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Sample records for callosal projecting pathways

  1. Persistent activation of microglia is associated with neuronal dysfunction of callosal projecting pathways and multiple sclerosis-like lesions in relapsing--remitting experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis

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    Rasmussen, Stine; Wang, Yue; Kivisäkk, Pia

    2007-01-01

    callosal projecting neurons. There was significant impairment of retrograde labeling of NeuN-positive callosal projecting neurons and reduction in the labelling of their transcallosal axons. These data demonstrate a novel paradigm of cortical and callosal neuropathology in a mouse model of MS, perpetuated...

  2. Selective serotonergic excitation of callosal projection neurons

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    Daniel eAvesar

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Serotonin (5-HT acting as a neurotransmitter in the cerebral cortex is critical for cognitive function, yet how 5-HT regulates information processing in cortical circuits is not well understood. We tested the serotonergic responsiveness of layer 5 pyramidal neurons (L5PNs of the mouse medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC, and found 3 distinct response types: long-lasting 5-HT1A (1A receptor-dependent inhibitory responses (84% of L5PNs, 5-HT2A (2A receptor-dependent excitatory responses (9%, and biphasic responses in which 2A-dependent excitation followed brief inhibition (5%. Relative to 5-HT-inhibited neurons, those excited by 5-HT had physiological properties characteristic of callosal/commissural (COM neurons that project to the contralateral cortex. We tested whether serotonergic responses in cortical pyramidal neurons are correlated with their axonal projection pattern using retrograde fluorescent labeling of COM and corticopontine-projecting (CPn neurons. 5-HT generated excitatory or biphasic responses in all 5-HT-responsive layer 5 COM neurons. Conversely, CPn neurons were universally inhibited by 5-HT. Serotonergic excitation of COM neurons was blocked by the 2A antagonist MDL 11939, while serotonergic inhibition of CPn neurons was blocked by the 1A antagonist WAY 100635, confirming a role for these two receptor subtypes in regulating pyramidal neuron activity. Selective serotonergic excitation of COM neurons was not layer-specific, as COM neurons in layer 2/3 were also selectively excited by 5-HT relative to their non-labeled pyramidal neuron neighbors. Because neocortical 2A receptors are implicated in the etiology and pathophysiology of schizophrenia, we propose that COM neurons may represent a novel cellular target for intervention in psychiatric disease.

  3. Activity-Dependent Callosal Axon Projections in Neonatal Mouse Cerebral Cortex

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    Yoshiaki Tagawa

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Callosal axon projections are among the major long-range axonal projections in the mammalian brain. They are formed during the prenatal and early postnatal periods in the mouse, and their development relies on both activity-independent and -dependent mechanisms. In this paper, we review recent findings about the roles of neuronal activity in callosal axon projections. In addition to the well-documented role of sensory-driven neuronal activity, recent studies using in utero electroporation demonstrated an essential role of spontaneous neuronal activity generated in neonatal cortical circuits. Both presynaptic and postsynaptic neuronal activities are critically involved in the axon development. Studies have begun to reveal intracellular signaling pathway which works downstream of neuronal activity. We also review several distinct patterns of neuronal activity observed in the developing cerebral cortex, which might play roles in activity-dependent circuit construction. Such neuronal activity during the neonatal period can be disrupted by genetic factors, such as mutations in ion channels. It has been speculated that abnormal activity caused by such factors may affect activity-dependent circuit construction, leading to some developmental disorders. We discuss a possibility that genetic mutation in ion channels may impair callosal axon projections through an activity-dependent mechanism.

  4. Variability in the distribution of callosal projection neurons in the adult rat parietal cortex.

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    Ivy, G O; Gould, H J; Killackey, H P

    1984-07-23

    Previous reports have shown that the barrel field area of the parietal cortex of the adult rat contains relatively few callosal projection neurons, even though callosal projection neurons are abundant in this cortical region in the neonatal rat. Furthermore, it has been shown that many of the callosal neurons which seem to disappear as the animal matures do not die, but project to ipsilateral cortical areas. These findings rely on the ability of retrograde transport techniques which utilize injections of horseradish peroxidase (HRP) or of fluorescent dyes into one hemisphere. We now show that several technical modifications of the HRP technique yield a wider distribution of HRP-containing neurons in the contralateral barrel field area of the adult rat than previously reported. These include implants of HRP pellets into transected axons of the corpus callosum, the addition of DMSO and nonidet P40 to Sigma VI HRP, wheat germ agglutinin HRP and the use of tetramethyl benzidine as the chromogen in the reaction procedure. Our findings have implications for transport studies in general and for the development of the cortical barrel field in particular.

  5. The activated SA and JA signaling pathways have an influence on flg22-triggered oxidative burst and callose deposition.

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    So Young Yi

    Full Text Available The first line of defense in plants against pathogens is induced by the recognition of microbe-associated molecular patterns (MAMP. Perception of bacterial flagellin (flg22 by the pattern recognition receptor flagellin-sensing 2 (FLS2 is the best characterized MAMP response, although the underlying molecular mechanisms are not fully understood. Here we studied the relationship between salicylic acid (SA or jasmonic acid (JA signaling and FLS2-mediated signaling by monitoring flg22-triggered responses in known SA or JA related mutants of Arabidopsis thaliana (L. Heynh. The sid2 mutant, impaired in SA biosynthesis, had less basal FLS2 mRNA accumulation than the wild type, which correlated with suppression of early flg22 responses such as ROS production and induction of marker genes, WRKY29 and FRK1. The JA-signaling mutants, jar1 and coi1, exhibited an enhanced flg22-triggered oxidative burst and more callose accumulation than the wild type, and pretreatment with SA or coronatine (COR, a structural mimic of JA-isoleucine, altered these flg22-induced responses. Nonexpressor of pathogenesis-related genes 1 (NPR1 acted downstream of SID2 and required SA-dependent priming for the enhanced flg22-triggered oxidative burst and callose deposition. Activation of JA signaling by COR pretreatment suppressed the flg22-triggered oxidative burst and callose accumulation in a coronatine insensitive 1 (COI1 dependent manner. COR had a negative effect on flg22 responses but only the flg22-triggered oxidative burst depended on SA-JA/COR signaling antagonism. Thus the activated SA and JA signaling pathways have an influence on flg22-triggered oxidative burst and callose deposition. These results may explain how SA and JA signaling are cross talked for regulation of flg22-triggered responses.

  6. CalloseMeasurer: a novel software solution to measure callose deposition and recognise spreading callose patterns

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    Zhou Ji

    2012-12-01

    accuracy and usefulness for two applications: 1 the quantification of callose deposition in different genotypes as a measure for the activity of plant immunity; and 2 the quantification and detection of spreading networks of callose deposition triggered by filamentous pathogens as a measure for growing pathogen hyphae. The software is an easy-to-use protocol which is executed within the Acapella software system without requiring any additional libraries. The source code of the software is freely available at https://sourceforge.net/projects/bioimage/files/Callose.

  7. Callosal alien hand sign following a right parietal lobe infarction.

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    Kim, Young-Do; Lee, Eek-Sung; Lee, Kwang-Soo; Kim, Joong-Seok

    2010-06-01

    Callosal alien hand syndrome is characterized primarily by intermanual conflict and is associated with an anterior callosal lesion. We report a patient who presented with topographical disorientation and the callosal type alien hand sign. An MRI of the brain showed a right parietal lobe infarction. This is a rare example of callosal alien hand sign associated with a right parietal lesion. The right parietal lobe appeared to be responsible for the callosal hand sign in this patient, possibly due to interference with peristriate outflow pathways toward the parietal zones, where visual somatosensory interactions are likely to occur. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. A mammalian conserved element derived from SINE displays enhancer properties recapitulating Satb2 expression in early-born callosal projection neurons.

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    Kensuke Tashiro

    Full Text Available Short interspersed repetitive elements (SINEs are highly repeated sequences that account for a significant proportion of many eukaryotic genomes and are usually considered "junk DNA". However, we previously discovered that many AmnSINE1 loci are evolutionarily conserved across mammalian genomes, suggesting that they may have acquired significant functions involved in controlling mammalian-specific traits. Notably, we identified the AS021 SINE locus, located 390 kbp upstream of Satb2. Using transgenic mice, we showed that this SINE displays specific enhancer activity in the developing cerebral cortex. The transcription factor Satb2 is expressed by cortical neurons extending axons through the corpus callosum and is a determinant of callosal versus subcortical projection. Mouse mutants reveal a crucial function for Sabt2 in corpus callosum formation. In this study, we compared the enhancer activity of the AS021 locus with Satb2 expression during telencephalic development in the mouse. First, we showed that the AS021 enhancer is specifically activated in early-born Satb2(+ neurons. Second, we demonstrated that the activity of the AS021 enhancer recapitulates the expression of Satb2 at later embryonic and postnatal stages in deep-layer but not superficial-layer neurons, suggesting the possibility that the expression of Satb2 in these two subpopulations of cortical neurons is under genetically distinct transcriptional control. Third, we showed that the AS021 enhancer is activated in neurons projecting through the corpus callosum, as described for Satb2(+ neurons. Notably, AS021 drives specific expression in axons crossing through the ventral (TAG1(-/NPY(+ portion of the corpus callosum, confirming that it is active in a subpopulation of callosal neurons. These data suggest that exaptation of the AS021 SINE locus might be involved in enhancement of Satb2 expression, leading to the establishment of interhemispheric communication via the corpus callosum

  9. Functional reorganization of the auditory pathways (or lack thereof) in callosal agenesis is predicted by monaural sound localization performance.

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    Paiement, Philippe; Champoux, François; Bacon, Benoit A; Lassonde, Maryse; Mensour, Boualem; Leroux, Jean-Maxime; Lepore, Franco

    2010-01-01

    Neuroimaging studies show that permanent peripheral lesions such as unilateral deafness cause functional reorganization in the auditory pathways. However, functional reorganization of the auditory pathways as a result of higher-level damage or abnormalities remains poorly investigated. A relatively recent behavioural study points to functional changes in the auditory pathways in some, but interestingly not in all, of the acallosal individuals that were tested. The present study uses fMRI to investigate auditory activities in both cerebral hemispheres in those same acallosal subjects in order to directly investigate the contributions of ipsilateral and contralateral functional pathways reorganization. Predictions were made that functional reorganization could be predicted from behavioural performance. As reported previously in a number of neuroimaging studies, results showed that in neurologically intact subjects, binaural stimulation induced balanced activities between both hemispheres, while monaural stimulation induced strong contralateral activities and weak ipsilateral activities. In accordance with behavioural predictions, some acallosal subjects showed patterns of auditory cortical activities that were similar to those observed in neurologically intact subjects while others showed functional reorganization of the auditory pathways. Essentially they showed a significant increase and a significant decrease of neural activities in the contralateral and/or ipsilateral pathways, respectively. These findings indicate that at least in some acallosal subjects, functional reorganization inside the auditory pathways does contribute to compensate for the absence of the corpus callosum.

  10. An Arabidopsis callose synthase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ostergaard, Lars; Petersen, Morten; Mattsson, Ole

    2002-01-01

    unclear whether callose synthases can also produce cellulose and whether plant cellulose synthases may also produce beta-1,3-glucans. We describe here an Arabidopsis gene, AtGsl5, encoding a plasma membrane-localized protein homologous to yeast beta-1,3-glucan synthase whose expression partially......Beta-1,3-glucan polymers are major structural components of fungal cell walls, while cellulosic beta-1,4-glucan is the predominant polysaccharide in plant cell walls. Plant beta-1,3-glucan, called callose, is produced in pollen and in response to pathogen attack and wounding, but it has been...... in the Arabidopsis mpk4 mutant which exhibits systemic acquired resistance (SAR), elevated beta-1,3-glucan synthase activity, and increased callose levels. In addition, AtGsl5 is a likely target of salicylic acid (SA)-dependent SAR, since AtGsl5 mRNA accumulation is induced by SA in wild-type plants, while...

  11. Isolated complete corpus callosal agenesis

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    Jaiganesh S, Venkateshwaran A, Naresh Kumar C, Rajasekhar KV

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Isolated complete corpus callosal agenesis is a rare entity. Usually this condition will be an associated finding in other syndromes. 3 month old male child came with complaints of deformed foot on both sides, not having a social smile and neck holding. Patient referred to the Radiology department for MRI brain which showed complete absence of corpus callosum, widely separated and parallely placed lateral ventricles, colpocephaly, high riding of 3rd ventricle and absence of cingulate gyrus and radial arrangement of gyri along the interhemispheric fissure. Hence it was reported as isolated complete corpus callosal agenesis and this article describes the Embryogenesis, anatomy, developmental anomalies and its clinical manifestations & prognosis.

  12. Isolated complete corpus callosal agenesis

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    Jaiganesh S, Venkateshwaran A, Naresh Kumar C, Rajasekhar KV

    2014-01-01

    Isolated complete corpus callosal agenesis is a rare entity. Usually this condition will be an associated finding in other syndromes. 3 month old male child came with complaints of deformed foot on both sides, not having a social smile and neck holding. Patient referred to the Radiology department for MRI brain which showed complete absence of corpus callosum, widely separated and parallely placed lateral ventricles, colpocephaly, high riding of 3rd ventricle and absence of cingulate gyrus an...

  13. Callosal ideomotor apraxia in Alzheimer's disease.

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    Cimino-Knight, Ann Marie; Gonzalez Rothi, Leslie J; He, Ying; Heilman, Kenneth M

    2017-02-01

    Impaired ability to perform skilled movements with the left upper limb in patients with corpus callosum injury has been well described (callosal apraxia) with some displaying spatial-temporal errors primarily in response to verbal commands (verbal callosal disconnection apraxia), with imitation, and when using actual tools (callosal ideomotor apraxia). Additionally some patients with callosal injury also make content errors when selecting and using the incorrect tool with their left upper limb (callosal conceptual apraxia). Interestingly, patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) reveal anatomic evidence of callosal degeneration but callosal apraxia in AD has not been described. The purpose of this study was to learn whether patients with AD display forms of callosal apraxia. Participants were 22 right-handed patients with AD and 24 matched controls. Both upper limbs were tested by having subjects pantomime transitive movements to command and imitation. Participants also viewed pictures of an incomplete task and attempted to pantomime the action needed to complete the task. When compared to controls, the participants with AD demonstrated ideomotor and conceptual apraxias of both upper limbs; however, ideomotor apraxia of their left hand was more robust than that of their right hand, suggesting a hemispheric disconnection.

  14. Elevated early callose deposition results in complete penetration resistance to powdery mildew in Arabidopsis.

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    Ellinger, Dorothea; Naumann, Marcel; Falter, Christian; Zwikowics, Claudia; Jamrow, Torsten; Manisseri, Chithra; Somerville, Shauna C; Voigt, Christian A

    2013-03-01

    A common response by plants to fungal attack is deposition of callose, a (1,3)-β-glucan polymer, in the form of cell wall thickenings called papillae, at site of wall penetration. While it has been generally believed that the papillae provide a structural barrier to slow fungal penetration, this idea has been challenged in recent studies of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), where fungal resistance was found to be independent of callose deposition. To the contrary, we show that callose can strongly support penetration resistance when deposited in elevated amounts at early time points of infection. We generated transgenic Arabidopsis lines that express POWDERY MILDEW RESISTANT4 (PMR4), which encodes a stress-induced callose synthase, under the control of the constitutive 35S promoter. In these lines, we detected callose synthase activity that was four times higher than that in wild-type plants 6 h post inoculation with the virulent powdery mildew Golovinomyces cichoracearum. The callose synthase activity was correlated with enlarged callose deposits and the focal accumulation of green fluorescent protein-tagged PMR4 at sites of attempted fungal penetration. We observed similar results from infection studies with the nonadapted powdery mildew Blumeria graminis f. sp. hordei. Haustoria formation was prevented in resistant transgenic lines during both types of powdery mildew infection, and neither the salicylic acid-dependent nor jasmonate-dependent pathways were induced. We present a schematic model that highlights the differences in callose deposition between the resistant transgenic lines and the susceptible wild-type plants during compatible and incompatible interactions between Arabidopsis and powdery mildew.

  15. Parkinsonism "Plus" Syndrome With Incidental Corpus Callosal Agenesis

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    Shanbhogue K R

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available A case of Parkinsonism ′Plus′ syndrome with cranial CT scan and MRI showing corpus callosal agenesis is reported. There were no clinical signs of callosal separation. The causes for the discrepancies between the lack of clinical signs of callosal separation and imaging appearances are discussed. The callosal agenesis is in all probability incidental.

  16. Parkinsonism "Plus" Syndrome With Incidental Corpus Callosal Agenesis

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    Shanbhogue K R; Bennett D; Shankar V; Murugesan S; Stephen A S K; Karnan B; Srikanth S

    1999-01-01

    A case of Parkinsonism ′Plus′ syndrome with cranial CT scan and MRI showing corpus callosal agenesis is reported. There were no clinical signs of callosal separation. The causes for the discrepancies between the lack of clinical signs of callosal separation and imaging appearances are discussed. The callosal agenesis is in all probability incidental.

  17. Electrophysiological Correlates of Morphological Neuroplasticity in Human Callosal Dysgenesis.

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    Lazarev, Vladimir V; de Carvalho Monteiro, Myriam; Vianna-Barbosa, Rodrigo; deAzevedo, Leonardo C; Lent, Roberto; Tovar-Moll, Fernanda

    2016-01-01

    In search for the functional counterpart of the alternative Probst and sigmoid bundles, considered as morphological evidence of neuroplasticity in callosal dysgenesis, electroencephalographic (EEG) coherence analysis was combined with high resolution and diffusion tensor magnetic resonance imaging. Data of two patients with callosal agenesis, plus two with typical partial dysgenesis with a remnant genu, and one atypical patient with a substantially reduced genu were compared to those of fifteen neurotypic controls. The interhemispheric EEG coherence between homologous nontemporal brain regions corresponded to absence or partial presence of callosal connections. A generalized coherence reduction was observed in complete acallosal patients, as well as coherence preservation in the anterior areas of the two patients with a remnant genu. jThe sigmoid bundles found in three patients with partial dysgenesis correlated with augmented EEG coherence between anterior regions of one hemisphere and posterior regions of the other. These heterologous (crossed) interhemispheric connections were asymmetric in both imaging and EEG patterns, with predominance of the right-anterior-to-left-posterior connections over the mirror ones. The Probst bundles correlated with higher intrahemispheric long-distance coherence in all patients. The significant correlations observed for the delta, theta and alpha bands indicate that these alternative pathways are functional, although the neuropsychological nature of this function is still unknown.

  18. Visual callosal connections: role in visual processing in health and disease.

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    Bocci, Tommaso; Pietrasanta, Marta; Cerri, Chiara; Restani, Laura; Caleo, Matteo; Sartucci, Ferdinando

    2014-01-01

    Visual cortical areas in the two sides of the brain are interconnected by interhemispheric fibers passing through the splenium of the corpus callosum. In this review, we summarize data concerning the anatomical features of visual callosal connections, their roles in basic visual processing, and how their alterations contribute to visual deficits in different human neuropathologies. Splenial fibers represent a population of excitatory axons with varying diameters, which interconnect cortical columns with similar functional properties (i.e., same orientation selectivity) in the two hemispheres. Their branches activate simultaneously distinct iso-oriented columns in the contralateral hemisphere, thus mediating forms of stimulus-dependent interhemispheric synchronization. Callosal branches also make synapses onto GABAergic cells, resulting in an inhibitory modulation of visual processing that involves both iso-oriented and cross-oriented cortical networks. Interhemispheric inhibition appears to predominate at short latencies following callosal activation, whereas excitation becomes more robust with increasing delays. These callosal effects are dynamically adapted to the incoming visual activity, so that stimuli providing only weak afferent input are facilitated by callosal pathways, whereas strong visual input via the retinogeniculate pathway tends to be offset by transcallosal inhibition. We also review data highlighting the contribution of callosal input activity to maturation of visual function during early 'critical periods' in brain development and describe how interhemispheric transfer of visual information is rerouted in cases of callosal agenesis or following splenial damage. Finally, we provide an overview of alterations in splenium anatomy or function that may be at the basis of visual defects in several pathologic conditions.

  19. Transient neuronal populations are required to guide callosal axons: a role for semaphorin 3C.

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    Mathieu Niquille

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The corpus callosum (CC is the main pathway responsible for interhemispheric communication. CC agenesis is associated with numerous human pathologies, suggesting that a range of developmental defects can result in abnormalities in this structure. Midline glial cells are known to play a role in CC development, but we here show that two transient populations of midline neurons also make major contributions to the formation of this commissure. We report that these two neuronal populations enter the CC midline prior to the arrival of callosal pioneer axons. Using a combination of mutant analysis and in vitro assays, we demonstrate that CC neurons are necessary for normal callosal axon navigation. They exert an attractive influence on callosal axons, in part via Semaphorin 3C and its receptor Neuropilin-1. By revealing a novel and essential role for these neuronal populations in the pathfinding of a major cerebral commissure, our study brings new perspectives to pathophysiological mechanisms altering CC formation.

  20. Protooncogene Ski cooperates with the chromatin-remodeling factor Satb2 in specifying callosal neurons.

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    Baranek, Constanze; Dittrich, Manuela; Parthasarathy, Srinivas; Bonnon, Carine Gaiser; Britanova, Olga; Lanshakov, Dmitriy; Boukhtouche, Fatiha; Sommer, Julia E; Colmenares, Clemencia; Tarabykin, Victor; Atanasoski, Suzana

    2012-02-28

    First insights into the molecular programs orchestrating the progression from neural stem cells to cortical projection neurons are emerging. Loss of the transcriptional regulator Ski has been linked to the human 1p36 deletion syndrome, which includes central nervous system defects. Here, we report critical roles for Ski in the maintenance of the neural stem cell pool and the specification of callosal neurons. Ski-deficient callosal neurons lose their identity and ectopically express the transcription factor Ctip2. The misspecified callosal neurons largely fail to form the corpus callosum and instead redirect their axons toward subcortical targets. We identify the chromatin-remodeling factor Satb2 as a partner of Ski, and show that both proteins are required for transcriptional repression of Ctip2 in callosal neurons. We propose a model in which Satb2 recruits Ski to the Ctip2 locus, and Ski attracts histone deacetylases, thereby enabling the formation of a functional nucleosome remodeling and deacetylase repressor complex. Our findings establish a central role for Ski-Satb2 interactions in regulating transcriptional mechanisms of callosal neuron specification.

  1. Interhemispheric Connections between the Primary Visual Cortical Areas via the Anterior Commissure in Human Callosal Agenesis.

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    van Meer, Nathalie; Houtman, Anne C; Van Schuerbeek, Peter; Vanderhasselt, Tim; Milleret, Chantal; Ten Tusscher, Marcel P

    2016-01-01

    Aim: In humans, images in the median plane of the head either fall on both nasal hemi-retinas or on both temporal hemi-retinas. Interhemispheric connections allow cortical cells to have receptive fields on opposite sides. The major interhemispheric connection, the corpus callosum, is implicated in central stereopsis and disparity detection in front of the fixation plane. Yet individuals with agenesis of the corpus callosum may show normal stereopsis and disparity vergence. We set out to study a possible interhemispheric connection between primary visual cortical areas via the anterior commissure to explain this inconsistency because of the major role of these cortical areas in elaborating 3D visual perception. Methods: MRI, DTI and tractography of the brain of a 53-year old man with complete callosal agenesis and normal binocular single vision was undertaken. Tractography seed points were placed in both the right and the left V1 and V2. Nine individuals with both an intact corpus callosum and normal binocularity served as controls. Results: Interhemispheric tracts through the anterior commissure linking both V1 and V2 visual cortical areas bilaterally were indeed shown in the subject with callosal agenesis. All other individuals showed interhemispheric visual connections through the corpus callosum only. Conclusion: Callosal agenesis may result in anomalous interhemispheric connections of the primary visual areas via the anterior commissure. It is proposed here that these connections form as alternative to the normal callosal pathway and may participate in binocularity.

  2. Callosal agenesis followed postnatally after prenatal diagnosis.

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    Imataka, George; Nakagawa, Eiji; Kuwashima, Shigeko; Watanabe, Hiroshi; Yamanouchi, Hideo; Arisaka, Osamu

    2006-09-01

    Callosal agenesis is a congenital brain anomaly caused by embryonal hypogenesis of the corpus callosum. Concerning the neurological prognosis, epilepsy and motor disturbance are noted in some cases, while many cases are asymptomatic and the prognosis is good. We report a fetus tentatively diagnosed with hydrocephaly on prenatal echo-encephalography, which was performed without adequate explanation to and understanding of the parents. The parents had not expected an abnormality before the screening, and were subsequently not psychologically prepared for the discovery of the congenital brain anomaly on imaging. Moreover, they received no guidance on how to deal with any possible abnormalities. The pregnant mother was referred to our hospital. Prenatal MRI was performed after informed consent was obtained, and the fetus was diagnosed with callosal agenesis. The patient was followed for 5 years, and neurological development was normal. However, the parents have remained anxious while raising the child. Thus, the prenatal diagnosis of callosal agenesis in this case caused unnecessary mental burden to the parents. Here, we report the course of the case, and discuss the way prenatal ultrasonography should be used as a prenatal screening method, and the importance of counseling before the test.

  3. REORGANIZATION OF VISUAL CALLOSAL CONNECTIONS FOLLOWING ALTERATIONS OF RETINAL INPUT AND BRAIN DAMAGE

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    LAURA RESTANI

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Vision is a very important sensory modality in humans. Visual disorders are numerous and arising from diverse and complex causes. Deficits in visual function are highly disabling from a social point of view and in addition cause a considerable economic burden. For all these reasons there is an intense effort by the scientific community to gather knowledge on visual deficit mechanisms and to find possible new strategies for recovery and treatment. In this review we focus on an important and sometimes neglected player of the visual function, the corpus callosum (CC. The CC is the major white matter structure in the brain and is involved in information processing between the two hemispheres. In particular, visual callosal connections interconnect homologous areas of visual cortices, binding together the two halves of the visual field. This interhemispheric communication plays a significant role in visual cortical output. Here, we will first review essential literature on the physiology of the callosal connections in normal vision. The available data support the view that the callosum contributes to both excitation and inhibition to the target hemisphere, with a dynamic adaptation to the strength of the incoming visual input. Next, we will focus on data showing how callosal connections may sense visual alterations and respond to the classical paradigm for the study of visual plasticity, i.e. monocular deprivation. This is a prototypical example of a model for the study of callosal plasticity in pathological conditions (e.g. strabismus and amblyopia characterized by unbalanced input from the two eyes. We will also discuss findings of callosal alterations in blind subjects. Noteworthy, we will discuss data showing that inter-hemispheric transfer mediates recovery of visual responsiveness following cortical damage. Finally, we will provide an overview of how callosal projections dysfunction could contribute to pathologies such as neglect and occipital

  4. Visual interhemispheric communication and callosal connections of the occipital lobes.

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    Berlucchi, Giovanni

    2014-07-01

    Callosal connections of the occipital lobes, coursing in the splenium of the corpus callosum, have long been thought to be crucial for interactions between the cerebral hemispheres in vision in both experimental animals and humans. Yet the callosal connections of the temporal and parietal lobes appear to have more important roles than those of the occipital callosal connections in at least some high-order interhemispheric visual functions. The partial intermixing and overlap of temporal, parietal and occipital callosal connections within the splenium has made it difficult to attribute the effects of splenial pathological lesions or experimental sections to splenial components specifically related to select cortical areas. The present review describes some current contributions from the modern techniques for the tracking of commissural fibers within the living human brain to the tentative assignation of specific visual functions to specific callosal tracts, either occipital or extraoccipital.

  5. Callosal function in MS patients with mild and severe callosal damage as reflected by diffusion tensor imaging.

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    Warlop, Nele P; Fieremans, Els; Achten, Eric; Debruyne, Jan; Vingerhoets, Guy

    2008-08-21

    In this study, callosal function was behaviourally tested in MS patients with a redundant stimuli task. Reaction times to uni- and bilateral visual stimuli are recorded. Normal subjects respond faster to bilateral than to unilateral stimuli. This effect is called the redundancy gain effect. In patients with agenesis of the corpus callosum, the redundancy gain exceeds that predicted by probability summation, suggesting a mediating influence of the corpus callosum in healthy controls. The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of callosal damage on the redundancy gain in MS patients by investigating the probability summation model. Seventeen MS patients and as many matched healthy controls performed the redundancy gain task. In order to objectify callosal damage in our MS group, diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) derived measures such as fractional anisotropy (FA) and mean diffusivity (MD) in the corpus callosum were obtained. Callosal FA and MD significantly differed in our MS group compared to the healthy controls, indicating pathological callosal involvement. Since the amount of callosal damage was highly variable within the MS group, the MS cohort was split into a low and a high callosal-injured group as quantified by FA. The high FA group performed like the healthy controls, whereas violations of the probability (race) model were found for the low FA group. We conclude that behavioural measures obtained by the redundancy gain paradigm reflect callosal pathology in MS as measured by DTI.

  6. Lipid Raft, Regulator of Plasmodesmal Callose Homeostasis

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    Arya Bagus Boedi Iswanto

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: The specialized plasma membrane microdomains known as lipid rafts are enriched by sterols and sphingolipids. Lipid rafts facilitate cellular signal transduction by controlling the assembly of signaling molecules and membrane protein trafficking. Another specialized compartment of plant cells, the plasmodesmata (PD, which regulates the symplasmic intercellular movement of certain molecules between adjacent cells, also contains a phospholipid bilayer membrane. The dynamic permeability of plasmodesmata (PDs is highly controlled by plasmodesmata callose (PDC, which is synthesized by callose synthases (CalS and degraded by β-1,3-glucanases (BGs. In recent studies, remarkable observations regarding the correlation between lipid raft formation and symplasmic intracellular trafficking have been reported, and the PDC has been suggested to be the regulator of the size exclusion limit of PDs. It has been suggested that the alteration of lipid raft substances impairs PDC homeostasis, subsequently affecting PD functions. In this review, we discuss the substantial role of membrane lipid rafts in PDC homeostasis and provide avenues for understanding the fundamental behavior of the lipid raft–processed PDC.

  7. Transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana plants expressing a β-1,3-glucanase from sweet sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L.) show reduced callose deposition and increased tolerance to aluminium toxicity.

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    Zhang, Hui; Shi, Wu Liang; You, Jiang Feng; Bian, Ming Di; Qin, Xiao Mei; Yu, Hui; Liu, Qing; Ryan, Peter R; Yang, Zhen Ming

    2015-06-01

    Seventy-one cultivars of sweet sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L.) were screened for aluminium (Al) tolerance by measuring relative root growth (RRG). Two contrasting cultivars, ROMA (Al tolerant) and POTCHETSTRM (Al sensitive), were selected to study shorter term responses to Al stress. POTCHETSTRM had higher callose synthase activity, lower β-1,3-glucanase activity and more callose deposition in the root apices during Al treatment compared with ROMA. We monitored the expression of 12 genes involved in callose synthesis and degradation and found that one of these, SbGlu1 (Sb03g045630.1), which encodes a β-1,3-glucanase enzyme, best explained the contrasting deposition of callose in ROMA and POTCHETSTRM during Al treatment. Full-length cDNAs of SbGlu1 was prepared from ROMA and POTCHETSTRM and expressed in Arabidopsis thaliana using the constitutive cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV) 35S promoter. Independent transgenic lines displayed significantly greater Al tolerance than wild-type plants and vector-only controls. This phenotype was associated with greater total β-1,3-glucanase activity, less Al accumulation and reduced callose deposition in the roots. These results suggest that callose production is not just an early indicator of Al stress in plants but likely to be part of the toxicity pathway that leads to the inhibition of root growth.

  8. Early visual evoked potentials in callosal agenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barr, Melodie S; Hamm, Jeff P; Kirk, Ian J; Corballis, Michael C

    2005-11-01

    Three participants with callosal agenesis and 12 neurologically normal participants were tested on a simple reaction time task, with visual evoked potentials collected using a high-density 128-channel system. Independent-components analyses were performed on the averaged visual evoked potentials to isolate the components of interest. Contrary to previous research with acallosals, evidence of ipsilateral activation was present in all 3 participants. Although ipsilateral visual components were present in all 4 unilateral conditions in the 2 related acallosal participants, in the 3rd, these were present only in the crossed visual field-hand conditions and not in the uncrossed conditions. Suggestions are made as to why these results differ from earlier findings and as to the neural mechanisms facilitating this ipsilateral activation.

  9. Neuroimaging techniques offer new perspectives on callosal transfer and interhemispheric communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doron, Karl W; Gazzaniga, Michael S

    2008-09-01

    The brain relies on interhemispheric communication for coherent integration of cognition and behavior. Surgical disconnection of the two cerebral hemispheres has granted numerous insights into the functional organization of the corpus callosum (CC) and its relationship to hemispheric specialization. Today, technologies exist that allow us to examine the healthy, intact brain to explore the ways in which callosal organization relates to normal cognitive functioning and cerebral lateralization. The CC is organized in a topographical manner along its antero-posterior axis. Evidence from neuroimaging studies is revealing with greater specificity the function and the cortical projection targets of the topographically organized callosal subregions. The size, myelination and density of fibers in callosal subregions are related to function of the brain regions they connect: smaller fibers are slow-conducting and connect higher-order association areas; larger fibers are fast-conducting and connect visual, motor and secondary somotosensory areas. A decrease in fiber size and transcallosal connectivity might be related to a reduced need for interhemispheric communication due, in part, to increased intrahemispheric connectivity and specialization. Additionally, it has been suggested that lateralization of function seen in the human brain lies along an evolutionary continuum. Hemispheric specialization reduces duplication of function between the hemispheres. The microstructure and connectivity patterns of the CC provide a window for understanding the evolution of hemispheric asymmetries and lateralization of function. Here, we review the ways in which converging methodologies are advancing our understanding of interhemispheric communication in the normal human brain.

  10. Projection neurons of the vestibulo-sympathetic reflex pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holstein, Gay R; Friedrich, Victor L; Martinelli, Giorgio P

    2014-06-15

    Changes in head position and posture are detected by the vestibular system and are normally followed by rapid modifications in blood pressure. These compensatory adjustments, which allow humans to stand up without fainting, are mediated by integration of vestibular system pathways with blood pressure control centers in the ventrolateral medulla. Orthostatic hypotension can reflect altered activity of this neural circuitry. Vestibular sensory input to the vestibulo-sympathetic pathway terminates on cells in the vestibular nuclear complex, which in turn project to brainstem sites involved in the regulation of cardiovascular activity, including the rostral and caudal ventrolateral medullary regions (RVLM and CVLM, respectively). In the present study, sinusoidal galvanic vestibular stimulation was used to activate this pathway, and activated neurons were identified through detection of c-Fos protein. The retrograde tracer Fluoro-Gold was injected into the RVLM or CVLM of these animals, and immunofluorescence studies of vestibular neurons were conducted to visualize c-Fos protein and Fluoro-Gold concomitantly. We observed activated projection neurons of the vestibulo-sympathetic reflex pathway in the caudal half of the spinal, medial, and parvocellular medial vestibular nuclei. Approximately two-thirds of the cells were ipsilateral to Fluoro-Gold injection sites in both the RVLM and CVLM, and the remainder were contralateral. As a group, cells projecting to the RVLM were located slightly rostral to those with terminals in the CVLM. Individual activated projection neurons were multipolar, globular, or fusiform in shape. This study provides the first direct demonstration of the central vestibular neurons that mediate the vestibulo-sympathetic reflex.

  11. Dissociation between distal and proximal left limb agraphia and agraphesthesia in a patient with a callosal disconnection syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachoud-Lévi, A C; Ergis, A M; Cesaro, P; Degos, J D

    2000-06-01

    A few neuropsychological studies have suggested the existence of bilateral hemispheric representations for the proximal parts of the limbs in humans. We report the case of a patient who presented with a callosal disconnection syndrome, which at a later stage of disease became restricted to left agraphia, left agraphesthesia and left auditory extinction. The anomic character of the agraphesthesia was demonstrated. Tactile naming was normal, which allows us to conclude that separate callosal pathways related to the left language areas transmit information for graphesthesia and tactile naming. Agraphia and agraphesthesia were not observed when the proximal part of the left upper limb was utilized. These observations support the conclusion that writing and graphesthesia with the proximal part of the limb can be mediated by the ipsilateral cortex.

  12. Nurse Educator Pathway Project: a competency-based intersectoral curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Lynne; Frost, Linda J; Bigl, Julie; Clauson, Marion; McRae, Cora; Scarborough, Kathy S; Murphy, Sue; Jillings, Carol; Gillespie, Frank

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we begin by providing an overview of the Educator Pathway Project (EPP), an education infrastructure that was developed in response to emerging critical nursing workplace issues, and the related demand for enhanced workplace education. We then describe the EPP competency-based curriculum designed to prepare nurses as preceptors, mentors, and educators to lead learning with diverse learner groups. This competency-based curriculum was developed through a collaboration of nurse leaders across practice, academic, and union sectors and drew from a widely embraced curriculum development model (Iwasiw, Goldenberg, & Andrusyzyn, 2005). The goal of the curriculum was to prepare nurses through a four-level career pathway model that contextualized practice and education theory to various education-related roles and levels of experience within the practice setting. Over 1,100 nurses participated in this innovative intersectoral nursing initiative.

  13. Integrating service excellence in a CHF clinical pathway pilot project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, Joyce; Bishop, Geri; Fennell, Lenora

    2002-01-01

    The complex dynamics of the current healthcare environment require healthcare delivery systems to become cost effective and quality driven. Educated healthcare consumers expect superior service and timely responses to their needs. For one healthcare system, customer expectations were an integral part of designing, implementing, and measuring the service components of congestive heart failure pathway outcomes. Service excellence can influence overall clinical outcomes when measured by consumer awareness and patient satisfaction. The inclusion of service excellence as an intrinsic piece of the organizational strategic plan laid the groundwork for this integrated pilot project.

