualização da intensidade de ocorrência (tamanho e número de pedras de granizo, cobertura de gelo e

  13. Tolerancia al calor y humedad atmosférica de diferentes grupos raciales de ganado bovino

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariel Guillén T

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo. Comparar algunas respuestas fisiológicas al calor y humedad atmosférica entre bovinos Chinampos (Bos taurus; Ch, ½ Charolais ½ Brahman (CB, Holstein (H y Jersey (J. Materiales y métodos. Se realizó un estudio en La Paz, México. Se utilizaron 12 vacas H, 10 J, 15 Ch y 8 CB. Durante el verano se midieron cada semana (a las 0600 y 1600 horas la frecuencia respiratoria (FR y temperatura rectal (TR. Se registraron las variables climáticas para calcular el índice de temperatura-humedad (ITH. Resultados. Durante todo el verano, la FR en los cuatro grupos estuvo por encima de los valores fisiológicos para el ganado bovino, siendo superior en H y J que en Ch y CB (p<0.01. En todos los grupos, la TR estuvo dentro de los límites fisiológicos de la especie estudiada. El grupo racial más afectado fue H (p<0.05. Cuando las constantes fisiológicas fueron analizadas dentro de cada una de tres categorías de ITH (<72, ≥72<78, y ≥78, las vacas H y J mostraron FR superior a las Ch y CB (p<0.01. La TR aumentó conforme se elevó el ITH siendo más marcado en J y H. El incremento de la FR entre la mañana y la tarde de cada día de medición fue mayor en H y J que en Ch y CB (p<0.05. La TR se incrementó más en H que en Ch (p<0.05. Conclusiones. Los grupos raciales más tolerantes al estrés por calor, determinado con base en FR y TR fueron Ch y CB.

  14. Numerical simulation of sensible and latent thermal energy storage systems

    OpenAIRE

    Torras Ortiz, Santiago

    2016-01-01

    El objetivo principal de esta tesis es la resolución numérica de problemas de transferencia de calor y dinámica de fluidos y su aplicación para el estudio del comportamiento transitorio de sistemas térmicos de acumulación de energía (TES). Tres diferentes sistemas han sido considerados, cubriendo un amplio rango de condiciones de trabajo (desde muy baja de temperatura criogenica hasta muy alta temperatura en plantas CSP) y aplicaciones (desde domestica/residencial hasta energía renovables o d...

  15. Study of electro-caloric effect in Ca and Sn co-doped BaTiO3 ceramics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upadhyay, Sanjay Kumar; Fatima, Iram; Raghavendra Reddy, V.

    2017-04-01

    The present work deals with the study of structural, ferroelectric, dielectric and electro-caloric effects in lead free ferroelectric polycrystalline Ba1-x Ca x Ti0.95Sn0.05O3 (x  =  2, 5 and 10%) i.e. Ca, Sn co-doped BaTiO3 (BTO). Phase purity of the samples is confirmed from x-ray data by using Rietveld refinement. 119Sn Mössbauer reveals homogenous phase as well as iso-valent substitution of Sn at Ti site. Enhancements in ferroelectric and dielectric properties have been observed. Indirect method which is based on Maxwell equation has been used to determine the electro-caloric (EC) effect in the studied ferroelectric ceramics and maximum EC coefficient is observed for Ba0.95Ca0.05Ti0.95Sn0.05O3.

  16. Caloric Intake on the Sabbath: A Pilot Study of Contributing Factors to Obesity in the Orthodox Jewish Community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberg, Deborah A; Swencionis, Charles; Segal-Isaacson, C J

    2016-10-01

    The American Orthodox Jewish community has specific cultural factors that may contribute to overweight and obesity. This study aimed to look at caloric intake on the Sabbath and its contribution to overweight and obesity. Twelve married or previously married women who identify themselves as Orthodox Jews were recruited to do 24-h food recalls over the phone. The participants were divided into three weight groups (normal, overweight, and obese) based on their BMI. The overweight and obese participants' data were combined into one group for the purposes of statistical testing. Paired t tests looking at the data for all participants showed significantly great caloric intake during an average Sabbath day than an average weekday [t(4) = 7.58, p Jewish community.

  17. Absorption heat pump integrated in an effluent purification system; Bomba de calor por absorcion integrada a un sistema de purificacion de efluentes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santoyo, Socrates; Siqueiros, Javier; Heard, Christopher; Santoyo, Edgar [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1996-12-31

    The results derived of the integration of an absorption heat pump to an industrial effluents purification system, are presented. The advantages of these heat pumps with respect to heat pumps by mechanical compression of vapor, as well as the advantages in using absorption heat pumps in simple distillation systems, are mentioned. Finally, a description is made of the equipment designed and built, as well as the results obtained in a preliminary test. [Espanol] Se presentan los resultados derivados de la integracion de una bomba de calor por absorcion a un sistema de purificacion de efluentes industriales. Se mencionan las ventajas de este tipo de bombas de calor con respecto a las de calor por compresion mecanica de vapor, asi como las ventajas de usar bombas de calor en sistemas de destilacion simple. Finalmente, se describe el equipo disenado y construido, asi como los resultados obtenidos de una prueba preliminar.

  18. Diseño experimental, construcción y calibración de un sensor de flujo de calor para aplicaciones HVAC/R

    OpenAIRE

    Fonseca Díaz, Néstor; Burbano Jaramillo, Juan Carlos

    2007-01-01

    Este artículo presenta los resultados del estudio para el diseño experimental, construcción y calibración de un sensor de flujo de calor de utilidad en la detección de flujos de calor muy pequeños en Calefacción, Ventilación, Acondicionamiento de aire y Refrigeración (HVAC/R). Se propone el diseño de un sensor para medir flujos de calor en paredes de edificios y cuartos fríos del orden de 2 a 30 W/(m2K) con una incertidumbre total máxima de 5 % del flujo de calor medido. Actualmente, para ot...

  19. Caloric Vestibular Stimulation Reduces Pain and Somatoparaphrenia in a Severe Chronic Central Post-Stroke Pain Patient: A Case Study: e0151213

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Grazia Fernanda Spitoni; Giorgio Pireddu; Gaspare Galati; Valentina Sulpizio; Stefano Paolucci; Luigi Pizzamiglio

    2016-01-01

    .... To date, there is limited evidence for the effective treatments of this disease. Here we used caloric vestibular stimulation to reduce pain and somatoparaphrenia in a 57-year-old woman suffering from central post-stroke pain...

  20. Effect of replacing sugar with non-caloric sweeteners in beverages on the reward value after repeated exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffioen-Roose, Sanne; Smeets, Paul A M; Weijzen, Pascalle L G; van Rijn, Inge; van den Bosch, Iris; de Graaf, Cees

    2013-01-01

    The reward value of food is partly dependent on learned associations. It is not yet known whether replacing sugar with non-caloric sweeteners in food is affecting long-term acceptance. To determine the effect of replacing sugar with non-caloric sweeteners in a nutrient-empty drink (soft drink) versus nutrient-rich drink (yoghurt drink) on reward value after repeated exposure. We used a randomized crossover design whereby forty subjects (15 men, 25 women) with a mean ± SD age of 21 ± 2 y and BMI of 21.5 ± 1.7 kg/m(2) consumed a fixed portion of a non-caloric sweetened (NS) and sugar sweetened (SS) versions of either a soft drink or a yoghurt drink (counterbalanced) for breakfast which were distinguishable by means of colored labels. Each version of a drink was offered 10 times in semi-random order. Before and after conditioning the reward value of the drinks was assessed using behavioral tasks on wanting, liking, and expected satiety. In a subgroup (n=18) fMRI was performed to assess brain reward responses to the drinks. Outcomes of both the behavioral tasks and fMRI showed that conditioning did not affect the reward value of the NS and SS versions of the drinks significantly. Overall, subjects preferred the yoghurt drinks to the soft drinks and the ss drinks to the NS drinks. In addition, they expected the yoghurt drinks to be more satiating, they reduced hunger more, and delayed the first eating episode more. Conditioning did not influence these effects. Our study showed that repeated consumption of a non-caloric sweetened beverage, instead of a sugar sweetened version, appears not to result in changes in the reward value. It cannot be ruled out that learned associations between sensory attributes and food satiating capacity which developed preceding the conditioning period, during lifetime, affected the reward value of the drinks.

  1. Effect of replacing sugar with non-caloric sweeteners in beverages on the reward value after repeated exposure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanne Griffioen-Roose

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The reward value of food is partly dependent on learned associations. It is not yet known whether replacing sugar with non-caloric sweeteners in food is affecting long-term acceptance. OBJECTIVE: To determine the effect of replacing sugar with non-caloric sweeteners in a nutrient-empty drink (soft drink versus nutrient-rich drink (yoghurt drink on reward value after repeated exposure. DESIGN: We used a randomized crossover design whereby forty subjects (15 men, 25 women with a mean ± SD age of 21 ± 2 y and BMI of 21.5 ± 1.7 kg/m(2 consumed a fixed portion of a non-caloric sweetened (NS and sugar sweetened (SS versions of either a soft drink or a yoghurt drink (counterbalanced for breakfast which were distinguishable by means of colored labels. Each version of a drink was offered 10 times in semi-random order. Before and after conditioning the reward value of the drinks was assessed using behavioral tasks on wanting, liking, and expected satiety. In a subgroup (n=18 fMRI was performed to assess brain reward responses to the drinks. RESULTS: Outcomes of both the behavioral tasks and fMRI showed that conditioning did not affect the reward value of the NS and SS versions of the drinks significantly. Overall, subjects preferred the yoghurt drinks to the soft drinks and the ss drinks to the NS drinks. In addition, they expected the yoghurt drinks to be more satiating, they reduced hunger more, and delayed the first eating episode more. Conditioning did not influence these effects. CONCLUSION: Our study showed that repeated consumption of a non-caloric sweetened beverage, instead of a sugar sweetened version, appears not to result in changes in the reward value. It cannot be ruled out that learned associations between sensory attributes and food satiating capacity which developed preceding the conditioning period, during lifetime, affected the reward value of the drinks.