  14. [Callose accumulation during treatment of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum L.) cells with biotic elicitors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emel'ianov, V I; Kravchuk, Zh N; Poliakovskiĭ, S A; Dmitriev, A P

    2008-01-01

    Time-course of induced accumulation of callose in tomato cells has been studied. Localization of callose in L. esculenthum cells was investigated by fluorescent microscopy technique, and the optimal time for its determination was found. Callose accumulation in tomato cells treated with different biotic elicitors was determined. Nonlinear dependence between callose accumulation and concentration of chitin oligomers (with 3-5 N-acetylglucosamine fragments) was established. Increasing of callose accumulation in tomato cells was proportional to the increase of concentration ofchitin dimer and chitosan in the culture medium.

  15. Anterior commissure absence without callosal agenesis: a new brain malformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, T N; Stevens, J M; Free, S L; Sander, J W; Shorvon, S D; Sisodiya, S M

    2002-04-23

    The authors report a novel human brain malformation characterized by the absence of the anterior commissure without callosal agenesis, but associated with gross unilateral panhemispheric malformation incorporating subependymal heterotopia, subcortical heterotopia, and gyral abnormalities including temporal malformation and polymicrogyria. In contrast, a normal anterior commissure was found in 125 control subjects and in 113 other subjects with a range of brain malformations.

  16. Agnosia, apraxia, callosal disconnection and other specific cognitive disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acciarresi, Monica

    2012-01-01

    Cortical function deficits have long been studied by anatomoclinic correlations. Recent functional imaging studies have allowed scientists to better understand which cerebral areas and which networks are involved in cognitive function deficit. This chapter will review the current knowledge on agnosia, apraxia and callosal disconnection syndromes. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  17. Enhanced redundancy gain in schizophrenics: a correlate of callosal dysfunction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florio, Vincenzo; Marzi, Carlo A; Girelli, Andrea; Savazzi, Silvia

    2008-09-01

    An abnormal pattern of hemispheric asymmetry, possibly as a result of disturbed interhemispheric communication, is widely, albeit by no means unanimously, held as a major cause of schizophrenia. To behaviourally test interhemispheric communication in schizophrenia we used a task that has been shown to be a reliable indicator of callosal functioning, namely, the redundant signals effect (RSE). It consists of the speeding of simple reaction time when responding to double as opposed to single visual stimuli. When the stimuli in a pair are presented to different hemispheres patients who underwent total commissurotomy or suffer from callosal agenesis show a paradoxically enhanced RSE with respect to healthy controls. Therefore, if schizophrenia patients have a callosal abnormality they ought to show a similar effect. In three experiments we tested a total of 55 patients with a diagnosis of schizophrenia and 51 healthy controls. In Experiment 1 we presented unilateral single stimuli and bilateral simultaneous double stimuli. The RSE was reliably larger in schizophrenics than in controls. In Experiment 2 the temporal interval between the two stimuli in a pair was varied. We found that while in controls the RSE disappeared with interstimulus intervals longer than 17ms, in schizophrenia patients there was a RSE only for simultaneous double stimuli. Finally, in Experiment 3 we found that there was no enhanced redundancy gain in schizophrenics when the double stimuli were presented to one and the same hemisphere, and therefore, with no need for callosal transmission. All in all, the present results provide evidence of a callosal dysfunction in schizophrenia that impairs interhemispheric integration.

  18. Deposition of callose in young ovules of two Taraxacum species varying in the mode of reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musiał, Krystyna; Kościńska-Pająk, Maria; Antolec, Renata; Joachimiak, Andrzej J

    2015-01-01

    Although callose occurs during megasporogenesis in most flowering plants, the knowledge about its general function and the mechanisms by which the callose layer is formed in particular places is still not sufficient. The results of previous studies suggest a total lack of callose in the ovules of diplosporous plants in which meiosis is omitted or disturbed. This report is the first documentation of callose events in dandelions ovules. We demonstrated the pattern of callose deposition during the formation of megaspores through diplospory of Taraxacum type and during normal meiotic megasporogenesis in apomictic triploid Taraxacum atricapillum and amphimictic diploid Taraxacum linearisquameum. We found the presence of callose in the megasporocyte wall of both diplosporous and sexual dandelions. However, in a diplosporous dandelion, callose predominated at the micropylar pole of megaspore mother cell (MMC) which may be correlated with abnormal asynaptic meiosis and may indicate diplospory of the Taraxacum type. After meiotic division, callose is mainly deposited in the walls between megaspores in tetrads and in diplodyads. In subsequent stages, callose gradually disappears around the chalazal functional megaspore. However, some variations in the pattern of callose deposition within tetrad may reflect variable positioning of the functional megaspore (FM) observed in the ovules of T. linearisquameum.

  19. The role of the anterior commissure in callosal agenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barr, Melodie S; Corballis, Michael C

    2002-10-01

    Two individuals with callosal agenesis (J.P. and M.M.) and 10 neurologically normal participants were tested on tasks requiring interhemispheric visual integration. M.M., whose anterior commissure was within normal limits, was much worse at matching colors and letters between visual fields than within visual fields, whereas J.P., whose anterior commissure was greatly enlarged, showed no evidence of interhemispheric disconnection. This suggests that in some cases of callosal agenesis, probably a minority, an enlarged anterior commissure may compensate for the lack of the corpus callosum. Neither acallosal participant showed interhemispheric disconnection on tasks requiring integration of location and orientation, however, suggesting that the anterior commissure plays no role in such tasks. These tasks may depend on subcortical commissures, such as the intertectal commissure.

  20. Behavioral Disorders in Association with Posterior Callosal and Frontal Cerebral Infarction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. P. Lejeune

    1993-01-01

    Full Text Available Behavioral disorders were a prominent clinical feature after the surgical treatment of an anterior communicating artery aneurysm rupture in a 44-year-old man. Callosal apraxia was associated with an alien hand. The latter remained 1 year after surgery while diagonistic apraxia disappeared after 3 months. Other callosal signs included left agraphia, tactile anomia and auditory suppression. MRI revealed posterior callosal infarction and a right frontal infarct. The association of diagonistic apraxia and alien hand is rarely reported.

  1. Developmental malformation of the corpus callosum: a review of typical callosal development and examples of developmental disorders with callosal involvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Lynn K

    2011-03-01

    This review provides an overview of the involvement of the corpus callosum (CC) in a variety of developmental disorders that are currently defined exclusively by genetics, developmental insult, and/or behavior. I begin with a general review of CC development, connectivity, and function, followed by discussion of the research methods typically utilized to study the callosum. The bulk of the review concentrates on specific developmental disorders, beginning with agenesis of the corpus callosum (AgCC)-the only condition diagnosed exclusively by callosal anatomy. This is followed by a review of several genetic disorders that commonly result in social impairments and/or psychopathology similar to AgCC (neurofibromatosis-1, Turner syndrome, 22q11.2 deletion syndrome, Williams yndrome, and fragile X) and two forms of prenatal injury (premature birth, fetal alcohol syndrome) known to impact callosal development. Finally, I examine callosal involvement in several common developmental disorders defined exclusively by behavioral patterns (developmental language delay, dyslexia, attention-deficit hyperactive disorder, autism spectrum disorders, and Tourette syndrome).

  2. Relationship between teat-end callosity and occurrence of clinical mastitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neijenhuis, F.; Barkema, H.W.; Hogeveen, H.

    2001-01-01

    A longitudinal study in 15 herds, with a total of 2157 cows, was conducted to examine the relationship between teat-end callosity (TEC) and the incidence of clinical mastitis. During the 1.5-yr study period, clinical mastitis was diagnosed by the farmers based on clinical signs. Teat-end callosity

  3. Diffusion Weighted Callosal Integrity Reflects Interhemispheric Communication Efficiency in Multiple Sclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warlop, Nele P.; Achten, Eric; Debruyne, Jan; Vingerhoets, Guy

    2008-01-01

    We aimed to investigate the relation between damage in the corpus callosum and the performance on an interhemispheric communication task in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). Relative callosal lesion load defined as the ratio between callosal area and the total lesion load in the total corpus callosum, and the diffusion tensor imaging (DTI)…

  4. Relationship between teat-end callosity and occurrence of clinical mastitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neijenhuis, F.; Barkema, H.W.; Hogeveen, H.

    2001-01-01

    A longitudinal study in 15 herds, with a total of 2157 cows, was conducted to examine the relationship between teat-end callosity (TEC) and the incidence of clinical mastitis. During the 1.5-yr study period, clinical mastitis was diagnosed by the farmers based on clinical signs. Teat-end callosity w

  5. Sex differences in the incidence of total callosal agenesis in BALB/cCF mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manhães, Alex C; Medina, Alexandre E; Schmidt, Sergio L

    2002-06-14

    Corpus callosum (CC) development and adult morphology seems to be affected by sex. Here we analyzed the incidence of total callosal agenesis in 341 adult male and 318 female BALB/cCF mice. This strain of mice presents total or partial callosal agenesis in approximately 20-30% of its population. No significant differences were found in overall distributions of CC lengths and in average callosal lengths (totally acallosal excluded) between male and female mice. However, a highly significant difference in the incidence of total callosal agenesis was demonstrated: 18% (n=56) of the female mice presented such trait as opposed to 10% of males (n=34). This last result suggests that sex is a relevant factor in callosal development in its earliest stages of formation.

  6. Paradoxically greater interhemispheric transfer deficits in partial than complete callosal agenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aglioti, S; Beltramello, A; Tassinari, G; Berlucchi, G

    1998-10-01

    Symptoms of interhemispheric disconnection are typically much less severe in callosal agenesis than after surgical section of the corpus callosum. Sperry [Sperry, R. W., Plasticity of neural maturation. Developmental Biology, 1968, 2 (Suppl.), 306-327.] has attributed this difference to two interconnected factors: (1) the callosal section is usually performed after the brain has lost the maximal degree of functional plasticity associated with the early stages of development and (2) the removal of an already formed structure is more disruptive for functional brain organization than the failure of the same structure to develop. It has been suggested that functional compensation is less efficient if callosal agenesis is partial rather than complete [Dennis, M., Impaired sensory and motor differentiation with corpus callosum agenesis: A lack of callosal inhibition during ontogeny? Neuropsychologia, 1976, 14, 455-469.]. This suggestion is supported by the present findings of partial left-hand anomia, partial left-field alexia and poor tactile cross-localization in a subject with a congenital absence of the posterior part of the corpus callosum due to an arteriovenous malformation. In agreement with many previous studies, similar, though more severe, symptoms of interhemispheric disconnection were found in a subject with a complete section of the corpus callosum, but not in a subject with complete callosal agenesis. Praxic control of the left hand on verbal commands was severely deficient in the callosotomy subject, but it was normal in the subject with callosal hypogenesis. The lesser degree of compensation in partial compared to complete callosal agenesis may be explained by a reduced pressure to develop extracallosal means of interhemispheric communication, contingent on the partial existence of callosal connections, as well as by the later occurrence in development of the causes of callosal hypogenesis compared to those of total callosal agenesis.

  7. Callosal apraxia: a 34-year follow-up study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falchook, Adam D; Watson, Robert T; Heilman, Kenneth M

    2016-06-01

    Loss of ability of the left upper limb (LUL) to correctly produce spatial and temporal components of skilled purposeful movements was reported 34 years ago in a woman with a callosal infarction. To learn about recovery, we recently reexamined this woman. This woman was tested for ideomotor apraxia by asking her to pantomime to command and to seeing pictures of tools. Whereas she performed normally with her right upper limb, her LUL remained severely apraxic, making many spatial (postural and movement) errors. Initially, she did not reveal loss of finger-hand deftness (limb-kinetic apraxia), and when tested again with the coin rotation task, her left hand performance was normal. Without vision, she could name objects placed in her left hand but not name numbers written in this hand. Since this woman had a callosal lesion, failure to recover cannot be accounted for by left hemisphere inhibition of her right hemisphere. Although failure for her LUL to improve may have been related to not using her LUL for skilled actions, her right hemisphere was able to observe transitive actions, and this failure of her LUL to produce skilled purposeful movements suggests her right hemisphere may have not had the capacity to learn these movement representations. Without vision, her ability to recognize objects with her left hand, but not numbers written on her left palm, suggests graphesthesia may require that her left hand did not have access to movement representations important for programming these numbers when writing.

  8. Callosal lesions and behavior: history and modern concepts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devinsky, Orrin; Laff, Rachel

    2003-12-01

    Callosotomy has played a unique role in the treatment of epilepsy and in the understanding of human brain function. The pioneering work of Dejerine and Liepmann presenting the first findings of callosal lesion pathology at the turn of the 20th century was accepted but then quickly forgotten. Two schools resurrected the phoenix of callosal syndromes: Roger Sperry and Michael Gazzaniga leading in experimental neuroscience, and Norman Geschwind leading in clinical neurology. Callosotomy remains an effective technique to treat atonic, tonic, and tonic-clonic seizures, especially in patients with symptomatic generalized epilepsies such as Lennox-Gastaut syndrome. Neurologic, cognitive, and behavioral complications limit its use given that precise characterization of these complications as well as their frequency is difficult. The high frequencies of developmental delays, severe seizures, head injuries, antiepileptic drug burden, and other factors limit the ability to attribute a specific change to surgical intervention, since surgery can change multiple factors. For example, subtle behavioral changes in executive function and personality are difficult to delineate in a population with preexisting neurologic and psychiatric disorders. Despite this, a clearer picture of the effects of callosotomy, as defined by clinical neurology and neuropsychology as well as cognitive neuroscience, is emerging.

  9. Increased callose deposition in plants lacking DYNAMIN-RELATED PROTEIN 2B is dependent upon POWDERY MILDEW RESISTANT 4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leslie, Michelle E; Rogers, Sean W; Heese, Antje

    2016-11-01

    Callose deposition within the cell wall is a well-documented plant immune response to pathogenic organisms as well as to pathogen-/microbe- associated molecular patterns (P/MAMPs). However, the molecular mechanisms that modulate pathogen-induced callose deposition are less understood. We reported previously that Arabidopsis plants lacking the vesicle trafficking component DYNAMIN-RELATED PROTEIN 2B (DRP2B) display increased callose deposition in response to the PAMP flg22. Here, we show that increased number of flg22-induced callose deposits in drp2b leaves is fully dependent on the callose synthase POWDERY MILDEW RESISTANT 4 (PMR4). We propose that in addition to functioning in flg22-induced endocytosis of the plant receptor, FLAGELLIN SENSING 2, DRP2B may regulate the trafficking of proteins involved in callose synthesis, such as PMR4, and/or callose degradation.

  10. Synergistic activation of defense responses in Arabidopsis by simultaneous loss of the GSL5 callose synthase and the EDR1 protein kinase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wawrzynska, Anna; Rodibaugh, Natalie L; Innes, Roger W

    2010-05-01

    Loss-of-function mutations in the EDR1 gene of Arabidopsis confer enhanced resistance to Golovinomyces cichoracearum (powdery mildew). Disease resistance mediated by the edr1 mutation is dependent on an intact salicylic acid (SA) signaling pathway, but edr1 mutant plants do not constitutively express the SA-inducible gene PR-1 and are not dwarfed. To identify other components of the EDR1 signaling network, we screened for mutations that enhanced the edr1 mutant phenotype. Here, we describe an enhancer of edr1 mutant, eed3, which forms spontaneous lesions in the absence of pathogen infection, constitutively expresses both SA- and methyl jasmonate (JA)-inducible defense genes, and is dwarfed. Positional cloning of eed3 revealed that the mutation causes a premature stop codon in GLUCAN SYNTHASE-LIKE 5 (GSL5, also known as POWDERY MILDEW RESISTANT 4), which encodes a callose synthase required for pathogen-induced callose production. Significantly, gsl5 single mutants do not constitutively express PR-1 or AtERF1 (a JA-inducible gene) and are not dwarfed. Thus, loss of both EDR1 and GSL5 function has a synergistic effect. Our data suggest that EDR1 and GSL5 negatively regulate SA and JA production or signaling by independent mechanisms and that negative regulation of defense signaling by GSL5 may be independent of callose production.

  11. Excitatory and inhibitory projections in parallel pathways from the inferior colliculus to the auditory thalamus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey Garrett Mellott

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Individual subdivisions of the medial geniculate body (MG receive a majority of their ascending inputs from 1 or 2 subdivisions of the inferior colliculus (IC. This establishes parallel pathways that provide a model for understanding auditory projections from the IC through the MG and on to auditory cortex. A striking discovery about the tectothalamic circuit was identification of a substantial GABAergic component. Whether GABAergic projections match the parallel pathway organization has not been examined. We asked whether the parallel pathway concept is reflected in guinea pig tectothalamic pathways and to what degree GABAergic cells contribute to each pathway. We deposited retrograde tracers into individual MG subdivisions (ventral, MGv; medial, MGm; dorsal, MGd; suprageniculate, MGsg to label tectothalamic cells and used immunochemistry to identify GABAergic cells. The MGv receives most of its IC input (~75% from the IC central nucleus (ICc; MGd and MGsg receive most of their input (~70% from IC dorsal cortex (ICd; and MGm receives substantial input from both ICc (~40% and IC lateral cortex (~40%. Each MG subdivision receives additional input (up to 32% from non-dominant IC subdivisions, suggesting cross-talk between the pathways. The proportion of GABAergic cells in each pathway depended on the MG subdivision. GABAergic cells formed ~20% of IC inputs to MGv or MGm, ~11% of inputs to MGd, and 4% of inputs to MGsg. Thus, non-GABAergic (i.e., glutamatergic cells are most numerous in each pathway with GABAergic cells contributing to different extents. Despite smaller numbers of GABAergic cells, their distributions across IC subdivisions mimicked the parallel pathways. Projections outside the dominant pathways suggest opportunities for excitatory and inhibitory crosstalk. The results demonstrate parallel tectothalamic pathways in guinea pigs and suggest numerous opportunities for excitatory and inhibitory interactions within and between pathways.

  12. Abnormal interhemispheric motor interactions in patients with callosal agenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genç, Erhan; Ocklenburg, Sebastian; Singer, Wolf; Güntürkün, Onur

    2015-10-15

    During unilateral hand movements the activity of the contralateral primary motor cortex (cM1) is increased while the activity of the ipsilateral M1 (iM1) is decreased. A potential explanation for this asymmetric activity pattern is transcallosal cM1-to-iM1 inhibitory control. To test this hypothesis, we examined interhemispheric motor inhibition in acallosal patients. We measured fMRI activity in iM1 and cM1 in acallosal patients during unilateral hand movements and compared their motor activity pattern to that of healthy controls. In controls, fMRI activation in cM1 was significantly higher than in iM1, reflecting a normal differential task-related M1 activity. Additional functional connectivity analysis revealed that iM1 activity was strongly suppressed by cM1. Furthermore, DTI analysis indicated that this contralaterally induced suppression was mediated by microstructural properties of specific callosal fibers interconnecting both M1s. In contrast, acallosal patients did not show a clear differential activity pattern between cM1 and iM1. The more symmetric pattern was due to an elevated task-related iM1 activity in acallosal patients, which was significantly higher than iM1 activity in a subgroup of gender and age-matched controls. Also, interhemispheric motor suppression was completely absent in acallosal patients. These findings suggest that absence of callosal connections reduces inhibitory interhemispheric motor interactions between left and right M1. This effect may reveal novel aspects of mechanisms in communication of two hemispheres and establishment of brain asymmetries in general.

  13. Clinical features and associated abnormalities in children and adolescents with corpus callosal anomalies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Young Uhk; Park, Eun Sook; Jung, Soojin; Suh, Miri; Choi, Hyo Seon; Rha, Dong-Wook

    2014-02-01

    Callosal anomalies are frequently associated with other central nervous system (CNS) and/or somatic anomalies. We retrospectively analyzed the clinical features of corpus callosal agenesis/hypoplasia accompanying other CNS and/or somatic anomalies. We reviewed the imaging and clinical information of patients who underwent brain magnetic resonance imaging in our hospital, between 2005 and 2012. Callosal anomalies were isolated in 13 patients, accompanied by other CNS anomalies in 10 patients, associated with only non-CNS somatic anomalies in four patients, and with both CNS and non-CNS abnormalities in four patients. Out of 31 patients, four developed normally, without impairments in motor or cognitive functions. Five of nine patients with cerebral palsy were accompanied by other CNS and/or somatic anomalies, and showed worse Gross Motor Function Classification System scores, compared with the other four patients with isolated callosal anomaly. In addition, patients with other CNS anomalies also had a higher seizure risk.

  14. Language lateralization in a patient with temporal lobe epilepsy and callosal agenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsaadi, Taoufik; Shahrour, Tarek M

    2015-01-01

    The corpus callosum has been proposed as a mechanism of interhemispheric inhibition that allows language dominance to develop [1]. Callosal agenesis or dysgenesis provides a test of this hypothesis, as patients lacking a normal corpus callosum should also lack normal language lateralization [2]. We report pre- and postoperative functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and neuropsychological testing in a patient with partial callosal agenesis who underwent a right temporal lobectomy for medically refractory seizures.

  15. Language lateralization in a patient with temporal lobe epilepsy and callosal agenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taoufik Alsaadi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The corpus callosum has been proposed as a mechanism of interhemispheric inhibition that allows language dominance to develop [1]. Callosal agenesis or dysgenesis provides a test of this hypothesis, as patients lacking a normal corpus callosum should also lack normal language lateralization [2]. We report pre- and postoperative functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI and neuropsychological testing in a patient with partial callosal agenesis who underwent a right temporal lobectomy for medically refractory seizures.

  16. Language lateralization in a patient with temporal lobe epilepsy and callosal agenesis

    OpenAIRE

    Taoufik Alsaadi; Shahrour, Tarek M.

    2014-01-01

    The corpus callosum has been proposed as a mechanism of interhemispheric inhibition that allows language dominance to develop [1]. Callosal agenesis or dysgenesis provides a test of this hypothesis, as patients lacking a normal corpus callosum should also lack normal language lateralization [2]. We report pre- and postoperative functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and neuropsychological testing in a patient with partial callosal agenesis who underwent a right temporal lobectomy for me...

  17. Interhemispheric Lipoma, Callosal Anomaly, and Malformations of Cortical Development: A Case Series

    OpenAIRE

    Niwa, Tetsu; Linda S de Vries; Manten, GTR; Lequin, Maarten; Cuppen, Inge; Shibasaki, Jun; Aida, Noriko

    2016-01-01

    Intracranial lipomas are rare congenital malformations. The most common type of intracranial lipoma is the interhemispheric lipoma, which is frequently associated with callosal anomalies such as hypogenesis or agenesis of the corpus callosum. In contrast, interhemispheric lipomas are less often accompanied with malformations of cortical development (MCD). We report magnetic resonance imaging findings of three infants with an interhemispheric lipoma, associated with a callosal anomaly, and MCD...

  18. Cerebral and callosal organisation in a right hemisphere dominant "split brain" patient.

    OpenAIRE

    Lutsep, H.L.; Wessinger, C M; Gazzaniga, M S

    1995-01-01

    Patients described in previous reports who have undergone corpus callostomy for control of seizures have been left hemisphere dominant for language. To determine the hemispheric localisation (and possible coexistence) of language and traditional right hemisphere skills in reversed dominance, the first right hemisphere dominant corpus callostomy patient was studied. Localisation of callosal functions was also investigated, as MRI showed 1.5 cm of spared callosal body. The patient, KO, a 15 yea...

  19. Differences in early callose deposition during adapted and non-adapted powdery mildew infection of resistant Arabidopsis lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naumann, Marcel; Somerville, Shauna; Voigt, Christian

    2013-06-01

    The deposition of callose, a (1,3)-β-glucan cell wall polymer, can play an essential role in the defense response to invading pathogens. We could recently show that Arabidopsis thaliana lines with an overexpression of the callose synthase gene PMR4 gained complete penetration resistance to the adapted powdery mildew Golovinomyces cichoracearum and the non-adapted powdery mildew Blumeria graminis f. sp hordei. The penetration resistance is based on the transport of the callose synthase PMR4 to the site of attempted fungal penetration and the subsequent formation of enlarged callose deposits. The deposits differed in their total diameter comparing both types of powdery mildew infection. In this study, further characterization of these callose deposits revealed that size differences were especially pronounced in the core region of the deposits. This suggests that specific, pathogen-dependent factors exist, which might regulate callose synthase transport to the core region of forming deposits.

  20. Sound lateralization in subjects with callosotomy, callosal agenesis, or hemispherectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hausmann, Markus; Corballis, Michael C; Fabri, Mara; Paggi, Aldo; Lewald, Jörg

    2005-10-01

    The question of whether there is a right-hemisphere dominance in the processing of auditory spatial information in human cortex as well as the role of the corpus callosum in spatial hearing functions is still a matter of debate. Here, we approached this issue by investigating two late-callosotomized subjects and one subject with agenesis of the corpus callosum, using a task of sound lateralization with variable interaural time differences. For comparison, three subjects with left or right hemispherectomy were also tested by employing identical methods. Besides a significant reduction in their acuity, subjects with total or partial section of the corpus callosum exhibited a considerable leftward bias of sound lateralization compared to normal controls. No such bias was found in the subject with callosal agenesis, but merely a marginal reduction of general acuity. Also, one subject with complete resection of the left cerebral cortex showed virtually normal performance, whereas another subject with left hemispherectomy and one subject with right hemispherectomy exhibited severe deficits, with almost total loss of sound-lateralization ability. The results obtained in subjects with callosotomy indicate that the integrity of the corpus callosum is not indispensable for preservation of sound-lateralization ability. On the other hand, transcallosal interhemispheric transfer of auditory information obviously plays a significant role in spatial hearing functions that depend on binaural cues. Moreover, these data are compatible with the general view of a dominance of the right cortical hemisphere in auditory space perception.

  1. Depletion of Inositol Polyphosphate 4-Phosphatase II Suppresses Callosal Axon Formation in the Developing Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Liting; Kim, Nam-Ho; Huh, Sung-Oh; Rhee, Hae Jin

    2016-06-30

    The corpus callosum is a bundle of nerve fibers that connects the two cerebral hemispheres and is essential for coordinated transmission of information between them. Disruption of early stages of callosal development can cause agenesis of the corpus callosum (AgCC), including both complete and partial callosal absence, causing mild to severe cognitive impairment. Despite extensive studies, the etiology of AgCC remains to be clarified due to the complicated mechanism involved in generating AgCC. The biological function of PI3K signaling including phosphatidylinositol-3,4,5-trisphosphate is well established in diverse biochemical processes including axon and dendrite morphogenesis, but the function of the closely related phosphatidylinositol-3,4,-bisphosphate (PI(3,4)P2) signaling, particularly in the nervous system, is largely unknown. Here, we provide the first report on the role of inositol polyphosphate 4-phosphatase II (INPP4B), a PI(3,4)P2 metabolizing 4-phosphatase in the regulation of callosal axon formation. Depleting INPP4B by in utero electroporation suppressed medially directed callosal axon formation. Moreover, depletion of INPP4B significantly attenuated formation of Satb2-positive pyramidal neurons and axon polarization in cortical neurons during cortical development. Taken together, these data suggest that INPP4B plays a role in the regulating callosal axon formation by controlling axon polarization and the Satb2-positive pyramidal neuron population. Dysregulation of INPP4B during cortical development may be implicated in the generation of partial AgCC.

  2. The enhanced callose deposition in barley with ml-o powdery mildew resistance genes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skou, Jens-Peder

    1985-01-01

    Carborundum treatment of barley leaves induced a callose deposition which was detected as diffuse blotches in the epidermal cells of susceptible barleys and as deeply stained tracks along the scratches in barleys with the ml-o powdery mildew resistance gene. Subsequent inoculation with powdery...... mildew resulted in appositions that enlarged inversely to their size in the respective varieties when inoculated without carborundum treatment. Aphids sucking the leaves resulted in rows of callose containing spots along the anticlinal cell walls. The spots were larger in the ml-o mutant than...... in the mother variety. Callose was deposited in connection with the pleiotropic necrotic spotting in barleys with the ml-o gene. Modification of the necrotic spotting by crossing the ml-o gene into other gene backgrounds did not result in any change in the size of appositions upon inoculation with powdery...

  3. Isolated cystic lesion of the callosal genu after traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Toru; Okumura, Akihisa; Tsuji, Takeshi; Emi, Misugi; Natsume, Jun

    2012-06-01

    We report the case of a 17-month-old infant who developed an isolated cystic lesion of the callosal genu as a unique lesion of traumatic axonal injury (TAI). Although one of the most common sites of TAI is the corpus callosum, there have been no reports describing the lesion seen in our patient. Brain computed tomography findings were normal on the day of the traffic accident. After 3 months, brain magnetic resonance imaging showed an isolated cystic lesion of the callosal genu that had the appearance of a cystic cavity. This lesion decreased in size 16 months later. The neuroimaging findings of this patient suggest that an isolated cystic lesion of the callosal genu could appear as a unique form of TAI in infants after traumatic brain injury (TBI), but it is nevertheless important to attend to such lesions in children with TBI.

  4. The enhanced callose deposition in barley with ml-o powdery mildew resistance genes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skou, Jens-Peder

    1985-01-01

    Carborundum treatment of barley leaves induced a callose deposition which was detected as diffuse blotches in the epidermal cells of susceptible barleys and as deeply stained tracks along the scratches in barleys with the ml-o powdery mildew resistance gene. Subsequent inoculation with powdery...... mildew resulted in appositions that enlarged inversely to their size in the respective varieties when inoculated without carborundum treatment. Aphids sucking the leaves resulted in rows of callose containing spots along the anticlinal cell walls. The spots were larger in the ml-o mutant than...... in the mother variety. Callose was deposited in connection with the pleiotropic necrotic spotting in barleys with the ml-o gene. Modification of the necrotic spotting by crossing the ml-o gene into other gene backgrounds did not result in any change in the size of appositions upon inoculation with powdery...

  5. Interhemispheric Lipoma, Callosal Anomaly, and Malformations of Cortical Development: A Case Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niwa, Tetsu; de Vries, Linda S; Manten, Gwendolyn T R; Lequin, Maarten; Cuppen, Inge; Shibasaki, Jun; Aida, Noriko

    2016-04-01

    Intracranial lipomas are rare congenital malformations. The most common type of intracranial lipoma is the interhemispheric lipoma, which is frequently associated with callosal anomalies such as hypogenesis or agenesis of the corpus callosum. In contrast, interhemispheric lipomas are less often accompanied with malformations of cortical development (MCD). We report magnetic resonance imaging findings of three infants with an interhemispheric lipoma, associated with a callosal anomaly, and MCD: two infants with nodular interhemispheric lipoma, agenesis of the corpus callosum, and polymicrogyria, and one infant with interhemispheric curvilinear lipoma, hypoplasia of the corpus callosum, and heterotopias. An association was suggested regarding the occurrence of these malformations.

  6. Magnetic resonance imaging and histological studies of corpus callosal and hippocampal abnormalities linked to doublecortin deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kappeler, Caroline; Dhenain, Marc; Phan Dinh Tuy, Françoise; Saillour, Yoann; Marty, Serge; Fallet-Bianco, Catherine; Souville, Isabelle; Souil, Evelyne; Pinard, Jean-Marc; Meyer, Gundela; Encha-Razavi, Ferechté; Volk, Andreas; Beldjord, Cherif; Chelly, Jamel; Francis, Fiona

    2007-01-10

    Mutated doublecortin (DCX) gives rise to severe abnormalities in human cortical development. Adult Dcx knockout mice show no major neocortical defects but do have a disorganized hippocampus. We report here the developmental basis of these hippocampal abnormalities. A heterotopic band of neurons was identified starting at E17.5 in the CA3 region and progressing throughout the CA1 region by E18.5. At neonatal stages, the CA1 heterotopic band was reduced, but the CA3 band remained unchanged, continuing into adulthood. Thus, in mouse, migration of CA3 neurons is arrested during development, whereas CA1 cell migration is retarded. On the Sv129Pas background, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) also suggested abnormal dorsal hippocampal morphology, displaced laterally and sometimes rostrally and associated with medial brain structure abnormalities. MRI and cryosectioning showed agenesis of the corpus callosum in Dcx knockout mice on this background and an intermediate, partial agenesis in heterozygote mice. Wild-type littermates showed no callosal abnormalities. Hippocampal and corpus callosal abnormalities were also characterized in DCX-mutated human patients. Severe hippocampal hypoplasia was identified along with variable corpus callosal defects ranging from total agenesis to an abnormally thick or thin callosum. Our data in the mouse, identifying roles for Dcx in hippocampal and corpus callosal development, might suggest intrinsic roles for human DCX in the development of these structures.

  7. Interhemispheric Lipoma, Callosal Anomaly, and Malformations of Cortical Development: A Case Series

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Niwa, Tetsu; de Vries, Linda S.; Manten, GTR; Lequin, Maarten; Cuppen, Inge; Shibasaki, Jun; Aida, Noriko

    2016-01-01

    Intracranial lipomas are rare congenital malformations. The most common type of intracranial lipoma is the interhemispheric lipoma, which is frequently associated with callosal anomalies such as hypogenesis or agenesis of the corpus callosum. In contrast, interhemispheric lipomas are less often acco

  8. Iron-dependent callose deposition adjusts root meristem maintenance to phosphate availability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Jens; Toev, Theresa; Heisters, Marcus; Teller, Janine; Moore, Katie L; Hause, Gerd; Dinesh, Dhurvas Chandrasekaran; Bürstenbinder, Katharina; Abel, Steffen

    2015-04-20

    Plant root development is informed by numerous edaphic cues. Phosphate (Pi) availability impacts the root system architecture by adjusting meristem activity. However, the sensory mechanisms monitoring external Pi status are elusive. Two functionally interacting Arabidopsis genes, LPR1 (ferroxidase) and PDR2 (P5-type ATPase), are key players in root Pi sensing, which is modified by iron (Fe) availability. We show that the LPR1-PDR2 module facilitates, upon Pi limitation, cell-specific apoplastic Fe and callose deposition in the meristem and elongation zone of primary roots. Expression of cell-wall-targeted LPR1 determines the sites of Fe accumulation as well as callose production, which interferes with symplastic communication in the stem cell niche, as demonstrated by impaired SHORT-ROOT movement. Antagonistic interactions of Pi and Fe availability control primary root growth via meristem-specific callose formation, likely triggered by LPR1-dependent redox signaling. Our results link callose-regulated cell-to-cell signaling in root meristems to the perception of an abiotic cue.

  9. Comparative Studies on Callose Formation in Powdery Mildew Compatible and Incompatible Barley

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skou, Jens-Peder; Jørgensen, Jørgen Helms; Lilholt, Ulla

    1984-01-01

    . This is the 1st case where the effect of callose refers to the action of a specific gene. Six susceptible Japanese varieties formed large appositions but they were initiated as late as in other susceptible varieties, and their color was paler than in other barleys. Nine Hordeum spp. [H. capense, H. chilense, H...

  10. Aims and first assessments of the French hydrogen pathways project HyFrance3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Le Duigou, Alain [CEA/DEN/DANS/I-Tese, Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Quemere, Marie-Marguerite [EDF R et D, Moret sur Loing (France). Dept. EPI; Marion, Pierre [IFP, Rueil Malmaison (FR)] (and others)

    2010-07-01

    The HyFrance Group was originally formed in France to support the European project HyWays, by providing (former projects HyFrance1 and HyFrance2) the French data and possible hydrogen pathways according to national specificities. HyFrance3 is a new project that focuses on the economic competitiveness of different steps of the hydrogen chain, from the production to end usage, at the time horizon of 2030 in France. The project is coordinated by CEA with the other partners being: ADEME (co-funding), AFH2, CNRS, IFP, Air Liquide, EdF, GdF Suez, TOTAL, ALPHEA. The project is divided into 4 sub-projects, that address present and future French hydrogen industrial markets for chemical and refinery uses, the analysis of the interplay between wind energy production and storage of hydrogen for different automotive requirements (refuelling stations, BtL plants, H2/NG mix), massive hydrogen storage to balance various offer and demand characteristics, and the supply network (pipeline option competitiveness vs. trucked in supply) to distribute hydrogen in a French region for automotive applications. Technical and economical issues, as well as GHG emissions, are addressed. (orig.)

  11. Callose (β-1,3 glucan is essential for Arabidopsis pollen wall patterning, but not tube growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maruyama Daisuke

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Callose (β-1,3 glucan separates developing pollen grains, preventing their underlying walls (exine from fusing. The pollen tubes that transport sperm to female gametes also contain callose, both in their walls as well as in the plugs that segment growing tubes. Mutations in CalS5, one of several Arabidopsis β-1,3 glucan synthases, were previously shown to disrupt callose formation around developing microspores, causing aberrations in exine patterning, degeneration of developing microspores, and pollen sterility. Results Here, we describe three additional cals5 alleles that similarly alter exine patterns, but instead produce fertile pollen. Moreover, one of these alleles (cals5-3 resulted in the formation of pollen tubes that lacked callose walls and plugs. In self-pollinated plants, these tubes led to successful fertilization, but they were at a slight disadvantage when competing with wild type. Conclusion Contrary to a previous report, these results demonstrate that a structured exine layer is not required for pollen development, viability or fertility. In addition, despite the presence of callose-enriched walls and callose plugs in pollen tubes, the results presented here indicate that callose is not required for pollen tube functions.

  12. Multiple non-cell-autonomous defects underlie neocortical callosal dysgenesis in Nfib-deficient mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunn Nana

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Agenesis of the corpus callosum is associated with many human developmental syndromes. Key mechanisms regulating callosal formation include the guidance of axons arising from pioneering neurons in the cingulate cortex and the development of cortical midline glial populations, but their molecular regulation remains poorly characterised. Recent data have shown that mice lacking the transcription factor Nfib exhibit callosal agenesis, yet neocortical callosal neurons express only low levels of Nfib. Therefore, we investigate here how Nfib functions to regulate non-cell-autonomous mechanisms of callosal formation. Results Our investigations confirmed a reduction in glial cells at the midline in Nfib-/- mice. To determine how this occurs, we examined radial progenitors at the cortical midline and found that they were specified correctly in Nfib mutant mice, but did not differentiate into mature glia. Cellular proliferation and apoptosis occurred normally at the midline of Nfib mutant mice, indicating that the decrease in midline glia observed was due to deficits in differentiation rather than proliferation or apoptosis. Next we investigated the development of callosal pioneering axons in Nfib-/- mice. Using retrograde tracer labelling, we found that Nfib is expressed in cingulate neurons and hence may regulate their development. In Nfib-/- mice, neuropilin 1-positive axons fail to cross the midline and expression of neuropilin 1 is diminished. Tract tracing and immunohistochemistry further revealed that, in late gestation, a minor population of neocortical axons does cross the midline in Nfib mutants on a C57Bl/6J background, forming a rudimentary corpus callosum. Finally, the development of other forebrain commissures in Nfib-deficient mice is also aberrant. Conclusion The formation of the corpus callosum is severely delayed in the absence of Nfib, despite Nfib not being highly expressed in neocortical callosal neurons. Our

  13. Altered callose deposition during embryo sac formation of multi-pistil mutant (mp1) in Medicago sativa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, H C; Jin, L; Li, J; Wang, X J

    2016-06-03

    Whether callose deposition is the cause or result of ovule sterility in Medicago sativa remains controversial, because it is unclear when and where changes in callose deposition and dissolution occur during fertile and sterile embryo sac formation. Here, alfalfa spontaneous multi-pistil mutant (mp1) and wild-type plants were used to compare the dynamics of callose deposition during embryo sac formation using microscopy. The results showed that both mutant and wild-type plants experienced megasporogenesis and megagametogenesis, and there was no significant difference during megasporogenesis. In contrast to the wild-type plants, in which the mature embryo sac was observed after three continuous cycles of mitosis, functional megaspores of mutant plants developed abnormally after the second round of mitosis, leading to degeneration of synergid, central, and antipodal cells. Callose deposition in both mutant and wild-type plants was first observed in the walls of megasporocytes, and then in the megaspore tetrad walls. After meiosis, the callose wall began to degrade as the functional megaspore underwent mitosis, and almost no callose was observed in the mature embryo sac in wild-type plants. However, callose deposition was observed in mp1 plants around the synergid, and increased with the development of the embryo sac, and was mainly deposited at the micropylar end. Our results indicate that synergid, central, and antipodal cells, which are surrounded by callose, may degrade owing to lack of nutrition. Callose accumulation around the synergid and at the micropylar end may hinder signals required for the pollen tube to enter the embryo sac, leading to abortion.

  14. Corpus callosal atrophy and associations with cognitive impairment in Parkinson disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldman, Jennifer G; Bledsoe, Ian O; Merkitch, Doug; Dinh, Vy; Bernard, Bryan; Stebbins, Glenn T

    2017-03-28

    To investigate atrophy of the corpus callosum on MRI in Parkinson disease (PD) and its relationship to cognitive impairment. One hundred patients with PD and 24 healthy control participants underwent clinical and neuropsychological evaluations and structural MRI brain scans. Participants with PD were classified as cognitively normal (PD-NC; n = 28), having mild cognitive impairment (PD-MCI; n = 47), or having dementia (PDD; n = 25) by Movement Disorder Society criteria. Cognitive domain (attention/working memory, executive function, memory, language, visuospatial function) z scores were calculated. With the use of FreeSurfer image processing, volumes for total corpus callosum and its subsections (anterior, midanterior, central, midposterior, posterior) were computed and normalized by total intracranial volume. Callosal volumes were compared between participants with PD and controls and among PD cognitive groups, covarying for age, sex, and PD duration and with multiple comparison corrections. Regression analyses were performed to evaluate relationships between callosal volumes and performance in cognitive domains. Participants with PD had reduced corpus callosum volumes in midanterior and central regions compared to healthy controls. Participants with PDD demonstrated decreased callosal volumes involving multiple subsections spanning anterior to posterior compared to participants with PD-MCI and PD-NC. Regional callosal atrophy predicted cognitive domain performance such that central volumes were associated with the attention/working memory domain; midposterior volumes with executive function, language, and memory domains; and posterior volumes with memory and visuospatial domains. Notable volume loss occurs in the corpus callosum in PD, with specific neuroanatomic distributions in PDD and relationships of regional atrophy to different cognitive domains. Callosal volume loss may contribute to clinical manifestations of PD cognitive impairment. © 2017 American

  15. The link between callosal thickness and intelligence in healthy children and adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luders, Eileen; Thompson, Paul M.; Narr, Katherine L.; Zamanyan, Alen; Chou, Yi-Yu; Gutman, Boris; Dinov, Ivo D.; Toga, Arthur W.

    2010-01-01

    The link between brain structure and intelligence is a well-investigated topic, but existing analyses have mainly focused on adult samples. Studies in healthy children and adolescents are rare, and normative data specifically addressing the association between corpus callosum morphology and intellectual abilities is quite limited. To advance this field of research, we mapped the correlations between standardized intelligence measures and callosal thickness based on high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data. Our large and well-matched sample included 200 normally developing subjects (100 males, 100 females) ranging from 6 to 17 years of age. Although the strongest correlations were negative and confined to the splenium, the strength and the direction of intelligence-callosal thickness associations varied considerably with respect to age and sex. While significant correlations in females were mainly positive, significant correlations in males were exclusively negative. However, only the negative correlations in the overall sample (i.e., males and females combined) remained significant when controlling for multiple comparisons. The observed negative correlations between callosal thickness and intelligence in children and adolescents contrast with the positive correlations typically reported in adult samples. However, negative correlations are in line with reports from other pediatric studies relating cognitive measures to other brain attributes such as cortical thickness, gray matter volume, and gray matter density. Altogether, these findings suggest that relationships between callosal morphology and cognition are highly dynamic during brain maturation. Sex effects on links between callosal thickness and intelligence during childhood and adolescence are present but appear rather weak in general. PMID:20932920

  16. Columbia River pathway report: phase I of the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-07-01

    This report summarizes the river-pathway portion of the first phase of the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction (HEDR) Project. The HEDR Project is estimating radiation doses that could have been received by the public from the Department of Energy's Hanford Site, in southeastern Washington State. Phase 1 of the river-pathway dose reconstruction effort sought to determine whether dose estimates could be calculated for populations in the area from above the Hanford Site at Priest Rapids Dam to below the site at McNary Dam from January 1964 to December 1966. Of the potential sources of radionuclides from the river, fish consumption was the most important. Doses from drinking water were lower at Pasco than at Richland and lower at Kennewick than at Pasco. The median values of preliminary dose estimates calculated by HEDR are similar to independent, previously published estimates of average doses to Richland residents. Later phases of the HEDR Project will address dose estimates for periods other than 1964--1966 and for populations downstream of McNary Dam. 17 refs., 19 figs., 1 tab.

  17. Discovering new genetic and psychosocial pathways in Major Depressive Disorder: the NewMood project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeborough, Annabel; Kimpton, Jessica

    2011-09-01

    The World Health Organisation predicts that Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) will be the second greatest contributor to the global burden of disease by 2020, however, the neurobiological mechanisms behind the disease and the risk factors for it are yet unknown. NewMood (New Molecules for Mood Disorders) was a research project funded by the EU, collaborating work from 10 European countries with the aim of finding new molecular mechanisms behind MDD to develop more effective treatment options. This review explains the aims and objectives of NewMood and how it intends to achieve them with regards to the current literature. It also outlines two of its most recent projects: genome wide association replication study for single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) increasing susceptibility to MDD and stress related pathways in depression using the cortisol awakening response (CAR). Both of these studies had significant results and could further contribute to our current understanding of MDD.

  18. The PTI1-like kinase ZmPti1a from maize (Zea mays L. co-localizes with callose at the plasma membrane of pollen and facilitates a competitive advantage to the male gametophyte

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wienand Udo

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The tomato kinase Pto confers resistance to bacterial speck disease caused by Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato in a gene for gene manner. Upon recognition of specific avirulence factors the Pto kinase activates multiple signal transduction pathways culminating in induction of pathogen defense. The soluble cytoplasmic serine/threonine kinase Pti1 is one target of Pto phosphorylation and is involved in the hypersensitive response (HR reaction. However, a clear role of Pti1 in plant pathogen resistance is uncertain. So far, no Pti1 homologues from monocotyledonous species have been studied. Results Here we report the identification and molecular analysis of four Pti1-like kinases from maize (ZmPti1a, -b, -c, -d. These kinase genes showed tissue-specific expression and their corresponding proteins were targeted to different cellular compartments. Sequence similarity, expression pattern and cellular localization of ZmPti1b suggested that this gene is a putative orthologue of Pti1 from tomato. In contrast, ZmPti1a was specifically expressed in pollen and sequestered to the plasma membrane, evidently owing to N-terminal modification by myristoylation and/or S-acylation. The ZmPti1a:GFP fusion protein was not evenly distributed at the pollen plasma membrane but accumulated as an annulus-like structure which co-localized with callose (1,3-β-glucan deposition. In addition, co-localization of ZmPti1a and callose was observed during stages of pollen mitosis I and pollen tube germination. Maize plants in which ZmPti1a expression was silenced by RNA interference (RNAi produced pollen with decreased competitive ability. Hence, our data provide evidence that ZmPti1a plays an important part in a signalling pathway that accelerates pollen performance and male fitness. Conclusion ZmPti1a from maize is involved in pollen-specific processes during the progamic phase of reproduction, probably in crucial signalling processes associated with regions

  19. Columbia River Pathway Dosimetry Report, 1944-1992. Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farris, W.T.; Napier, B.A.; Simpson, J.C.; Snyder, S.F.; Shipler, D.B.

    1994-04-01

    The purpose of the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction (HEDR) Project is to estimate the radiation dose that individuals could have received as a result of radionuclide emissions since 1944 from the Hanford Site. One objective of the HEDR Project is to estimate doses to individuals who were exposed to the radionuclides released to the Columbia River (the river pathway). This report documents the last in a series of dose calculations conducted on the Columbia River pathway. The report summarizes the technical approach used to estimate radiation doses to three classes of representative individuals who may have used the Columbia River as a source of drinking water, food, or for recreational or occupational purposes. In addition, the report briefly explains the approaches used to estimate the radioactivity released to the river, the development of the parameters used to model the uptake and movement of radioactive materials in aquatic systems such as the Columbia River, and the method of calculating the Columbia River`s transport of radioactive materials. Potential Columbia River doses have been determined for representative individuals since the initiation of site activities in 1944. For this report, dose calculations were performed using conceptual models and computer codes developed for the purpose of estimating doses. All doses were estimated for representative individuals who share similar characteristics with segments of the general population.

  20. The “CROMa” Project: A Care Pathway for Clinical Management of Patients with Bisphosphonate Exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro Capocci

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To describe 7 years of activity of “CROMa” (Coordination of Research on Osteonecrosis of the Jaws project of “Sapienza” University of Rome. Materials and Methods. A preventive and therapeutic care pathway was created for patients with bisphosphonates (BPs exposure. Demographic, social, behavioural, pharmacological, and clinical variables were registered in a dedicated database. Results. In the project, 502 patients, 403 females and 99 males, were observed. Bone pathologies were 79% osteometabolic diseases (OMD and 21% metastatic cancer (CA. Females were 90% in OMD group and 41% in CA. BP administration was 54% oral, 31% IV, and 11% IM; 89% of BPs were amino-BP and 11% non-amino-BP. Consistently with bone pathology (OMD/CA, alendronate appears to be prevalent for OMD (40% relative, while zoledronate was indicated in 92% of CA patients. Out of 502 cases collected, 28 BRONJ were detected: 17 of them were related to IV BP treatment. Preventive oral assessment was required for 50% of CA patients and by 4% of OMD patients. Conclusions. The proposed care pathway protocols for BP exposed patients appeared to be useful to meet treatment and preventive needs, in both oncological and osteometabolic diseases patients. Patients’ and physicians’ prevention awareness can be the starting point of a multilevel prevention system.

  1. The "CROMa" Project: A Care Pathway for Clinical Management of Patients with Bisphosphonate Exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capocci, Mauro; Romeo, Umberto; Cocco, Fabio; Bignozzi, Isabella; Annibali, Susanna; Ottolenghi, Livia

    2014-01-01

    Aim. To describe 7 years of activity of "CROMa" (Coordination of Research on Osteonecrosis of the Jaws) project of "Sapienza" University of Rome. Materials and Methods. A preventive and therapeutic care pathway was created for patients with bisphosphonates (BPs) exposure. Demographic, social, behavioural, pharmacological, and clinical variables were registered in a dedicated database. Results. In the project, 502 patients, 403 females and 99 males, were observed. Bone pathologies were 79% osteometabolic diseases (OMD) and 21% metastatic cancer (CA). Females were 90% in OMD group and 41% in CA. BP administration was 54% oral, 31% IV, and 11% IM; 89% of BPs were amino-BP and 11% non-amino-BP. Consistently with bone pathology (OMD/CA), alendronate appears to be prevalent for OMD (40% relative), while zoledronate was indicated in 92% of CA patients. Out of 502 cases collected, 28 BRONJ were detected: 17 of them were related to IV BP treatment. Preventive oral assessment was required for 50% of CA patients and by 4% of OMD patients. Conclusions. The proposed care pathway protocols for BP exposed patients appeared to be useful to meet treatment and preventive needs, in both oncological and osteometabolic diseases patients. Patients' and physicians' prevention awareness can be the starting point of a multilevel prevention system.

  2. Draft Air Pathway Report: Phase 1 of the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-07-20

    This report summarizes the air pathway portion of the first phase of the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction (HEDR) Project, conducted by Battelle staff at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory under the direction of an independent Technical Steering Panel. The HEDR Project is estimating historical radiation doses that could have been received by populations near the Department of Energy's Hanford Site, in southeastern Washington State. Phase 1 of the air-pathway dose reconstruction sought to determine whether dose estimates could be calculated for populations in the 10 counties nearest the Hanford Site from atmospheric releases of iodine-131 from the site from 1944--1947. Phase 1 demonstrated the following: HEDR-calculated source-term estimates of iodine-131 releases to the atmosphere were within 20% of previously published estimates; calculated vegetation concentrations of iodine-131 agree well with previously published measurements; the highest of the Phase 1 preliminary dose estimates to the thyroid are consistent with independent, previously published estimates of doses to maximally exposed individuals; and relatively crude, previously published measurements of thyroid burdens for Hanford workers are in the range of average burdens that the HEDR model estimated for similar reference individuals'' for the period 1944--1947. 4 refs., 10 figs., 9 tabs.

  3. Induction of Callose Deposition in Tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum by Bacterial Lipopolysaccharide Pseudomonas syringae pv. tabaci and Pseudomonas syringae pv. glycinea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pipit Marianingsih

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Lipopolysaccharide (LPS is a major component of outer-membrane gram-negative bacteria, and it can act as a Pathogen-Associated Molecular Pattern (PAMP for perception of pathogens by plants. LPS can be recognized by plants, triggering certain plant defense-related responses, including callose deposition. This study investigated induction of callose deposition by bacterial LPS in tobacco. Tobacco leaves were infiltrated with 400 μg/mL and 800 μg/mL LPS extracted from Pseudomonas syringae pv. tabaci (Pta and Pseudomonas syringae pv. glycinea (Pgl and incubated for 24 h or 48 h. To detect callose deposition, tobacco leaves were cleared in lactophenol solution, stained with aniline blue, and visualized by fluorescence microscopy. Results showed that LPS from Pgl induced more callose deposition in tobacco leaves than did that from Pta. In addition, a Pearson correlation test revealed that incubation period was the most significant factor in callose deposition, followed by the type of LPS bacteria. However, LPS concentration was not significantly corelated to callose deposition in tobacco leaves.

  4. Longitudinal study of callosal microstructure in the normal adult aging brain using quantitative DTI fiber tracking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Edith V; Rohlfing, Torsten; Pfefferbaum, Adolf

    2010-01-01

    We present a review of neuroimaging studies of normal adult aging conducted with diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and data from one of the first longitudinal studies using DTI to study normal aging. To date, virtually all DTI studies of normal adult aging have been cross-sectional and have identified several patterns of white matter microstructural sparing and compromise that differentiate regional effects, fiber type, and diffusivity characteristics: (1) fractional anisotropy (FA) is lower and mean diffusivity is higher in older than younger adults, (2) aging is characterized by an anterior-to-posterior gradient of greater-to-lesser compromise also seen in superior-to-inferior fiber systems, and (3) association fibers connecting cortical sites appear to be more vulnerable to aging than projection fibers. The results of this longitudinal study of the macrostructure and microstructure of the corpus callosum yielded a consistent pattern of differences between healthy, young (20s to 30s) and elderly (60s to 70s) men and women without change over 2 years. We then divided the fibers of the corpus callosum into the midsagittal strip and the lateral distal fibers in an attempt to identify the locus of the age-related differences. The results indicated that, on average, mean values of FA and longitudinal diffusivity (lambdaL) were lower in the distal than midsagittal fibers in both groups, but the age effects and the anterior-to-posterior gradients were more pronounced for the distal than midsagittal fibers and extended more posteriorly in the distal than midsagittal fibers. Despite lack of evidence for callosal aging over 2 years, ventricular enlargement occurred and was disproportionately greater in the elderly relative to the young group, being 8.2% in the elderly but only 1.2% in the young group. Thus, different brain regions can express different rates of change with aging. Our longitudinal DTI data indicate that normal aging is associated with declining FA and

  5. Relation of callosal structure to cognitive abilities in temporal lobe epilepsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine eSchneider

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this paper is to analyse the influence of mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE on the morphology of the corpus callosum (CC and its relation to cognitive abilities. More specifically, we investigated correlations between intellectual abilities and callosal morphology, while additionally exploring the modulating impact of (a side of seizure onset (b age of disease onset.For this reason a large representative sample of patients with hippocampal sclerosis (n=79; 35 males; 44 females; age: 18-63 years with disease onset ranging from 0 to 50 years of age, and consisting of 46 left and 33 right TLE patients was recruited. Intelligence was measured using the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale Revised (WAIS-R.To get localizations of correlations with high anatomic precision, callosal morphology was examined using computational mesh-based modeling methods, applied to anatomical brain MRI scans.Intellectual performance was positively associated with callosal thickness in anterior and midcallosal callosal regions, with anterior parts being slightly more affected by age of disease onset and side of seizure onset than posterior parts. Earlier age at onset of epilepsy was associated with lower thickness in anterior and midcallosal regions. In addition, laterality of seizure onset had a significant influence on anterior CC morphology, with left hemispheric origin having stronger effects.We found that in TLE, anterior and midcallosal CC morphology are related to cognitive performance. The findings support recent findings of detrimental effects of early onset mTLE on anterior brain regions and of a distinct effect particularly of left TLE on frontal lobe functioning and structure. The causal nature of the relationship remains an open question, i.e., whether CC morphology impacts IQ development or whether IQ development impacts CC morphology, or both.

  6. Diffusion-weighted imaging in fetuses with unilateral cortical malformations and callosal agenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glenn, O A; Quiroz, E M; Berman, J I; Studholme, C; Xu, D

    2010-06-01

    DWI was performed in fetuses with callosal agenesis and unilateral cortical malformations. ADC values were retrospectively measured in the developing white matter underlying the cortical malformation and compared with the corresponding contralateral white matter. In all 3 patients, ADC values were lower under the areas of cortical malformation compared with the normal contralateral side. Our findings suggest that there are structural differences in the developing white matter underlying areas of cortical malformation.

  7. The Syndrome of Frontonasal Dysplasia, Callosal Agenesis, Basal Encephalocele, and Eye Anomalies - Phenotypic and Aetiological Considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richieri-Costa, Antonio; Guion-Almeida, Maria Leine

    2004-01-01

    We report ten sporadic cases of Brazilian patients with facial midline defects, callosal agenesis, basal encephalocele, and ocular anomalies. This very rare cluster of anomalies has been well reported before. However, only until recently it is recognized as a syndrome belonging to frontonasal dysplasia spectrum. The ten cases confirm a distinct clinical entity and help to define the phenotype more precisely than previously. Up to now etiology remains unknown, although we conjecture that it is due to a mutation in TGIF gene.

  8. Relation of callosal structure to cognitive abilities in temporal lobe epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Christine; Helmstaedter, Christoph; Luders, Eileen; Thompson, Paul M; Toga, Arthur W; Elger, Christian; Weber, Bernd

    2014-01-01

    The main objective of this paper is to analyze the influence of mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (mTLE) on the morphology of the corpus callosum (CC) and its relation to cognitive abilities. More specifically, we investigated correlations between intellectual abilities and callosal morphology, while additionally exploring the modulating impact of (a) side of seizure onset (b) age of disease onset. For this reason a large representative sample of patients with hippocampal sclerosis (n = 79; 35 males; 44 females; age: 18-63 years) with disease onset ranging from 0 to 50 years of age, and consisting of 46 left and 33 right mTLE-patients was recruited. Intelligence was measured using the Wechsler-Adult Intelligence Scale Revised. To get localizations of correlations with high anatomic precision, callosal morphology was examined using computational mesh-based modeling methods, applied to anatomical brain MRI scans. Intellectual performance was positively associated with callosal thickness in anterior and midcallosal callosal regions, with anterior parts being slightly more affected by age of disease onset and side of seizure onset than posterior parts. Earlier age at onset of epilepsy was associated with lower thickness in anterior and midcallosal regions. In addition, laterality of seizure onset had a significant influence on anterior CC morphology, with left hemispheric origin having stronger effects. We found that in mTLE, anterior and midcallosal CC morphology are related to cognitive performance. The findings support recent findings of detrimental effects of early onset mTLE on anterior brain regions and of a distinct effect particularly of left mTLE on frontal lobe functioning and structure. The causal nature of the relationship remains an open question, i.e., whether CC morphology impacts IQ development or whether IQ development impacts CC morphology, or both.

  9. Callosal atrophy in mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease: different effects in different stages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Paola, Margherita; Luders, Eileen; Di Iulio, Fulvia; Cherubini, Andrea; Passafiume, Domenico; Thompson, Paul M; Caltagirone, Carlo; Toga, Arthur W; Spalletta, Gianfranco

    2010-01-01

    Alzheimer's Disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disorder that mainly affects grey matter (GM). Nevertheless, a number of investigations have documented white matter (WM) pathology associated with AD. The corpus callosum (CC) is the largest WM fiber bundle in the human brain. It has been shown to be susceptible to atrophy in AD mainly as a correlate of Wallerian degeneration of commissural nerve fibers of the neocortex. The aim of this study was to investigate which callosal regions are affected and whether callosal degeneration is associated with the stage of the disease. For this purpose, we analyzed high-resolution MRI data of patients with amnesic mild cognitive impairment (MCI) (n=20), mild AD (n=20), severe AD (n=10), and of healthy controls (n=20). Callosal morphology was investigated applying two different structural techniques: mesh-based geometrical modeling methods and whole-brain voxel-based analyses. Our findings indicate significant reductions in severe AD patients compared to healthy controls in anterior (genu and anterior body) and posterior (splenium) sections. In contrast, differences between healthy controls and mild AD patients or amnesic MCI patients were less pronounced and did not survive corrections for multiple comparisons. When correlating anterior and posterior WM density of the CC with GM density of the cortex in the severe AD group, we detected significant positive relationships between posterior sections of the CC and the cortex. We conclude that callosal atrophy is present predominantly in the latest stage of AD, where two mechanisms might contribute to WM alterations in severe AD: the Wallerian degeneration in posterior subregions and the myelin breakdown process in anterior subregions.

  10. Future Projection of Droughts over South Korea Using Representative Concentration Pathways (RCPs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Byung Sik Kim

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI, a method widely used to analyze droughts related to climate change, does not consider variables related to temperature and is limited because it cannot consider changes in hydrological balance, such as evapotranspiration from climate change. If we were to consider only the future increase in precipitation from climate change, droughts may decrease. However, because usable water can diminish from an increase in evapotranspiration, it is important to research on projected droughts considering the amount of evapotranspiration along with projecting and evaluating potential droughts considering the impact of climate change. As such, this study evaluated the occurrence of droughts using the Standardized Precipitation Evapotranspiration Index (SPEI as a newly conceptualized drought index that is similar to SPI but includes the temperature variability. We extracted simulated future precipitation and temperature data (2011 - 2099 from the Representative Concentration Pathway (RCP climate change scenario of IPCC AR5 to evaluate the impact of future climate change on the occurrence of droughts of South Korea. We analyzed the ratio of evapotranspiration to precipitation of meteorological observatories nationwide. In addition, we calculated the SPEI related to drought in the process to evaluate the future occurrence of droughts of South Korea. To confirm validity of SPEI results, extreme indices were analyzed. This resulted in the notion that as we go further into the future, the precipitation increases. But because of an increase in evapotranspiration also from a rise in temperature and continued dryness, the severity of droughts is projected to exacerbate.

  11. Pathway-specific reorganization of projection neurons in somatosensory cortex during learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jerry L; Margolis, David J; Stankov, Atanas; Sumanovski, Lazar T; Schneider, Bernard L; Helmchen, Fritjof

    2015-08-01

    In the mammalian brain, sensory cortices exhibit plasticity during task learning, but how this alters information transferred between connected cortical areas remains unknown. We found that divergent subpopulations of cortico-cortical neurons in mouse whisker primary somatosensory cortex (S1) undergo functional changes reflecting learned behavior. We chronically imaged activity of S1 neurons projecting to secondary somatosensory (S2) or primary motor (M1) cortex in mice learning a texture discrimination task. Mice adopted an active whisking strategy that enhanced texture-related whisker kinematics, correlating with task performance. M1-projecting neurons reliably encoded basic kinematics features, and an additional subset of touch-related neurons was recruited that persisted past training. The number of S2-projecting touch neurons remained constant, but improved their discrimination of trial types through reorganization while developing activity patterns capable of discriminating the animal's decision. We propose that learning-related changes in S1 enhance sensory representations in a pathway-specific manner, providing downstream areas with task-relevant information for behavior.

  12. Gridded population projections for the coastal zone under the Shared Socioeconomic Pathways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merkens, Jan-Ludolf; Reimann, Lena; Hinkel, Jochen; Vafeidis, Athanasios T.

    2016-10-01

    Existing quantifications of the Shared Socioeconomic Pathways (SSP) used for climate impact assessment do not account for subnational population dynamics such as coastward-migration that can be critical for coastal impact assessment. This paper extends the SSPs by developing spatial projections of global coastal population distribution for the five basic SSPs. Based on a series of coastal migration drivers we develop coastal narratives for each SSP. These narratives account for differences in coastal and inland population developments in urban and rural areas. To spatially distribute population, we use the International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis (IIASA) national population and urbanisation projections and employ country-specific growth rates, which differ for coastal and inland as well as for urban and rural regions, to project coastal population for each SSP. These rates are derived from spatial analysis of historical population data and adjusted for each SSP based on the coastal narratives. Our results show that, compared to the year 2000 (638 million), the population living in the Low Elevated Coastal Zone (LECZ) increases by 58% to 71% until 2050 and exceeds one billion in all SSPs. By the end of the 21st century, global coastal population declines to 830-907 million in all SSPs except for SSP3, where coastal population growth continues and reaches 1.184 billion. Overall, the population living in the LECZ is higher by 85 to 239 million compared to the original IIASA projections. Asia expects the highest absolute growth (238-303 million), Africa the highest relative growth (153% to 218%). Our results highlight regions where high coastal population growth is expected and will therefore face an increased exposure to coastal flooding.

  13. Multi-decadal projections of surface and interior pathways of the Fukushima Cesium-137 radioactive plume

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Vincent; Van Sebille, Erik; Sen Gupta, Alexander; Garçon, Véronique; England, Matthew H.

    2013-10-01

    Following the March 2011 Fukushima disaster, large amounts of water contaminated with radionuclides, including Cesium-137, were released into the Pacific Ocean. With a half-life of 30.1 years, Cs-137 has the potential to travel large distances within the ocean. Using an ensemble of regional eddy-resolving simulations, this study investigates the long-term ventilation pathways of the leaked Cs-137 in the North Pacific Ocean. The simulations suggest that the contaminated plume would have been rapidly diluted below 10,000 Bq/m3 by the energetic Kuroshio Current and Kurushio Extension by July 2011. Based on our source function of 22 Bq/m3, which sits at the upper range of the published estimates, waters with Cs-137 concentrations >10 Bq/m3 are projected to reach the northwestern American coast and the Hawaiian archipelago by early 2014. Driven by quasi-zonal oceanic jets, shelf waters north of 45°N experience Cs-137 levels of 10-30 Bq/m3 between 2014 and 2020, while the Californian coast is projected to see lower concentrations (10-20 Bq/m3) slightly later (2016-2025). This late but prolonged exposure is related to subsurface pathways of mode waters, where Cs-137 is subducted toward the subtropics before being upwelled from deeper sources along the southern Californian coast. The model suggests that Fukushima-derived Cs-137 will penetrate the interior ocean and spread to other oceanic basins over the next two decades and beyond. The sensitivity of our results to uncertainties in the source function and to inter-annual to multi-decadal variability is discussed.

  14. Air pathway report: Phase I of the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-07-01

    Phase 1 of the air-pathway portion of the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction (HEDR) Project sought to determine whether dose estimates could be calculated for populations in the 10 counties nearest the Hanford Site from atmospheric releases of iodine-131 from the site from 1944--1947. Phase 1 demonstrated the following: HEDR-calculated source-term estimates of iodine-131 releases to the atmosphere were within 20% of previously published estimates; calculated vegetation concentrations of iodine-131 agree well with previously published measurements; the highest of the Phase 1 preliminary dose estimates to the thyroid are consistent with independent, previously published estimates of doses to maximally exposed individuals; and, relatively crude, previously published measurements of thyroid burdens for Hanford workers are in the range of average burdens that the HEDR model estimated for similar reference individuals'' for the period 1944--1947. Preliminary median dose estimates summed over the year 1945--1947 for the primary pathway, air-pasture-cow-milk-thyroid, ranged from low median values of 0.006 rad for upwind adults who obtained milk from backyard cows not on pasture to high median values of 68.0 rad for downwind infants who drank milk from pasture-fed cows. Extremes of the estimated range are a low of essentially zero to upwind adults and a high of almost 3000 rem to downwind infants. 37 refs., 37 figs., 2 tabs.

  15. Localization and Quantification of Callose in the Streptophyte Green Algae Zygnema and Klebsormidium: Correlation with Desiccation Tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herburger, Klaus; Holzinger, Andreas

    2015-11-01

    Freshwater green algae started to colonize terrestrial habitats about 460 million years ago, giving rise to the evolution of land plants. Today, several streptophyte green algae occur in aero-terrestrial habitats with unpredictable fluctuations in water availability, serving as ideal models for investigating desiccation tolerance. We tested the hypothesis that callose, a β-d-1,3-glucan, is incorporated specifically in strained areas of the cell wall due to cellular water loss, implicating a contribution to desiccation tolerance. In the early diverging genus Klebsormidium, callose was drastically increased already after 30 min of desiccation stress. Localization studies demonstrated an increase in callose in the undulating cross cell walls during cellular water loss, allowing a regulated shrinkage and expansion after rehydration. This correlates with a high desiccation tolerance demonstrated by a full recovery of the photosynthetic yield visualized at the subcellular level by Imaging-PAM. Furthermore, abundant callose in terminal cell walls might facilitate cell detachment to release dispersal units. In contrast, in the late diverging Zygnema, the callose content did not change upon desiccation for up to 3.5 h and was primarily localized in the corners between individual cells and at terminal cells. While these callose deposits still imply reduction of mechanical damage, the photosynthetic yield did not recover fully in the investigated young cultures of Zygnema upon rehydration. The abundance and specific localization of callose correlates with the higher desiccation tolerance in Klebsormidium when compared with Zygnema. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Japanese Society of Plant Physiologists.

  16. Coding the direct/indirect pathways by D1 and D2 receptors is not valid for accumbens projections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kupchik, Yonatan M; Brown, Robyn M; Heinsbroek, Jasper A; Lobo, Mary Kay; Schwartz, Danielle J; Kalivas, Peter W

    2015-09-01

    It is widely accepted that D1 dopamine receptor-expressing striatal neurons convey their information directly to the output nuclei of the basal ganglia, whereas D2-expressing neurons do so indirectly via pallidal neurons. Combining optogenetics and electrophysiology, we found that this architecture does not apply to mouse nucleus accumbens projections to the ventral pallidum. Thus, current thinking attributing D1 and D2 selectivity to accumbens projections akin to dorsal striatal pathways needs to be reconsidered.

  17. Retroambiguus projections to the cutaneus trunci motoneurons may form a pathway in the central control of mating

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerrits, Peter O.; Vodde, Chris; Holstege, Gert

    Our laboratory has proposed that the nucleus retroambiguus (NRA) generates the specific motor performance displayed by female cats during mating and that it uses direct pathways to the motoneurons of the lower limb muscles involved in this activity. In the hamster a similar NRA-projection system

  18. Sound localization in callosal agenesis and early callosotomy subjects: brain reorganization and/or compensatory strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lessard, Nadia; Lepore, Franco; Villemagne, Jean; Lassonde, Maryse

    2002-05-01

    In order to evaluate the callosal involvement in sound localization, the present study examined the response accuracy of acallosal and early callosotomized subjects to monaural and binaural auditory targets presented in three-dimensional space. In these subjects, bilateral localization cues, such as interaural time and level differences, are integrated at the cortical and subcortical levels without the additional support of the callosal commissure. Because acallosal and early-callosotomized subjects have developed with this reduced source of binaural activation of cortical cells, they might have perfected their ability to use monaural sound localization cues. This hypothesis was tested by assessing localization performance under both binaural and monaural listening conditions. Five subjects with callosal agenesis, one callosotomized subject operated early in life and 19 control subjects were asked to localize broad-band noise bursts (BBNBs) of fixed intensity in the horizontal plane in an anechoic chamber. BBNBs were delivered through randomly selected loudspeakers. Two conditions were tested: (i) localization of a stationary sound source; and (ii) localization of a moving sound source. Listeners had to report the apparent stimulus location by pointing to its perceived position on a graduated perimeter. The results indicated that the acallosal subjects were less accurate than controls, but only in the binaural moving sound condition. More interestingly, in the monaural testing conditions, some of the acallosal subjects and the early-callosotomized subject performed significantly better than control subjects. This suggests that, because of the absence of the corpus callosum, these subjects compensate for their reduced access to cortically determined binaural cues by making more efficient use of monaural cues.

  19. What is the role of the corpus callosum in intermanual transfer of motor skills? A study of three cases with callosal pathology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thut, G; Halsband, U; Regard, M; Mayer, E; Leenders, KL; Landis, T

    1997-01-01

    Intermanual transfer for a skilled motor task was studied in two patients with total callosal agenesis, and one with an acquired partial callosal lesion and clinical evidence for disturbed transfer of motor signals. Patients had to draw meaningless figures with one upper extremity (original learning

  20. Different corticostriatal integration in spiny projection neurons from direct and indirect pathways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edén Flores-Barrera

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The striatum is the principal input structure of the basal ganglia (BG. Major glutamatergic afferents to the striatum come from the cerebral cortex and make monosynaptic contacts with medium spiny projection neurons (MSNs and interneurons. Despite differences in axonal projections, dopamine receptors expression and differences in excitability between MSNs from “direct” and “indirect” BG pathways, these neuronal classes have been thought as electrophysiologically very similar. Based on work with BAC transgenic mice, here it is shown that corticostriatal responses in D1- and D2-receptor expressing MSNs (D1- and D2-MSNs are radically different so as to establish an electrophysiological footprint that readily differentiates between them. Experiments in BAC mice allowed us to predict, with high probability (P>0.9, in rats or non-BAC mice, whether a recorded neuron, from rat or mouse, was going to be substance P or enkephalin immunoreactive. Responses are more prolonged and evoke more action potentials in D1-MSNs, while they are briefer and exhibit intrinsic autoregenerative responses in D2-MSNs. A main cause for these differences was the interaction of intrinsic properties with the inhibitory contribution in each response Inhibition always depressed corticostriatal depolarization in D2-MSNs, while it helped in sustaining prolonged depolarizations in D1-MSNs, in spite of depressing early discharge. Corticostriatal responses changed dramatically after striatal DA-depletion in 6-hydroxy-dopamine (6-OHDA lesioned animals: a response reduction was seen in SP+ MSNs whereas an enhanced response was seen in ENK+ MSNs. The end result was that differences in the responses were greatly diminished after DA depletion.

  1. Health impact assessment on urban development projects in France: finding pathways to fit practice to context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roué-Le Gall, Anne; Jabot, Françoise

    2017-06-01

    In France, there is increasing interest in health impact assessments (HIAs) and most are performed on urban projects. The field of expertise is still under development and mostly established within the public health sector. To date, in France, all HIAs conducted in urban planning are stand-alone HIAs disconnected from the required environmental impact assessment (EIA). The paper opens with an introduction of the close and complex relationship between health and urban planning, HIA and a description of key elements needed for understanding the French context. Then, the paper analyses the context and the implementation process for four HIAs in progress in order to understand the specific characteristics of urban development, identify the key stages for introducing a health perspective into urban projects, and extract avenues to be explored when adapting HIAs applied to urban planning in France. Using a qualitative multiple case study design, an analysis framework was built to compare several aspects of the four HIAs and made it possible to highlight three pathways for adapting HIA to the urban planning sector: the schedule, links between the EIA and HIA, and the complementarity of the initiatives to involve residents. Legal measures enable a point of contact that brings health institutions and cities closer together. HIA is yet another tool that public authorities now have at their fingertips to work together in strengthening democracy and in reducing social, geographical and environmental health inequalities. More research must be undertaken to develop an understanding of the practice-related context; to judge HIA's capacity to draw on existing approaches in different fields; and to explore the different avenues leading to increased health, wellbeing and equity.