  2. Caloric restriction and intermittent fasting: Two potential diets for successful brain aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Bronwen; Mattson, Mark P.; Maudsley, Stuart

    2008-01-01

    The vulnerability of the nervous system to advancing age is all too often manifest in neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases. In this review article we describe evidence suggesting that two dietary interventions, caloric restriction (CR) and intermittent fasting (IF), can prolong the health-span of the nervous system by impinging upon fundamental metabolic and cellular signaling pathways that regulate life-span. CR and IF affect energy and oxygen radical metabolism, and cellular stress response systems, in ways that protect neurons against genetic and environmental factors to which they would otherwise succumb during aging. There are multiple interactive pathways and molecular mechanisms by which CR and IF benefit neurons including those involving insulin-like signaling, FoxO transcription factors, sirtuins and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors. These pathways stimulate the production of protein chaperones, neurotrophic factors and antioxidant enzymes, all of which help cells cope with stress and resist disease. A better understanding of the impact of CR and IF on the aging nervous system will likely lead to novel approaches for preventing and treating neurodegenerative disorders. PMID:16899414

  3. Transport of heat in caloric vestibular stimulation. Conduction, convection or radiation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldmann, H; Hüttenbrink, K B; Delank, K W

    1991-01-01

    Experiments in temporal bone specimens were carried out under strictly controlled conditions: temperature (37 degrees C) and humidity kept constant; standardized irrigation of the external ear canal by an automated system (in 15 s, 50 ml of water, 11 degrees C above temperature of specimen), thermistor probes of 0.2 mm diameter placed in different parts of the specimens. In the intact temporal bone such an irrigation causes a rise in temperature with a gradient from the external ear canal across the bony bridge to the lateral semicircular canal as expected with heat conduction. After removal of the bony bridge, which is the main route for heat conduction, the rise in temperature in the lateral semicircular canal is greater and faster than in the intact specimen. This effect again is drastically reduced by placing a reflecting shield between tympanic membrane and labyrinth. In the intact middle ear inserting a reflecting shield or filling the cavity with gel also reduces the heat transfer to the labyrinth, although the bony routes for heat conduction are left untouched. The experiments prove that radiation plays an important part in heat transfer in caloric stimulation.

  4. Caloric restriction in grouped rats: aggregate influence on behavioural and hormonal data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moneo, Mikel; Martín Zúñiga, Jesús; Morón, Ignacio

    2017-10-01

    The majority of studies in short- and middle-term caloric restriction (CR) have been primarily focused on physiological parameters, improvements in aging, modulation of oxidative stress, and long-term negative effects on cognitive functions. However, single-housing associated with CR may pose many logistical problems. Thus, it is necessary to study the effects of CR under conditions in which animals are group-housed. The aims of this study were to (i) observe the possible differences in the proportion of the weights and social behaviour under ad libitum and CR (at 70%) conditions; (ii) examine the eventual inequalities in the proportion of the weights and social behaviour (the time spent eating under the feeder as an indicator of dominance and empathy, and the number of 'pushes' as an indicator of aggressiveness) in sibling and non-sibling rats under CR conditions; and (iii) compare the concentrations of corticosterone (stress biomarker) in serum under ad libitum and CR conditions. The results indicated the effectiveness of CR in different groups independent of the relationship between the rats. No extreme changes in weight were observed in the CR rats. Behavioural observations also indicated the differences in the total time spent under the feeder and in the number of pushes (higher in both cases for the sibling rats). However, no significant differences in corticosterone levels were observed. Our results suggest the viability of group-housing rats during long periods of CR maintenance.

  5. Caloric profile of pasteurized milk in the human milk bank at a university hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Moraes, Priscila Santa; de Oliveira, Márcia Maria B; Dalmas, José Carlos

    2013-01-01

    To verify the caloric and sanitary profile of human milk stored at the Human Milk Bank at Londrina University Hospital. Cross-sectional study. Data were obtained from the Human Milk Bank registry regarding the source, the amount collected in liters, the amount of calories by liter assessed by crematocrit, and the acidity of human milk determined by titration in degrees Dornic. Between 2006 and 2009, 30,846 samples of human milk were collected from donors coming from different locations and analyzed. A total of 5,869L of milk were collected and distributed. From the total human pasteurized milk, 53,5% was classified as hypocaloric (711kcal/L). Regarding the several locations where the milk was collected, the Human Milk Bank at Londrina University Hospital was the location in which a larger number of donations were observed in the three classifications. The result of the Dornic test for acidity of the collected milk revealed that 60.8% had 4.1º to 8.0º Dornic. A large volume of the collected human milk is hypocaloric and appropriate for human consumption. There is the need to intensify collection procedures in order to meet the demand for hypercaloric milk for preterm newborn infants.

  6. Differential responses of white adipose tissue and brown adipose tissue to caloric restriction in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okita, Naoyuki; Hayashida, Yusuke; Kojima, Yumiko; Fukushima, Mayumi; Yuguchi, Keiko; Mikami, Kentaro; Yamauchi, Akiko; Watanabe, Kyoko; Noguchi, Mituru; Nakamura, Megumi; Toda, Toshifusa; Higami, Yoshikazu

    2012-05-01

    Caloric restriction (CR) slows the aging process and extends longevity, but the exact underlying mechanisms remain debatable. It has recently been suggested that the beneficial action of CR may be mediated in part by adipose tissue remodeling. Mammals have two types of adipose tissue: white adipose tissue (WAT) and brown adipose tissue (BAT). In this study, proteome analysis using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis combined with MALDI-TOF MS, and subsequent analyses were performed on both WAT and BAT from 9-month-old male rats fed ad libitum or subjected to CR for 6 months. Our findings suggest that CR activates mitochondrial energy metabolism and fatty acid biosynthesis in WAT. It is likely that in CR animals WAT functions as an energy transducer from glucose to energy-dense lipid. In contrast, in BAT CR either had no effect on, or down-regulated, the mitochondrial electron transport chain, but enhanced fatty acid biosynthesis. This suggests that in CR animals BAT may change its function from an energy consuming system to an energy reservoir system. Based on our findings, we conclude that WAT and BAT cooperate to use energy effectively via a differential response of mitochondrial function to CR. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Evaluation of dysphagia risk, nutritional status and caloric intake in elderly patients with Alzheimer's

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Fernanda Goes

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: to evaluate the risk of dysphagia and its relationship with the stage of Alzheimer's Disease, as well as the relationship between the risk of dysphagia and nutritional status and caloric intake in elderly people with Alzheimer's disease.METHODS: the sample consisted of 30 subjects of both genders with probable Alzheimer's disease. The stage of the disease, nutritional status, energy intake, and risk of dysphagia were assessed.RESULTS: it was found that increased risk of dysphagia is associated with the advance in the stages of Alzheimer's disease and that even patients in the early stages of disease have a slight risk of developing dysphagia. No association was found between nutritional status and the risk of dysphagia. High levels of inadequate intake of micronutrients were also verified in the patients.CONCLUSION: an association between dysphagia and the development of Alzheimer's disease was found. The results indicate the need to monitor the presence of dysphagia and the micronutrient intake in patients with Alzheimer's disease.

  8. Krebs cycle enzymes from livers of old mice are differentially regulated by caloric restriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagopian, Kevork; Ramsey, Jon J; Weindruch, Richard

    2004-08-01

    Krebs cycle enzyme activities and levels of five metabolites were determined from livers of old mice (30 months) maintained either on control or on long-term caloric restriction (CR) diets (28 months). In CR mice, the cycle was divided into two major blocks, the first containing citrate synthase, aconitase and NAD-dependent isocitrate dehydrogenase which showed decreased activities, while the second block, containing the remaining enzymes, displayed increased activity (except for fumarase, which was unchanged). CR also resulted in decreased levels of citrate, glutamate and alpha-ketoglutarate, increased levels of malate, and unchanged levels of aspartate. The alpha-ketoglutarate/glutamate and malate/alpha-ketoglutarate ratios were higher in CR, in parallel with previously reported increases with CR in pyruvate carboxylase activity and glucagon levels, respectively. The results indicate that long-term CR induces a differential regulation of Krebs cycle in old mice and this regulation may be the result of changes in gene expression levels, as well as a complex interplay between enzymes, hormones and other effectors. Truncation of Krebs cycle by CR may be an important adaptation to utilize available substrates for the gluconeogenesis necessary to sustain glycolytic tissues, such as brain.

  9. Caloric restriction reveals a metabolomic and lipidomic signature in liver of male mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jové, Mariona; Naudí, Alba; Ramírez-Núñez, Omar; Portero-Otín, Manuel; Selman, Colin; Withers, Dominic J; Pamplona, Reinald

    2014-10-01

    Lipid composition, particularly membrane unsaturation, has been proposed as being a lifespan determinant, but it is currently unknown whether caloric restriction (CR), an accepted life-extending intervention, affects cellular lipid profiles. In this study, we employ a liquid chromatography quadrupole time-of-flight-based methodology to demonstrate that CR in the liver of male C57BL/6 mice: (i) induces marked changes in the cellular lipidome, (ii) specifically reduces levels of a phospholipid peroxidation product, 1-palmitoyl-2-glutaryl-sn-glycero-3-phosphatidylcholine, (iii) alters cellular phosphoethanolamine and triglyceride distributional profiles, (iv) affects mitochondrial electron transport chain complexes, increasing complex II and decreasing complex III and (v) is associated with specific changes in liver metabolic pathways. These data demonstrate that CR induces a specific lipidome and metabolome reprogramming event in mouse liver which is associated with lower protein oxidative damage, as assessed by mass spectrometry-based measurements. Such changes may be critical to the increased lifespan and healthspan observed in C57BL/6 mice following CR. © 2014 The Authors. Aging Cell published by the Anatomical Society and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Caloric restriction improves efficiency and capacity of the mitochondrial electron transport chain in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Joon-Seok; Choi, Kyung-Mi [College of Life Sciences and Biotechnology, Korea University, Seoul 136-701 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Cheol-Koo, E-mail: cklee2005@korea.ac.kr [College of Life Sciences and Biotechnology, Korea University, Seoul 136-701 (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-06-03

    Highlights: {yields} Calorie restriction (CR) increases electron transport chain (ETC) at both RNA and protein level. {yields} CR enhances mitochondrial membrane potential, and, regardless of ages, reduces reactive oxygen species. {yields} CR increases both efficiency and capacity of the ETC. {yields} CR induces intensive modulation at mitochondrial ETC where might be a major site leading to extension of lifespan. -- Abstract: Caloric restriction (CR) is known to extend lifespan in a variety of species; however, the mechanism remains unclear. In this study, we found that CR potentiated the mitochondrial electron transport chain (ETC) at both the transcriptional and translational levels. Indeed, mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) was increased by CR, and, regardless of ages, overall reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation was decreased by CR. With these changes, overall growth rate of cells was maintained under various CR conditions, just like cells under a non-restricted condition. All of these data support increased efficiency and capacity of the ETC by CR, and this change might lead to extension of lifespan.

  11. Maintenance of cellular ATP level by caloric restriction correlates chronological survival of budding yeast

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Joon-Seok; Lee, Cheol-Koo, E-mail: cklee2005@korea.ac.kr

    2013-09-13

    Highlights: •CR decreases total ROS and mitochondrial superoxide during the chronological aging. •CR does not affect the levels of oxidative damage on protein and DNA. •CR contributes extension of chronological lifespan by maintenance of ATP level -- Abstract: The free radical theory of aging emphasizes cumulative oxidative damage in the genome and intracellular proteins due to reactive oxygen species (ROS), which is a major cause for aging. Caloric restriction (CR) has been known as a representative treatment that prevents aging; however, its mechanism of action remains elusive. Here, we show that CR extends the chronological lifespan (CLS) of budding yeast by maintaining cellular energy levels. CR reduced the generation of total ROS and mitochondrial superoxide; however, CR did not reduce the oxidative damage in proteins and DNA. Subsequently, calorie-restricted yeast had higher mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), and it sustained consistent ATP levels during the process of chronological aging. Our results suggest that CR extends the survival of the chronologically aged cells by improving the efficiency of energy metabolism for the maintenance of the ATP level rather than reducing the global oxidative damage of proteins and DNA.