  2. A Rare Case of Pericallosal Lipoma Associated with Bilaterally Symmetrical Lateral Ventricular Choroid Plexus Lipomas without Corpus Callosal Anomalies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parag Suresh Mahajan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Lipomas constitute less than 5% of primary brain tumors. Pericallosal lipomas (PCLp constitute almost half of all intracranial lipomas. Corpus callosal anomalies commonly occur in cases with PCLps. Although PCLp is often described as corpus callosal lipoma, it is most often pericallosal in location. PCLps may have calcification in the periphery and may continue into lateral ventricles, which is a very rare presentation. We observed a case of PCLp with peripheral calcifications associated with PCLp continuing as bilaterally symmetrical lateral ventricular choroid plexus lipomas (CPLp without any corpus callosal or other central nervous system anomalies, and as this is not been previously reported, we are presenting it. The appearance of PCLp in this case does not correspond to the descriptions of any of the existing morphological types (anterior and posterior of classification of PCLps; it is rather mixed, where PCLp occupies both anterior and posterior locations around the corpus callosum.

  3. Arthrogryposis multiplex congenita with callosal agenesis and dentato-olivary dysplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Yoshiaki; Hayashi, Masaharu; Miyazono, Yayoi; Shimogama, Tatsuro; Ohno, Kousaku

    2006-05-01

    We report the autopsy case of a boy with arthrogryposis multiplex congenita, associated with callosal agenesis and dentato-olivary dysplasia. The patient manifested with dysmorphic facial features and suffered from intractable epilepsy during the neonatal period. These sets of complications suggest that a common molecular mechanism may be involved in the development of corpus callosum and the folding of the dentate and inferior olivary nuclei. Deep brain structures, including the brainstem and the cerebellum, may be involved in the pathophysiology of symptomatic generalized epilepsy. The differential diagnoses for the clinical and pathological characteristics of this patient are discussed.

  4. Sensitivity of projected long-term CO2 emissions across the Shared Socioeconomic Pathways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marangoni, G.; Tavoni, M.; Bosetti, V.; Borgonovo, E.; Capros, P.; Fricko, O.; Gernaat, D. E. H. J.; Guivarch, C.; Havlik, P.; Huppmann, D.; Johnson, N.; Karkatsoulis, P.; Keppo, I.; Krey, V.; Ó Broin, E.; Price, J.; van Vuuren, D. P.

    2017-01-01

    Scenarios showing future greenhouse gas emissions are needed to estimate climate impacts and the mitigation efforts required for climate stabilization. Recently, the Shared Socioeconomic Pathways (SSPs) have been introduced to describe alternative social, economic and technical narratives, spanning a wide range of plausible futures in terms of challenges to mitigation and adaptation. Thus far the key drivers of the uncertainty in emissions projections have not been robustly disentangled. Here we assess the sensitivities of future CO2 emissions to key drivers characterizing the SSPs. We use six state-of-the-art integrated assessment models with different structural characteristics, and study the impact of five families of parameters, related to population, income, energy efficiency, fossil fuel availability, and low-carbon energy technology development. A recently developed sensitivity analysis algorithm allows us to parsimoniously compute both the direct and interaction effects of each of these drivers on cumulative emissions. The study reveals that the SSP assumptions about energy intensity and economic growth are the most important determinants of future CO2 emissions from energy combustion, both with and without a climate policy. Interaction terms between parameters are shown to be important determinants of the total sensitivities.

  5. Developmental evolution of flowering plant pollen tube cell walls: callose synthase (CalS gene expression patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abercrombie Jason M

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A number of innovations underlie the origin of rapid reproductive cycles in angiosperms. A critical early step involved the modification of an ancestrally short and slow-growing pollen tube for faster and longer distance transport of sperm to egg. Associated with this shift are the predominantly callose (1,3-β-glucan walls and septae (callose plugs of angiosperm pollen tubes. Callose synthesis is mediated by callose synthase (CalS. Of 12 CalS gene family members in Arabidopsis, only one (CalS5 has been directly linked to pollen tube callose. CalS5 orthologues are present in several monocot and eudicot genomes, but little is known about the evolutionary origin of CalS5 or what its ancestral function may have been. Results We investigated expression of CalS in pollen and pollen tubes of selected non-flowering seed plants (gymnosperms and angiosperms within lineages that diverged below the monocot/eudicot node. First, we determined the nearly full length coding sequence of a CalS5 orthologue from Cabomba caroliniana (CcCalS5 (Nymphaeales. Semi-quantitative RT-PCR demonstrated low CcCalS5 expression within several vegetative tissues, but strong expression in mature pollen. CalS transcripts were detected in pollen tubes of several species within Nymphaeales and Austrobaileyales, and comparative analyses with a phylogenetically diverse group of sequenced genomes indicated homology to CalS5. We also report in silico evidence of a putative CalS5 orthologue from Amborella. Among gymnosperms, CalS5 transcripts were recovered from germinating pollen of Gnetum and Ginkgo, but a novel CalS paralog was instead amplified from germinating pollen of Pinus taeda. Conclusion The finding that CalS5 is the predominant callose synthase in pollen tubes of both early-diverging and model system angiosperms is an indicator of the homology of their novel callosic pollen tube walls and callose plugs. The data suggest that CalS5 had transient expression

  6. Interhemispheric transfer of kinesthetic information and line bisection task performance in patient with callosal agenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makashvili, M; Chichinadze, K; Domianidze, T

    2009-09-01

    Patient G.J., male, 7 yrs, with callosal agenesis, was found perfectly able to cross-replicate hand postures in right-to left and left-to-right directions. Bimanual coordination as well as touch localization and intermanual matching were performed without errors. He failed to name 2 out of 8 objects, palpated with the left hand. At the age of 13 patient performed like normal controls in line bisection task, was successful in intermanual replication of hand postures and intermanual matching while failed to name 8 out of 12 familiar objects palpated with the left hand. G.J.'s case does not support idea about bilateral presentation of language centers and development of compensatory ipsilateral afferents in patients with callosal agenesis. Presence of anterior and interictal commissures in G.J. did not contribute to the exchange of information between sensory areas of the right hemisphere and language centers of the left half brain. However, normal intermanual matching and replication of hand postures, as well as high level of line bisection task performance suggests, that anterior and/or intertectal commissure could contribute to the functional integration of sensory areas of the two hemispheres.

  7. Bilateral subcortical heterotopia with partial callosal agenesis in a mouse mutant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, G D; Azoulay, N G; Griffin, E G; Newbury, A; Koganti, L; Fujisaki, N; Takahashi, E; Grant, P E; Truong, D T; Fitch, R H; Lu, L; Williams, R W

    2013-04-01

    Cognition and behavior depend on the precise placement and interconnection of complex ensembles of neurons in cerebral cortex. Mutations that disrupt migration of immature neurons from the ventricular zone to the cortical plate have provided major insight into mechanisms of brain development and disease. We have discovered a new and highly penetrant spontaneous mutation that leads to large nodular bilateral subcortical heterotopias with partial callosal agenesis. The mutant phenotype was first detected in a colony of fully inbred BXD29 mice already known to harbor a mutation in Tlr4. Neurons confined to the heterotopias are mainly born in midgestation to late gestation and would normally have migrated into layers 2-4 of overlying neocortex. Callosal cross-sectional area and fiber number are reduced up to 50% compared with coisogenic wildtype BXD29 substrain controls. Mutants have a pronounced and highly selective defect in rapid auditory processing. The segregation pattern of the mutant phenotype is most consistent with a two-locus autosomal recessive model, and selective genotyping definitively rules out the Tlr4 mutation as a cause. The discovery of a novel mutation with strong pleiotropic anatomical and behavioral effects provides an important new resource for dissecting molecular mechanisms and functional consequences of errors of neuronal migration.

  8. Plasmodesmata without callose and calreticulin in higher plants - open channels for fast symplastic transport?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirill N. Demchenko

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Plasmodesmata (PD represent membrane-lined channels that link adjacent plant cells across the cell wall. PD of higher plants contain a central tube of endoplasmic reticulum called desmotubule. Membrane and lumen proteins seem to be able to move through the desmotubule, but most transport processes through PD occur through the cytoplasmic annulus (Brunkard et al., 2013. Calreticulin (CRT, a highly conserved Ca2+-binding protein found in all multi-cellular eukaryotes, predominantly located in the ER, was shown to localize to PD, though not all PD accumulate CRT. In nitrogen fixing actinorhizal root nodules of the Australian tree Casuarina glauca, the primary walls of infected cells containing the microsymbiont become lignified upon infection. TEM analysis of these nodules showed that during the differentiation of infected cells, PD connecting infected cells, and connecting infected and adjacent uninfected cells, were reduced in number as well as diameter (Schubert et al., 2013. In contrast with PD connecting young infected cells, and most PD connecting mature infected and adjacent uninfected cells, PD connecting mature infected cells did not accumulate CRT. Furthermore, as shown here, these PD were not associated with callose, and based on their diameter, they probably had lost their desmotubules. We speculate that either this is a slow path to PD degradation, or that the loss of callose accumulation and presumably also desmotubules leads to the PD becoming open channels and improves metabolite exchange between cells.

  9. Cognitive Modulation of Local and Callosal Neural Interactions in Decision Making

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo eMerchant

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Traditionally, the neurophysiological mechanisms of cognitive processing have been investigated at the single cell level. Here we show that the dynamic, millisecond-by-millisecond, interactions between neuronal events measured by local field potentials are modulated in an orderly fashion by key task variables of a space categorization task performed by monkeys. These interactions were stronger during periods of higher cognitive load and varied in sign (positive, negative. They were observed both within area 7a of the posterior parietal cortex and between symmetric 7a areas of the two hemispheres. Time lags for maximum interactions were longer for opposite- vs. same-hemisphere recordings, and lags for negative interactions were longer than for positive interactions in both recording sites. These findings underscore the involvement of dynamic neuronal interactions in cognitive processing within and across hemispheres. They also provide accurate estimates of lags in callosal interactions, very comparable to similar estimates of callosal conduction delays based on neuroanatomical measurements (Caminiti et al. 2013.

  10. Pathways to Sustainability: 8-Year Follow-Up From the PROSPER Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welsh, Janet A; Chilenski, Sarah M; Johnson, Lesley; Greenberg, Mark T; Spoth, Richard L

    2016-06-01

    The large-scale dissemination of evidence-based practices (EBPs) is often hindered by problems with sustaining initiatives past a period of initial grant funding. Communities often have difficulty generating resources needed to sustain and grow their initiatives, resulting in limited public health impact. The PROSPER project, initiated in 2001, provided community coalitions with intensive technical assistance around marketing, communications, and revenue generating strategies. Past reports from PROSPER have indicated that these coalitions were successful with sustaining their programming, and that sustainability could be predicted by early aspects of team functioning and leadership. The current study examines financial sustainability 8 years following the discontinuation of grant funding, with an emphasis on sources of revenue and the relationships between revenue generation, team functioning, and EBP participation. This study used four waves of data related to resource generation collected between 2004 and 2010 by PROSPER teams in Iowa and Pennsylvania. Teams reported annually on the amount and sources of funding procured, as well as annual reports of team functioning and leadership and annual reports of EBP participation by youth and parents. Data revealed that teams' overall revenue generation increased over time. There was significant variation in success with revenue generation at both the community level and across the two states. Teams accessed a variety of sources. Cash revenue generation was positively and predictively associated with EBP participation, but relationships with team functioning and leadership ratings varied significantly by state. State level differences in in-kind support were also apparent. The results indicated that there are different pathways to sustainability, and that no one method works for all teams. The presence of state level infrastructures available to support prevention appeared to account for significant differences in

  11. Characterization and partial purification of beta-1,3-D-glucan (callose) synthase from barley (Hordeum vulgare) leaves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, L.H.; Jacobsen, S.; Hejgaard, J.

    1993-01-01

    was inhibited by UDP and uridine 5' triphosphate (UTP). Glucanase digestion of the in vitro product showed that it was a beta-1,3-linked polysaccharide. Two different procedures were used for further enrichment of polypeptides involved in callose synthase activity. Sucrose gradient centrifugation...

  12. Regional migration pathways and associated well risk for the IEAGHG Weyburn-Midale CO2 Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavanagh, A.; Rostron, B. J.

    2010-12-01

    The Weyburn-Midale CO2 storage site is an industrial-scale monitoring and storage project associated with enhanced oil recovery (EOR) at the Weyburn field, Saskatchewan. To date, over 17 Mt of CO2 has been stored at 1.4 km depth. The storage site and four overlying aquitards are penetrated by a large number of oil wells. The Weyburn-Midale region has more than 4,000 wells within a risk assessment area of 2,000 km2 (40x50 km). This well density is typical of prospective storage areas in the USA and Canada. The average well separation is 275 m (with about 5% of the population less than 20 m apart). About one third of the population are old vertical wells drilled before 1975. Another third are horizontal wells drilled after 1989. These two well categories are considered to have an elevated risk potential for leakage above the primary containment unit of the Weyburn-Midale storage site. The high well density and regional scale of the risk assessment area presents a major challenge for flow modeling. Conventional simulation methods use a range of finite-difference or finite-element numerical schemes to represent multiphase flow. Solving these numerical schemes requires relatively coarse grids, which leads to a loss of geological detail (via averaging or upscaling). We use a fine grid model (2 billion cells) and an invasion percolation approach, assuming capillary limit conditions, to simulate the CO2 migration process throughout the region at a high resolution (cell dimensions: 20x20x5 meters). The resolution is sufficient to identify wells that lie within migration pathways and trap structures where leakage may occur. This provides a subset of 62 wells within the regional area that are marked for further risk assessment and possible monitoring. The modeled column heights and storage volumes for traps associated with the identified subset of wells is also analyzed. Our analysis indicates that the overburden is able to provide a secondary containment capacity that is

  13. Ipsilateral EEG mu rhythm reflects the excitability of uncrossed pathways projecting to shoulder muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasegawa, Keita; Kasuga, Shoko; Takasaki, Kenichi; Mizuno, Katsuhiro; Liu, Meigen; Ushiba, Junichi

    2017-08-25

    contralateral hemisphere during finger pinching. We found that trapezius MEPs increased during motor imagery of shoulder elevations and correlated with ipsilateral ERD amplitudes. Ipsilateral ERD during execution and imagery of shoulder girdle elevations appears to reflect the excitability of uncrossed pathways projecting to the shoulder muscles. As such, ipsilateral ERD could be used for neurofeedback training of shoulder movement, aiming at reanimation of the i-CST.

  14. Intermittent alien hand syndrome and callosal apraxia in multiple sclerosis: implications for interhemispheric communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lunardelli, A; Sartori, A; Mengotti, P; Rumiati, R I; Pesavento, V

    2014-01-01

    We report a case of a 47-year-old woman with 35-year history of multiple sclerosis, who showed alien hand signs, a rare behavioural disorder that involves unilateral goal-directed movements that are contrary to the individual's intention. Alien hand syndrome has been described in multiple sclerosis (MS) only occasionally and is generally suggestive of callosal disconnection. The patient presented also with bilateral limb apraxia and left hand agraphia, raising the possibility of cortical dysfunction or disconnection, in addition to corpus callosum and white matter involvement. Her specific pattern of symptoms supports the role of the corpus callosum in interhemispheric communication for complex as well as fine motor activities and may indicate that it can serve as both an inhibitory and excitatory function depending on task demands.

  15. A new sign of callosal disconnection syndrome: agonistic dyspraxia. A case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavados, Manuel; Carrasco, Ximena; Peña, Marcela; Zaidel, Eran; Zaidel, Dahlia; Aboitiz, Francisco

    2002-01-01

    We report a patient with callosal haemorrhage and no extracallosal involvement who developed a unique form of intermanual conflict. In the acute phase the patient showed a mild speech disturbance and right hemiparesis, and in her right hand, a grasp reflex and compulsive manipulation of tools, all attributable to transient frontal involvement. In the chronic phase there was intermanual conflict occasionally associated with the sensation of a second left hand. The patient also presented a sign consisting of compulsive, automatic execution of orders by one hand (the left or the right) when the patient was specifically asked to perform the movement with the other hand (the right or the left, respectively). There was no left-right confusion in this patient. We call this condition agonistic dyspraxia. In contrast with diagonistic dyspraxia, this consists of the agonistic behaviour of the other hand under conditions in which the hand that has been instructed to respond cannot execute the request.

  16. Intermittent Alien Hand Syndrome and Callosal Apraxia in Multiple Sclerosis: Implications for Interhemispheric Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lunardelli, A.; Sartori, A.; Mengotti, P.; Rumiati, R. I.; Pesavento, V.

    2014-01-01

    We report a case of a 47-year-old woman with 35-year history of multiple sclerosis, who showed alien hand signs, a rare behavioural disorder that involves unilateral goal-directed movements that are contrary to the individual's intention. Alien hand syndrome has been described in multiple sclerosis (MS) only occasionally and is generally suggestive of callosal disconnection. The patient presented also with bilateral limb apraxia and left hand agraphia, raising the possibility of cortical dysfunction or disconnection, in addition to corpus callosum and white matter involvement. Her specific pattern of symptoms supports the role of the corpus callosum in interhemispheric communication for complex as well as fine motor activities and may indicate that it can serve as both an inhibitory and excitatory function depending on task demands. PMID:24803736

  17. Anatomic pathways of peripancreatic fluid draining to mediastinum in recurrent acute pancreatitis: visible human project and CT study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haotong Xu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In past reports, researchers have seldom attached importance to achievements in transforming digital anatomy to radiological diagnosis. However, investigators have been able to illustrate communication relationships in the retroperitoneal space by drawing potential routes in computerized tomography (CT images or a virtual anatomical atlas. We established a new imaging anatomy research method for comparisons of the communication relationships of the retroperitoneal space in combination with the Visible Human Project and CT images. Specifically, the anatomic pathways of peripancreatic fluid extension to the mediastinum that may potentially transform into fistulas were studied. METHODS: We explored potential pathways to the mediastinum based on American and Chinese Visible Human Project datasets. These drainage pathways to the mediastinum were confirmed or corrected in CT images of 51 patients with recurrent acute pancreatitis in 2011. We also investigated whether additional routes to the mediastinum were displayed in CT images that were not in Visible Human Project images. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: All hypothesized routes to the mediastinum displayed in Visible Human Project images, except for routes from the retromesenteric plane to the bilateral retrorenal plane across the bilateral fascial trifurcation and further to the retrocrural space via the aortic hiatus, were confirmed in CT images. In addition, route 13 via the narrow space between the left costal and crural diaphragm into the retrocrural space was demonstrated for the first time in CT images. CONCLUSION: This type of exploration model related to imaging anatomy may be used to support research on the communication relationships of abdominal spaces, mediastinal spaces, cervical fascial spaces and other areas of the body.

  18. Project Athena: A Pathway to Advanced Literacy Development for Children of Poverty

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanTassel-Baska, Joyce; Stambaugh, Tamra

    2006-01-01

    This article describes Project Athena, a Javits program funded by the U.S. Department of Education and developed through the Center for Gifted Education at the College of William and Mary. Project Athena seeks to find ways to help impoverished children develop advanced skills in reading comprehension, literary analysis, and persuasive writing. Its…

  19. Analysis of culture media screening data by projection to latent pathways: The case of Pichia pastoris X-33.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isidro, Inês A; Ferreira, Ana R; Clemente, João J; Cunha, António E; Oliveira, Rui

    2016-01-10

    Cell culture media formulations contain hundreds of individual components in water solutions which have complex interactions with metabolic pathways. The currently used statistical design methods are empirical and very limited to explore such a large design space. In a previous work we developed a computational method called projection to latent pathways (PLP), which was conceived to maximize covariance between envirome and fluxome data under the constraint of metabolic network elementary flux modes (EFM). More specifically, PLP identifies a minimal set of EFMs (i.e., pathways) with the highest possible correlation with envirome and fluxome measurements. In this paper we extend the concept for the analysis of culture media screening data to investigate how culture medium components up-regulate or down-regulate key metabolic pathways. A Pichia pastoris X-33 strain was cultivated in 26 shake flask experiments with variations in trace elements concentrations and basal medium dilution, based on the standard BSM+PTM1 medium. PLP identified 3 EFMs (growth, maintenance and by-product formation) describing 98.8% of the variance in observed fluxes. Furthermore, PLP presented an overall predictive power comparable to that of PLS regression. Our results show iron and manganese at concentrations close to the PTM1 standard inhibit overall metabolic activity, while the main salts concentration (BSM) affected mainly energy expenditures for cellular maintenance.

  20. Neurofilament protein is differentially distributed in subpopulations of corticocortical projection neurons in the macaque monkey visual pathways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hof, P. R.; Ungerleider, L. G.; Webster, M. J.; Gattass, R.; Adams, M. M.; Sailstad, C. A.; Morrison, J. H.; Bloom, F. E. (Principal Investigator)

    1996-01-01

    Previous studies of the primate cerebral cortex have shown that neurofilament protein is present in pyramidal neuron subpopulations displaying specific regional and laminar distribution patterns. In order to characterize further the neurochemical phenotype of the neurons furnishing feedforward and feedback pathways in the visual cortex of the macaque monkey, we performed an analysis of the distribution of neurofilament protein in corticocortical projection neurons in areas V1, V2, V3, V3A, V4, and MT. Injections of the retrogradely transported dyes Fast Blue and Diamidino Yellow were placed within areas V4 and MT, or in areas V1 and V2, in 14 adult rhesus monkeys, and the brains of these animals were processed for immunohistochemistry with an antibody to nonphosphorylated epitopes of the medium and heavy molecular weight subunits of the neurofilament protein. Overall, there was a higher proportion of neurons projecting from areas V1, V2, V3, and V3A to area MT that were neurofilament protein-immunoreactive (57-100%), than to area V4 (25-36%). In contrast, feedback projections from areas MT, V4, and V3 exhibited a more consistent proportion of neurofilament protein-containing neurons (70-80%), regardless of their target areas (V1 or V2). In addition, the vast majority of feedback neurons projecting to areas V1 and V2 were located in layers V and VI in areas V4 and MT, while they were observed in both supragranular and infragranular layers in area V3. The laminar distribution of feedforward projecting neurons was heterogeneous. In area V1, Meynert and layer IVB cells were found to project to area MT, while neurons projecting to area V4 were particularly dense in layer III within the foveal representation. In area V2, almost all neurons projecting to areas MT or V4 were located in layer III, whereas they were found in both layers II-III and V-VI in areas V3 and V3A. These results suggest that neurofilament protein identifies particular subpopulations of

  1. Virginia Solar Pathways Project: Economic Study of Utility-Administered Solar Programs: Soft Costs, Community Solar, and Tax Normalization Considerations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reiter, Emerson [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Lowder, Travis [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Mathur, Shivani [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Mercer, Megan [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-06-23

    This report presents economic considerations for solar development in support of the Virginia Solar Pathways Project (VSPP), an effort funded by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) SunShot Initiative that seeks to develop a collaborative utility-administered solar strategy for the Commonwealth of Virginia. The results presented are intended to be considered alongside the results of other studies conducted under the VSPP that evaluate the impacts of solar energy on the electric distribution, transmission, and generation systems in Virginia.

  2. Studies on callose and cutin during the expression of competence and determination for organogenic nodule formation from internodes of Humulus lupulus var. Nugget.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortes, Ana M; Testillano, Pilar S; Del Carmen Risueño, Maria; Pais, Maria S

    2002-09-01

    Callose and cutin deposition were followed by staining with Aniline Blue and Nile Red and by immunolocalization using antibodies raised against callose. Along with morphogenesis induction from internodes of Humulus lupulus var. Nugget, a temporal and spatial differential deposition of callose and cutin was observed. A cutin layer showing bright yellow autofluorescence appears, surrounding cells or groups of cells committed to express morphogenic competence. This cutin layer that evolves to a randomly organized network appeared underneath a callose layer and may create a specific cellular environment with altered permeability and altered receptors providing conditions for entering the cell cycle. The incipient callose accumulation in control explants cultured on basal medium suggests the involvement of callose in the initiation of the morphogenic programme leading to nodule formation. A scanning electron microscopic study during the organogenic process showed that before shoot bud regeneration, the cutin layer increases in thickness and acquires a smooth texture. This cutin layer is specific to nodular organogenic regions and disappeared with plantlet regeneration. This layer may control permeability to water and solute transfer throughout plantlet regeneration.

  3. The effects of callosal agenesis on the susceptibility to seizures elicited by pentylenetetrazol in BALB/cCF mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina, Alexandre E; Manhães, Alex C; Schmidt, Sergio L

    2002-01-01

    The effects of callosal agenesis in sensitivity to pentylenetetrazol (PTZ) were studied in 199 (95 males and 104 females) mice of the BALB/cCF strain. This strain presents agenesis of the corpus callosum (CC) in approximately 30% of its population. Seizures were elicited by intraperitoneally injected PTZ. Animals were tested with doses of 40 and 50 mg/kg. Seizure severity was expressed by the following scoring scale: 0 (no abnormal behavior, NAB); 1 (myoclonus, M); 2 (running bouncing clonus, RBC); 3 (tonic hindlimb extension, THE). For the 40-mg/kg dose, abnormal mice were found to be more susceptible, displaying more severe seizures more often then normal mice. Normal female mice were also more susceptible to PTZ than males for this dose. No significant differences were found for the 50-mg/kg dose as a result of the fact that most animals displayed RBC. These data indicate that callosal development and sex are important factors affecting seizure susceptibility.

  4. Developmental Regulation of the (1,3)-beta-Glucan (Callose) Synthase from Tomato : Possible Role of Endogenous Phospholipases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, S; Gross, K C; Wasserman, B P

    1991-06-01

    Activity levels of UDP-glucose: (1,3)-beta-glucan (callose) synthase in microsomal membranes of pericarp tissue from tomato fruit (Lycoperisicon esculentum Mill, cv Rutgers) were determined during development and ripening. Addition of the phospholipase inhibitors O-phosphorylcholine and glycerol-1-phosphate to homogenization buffers was necessary to preserve enzyme activity during homogenization and membrane isolation. Enzyme activity declined 90% from the immature green to the red ripe stage. The polypeptide composition of the membranes did not change significantly during ripening. The enzyme from immature fruit was inactivated by exogenously added phospholipases A(2), C, and D. These results suggest that the decline in callose synthase activity during ontogeny may be a secondary effect of endogenous lipase action.

  5. Parvalbumin-positive projection neurons characterise the vocal premotor pathway in male, but not female, zebra finches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wild, J M; Williams, M N; Suthers, R A

    2001-11-02

    Parvalbumin (PV) and calbindin (CB) immunoreactivities were assessed in nucleus robustus archistriatalis (RA) of male and female zebra finches, together with retrograde labelling of RA neurons. The results of double and triple labelling experiments suggested that, in males, moderately and faintly PV-positive neurons were projection neurons, but that all intensely PV-positive cells were not. The latter, which are presumably interneurons, were also intensely CB-positive, and may correspond to the GABAergic inhibitory interneurons identified by others. In addition, the complete RA pathway and its terminal fields in the respiratory-vocal nuclei of the brainstem were strongly PV-positive. In female zebra finches, which do not sing, no evidence was found that PV-positive RA cells were projection neurons, yet the pattern of projections of RA neurons, as determined by anterograde transport of biotinylated dextran amine, was very similar to that of RA in males. Moreover, in females, RA neurons retrogradely labelled from injections of cholera toxin B-chain into the tracheosyringeal nucleus (XIIts) were abundant and included, in the lateral part of the nucleus, a population of cells that were as large as those in the male RA. Parvalbumin immunoreactivity was also present in RA and its projections in males of several other songbird species (northern cardinal, brown headed cowbird, canary) and in the female cardinal, which sings to some extent, but the labelling was not as intense as that in male zebra finches.

  6. Development of the Corticospinal and Callosal Tracts from Extremely Premature Birth up to 2 Years of Age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braga, Rodrigo M; Roze, Elise; Ball, Gareth; Merchant, Nazakat; Tusor, Nora; Arichi, Tomoki; Edwards, David; Rueckert, Daniel; Counsell, Serena J

    2015-01-01

    White matter tracts mature asymmetrically during development, and this development can be studied using diffusion magnetic resonance imaging. The aims of this study were i. to generate dynamic population-averaged white matter registration templates covering in detail the period from 25 weeks gestational age to term, and extending to 2 years of age based on DTI and fractional anisotropy, ii. to produce tract-specific probability maps of the corticospinal tracts, forceps major and forceps minor using probabilistic tractography, and iii. to assess the development of these tracts throughout this critical period of neurodevelopment. We found evidence for asymmetric development across the fiber bundles studied, with the corticospinal tracts showing earlier maturation (as measured by fractional anisotropy) but slower volumetric growth compared to the callosal fibers. We also found evidence for an anterior to posterior gradient in white matter microstructure development (as measured by mean diffusivity) in the callosal fibers, with the posterior forceps major developing at a faster rate than the anterior forceps minor in this age range. Finally, we report a protocol for delineating callosal and corticospinal fibers in extremely premature cohorts, and make available population-averaged registration templates and a probabilistic tract atlas which we hope will be useful for future neonatal and infant white-matter imaging studies.

  7. Revisiting a study of callosal apraxia: the right hemisphere can imitate the orientation but not the position of the hand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petreska, Biljana; Billard, Aude; Hermsdörfer, Joachim; Goldenberg, Georg

    2010-07-01

    Callosal disconnection can reveal asymmetrical contributions of the two brain hemispheres to praxis. In this paper, we revisit a study of a patient with callosal disconnection (Goldenberg et al., 2001, Neuropsychologia, 39:1432-1443), who perfectly imitated meaningless gestures when imitation was controlled only by the left hemisphere, but was severely impaired when the right hemisphere was in charge of motor control. We decomposed the gestures into a set of geometric variables that were to be reproduced, such as the orientation of the hand and the position of contact between the hand and the face. Whereas orientation of the hand in extrinsic coordinates was replicated correctly by both hemispheres, only the left hemisphere reproduced correctly the position of contact between the hand and the face. This goal-dissociation as well as several partial perseveration errors speak against the hypothesis of a direct route from perception to motor replication of gestures, as interruption of a direct route would probably impair all the features of the gesture. We speculate that incorrect coordination between the reproductions of multiple goals may be the core deficit underlying callosal apraxia. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Deafferentation-Induced Plasticity of Visual Callosal Connections: Predicting Critical Periods and Analyzing Cortical Abnormalities Using Diffusion Tensor Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime F. Olavarria

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Callosal connections form elaborate patterns that bear close association with striate and extrastriate visual areas. Although it is known that retinal input is required for normal callosal development, there is little information regarding the period during which the retina is critically needed and whether this period correlates with the same developmental stage across species. Here we review the timing of this critical period, identified in rodents and ferrets by the effects that timed enucleations have on mature callosal connections, and compare it to other developmental milestones in these species. Subsequently, we compare these events to diffusion tensor imaging (DTI measurements of water diffusion anisotropy within developing cerebral cortex. We observed that the relationship between the timing of the critical period and the DTI-characterized developmental trajectory is strikingly similar in rodents and ferrets, which opens the possibility of using cortical DTI trajectories for predicting the critical period in species, such as humans, in which this period likely occurs prenatally. Last, we discuss the potential of utilizing DTI to distinguish normal from abnormal cerebral cortical development, both within the context of aberrant connectivity induced by early retinal deafferentation, and more generally as a potential tool for detecting abnormalities associated with neurodevelopmental disorders.

  9. Can joined-up data lead to joined-up thinking? The Western Australian developmental pathways project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley, Fiona; Glauert, Rebecca; McKenzie, Anne; O'Donnell, Melissa

    2011-01-01

    Modern societies are challenged by "wicked problems" - by definition, those that are difficult to define, multi-causal and hard to treat. Problems such as low birth weight, obesity, mental ill health, teenage pregnancy, educational difficulties and juvenile crime fit this category. Given the complex nature of these problems, they require the best data in order to measure them, guide policy frameworks and evaluate whether the steps taken to address them are actually making a difference. What such problems really require are joined-up approaches to enable effective solutions. In this paper, we describe a unique initiative to encourage a more preventive, whole-of-government approach to these problems - the Developmental Pathways Project, which has enabled the linkage of a large number of de-identified administrative databases in order to explore the pathways into and out of the negative outcomes affecting our children and youth. This project has not only enabled the linkage of agency data, but also of agency personnel, in order to improve and promote cross-agency research, policy and preventive solutions. Through the use of these linkages we are attempting to shift the paradigm to encourage agencies to appreciate that these "wicked problems" demand a preventive approach, as well as the provision of effective services for those already affected.

  10. Study on the distribution of callose and β-1,3-D-glucanase in Chenopodium quinoa by immuno-gold labeling%免疫胶体金标记定位昆诺藜中的胼胝质和胼胝质降解酶

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李云琴; 王华; 谢礼; 洪健

    2014-01-01

    运用免疫胶体金技术研究了感染蚕豆萎蔫病毒2号以及健康昆诺藜细胞中胼胝质和胼胝质降解酶的分布情况。电镜观察发现胶体金特异性标记在含有VP37小管的胞间运动通道周围,其余区域感病和健康细胞的胼胝质及胼胝质降解酶分布差别不大,胼胝质主要分布于细胞间隙的大块电子致密物质以及细胞壁结构发生较大变化的区域,胼胝质降解酶主要分布于筛板、维管束细胞紧贴细胞壁区域的大块电子致密物质上,在细胞壁结构发生较大改变的区域也有胼胝质降解酶的分布。推测胼胝质在昆诺藜细胞中的积累和降解可能与细胞壁结构成分改变有关。%The distribution of callose and β⁃1,3⁃D⁃glucanase in the Broad bean wilt virus 2 ( BBWV 2 ) infected and the healthy Chenopodium quinoa was investigated by using immuno⁃gold labeling with the antibody against callose and β⁃1, 3⁃D⁃glucanase, respectively. The results show that, except for the VP37 intercellular moving cell wall pathways, there is no obvious difference on the distribution of callose and β⁃1,3⁃D⁃glucanase between the infected and healthy cells. Callose is mainly distributed on the regions as bellow:the electron condensed material which located in the intercellular space, the structural altered region of cell wall and the cell wall broken region. Glucanase is mainly distributed on the regions as bellow:the sieve plate, the electron condensed material attached to cell wall in the vascular bundle and the structural altered region of cell wall. From these results, it can be deduced that the accumulation and degradation of callose in C. quinoa is related to the cell wall structural and component alteration.

  11. Intentionally Adrift: What The Pathways Project Can Teach Us About Teaching and Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bonnie D. Irwin

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Recent generations of college students, brought up in a digital world of short bytes of information and nonlinear patterns of reading, often present a particular challenge to professors of text-heavy disciplines such as literature, history, and English. This essay explores recent theories of learning and the scholarship of oral tradition, especially that of John Miles Foley, in an attempt to discover how an understanding of pathways in the oWorld and eWorld can provide us with better ways to teach texts of all types.

  12. Why size matters: differences in brain volume account for apparent sex differences in callosal anatomy: the sexual dimorphism of the corpus callosum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luders, Eileen; Toga, Arthur W; Thompson, Paul M

    2014-01-01

    Numerous studies have demonstrated a sexual dimorphism of the human corpus callosum. However, the question remains if sex differences in brain size, which typically is larger in men than in women, or biological sex per se account for the apparent sex differences in callosal morphology. Comparing callosal dimensions between men and women matched for overall brain size may clarify the true contribution of biological sex, as any observed group difference should indicate pure sex effects. We thus examined callosal morphology in 24 male and 24 female brains carefully matched for overall size. In addition, we selected 24 extremely large male brains and 24 extremely small female brains to explore if observed sex effects might vary depending on the degree to which male and female groups differed in brain size. Using the individual T1-weighted brain images (n=96), we delineated the corpus callosum at midline and applied a well-validated surface-based mesh-modeling approach to compare callosal thickness at 100 equidistant points between groups determined by brain size and sex. The corpus callosum was always thicker in men than in women. However, this callosal sex difference was strongly determined by the cerebral sex difference overall. That is, the larger the discrepancy in brain size between men and women, the more pronounced the sex difference in callosal thickness, with hardly any callosal differences remaining between brain-size matched men and women. Altogether, these findings suggest that individual differences in brain size account for apparent sex differences in the anatomy of the corpus callosum.

  13. Is Disturbed Transfer of Learning in Callosal Agenesis due to a Disconnection Syndrome?

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    T. Imamura

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available Disturbed intermanual transfer of tactile learning in callosal agenesis has been interpreted as a sign of disconnection syndrome. We observed this sign in one of four acallosal patients with a conventional form-board task, and tried to elucidate the nature of the deficit. The form-board performance of the patient with disturbed transfer of learning totally depended on motor skill, while the other acallosals and normal controls executed the task based on spatial and somesthetic information. All acallosals and normals, however, failed to show transfer of learning with another tactile task which needed motor skill but not spatial-somesthetic information. These findings suggest that the task-performing strategies in form-board learning change the state of interhemispheric transfer. Unimanual learning effect is transferred if spatial-somesthetic information is acquired in the process of learning, but is not transferred if motor skill is the exclusive content of learning. We conclude that disturbed “transfer” of learning in some acallosals is not a true disconnection sign. It should be attributed to a lack of appropriate strategy, as a result of ineffective problem solving in tactile tasks.

  14. Genetic and functional analyses identify DISC1 as a novel callosal agenesis candidate gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osbun, Nathan; Li, Jiang; O'Driscoll, Mary C; Strominger, Zoe; Wakahiro, Mari; Rider, Eric; Bukshpun, Polina; Boland, Elena; Spurrell, Cailyn H; Schackwitz, Wendy; Pennacchio, Len A; Dobyns, William B; Black, Graeme C M; Sherr, Elliott H

    2011-08-01

    Agenesis of the corpus callosum (AgCC) is a congenital brain malformation that occurs in approximately 1:1,000-1:6,000 births. Several syndromes associated with AgCC have been traced to single gene mutations; however, the majority of AgCC causes remain unidentified. We investigated a mother and two children who all shared complete AgCC and a chromosomal deletion at 1q42. We fine mapped this deletion and show that it includes Disrupted-in-Schizophrenia 1 (DISC1), a gene implicated in schizophrenia and other psychiatric disorders. Furthermore, we report a de novo chromosomal deletion at 1q42.13 to q44, which includes DISC1, in another individual with AgCC. We resequenced DISC1 in a cohort of 144 well-characterized AgCC individuals and identified 20 sequence changes, of which 4 are rare potentially pathogenic variants. Two of these variants were undetected in 768 control chromosomes. One of these is a splice site mutation at the 5' boundary of exon 11 that dramatically reduces full-length mRNA expression of DISC1, but not of shorter forms. We investigated the developmental expression of mouse DISC1 and find that it is highly expressed in the embryonic corpus callosum at a critical time for callosal formation. Taken together our results suggest a significant role for DISC1 in corpus callosum development.