  12. Caloric Restriction Protects against Lactacystin-Induced Degeneration of Dopamine Neurons Independent of the Ghrelin Receptor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica Coppens

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Parkinson’s disease (PD is a neurodegenerative disorder, characterized by a loss of dopamine (DA neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc. Caloric restriction (CR has been shown to exert ghrelin-dependent neuroprotective effects in the 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrathydropyridine (MPTP-based animal model for PD. We here investigated whether CR is neuroprotective in the lactacystin (LAC mouse model for PD, in which proteasome disruption leads to the destruction of the DA neurons of the SNc, and whether this effect is mediated via the ghrelin receptor. Adult male ghrelin receptor wildtype (WT and knockout (KO mice were maintained on an ad libitum (AL diet or on a 30% CR regimen. After 3 weeks, LAC was injected unilaterally into the SNc, and the degree of DA neuron degeneration was evaluated 1 week later. In AL mice, LAC injection significanty reduced the number of DA neurons and striatal DA concentrations. CR protected against DA neuron degeneration following LAC injection. However, no differences were observed between ghrelin receptor WT and KO mice. These results indicate that CR can protect the nigral DA neurons from toxicity related to proteasome disruption; however, the ghrelin receptor is not involved in this effect.

  13. Transferencia de calor en la colada continua de aceros. II parte. Enfriamiento secundario

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cicutti, C.

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available Once the strand leaves the mold, the solidification of steel progresses due to the heat extracted in the secondary cooling zone of the continuous casting machine. In this zone, heat is extracted mainly by: the incidence of water from sprays, radiation to surroundings contact with rolls and run out water accumulated between rolls and strand. In this work, all these mechanisms are evaluated and, when it is possible, they are quantified. Methods which are usually employed to measure solidification profiles in the continuous casting machine are also reviewed. Finally, the incidence of secondary cooling on the quality of cast products is discussed.

    La solidificación del acero iniciada en el molde continúa en la zona de enfriamiento secundario de la máquina donde el calor es extraído, principalmente por la incidencia del agua de los rociadores, la radiación al medio ambiente, el contacto con los rodillos y el agua acumulada en ellos. En este trabajo se revisa cada uno de estos mecanismos determinando, en los casos en que es posible, valores cuantitativos de los mismos. Además, se analizan los distintos métodos empleados para medir el avance del espesor solidificado en la máquina de colada continua. Por último, se discute la incidencia del enfriamiento secundario en la calidad final de los productos colados.

  14. Effects of Low-Dose Non-Caloric Sweetener Consumption on Gut Microbiota in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takashi Uebanso

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Non-caloric artificial sweeteners (NASs provide sweet tastes to food without adding calories or glucose. NASs can be used as alternative sweeteners for controlling blood glucose levels and weight gain. Although the consumption of NASs has increased over the past decade in Japan and other countries, whether these sweeteners affect the composition of the gut microbiome is unclear. In the present study, we examined the effects of sucralose or acesulfame-K ingestion (at most the maximum acceptable daily intake (ADI levels, 15 mg/kg body weight on the gut microbiome in mice. Consumption of sucralose, but not acesulfame-K, for 8 weeks reduced the relative amount of Clostridium cluster XIVa in feces. Meanwhile, sucralose and acesulfame-K did not increase food intake, body weight gain or liver weight, or fat in the epididymis or cecum. Only sucralose intake increased the concentration of hepatic cholesterol and cholic acid. Moreover, the relative concentration of butyrate and the ratio of secondary/primary bile acids in luminal metabolites increased with sucralose consumption in a dose-dependent manner. These results suggest that daily intake of maximum ADI levels of sucralose, but not acesulfame-K, affected the relative amount of the Clostridium cluster XIVa in fecal microbiome and cholesterol bile acid metabolism in mice.

  15. Caloric restriction preserves memory and reduces anxiety of aging mice with early enhancement of neurovascular functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parikh, Ishita; Guo, Janet; Chuang, Kai-Hsiang; Zhong, Yu; Rempe, Ralf G; Hoffman, Jared D; Armstrong, Rachel; Bauer, Björn; Hartz, Anika M S; Lin, Ai-Ling

    2016-11-08

    Neurovascular integrity plays an important role in protecting cognitive and mental health in aging. Lifestyle interventions that sustain neurovascular integrity may thus be critical on preserving brain functions in aging and reducing the risk for age-related neurodegenerative disorders. Here we show that caloric restriction (CR) had an early effect on neurovascular enhancements, and played a critical role in preserving vascular, cognitive and mental health in aging. In particular, we found that CR significantly enhanced cerebral blood flow (CBF) and blood-brain barrier function in young mice at 5-6 months of age. The neurovascular enhancements were associated with reduced mammalian target of rapamycin expression, elevated endothelial nitric oxide synthase signaling, and increased ketone bodies utilization. With age, CR decelerated the rate of decline in CBF. The preserved CBF in hippocampus and frontal cortex were highly correlated with preserved memory and learning, and reduced anxiety, of the aging mice treated with CR (18-20 months of age). Our results suggest that dietary intervention started in the early stage (e.g., young adults) may benefit cognitive and mental reserve in aging. Understanding nutritional effects on neurovascular functions may have profound implications in human brain aging and age-related neurodegenerative disorders.

  16. Effects of Caloric Restriction on Age-Related Hearing Loss in Rodents and Rhesus Monkeys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Someya, Shinichi; Tanokura, Masaru; Weindruch, Richard; Prolla, Tomas A.; Yamasoba, Tatsuya

    2014-01-01

    Age-related hearing loss (AHL), also known as presbycusis, is a universal feature of mammalian aging and is the most frequently occurring sensory disorder in the elderly population. AHL is characterized by a decline of auditory function and loss of hair cells and spiral ganglion neurons in the cochlea of the inner ear. It has been postulated that AHL occurs gradually as a result of the cumulative effect with aging of exposure to noise, diet, oxidative damage, and mitochondrial DNA mutations. However, the molecular mechanisms of AHL remain unclear and no preventative or therapeutic interventions have been developed. A growing body of evidence suggests increased oxidative damage with aging to macromolecules such as DNA, proteins, and lipids may play a causal role in aging and age-related diseases. Caloric restriction (CR) extends the lifespan of most mammalian species, delays the onset of multiple age-related diseases, and attenuates both the degree of oxidative damage and the associated decline in physiological function. Here, we review studies on CR’s ability to prevent cochlear pathology and AHL in laboratory animals and discuss potential molecular mechanisms of CR’s actions. PMID:20298166

  17. Entropy Generation and Human Aging: Lifespan Entropy and Effect of Diet Composition and Caloric Restriction Diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos A. Silva

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The first and second laws of thermodynamic were applied to statistical databases on nutrition and human growth in order to estimate the entropy generation over the human lifespan. The calculations were performed for the cases of variation in the diet composition and calorie restriction diets; and results were compared to a base case in which lifespan entropy generation was found to be 11 404 kJ/K per kg of body mass, predicting a lifespan of 73.78 and 81.61 years for the average male and female individuals respectively. From the analysis of the results, it was found that changes of diet % of fat and carbohydrates do not have a significant impact on predicted lifespan, while the diet % of proteins has an important effect. Reduction of diet protein % to the minimum recommended in nutrition literature yields an average increase of 3.3 years on the predicted lifespan. Changes in the calorie content of the diet also have an important effect, yielding a % increase in lifespan equal or higher than the % reduction in the diet caloric content. This correlates well experimental data on small mammal and insects, in which lifespan has been increased by diet restriction.

  18. Cardiovascular risk escalation with caloric excess: a prospective demonstration of the mechanics in healthy adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Alok K; Johnson, William D; Johannsen, Darcy; Ravussin, Eric

    2013-01-24

    The link between weight gain and cardiovascular risk characterized with circadian blood pressure variability [CBPV] and endothelial function [EF] is unexplored. To prospectively demonstrate weight gain in healthy adults, increases body fat [BF], enlarges waist circumference [WC], expands visceral adipose tissue [VAT], exacerbates systemic inflammation [sIF], worsens insulin resistance [IR] and enhances functional cardiovascular disease [CVD] risk. Healthy men [n=11] and women [n=3] provided initial and eight-week post-caloric excess anthropometric and fasting laboratory measures. Functional CVD risk assessments: CBPV and resting EF were also obtained with 7-day automatic ambulatory BP monitoring and increased test finger peripheral arterial tone [PAT] relative to control [reported as relative hyperemia index (RHI)], respectively. After determining individualized mean energy requirements for weight maintenance over 7-days, each participant received a personalized over feeding prescription (1.4 times; 41% carbohydrate, 44% fat, and 15% protein) for 8-weeks. mean (SEM). Participants increased body weight [BW; +7.4(0.1) kg]*, body mass index [BMI; +2.5(0.2) kg/m²]*, BF [+2.0(0.01)%]*, WC [+8.2(1.0) cm]*, and VAT [+0.2(0.03) L]* and intrahepatic lipid [IHL + 0.0004(0.002) L] :*all p risk [measured as abnormal circadian blood pressure variability and impaired resting endothelial function].

  19. Attentional biases to foods: The effects of caloric content and cognitive restraint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forestell, Catherine A; Lau, Pia; Gyurovski, Ivo I; Dickter, Cheryl L; Haque, Sabrina S

    2012-12-01

    The goal of the present study was to determine whether female restrained and unrestrained eaters demonstrated differential levels of attentional bias to high calorie foods when they were presented as distractors in a flanker task. This task consisted of four blocks of 68 trials in which three food pictures were briefly presented simultaneously on a computer screen. On each trial a high or low calorie target food was presented in the center of a pair of high or low calorie food flanker pictures and participants' reaction times to answer a basic question about whether they would consume the target food for breakfast were recorded. In Experiment 1, in which all participants were fed a snack prior to engaging in the flanker task, there was no evidence that restrained (n=29) or unrestrained (n=37) eaters had an attentional bias. However, in Experiment 2, when participants completed the flanker task while hungry, restrained eaters (n=27) experienced response conflict only when low calorie targets were flanked by high calorie distractors, whereas unrestrained eaters (n=46) were distracted by high calorie flankers regardless of the caloric content of the target cue. The results from this implicit task indicate that flankers interfere with hungry participants' responses to varying degrees depending on their cognitive restraint. Whether attentional bias to food cues subsequently affects food choices and eating behavior is a topic for further investigation. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  20. Historical evolution of slope instability in the Calore River Basin, Southern Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diodato, Nazzareno; Soriano, Marcella; Bellocchi, Gianni; Fiorillo, Francesco; Cevasco, Andrea; Revellino, Paola; Guadagno, Francesco Maria

    2017-04-01

    There is interest in knowing historical spatio-temporal patterns of landslide activity. However, this is challenging to reconstruct because it is difficult to obtain detailed records for past landslide activity. Here, we deal with hydro-geomorphological signatures, such as storms, downpours, floods, snowmelt and mass movement, to detect annual slope instability events (ASIEs) over historical times. In order to obtain ASIEs for each year, a monthly Instability Density Index (IDI) was used and then monthly values were summed up to obtain a yearly value. Classes of monthly IDI varying between 0 (no instability) and 4 (highest instability) were determined from historical documents. We present an application for the Calore River Basin, Southern Italy, using data from a 313-year long series (1701-2013 CE). After 1880 CE the information becomes more valuable with directly observed landslide frequency. By this cataloguing, 129 ASIEs were obtained. Their evolution shows slight instability during the 18th century. Uneven and greater slope instability occurred instead across the 19th century, when an important phase of deforestation coincided with intensification of agricultural activities. Slope instability events continued during the 20th century but their causes are mainly related to anthropisation and the effects of recent climate change. It was determined that stormy autumns until the 19th century and successive winter-times with enhanced snowmelt, may have driven the reactivation of widespread instability events. We also found that mountainous and hilly terrains have an acute sensitivity to climate change.

  1. Adipose-immune interactions during obesity and caloric restriction: reciprocal mechanisms regulating immunity and health span.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixit, Vishwa Deep

    2008-10-01

    Increasing evidence suggests a tight coupling of metabolic and immune systems. This cross-talk mediated by neuroendocrine peptides as well as numerous cytokines and chemokines is believed to be responsible for integrating energy balance to immune function. These neuroendocrine-immune interactions are heightened during the state of chronic positive energy balance, as seen during obesity, and negative energy balance caused by caloric restriction (CR). Emerging evidence suggests that obesity may be associated with an immunodeficient state and chronic inflammation, which contribute to an increased risk of premature death. The direct interactions between expanded leukocyte populations within the adipose tissue during obesity and an increased number of adipocytes within an aging lymphoid microenvironment may constitute an important adaptive or pathological response as a result of change in energy balance. In stark contrast to obesity, CR causes negative energy balance and robustly prolongs a healthy lifespan in all of the species studied to date. Therefore, the endogenous neuroendocrine-metabolic sensors elevated or suppressed as a result of changes in energy balance may offer an important mechanism in understanding the antiaging and potential immune-enhancing nature of CR. Ghrelin, one such sensor of negative energy balance, is reduced during obesity and increased by CR. Ghrelin also regulates immune function by reducing proinflammatory cytokines and promotes thymopoiesis during aging and thus, may be a new CR mimetic target. The identification of immune effects and molecular pathways used by such orexigenic metabolic factors could offer potentially novel approaches to enhance immunity and increase healthy lifespan.

  2. Prevalence and risk factors of latent Tuberculosis among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives: We determined the prevalence and risk factors of latent TB infection among adolescents in rural Uganda. Methods: We analyzed baseline data from a study .... study tailored training. Interpretation of TST readings ..... The strength of this study included the use of clinical history coupled with microbiological and ...

  3. Spontaneous latent phase labour: A review of issues in definition ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The studies of several other workers in the debate on classification and management were critically review with a view to evolve a consensus. It is finally concluded that nowadays latent phase labour is a clinically recognizable entity with clear cut features and parameters for a prospective diagnosis. Also in spite of the ...

  4. Latent spatial models and sampling design for landscape genetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ephraim M. Hanks; Melvin B. Hooten; Steven T. Knick; Sara J. Oyler-McCance; Jennifer A. Fike; Todd B. Cross; Michael K. Schwartz

    2016-01-01

    We propose a spatially-explicit approach for modeling genetic variation across space and illustrate how this approach can be used to optimize spatial prediction and sampling design for landscape genetic data. We propose a multinomial data model for categorical microsatellite allele data commonly used in landscape genetic studies, and introduce a latent spatial...

  5. Latent Classes in the Developmental Trajectories of Infant Handedness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michel, George F.; Babik, Iryna; Sheu, Ching-Fan; Campbell, Julie M.

    2014-01-01

    Handedness for acquiring objects was assessed monthly from 6 to 14 months in 328 infants (182 males). A group based trajectory model identified 3 latent groups with different developmental trajectories: those with an identifiable right preference (38%) or left preference (14%) and those without an identifiable preference (48%) but with a…

  6. A Collapsed Variational Bayesian Inference Algorithm for Latent Dirichlet Allocation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-09-07

    A Collapsed Variational Bayesian Inference Algorithm for Latent Dirichlet Allocation Yee Whye Teh Gatsby Computational Neuroscience Unit University...thesis, Gatsby Computa- tional Neuroscience Unit, University College London, 2003. [12] J. Sung, Z. Ghahramani, and S. Choi. Variational Bayesian EM: A

  7. Stochastic Collapsed Variational Bayesian Inference for Latent Dirichlet Allocation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Foulds, J.; Boyles, L.; DuBois, C.; Smyth, P.; Welling, M.; Dhillon, I.S.; Koren, Y.; Ghani, R.; Senator, T.E.; Bradley, P.; Parekh, R.; He, J.; Grossman, R.L.; Uthurusamy, R.

    2013-01-01

    There has been an explosion in the amount of digital text information available in recent years, leading to challenges of scale for traditional inference algorithms for topic models. Recent advances in stochastic variational inference algorithms for latent Dirichlet allocation (LDA) have made it

  8. Changes in latent fingerprint examiners' markup between analysis and comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulery, Bradford T; Hicklin, R Austin; Roberts, Maria Antonia; Buscaglia, JoAnn

    2015-02-01

    After the initial analysis of a latent print, an examiner will sometimes revise the assessment during comparison with an exemplar. Changes between analysis and comparison may indicate that the initial analysis of the latent was inadequate, or that confirmation bias may have affected the comparison. 170 volunteer latent print examiners, each randomly assigned 22 pairs of prints from a pool of 320 total pairs, provided detailed markup documenting their interpretations of the prints and the bases for their comparison conclusions. We describe changes in value assessments and markup of features and clarity. When examiners individualized, they almost always added or deleted minutiae (90.3% of individualizations); every examiner revised at least some markups. For inconclusive and exclusion determinations, changes were less common, and features were added more frequently when the image pair was mated (same source). Even when individualizations were based on eight or fewer corresponding minutiae, in most cases some of those minutiae had been added during comparison. One erroneous individualization was observed: the markup changes were notably extreme, and almost all of the corresponding minutiae had been added during comparison. Latents assessed to be of value for exclusion only (VEO) during analysis were often individualized when compared to a mated exemplar (26%); in our previous work, where examiners were not required to provide markup of features, VEO individualizations were much less common (1.8%). Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  9. Model Criticism of Bayesian Networks with Latent Variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, David M.; Mislevy, Robert J.; Almond, Russell G.

    This study investigated statistical methods for identifying errors in Bayesian networks (BN) with latent variables, as found in intelligent cognitive assessments. BN, commonly used in artificial intelligence systems, are promising mechanisms for scoring constructed-response examinations. The success of an intelligent assessment or tutoring system…

  10. Epstein Barr virus latent membrane protein-1 in Hodgkin's ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Epstein-Barr virus latent membrane protein-1 (LMP-1), CD15 and CD30 immunohistochemistry was also performed. The clinical characteristics of each patient were documented. Objectives: To document the frequency of involvement of Epstein-Barr virus in cases of HL seen in a university hospital in Nigeria. Results: Out of ...

  11. Latent error detection: A golden two hours for detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saward, Justin R E; Stanton, Neville A

    2017-03-01

    Undetected error in safety critical contexts generates a latent condition that can contribute to a future safety failure. The detection of latent errors post-task completion is observed in naval air engineers using a diary to record work-related latent error detection (LED) events. A systems view is combined with multi-process theories to explore sociotechnical factors associated with LED. Perception of cues in different environments facilitates successful LED, for which the deliberate review of past tasks within two hours of the error occurring and whilst remaining in the same or similar sociotechnical environment to that which the error occurred appears most effective. Identified ergonomic interventions offer potential mitigation for latent errors; particularly in simple everyday habitual tasks. It is thought safety critical organisations should look to engineer further resilience through the application of LED techniques that engage with system cues across the entire sociotechnical environment, rather than relying on consistent human performance. Crown Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Combining SNPs in latent variables to improve genomic prediction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heuven, Henri C M; Rosa, G J M; Janss, Luc

    The objective of this study was to develop and test hierarchical genomic models with latent variables that represent parts of the genomic values. An interaction model and a chromosome model were compared with a model based on variable selection in a simulated and real dataset. The program Bayz......: Hierarchical genetic model; Predictive value; Gibbs sampling; Variable selection....

  13. Exploring Different Types of Academic Delayers: A Latent Profile Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grunschel, Carola; Patrzek, Justine; Fries, Stefan

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we explored whether there are different types of academic delayers (i.e., types of students who delay academic tasks). Latent profile analysis based on 554 university students' reasons for academic delay revealed four distinct types: inconspicuous, successful pressure-seeking, worried/anxious, and discontent with studies. The types…

  14. Latent Inhibition in an Insect: The Role of Aminergic Signaling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, Vanesa M.; Giurfa, Martin; Devaud, Jean-Marc; Farina, Walter M.

    2012-01-01

    Latent inhibition (LI) is a decrement in learning performance that results from the nonreinforced pre-exposure of the to-be-conditioned stimulus, in both vertebrates and invertebrates. In vertebrates, LI development involves dopamine and serotonin; in invertebrates there is yet no information. We studied differential olfactory conditioning of the…

  15. Identifying subgroups of patients using latent class analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Anne Mølgaard; Kent, Peter; Hestbæk, Lise

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Heterogeneity in patients with low back pain (LBP) is well recognised and different approaches to subgrouping have been proposed. Latent Class Analysis (LCA) is a statistical technique that is increasingly being used to identify subgroups based on patient characteristics. However, as ...

  16. The Latent Structure of Psychopathy in Youth: A Taxometric Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasey, Michael W.; Kotov, Roman; Frick, Paul J.; Loney, Bryan R.

    2005-01-01

    Using taxometric procedures, the latent structure of psychopathy was investigated in two studies of children and adolescents. Prior studies have identified a taxon (i.e., a natural category) associated with antisocial behavior in adults as well as children and adolescents. However, features of this taxon suggest that it is not psychopathy but…

  17. A Note on Parameter Estimation For Lazarsfeld's Latent Class Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Formann, Anton K.