  15. Callosal degeneration topographically correlated with cognitive function in amnestic mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Pei-Ning; Chou, Kun-Hsien; Chang, Ni-Jung; Lin, Ker-Neng; Chen, Wei-Ta; Lan, Gong-Yau; Lin, Ching-Po; Lirng, Jiing-Feng

    2014-04-01

    Degeneration of the corpus callosum (CC) is evident in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, the correlation of microstructural damage in the CC on the cognitive performance of patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) and AD dementia is undetermined. We enrolled 26 normal controls, 24 patients with AD dementia, and 40 single-domain aMCI patients with at least grade 1 hippocampal atrophy and isolated memory impairment. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) with fractional anisotropy (FA), mean diffusivity (MD), axial diffusivity (DA), and radial diffusivity (DR) were measured. The entire CC was parcellated based on fiber trajectories to specific cortical Brodmann areas using a probabilistic tractography method. The relationship between the DTI measures in the subregions of the CC and cognitive performance was examined. Although the callosal degeneration in the patients with aMCI was less extended than in the patients with AD dementia, degeneration was already exhibited in several subregions of the CC at the aMCI stage. Scores of various neuropsychological tests were correlated to the severity of microstructural changes in the subregional CC connecting to functionally corresponding cortical regions. Our results confirm that CC degeneration is noticeable as early as the aMCI stage of AD and the disconnection of the CC subregional fibers to the corresponding Brodmann areas has an apparent impact on the related cognitive performance. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Age Differences in Interhemispheric Interactions: Callosal Structure, Physiological Function, and Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brett W Fling

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available There is a fundamental gap in understanding how brain structural and functional network connectivity are interrelated, how they change with age, and how such changes contribute to older adults’ sensorimotor deficits. Recent neuroimaging approaches including resting state functional connectivity MRI (fcMRI and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI have been used to assess brain functional (fcMRI and structural (DTI network connectivity, allowing for more integrative assessments of distributed neural systems than in the past. Declines in corpus callosum size and microstructure with advancing age have been well documented, but their contributions to age deficits in unimanual and bimanual function are not well defined. Our recent work implicates age-related declines in callosal size and integrity as a key contributor to unimanual and bimanual control deficits. Moreover, our data provide evidence for a fundamental shift in the balance of excitatory and inhibitory interhemispheric processes that occurs with age, resulting in age differences in the relationship between functional and structural network connectivity. Training studies suggest that the balance of interhemispheric interactions can be shifted with experience, making this a viable target for future interventions.

  17. Extending the Pathway: Building on a National Science Foundation Workforce Development Project for Underserved k-12 Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slattery, W.; Smith, T.

    2014-12-01

    With new career openings in the geosciences expected and a large number of presently employed geoscientists retiring in the next decade there is a critical need for a new cadre of geoscientists to fill these positions. A project funded by the National Science Foundation titled K-12 Students, Teachers, Parents, Administrators and Higher Education Faculty: Partners Helping Rural Disadvantaged Students Stay on the Pathway to a Geoscience Career involving Wright State University and the Ripley, Lewis, Union, Huntington k-12 school district in Appalachian Ohio took led to dozens of seventh and eighth grade students traveling to Sandy Hook, New Jersey for a one week field experience to study oceanography with staff of the New Jersey Sea Grant Consortium. Teachers, parent chaperones, administrators and university faculty accompanied the students in the field. Teachers worked alongside their students in targeted professional development during the weeklong field experience. During the two academic years of the project, both middle school and high school teachers received professional development in Earth system science so that all students, not just those that were on the summer field experience could receive enhanced science learning. All ninth grade high school students were given the opportunity to take a high school/college dual credit Earth system science course. Community outreach provided widespread knowledge of the project and interest among parents to have their children participate. In addition, ninth grade students raised money themselves to fund a trip to the International Field Studies Forfar Field Station on Andros Island, Bahamas to study a tropical aquatic system. Students who before this project had never traveled outside of Ohio are currently discussing ways that they can continue on the pathway to a geoscience career by applying for internships for the summer between their junior and senior years. These are positive steps towards taking charge of their

  18. Clinical pathway for patients with Chronic Myeloid Leukaemia: The Euriclea Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botti, Stefano; Gargiulo, Gianpaolo; Bombaci, Felice; Artioli, Giovanna; Cosentino, Chiara; Pignatelli, Adriana Concetta; Torino, Daniela; Lionetti, Maria Marcella; Samarani, Emanuela; Cappucciati, Lorella; Bordiga, Paola; Diodati, Antonella; Caffarri, Cristiana; Rosini, Irene; Pane, Fabrizio

    2017-07-18

    The use of Tirosine Kinase Ihnibitors (TKIs) for the treatment of Chronic Myeloid Leukemia (CML) has definitely represented a turning point in the treatment of the onco-hematological diseases. Over the years, the interest of physicians, nurses, patients and caregivers has increasingly focused on the aspects of the humanization of care, the management of side effects and on the full and constant therapeutic adherence. The aim of the project was to define patient-oriented care processes, based on a proactive approach that can fully respond to the new health needs of CML patients. A nursing expert Working Group (WG) was established. WG reviewed literature about CML patients assistance and then it was conducted a survey on organizational models for the treatment of CML patients, adopted by Italian haematologic and transplant centers.  Finally, the main issues regarding CML patients care were identified and discussed on a multiprofessional basis. Euriclea Project for care of CML patients with the description of a new and expanded nurse role was defined. The Nurse Case Manager or Nursing Clinical Experts were identified as key people for the management of the side effects of treatment, the promotion of the therapeutic adherence and the evaluation of efficacy and effectiveness of the process through the identification of specific indicators for structure, process and outcome. The focal areas of the care process were identified so as to define a different approach to the CML patient, through a holistic view of care and the multidisciplinary interventions.

  19. Effect of transport-pathway simplifications on projected releases of radionuclides from a nuclear waste repository (Sweden)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selroos, Jan-Olof; Painter, Scott L.

    2012-12-01

    The Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company has recently submitted an application for a license to construct a final repository for spent nuclear fuel, at approximately 500 m depth in crystalline bedrock. Migration pathways through the geosphere barrier are geometrically complex, with segments in fractured rock, deformation zones, backfilled tunnels, and near-surface soils. Several simplifications of these complex migration pathways were used in the assessments of repository performance that supported the license application. Specifically, in the geosphere transport calculations, radionuclide transport in soils and tunnels was neglected, and deformation zones were assumed to have transport characteristics of fractured rock. The effects of these simplifications on the projected performance of the geosphere barrier system are addressed. Geosphere performance is shown to be sensitive to how transport characteristics of deformation zones are conceptualized and incorporated into the model. Incorporation of advective groundwater travel time within backfilled tunnels reduces radiological dose from non-sorbing radionuclides such as I-129, while sorption in near-surface soils reduces radiological doses from sorbing radionuclides such as Ra-226. These results help quantify the degree to which geosphere performance was pessimistically assessed, and provide some guidance on how future studies to reduce uncertainty in geosphere performance may be focused.

  20. Normal centrolineal myelination of the callosal splenium reflects the development of the cortical origin and size of its commissural fibers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whitehead, Matthew T. [University of Tennessee Health Science Center, Department of Radiology, Memphis, TN (United States); Le Bonheur Children' s Hospital, Le Bonheur Neuroscience Institute, Memphis, TN (United States); Children' s National Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Washington, DC (United States); Raju, Anand; Choudhri, Asim F. [University of Tennessee Health Science Center, Department of Radiology, Memphis, TN (United States); Le Bonheur Children' s Hospital, Le Bonheur Neuroscience Institute, Memphis, TN (United States)

    2014-04-15

    Commissural white matter fibers comprising the callosal splenium are diverse. Subsections of the splenium myelinate at different times, in a centrolineal manner. The aims of this study are to depict the normal callosal splenium myelination pattern and to distinguish the transient age-related mid splenium hypointensity from pathology. We reviewed 131 consecutive brain MRIs in patients between ages 3 and 6 months from a single academic children's hospital. Patients that were preterm, hydrocephalic, and/or had volume loss were excluded. Fifty total MR exams that included T1-weighted MR imaging (T1WI), T2-weighted MR imaging (T2WI), and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) were reviewed. Regions of callosal splenium myelination manifested by T1 and T2 shortening were evaluated. Tractography was performed with seeds placed over the posterior, mid, and anterior splenium to define the origin, destination, and course of traversing fibers. Splenium signal varied significantly from 3 to 6 months, with distinct age-related trends. On T1WI, the splenium was hypointense at 3 months (12/13), centrally hypointense/peripherally hyperintense at 4 months (15/16), and hyperintense at 6 months (10/11). Tractography revealed three distinct white matter tract populations: medial occipital (posterior); precuneus, posterior cingulate, and medial temporal (middle); and postcentral gyri (anterior). Specific commissural fiber components of the splenium myelinate at different times. The transient developmental mid splenium hypointensity on T1WI corresponds to tracts from the associative cortex, principally the precuneus. Heterogeneous splenium signal alteration in patients ages 3-6 months is a normal developmental phenomenon that should not be confused with pathologic lesions. (orig.)

  1. MRI in callosal apraxia and agraphia due to a traumatic lesion in the posterior trunk of the corpus callosum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yasumura, Shuichi; Ito, Naoki; Terunuma, Hiroshi; Matsuzaki, Takayuki; Iwabuchi, Reiko

    1987-08-01

    We discussed functional topography of the corpus callosum in a case with ideo-motor apraxia and agraphia of the left hand due to a traumatic callosal hematoma confirmed by MRI. The patient was a 35-year-old right-handed woman with head injury in a traffic accident. On admission she was semi-comatose with left oculomotor palsy and her left upper limb showed a decorticate rigidity by noxious stimuli, however, she became alert within 14 days. X-ray CT showed an abnormal high density area in the posterior part of the trunk of the corpus callosum on admission. MRI (inversion recovery technique) on the 60th hospital day showed a low intensity area extending for about 2 cm posteriorly from the center of the trunk. Sequential neuropsychological examinations for the callosal disconnection syndrome were performed. The patient showed ideo-motor apraxia and agraphia in her left hand only. Her response to verbal commands were all parapraxic except for correct use of a comb and a tooth brush. Her writings with her left hand were those of scrawls due to apraxia. These apraxia and agraphia of the left hand were transient and recovered completely within 80 days of onset. Transient impairement of bimanual coordination movement was also observed. Ataxie optique, callosal pseudoneglect, left hand tactile anomia, difficulty of somesthetic transfer or diagonistic dyspraxia was not observed. Based on the neuropsychological and the MRI findings we suggest that the lesion in the posterior part of the trunk of the corpus callosum is important for causing ideo-motor apraxia and agraphia of the left hand.

  2. Caudal Medullary Pathways To Lumbosacral Motoneuronal Cell Groups In The Cat; Evidence For Direct Projections Possibly Representing The Final Common Pathway For Lordosis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VanderHorst, Veronique G.J.M.; Holstege, Gert

    1995-01-01

    The nucleus retroambiguus (NRA) projects to distinct brainstem and cervical and thoracic cord motoneuronal cell groups. The present paper describes NRA projections to distinct motoneuronal cell groups in the lumbar enlargement. Lumbosacral injections of wheat germ agglutinin-horseradish peroxidase

  3. CAUDAL MEDULLARY PATHWAYS TO LUMBOSACRAL MOTONEURONAL CELL GROUPS IN THE CAT - EVIDENCE FOR DIRECT PROJECTIONS POSSIBLY REPRESENTING THE FINAL COMMON PATHWAY FOR LORDOSIS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VANDERHORST, VGJM; HOLSTEGE, G

    1995-01-01

    The nucleus retroambiguus (NRA) projects to distinct brainstem and cervical and thoracic cord motoneuronal cell groups. The present paper describes NRA projections to distinct motoneuronal cell groups in the lumbar enlargement. Lumbosacral injections of wheat germ agglutinin-horseradish peroxidase

  4. Arrangement of fiber tracts forming Probst bundle in complete callosal agenesis: report of two cases with an evaluation by diffusion tensor tractography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utsunomiya, H; Yamashita, S; Takano, K; Okazaki, M

    2006-12-01

    We report two patients with complete callosal agenesis in whom Probst bundles in both hemispheres could be depicted by diffusion tensor tractography (DTT). While one patient had no associated telencephalic anomaly other than callosal agenesis, the other had cortical dysplasia in the right frontal lobe. Although Probst bundles in the three normal hemispheres were well developed, that in the hemisphere which was affected by cortical dysplasia was small and poorly developed. DTT also showed that the fibers from the frontal pole ran more on the inner side of the Probst bundle than those from a more caudal region of the frontal lobe. Furthermore, fibers from the orbital gyri ran along the outermost side of Probst bundle. The arrangement of these fiber tracts in Probst bundle may reflect the developmental process of callosal fibers in their normal formation.

  5. The Syndrome of Frontonasal Dysplasia, Callosal Agenesis, Basal Encephalocele, and Eye Anomalies – Phenotypic and Aetiological Considerations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available We report ten sporadic cases of Brazilian patients with facial midline defects, callosal agenesis, basal encephalocele, and ocular anomalies. This very rare cluster of anomalies has been well reported before. However, only until recently it is recognized as a syndrome belonging to frontonasal dysplasia spectrum. The ten cases confirm a distinct clinical entity and help to define the phenotype more precisely than previously. Up to now etiology remains unknown, although we conjecture that it is due to a mutation in TGIF gene.

  6. Frontonasal dysplasia, callosal agenesis, basal encephalocele, and eye anomalies syndrome with a partial 21q22.3 deletion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guion-Almeida, Maria Leine; Richieri-Costa, Antonio; Jehee, Fernanda Sarquis; Passos-Bueno, Maria Rita Santos; Zechi-Ceide, Roseli Maria

    2012-07-01

    We describe a girl with a phenotype characterized by frontonasal dysplasia, callosal agenesis, basal encephalocele, and eye anomalies who presents a 46,XX,r(21) karyotype. Array-comparative genomic hybridization using the Afflymetrix 100K DNA oligoarray set showed an interstitial deletion 21q22.3 of approximately 219 kb. Conventional karyotype of both parents was normal, and it was not possible to perform the molecular studies. In this report we raise the hypothesis that the deleted genes located at 21q22.3 could account to the phenotype.

  7. Periventricular nodular heterotopia, frontonasal encephalocele, corpus callosal dysgenesis and arachnoid cyst: A constellation of abnormalities in a child with epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnan, Prasad; Chattopadhyay, Arijit; Saha, Manash

    2014-01-01

    A 7-year-old male child presented with poorly controlled generalized tonic-clonic seizures. On examination, he was mentally retarded, deaf and had a swelling at the root on the nose. Computed tomography scan done previously revealed a left temporal arachnoid cyst (AC) due to which he was referred for surgery. However, magnetic resonance imaging revealed a constellation of abnormalities - all of which could be responsible for his seizures. The combination of periventricular nodular heterotopias with encepaholcele is rarely described in the literature, and more infrequently so its combination with AC and callosal dysgenesis - the Chudley-Mccullough syndrome. We describe the case and review relevant literature on this subject.

  8. Both projection and commissural pathways are disrupted in individuals with chronic stroke: investigating microstructural white matter correlates of motor recovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borich Michael R

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Complete recovery of motor function after stroke is rare with deficits persisting into the chronic phase of recovery. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI can evaluate relationships between white matter microstructure and motor function after stroke. The objective of this investigation was to characterize microstructural fiber integrity of motor and sensory regions of the corpus callosum (CC and descending motor outputs of the posterior limb of the internal capsule (PLIC in individuals with chronic stroke and evaluate the relationships between white matter integrity and motor function. Results Standardized measures of upper extremity motor function were measured in thirteen individuals with chronic stroke. Manual dexterity was assessed in thirteen healthy age-matched control participants. DTI scans were completed for each participant. Fractional anisotropy (FA of a cross-section of sensory and motor regions of the CC and the PLIC bilaterally were quantified. Multivariate analysis of variance evaluated differences between stroke and healthy groups. Correlational analyses were conducted for measures of motor function and FA. The stroke group exhibited reduced FA in the sensory (p = 0.001 region of the CC, contra- (p = 0.032 and ipsilesional (p = 0.001 PLIC, but not the motor region of the CC (p = 0.236. In the stroke group, significant correlations between contralesional PLIC FA and level of physical impairment (p = 0.005, grip strength (p = 0.006 and hand dexterity (p = 0.036 were observed. Conclusions Microstructural status of the sensory region of the CC is reduced in chronic stroke. Future work is needed to explore relationships between callosal sensorimotor fiber integrity and interhemispheric interactions post-stroke. In addition, contralesional primary motor output tract integrity is uniquely and closely associated with multiple dimensions of motor recovery in the chronic phase of stroke suggesting

  9. The neuroanatomical organization of projection neurons associated with different olfactory bulb pathways in the sea lamprey, Petromyzon marinus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Warren W Green

    Full Text Available Although there is abundant evidence for segregated processing in the olfactory system across vertebrate taxa, the spatial relationship between the second order projection neurons (PNs of olfactory subsystems connecting sensory input to higher brain structures is less clear. In the sea lamprey, there is tight coupling between olfaction and locomotion via PNs extending to the posterior tuberculum from the medial region of the olfactory bulb. This medial region receives peripheral input predominantly from the accessory olfactory organ. However, the axons from olfactory sensory neurons residing in the main olfactory epithelium extend to non-medial regions of the olfactory bulb, and the non-medial bulbar PNs extend their axons to the lateral pallium. It is not known if the receptive fields of the PNs in the two output pathways overlap; nor has the morphology of these PNs been investigated. In this study, retrograde labelling was utilized to investigate the PNs belonging to medial and non-medial projections. The dendrites and somata of the medial PNs were confined to medial glomerular neuropil, and dendrites of non-medial PNs did not enter this territory. The cell bodies and dendrites of the non-medial PNs were predominantly located below the glomeruli (frequently deeper in the olfactory bulb. While PNs in both locations contained single or multiple primary dendrites, the somal size was greater for medial than for non-medial PNs. When considered with the evidence-to-date, this study shows different neuroanatomical organization for medial olfactory bulb PNs extending to locomotor control centers and non-medial PNs extending to the lateral pallium in this vertebrate.

  10. The neuroanatomical organization of projection neurons associated with different olfactory bulb pathways in the sea lamprey, Petromyzon marinus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Warren W; Basilious, Alfred; Dubuc, Réjean; Zielinski, Barbara S

    2013-01-01

    Although there is abundant evidence for segregated processing in the olfactory system across vertebrate taxa, the spatial relationship between the second order projection neurons (PNs) of olfactory subsystems connecting sensory input to higher brain structures is less clear. In the sea lamprey, there is tight coupling between olfaction and locomotion via PNs extending to the posterior tuberculum from the medial region of the olfactory bulb. This medial region receives peripheral input predominantly from the accessory olfactory organ. However, the axons from olfactory sensory neurons residing in the main olfactory epithelium extend to non-medial regions of the olfactory bulb, and the non-medial bulbar PNs extend their axons to the lateral pallium. It is not known if the receptive fields of the PNs in the two output pathways overlap; nor has the morphology of these PNs been investigated. In this study, retrograde labelling was utilized to investigate the PNs belonging to medial and non-medial projections. The dendrites and somata of the medial PNs were confined to medial glomerular neuropil, and dendrites of non-medial PNs did not enter this territory. The cell bodies and dendrites of the non-medial PNs were predominantly located below the glomeruli (frequently deeper in the olfactory bulb). While PNs in both locations contained single or multiple primary dendrites, the somal size was greater for medial than for non-medial PNs. When considered with the evidence-to-date, this study shows different neuroanatomical organization for medial olfactory bulb PNs extending to locomotor control centers and non-medial PNs extending to the lateral pallium in this vertebrate.

  11. The effects of age, memory performance, and callosal integrity on the neural correlates of successful associative encoding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Chastelaine, Marianne; Wang, Tracy H; Minton, Brian; Muftuler, L Tugan; Rugg, Michael D

    2011-09-01

    This functional magnetic resonance imaging study investigated the relationship between the neural correlates of associative memory encoding, callosal integrity, and memory performance in older adults. Thirty-six older and 18 young subjects were scanned while making relational judgments on word pairs. Neural correlates of successful encoding (subsequent memory effects) were identified by contrasting the activity elicited by study pairs that were correctly identified as having been studied together with the activity elicited by pairs wrongly judged to have come from different study trials. Subsequent memory effects common to the 2 age groups were identified in several regions, including left inferior frontal gyrus and bilateral hippocampus. Negative effects (greater activity for forgotten than for remembered items) in default network regions in young subjects were reversed in the older group, and the amount of reversal correlated negatively with memory performance. Additionally, older subjects' subsequent memory effects in right frontal cortex correlated positively with anterior callosal integrity and negatively with memory performance. It is suggested that recruitment of right frontal cortex during verbal memory encoding may reflect the engagement of processes that compensate only partially for age-related neural degradation.

  12. Mutual regulation between Satb2 and Fezf2 promotes subcerebral projection neuron identity in the developing cerebral cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenna, William L; Ortiz-Londono, Christian F; Mathew, Thomas K; Hoang, Kendy; Katzman, Sol; Chen, Bin

    2015-09-15

    Generation of distinct cortical projection neuron subtypes during development relies in part on repression of alternative neuron identities. It was reported that the special AT-rich sequence-binding protein 2 (Satb2) is required for proper development of callosal neuron identity and represses expression of genes that are essential for subcerebral axon development. Surprisingly, Satb2 has recently been shown to be necessary for subcerebral axon development. Here, we unravel a previously unidentified mechanism underlying this paradox. We show that SATB2 directly activates transcription of forebrain embryonic zinc finger 2 (Fezf2) and SRY-box 5 (Sox5), genes essential for subcerebral neuron development. We find that the mutual regulation between Satb2 and Fezf2 enables Satb2 to promote subcerebral neuron identity in layer 5 neurons, and to repress subcerebral characters in callosal neurons. Thus, Satb2 promotes the development of callosal and subcerebral neurons in a cell context-dependent manner.

  13. Applying IPCC Representative Concentration Pathway (RCP) land-use projections in a regional assessment of land-use change in the conterminous United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherba, J.; Sleeter, B. M.

    2015-12-01

    The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Representative Concentration Pathways (RCPs) include global land-use change projections for four global emissions scenarios. These projections are potentially useful for driving regional-scale models needed for informing land-use and management interactions. Here, we applied global gridded RCP land-use projections within a regional-scale state-and-transition simulation model (STSM) projecting land-use change in the conterminous United States. First, we cross-walked RCP land-use transition classes to land-use classes more relevant for modeling at the regional scale. Coarse grid RCP land-use transition values were then downscaled to EPA Level III ecoregion boundaries using historical land-use transition data from the USGS Land Cover Trends (LCT) dataset. Downscaled transitions were aggregated to the ecoregion level. Ecoregions were chosen because they represent areas with consistent land-use patterns that have proven useful for studying land-use and management interactions. Ecoregion-level RCP projections were applied in a state-and-transition simulation model (STSM) projecting land-use change between 2005 and 2100 at the 1-km scale. Resulting RCP-based STSM projections were compared to STSM projections created using scenario projections from the Special Report on Emissions Scenarios (SRES) and the USGS LCT dataset. While most land-use trajectories appear plausible, some transitions such as forest harvest are unreasonable in the context of historical land-use patterns and the socio-economic drivers of change outlined for each scenario. This effort provides a method for using the RCP land-use projections in a wide range of regional scale models. However, further investigation is needed into the performance of RCP land-use projections at the regional scale.

  14. Commercial production and distribution of fresh fruits and vegetables: A scoping study on the importance of produce pathways to dose. Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marsh, T.L.; Anderson, D.M.; Farris, W.T.; Ikenberry, T.A.; Napier, B.A.; Wilfert, G.L.

    1992-09-01

    This letter report summarizes a scoping study that examined the potential importance of fresh fruit and vegetable pathways to dose. A simple production index was constructed with data collected from the Washington State Department of Agriculture (WSDA), the United States Bureau of the Census, and the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA). Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction (HEDR) Project staff from Battelle, Pacific Northwest Laboratories, in cooperation with members of the Technical Steering Panel (TSP), selected lettuce and spinach as the produce pathways most likely to impact dose. County agricultural reports published in 1956 provided historical descriptions of the predominant distribution patterns of fresh lettuce and spinach from production regions to local population centers. Pathway rankings and screening dose estimates were calculated for specific populations living in selected locations within the HEDR study area.

  15. Commercial production and distribution of fresh fruits and vegetables: A scoping study on the importance of produce pathways to dose. Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marsh, T.L.; Anderson, D.M.; Farris, W.T.; Ikenberry, T.A.; Napier, B.A.; Wilfert, G.L.

    1992-09-01

    This letter report summarizes a scoping study that examined the potential importance of fresh fruit and vegetable pathways to dose. A simple production index was constructed with data collected from the Washington State Department of Agriculture (WSDA), the United States Bureau of the Census, and the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA). Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction (HEDR) Project staff from Battelle, Pacific Northwest Laboratories, in cooperation with members of the Technical Steering Panel (TSP), selected lettuce and spinach as the produce pathways most likely to impact dose. County agricultural reports published in 1956 provided historical descriptions of the predominant distribution patterns of fresh lettuce and spinach from production regions to local population centers. Pathway rankings and screening dose estimates were calculated for specific populations living in selected locations within the HEDR study area.

  16. Progressive Wallerian Degeneration of the Corpus Callosal Splenium in a Patient with Alexia Without Agraphia: Advanced MR Findings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandhi, Kriti; Gillihan, Laura; Wozniak, Marcella A; Zhuo, Jiachen; Raghavan, Prashant

    2014-01-01

    Summary The corpus callosal splenium is an uncommon location for Wallerian degeneration (WD), which may be mistaken for new pathology on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). We describe the case of a 69-year-old woman with a left posterior cerebral artery infarct in whom progressive WD of the splenium of the corpus callosum seen on MRI was misinterpreted as new infarction or neoplasm. We address how magnetic resonance spectroscopy, perfusion MRI, diffusion tensor MRI, and serial imaging were utilized in establishing the correct diagnosis. Interestingly, the patient also presented with alexia without agraphia, which has never been reported in association with splenial WD. It is conceivable that WD affected critical splenial association fibers resulting in this uncommon dissociation syndrome. PMID:25489886

  17. Periventricular nodular heterotopia, frontonasal encephalocele, corpus callosal dysgenesis and arachnoid cyst: A constellation of abnormalities in a child with epilepsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prasad Krishnan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A 7-year-old male child presented with poorly controlled generalized tonic-clonic seizures. On examination, he was mentally retarded, deaf and had a swelling at the root on the nose. Computed tomography scan done previously revealed a left temporal arachnoid cyst (AC due to which he was referred for surgery. However, magnetic resonance imaging revealed a constellation of abnormalities - all of which could be responsible for his seizures. The combination of periventricular nodular heterotopias with encepaholcele is rarely described in the literature, and more infrequently so its combination with AC and callosal dysgenesis - the Chudley-Mccullough syndrome. We describe the case and review relevant literature on this subject.

  18. Fetal development of the corpus callosum: Insights from a 3T DTI and tractography study in a patient with segmental callosal agenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scola, Elisa; Sirgiovanni, Ida; Avignone, Sabrina; Cinnante, Claudia Maria; Biffi, Riccardo; Fumagalli, Monica; Triulzi, Fabio

    2016-10-01

    Commissural embryology mechanisms are not yet completely understood. The study and comprehension of callosal dysgenesis can provide remarkable insights into embryonic or fetal commissural development. The diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) technique allows the in vivo analyses of the white-matter microstructure and is a valid tool to clarify the disturbances of brain connections in patients with dysgenesis of the corpus callosum (CC). The segmental callosal agenesis (SCAG) is a rare partial agenesis of the corpus callosum (ACC). In a newborn with SCAG the DTI and tractography analyses proved that the CC was made of two separate segments consisting respectively of the ventral part in the genu and body of the CC, connecting the frontal lobes, and the dorsal part in the CC splenium and the attached hippocampal commissure (HC), connecting the parietal lobes and the fornix. These findings support the embryological thesis of a separated origin of the ventral and the dorsal parts of the CC.

  19. Chronic stress alters the dendritic morphology of callosal neurons and the acute glutamate stress response in the rat medial prefrontal cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luczynski, Pauline; Moquin, Luc; Gratton, Alain

    2015-01-01

    We have previously reported that interhemispheric regulation of medial prefrontal cortex (PFC)-mediated stress responses is subserved by glutamate (GLU)- containing callosal neurons. Evidence of chronic stress-induced dendritic and spine atrophy among PFC pyramidal neurons led us to examine how chronic restraint stress (CRS) might alter the apical dendritic morphology of callosal neurons and the acute GLU stress responses in the left versus right PFC. Morphometric analyses of retrogradely labeled, dye-filled PFC callosal neurons revealed hemisphere-specific CRS-induced dendritic retraction; whereas significant dendritic atrophy occurred primarily within the distal arbor of left PFC neurons, it was observed within both the proximal and distal arbor of right PFC neurons. Overall, CRS also significantly reduced spine densities in both hemispheres with the greatest loss occurring among left PFC neurons, mostly at the distal extent of the arbor. While much of the overall decrease in dendritic spine density was accounted by the loss of thin spines, the density of mushroom-shaped spines, despite being fewer in number, was halved. Using microdialysis we found that, compared to controls, basal PFC GLU levels were significantly reduced in both hemispheres of CRS animals and that their GLU response to 30 min of tail-pinch stress was significantly prolonged in the left, but not the right PFC. Together, these findings show that a history of chronic stress alters the dendritic morphology and spine density of PFC callosal neurons and suggest a mechanism by which this might disrupt the interhemispheric regulation of PFC-mediated responses to subsequent stressors.

  20. Morphology, projection pattern, and neurochemical identity of Cajal's "centrifugal neurons": the cells of origin of the tectoventrogeniculate pathway in pigeon (Columba livia) and chicken (Gallus gallus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vega-Zuniga, Tomas; Mpodozis, Jorge; Karten, Harvey J; Marín, Gonzalo; Hain, Sarah; Luksch, Harald

    2014-07-01

    The nucleus geniculatus lateralis pars ventralis (GLv) is a prominent retinal target in all amniotes. In birds, it is in receipt of a dense and topographically organized retinal projection. The GLv is also the target of substantial and topographically organized projections from the optic tectum and the visual wulst (hyperpallium). Tectal and retinal afferents terminate homotopically within the external GLv-neuropil. Efferents from the GLv follow a descending course through the tegmentum and can be traced into the medial pontine nucleus. At present, the cells of origin of the Tecto-GLv projection are only partially described. Here we characterized the laminar location, morphology, projection pattern, and neurochemical identity of these cells by means of neural tracer injections and intracellular fillings in slice preparations and extracellular tracer injections in vivo. The Tecto-GLv projection arises from a distinct subset of layer 10 bipolar neurons, whose apical dendrites show a complex transverse arborization at the level of layer 7. Axons of these bipolar cells arise from the apical dendrites and follow a course through the optic tract to finally form very fine and restricted terminal endings inside the GLv-neuropil. Double-label experiments showed that these bipolar cells were choline acetyltransferase (ChAT)-immunoreactive. Our results strongly suggest that Tecto-GLv neurons form a pathway by which integrated tectal activity rapidly feeds back to the GLv and exerts a focal cholinergic modulation of incoming retinal inputs.

  1. POLLUSOL 2 project: large scale investigation of soil-to-plant and soil-to-human exposition pathways in urban areas near industry in Wallonia

    OpenAIRE

    Leclercq, Julie; Colinet, Gilles; Pereira, Benoît; Titeux, Hugues; 29th International Conference on environmental Geochemistry and Health

    2013-01-01

    Since 2007, SPAQuE, with the collaboration of four universities in Belgium (UCL-ELIE, UMONS, Ulg-GxABT and Ulg-Aquapôle), has investigated urban areas near industry in Wallonia (Belgium), collecting data in residential gardens, woodland and cultivated or grazing areas. The objectives of the project were to define urban background soil quality values and to investigate soil-to-plant and soil-to-human exposition pathways. 1126 soil samples, 1341 vegetables and 435 groundwater samples were colle...

  2. Connectivity and the corpus callosum in autism spectrum conditions: insights from comparison of autism and callosal agenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booth, Rhonda; Wallace, Gregory L; Happé, Francesca

    2011-01-01

    Neural models of autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) have moved, in recent years, from a lesion model to a focus on abnormal connectivity. In this chapter, we review this work and summarize findings from our recent research comparing autism and agenesis of the corpus callosum (AgCC). We discuss our findings in the context of the "fractionable triad" account and highlight three main points. First, the social aspects of autism can be found in isolation, not accompanied by the nonsocial features of this disorder, supporting a view of autism as a "compound," rather than "monolithic," condition. Second, many young people with callosal agenesis show theory of mind- and emotion-processing deficits akin to those seen in autism. Diagnostic overshadowing may mean these people do not receive interventions that have proven beneficial in ASD. Last, study of AgCC shows that it is possible, in some cases, to develop good social cognitive skills in the absence of the corpus callosum, presenting a challenge to future connectivity models of autism.

  3. Effects of callosal agenesis on rotational side preference of BALB/cCF mice in the free swimming test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filgueiras, Cláudio C; Manhães, Alex C

    2004-11-05

    In order to test the hypothesis that the ontogenetic development of the corpus callosum is related to the establishment of behavioral laterality, the rotatory behavior in the free swimming test was studied in male mice of the BALB/cCF strain, in which approximately 20% of the animals present total or partial callosal agenesis. All animals were submitted to three sessions of the free-swimming rotatory test in three different sessions (diameter of the recipient = 21 cm; session duration = 5 min; inter-test interval = 48 h). The number and direction of the 30 and 360 degrees turns were recorded. Animals were classified as side-consistent turners (to the right or to the left) when they did not change their preferred side of rotation in all three sessions and in both turning units. In general our results suggested that acallosal animals present more pronounced laterality than normal ones. In the acallosal group, the percentage of consistent turners was significantly higher than that of non-consistent turners. The percentage of animals that presented strong turning preferences in the acallosal group was higher than in the normal group. In first session, the acallosal group presented a higher average number of turns to preferred side than the normal group. Taken together, our results constitute an endorsement to the hypothesis that the normal development of the corpus callosum is related to the establishment of cerebral laterality.

  4. Delineation of a deletion region critical for corpus callosal abnormalities in chromosome 1q43-q44.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagamani, Sandesh C Sreenath; Erez, Ayelet; Bay, Carolyn; Pettigrew, Anjana; Lalani, Seema R; Herman, Kristin; Graham, Brett H; Nowaczyk, Malgorzata Jm; Proud, Monica; Craigen, William J; Hopkins, Bobbi; Kozel, Beth; Plunkett, Katie; Hixson, Patricia; Stankiewicz, Pawel; Patel, Ankita; Cheung, Sau Wai

    2012-02-01

    Submicroscopic deletions involving chromosome 1q43-q44 result in cognitive impairment, microcephaly, growth restriction, dysmorphic features, and variable involvement of other organ systems. A consistently observed feature in patients with this deletion are the corpus callosal abnormalities (CCAs), ranging from thinning and hypoplasia to complete agenesis. Previous studies attempting to delineate the critical region for CCAs have yielded inconsistent results. We conducted a detailed clinical and molecular characterization of seven patients with deletions of chromosome 1q43-q44. Using array comparative genomic hybridization, we mapped the size, extent, and genomic content of these deletions. Four patients had CCAs, and shared the smallest region of overlap that contains only three protein coding genes, CEP170, SDCCAG8, and ZNF238. One patient with a small deletion involving SDCCAG8 and AKT3, and another patient with an intragenic deletion of AKT3 did not have any CCA, implying that the loss of these two genes is unlikely to be the cause of CCA. CEP170 is expressed extensively in the brain, and encodes for a protein that is a component of the centrosomal complex. ZNF238 is involved in control of neuronal progenitor cells and survival of cortical neurons. Our results rule out the involvement of AKT3, and implicate CEP170 and/or ZNF238 as novel genes causative for CCA in patients with a terminal 1q deletion.

  5. Microstructural callosal abnormalities in normal-appearing brain of children with developmental delay detected with diffusion tensor imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ding, Xiao-Qi [Hannover Medical School, Institute of Diagnostic and Interventional Neuroradiology, Hannover (Germany); University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Department of Neuroradiology, Hamburg (Germany); Sun, Yimeng; Illies, Till; Zeumer, Hermann; Fiehler, Jens [University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Department of Neuroradiology, Hamburg (Germany); Kruse, Bernd [University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Department of Pediatrics, Hamburg (Germany); Lanfermann, Heinrich [Hannover Medical School, Institute of Diagnostic and Interventional Neuroradiology, Hannover (Germany)

    2009-06-15

    Callosal fibres play an important role in psychomotor and cognitive functions. The purpose of this study was to investigate possible microstructural abnormalities of the corpus callosum in children with developmental delay, who have normal conventional brain MR imaging results. Seventeen pediatric patients (aged 1-9 years) with developmental delay were studied. Quantitative T2 and fractional anisotropy (FA) values were measured at the genu and splenium of the corpus callosum (CC). Fibre tracking, volumetric determination, as well as fibre density calculations of the CC were also carried out. The results were compared with those of the age-matched healthy subjects. A general elevation of T2 relaxation times (105 ms in patients vs. 95 ms in controls) and reduction of the FA values (0.66 in patients vs. 0.74 in controls) at the genu of the CC were found in patients. Reductions of the fibre numbers (5,464 in patients vs. 8,886 in controls) and volumes (3,415 ml in patients vs. 5,235 ml in controls) of the CC were found only in patients older than 5 years. The study indicates that despite their inconspicuous findings in conventional MRI microstructural brain abnormalities are evident in these pediatric patients suffering from developmental delay. (orig.)