    1978-01-01

    As the literature indicates, no method is presently available which takes explicitly into account that the parameters of Lazarsfeld's latent class analysis are defined as probabilities and are therefore restricted to the interval (0,1). An appropriate transform on the parameters is presented in order to satisfy this constraint. (Author/JKS)

  18. The Measurement of Textual Coherence with Latent Semantic Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foltz, Peter W.; Kintsch, Walter; Landauer, Thomas K

    1998-01-01

    Illustrates use of Latent Semantic Analysis (LSA) for predicting coherence through reanalyzing two studies that manipulated coherence of texts and assessed readers' comprehension. Finds that LSA predicts effects of text coherence on comprehension. Notes that LSA can be applied as an automated method that produces coherence predictions similar to…

  19. Effectiveness of Automated Chinese Sentence Scoring with Latent Semantic Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Chen-Huei; Kuo, Bor-Chen; Pai, Kai-Chih

    2012-01-01

    Automated scoring by means of Latent Semantic Analysis (LSA) has been introduced lately to improve the traditional human scoring system. The purposes of the present study were to develop a LSA-based assessment system to evaluate children's Chinese sentence construction skills and to examine the effectiveness of LSA-based automated scoring function…

  20. Unitary operators for fast latent semantic indexing (FLSI)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoenkamp, E.C.M.

    2001-01-01

    Latent Semantic Indexing (LSI) dramatically reduces the dimension of the document space by mapping it into a space spanned by conceptual indices. Empirically, the number of concepts that can represent the documents are far fewer than the great variety of words in the textual representation. Although

  1. Using Latent Semantic Analysis To Assess Knowledge: Some Technical Considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehder, Bob; Schreiner, M. E.; Wolfe, Michael B. W.; Laham, Darrell; Kintsch, Walter; Landauer, Thomas K

    1998-01-01

    Provides a technical analysis of the factors involved in the ability of latent semantic analysis to assess student knowledge (grading essays and matching students with appropriate instructional texts). Addresses the role of technical vocabulary, how long the student essays should be, and how one deals with the directionality of knowledge in the…

  2. Post-primary reading fluency development: A latent change approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ven, M.A.M. van de; Voeten, M.J.M.; Steenbeek-Planting, E.G.; Verhoeven, L.T.W.

    2017-01-01

    In a longitudinal study, we investigated the post-primary reading fluency development of 1034 Dutch adolescents enrolled in four tracks of secondary education (high, intermediate, low, special education), using a multiple-group latent change approach. We assessed adolescents' word, pseudoword and

  3. Improving Measurement Precision of Hierarchical Latent Traits Using Adaptive Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chun

    2014-01-01

    Many latent traits in social sciences display a hierarchical structure, such as intelligence, cognitive ability, or personality. Usually a second-order factor is linearly related to a group of first-order factors (also called domain abilities in cognitive ability measures), and the first-order factors directly govern the actual item responses.…

  4. The relationship between CUB and loglinear models with latent variables

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oberski, D.L.; Vermunt, J.K.

    2015-01-01

    The "combination of uniform and shifted binomial"(cub) model is a distribution for ordinal variables that has received considerable recent attention and specialized development. This article notes that the cub model is a special case of the well-known loglinear latent class model, an observation

  5. The relationship between cub and loglinear models with latent variables

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oberski, D. L.; Vermunt, J. K.

    2015-01-01

    The "combination of uniform and shifted binomial"(cub) model is a distribution for ordinal variables that has received considerable recent attention and specialized development. This article notes that the cub model is a special case of the well-known loglinear latent class model, an observation

  6. Development of Fraction Comparison Strategies: A Latent Transition Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinne, Luke F.; Ye, Ai; Jordan, Nancy C.

    2017-01-01

    The present study investigated the development of fraction comparison strategies through a longitudinal analysis of children's responses to a fraction comparison task in 4th through 6th grades (N = 394). Participants were asked to choose the larger value for 24 fraction pairs blocked by fraction type. Latent class analysis of performance over item…

  7. A Taxometric Exploration of the Latent Structure of Hoarding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timpano, Kiara R.; Broman-Fulks, Joshua J.; Glaesmer, Heide; Exner, Cornelia; Rief, Winfried; Olatunji, Bunmi O.; Keough, Meghan E.; Riccardi, Christina J.; Brahler, Elmar; Wilhelm, Sabine; Schmidt, Norman B.

    2013-01-01

    Despite controversy regarding the classification and diagnostic status of hoarding disorder, there remains a paucity of research on the nosology of hoarding that is likely to inform the classification debate. The present investigation examined the latent structure of hoarding in three, large independent samples. Data for three well-validated…

  8. Multilevel latent class models with dirichlet mixing distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di, Chong-Zhi; Bandeen-Roche, Karen

    2011-03-01

    Latent class analysis (LCA) and latent class regression (LCR) are widely used for modeling multivariate categorical outcomes in social science and biomedical studies. Standard analyses assume data of different respondents to be mutually independent, excluding application of the methods to familial and other designs in which participants are clustered. In this article, we consider multilevel latent class models, in which subpopulation mixing probabilities are treated as random effects that vary among clusters according to a common Dirichlet distribution. We apply the expectation-maximization (EM) algorithm for model fitting by maximum likelihood (ML). This approach works well, but is computationally intensive when either the number of classes or the cluster size is large. We propose a maximum pairwise likelihood (MPL) approach via a modified EM algorithm for this case. We also show that a simple latent class analysis, combined with robust standard errors, provides another consistent, robust, but less-efficient inferential procedure. Simulation studies suggest that the three methods work well in finite samples, and that the MPL estimates often enjoy comparable precision as the ML estimates. We apply our methods to the analysis of comorbid symptoms in the obsessive compulsive disorder study. Our models' random effects structure has more straightforward interpretation than those of competing methods, thus should usefully augment tools available for LCA of multilevel data. © 2010, The International Biometric Society.

  9. Classification criteria of syndromes by latent variable models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Janne

    2010-01-01

    standard exists for diagnosing HALS the normally applied diagnostic models cannot be used. Latent class models, which have never before been used to diagnose HALS, make it possible, under certain assumptions, to: statistically evaluate the number of phenotypes, test for mixing of HALS with other processes...

  10. Latent Class Analysis of YBOCS Symptoms in Obsessive Compulsive Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delucchi, Kevin L.; Katerberg, Hilga; Stewart, S. Evelyn; Denys, Damiaan A.J.P.; Lochner, Christine; Stack, Denise E.; den Boer, Johan A.; van Balkom, Anton J.L.M.; Jenike, Michael A.; Stein, Dan J.; Cath, Danielle C.; Mathews, Carol A.

    2010-01-01

    Objective Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is phenomenologically heterogeneous, and findings of underlying structure classification based on symptom grouping have been ambiguous to date. Variable-centered approaches, primarily factor analysis, have been used to identify homogeneous groups of symptoms, but person-centered latent methods have seen little use. This study was designed to uncover sets of homogeneous groupings within 1611 individuals with OCD, based on symptoms. Method Latent class analysis (LCA) models using 61 obsessive-compulsive symptoms (OCS) collected from the Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale were fit. Relationships between latent class membership and treatment response, gender, symptom severity and comorbid tic disorders were tested for relationship to class membership. Results LCA models of best fit yielded three classes. Classes differed only in frequency of symptom endorsement. Classes with higher symptom endorsement were associated with earlier age of onset, being male, higher YBOCS symptom severity scores, and comorbid tic disorders. There were no differences in treatment response between classes. Conclusions These results provide support for the validity of a single underlying latent OCD construct, in addition to the distinct symptom factors identified previously via factor analyses. PMID:21145539

  11. Temporal analysis of text data using latent variable models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mølgaard, Lasse Lohilahti; Larsen, Jan; Goutte, Cyril

    2009-01-01

    Detecting and tracking of temporal data is an important task in multiple applications. In this paper we study temporal text mining methods for Music Information Retrieval. We compare two ways of detecting the temporal latent semantics of a corpus extracted from Wikipedia, using a stepwise...

  12. Prevalence and risk factors of latent Tuberculosis among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Adolescents are a high risk group that is not ... Objectives: We determined the prevalence and risk factors of latent TB infection among adolescents in rural Uganda. .... Smoking habit. Yes. 2. 0.04. Drinking habit. Yes. 11. 0.22. History of hospitalization in last 6 months. Yes. 43. 0.86. HIV sero-status. HIV infected. 4. 0.08.

  13. Evaluation of AFIS-Ranked latent fingerprint matched templates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krish, Ram P.; Fierrez, Julian; Ramos, Daniel; Veldhuis, Raymond N.J.; Wang, Ruifang; Klette, Reinhard; Rivera, Mariano; Satoh, Shin'ichi

    2013-01-01

    The methodology currently practiced in latent print examination (known as ACE-V) yields only a decision as result, namely individualization, exclusion or inconclusive. From such a decision, it is not possible to express the strength of opinion of a forensic examiner quantitatively with a scientific

  14. Latent Classes of PTSD Symptoms in Vietnam Veterans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steenkamp, Maria M.; Nickerson, Angela; Maguen, Shira; Dickstein, Benjamin D.; Nash, William P.; Litz, Brett T.

    2012-01-01

    The authors examined heterogeneity in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptom presentation among veterans (n = 335) participating in the clinical interview subsample of the National Vietnam Veterans Readjustment Study. Latent class analysis was used to identify clinically homogeneous subgroups of Vietnam War combat veterans. Consistent with…

  15. Latent cluster analysis of ALS phenotypes identifies prognostically differing groups.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeban Ganesalingam

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS is a degenerative disease predominantly affecting motor neurons and manifesting as several different phenotypes. Whether these phenotypes correspond to different underlying disease processes is unknown. We used latent cluster analysis to identify groupings of clinical variables in an objective and unbiased way to improve phenotyping for clinical and research purposes.Latent class cluster analysis was applied to a large database consisting of 1467 records of people with ALS, using discrete variables which can be readily determined at the first clinic appointment. The model was tested for clinical relevance by survival analysis of the phenotypic groupings using the Kaplan-Meier method.The best model generated five distinct phenotypic classes that strongly predicted survival (p<0.0001. Eight variables were used for the latent class analysis, but a good estimate of the classification could be obtained using just two variables: site of first symptoms (bulbar or limb and time from symptom onset to diagnosis (p<0.00001.The five phenotypic classes identified using latent cluster analysis can predict prognosis. They could be used to stratify patients recruited into clinical trials and generating more homogeneous disease groups for genetic, proteomic and risk factor research.

  16. Molecular simulation of caloric properties of fluids modelled by force fields with intramolecular contributions: Application to heat capacities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, William R; Jirsák, Jan; Nezbeda, Ivo; Qi, Weikai

    2017-07-21

    The calculation of caloric properties such as heat capacity, Joule-Thomson coefficients, and the speed of sound by classical force-field-based molecular simulation methodology has received scant attention in the literature, particularly for systems composed of complex molecules whose force fields (FFs) are characterized by a combination of intramolecular and intermolecular terms. The calculation of a thermodynamic property for a system whose molecules are described by such a FF involves the calculation of the residual property prior to its addition to the corresponding ideal-gas property, the latter of which is separately calculated, either using thermochemical compilations or nowadays accurate quantum mechanical calculations. Although the simulation of a volumetric residual property proceeds by simply replacing the intermolecular FF in the rigid molecule case by the total (intramolecular plus intermolecular) FF, this is not the case for a caloric property. We describe the correct methodology required to perform such calculations and illustrate it in this paper for the case of the internal energy and the enthalpy and their corresponding molar heat capacities. We provide numerical results for c P , one of the most important caloric properties. We also consider approximations to the correct calculation procedure previously used in the literature and illustrate their consequences for the examples of the relatively simple molecule 2-propanol, CH 3 CH(OH)CH 3 , and for the more complex molecule monoethanolamine, HO(CH 2 ) 2 NH 2 , an important fluid used in carbon capture.

  17. Molecular simulation of caloric properties of fluids modelled by force fields with intramolecular contributions: Application to heat capacities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, William R.; Jirsák, Jan; Nezbeda, Ivo; Qi, Weikai

    2017-07-01

    The calculation of caloric properties such as heat capacity, Joule-Thomson coefficients, and the speed of sound by classical force-field-based molecular simulation methodology has received scant attention in the literature, particularly for systems composed of complex molecules whose force fields (FFs) are characterized by a combination of intramolecular and intermolecular terms. The calculation of a thermodynamic property for a system whose molecules are described by such a FF involves the calculation of the residual property prior to its addition to the corresponding ideal-gas property, the latter of which is separately calculated, either using thermochemical compilations or nowadays accurate quantum mechanical calculations. Although the simulation of a volumetric residual property proceeds by simply replacing the intermolecular FF in the rigid molecule case by the total (intramolecular plus intermolecular) FF, this is not the case for a caloric property. We describe the correct methodology required to perform such calculations and illustrate it in this paper for the case of the internal energy and the enthalpy and their corresponding molar heat capacities. We provide numerical results for cP, one of the most important caloric properties. We also consider approximations to the correct calculation procedure previously used in the literature and illustrate their consequences for the examples of the relatively simple molecule 2-propanol, CH3CH(OH)CH3, and for the more complex molecule monoethanolamine, HO(CH2)2NH2, an important fluid used in carbon capture.

  18. Islas de calor urbano en Tampico, México. Impacto del microclima a la calidad del hábitat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Alberto Fuentes Pérez

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available De todas las modificaciones climáticas por causa urbana, las térmicas son las más conocidas por los propios ciudadanos. La acción transformadora del espacio natural sobre el que se realiza el emplazamiento de la ciudad, llega a ser productora en gran medida de sus condiciones ambientales, incluida la climatología urbana. Todo proceso de urbanización sustituye los suelos y áreas naturales por superficies construidas, cuyos materiales se caracterizan por una baja reflectividad, con disminución de la capacidad de absorción de agua y un comportamiento térmico propicio para el almacenamiento y la emisión de calor. Estos elementos coadyuvan a realzar la temperatura atmosférica de la ciudad en relación con su entorno menos urbanizado a través de un fenómeno conocido como efecto de islas de calor urbano, produciendo un impacto del microclima a la calidad del hábitat. La presente investigación experimental aplicada tiene como objetivo, demostrar la metodología de investigación adoptada, para realizar las islas de calor urbanas en Tampico, México.

  19. Extension of Drosophila Lifespan by Rhodiola rosea Depends on Dietary Carbohydrate and Caloric Content in a Simplified Diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schriner, Samuel E; Coskun, Volkan; Hogan, Sean P; Nguyen, Cindy T; Lopez, Terry E; Jafari, Mahtab

    2016-03-01

    The root and rhizome extract of Rhodiola rosea has been extensively used in traditional medicine to improve physical and mental performance and to protect against stress. We, and others, have reported that R. rosea can extend lifespan in flies, worms, and yeast. We also previously found that the extract can act independently of dietary restriction (DR), a treatment that can extend lifespan in a range of model organisms. In flies, DR is implemented through a reduction in dietary yeast content. Here, we report that the ability of R. rosea extract to extend lifespan in flies is dependent on the carbohydrate and caloric content when supplemented with a simplified diet composed of yeast and sucrose. R. rosea extract elevated the sugar content in flies and down-regulated hexokinase expression, suggesting that it perturbs carbohydrate metabolism in flies. In our previous studies, bananas, barley malt, and corn syrup provided dietary carbohydrates, and R. rosea extract could extend lifespan with a range of caloric levels. We conclude that the lifespan-extending effect of R. rosea extract in flies is dependent on dietary carbohydrate and caloric contents coupled with an interaction with complex dietary components present in bananas, barley, or corn.

  20. PROCEDIMIENTO DE CALIBRACIÓN EN TEMPERATURA Y FLUJO DE CALOR DE UN CALORÍMETRO DIFERENCIAL DE BARRIDO (DSC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo E. Reynoso

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available El calorímetro diferencial de barrido no es un dispositivo de medición absoluta, por lo que su utilización requiere indispensable mente una calibración. En esta contribución se presenta un procedimiento de calibración para el cual s e consideraron las temperaturas y calores de fusión aceptados en la literatura de 5 materiales puros . S e prepararon 6 muestras de dife rentes masas para cada material y s e sometió cada una de ellas a ci clos de calentamiento , desde temperatura ambiente hasta 50 ºC por encima de las temperaturas de fusión , utilizando 6 velocidades distintas por cada probeta. Luego, p ara determinar una relación de ajuste entre los datos experimentales obtenidos y los valores aceptados , se utilizó un método de regresión no lineal mediante un procedimiento matricial desarrollado en el entorno MATLAB . Los resultados obtenidos muestran una corrección con una desviación estándar de 1,2 ºC para el ajuste en temperatura y 2,1 5 J/g para el flujo de calor.

  1. [Index of Nutritional Purchasing Power Parity: comparison of caloric costs of a healthy versus an unhealthy diet].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendoza Velázquez, Alfonso

    2012-01-01

    Develop the Index of Nutritional Purchasing Power Parity (Nut3-CiO) as an instrument to compare the caloric costs of a healthy versus an unhealthy diet between regions or cities in a country over time. Indices of caloric prices were constructed and the "law of one price" was used to derive the Nut3-CiO index. Caloric inflation rates were obtained using basic descriptive statistics. The Nut3-CiO was applied in the major cities of Mexico during the period from January 1996 to December 2010. The statistical behavior of the Nut3-CiO revealed that, in Mexican cities, products for a typical diet are less expensive than products for a healthy diet. The findings showed a cyclical behavior to the index, a high correlation between inflation for the typical diet and inflation for the market basket, and a high persistence of prices. The Nut3-CiO index makes it possible to periodically compare the price differential of two types of diets-typical and healthy-between cities in a single country. This instrument could help health authorities identify the cities where it is easier or more difficult for consumers to access a typical or healthy diet in terms of cost. Furthermore, it makes it possible to estimate the percentage adjustment necessary in each city to attain levels of nutritional purchasing power parity.

  2. Neuroimaging to detect cortical projection of vestibular response to caloric stimulation in young and older adults using functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karim, H T; Fuhrman, S I; Furman, J M; Huppert, T J

    2013-08-01

    Functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) is a non-invasive and portable neuroimaging technique. The method uses non-ionizing laser light in the range of red to near-infrared to detect changes in cerebral blood oxygenation. In this study, we used fNIRS to investigate cortical hemodynamic changes in the temporo-parietal and frontal regions during caloric vestibular stimulation. Caloric stimulation has previously been investigated using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and positron emission tomography (PET), which serves as a validation of the fNIRS imaging modality toward the measurement of vestibular related brain regions. To date, only a single study has used fNIRS during caloric irrigations, which observed blood volume changes in the temporal-parietal area in healthy younger subjects. In this current study, fNIRS was used to measure cortical vestibular activation in 10 right-handed younger subjects (5 male and 5 female, age 25+/-6 years) and 10 right-handed older subjects (6 male and 4 female, age 74+/-5 years). We investigated both warm (44 °C) and cool (30 °C) unilateral caloric vestibular stimulation. Consistent with previous reports, we found that warm (44 °C) caloric irrigation caused a bilateral activation. In addition, we found that cool (30 °C) caloric irrigation caused contralateral activation of the temporo-parietal area. This study is the first to investigate age effects of the caloric stimulation on brain activity. We found that the older subjects had stronger bilateral effects than the younger subjects. Our results confirm previous fMRI and PET studies that showed cortical activation during caloric vestibular irrigation is dependent on side of irrigation, and temperature of irrigation. Furthermore, our results demonstrate that fNIRS is a viable technique in measuring cortical effects during vestibular tasks. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Estudo da cinética de cura de um pré-impregnado de resina epoxídica/fibra de carbono pelo método isoconversional

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanesa C. G. M. Ferrari

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho tem como objetivo verificar a cinética de cura de um pré-impregnado ("prepreg" de resina epoxídica/fibra de carbono, utilizando a técnica de calorimetria diferencial de varredura (DSC pelo método isoconversional. O método isoconversional analisa a cinética de cura por meio da dependência da energia de ativação durante a conversão (análise isotérmica ou temperatura (análise não-isotérmica e utiliza esta dependência para calcular os parâmetros cinéticos. A avaliação da cinética da reação por DSC baseia-se na quantidade de calor gerado durante as reações exotérmicas. A hipótese de que o calor gerado pela reação química é proporcional à extensão da cura permite obter os parâmetros cinéticos no DSC por meio das análises pelos métodos isotérmicos e não-isotérmicos. Para o método isoconversional isotérmico, a energia de ativação média apresentou valores entre 103 e 72 kJ/mol, e, para o método isoconversional não-isotérmico um valor médio de 80,5 kJ/mol. Estes resultados foram comparados com os obtidos para os métodos ASTM E 2070 e ASTM E 698, cujos valores foram 89±5 kJ/mol e 77,5±2,5 kJ/mol, respectivamente, comprovando a eficiência do método isoconversional.