  6. Ataxia and tremor due to lesions involving cerebellar projection pathways: a DTI tractographic study in six patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marek, M; Paus, S; Allert, N; Mädler, B; Klockgether, T; Urbach, H; Coenen, V A

    2015-01-01

    Focal lesions of brainstem, thalamus, and subcortical white matter may cause movement disorders that are clinically indistinguishable from cerebellar symptoms. It is suspected that ataxia in these cases is due to damage of efferent or afferent pathways of the cerebellum. However, the precise anatomical correlate often remains undefined. We used deterministic diffusion tensor magnetic resonance imaging (DTI) tractography to study the anatomical relationship between lesions causing ataxia and efferent cerebellar pathways. Study subjects were six male patients with focal lesions of different etiology (demyelination, hemorrhage, ischemia, neoplasm) outside the cerebellum. Five patients had cerebellar-like ataxia with prominent contralateral upper limb involvement. One patient with an almost midline mesencephalic lesion had a symmetrical ataxic syndrome. We used 3T MRI (Intera, Philips Medical Systems, Best, Netherlands) and DTI tractography (32 directions, StealthViz DTI, Medtronic Navigation, Louisville, USA) to delineate the dentato-rubro-thalamo-cortical tract (DRT). In all patients, tractography demonstrated focal lesions affecting the DRT in different locations. We conclude that in vivo mapping of cerebral pathways using DTI tractography in patients with focal extracerebellar brain lesions may provide direct evidence of circumscribed damage to the DRT, causing unilateral cerebellar-like ataxia. Also, a unilateral mesencephalic lesion at the level of the crossing of the DRT may cause bilateral ataxia.

  7. Career and Technical Education (CTE) Transfer Research Project: Improving Transfer Pathways for California Community College Students in CTE Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karandjeff, Kelley; Schiorring, Eva

    2011-01-01

    Despite the current economic downturn, workforce projections indicate that California will experience shortages in its supply of baccalaureate-trained workers in the decades to come, particularly engineers, accountants, nurses, teachers and law enforcement professionals. Students often start their journey toward these occupations in community…

  8. Projected changes of rainfall seasonality and dry spells in a high concentration pathway 21st century scenario

    CERN Document Server

    Pascale, Salvatore; Feng, Xue; Porporato, Amilcare; Hasson, Shabeh ul

    2014-01-01

    In this diagnostic study we analyze changes of rainfall seasonality and dry spells by the end of the twenty-first century under the most extreme IPCC5 emission scenario (RCP8.5) as projected by twenty-four coupled climate models participating to Coupled Model Intercomparison Project 5. We use estimates of the centroid of the monthly rainfall distribution as an index of the rainfall timing and a threshold-independent, information theory-based quantity such as relative entropy (RE) to quantify the concentration of annual rainfall and the number of dry months and to build a monsoon dimensionless seasonality index (DSI). The RE is projected to increase, with high inter-model agreement over Mediterranean-type regions (southern Europe, northern Africa and southern Australia) and areas of South and Central America, implying an increase in the number of dry days up to one month by the end of the twenty-first century. Positive RE changes are also projected over the monsoon regions of southern Africa and North America,...

  9. Living with Chronic Spontaneous Urticaria in Italy: A Narrative Medicine Project to Improve the Pathway of Patient Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cappuccio, Antonietta; Limonta, Tommaso; Parodi, Aurora; Cristaudo, Antonio; Bugliaro, Filomena; Cannavò, Serafinella P; Rossi, Oliviero; Gurioli, Carlotta; Vignoli, Alice; Parente, Roberta; Iemoli, Enrico; Caldarola, Giacomo; De Pità, Ornella; Di Nuzzo, Sergio; Cancian, Mauro; Potenza, Concetta; Caminati, Marco; Stingeni, Luca; Saraceno, Rosita; Trevisini, Sara; Piccirillo, Angelo; Sciarrone, Claudio; Panebianco, Rosanna; Gola, Massimo; Costanzo, Antonio; Grieco, Teresa; Massaroni, Katia; Reale, Luigi; Marini, Maria G

    2017-01-04

    Chronic spontaneous urticaria (CSU) is perceived as a difficult to manage disease with negative impact on quality of life. The aim of this study was to highlight how to improve the care of people with CSU, using the methodology of narrative medicine. From June 2014 to March 2015, CSU-diagnosed patients and their physicians were asked to record their experiences of the condition in writing. Fourteen healthcare teams participated: 41% considered CSU as a challenge to overcome, while 22% experienced CSU as a big commitment. The number of professional involved was evaluated as insufficient in 11 hospitals. Seventy-five percent of the 190 Italian patients had visited 3 or more physicians before receiving a final diagnosis, with a perceived waste of time and resources. The therapeutic pathways were described as unsatisfactory in 83% of cases. As a result, anger and frustration were life-dominant emotions in 92% of patients. The critical points of the care pathway are related to organizational issues and lack of awareness.

  10. Parameters used in the environmental pathways (DESCARTES) and radiological dose (CIDER) modules of the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Integrated Codes (HEDRIC) for the air pathway. Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Snyder, S.F.; Farris, W.T.; Napier, B.A.; Ikenberry, T.A.; Gilbert, R.O.

    1992-09-01

    This letter report is a description of work performed for the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction (HEDR) Project. The HEDR Project was established to estimate the radiation doses to individuals resulting from releases of radionuclides from the Hanford Site since 1944. This work is being done by staff at Battelle, Pacific Northwest Laboratories (Battelle) under a contract with the Centers for Disease Control (CDC) with technical direction provided by an independent Technical Steering Panel (TSP). The objective of this report is to-document the environmental accumulation and dose-assessment parameters that will be used to estimate the impacts of past Hanford Site airborne releases. During 1993, dose estimates made by staff at Battelle will be used by the Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center as part of the Hanford Thyroid Disease Study (HTDS). This document contains information on parameters that are specific to the airborne release of the radionuclide iodine-131. Future versions of this document will include parameter information pertinent to other pathways and radionuclides.

  11. Determination of radionuclides and pathways contributing to cumulative dose. Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project: Dose code recovery activities, Calculation 004

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Napier, B.A.

    1992-12-01

    A series of scoping calculations has been undertaken to evaluate the absolute and relative contributions of different radionuclides and exposure pathways to doses that may have been received by individuals living in the vicinity of the Hanford Site. This scoping calculation (Calculation 004) examined the contributions of numerous radionuclides to cumulative dose via environmental exposures and accumulation in foods. Addressed in this calculation were the contributions to organ and effective dose of infants and adults from (1) air submersion and groundshine external dose, (2) inhalation, (3) ingestion of soil by humans, (4) ingestion of leafy vegetables, (5) ingestion of other vegetables and fruits, (6) ingestion of meat, (7) ingestion of eggs, and (8) ingestion of cows` milk from Feeding Regime 1, as described in calculation 002. This calculation specifically addresses cumulative radiation doses to infants and adults resulting from releases occurring over the period 1945 through 1972.

  12. The Bandung neurosurgery patient outcomes project, Indonesia (Part II): Patient pathways and feasibility and acceptability of telephone follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutiono, Agung Budi; Faried, Ahmad; McAllister, Susan; Ganefianty, Amelia; Sarjono, Kalih; Arifin, Muhammad Zafrullah; Derrett, Sarah

    2017-03-02

    Support of neurosurgery patients following discharge from hospital is important. Currently, little is known about patients' in low- and middle-income countries before and after their hospital treatment. This companion paper reports patients' pathways before and after hospital admission and the feasibility of following up this ill-patient population by telephone. Eligible patients were aged ≥18 years admitted to the Neurosurgery Department in Dr. Hasan Sadikin Hospital-a regional referral hospital in Bandung City, Indonesia. Clinical data were collected on admission by clinicians. In-person interviews were undertaken with a clinical research nurse 1 to 2 days pre-discharge, and telephone follow-up interviews at 1, 2, and 3 months post-discharge. Information was also collected on pathways prior to admission and following discharge. The number of contact attempts for each patient interview was documented, as was the overall acceptability of undertaking a telephone interview. Of 178 patients discharged from hospital, 12 later died. Of the remaining 166 patients, 95% were able to be followed up to 3 months. Two-thirds of patients had been referred from another hospital. Patients came from, and were discharged to, locations throughout the West Java region. At the 1-month interview, 84% participants reported that they had had a follow-up consultation with a health professional-mostly with a neurosurgeon. This study has shown that, with a neurosurgery nurse delegated to the role, it is feasible to conduct follow-up telephone interviews with patients after discharge from a neurosurgery ward and that in fact such follow-up was appreciated by patients. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. Abnormal Changes of Callose Distribution During Pollen Abortion in Populus tomentosa Carr.%毛白杨花粉败育过程中胼胝质的异常分布变化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张文超; 曹媛; 常童洁; 荆艳萍

    2013-01-01

    The callose deposition in the process of microsporogenesis of Populus tomentosa Carr.male fertile clone 1319 and sterile stub BM-1 was investigated by staining with aniline blue.In fertile anthers,callose deposition occurs at the corners of the microspore mother cells,and then at the dyad and tetrad stage a thick callose wall locates in the cells plate and cells surrounding.With the dissolution of the callose wall,microspores are released into the chamber,and there is little callose around the free microspores.At the mature pollen stage,with tapetum disintegration,endothecium thickning and chamber cracking,callose distributes in the residual tapetum and endothecium.Compared with its counterpart,callose synthesis in BM-1 anthers decreases and callose distribution shows obvious abnormality.No callose appeares in sterile anther during the microspore mother cell period.At the dyad and tetrad stage,callose mainly deposits in the cells plate but less around the dyads and tetrads.With the development of the microspore to mature pollen,the callose deposits in the tapetum significantly,but not in the endothecium.Ultrastructural observation with transmission electron microscopy showed normal development in 1319 and abnormal development in BM-1 pollens.Therefore,the abnormal synthesis and distribution of callose is one of the reasons for pollen abortion of P.tomentosa Carr.%采用苯胺蓝染色的方法,对育性良好的无性系1319及花粉败育雄株BM-1的花药发育过程中胼胝质的分布及变化进行了观察.结果表明,育性良好的花药中,胼胝质首先在小孢子母细胞角隅处沉积;随后,较厚的胼胝质壁分布于四分体细胞间以及细胞周围,随着胼胝质的解体,小孢子释放到药室中,游离小孢子外围无明显胼胝质分布;小孢子发育形成成熟花粉,花药绒毡层解体,内壁加厚开裂,胼胝质分布于残留的绒毡层以及内壁.与育性良好的花药相比,败育花药的胼胝质合成量减

  14. Anatomic and Molecular Development of Corticostriatal Projection Neurons in Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohur, U. Shivraj; Padmanabhan, Hari K.; Kotchetkov, Ivan S.; Menezes, Joao R.L.; Macklis, Jeffrey D.

    2014-01-01

    Corticostriatal projection neurons (CStrPN) project from the neocortex to ipsilateral and contralateral striata to control and coordinate motor programs and movement. They are clinically important as the predominant cortical population that degenerates in Huntington's disease and corticobasal ganglionic degeneration, and their injury contributes to multiple forms of cerebral palsy. Together with their well-studied functions in motor control, these clinical connections make them a functionally, behaviorally, and clinically important population of neocortical neurons. Little is known about their development. “Intratelencephalic” CStrPN (CStrPNi), projecting to the contralateral striatum, with their axons fully within the telencephalon (intratelencephalic), are a major population of CStrPN. CStrPNi are of particular interest developmentally because they share hodological and axon guidance characteristics of both callosal projection neurons (CPN) and corticofugal projection neurons (CFuPN); CStrPNi send axons contralaterally before descending into the contralateral striatum. The relationship of CStrPNi development to that of broader CPN and CFuPN populations remains unclear; evidence suggests that CStrPNi might be evolutionary “hybrids” between CFuPN and deep layer CPN—in a sense “chimeric” with both callosal and corticofugal features. Here, we investigated the development of CStrPNi in mice—their birth, maturation, projections, and expression of molecular developmental controls over projection neuron subtype identity. PMID:23118198

  15. Project STONE: A Partnership Between Academia, Business and Government to Build a Pathway to STEM Careers for K-12 Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slattery, W.; Jacomet, P.; Lunsford, S.; Suttle, C.; Grove, R. L.; Teed, R. E.

    2011-12-01

    systemic national impact across the ISE community, embed its work within multiple ongoing regional and national climate change education networks, and leave an enduring legacy: 1. An evidence-based core story and supporting training materials will be incorporated in an e-Workshop, which will be widely disseminated via AZA, other professional networks and climateinterpreter.org. 2. A national network of regional interpretive leaders will continue to convene and collaborate, as part of NNOCCI's ongoing participation in the national AZA community. 3. An online community at climateinterpreter.org will continue to serve the 150 ISEIs that NNOCCI reaches over the course of the project -- a critical mass with a broad national reach -- and help to support further dissemination through the ISE community. 4. Ongoing research will document the lasting impact of this project on promoting effective public engagement in climate change. 5. The next generation of ocean scientists will gain new perspective and communication skills, enabling them to broaden the impact of their research. We believe that the NNOCCI project can serve as a model for how ISEIs can address other complex environmental, scientific, and policy topics as well.

  16. Future Projections of Aerosol Optical Depth, Radiative Forcing, and Climate Response Due to Declining Aerosol Emissions in the Representative Concentration Pathways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westervelt, D. M.; Mauzerall, D. L.; Horowitz, L. W.; Naik, V.

    2014-12-01

    It is widely expected that global emissions of atmospheric aerosols and their precursors will decrease strongly throughout the remainder of the 21st century, due to emission reduction policies enacted based on human health concerns. However, the resulting decrease in atmospheric aerosol burden will have unintended climate consequences. Since aerosols generally exert a net cooling influence on the climate, their removal will lead to an unmasking of global warming as well as other changes to the climate system. Aerosol and precursor global emissions decrease by as much as 80% by the year 2100, according to projections in four Representative Concentration Pathway (RCP) scenarios. We use the Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory Climate Model version 3 (GFDL CM3) to simulate future climate over the 21st century with and without aerosol emission changes projected by the RCPs in order to isolate the radiative forcing and climate response due to the aerosol reductions. We find that up to 1 W m-2 of radiative forcing may be unmasked globally by 2100 due to reductions in aerosol and precursor emissions, leading to average global temperature increases up to 1 K and global precipitation rate increases up to 0.09 mm d-1 (3%). Regionally and locally, climate impacts are much larger, as RCP8.5 projects a 2.1 K warming over China, Japan, and Korea due to reduced aerosol emissions. Our results highlight the importance of crafting emissions control policies with both climate and air pollution benefits in mind. The expected unmasking of additional global warming from aerosol reductions highlights the importance of robust greenhouse gas mitigation policies and may require more aggressive policies than anticipated.

  17. Sexual incentive motivation, olfactory preference, and activation of the vomeronasal projection pathway by sexually relevant cues in non-copulating and naive male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portillo, Wendy; Paredes, Raúl G

    2004-09-01

    There are some apparently healthy male rats that fail to mate after repeated testing with receptive females. We have previously shown that these "non-copulator (NC)" males show no partner preference for a receptive female when given the opportunity to physically interact with a sexually receptive female or a sexually active male. We also demonstrated that although NC males prefer odors from estrous females to odors from anestrous females, this preference is significantly reduced in comparison to the preference displayed by copulating (C) males. The aim of the present study was to evaluate in NC males sexual incentive motivation, that is, the approach behavior of male rats to either a sexually receptive female or a sexually active male in a test where the subjects can smell, hear, and see the stimulus animal but prevents their physical interaction. In addition, we determined whether NC rats have alterations in their ability to detect odors from conspecifics or odors related to food. In the detection of odors from conspecifics, we determined if these NC males are sexually attracted toward odors from receptive females or sexually active males. For food-related odors, we quantified the time it took the subjects to locate a hidden a piece of apple. Finally, using the induction of Fos-immunoreactivity (Fos-IR) as an index of neuronal activation, we compared the response of the vomeronasal projection pathway (VN pathway) of C and NC male rats exposed to estrous bedding. Males without sexual experience (WSE) were included in all experiments to determine the importance of previous heterosexual experience in the different behavioral tests and in the activity of the VN pathway. In the sexual incentive motivation test, we found that C and WSE male rats have a clear preference for estrous females over sexually active males, whereas NC male rats showed no preference. In odor tests, our results showed that C males had a clear preference for odors from estrous females as opposed

  18. The AIP career pathways project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauncy, Toni; Redmond, Kendra; Czujko, Roman

    2015-12-01

    An average 40% of all physics baccalaureate degree recipients in the United States go directly into the work-force rather than entering graduate school. Departments aiming to build robust programs must prepare all students for a broad range of career paths, but the default focus is typically on preparing students for advanced physics degrees. Under-graduate physics programs, with effective recruitment, retention, and appropriate preparation of students, have the potential to add qualified individuals to the STEM workforce. We present results from an investigation to understand, compile, and disseminate effective practices for preparing undergraduate physics students to enter the STEM workforce upon graduation.

  19. Heterogeneity of trans-callosal structural connectivity and effects on resting state subnetwork integrity may underlie both wanted and unwanted effects of therapeutic corpus callostomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Neal Taylor

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: Consideration of the selective vulnerability of resting state sub-networks, and of between-individual variability in connectivity patterns, sheds new light on the occurrence of both wanted and unwanted effects of callosotomy. We propose that beneficial effects (seizure reduction relate to disruption of the default mode network, with unwanted “disconnection syndrome” effects due to disruption particularly of the somatomotor and frontoparietal RSNs. Our results may also explain why disconnection syndromes primary reflect lateralised sensory-motor problems (e.g. of limb movement rather than midline function (e.g. tongue movement. Marked between-subject variation in callosal connectivity may underlie the poor predictability of effects of callosotomy. High resolution structural connectivity studies of this nature may be useful in pre-surgical planning of therapeutic callosotomy for intractable epilepsy.

  20. Callose Fluorescence Labeling in the Different Soybean Varieties Resistant to Soybean Mosaic Virus%大豆不同花叶病毒抗性品种胼胝质荧光标记初探

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴思思; 李文龙; 肖东强; 侯春燕; 王冬梅

    2013-01-01

    选用6个大豆品种与4个不同的大豆花叶病毒株系,分别组成抗病级别不同的组合,通过对接种叶片与上位叶症状观察、苯胺蓝染色辅以荧光显微镜观察和药物学试验,探讨了不同抗病级别组合中胼胝质(即β-1,3-葡聚糖)积累的特点及其在大豆抵抗大豆花叶病毒侵染过程中的作用.试验结果表明,大豆接种病毒后,在抗病级别分别为0~3的各个组合的叶肉细胞中,在侵染早期(接种后6、72 h)不同的组合在不同时间点分别观察到了胼胝质荧光,且胼胝质荧光出现的时间与抗病级别密切相关,即抗病性越强的组合在侵染点处观察到胼胝质的时间越早;而在抗病级别为5的组合中一直未能观察到胼胝质荧光.另外,在抗病级别为0级和1级的各组合中给叶片预注射2-DDG(2-deoxy-D-glucose,一种胼胝质合成抑制剂)再接种病毒,在上位叶能观察到坏死斑的出现并且通过RT-PCR能够检测到大豆花叶病毒外壳蛋白基因.以上结果表明,大豆被大豆花叶病毒侵染后,抗病性越强的品种就会在侵染点处越早地积累胼胝质,胼胝质的沉积与大豆抗病毒侵染密切相关.%The selected six varieties of soybean and four different strains of soybean mosaic virus ( SMV ) are divided into nine combinations that respond to different resistance levels. Through the symptom observation of inoculated leaves and the upper leaves, aniline blue staining followed by fluorescence microscopy, and pharmacological experiment, we wanted to study the characteristics of callose( β-1 ,3-glucan) accumulation in combinations of different resistance levels and the function of callose in the process of soybean and SMV interaction. The results showed that, in the earlier period of time after inoculation (6-72 h) , callose fluorescence in the mesophyll cells of different combinations , which resistance levels ranges from 0 to 3 , were observed at different time depending on

  1. [Case of callosal disconnection syndrome with a chief complaint of right-hand disability, despite presence of left-hand diagonistic dyspraxia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okamoto, Yoko; Saida, Hisako; Yamamoto, Toru

    2009-04-01

    e report the case of 48-year-old right-handed male patient with an infarction affecting most part of the body and the splenium of the left half of the corpus callosum. Neuropsychological examination revealed typical signs of callosal disconnection including left-sided apraxia, diagonistic dyspraxia, left-sided agraphia, left-hand tactile anomia, left hemialexia, and right-sided constructional disability. Moreover, he complained of impairment in activities involving the right hand disability and agraphia. He could not stop behaving with his right hand when he had a vague idea. For example, he involuntarily picked up a tea bottle with his right hand when he had a desire to drink, although the action was not appropriate to that occasion. The imitation and utilization behavior did not imply this case, because his right hand behaviors were not exaggerated in response to external stimuli, such as the gestures of the examiner or the subjects in front of the patient. Unexpectedly, he complained about impairment of the activity of his right hand and was unaware of left hand apraxia or diagonistic dyspraxia; this trend continued for 6 months, at the time of this writing. We argue that the patient may have been subconsciouly aware of the symptoms of his left hand but had not verbalized them.

  2. Pathways to School Success

    Science.gov (United States)

    University of Pittsburgh Office of Child Development, 2012

    2012-01-01

    In 2006, the University of Pittsburgh Office of Child Development began implementing a multi-year school readiness project in several area schools. Evidence from both research and the field point to several key elements that foster school readiness and create pathways to school success for all children. This paper presents components of a…

  3. An integrated approach to radionuclide flow in semi-natural ecosystems underlying exposure pathways to man. Final report of the LANDSCAPE project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moberg, L.; Hubbard, L.; Avila, R.; Wallberg, L. [Swedish Radiation Protection Inst., Stockholm (Sweden); Feoli, E.; Scimone, M.; Milesi, C. [Trieste Univ. (Italy); Mayes, B.; Iason, G. [Macaulay Land Use Research Inst., Aberdeen (United Kingdom); Rantavaara, A.; Vetikko, V. [Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority, Helsinki (Finland); Bergman, R.; Nylen, T. [National Defence Research Establishment, Umeaa (Sweden); Palo, T.; White, N. [Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Umeaa (Sweden). Faculty of Forestry; Raitio, H.; Aro, L.; Kaunisto, S. [The Finnish Forest Research Inst., Parkano (Finland); Guillitte, O. [Faculte Univ. des Sciences Agronomiques de Gembloux (Belgium)

    1999-10-01

    The general objective of the LANDSCAPE project has been to obtain a basis for reliable assessments of the radiation exposure to man under different time scales from radionuclides in plant and animal products of representative forest ecosystems in Europe. The work has been focussed on radiocaesium, {sup 134}Cs, {sup 137}Cs. In particular, the project has included (i) to quantify some major processes which influence the radiocaesium contamination of vegetation and fungi, (ii) to quantify radiocaesium intake of key herbivores, particularly free ranging moose, relative to food availability and degree of contamination, (iii) to quantify the influence of forest management on radiocaesium dynamics, and (iv) to incorporate these processes in dynamic models. The LANDSCAPE project has been the combined effort of eight research groups from five European countries, and this report describes the results obtained during 30 months of common work.

  4. Questioning the Pace and Pathway of E-Government Development in Africa: A Case Study of South Africa's Cape Gateway Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maumbe, Blessing Mukabeta; Owei, Vesper; Alexander, Helen

    2008-01-01

    The paper examines e-government development in Africa. This study is based on the Cape Gateway project in South Africa, a leading e-government initiative on the continent. We observe that African countries have jumped on the e-government band wagon by looking mostly at the benefits without a clear risk assessment. We argue that African countries…

  5. [The analysis of the possible pathways of carrying information and its integration in the projection systems, connecting the basal ganglia with the rostromedial tegmental nucleus dog's brain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorbachevskaia, A I

    2014-05-01

    The structural foundation of processing of the information in the basal ganglia morphofunctional system was studied on the basis of the analysis of the projections between the separate parts of the rostral and thecaudal compartments of the rostromedial tegmental nucleus (RMTN) and the functionally different segments of the striatal and the pallidal structures, which were investigated by the method of the retrograde axonal transport. The elements of the topic, showing to opportunity of segregated carrying of the information between the limbic segments RMTN and the limbic striopallidal fields were revealed in the organization of the projections between the named structures in dog. But the convergence of the projection fibers, proceeding from the neurons of the functionally different parts of RMTN observed in the majority of striopallidal structures that testify about the opportunity of the integration of the functionally different information in them. The revealed labeled RMTN "reticular" neurons with sparsely branching dendrites and long axons, which are projected to the striopallidal structures, also testify about the integrative function of the investigated nucleus. The possible ways of carrying of the motor and the limbic information and its integration in the structures of the studied system and opportunity of the utilization of the received dates for making of the new models, which allow to understand better the mechanism of basal ganglia functioning in normal and pathological conditions are discussed.

  6. Balancing bilateral sensory activity: callosal processing modulates sensory transmission through the contralateral thalamus by altering the response threshold.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lu; Ebner, Ford F

    2006-07-01

    Rats tactually explore a nearly spherical space field around their heads with their whiskers. The information sampled by the two sets of whiskers is integrated bilaterally at the cortical level in an activity dependent manner via the corpus callosum. We have recently shown that sensory activity in one barrel field cortex (BFC) modulates the processing of incoming sensory information to the other BFC. Whether interhemispheric integration is dynamically linked with corticothalamic modulation of incoming sensory activity is an important hypothesis to test, since subcortical relay neurons are directly modulated by cortical neurons through top-down processes. In the present study, we compared the direct sensory responses of single thalamic relay neurons under urethane anesthesia before and after inactivating the BFC contralateral to a thalamic neuron. The data show that silencing one BFC reduces response magnitude in contralateral thalamic relay neurons, significantly and reversibly, in response to test stimuli applied to the principal whisker at two times response threshold (2T) intensity for each unit. Neurons in the ventral posterior medial (VPM) nucleus and the medial division of the posterior nucleus (POm) react in a similar manner, although POm neurons are more profoundly depressed by inactivation of the contralateral BFC than VPM neurons. The results support the novel idea that the subcortical relay of sensory information to one hemisphere is strongly modulated by activity levels in the contralateral as well as in the ipsilateral SI cortex. The mechanism of the modulation appears to be based on shifting the stimulus-response curves of thalamic neurons, thereby rendering them more or less sensitive to sensory stimuli. We conclude that global sensory processing is created by combining activity in each cerebral hemisphere and continually balancing the flow of information to cortex by adjusting the responsiveness of ascending sensory pathways.

  7. Literature and data review for the surface-water pathway: Columbia River and adjacent coastal areas. Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walters, W.H.; Dirkes, R.L.; Napier, B.A.

    1992-11-01

    As part of the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction (HEDR) Project, Battelle, Pacific Northwest Laboratories reviewed literature and data on radionuclide concentrations and distribution in the water, sediment, and biota of the Columbia River and adjacent coastal areas. Over 600 documents were reviewed including Hanford reports, reports by offsite agencies, journal articles, and graduate theses. Radionuclide concentration data were used in preliminary estimates of individual dose for the period 1964 through 1966. This report summarizes the literature and database reviews and the results of the preliminary dose estimates.

  8. Literature and data review for the surface-water pathway: Columbia River and adjacent coastal areas. Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walters, W.H.; Dirkes, R.L.; Napier, B.A.

    1992-04-01

    As part of the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project, Pacific Northwest Laboratory reviewed literature and data on radionuclide concentrations and distribution in the water, sediment, and biota of the Columbia River and adjacent coastal areas. Over 600 documents were reviewed including Hanford reports, reports by offsite agencies, journal articles, and graduate theses. Certain radionuclide concentration data were used in preliminary estimates of individual dose for the 1964--1966 time period. This report summarizes the literature and database review and the results of the preliminary dose estimates.

  9. Pathways to commercial wind power in the US, Europe and Japan. The role of demonstration projects and field trials in the innovation process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harborne, Paul; Hendry, Chris [Cass Business School, City University, 106 Bunhill Row, London EC1Y 8TZ (United Kingdom)

    2009-09-15

    A growing, but little understood area of Government involvement in promoting renewable energy, is the use of demonstration projects and field trials (DTs) as a policy tool. This paper explores the historical role of DTs in the commercialisation of wind turbines. We review information from government, academic and industry sources, together with the newly created Cass Wind DT database, and consider the context, objectives, participants and nature of wind DTs in the EU, US and Japan. Overall, it is difficult to identify the benefits of wind DTs for many of the key actors. Government funding of DTs does not appear to be shaped by coherent or targeted strategic objectives-indeed governments use DTs differently despite similar stated objectives. A common theme has been the involvement of many stakeholders, with local authorities, utilities and operators taking the lead rather than manufacturers. Wind DTs appear to have neither enabled participating manufacturers to become significant global suppliers-with a few exceptions driven by additional financial and legislative support from national governments-nor to have established a dominant design. The major benefit of wind DTs appears to have been 'learning by using' for utilities and wind farm operators, reducing operational costs. (author)

  10. Pathways to commercial wind power in the US, Europe and Japan: The role of demonstration projects and field trials in the innovation process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harborne, Paul [Cass Business School, City University, 106 Bunhill Row, London EC1Y 8TZ (United Kingdom)], E-mail: p.harborne@city.ac.uk; Hendry, Chris [Cass Business School, City University, 106 Bunhill Row, London EC1Y 8TZ (United Kingdom)], E-mail: c.n.hendry@city.ac.uk

    2009-09-15

    A growing, but little understood area of Government involvement in promoting renewable energy, is the use of demonstration projects and field trials (DTs) as a policy tool. This paper explores the historical role of DTs in the commercialisation of wind turbines. We review information from government, academic and industry sources, together with the newly created Cass Wind DT database, and consider the context, objectives, participants and nature of wind DTs in the EU, US and Japan. Overall, it is difficult to identify the benefits of wind DTs for many of the key actors. Government funding of DTs does not appear to be shaped by coherent or targeted strategic objectives-indeed governments use DTs differently despite similar stated objectives. A common theme has been the involvement of many stakeholders, with local authorities, utilities and operators taking the lead rather than manufacturers. Wind DTs appear to have neither enabled participating manufacturers to become significant global suppliers-with a few exceptions driven by additional financial and legislative support from national governments-nor to have established a dominant design. The major benefit of wind DTs appears to have been 'learning by using' for utilities and wind farm operators, reducing operational costs.

  11. Callosal Agenesis and Interhemispheric Cysts

    OpenAIRE

    J Gordon Millichap

    2001-01-01

    Imaging studies of 25 cases of agenesis of the corpus callosum with interhemispheric cyst were retrospectively reviewed at the University of California, San Francisco, and Harvard Medical School, Boston.

  12. Unitary attention in callosal agenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dell'acqua, R; Jolicoeur, P; Lassonde, M; Angrilli, A; De Bastiani, P; Pascali, A

    2005-01-01

    The interhemispheric organisation of two specific components of attention was investigated in three patients affected by partial or complete agenesis of the corpus callosum. A visuospatial component of attention was explored using a visual search paradigm in which target and distractors were displayed either unilaterally within a single visual hemifield, or bilaterally across both visual hemifields in light of prior work indicating that split-brain patients were twice as fast to scan bilateral displays compared to unilateral displays. A central component of attention was explored using a psychological refractory period (PRP) paradigm in which two visual stimuli were presented laterally at various stimulus onset asynchronies (SOAs), with each stimulus associated with a different speeded two-alternative choice task. The stimulus-response compatibility in the second task was systematically manipulated in this paradigm, in light of prior work indicating that split-brain patients exhibited a close-to-normal PRP effect (i.e., slowing of the second response as SOA is decreased), with, however, abnormally decreasing effects of the manipulation of the response mapping on the second task speed as SOA was decreased. The present results showed that, although generally slower than normals in carrying out the two tasks, the performance of each of the three acallosal patients was formally equivalent to the performance of a matched control group of normal individuals. In the visual search task, the search rate of the acallosal patients was the same for unilateral and bilateral displays. Furthermore, in the PRP task, there was more mutual interference between the lateralised tasks for the acallosal patients than that evidenced in the performance of the matched control group. It is concluded that the visuospatial component and the central component of attention in agenesis of the corpus callosum are interhemispherically integrated systems.

  13. Molecular pathways

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cox, Thomas R; Erler, Janine Terra

    2014-01-01

    that 45% of deaths in the developed world are linked to fibrotic disease. Fibrosis and cancer are known to be inextricably linked; however, we are only just beginning to understand the common and overlapping molecular pathways between the two. Here, we discuss what is known about the intersection...... of fibrosis and cancer, with a focus on cancer metastasis, and highlight some of the exciting new potential clinical targets that are emerging from analysis of the molecular pathways associated with these two devastating diseases. Clin Cancer Res; 20(14); 3637-43. ©2014 AACR....

  14. Project 2010 Project Management

    CERN Document Server

    Happy, Robert

    2010-01-01

    The ideal on-the-job reference guide for project managers who use Microsoft Project 2010. This must-have guide to using Microsoft Project 2010 is written from a real project manager's perspective and is packed with information you can use on the job. The book explores using Project 2010 during phases of project management, reveals best practices, and walks you through project flow from planning through tracking to closure. This valuable book follows the processes defined in the PMBOK Guide, Fourth Edition , and also provides exam prep for Microsoft's MCTS: Project 2010 certification.: Explains

  15. Development of human white matter fiber pathways: From newborn to adult ages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Andrew H; Wang, Rongpin; Wilkinson, Molly; MacDonald, Patrick; Lim, Ashley R; Takahashi, Emi

    2016-05-01

    Major long-range white matter pathways (cingulum, fornix, uncinate fasciculus [UF], inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus [IFOF], inferior longitudinal fasciculus [ILF], thalamocortical [TC], and corpus callosal [CC] pathways) were identified in eighty-three healthy humans ranging from newborn to adult ages. We tracked developmental changes using high-angular resolution diffusion MR tractography. Fractional anisotropy (FA), apparent diffusion coefficient, number, length, and volume were measured in pathways in each subject. Newborns had fewer, and more sparse, pathways than those of the older subjects. FA, number, length, and volume of pathways gradually increased with age and reached a plateau between 3 and 5 years of age. Data were further analyzed by normalizing with mean adult values as well as with each subject's whole brain values. Comparing subjects of 3 years old and under to those over 3 years old, the studied pathways showed differential growth patterns. The CC, bilateral cingulum, bilateral TC, and the left IFOF pathways showed significant growth both in volume and length, while the bilateral fornix, bilateral ILF and bilateral UF showed significant growth only in volume. The TC and CC took similar growth patterns with the whole brain. FA values of the cingulum and IFOF, and the length of ILF showed leftward asymmetry. The fornix, ILF and UF occupied decreased space compared to the whole brain during development with higher FA values, likely corresponding to extensive maturation of the pathways compared to the mean whole brain maturation. We believe that the outcome of this study will provide an important database for future reference.

  16. the Pathways to Resilience Project Advisory Panel

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    methodologies in knowledge generation and social change, there is little mention of how partnerships with AP .... than merely advise researchers and how important it is that researchers have respect for advisory ... In accordance with ethical principles, APMs provided permission .... Left NGO; work pressure in new position ...

  17. Designing pathways

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scheuer, John Damm

    2010-01-01

    The theoretical background in this chapter is organizational studies and especially theories about design and design processes in organizations. The concept of design is defined as a particular kind of work aimed at making arrangements in order to change existing situations into desired ones....... The illustrative case example is the introduction of clinical pathways in a psychiatric department. The contribution to a general core of design research is the development of the concept of design work and a critical discussion of the role of technological rules in design work....

  18. Designing pathways

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2010-01-01

    The theoretical background in this chapter is organizational studies and especially theories about design and design processes in organizations. The concept of design is defined as a particular kind of work aimed at making arrangements in order to change existing situations into desired ones....... The illustrative case example is the introduction of clinical pathways in a psychiatric department. The contribution to a general core of design research is the development of the concept of design work and a critical discussion of the role of technological rules in design work....

  19. Pathway collages: personalized multi-pathway diagrams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paley, Suzanne; O'Maille, Paul E; Weaver, Daniel; Karp, Peter D

    2016-12-13

    Metabolic pathway diagrams are a classical way of visualizing a linked cascade of biochemical reactions. However, to understand some biochemical situations, viewing a single pathway is insufficient, whereas viewing the entire metabolic network results in information overload. How do we enable scientists to rapidly construct personalized multi-pathway diagrams that depict a desired collection of interacting pathways that emphasize particular pathway interactions? We define software for constructing personalized multi-pathway diagrams called pathway-collages using a combination of manual and automatic layouts. The user specifies a set of pathways of interest for the collage from a Pathway/Genome Database. Layouts for the individual pathways are generated by the Pathway Tools software, and are sent to a Javascript Pathway Collage application implemented using Cytoscape.js. That application allows the user to re-position pathways; define connections between pathways; change visual style parameters; and paint metabolomics, gene expression, and reaction flux data onto the collage to obtain a desired multi-pathway diagram. We demonstrate the use of pathway collages in two application areas: a metabolomics study of pathogen drug response, and an Escherichia coli metabolic model. Pathway collages enable facile construction of personalized multi-pathway diagrams.