  4. Perceptions of care in women sent home in latent labor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosek, Claire; Faucher, Mary Ann; Lankford, Janice; Alexander, James

    2014-01-01

    To assess perceptions of care from woman discharged from an obstetrical (OB) triage unit or a labor and delivery unit with a diagnosis of false or latent labor in order to determine factors that may increase or decrease the woman's satisfaction with care. Descriptive, convenience sample. One hundred low-income pregnant women at term presenting for care in latent labor consented to participate in a telephone survey. The survey was based on the relevant research about care of women in early labor and the Donabedian quality improvement framework assessing structure, process, and outcomes of care. Forty-one percent of women did not want to be discharged home in latent labor. Common reasons included women stating they were in too much pain or they were living too far from the birth setting. Eating, drinking, and comfort measures were the most common measures women cited that would have made them feel better when in the hospital. A reoccurring response from women was their desire for very clear and specific written instructions about how to stay comfortable at home and when to return to the hospital. Comfort measures in the birth setting, including in triage, should include a variety of options including ambulation and oral nutrition. Detailed and specific written instructions about early labor and staying comfortable while at home have value for women in this survey regarding their perceptions of care. Results from this survey of low-income women suggest that a subset of women in latent labor just do not want to go home and this may be related to having too much pain and/or travel distance to the hospital. Hospital birth settings also have an opportunity to create a care environment that provides services and embodies attributes that women report as important for their satisfaction with care in latent labor.

  5. T-Cell Immunophenotyping Distinguishes Active From Latent Tuberculosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollock, Katrina M.; Whitworth, Hilary S.; Montamat-Sicotte, Damien J.; Grass, Lisa; Cooke, Graham S.; Kapembwa, Moses S.; Kon, Onn M.; Sampson, Robert D.; Taylor, Graham P.; Lalvani, Ajit

    2013-01-01

    Background. Changes in the phenotype and function of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tuberculosis)-specific CD4+ and CD8+ T-cell subsets in response to stage of infection may allow discrimination between active tuberculosis and latent tuberculosis infection. Methods. A prospective comparison of M. tuberculosis-specific cellular immunity in subjects with active tuberculosis and latent tuberculosis infection, with and without human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) coinfection. Polychromatic flow cytometry was used to measure CD4+ and CD8+ T-cell subset phenotype and secretion of interferon γ (IFN-γ), interleukin 2 (IL-2), and tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α). Results. Frequencies of CD4+ and CD8+ cells secreting IFN-γ-only, TNF-α-only and dual IFN-γ/TNF-α were greater in active tuberculosis vs latent tuberculosis infection. All M. tuberculosis-specific CD4+ subsets, with the exception of IL-2-only cells, switched from central to effector memory phenotype in active tuberculosis vs latent tuberculosis infection, accompanied by a reduction in IL-7 receptor α (CD127) expression. The frequency of PPD-specific CD4+ TNF-α-only-secreting T cells with an effector phenotype accurately distinguished active tuberculosis from latent tuberculosis infection with an area under the curve of 0.99, substantially more discriminatory than measurement of function alone. Conclusions. Combined measurement of T-cell phenotype and function defines a highly discriminatory biomarker of tuberculosis disease activity. Unlocking the diagnostic and monitoring potential of this combined approach now requires validation in large-scale prospective studies. PMID:23966657

  6. Skin Resistivity Value of Upper Trapezius Latent Trigger Points

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elżbieta Skorupska

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The skin resistivity (SkR measurement is commonly recommended for acupoints measurement, but for trigger points (TrPs only one study is available. The purpose of the study was to evaluate SkR for latent TrPs compared to non-TrPs and the surrounding tissue. Material and Methods. Forty-two healthy volunteers with unilateral latent upper trapezius TrPs (12 men, 30 women aged 21–23 (mean age: 22.1 ± 0.6 y participated in the study. Keithley electrometer 610B was used for measuring SkR (Ag/AgCl self-adhesive, disposable ground electrode: 30 mm diameter. SkR was measured for latent TrPs and compared to opposite non-TrPs sites and the surrounding tissue. Results. The SkR decrease of TrPs-positive sites as compared to TrPs-negative sites and the surrounding tissue was confirmed. However, no statistically significant difference in the SkR value occurred when all data were analyzed. The same was confirmed after gender division and for TrPs-positive subjects examined for referred pain and twitch response presence. Conclusion. SkR reactive changes at latent TrPs are possible but the results were not consistent with the previous study. Thus, caution in applying SkR to latent TrPs isolation is recommended and its clinical use should not be encouraged yet. Further studies, especially on active TrPs, are yet required.

  7. Reagents for the chemical development of latent fingerprints: synthesis and properties of some ninhydrin analogues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almog, J; Hirshfeld, A; Klug, J T

    1982-10-01

    In an attempt to design new reagents for the chemical development of latent fingerprints, a number of ninhydrin analogues were synthesized and their reactions with latent fingerprints on paper were studied. The ring-fused and substituted ninhydrins developed latent fingerprints with a sensitivity similar to that of ninhydrin. The most promising of the group was 2,2-dihydroxybenz[f]indane-1,3-dione, which developed latent fingerprints as dark green images with excellent resolution.

  8. Serum concentrations and gene expression of sirtuin 1 in healthy and slightly overweight subjects after caloric restriction or resveratrol supplementation: A randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansur, Antonio P; Roggerio, Alessandra; Goes, Marisa F S; Avakian, Solange D; Leal, Dalila P; Maranhão, Raul C; Strunz, Célia M C

    2017-01-15

    Sirtuin 1 (Sirt1) plays an important role in vascular biology, and influences aspects of age-dependent atherosclerosis. In animals, the sirtuin system is strongly influenced by resveratrol and caloric restriction, but its expression in humans is controversial. This study investigated the effects of resveratrol and caloric restriction on Sirt1 serum concentrations and vascular biomarkers in a healthy human population. Forty-eight healthy participants (24 women) aged 55-65years were randomized to either 30days of resveratrol administration (500mg/day) or caloric restriction (1000cal/day). Blood was collected at baseline and day 30. Laboratory data analyzed were triglycerides, total cholesterol, HDL, VLDL, LDL, apolipoprotein A1, apolipoprotein B, lipoprotein (a), non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA), glucose, insulin, oxidative stress, C-reactive protein, and Sirt1. Expression of the Sirt1 gene was analyzed using real-time PCR. Caloric restriction diminished the abdominal circumference and improved the lipid profile, but not resveratrol intervention. Resveratrol and caloric restriction increased serum concentrations of Sirt1, from 1.06±0.71 to 5.75±2.98ng/mL; presveratrol treatment. Caloric restriction and resveratrol significantly increased plasma concentrations of Sirt1. The long-term impact of these interventions on atherosclerosis should be assessed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Processo Internacional pelos danos socioambientais causados a Equador pelo uso do Glifosato no combate de cultivos ilícitos na Amazônia Colombiana

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    Mónica Montana

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available A produção de cultivos ilícitos e o tráfico de drogas no âmbito amazônico tem se convertido numa dinâmica local e regional preocupante, por afetar não apenas as relações societais, mas também por estimular impactos hidroambientais negativos na população e na ambiência. As aspersões aéreas realizadas pelo Estado colombiano na área de fronteira com Equador, para combater o narcotráfico e os plantios ilícitos, resultou num processo jurídico inédito na América do Sul. O Estado equatoriano instaurou demanda na Corte de Haia contra Colômbia, em 2008, devido ao uso de herbicidas tóxicos, entre eles o glifosato. Esse processo trouxe à tona a importância do tema ambiental e colocou em relevo a necessária participação das organizações não governamentais na luta pelos direitos das populações amazônicas na área do conflito. Este artigo sintetiza as circunstâncias em que a demanda se produziu e os argumentos apresentados pelos dois países andino-amazônicos.

  10. Exploring Latent Class Based on Growth Rates in Number Sense Ability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dongil; Shin, Jaehyun; Lee, Kijyung

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore latent class based on growth rates in number sense ability by using latent growth class modeling (LGCM). LGCM is one of the noteworthy methods for identifying growth patterns of the progress monitoring within the response to intervention framework in that it enables us to analyze latent sub-groups based not…

  11. Polytomous Latent Scales for the Investigation of the Ordering of Items

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ligtvoet, Rudy; van der Ark, L. Andries; Bergsma, Wicher P.; Sijtsma, Klaas

    2011-01-01

    We propose three latent scales within the framework of nonparametric item response theory for polytomously scored items. Latent scales are models that imply an invariant item ordering, meaning that the order of the items is the same for each measurement value on the latent scale. This ordering property may be important in, for example,…

  12. Validation of Diagnostic Measures Based on Latent Class Analysis: A Step Forward in Response Bias Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Michael L.; Lanyon, Richard I.; Millsap, Roger E.

    2009-01-01

    The use of criterion group validation is hindered by the difficulty of classifying individuals on latent constructs. Latent class analysis (LCA) is a method that can be used for determining the validity of scales meant to assess latent constructs without such a priori classifications. The authors used this method to examine the ability of the L…

  13. Discrete time, discrete state latent Markov modelling for assessing and predicting household acquisitions of financial products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paas, Leonard J.; Vermunt, Jeroen K.; Bijmolt, Tammo H. A.

    2007-01-01

    The paper demonstrates application of the latent Markov model for assessing developments by individuals through stages of a process. This approach is applied by using a database on ownership of 12 financial products and various demographic variables. The latent Markov model derives latent classes,

  14. Meals of differing caloric content do not alter physical activity behavior during a subsequent simulated recess period in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Kelly J; Pohle-Krauza, Rachael; Uhas, Samantha; Barkley, Jacob E

    2016-01-01

    Research on adults and animals has demonstrated that chronic and acute overfeeding can alter physical activity behavior. However, there are no assessments of the acute effects of high-calorie (HC) meals on physical activity behavior in children. This is of importance as a typical school lunch is HC. If this type of meal negatively impacts subsequent physical activity behavior, the ability of post-lunch recess periods as a means to increase energy expenditure may be lessened. To assess the effect of two meals of differing caloric content, HC and low calorie (LC), on children's subsequent physical activity behavior. Nineteen healthy children (aged 6-10) completed two laboratory sessions where they were fed lunch with HC or LC content, but equivalent macronutrient distribution. Children had 15 min to consume as much of the meal as possible per session. Children consumed 659.5 ± 101.3 kcal in the HC condition and 291.8 ± 12.1 kcal in the LC condition. After the meal, children went to a gymnasium for 40 min. In the gymnasium children had free-choice access to obstacle courses, various sports equipment, and a table with sedentary activities. Children could play with any of the activities in any amount they wished for the entire activity session. Children's physical activity was monitored with accelerometers and that data was converted into caloric expenditure. Each child ate all meals and participated in the free-choice activity sessions with no other children present. Caloric expenditure during the free-choice activity sessions was not significantly different (p = 0.4) between the HC (89.2 ± 27.3 kcals) and LC (83.4 ± 34.9 kcals) conditions. However, caloric balance (kcals eaten-kcals expended) was 2.74-fold greater (p < 0.001) in the HC condition (Δ 570.3 ± 92.2 kcals) than the LC condition (Δ 208.4 ± 32.0 kcals). Children did not alter their physical activity behavior during a free-choice activity session after consuming a HC meal

  15. Productivity of determinate growth tomato lines tolerant to heat under the organic system Produtividade de linhagens de tomate rasteiro tolerantes ao calor sob o sistema orgânico