  20. Spatiotemporal analysis of projected impacts of climate change on the major C3 and C4 crop yield under representative concentration pathway 4.5: Insight from the coasts of Tamil Nadu, South India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    A, Ramachandran; Praveen, Dhanya; R, Jaganathan; D, RajaLakshmi; K, Palanivelu

    2017-01-01

    India's dependence on a climate sensitive sector like agriculture makes it highly vulnerable to its impacts. However, agriculture is highly heterogeneous across the country owing to regional disparities in exposure, sensitivity, and adaptive capacity. It is essential to know and quantify the possible impacts of changes in climate on crop yield for successful agricultural management and planning at a local scale. The Hadley Centre Global Environment Model version 2-Earth System (HadGEM-ES) was employed to generate regional climate projections for the study area using the Regional Climate Model (RCM) RegCM4.4. The dynamics in potential impacts at the sub-district level were evaluated using the Representative Concentration Pathway 4.5 (RCPs). The aim of this study was to simulate the crop yield under a plausible change in climate for the coastal areas of South India through the end of this century. The crop simulation model, the Decision Support System for Agrotechnology Transfer (DSSAT) 4.5, was used to understand the plausible impacts on the major crop yields of rice, groundnuts, and sugarcane under the RCP 4.5 trajectory. The findings reveal that under the RCP 4.5 scenario there will be decreases in the major C3 and C4 crop yields in the study area. This would affect not only the local food security, but the livelihood security as well. This necessitates timely planning to achieve sustainable crop productivity and livelihood security. On the other hand, this situation warrants appropriate adaptations and policy intervention at the sub-district level for achieving sustainable crop productivity in the future.

  1. Indirect ultrasonic signs of the callosal partial agenesis and hypoplasia in the fetus%胎儿胼胝体部分性缺失及发育不良横切面特征声像分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡丹蕾; 李丽娟; 汪南; 吴丽红; 杜柳; 谢红宁

    2014-01-01

    目的:总结胼胝体部分性缺失及发育不良胎儿产前二维超声常规横切面特征声像,为产前超声诊断部分性胼胝体缺失提供线索。方法:回顾性分析本院2006年至今经MRI或大体病理确诊的单纯性胼胝体部分性缺失病例产前常规二维横切面声像图中透明隔间腔缺失、侧脑室异常及第三脑室上抬发生率,追踪预后及染色体结果。结果:经MRI或大体病理证实单纯性胼胝体部分性缺失病例10例。9例为部分性胼胝体缺失,1例为胼胝体发育不良。透明隔间腔缺失率20%,侧脑室异常发生率60%,第三脑室上抬发生率80%。8例终止妊娠,2例出生:1例随访至2岁,生长发育无异常;1例3岁,随访至今,生长发育均落后于同龄儿童。6例行染色体检查,结果均正常。结论:以二维超声横切面间接征象作为胼胝体部分性缺失的产前诊断线索是可行的。胼胝体部分性缺失胎儿特征声像发生率与完全性胼胝体缺失胎儿不同,其侧脑室及第三脑室异常发生率较透明隔间腔缺失率高。单纯性胼胝体部分性缺失胎儿染色体结果正常,预后未知。%Objective To investigate antenatal sonographic findings of the fetal isolated callosal hypoplasia and partial agenesis. Methods A retrospective study was performed on the cases of hypoplasia and partial agenesis of the corpus callosum suspected at antenatal sonographic basic examination from 2006 to 2014, all the cases were confirmed by pathology or magnetic resonance imaging(MRI). For the surviving infants, clinical follow-up had been performed to assess the developmental outcome. Results Thirteen fetuses suspected with callosal underdevelopment were identified at a median gestational age of 31 (range, 18~39) weeks. Ten cases were confirmed by autopsy and MRI, including 9 with partial agenesis and 1 with hypoplasia. Among the 10 fetuses confirmed with isolated partial

  2. 神经内镜下经纵裂胼胝体侧脑室入路的应用解剖%Lateral ventricular neuroendoscopic anatomy through the interhemispheric transcorpus callosal approach

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴春富; 陆华

    2011-01-01

    Objective To provide anatomical basis for lateral ventricular neuroendoscopic surgery through the interhemispheric transcorpus callosal approach. Methods The anatomic investigation of the lateral and third ventricle was performed in 10 adult cadaveric head specimens, through interhemispheric transcorpus callosal approach. Results The thickness of corpus callosum was (6.1±1.2) mm, the sagittal and transverse diameters of interventricular foreman (5.6±1.4) mm and (3.0±1.6) mm, and the sagittal and transverse diameters ofinterthalamic adhesion (6.3±1.8) mm and (3.4±1.2) mm. There were very less drainage veins to the sagittal sinus anterior to the coronal suture. The body and front horn of the lateral ventricle, the "Y" shape structure of interventricular foreman could be observed under different angular neuroendoscope. Cut size of 2 cm on corpus callosum than that of 1.5 cm was better to reveal the structures and exert operation under a rigid endoscopic surgery. Conclusions Interhemispheric transcorpus callosal approach is a safe and valuable way to treat affection in double lateral ventricle, area of interventricular foreman and the third ventricle.%目的 为临床开展神经内镜下经纵裂胼胝体侧脑室入路到达侧脑室及第三脑室手术提供应用解剖学基础.方法 对10例成人尸头标本经纵裂胼胝体前部侧脑室入路在神经内镜下观察侧脑室、第三脑室结构并测量数据.结果 (1)胼胝体厚度(6.1±1.2)mm,室间孔长、宽径为(5,6±1.4)mm、(3.0±1.6)mm,中间块长、宽径(6.3±1.8)mm、(3.4±1.2)mm;(2)冠状缝前5cm引流静脉很少;(3)神经内镜观察侧脑室前角、侧脑室体部及室间孔的Y形结构,且可以通过室间孔进入第三脑室,进行较好的暴露和观察;(4)胼胝体切开1.5 cm,硬质内镜操作空间和观察范围受限,胼胝体切开2.0 cm时,适合神经内镜操作和观察.结论 经纵裂胼胝体前部侧脑室入路按生理间隙进入,操作距离短,内镜

  3. Ethylene and Abscisic Acid Signaling Pathways Differentially Influence Tomato Resistance to Combined Powdery Mildew and Salt Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kissoudis, Christos; Seifi, Alireza; Yan, Zhe; Islam, A. T. M. Tanjimul; van der Schoot, Hanneke; van de Wiel, Clemens C. M.; Visser, Richard G. F.; van der Linden, C. G.; Bai, Yuling

    2017-01-01

    There is currently limited knowledge on the role of hormones in plants responses to combinations of abiotic and pathogen stress factors. This study focused on the response of tomato near-isogenic lines (NILs) that carry the Ol-1, ol-2, and Ol-4 loci, conferring resistance to tomato powdery mildew (PM) caused by Oidium neolycopersici, to combined PM and salt stress. These NILs were crossed with the notabilis (ABA-deficient), defenceless1 (JA-deficient), and epinastic (ET overproducer) tomato mutants to investigate possible roles of hormone signaling in response to combined stresses. In the NILs, marker genes for hormonal pathways showed differential expression patterns upon PM infection. The epinastic mutation resulted in breakdown of resistance in NIL-Ol-1 and NIL-ol-2. This was accompanied by reduced callose deposition, and was more pronounced under combined salt stress. The notabilis mutation resulted in H2O2 overproduction and reduced susceptibility to PM in NIL-Ol-1 under combined stress, but lead to higher plant growth reduction under salinity and combined stress. Resistance in NIL-ol-2 was compromised by the notabilis mutation, which was potentially caused by reduction of callose deposition. Under combined stress the compromised resistance in NIL-ol-2 was restored. PM resistance in NIL-Ol-4 remained robust across all mutant and treatment combinations. Hormone signaling is critical to the response to combined stress and PM, in terms of resistance and plant fitness. ABA appears to be at the crossroads of disease susceptibility/senescence and plant performance under combined stress These gained insights can aid in narrowing down targets for improving crop performance under stress combinations. PMID:28119708

  4. Businesses Partner with Schools, Community to Create Alternative Career Pathways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overman, Stephenie

    2012-01-01

    Business, education and community leaders are working together to create alternative career pathways for young people who are not profiting from the four-year college track. The new Pathways to Prosperity Network brings together the Pathways to Prosperity Project at Harvard Graduate School of Education (HGSE), Jobs for the Future (JFF) and six…

  5. Asymmetrical interhemispheric connections develop in cat visual cortex after early unilateral convergent strabismus: Anatomy, physiology and mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel eBui Quoc

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In the mammalian primary visual cortex, the corpus callosum contributes to the unification of the visual hemifields that project to the two hemispheres. Its development depends on visual experience. When the latter is abnormal, callosal connections must undergo dramatic anatomical and physiological changes. However, such data are sparse and incomplete. Thus, little is known about the consequences of abnormal postnatal visual experience on the development of callosal connections and their role in unifying representation of the two hemifields. Here, the effects of early unilateral convergent strabismus (a model of abnormal visual experience were fully characterized with respect to the development of the callosal connections in cat visual cortex, an experimental model for humans. Electrophysiological responses and 3D reconstruction of single callosal axons show that abnormally asymmetrical callosal connections develop after unilateral convergent strabismus, resulting from an extension of axonal branches of specific orders in the hemisphere ipsilateral to the deviated eye and a decreased number of nodes and terminals in the other (ipsilateral to the non deviated eye. Furthermore this asymmetrical organization prevents the establishment of a unifying representation of the two visual hemifields. As a general rule, we suggest that crossed and uncrossed retino-geniculo-cortical pathways contribute in succession to the development of the callosal maps in visual cortex.

  6. Project Notes

    Science.gov (United States)

    School Science Review, 1978

    1978-01-01

    Presents sixteen project notes developed by pupils of Chipping Norton School and Bristol Grammar School, in the United Kingdom. These Projects include eight biology A-level projects and eight Chemistry A-level projects. (HM)

  7. Instructing Perisomatic Inhibition by Direct Lineage Reprogramming of Neocortical Projection Neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Zhanlei; Mostajo-Radji, Mohammed A; Brown, Juliana R; Rouaux, Caroline; Tomassy, Giulio Srubek; Hensch, Takao K; Arlotta, Paola

    2015-11-01

    During development of the cerebral cortex, local GABAergic interneurons recognize and pair with excitatory projection neurons to ensure the fine excitatory-inhibitory balance essential for proper circuit function. Whether the class-specific identity of projection neurons has a role in the establishment of afferent inhibitory synapses is debated. Here, we report that direct in vivo lineage reprogramming of layer 2/3 (L2/3) callosal projection neurons (CPNs) into induced corticofugal projection neurons (iCFuPNs) increases inhibitory input onto the converted neurons to levels similar to that of endogenous CFuPNs normally found in layer 5 (L5). iCFuPNs recruit increased numbers of inhibitory perisomatic synapses from parvalbumin (PV)-positive interneurons, with single-cell precision and despite their ectopic location in L2/3. The data show that individual reprogrammed excitatory projection neurons extrinsically modulate afferent input by local PV(+) interneurons, suggesting that projection neuron class-specific identity can actively control the wiring of the cortical microcircuit.

  8. Distinctive patterns of callose deposition provide an early sign of ovule abortion1 in the andromonoecious shrub Caesalpinia gilliesii Patrones distintivos de deposición de calosa proveen evidencia temprana de aborto de óvulos en el arbusto andromonoico Caesalpinia gilliesii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Calviño

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Ovule abortion may lead to the partial or complete reduction of the number of functional ovules in the ovary and then is the primary factor that determines the sexual expression of the plant. In different species, ovule abortion was associated with the presence of callose in advanced ovules. Based on these observations, we studied the pattern of ovule development and callose deposition in both perfect and staminate flowers of the andromonoecious shrub Caesalpinia gilliesii. The obtained results showed that all ovules reached the 8-nucleate stage of embryo sac development and exhibited callose deposition at advanced stages. Nevertheless, from the 2-nucleate stage, a distinct spatial pattern of callose deposition within the ovule was observed between perfect and staminate flowers. Differences in callose deposition suggest that not callose per se but its distribution pattern in the ovule tissues is the main factor that triggers ovule isolation and abortion and leads to flowers with non-functional pistils in this species. Furthermore, previous observed differential growth rates between perfect and staminate flowers support for resource depletion as the likely underlying mechanism of ovule fate in C. gilliesii.El aborto de óvulos puede llevar a la reducción parcial o completa de óvulos fértiles en el ovario, pudiendo ser entonces un factor primario que determine la expresión sexual de toda la planta. En diferentes especies de plantas, el aborto de los óvulos ha sido asociado con la presencia de calosa en estadios avanzados del desarrollo de los óvulos. Basado en estas observaciones, se estudiaron el desarrollo de los óvulos y el patrón de deposición de calosa tanto en flores perfectas como estaminadas en el arbusto andromonoico C. gilliesii. Los resultados obtenidos muestran que los sacos embrionarios alcanzan el estadio de desarrollo 8-nucleado en todos los óvulos, y que presentan deposición de calosa en los estadios avanzados. Sin

  9. Genetic effects in callose content in root apex of inbred resistant and susceptible corn lines to acid soils Efectos genéticos de la formación de calosa en ápices radicales de líneas de maíz resistentes y susceptibles a suelos ácidos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arcos Alba Lucía

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available

    The main objective of this work was to identify genetic parameters that are related to callose accumulation using tropical inbreeds corn. Fourteen inbreed lines selected for different levels of tolerance to acid soils were chosen and a diallel among them was generated. The seeds were grown under controlled environmental conditions in a growth chamber and transferred to a nutrient solution at pH 4.3. After 12 hours of 25 µM Al (AlCl3 treatment was applied, callose contents of 1 cm root apex were determined with fluorescence spectrophotometer. Significant differences were found for parents, crosses and parents vs crosses. Average callose content varied from 0.746 to 2.035 (µg PE/cm root apex. Heterosis varied from –21.2% to 276.3%. General combining ability (GCA and specific combining ability (SCA were highly significant indicating that both, additive and non–additive gene effects were important for callose inheritance. SCA and GCA sum of squares accounted for 54% and 46%, respectively of crosses of squares sum. Correlation coefficient between callose content and corn grain yield in the field was negative but not significant (r = –0.38.

    Key words: Zea mays; callose; inheritance; diallel; heterosis; acid soils.

    El objetivo de este trabajo fue estudiar la herencia de la producción de calosa utilizando líneas endogámicas de maíz. Seleccionando 14 líneas (7 tolerantes y 7 susceptibles a suelos ácidos se formó un dialelo que fue probado en campo y en invernadero. Se determinó el contenido de calosa en los 91 cruzamientos resultantes y los 14 progenitores. Para ello se colocaron las semillas en cámara de crecimiento en condiciones controladas. Después de 4–5 días las plántulas fueron transferidas a cubetas que contenían solución nutritiva con aireación constante. Luego de 48 horas se adicionaron 25 µM de aluminio (AlCl3 a cada una de las cubetas y se mantuvieron por 12 horas. Se cortaron tres ápices radicales de

  10. Topographic organization of V1 projections through the corpus callosum in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saenz, M; Fine, I

    2010-10-01

    The visual cortex in each hemisphere is linked to the opposite hemisphere by axonal projections that pass through the splenium of the corpus callosum. Visual-callosal connections in humans and macaques are found along the V1/V2 border where the vertical meridian is represented. Here we identify the topography of V1 vertical midline projections through the splenium within six human subjects with normal vision using diffusion-weighted MR imaging and probabilistic diffusion tractography. Tractography seed points within the splenium were classified according to their estimated connectivity profiles to topographic subregions of V1, as defined by functional retinotopic mapping. First, we report a ventral-dorsal mapping within the splenium with fibers from ventral V1 (representing the upper visual field) projecting to the inferior-anterior corner of the splenium and fibers from dorsal V1 (representing the lower visual field) projecting to the superior-posterior end. Second, we also report an eccentricity gradient of projections from foveal-to-peripheral V1 subregions running in the anterior-superior to posterior-inferior direction, orthogonal to the dorsal-ventral mapping. These results confirm and add to a previous diffusion MRI study (Dougherty et al., 2005) which identified a dorsal/ventral mapping of human splenial fibers. These findings yield a more detailed view of the structural organization of the splenium than previously reported and offer new opportunities to study structural plasticity in the visual system.

  11. Pathways Intern Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Evan A.

    2015-01-01

    During my time at NASA, I worked with the Granular Mechanics and Regolith Organization (GMRO), better known as Swamp Works. The goal of the lab is to find ways to utilize resources found after the astronaut or robot has landed on another planet or asteroid. This concept is known as in-situ resource utilization and it is critical to long term missions such as those to Mars. During my time here I worked on the Asteroid and Lava Tube Free Flyer project (ALTFF). A lava tube, such as the one shown in figure 1, is a long tear drop shaped cavern that is produced when molten lava tunnels through the surrounding rock creating large unground pathways. Before mining for resources on Mars or on asteroids, a sampling mission must be done to scout out useful resource deposits. ALTFF's goal is to provide a low cost, autonomous scout robot that can sample the surface and return to the mother ship or lander for further processing of the samples. The vehicle will be looking for water ice in the regolith that can be processed into either potable water, hydrogen and oxygen fuel, or a binder material for 3D printing. By using a low cost craft to sample, there is much less risk to the more expensive mother ship or lander. While my main task was the construction of a simulation environment to test control code in and the construction of the asteroid free flyer prototype, there were other tasks that I performed relating to the ALTFF project.

  12. Advanced Energy Projects: FY 1993, Research summaries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-09-01

    AEP has been supporting research on novel materials for energy technology, renewable and biodegradable materials, new uses for scientific discoveries, alternate pathways to energy efficiency, alternative energy sources, innovative approaches to waste treatment and reduction, etc. The summaries are grouped according to projects active in FY 1993, Phase I SBIR projects, and Phase II SBIR projects. Investigator and institutional indexes are included.

  13. Intending Projects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Project name: 90,000t/a BR device and auxiliary projects Construction unit: Sinopec Beijing Yanshan Petrochemical Company Total investment: 2.257 billion yuan Project description: It will cover an area of 14. lha.

  14. Microbial modulation of bacoside A biosynthetic pathway and systemic defense mechanism in Bacopa monnieri under Meloidogyne incognita stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Rupali; Singh, Akanksha; Srivastava, Madhumita; Singh, Vivek; Gupta, M. M.; Pandey, Rakesh

    2017-01-01

    Plant-associated beneficial microbes have been explored to fulfill the imperative function for plant health. However, their impact on the host secondary metabolite production and nematode disease management remains elusive. Our present work has shown that chitinolytic microbes viz., Chitiniphilus sp. MTN22 and Streptomyces sp. MTN14 singly as well as in combination modulated the biosynthetic pathway of bacoside A and systemic defense mechanism against Meloidogyne incognita in Bacopa monnieri. Interestingly, expression of bacoside biosynthetic pathway genes (3-Hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase, mevalonate diphosphate decarboxylase, and squalene synthase) were upregulated in plants treated with the microbial combination in the presence as well as in absence of M. incognita stress. These microbes not only augmented bacoside A production (1.5 fold) but also strengthened host resistance via enhancement in chlorophyll a, defense enzymes and phenolic compounds like gallic acid, syringic acid, ferulic acid and cinnamic acid. Furthermore, elevated lignification and callose deposition in the microbial combination treated plants corroborate well with the above findings. Overall, the results provide novel insights into the underlying mechanisms of priming by beneficial microbes and underscore their capacity to trigger bacoside A production in B. monnieri under biotic stress. PMID:28157221

  15. Pathways to deep decarbonization in India

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shukla, P.; Dhar, Subash; Pathak, Minal

    This report is a part of the global Deep Decarbonisation Pathways (DDP) Project. The analysis consider two development scenarios for India and assess alternate roadmaps for transiting to a low carbon economy consistent with the globally agreed 2°C stabilization target. The report does not consider...

  16. Area-specific development of distinct projection neuron subclasses is regulated by postnatal epigenetic modifications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harb, Kawssar; Magrinelli, Elia; Nicolas, Céline S; Lukianets, Nikita; Frangeul, Laura; Pietri, Mariel; Sun, Tao; Sandoz, Guillaume; Grammont, Franck; Jabaudon, Denis; Studer, Michele; Alfano, Christian

    2016-01-27

    During cortical development, the identity of major classes of long-distance projection neurons is established by the expression of molecular determinants, which become gradually restricted and mutually exclusive. However, the mechanisms by which projection neurons acquire their final properties during postnatal stages are still poorly understood. In this study, we show that the number of neurons co-expressing Ctip2 and Satb2, respectively involved in the early specification of subcerebral and callosal projection neurons, progressively increases after birth in the somatosensory cortex. Ctip2/Satb2 postnatal co-localization defines two distinct neuronal subclasses projecting either to the contralateral cortex or to the brainstem suggesting that Ctip2/Satb2 co-expression may refine their properties rather than determine their identity. Gain- and loss-of-function approaches reveal that the transcriptional adaptor Lmo4 drives this maturation program through modulation of epigenetic mechanisms in a time- and area-specific manner, thereby indicating that a previously unknown genetic program postnatally promotes the acquisition of final subtype-specific features.

  17. Development and implementation of a performance improvement project in adult intensive care units: overview of the Improving Medicine Through Pathway Assessment of Critical Therapy in Hospital-Acquired Pneumonia (IMPACT-HAP) study

    OpenAIRE

    Mangino, Julie E.; Peyrani, Paula; Ford, Kimbal D; Daniel H. Kett; Zervos, Marcus J.; Welch, Verna L.; Scerpella, Ernesto G.; Ramirez, Julio A.; ,

    2011-01-01

    Introduction In 2005 the American Thoracic Society and Infectious Diseases Society of America (ATS/IDSA) published guidelines for managing hospital-acquired pneumonia (HAP), ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP), and healthcare-associated pneumonia (HCAP). Although recommendations were evidence based, collective guidelines had not been validated in clinical practice and did not provide specific tools for local implementation. We initiated a performance improvement project designated Improving...

  18. Efectos genéticos de la formación de calosa en ápices radicales de líneas de maíz resistentes y susceptibles a suelos ácidos Genetic effects in callose content in root apex of inbred resistant and susceptible corn lines to acid soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alba Lucía Arcos

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este trabajo fue estudiar la herencia de la producción de calosa utilizando líneas endogámicas de maíz. Seleccionando 14 líneas (7 tolerantes y 7 susceptibles a suelos ácidos se formó un dialelo que fue probado en campo y en invernadero. Se determinó el contenido de calosa en los 91 cruzamientos resultantes y los 14 progenitores. Para ello se colocaron las semillas en cámara de crecimiento en condiciones controladas. Después de 4-5 días las plántulas fueron transferidas a cubetas que contenían solución nutritiva con aireación constante. Luego de 48 horas se adicionaron 25 µM de aluminio (AlCl3 a cada una de las cubetas y se mantuvieron por 12 horas. Se cortaron tres ápices radicales de cada genotipo y se mantuvieron en etanol 96%. Para medir el contenido de calosa se utilizó Methyl blue como colorante, este forma un complejo con la calosa llamado Siruflúor-calosa, que es medido con el espectrofotómetro de fluorescencia. Se encontraron diferencias significativas para los progenitores, los cruzamientos y los progenitores Vs cruzamientos. El contenido de calosa de los progenitores varió de 0.746 a 2.035 µg PE/cm ápice de raíz. La heterosis varió desde -21.2% a 276.3%. La Habilidad Combinatoria General (HCG y la Habilidad Combinatoria Específica (HCE fueron altamente significativas, lo que indica que tanto los efectos genéticos aditivos y no aditivos fueron importantes en la herencia de calosa. El 46% de SC entre cruzamientos correspondió a la HCG y el 54% a la HCE. El coeficiente de correlación entre el contenido de calosa y la producción de grano del maíz en el campo fue negativo aunque no significativo (r = -0.38.The main objective of this work was to identify genetic parameters that are related to callose accumulation using tropical inbreeds corn. Fourteen inbreed lines selected for different levels of tolerance to acid soils were chosen and a diallel among them was generated. The seeds were grown

  19. Project Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Project Management Theory Meets Practice contains the proceedings from the 1st Danish Project Management Research Conference (DAPMARC 2015), held in Copenhagen, Denmark, on May 21st, 2015.......Project Management Theory Meets Practice contains the proceedings from the 1st Danish Project Management Research Conference (DAPMARC 2015), held in Copenhagen, Denmark, on May 21st, 2015....

  20. Define Project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munk-Madsen, Andreas

    2005-01-01

    "Project" is a key concept in IS management. The word is frequently used in textbooks and standards. Yet we seldom find a precise definition of the concept. This paper discusses how to define the concept of a project. The proposed definition covers both heavily formalized projects and informally...... organized, agile projects. Based on the proposed definition popular existing definitions are discussed....

  1. Problems,Causes and Countermeasures in Promotion of the Clinical Pathway Pilot Project%临床路径试点工作推广中的问题、成因与对策研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张莹; 赵琨; 齐雪然; 马莉; 邵静; 刘嘉

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate the main factors influencing the medical staff to actively carry out clinical pathways so as to put forward countermeasures and suggestions for better practice in future. Methods According to the results of baseline survey of 110 pilot hospitals in China, purpose sampling was taken to choose one hospital from each of county - leveled, municipal - leveled and provincial - leveled hospitals. The relevant personnel in the selected hospitals were interviewed, and then the data collected from the medical staff were qualitatively analyzed by using Giorgi, A's four - step thematic analysis ( 1995 ) . Results Some individual doctors could not completely understood the clinical pathway management and failed to recognize the objective to implement clinical pathway. The major factors that impede full participation of medical staff in clinical pathway were the power of hospital leaders and their personal quality, internal management mechanism of hospitals, appreciation from hospital leaders, payment model of medical insurance, occupancy rate hospital beds, formulation of path - text, set - up of information system, mechanism of hospital incentives, and cooperation between individual departments. Conclusion The overall clinical pathway management pilot work has got good effect, nevertheless some problems still exist. The national - leveled strategy of the macroeconomic health services should be established, and the corresponding supporting measures needs to be formulated through coordination among departments to ensure the balance of interests of all parties.%目的 探讨影响医务人员积极开展临床路径工作的主要因素,提出今后完善临床路径管理工作的对策与建议.方法 根据全国110家临床路径试点医院的基线调查结果,采用目的 抽样法,抽取县二级医院、市级三甲医院、省教学三甲医院各一所作为访谈机构,对相关人员进行访谈.应用Giorgi,A.(1995)的四步主题性分析

  2. Project Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pilkington, Alan; Chai, Kah-Hin; Le, Yang

    2015-01-01

    This paper identifies the true coverage of PM theory through a bibliometric analysis of the International Journal of Project Management from 1996-2012. We identify six persistent research themes: project time management, project risk management, programme management, large-scale project management......, project success/failure and practitioner development. These differ from those presented in review and editorial articles in the literature. In addition, topics missing from the PM BOK: knowledge management project-based organization and project portfolio management have become more popular topics...

  3. Project Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pilkington, Alan; Chai, Kah-Hin; Le, Yang

    2015-01-01

    This paper identifies the true coverage of PM theory through a bibliometric analysis of the International Journal of Project Management from 1996-2012. We identify six persistent research themes: project time management, project risk management, programme management, large-scale project management......, project success/failure and practitioner development. These differ from those presented in review and editorial articles in the literature. In addition, topics missing from the PM BOK: knowledge management project-based organization and project portfolio management have become more popular topics...

  4. Low-Cost Multi-Junction Photovoltaic Cells Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The proposed SBIR project will provide a pathway to dramatically reduce the cost of multi-junction solar cells. The project leverages a TRL6 micropackaging process...

  5. DESCENDING PATHWAYS AND THE HOPPING RESPONSE IN THE RABBIT

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    HOBBELEN, JF; GRAMSBERGEN, A; VANHOF, MW

    1992-01-01

    Descending pathways were studied in 5 adult rabbits by means of HRP, injected in the cervical spinal cord (in C2 and C3) at the right side. Results indicate the existence of pathways from the contralateral motor cortex, bilateral projections from the red nuclei, from the vestibular nuclei and from s

  6. Central neural pathways for thermoregulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Shaun F.; Nakamura, Kazuhiro

    2010-01-01

    Central neural circuits orchestrate a homeostatic repertoire to maintain body temperature during environmental temperature challenges and to alter body temperature during the inflammatory response. This review summarizes the functional organization of the neural pathways through which cutaneous thermal receptors alter thermoregulatory effectors: the cutaneous circulation for heat loss, the brown adipose tissue, skeletal muscle and heart for thermogenesis and species-dependent mechanisms (sweating, panting and saliva spreading) for evaporative heat loss. These effectors are regulated by parallel but distinct, effector-specific neural pathways that share a common peripheral thermal sensory input. The thermal afferent circuits include cutaneous thermal receptors, spinal dorsal horn neurons and lateral parabrachial nucleus neurons projecting to the preoptic area to influence warm-sensitive, inhibitory output neurons which control thermogenesis-promoting neurons in the dorsomedial hypothalamus that project to premotor neurons in the rostral ventromedial medulla, including the raphe pallidus, that descend to provide the excitation necessary to drive thermogenic thermal effectors. A distinct population of warm-sensitive preoptic neurons controls heat loss through an inhibitory input to raphe pallidus neurons controlling cutaneous vasoconstriction. PMID:21196160

  7. Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Finch, S.M.; McMakin, A.H. (comps.)

    1992-02-01

    The objective of the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project is to estimate the radiation doses that individuals and populations could have received from nuclear operations at Hanford since 1944. The project is divided into the following technical tasks. These tasks correspond to the path radionuclides followed, from release to impact on humans (dose estimates): source terms; environmental transport; environmental monitoring data; demography, food consumption, and agriculture; environmental pathways and dose estimates.

  8. Alzheimer's Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... state Home > News & Events > Upcoming Events > HBO Alzheimer’s Project In the News Walk to End Alzheimer's Upcoming ... Disease Awareness Month World Alzheimer's Month HBO Alzheimer’s Project MAKE A DONATION Your gift will help us ...

  9. Alzheimer's Project

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Momentum in Science, Part 2" (70 minutes) Be a part of something big. HBO's "THE ALZHEIMER'S PROJECT" ... vital research and services. "THE ALZHEIMER'S PROJECT" is a presentation of HBO Documentary Films and the National ...

  10. PROJECT REPORT

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Office 2004 Test Drive User

    report. Details on the background of the project, the fieldwork, the work completed, the projected end ... Studies, University of Ghana, with a starting date of 01/01/12 and an expected completion of ..... de Bondoukou. Paris: Editions Ernest Leroux.

  11. Alzheimer's Project

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Momentum in Science, Part 2" (70 minutes) Be a part of something big. HBO's "THE ALZHEIMER'S PROJECT" ... vital research and services. "THE ALZHEIMER'S PROJECT" is a presentation of HBO Documentary Films and the National ...

  12. Project Temporalities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tryggestad, Kjell; Justesen, Lise; Mouritsen, Jan

    2013-01-01

    into account. This may require investments in new project management technologies. Originality/value – This paper adds to the literatures on project temporalities and stakeholder theory by connecting them to the question of non-human stakeholders and to project management technologies.......Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to explore how animals can become stakeholders in interaction with project management technologies and what happens with project temporalities when new and surprising stakeholders become part of a project and a recognized matter of concern to be taken...... into account. Design/methodology/approach – The paper is based on a qualitative case study of a project in the building industry. The authors use actor-network theory (ANT) to analyze the emergence of animal stakeholders, stakes and temporalities. Findings – The study shows how project temporalities can...

  13. Clinical Correlates of Corpus Callosal Agenesis

    OpenAIRE

    J Gordon Millichap

    1998-01-01

    The clinical correlates of agenesis of the corpus callosum were examined in 56 cases (37 adult, 19 pediatric) reported to the British Neurological Surveillance Unit (BNSU) and surveyed at the Department of Psychological Medicine, Institute of Psychiatry, London, UK.

  14. Callosal agenesis and Open lip Schizencephaly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, Maya; Iype, Mary; Nair, P M C

    2006-09-01

    We report a case of a new born who presented with neonatal seizures; and who had coexistence of a Corpus Callosum Agenesis with a bilateral Open lip Schizencephaly and a Dandy Walker malformation. The investigations for an underlying etiology, however was futile.

  15. Production Pathways and Separation Procedures for High-Diagnostic-Value Activation Species, Fission Products, and Actinides Required for Preparation of Realistic Synthetic Post-Detonation Nuclear Debris: Status Report and FY16 Project Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faye, S. A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Shaughnessy, D. A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2015-08-19

    The objective of this project is to provide a comprehensive study on the production routes and chemical separation requirements for activation products, fission products, and actinides required for the creation of realistic post-detonation surrogate debris. Isotopes that have been prioritized by debris diagnosticians will be examined for their ability to be produced at existing irradiation sources, production rates, and availability of target materials, and chemical separation procedures required to rapidly remove the products from the bulk target matrix for subsequent addition into synthetic debris samples. The characteristics and implications of the irradiation facilities on the isotopes of interest will be addressed in addition to a summary of the isotopes that are already regularly produced. This is a planning document only.

  16. An Investigation into the Practice in Project-based Teaching through Multiple Pathways for Vocational Marketing Major%高职营销类专业多途径项目化教学的实践探索

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘卫国

    2016-01-01

    高职院校营销类专业学生培养,应将多途径项目化教学与社会服务实践相融合,综合考虑目标、过程、应用、评估等方面,并与社会服务实践进行融合,最终达成社会服务能力建设、高职院校人才培养目标。%The cultivation of students majored in Marketing in higher vocational colleges shall integrate multi-approach project based teaching with practice in social service,and take the target,process,application,assessment,etc.,into account comprehensively and adapt to social service practice,so as to achieve the goal of the construction of social service ability and the goal of higher vocational education.

  17. Project ethics

    CERN Document Server

    Jonasson, Haukur Ingi

    2013-01-01

    How relevant is ethics to project management? The book - which aims to demystify the field of ethics for project managers and managers in general - takes both a critical and a practical look at project management in terms of success criteria, and ethical opportunities and risks. The goal is to help the reader to use ethical theory to further identify opportunities and risks within their projects and thereby to advance more directly along the path of mature and sustainable managerial practice.

  18. Microsoft project

    OpenAIRE

    Markić, Lucija; Mandušić, Dubravka; Grbavac, Vitomir

    2005-01-01

    Microsoft Project je alat čije su prednosti u svakodnevnom radu nezamjenjive. Pomoću Microsoft Projecta omogućeno je upravljanje resursima, stvaranje izvještaja o projektima u vremenu, te analize različitih scenarija. Pojavljuje u tri verzije: Microsoft Project Professional, Microsoft Project Server i Microsoft Project Server Client Access Licenses. Upravo je trend da suvremeni poslovni ljudi zadatke povjeravaju Microsoft Projectu jer on znatno povećava produktivnost rada. Te prednos...

  19. Virtual projects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svejvig, Per; Commisso, Trine Hald

    2012-01-01

    that the best practice knowledge has not permeated sufficiently to the practice. Furthermore, the appropriate application of information and communication technology (ICT) remains a big challenge, and finally project managers are not sufficiently trained in organizing and conducting virtual projects......Virtual projects are common with global competition, market development, and not least the financial crisis forcing organizations to reduce their costs drastically. Organizations therefore have to place high importance on ways to carry out virtual projects and consider appropriate practices...

  20. Supporting liver transplantation by clinical pathway intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirchner, K; Malessa, Ch; Herzberg, N; Krumnow, S; Habrecht, O; Scheuerlein, H; Bauschke, A; Settmacher, U

    2013-06-01

    A reproducible and transparent quality of clinical treatments plays an important role in the performance of a hospital. In liver transplantation (LT), this is particularly important for patient safety, resource planning, documentation, and quality management. Thus, the clinical pathway for LT was documented in an electronic format within our research project PIGE. Data from clinical information systems were linked to this pathway, which allows for process monitoring (the assessment of the current state for every patient in the LT process) and a retrospective analysis of all treatments in addition to all data pertaining to the treatment, for example, cost, time, number of personnel, etc.

  1. Map Projection

    CERN Document Server

    Ghaderpour, Ebrahim

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we introduce some known map projections from a model of the Earth to a flat sheet of paper or map and derive the plotting equations for these projections. The first fundamental form and the Gaussian fundamental quantities are defined and applied to obtain the plotting equations and distortions in length, shape and size for some of these map projections.

  2. International Projects

    CERN Document Server

    2002-01-01

    Description of co-operation projects implemented with the help of Sweden is presented. Information on performance of Phare and IAEA Regional and National Technical Cooperation projects is provided. Phare project 'Creation of Radiation Protection Infrastructure and Development of Supporting Services' was started in 2002

  3. Project STAY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Bert Kruger

    Project STAY (Scholarships to Able Youth), located in the barrio of San Antonio, Texas, helps young people stay in school beyond the secondary grades. The project provides outreach services to meet the needs of the students. Its primary service is to act as an advocate for these young people. The project recruits all types of youth from families…

  4. Virtual projects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svejvig, Per; Commisso, Trine Hald

    2012-01-01

    Virtual projects are common with global competition, market development, and not least the financial crisis forcing organizations to reduce their costs drastically. Organizations therefore have to place high importance on ways to carry out virtual projects and consider appropriate practices...... for performing these projects. This paper compares best practices with practiced practices for virtual projects and discusses ways to bridge the gap between them. We have studied eleven virtual projects in five Danish organizations and compared them with a predefined list of best practices compiled from...... that the best practice knowledge has not permeated sufficiently to the practice. Furthermore, the appropriate application of information and communication technology (ICT) remains a big challenge, and finally project managers are not sufficiently trained in organizing and conducting virtual projects...

  5. IA of bio-economic projects in Region Zealand, Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lybæk, Rikke; Kjær, Tyge; Palsberg, Aske

    Creating new pathways for sustainable ready-to-implement bio-economic projects within Region Zealand, Denmark, based on available biomass resources and existing and proven technology concepts.......Creating new pathways for sustainable ready-to-implement bio-economic projects within Region Zealand, Denmark, based on available biomass resources and existing and proven technology concepts....

  6. Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Finch, S.M.; McMakin, A.H. (comps.)

    1991-01-01

    The objective of the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project is to estimate the radiation doses that individuals and populations could have received from nuclear operations at Hanford since 1944. The project is being managed and conducted by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) under the direction of an independent Technical Steering Panel (TSP). The TSP consists of experts in environmental pathways, epidemiology, surface-water transport, ground-water transport, statistics, demography, agriculture, meteorology, nuclear engineering, radiation dosimetry, and cultural anthropology. Included are appointed technical members representing the states of Oregon and Washington, a representative of Native American tribes, and an individual representing the public. The project is divided into the following technical tasks. These tasks correspond to the path radionuclides followed, from release to impact on human (dose estimates): Source Terms; Environmental Transport; Environmental Monitoring Data; Demographics, Agriculture, Food Habits and; Environmental Pathways and Dose Estimates.