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    Cândido A da Costa

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present work was to evaluate the productive response of heat tolerant lines of determinate growth tomato under the organic production system. The experiment was carried out in the Instituto de Ciências Agrárias of UFMG, Montes Claros, Minas Gerais state, Brazil. The experimental design was of randomized complete blocks with eight treatments and four replications. The treatments consisted of eight heat tolerant processing type tomato lines obtained from the Asian Vegetable Research and Development Center (AVRDC, China: CLN1621L, CLN1621F, CLN1621E, CLN1466P, CLN2026E, CLN2026D, CLN2026C and CLN2001C. There was an inverse relationship between the average weight of the fruits and the number of fruits per plant. The highest average fruit weight of some lines was compensated by the lowest quantity of fruits, in such a way that there were no significant differences among the lines. Symptoms of nutritional deficiency and incidences of pests and diseases were not verified in any of the studied lines. All lines presented potential for genetic improvement research and cultivation using organic production systems under higher temperature conditions.O objetivo do presente trabalho foi avaliar o desempenho produtivo de linhagens de tomate rasteiro tolerantes ao calor sob o sistema orgânico de produção. O experimento foi realizado no Núcleo de Ciências Agrárias da UFMG, Montes Claros-MG. Foi utilizado o delineamento em blocos casualizados com oito tratamentos e quatro repetições. Os tratamentos consistiram de oito linhagens de tomate do tipo rasteiro tolerantes ao calor obtidos na Asian Vegetable Research and Development Center (AVRDC, China: CLN1621L, CLN1621F, CLN1621E, CLN1466P, CLN2026E, CLN2026D, CLN2026C e CLN2001C. Houve uma relação inversa entre o peso médio dos frutos e o número de frutos produzidos por planta. O maior peso médio de frutos de algumas linhagens foi compensado pelo menor número de frutos, de tal

  16. PREFACE: 16th International Conference on Calorimetry in High Energy Physics (CALOR 2014)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novotny, Rainer W.

    2015-02-01

    The XVIth International Conference on Calorimetry in High Energy Physics - CALOR 2014 - was held in Giessen, Germany from 6-11 April 2014 at the Science Campus of the University. It was hosted by the Justus-Liebig-University and the HIC for FAIR Helmholtz International Center. The series of conferences on calorimetry were started in 1990 at Fermilab and are focusing primarily on operating and future calorimeter systems within the Hadron and High-Energy Physics community without neglecting the impact on other fields such as Astrophysics or Medical Imaging. Confirmed by the impressive list of over 70 oral presentations, 5 posters and over 100 attendees, the field of calorimetry appears alive and attractive. The present volume contains the written contributions of almost all presentations which can be found at http://calor2014.de. Time slots of 15 or 30 minutes including discussion were allocated. The conference was accompanied by a small exhibition of several industrial companies related to the field. The day before the opening of the scientific program, Richard Wigmans gave an excellent and vivid tutorial on basic aspects on calorimetry meant as an introduction for students and conference attendees new in the field. The opening ceremony was used to give an impression of the present and future status and the scientific program of the new FAIR facility nearby at Darmstadt presented by Klaus Peters from GSI. The conference program of the first day was dedicated to the performance and required future upgrade of the LHC experiments, dominated by ATLAS, CMS and LHCb. The program of the next day contained specific aspects on electronics and readout as well as calorimetry in outer space. Several contributions discussed in detail new concepts for hadron calorimeters within the CALICE collaboration completed by a session on sampling calorimeters. The next sections were dedicated to operating and future calorimeters at various laboratories and covering a wide range of

  17. ESTIMACIÓN DE LAS ISOTERMAS DE ADSORCIÓN Y DEL CALOR ISOSTÉRICO EN HARINA DE YUCA ESTIMAÇÃO DAS ISOTERMAS DE ADSORÇÃO E DO CALOR ISOSTÉRICO EM FARINHA DE MANDIOCA ADSORPTION ISOTHERMS AND ISOSTERIC HEAT ESTIMATION IN CASSAVA FLOUR

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    ALFREDO AYALA-APONTE

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Se determinaron las isotermas de adsorción de humedad en harina de yuca a 20, 25, 30 y 35°C mediante el método gravimétrico en el intervalo de actividad de agua entre 0.111 y 0.901. Los valores experimentales de adsorción se ajustaron mediante los modelos de GAB, BET, Oswin, Smith, Henderson y Chung and Pfost. El calor isostérico de sorción (Qst se determinó mediante la ecuación de Clausius-Clapeyron. Las isotermas obtenidas presentaron una forma sigmoidea (Tipo II. El contenido de humedad de equilibrio (CHE disminuyó con el aumento de la temperatura para un valor constante de actividad de agua. Los modelos de sorción GAB, Oswin y Smith fueron los que mejor ajustaron los valores experimentales. El Qst disminuyó con el aumento del CHE obteniéndose un valor máximo y un mínimo entre 118.84 y 45.20 kJ/mol para humedades entre 5 y 35 (g agua/g ms respectivamente.Se determinaram as isotermas de adsorção de humidade dafarinha de mandioca, 20, 25, 30 e 35°C utilizando-se o método estático gravimétrico numa faixa de atividade de água entre 0.111 e 0.90. Os valores experimentais de adsorção foram ajustados pelos modelos de GAB, BET, Oswin, Smith, Henderson e Chung, e Pfost. O calor isostérico de adsorção (Qst foi determinado pela ecuação de Clausius-Clapeyron. Os resultados mostraram que as isotermas obtidas foram de forma sigmoidal (Tipo II. O teor de humidade de equilibrio (CHE apresentou dependência com a temperatura, diminuindo com o aumento desta a um valor constante de atividade de água. Os Modelos de adsorção GAB, Oswin e Smith foram os que presentaram melhor ajuste aos valores experimentais. O Qst diminuío com o aumento de CHE, obténdo-se um máximo e um mínimo entre 118,84 e 45,20 kJ / mol de humidade entre 5 e 35 (g de água/g bs, respectivamente.Moisture adsorption isotherms of cassava flour were determined using a gravimetric static method at 20,25, 30 and 35°C in the range of water activity from 0.111 to 0

  18. Effect of exercise on the caloric intake of breast cancer patients undergoing treatment

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    C.L. Battaglini

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of an exercise intervention on the total caloric intake (TCI of breast cancer patients undergoing treatment. A secondary purpose was to determine whether or not a relationship existed between changes in TCI, body fat composition (%BF, and fatigue during the study, which lasted 6 months. Twenty females recently diagnosed with breast cancer, scheduled to undergo chemotherapy or radiation, were assigned randomly to an experimental (N = 10 or control group (N = 10. Outcome measures included TCI (3-day food diary, %BF (skinfolds, and fatigue (revised Piper Fatigue Scale. Each exercise session was conducted as follows: initial cardiovascular activity (6-12 min, followed by stretching (5-10 min, resistance training (15-30 min, and a cool-down (approximately 8 min. Significant changes in TCI were observed among groups (F1,18 = 8.582; P = 0.009, at treatments 2 and 3, and at the end of the study [experimental (1973 ± 419, control (1488 ± 418; experimental (1946 ± 437, control (1436 ± 429; experimental (2315 ± 455, control (1474 ± 294, respectively]. A significant negative correlation was found (Spearman rho(18 = -0.759; P < 0.001 between TCI and %BF and between TCI and fatigue levels (Spearman rho(18 = -0.541; P = 0.014 at the end of the study. In conclusion, the results of this study suggest that an exercise intervention administered to breast cancer patients undergoing medical treatment may assist in the mitigation of some treatment side effects, including decreased TCI, increased fatigue, and negative changes in body composition.

  19. Habitual sleep variability, not sleep duration, is associated with caloric intake in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Fan; Bixler, Edward O; Berg, Arthur; Imamura Kawasawa, Yuka; Vgontzas, Alexandros N; Fernandez-Mendoza, Julio; Yanosky, Jeff; Liao, Duanping

    2015-07-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the associations between objectively measured habitual sleep duration (HSD), habitual sleep variability (HSV), and energy and snack intake in adolescents. We used data from 324 adolescents who participated in the Penn State Child Cohort follow-up examination. Actigraphy was used over seven consecutive nights to estimate nightly sleep duration. The seven-night mean and standard deviation of sleep duration were used to represent HSD and HSV, respectively. The Youth/Adolescent Food Frequency Questionnaire was used to obtain the daily average total energy, protein, fat, and carbohydrate intake, and number of snacks consumed. Linear regression models were used to investigate the associations between habitual sleep patterns and caloric, protein, fat, and carbohydrate intake. Proportional odds models were used to associate habitual sleep patterns with snack consumption. After adjusting for age, sex, race, body mass index (BMI) percentile, and smoking status, an increased HSV was associated with a higher energy intake, particularly from fat and carbohydrate. For example, with a 1-h increase in HSV, there was a 170 (66)-kcal increase in the daily total energy intake. An increased HSV was also related to increased snack consumption, especially snacks consumed after dinner. For instance, a 1-h increase in HSV was associated with 65% and 94% higher odds of consuming more snacks after dinner during school/workdays and weekends/vacation days, respectively. Neither energy intake nor snack consumption was significantly related to HSD. High habitual sleep variability, not habitual sleep duration, is related to increased energy and food consumption in adolescents. Maintaining a regular sleep pattern may decrease the risk of obesity in adolescents. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Leaf Caloric Value from Tropical to Cold-Temperate Forests: Latitudinal Patterns and Linkage to Productivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Guangyan; Hou, Jihua; Li, Ying; Zhang, Jiahui; He, Nianpeng

    2016-01-01

    Leaf caloric value (LCV) reflects the capacity of a leaf to fix and accumulate solar energy through photosynthesis. We systematically investigated the LCV of 745 plant species in 9 forests, representing a range of tropical to cold-temperate forests along the 4700-km North-South Transect of Eastern China. The goals were to explore the latitudinal patterns of LCV at the levels of species, plant functional group, and community and to establish the relationship between LCV and gross primary productivity (GPP). Our results showed that LCV for all species ranged from 12.85 to 22.15 KJ g-1 with an average of 18.46 KJ g-1. Plant functional groups had a significant influence on LCV, with trees > shrubs > herbs, conifers > broadleaved trees, and evergreens > deciduous trees. The different values of LCV represented the long-term evolution and adaptation of plant species to different environments. Unexpectedly, no apparent latitudinal trends of LCV at community level were observed, although LCV at the species level clearly decreased with increasing latitude. Use efficiency of LCV (CUE, gC KJ-1), defined as the ratio of GPP to total LCV at the community level, varied quadratic with latitude and was lower in the middle latitudes. Climate (temperature and precipitation) may explain 52.9% of the variation in spatial patterns of CUE, which was positively correlated with aridity. Our findings are the first large-scale report of the latitudinal patterns of LCV in forests at the species, plant functional group, and community levels and provide new insights into the relationship between LCV and ecosystem functions in forest communities.