  7. DMPD: Regulatory pathways in inflammation. [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 17967718 Regulatory pathways in inflammation. Mantovani A, Garlanda C, Locati M, Ro....html) (.csml) Show Regulatory pathways in inflammation. PubmedID 17967718 Title Regulatory pathways in infl

  8. Combustion kinetics and reaction pathways

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klemm, R.B.; Sutherland, J.W. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY (United States)

    1993-12-01

    This project is focused on the fundamental chemistry of combustion. The overall objectives are to determine rate constants for elementary reactions and to elucidate the pathways of multichannel reactions. A multitechnique approach that features three independent experiments provides unique capabilities in performing reliable kinetic measurements over an exceptionally wide range in temperature, 300 to 2500 K. Recent kinetic work has focused on experimental studies and theoretical calculations of the methane dissociation system (CH{sub 4} + Ar {yields} CH{sub 3} + H + Ar and H + CH{sub 4} {yields} CH{sub 3} + H{sub 2}). Additionally, a discharge flow-photoionization mass spectrometer (DF-PIMS) experiment is used to determine branching fractions for multichannel reactions and to measure ionization thresholds of free radicals. Thus, these photoionization experiments generate data that are relevant to both reaction pathways studies (reaction dynamics) and fundamental thermochemical research. Two distinct advantages of performing PIMS with high intensity, tunable vacuum ultraviolet light at the National Synchrotron Light Source are high detection sensitivity and exceptional selectivity in monitoring radical species.

  9. Projecte Delorean

    OpenAIRE

    Rigual Martínez, Jaume

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of my project is to draw up a Business Plan to set up an audiovisual production company in partnership with my University Tecnocampus Mataró-Maresme. A production company which is intended for the formation of new professionals as well as the continued development of quality audiovisual projects. I want to make a feasibility project to show that this production company can be created and be a useful element for my University, particularly for students.

  10. Alzheimer's Project

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... voluntary health organization in Alzheimer's care, support and research, the Alzheimer's Association has been an active partner in "THE ALZHEIMER'S PROJECT," ... (48 minutes) "Momentum ...

  11. Pathway Commons, a web resource for biological pathway data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerami, Ethan G; Gross, Benjamin E; Demir, Emek; Rodchenkov, Igor; Babur, Ozgün; Anwar, Nadia; Schultz, Nikolaus; Bader, Gary D; Sander, Chris

    2011-01-01

    Pathway Commons (http://www.pathwaycommons.org) is a collection of publicly available pathway data from multiple organisms. Pathway Commons provides a web-based interface that enables biologists to browse and search a comprehensive collection of pathways from multiple sources represented in a common language, a download site that provides integrated bulk sets of pathway information in standard or convenient formats and a web service that software developers can use to conveniently query and access all data. Database providers can share their pathway data via a common repository. Pathways include biochemical reactions, complex assembly, transport and catalysis events and physical interactions involving proteins, DNA, RNA, small molecules and complexes. Pathway Commons aims to collect and integrate all public pathway data available in standard formats. Pathway Commons currently contains data from nine databases with over 1400 pathways and 687,000 interactions and will be continually expanded and updated.

  12. LEX Project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damkilde, Lars; Larsen, Torben J.; Walbjørn, Jacob

    This document is aimed at helping all parties involved in the LEX project to get a common understanding of words, process, levels and the overall concept.......This document is aimed at helping all parties involved in the LEX project to get a common understanding of words, process, levels and the overall concept....

  13. LEX Project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damkilde, Lars; Larsen, Torben J.; Walbjørn, Jacob

    This document is aimed at helping all parties involved in the LEX project to get a common understanding of words, process, levels and the overall concept.......This document is aimed at helping all parties involved in the LEX project to get a common understanding of words, process, levels and the overall concept....

  14. Watchdog Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Rhett [Schweitzer Engineering Laboratories, Inc., Pullman, WA (United States); Campbell, Jack [CenterPoint Energy Houston Electric, TX (United States); Hadley, Mark [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-12-30

    The Watchdog Project completed 100% of the project Statement of Project Objective (SOPO). The Watchdog project was a very aggressive project looking to accomplish commercialization of technology that had never been commercialized, as a result it took six years to complete not the original three that were planned. No additional federal funds were requested from the original proposal and SEL contributed the additional cost share required to complete the project. The result of the Watchdog Project is the world’s first industrial rated Software Defined Network (SDN) switch commercially available. This technology achieved the SOPOO and DOE Roadmap goals to have strong network access control, improve reliability and network performance, and give the asset owner the ability to minimize attack surface before and during an attack. The Watchdog project is an alliance between CenterPoint Energy Houston Electric, Pacific Northwest National Laboratories (PNNL), and Schweitzer Engineering Laboratories, Inc. (SEL). SEL is the world’s leader in microprocessor-based electronic equipment for protecting electric power systems. PNNL performs basic and applied research to deliver energy, environmental, and national security for our nation. CenterPoint Energy is the third largest publicly traded natural gas delivery company in the U.S and third largest combined electricity and natural gas delivery company. The Watchdog Project efforts were combined with the SDN Project efforts to produce the entire SDN system solution for the critical infrastructure. The Watchdog project addresses Topic Area of Interest 5: Secure Communications, for the DEFOA- 0000359 by protecting the control system local area network itself and the communications coming from and going to the electronic devices on the local network. Local area networks usually are not routed and have little or no filtering capabilities. Combine this with the fact control system protocols are designed with inherent trust the control

  15. Curation and Computational Design of Bioenergy-Related Metabolic Pathways

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karp, Peter D. [SRI International, Menlo Park, CA (United States)

    2014-09-12

    Pathway Tools is a systems-biology software package written by SRI International (SRI) that produces Pathway/Genome Databases (PGDBs) for organisms with a sequenced genome. Pathway Tools also provides a wide range of capabilities for analyzing predicted metabolic networks and user-generated omics data. More than 5,000 academic, industrial, and government groups have licensed Pathway Tools. This user community includes researchers at all three DOE bioenergy centers, as well as academic and industrial metabolic engineering (ME) groups. An integral part of the Pathway Tools software is MetaCyc, a large, multiorganism database of metabolic pathways and enzymes that SRI and its academic collaborators manually curate. This project included two main goals: I. Enhance the MetaCyc content of bioenergy-related enzymes and pathways. II. Develop computational tools for engineering metabolic pathways that satisfy specified design goals, in particular for bioenergy-related pathways. In part I, SRI proposed to significantly expand the coverage of bioenergy-related metabolic information in MetaCyc, followed by the generation of organism-specific PGDBs for all energy-relevant organisms sequenced at the DOE Joint Genome Institute (JGI). Part I objectives included: 1: Expand the content of MetaCyc to include bioenergy-related enzymes and pathways. 2: Enhance the Pathway Tools software to enable display of complex polymer degradation processes. 3: Create new PGDBs for the energy-related organisms sequenced by JGI, update existing PGDBs with new MetaCyc content, and make these data available to JBEI via the BioCyc website. In part II, SRI proposed to develop an efficient computational tool for the engineering of metabolic pathways. Part II objectives included: 4: Develop computational tools for generating metabolic pathways that satisfy specified design goals, enabling users to specify parameters such as starting and ending compounds, and preferred or disallowed intermediate compounds

  16. Stochastic techno-economic evaluation of cellulosic biofuel pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xin; Brown, Tristan R; Tyner, Wallace E

    2015-12-01

    This study evaluates the economic feasibility and stochastic dominance rank of eight cellulosic biofuel production pathways (including gasification, pyrolysis, liquefaction, and fermentation) under technological and economic uncertainty. A techno-economic assessment based financial analysis is employed to derive net present values and breakeven prices for each pathway. Uncertainty is investigated and incorporated into fuel prices and techno-economic variables: capital cost, conversion technology yield, hydrogen cost, natural gas price and feedstock cost using @Risk, a Palisade Corporation software. The results indicate that none of the eight pathways would be profitable at expected values under projected energy prices. Fast pyrolysis and hydroprocessing (FPH) has the lowest breakeven fuel price at 3.11$/gallon of gasoline equivalent (0.82$/liter of gasoline equivalent). With the projected energy prices, FPH investors could expect a 59% probability of loss. Stochastic dominance is done based on return on investment. Most risk-averse decision makers would prefer FPH to other pathways.

  17. Freedom Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandra Suarez

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Freedom Project trains prisoners in nonviolent communication and meditation. Two complementary studies of its effects are reported in this article. The first study is correlational; we found decreased recidivism rates among prisoners trained by Freedom Project compared with recidivism rates in Washington state. The second study compared trained prisoners with a matched-pair control group and found improvement in self-reported anger, self-compassion, and certain forms of mindfulness among the trained group. Ratings of role-plays simulating difficult interactions show increased social skills among the group trained by Freedom Project than in the matched controls.

  18. TIARA project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malecki, P.

    2013-10-01

    The aim of the Test Infrastructure and Accelerator Research Area - the TIARA project[1] is to consolidate and support the European R&D program in the field of physics and techniques of particle accelerators. This project, partially funded by the European Commission, groups 11 participants from 8 European countries, including Poland. Its present, threeyear (2011-2013) preparatory phase (PP) is shortly described in this paper. The project is divided into 9 work packages (WP). We will concentrate on four of them dedicated to governance, R&D infrastructures, joint R&D programming, and education and training, in which Polish participants are actively involved.

  19. Glutamate and GABA in Vestibulo-Sympathetic Pathway Neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holstein, Gay R; Friedrich, Victor L; Martinelli, Giorgio P

    2016-01-01

    The vestibulo-sympathetic reflex (VSR) actively modulates blood pressure during changes in posture. This reflex allows humans to stand up and quadrupeds to rear or climb without a precipitous decline in cerebral perfusion. The VSR pathway conveys signals from the vestibular end organs to the caudal vestibular nuclei. These cells, in turn, project to pre-sympathetic neurons in the rostral and caudal ventrolateral medulla (RVLM and CVLM, respectively). The present study assessed glutamate- and GABA-related immunofluorescence associated with central vestibular neurons of the VSR pathway in rats. Retrograde FluoroGold tract tracing was used to label vestibular neurons with projections to RVLM or CVLM, and sinusoidal galvanic vestibular stimulation (GVS) was employed to activate these pathways. Central vestibular neurons of the VSR were identified by co-localization of FluoroGold and cFos protein, which accumulates in some vestibular neurons following galvanic stimulation. Triple-label immunofluorescence was used to co-localize glutamate- or GABA- labeling in the identified VSR pathway neurons. Most activated projection neurons displayed intense glutamate immunofluorescence, suggestive of glutamatergic neurotransmission. To support this, anterograde tracer was injected into the caudal vestibular nuclei. Vestibular axons and terminals in RVLM and CVLM co-localized the anterograde tracer and vesicular glutamate transporter-2 signals. Other retrogradely-labeled cFos-positive neurons displayed intense GABA immunofluorescence. VSR pathway neurons of both phenotypes were present in the caudal medial and spinal vestibular nuclei, and projected to both RVLM and CVLM. As a group, however, triple-labeled vestibular cells with intense glutamate immunofluorescence were located more rostrally in the vestibular nuclei than the GABAergic neurons. Only the GABAergic VSR pathway neurons showed a target preference, projecting predominantly to CVLM. These data provide the first

  20. Glutamate and GABA in vestibulo-sympathetic pathway neurons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gay R Holstein

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The vestibulo-sympathetic reflex actively modulates blood pressure during changes in posture. This reflex allows humans to stand up and quadrupeds to rear or climb without a precipitous decline in cerebral perfusion. The vestibulo-sympathetic reflex pathway conveys signals from the vestibular end organs to the caudal vestibular nuclei. These cells, in turn, project to pre-sympathetic neurons in the rostral and caudal ventrolateral medulla (RVLM and CVLM, respectively. The present study assessed glutamate- and GABA-related immunofluorescence associated with central vestibular neurons of the vestibulo-sympathetic reflex pathway in rats. Retrograde FluoroGold tract tracing was used to label vestibular neurons with projections to RVLM or CVLM, and sinusoidal galvanic vestibular stimulation was employed to activate these pathways. Central vestibular neurons of the vestibulo-sympathetic reflex were identified by co-localization of FluoroGold and cFos protein, which accumulates in some vestibular neurons following galvanic stimulation. Triple-label immunofluorescence was used to co-localize glutamate- or GABA- labeling in the identified vestibulo-sympathetic reflex pathway neurons. Most activated projection neurons displayed intense glutamate immunofluorescence, suggestive of glutamatergic neurotransmission. To support this, anterograde tracer was injected into the caudal vestibular nuclei. Vestibular axons and terminals in RVLM and CVLM co-localized the anterograde tracer and vesicular glutamate transporter-2 signals. Other retrogradely-labeled cFos-positive neurons displayed intense GABA immunofluorescence. Vestibulo-sympathetic reflex pathway neurons of both phenotypes were present in the caudal medial and spinal vestibular nuclei, and projected to both RVLM and CVLM. As a group, however, triple-labeled vestibular cells with intense glutamate immunofluorescence were located more rostrally in the vestibular nuclei than the GABAergic neurons. Only the

  1. Clinical Pathway for Thyroidectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villar del Moral, Jesús María; Soria Aledo, Víctor; Colina Alonso, Alberto; Flores Pastor, Benito; Gutiérrez Rodríguez, María Teresa; Ortega Serrano, Joaquín; Parra Hidalgo, Pedro; Ros López, Susana

    2015-05-01

    Clinical pathways are care plans applicable to patient care procedures that present variations in practice and a predictable clinical course. They are designed not as a substitute for clinical judgment, but rather as a means to improve the effectiveness and efficiency of the procedures. This clinical pathway is the result of a collaborative work of the Sections of Endocrine Surgery and Quality Management of the Spanish Association of Surgeons. It attempts to provide a framework for standardizing the performance of thyroidectomy, the most frequently performed operation in endocrine surgery. Along with the usual documents of clinical pathways (temporary matrix, variance tracking and information sheets, assessment indicators and a satisfaction questionnaire) it includes a review of the scientific evidence around different aspects of pre, intra and postoperative management. Among others, antibiotic and antithrombotic prophylaxis, preoperative preparation in hyperthyroidism, intraoperative neuromonitoring and systems for obtaining hemostasis are included, along with management of postoperative hypocalcemia.

  2. Alzheimer's Project

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... support vital research and services. "THE ALZHEIMER'S PROJECT" is a presentation of HBO Documentary Films and the ... Grandpa? by Maria Shriver Maria Shriver's children's book is about a grandparent with Alzheimer's. A great resource ...

  3. Alzheimer's Project

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Alzheimer's Gala A Night at Sardi's Alzheimer's Disease Awareness Month World Alzheimer's Month HBO Alzheimer’s Project MAKE ... for kids Learn how Maria Shriver is raising awareness FIND YOUR WALK Get help and support I ...

  4. Intending Projects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    Project name:Jintan tire production base project (the first-phase project) Construction site:Jintan Economic Development Zone, Jiangsu Province Construction unit:Zhongce Rubber (Jintan) Co., Ltd. Total investment:RMB 2.42 billion yuan Project description:It is planned to cover an area of 3,000 mu. In the first phase, it will cover an area of 520.43 mu with designed staff of 4,500 people. It will mix 150,000 tons of rubber and produce 10 million u- nits of high-performance semi-steel-wire saloon car and light truck radial tires, 500,000 units of OTR tires and 100,000 tons of carbon black per year.

  5. Alzheimer's Project

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... about the films on our message board . Watch films free online now "The Memory Loss Tapes" (85 ... ALZHEIMER'S PROJECT" is a presentation of HBO Documentary Films and the National Institute on Aging at the ...

  6. Alzheimer's Project

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... 14, 2009 "The Alzheimer's Project" wins two Creative Arts Emmys Two installments of the multi-part HBO ... from the Alzheimer's Association and others, won Creative Arts Emmy awards. "The Memory Loss Tapes" was honored ...

  7. Alzheimer's Project

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Home > News & Events > Upcoming Events > HBO Alzheimer’s Project In the News Walk to End Alzheimer's Upcoming Events ... Memory Loss Tapes" was honored for Exceptional Merit in Nonfiction Filmmaking, while "Grandpa, Do You Know Who ...

  8. Alzheimer's Project

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Program. - Emmys.com As the leading voluntary health organization in Alzheimer's care, support and research, the Alzheimer's Association has been an active partner in "THE ALZHEIMER'S PROJECT," providing expert insight ...

  9. Alzheimer's Project

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available | News | Events | Press | Contact 24/7 Helpline: 1.800.272.3900 Find your chapter: search by state Home > News & Events > Upcoming Events > HBO Alzheimer’s Project In the News ...

  10. Alzheimer's Project

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... disease has on those with Alzheimer's and their families. September 14, 2009 "The Alzheimer's Project" wins two ... way Americans thinks about Alzheimer's disease. Tell your family and friends. Post info on your Web site . ...

  11. Alzheimer's Project

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... HBO's "THE ALZHEIMER'S PROJECT" will expose the Alzheimer's crisis facing our nation and drive concerned citizens to ... Institute on Aging at the National Institutes of Health in association with the Alzheimer's Association, The Fidelity ® ...

  12. Alzheimer's Project

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... 14, 2009 "The Alzheimer's Project" wins two Creative Arts Emmys Two installments of the multi-part HBO ... from the Alzheimer's Association and others, won Creative Arts Emmy awards. "The Memory Loss Tapes" was honored ...

  13. Alzheimer's Project

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... their families. September 14, 2009 "The Alzheimer's Project" wins two Creative Arts Emmys Two installments of the ... you can help us change the way Americans thinks about Alzheimer's disease. Tell your family and friends. ...

  14. Alzheimer's Project

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... disease has on those with Alzheimer's and their families. September 14, 2009 "The Alzheimer's Project" wins two ... way Americans thinks about Alzheimer's disease. Tell your family and friends. Post info on your Web site . ...

  15. Pathway analysis of IMC

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skrypnyuk, Nataliya; Nielson, Flemming; Pilegaard, Henrik

    2009-01-01

    We present the ongoing work on the pathway analysis of a stochastic calculus. Firstly we present a particular stochastic calculus that we have chosen for our modeling - the Interactive Markov Chains calculus, IMC for short. After that we specify a few restrictions that we have introduced into the......We present the ongoing work on the pathway analysis of a stochastic calculus. Firstly we present a particular stochastic calculus that we have chosen for our modeling - the Interactive Markov Chains calculus, IMC for short. After that we specify a few restrictions that we have introduced...

  16. Project Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kampf, Constance

    2009-01-01

    In this video Associate Professor Constance Kampf talks about the importance project management. Not only as a tool in implementation, but also as a way of thinking, and as something that needs to be considered from idea conception......In this video Associate Professor Constance Kampf talks about the importance project management. Not only as a tool in implementation, but also as a way of thinking, and as something that needs to be considered from idea conception...

  17. Project Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kampf, Constance

    2009-01-01

    In this video Associate Professor Constance Kampf talks about the importance project management. Not only as a tool in implementation, but also as a way of thinking, and as something that needs to be considered from idea conception......In this video Associate Professor Constance Kampf talks about the importance project management. Not only as a tool in implementation, but also as a way of thinking, and as something that needs to be considered from idea conception...

  18. LAPI project

    OpenAIRE

    Soler Vich, Josep Francesc

    2009-01-01

    This project carries out a part of a new location application. This service consists of location-based application that connects with a location server. That server provides the necessary location information to run the service. Then an interface between the location-based application and the location server is needed. That interface could be a Location Application Programming Interface (LAPI), and the development of one LAPI is the goal of this project.

  19. Signal transduction pathway profiling of individual tumor samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peterson Carsten

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Signal transduction pathways convey information from the outside of the cell to transcription factors, which in turn regulate gene expression. Our objective is to analyze tumor gene expression data from microarrays in the context of such pathways. Results We use pathways compiled from the TRANSPATH/TRANSFAC databases and the literature, and three publicly available cancer microarray data sets. Variation in pathway activity, across the samples, is gauged by the degree of correlation between downstream targets of a pathway. Two correlation scores are applied; one considers all pairs of downstream targets, and the other considers only pairs without common transcription factors. Several pathways are found to be differentially active in the data sets using these scores. Moreover, we devise a score for pathway activity in individual samples, based on the average expression value of the downstream targets. Statistical significance is assigned to the scores using permutation of genes as null model. Hence, for individual samples, the status of a pathway is given as a sign, + or -, and a p-value. This approach defines a projection of high-dimensional gene expression data onto low-dimensional pathway activity scores. For each dataset and many pathways we find a much larger number of significant samples than expected by chance. Finally, we find that several sample-wise pathway activities are significantly associated with clinical classifications of the samples. Conclusion This study shows that it is feasible to infer signal transduction pathway activity, in individual samples, from gene expression data. Furthermore, these pathway activities are biologically relevant in the three cancer data sets.

  20. Policies built upon pathways

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Musterd; Z. Kovács

    2013-01-01

    After the general introductions, the first substantive part of this volume (Part II) provides concise research-based discussions of policies developed in recognition of the important role played by the pathways along which city-regions have travelled. Our research has shown that it is highly importa

  1. Dexter energy transfer pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skourtis, Spiros S; Liu, Chaoren; Antoniou, Panayiotis; Virshup, Aaron M; Beratan, David N

    2016-07-19

    Energy transfer with an associated spin change of the donor and acceptor, Dexter energy transfer, is critically important in solar energy harvesting assemblies, damage protection schemes of photobiology, and organometallic opto-electronic materials. Dexter transfer between chemically linked donors and acceptors is bridge mediated, presenting an enticing analogy with bridge-mediated electron and hole transfer. However, Dexter coupling pathways must convey both an electron and a hole from donor to acceptor, and this adds considerable richness to the mediation process. We dissect the bridge-mediated Dexter coupling mechanisms and formulate a theory for triplet energy transfer coupling pathways. Virtual donor-acceptor charge-transfer exciton intermediates dominate at shorter distances or higher tunneling energy gaps, whereas virtual intermediates with an electron and a hole both on the bridge (virtual bridge excitons) dominate for longer distances or lower energy gaps. The effects of virtual bridge excitons were neglected in earlier treatments. The two-particle pathway framework developed here shows how Dexter energy-transfer rates depend on donor, bridge, and acceptor energetics, as well as on orbital symmetry and quantum interference among pathways.

  2. Master regulators, regulatory networks, and pathways of glioblastoma subtypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozdag, Serdar; Li, Aiguo; Baysan, Mehmet; Fine, Howard A

    2014-01-01

    Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most common malignant brain tumor. GBM samples are classified into subtypes based on their transcriptomic and epigenetic profiles. Despite numerous studies to better characterize GBM biology, a comprehensive study to identify GBM subtype- specific master regulators, gene regulatory networks, and pathways is missing. Here, we used FastMEDUSA to compute master regulators and gene regulatory networks for each GBM subtype. We also ran Gene Set Enrichment Analysis and Ingenuity Pathway Analysis on GBM expression dataset from The Cancer Genome Atlas Project to compute GBM- and GBM subtype-specific pathways. Our analysis was able to recover some of the known master regulators and pathways in GBM as well as some putative novel regulators and pathways, which will aide in our understanding of the unique biology of GBM subtypes.

  3. Haloarchaeal Protein Translocation via the Twin Arginine Translocation Pathway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pohlschroder Mechthild

    2009-02-03

    Protein transport across hydrophobic membranes that partition cellular compartments is essential in all cells. The twin arginine translocation (Tat) pathway transports proteins across the prokaryotic cytoplasmic membranes. Distinct from the universally conserved Sec pathway, which secretes unfolded proteins, the Tat machinery is unique in that it secretes proteins in a folded conformation, making it an attractive pathway for the transport and secretion of heterologously expressed proteins that are Sec-incompatible. During the past 7 years, the DOE-supported project has focused on the characterization of the diversity of bacterial and archaeal Tat substrates as well as on the characterization of the Tat pathway of a model archaeon, Haloferax volcanii, a member of the haloarchaea. We have demonstrated that H. volcanii uses this pathway to transport most of its secretome.

  4. Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McMakin, A.H.; Cannon, S.D.; Finch, S.M. (comps.)

    1992-07-01

    The objective of the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction (HEDR) Project is to estimate the radiation doses that individuals and populations could have received from nuclear operations at Hanford since 1944. The TSP consists of experts in environmental pathways, epidemiology, surface-water transport, ground-water transport, statistics, demography, agriculture, meteorology, nuclear engineering, radiation dosimetry, and cultural anthropology. Included are appointed technical members representing the states of Oregon, Washington, and Idaho, a representative of Native American tribes, and an individual representing the public. The project is divided into the following technical tasks. These tasks correspond to the path radionuclides followed from release to impact on humans (dose estimates): Source terms, environmental transport, environmental monitoring data, demography, food consumption, and agriculture, and environmental pathways and dose estimates. Progress is discussed.

  5. The Comic Book Project: Forging Alternative Pathways to Literacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bitz, Michael

    2004-01-01

    Many deep-rooted problems in urban areas of the United States--including crime, poverty, and poor health--correlate with illiteracy. The statistics reported by organizations such as the National Alliance for Urban Literacy Coalitions are telling. Urban citizens who cannot read sufficiently are at a clear disadvantage in life. They are more likely…

  6. Mining biological pathways using WikiPathways web services.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Kelder

    Full Text Available WikiPathways is a platform for creating, updating, and sharing biological pathways [1]. Pathways can be edited and downloaded using the wiki-style website. Here we present a SOAP web service that provides programmatic access to WikiPathways that is complementary to the website. We describe the functionality that this web service offers and discuss several use cases in detail. Exposing WikiPathways through a web service opens up new ways of utilizing pathway information and assisting the community curation process.

  7. Mining biological pathways using WikiPathways web services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelder, Thomas; Pico, Alexander R; Hanspers, Kristina; van Iersel, Martijn P; Evelo, Chris; Conklin, Bruce R

    2009-07-30

    WikiPathways is a platform for creating, updating, and sharing biological pathways [1]. Pathways can be edited and downloaded using the wiki-style website. Here we present a SOAP web service that provides programmatic access to WikiPathways that is complementary to the website. We describe the functionality that this web service offers and discuss several use cases in detail. Exposing WikiPathways through a web service opens up new ways of utilizing pathway information and assisting the community curation process.

  8. Final report on the Pathway Analysis Task

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whicker, F.W.; Kirchner, T.B. [Colorado State Univ., Fort Collins, CO (United States)

    1993-04-01

    The Pathway Analysis Task constituted one of several multi-laboratory efforts to estimate radiation doses to people, considering all important pathways of exposure, from the testing of nuclear devices at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). The primary goal of the Pathway Analysis Task was to predict radionuclide ingestion by residents of Utah, Nevada, and portions of seven other adjoining western states following radioactive fallout deposition from individual events at the NTS. This report provides comprehensive documentation of the activities and accomplishments of Colorado State University`s Pathway Analysis Task during the entire period of support (1979--91). The history of the project will be summarized, indicating the principal dates and milestones, personnel involved, subcontractors, and budget information. Accomplishments, both primary and auxiliary, will be summarized with general results rather than technical details being emphasized. This will also serve as a guide to the reports and open literature publications produced, where the methodological details and specific results are documented. Selected examples of results on internal dose estimates are provided in this report because the data have not been published elsewhere.

  9. Projection displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, George L.; Yang, Kei H.

    1998-08-01

    Projection display in today's market is dominated by cathode ray tubes (CRTs). Further progress in this mature CRT projector technology will be slow and evolutionary. Liquid crystal based projection displays have gained rapid acceptance in the business market. New technologies are being developed on several fronts: (1) active matrix built from polysilicon or single crystal silicon; (2) electro- optic materials using ferroelectric liquid crystal, polymer dispersed liquid crystals or other liquid crystal modes, (3) micromechanical-based transducers such as digital micromirror devices, and grating light valves, (4) high resolution displays to SXGA and beyond, and (5) high brightness. This article reviews the projection displays from a transducer technology perspective along with a discussion of markets and trends.

  10. A trigeminoreticular pathway: implications in pain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W Michael Panneton

    Full Text Available Neurons in the caudalmost ventrolateral medulla (cmVLM respond to noxious stimulation. We previously have shown most efferent projections from this locus project to areas implicated either in the processing or modulation of pain. Here we show the cmVLM of the rat receives projections from superficial laminae of the medullary dorsal horn (MDH and has neurons activated with capsaicin injections into the temporalis muscle. Injections of either biotinylated dextran amine (BDA into the MDH or fluorogold (FG/fluorescent microbeads into the cmVLM showed projections from lamina I and II of the MDH to the cmVLM. Morphometric analysis showed the retrogradely-labeled neurons were small (area 88.7 µm(2±3.4 and mostly fusiform in shape. Injections (20-50 µl of 0.5% capsaicin into the temporalis muscle and subsequent immunohistochemistry for c-Fos showed nuclei labeled in the dorsomedial trigeminocervical complex (TCC, the cmVLM, the lateral medulla, and the internal lateral subnucleus of the parabrachial complex (PBil. Additional labeling with c-Fos was seen in the subnucleus interpolaris of the spinal trigeminal nucleus, the rostral ventrolateral medulla, the superior salivatory nucleus, the rostral ventromedial medulla, and the A1, A5, A7 and subcoeruleus catecholamine areas. Injections of FG into the PBil produced robust label in the lateral medulla and cmVLM while injections of BDA into the lateral medulla showed projections to the PBil. Immunohistochemical experiments to antibodies against substance P, the substance P receptor (NK1, calcitonin gene regulating peptide, leucine enkephalin, VRL1 (TPRV2 receptors and neuropeptide Y showed that these peptides/receptors densely stained the cmVLM. We suggest the MDH- cmVLM projection is important for pain from head and neck areas. We offer a potential new pathway for regulating deep pain via the neurons of the TCC, the cmVLM, the lateral medulla, and the PBil and propose these areas compose a

  11. Echo project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gfader, Verina; Carson, Rebecca; Kraus, Chris

    Echo project (ed. by Verina Gfader and Ruth Höflich) is an online publication and community board that developed from a visit to the Los Angeles Art Book fair in January 2014. It was on the occasion of a prior book project, titled Prospectus, that the editorial team had been invited by the LAABF...... Intellect and Financialization sets a conceptual ground for rethinking subjective freedom; an encounter with Another LA opens out a multitude of cartographies - revealing more discreet and politically dynamic movements in the urban grid; there are glimpses of Machine Project’s events, a visual story around...

  12. LLAMA Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnal, E. M.; Abraham, Z.; Giménez de Castro, G.; de Gouveia dal Pino, E. M.; Larrarte, J. J.; Lepine, J.; Morras, R.; Viramonte, J.

    2014-10-01

    The project LLAMA, acronym of Long Latin American Millimetre Array is very briefly described in this paper. This project is a joint scientific and technological undertaking of Argentina and Brazil on the basis of an equal investment share, whose mail goal is both to install and to operate an observing facility capable of exploring the Universe at millimetre and sub/millimetre wavelengths. This facility will be erected in the argentinean province of Salta, in a site located at 4830m above sea level.

  13. Alzheimer's Project

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Chicago National Alzheimer's Gala A Night at Sardi's Alzheimer's Disease Awareness Month World Alzheimer's Month HBO Alzheimer’s Project ... help us change the way Americans thinks about Alzheimer's disease. Tell your family and friends. Post info on ...

  14. Project Documerica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Journal of College Science Teaching, 1972

    1972-01-01

    The Environmental Protection Agency has started a project to actually picture the environmental movement in the United States. This is an attempt to make the public aware of the air pollution in their area or state and to acquaint them with the effects of air cleaning efforts. (PS)

  15. Alzheimer's Project

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... A Night at Sardi's Alzheimer's Disease Awareness Month World Alzheimer's Month HBO Alzheimer’s Project MAKE A DONATION ... Alzheimer's Association ® . All rights reserved. Our vision: A world without Alzheimer's disease ® . Formed in 1980, the Alzheimer's ...

  16. Projection methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael E. Goerndt; W. Keith Moser; Patrick D. Miles; Dave Wear; Ryan D. DeSantis; Robert J. Huggett; Stephen R. Shifley; Francisco X. Aguilar; Kenneth E. Skog

    2016-01-01

    One purpose of the Northern Forest Futures Project is to predict change in future forest attributes across the 20 States in the U.S. North for the period that extends from 2010 to 2060. The forest attributes of primary interest are the 54 indicators of forest sustainability identified in the Montreal Process Criteria and Indicators (Montreal Process Working Group, n.d...

  17. Project Avatar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juhlin, Jonas Alastair

    'Project Avatar' tager udgangspunkt i den efterretningsdisciplin, der kaldes Open Source Intelligence og indebærer al den information, som ligger frit tilgængeligt i åbne kilder. Med udbredelsen af sociale medier åbners der op for helt nye typer af informationskilder. Spørgsmålet er; hvor nyttig er...

  18. Alzheimer's Project

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... families. September 14, 2009 "The Alzheimer's Project" wins two Creative Arts Emmys Two installments of the multi-part HBO documentary "The ... minutes) "Caregivers" (48 minutes) "Momentum in Science, Part 2" (70 minutes) Be a part of something big. ...

  19. THE PROJECT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.M. Latyshev

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available "Urals Industrial - Urals Polar" is the unique project and thus it will provide the economic security not only of the local territory but of the whole Russia in terms of several courses. This article is devoted to the main courses of these ones and their influence on the economy of the country.

  20. Project Baltia

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2007-01-01

    Uus arhitektuuriajakiri "Project Baltia" tutvustab Baltimaade, Soome ja Peterburi regiooni arhitektuuri, linnaehitust ja disaini. Ilmub neli korda aastas inglise- ja venekeelsena. Väljaandja: kirjastus Balticum Peterburis koostöös Amsterdami ja Moskva kirjastusega A-Fond. Peatoimetaja Vladimir Frolov

  1. Projective mapping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dehlholm, Christian; Brockhoff, Per B.; Bredie, Wender Laurentius Petrus

    2012-01-01

    Projective Mapping (Risvik et.al., 1994) and its Napping (Pagès, 2003) variations have become increasingly popular in the sensory field for rapid collection of spontaneous product perceptions. It has been applied in variations which sometimes are caused by the purpose of the analysis and sometime...

  2. Project COLD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazanjian, Wendy C.

    1982-01-01

    Describes Project COLD (Climate, Ocean, Land, Discovery) a scientific study of the Polar Regions, a collection of 35 modules used within the framework of existing subjects: oceanography, biology, geology, meterology, geography, social science. Includes a partial list of topics and one activity (geodesic dome) from a module. (Author/SK)

  3. Alzheimer's Project

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... minutes) "Momentum in Science, Part 2" (70 minutes) Be a part of something big. HBO's "THE ALZHEIMER'S PROJECT" will expose the Alzheimer's crisis facing our nation and drive concerned citizens to take action. Here are three ways you ...

  4. Tedese Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buforn, E.; Davila, J. Martin; Bock, G.; Pazos, A.; Udias, A.; Hanka, W.

    The TEDESE (Terremotos y Deformacion Cortical en el Sur de España) project is a joint project of the Universidad Complutense de Madrid (UCM) and Real Instituto y Observatorio de la Armada de San Fernando, Cadiz (ROA) supported by the Spanish Ministerio de Ciencia y Tecnologia with the participation of the GeoforschungZen- trum, Potsdam (GFZ). The aim is to carry out a study of the characteristics of the oc- currence and mechanism of earthquakes together with measurements of crustal struc- ture and deformations in order to obtain an integrated evaluation of seismic risk in southern Spain from. As part of this project a temporal network of 10 broad-band seismological stations, which will complete those already existing in the zone, have been installed in southern Spain and northern Africa for one year beginning in October 2001. The objectives of the project are the study in detail of the focal mechanisms of earthquakes in this area, of structural in crust and upper mantle, of seismic anisotropy in crust and mantle as indicator for tectonic deformation processed and the measure- ments of crustal deformations using techniques with permanent GPS and SLR stations and temporary GPS surveys. From these studies, seismotectonic models and maps will be elaborated and seismic risk in the zone will be evaluated.

  5. Project Baltia

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2007-01-01

    Uus arhitektuuriajakiri "Project Baltia" tutvustab Baltimaade, Soome ja Peterburi regiooni arhitektuuri, linnaehitust ja disaini. Ilmub neli korda aastas inglise- ja venekeelsena. Väljaandja: kirjastus Balticum Peterburis koostöös Amsterdami ja Moskva kirjastusega A-Fond. Peatoimetaja Vladimir Frolov

  6. Project Narrative

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Driscoll, Mary C. [St. Bonaventure University, St Bonaventure, NY(United States)

    2012-07-12

    The Project Narrative describes how the funds from the DOE grant were used to purchase equipment for the biology, chemistry, physics and mathematics departments. The Narrative also describes how the equipment is being used. There is also a list of the positive outcomes as a result of having the equipment that was purchased with the DOE grant.

  7. DMPD: Antiviral innate immunity pathways. [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 16474426 Antiviral innate immunity pathways. Seth RB, Sun L, Chen ZJ. Cell Res. 200...6 Feb;16(2):141-7. (.png) (.svg) (.html) (.csml) Show Antiviral innate immunity pathways. PubmedID 16474426 ...Title Antiviral innate immunity pathways. Authors Seth RB, Sun L, Chen ZJ. Publication Cell Res. 2006 Feb;16

  8. SDN Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Rhett [Schweitzer Engineering Laboratories Inc, Pullman, WA (United States)

    2016-12-23

    The SDN Project completed on time and on budget and successfully accomplished 100% of the scope of work outlined in the original Statement of Project Objective (SOPO). The SDN Project formed an alliance between Ameren Corporation, University of Illinois Urbana- Champaign (UIUC), Pacific Northwest National Laboratories (PNNL), and Schweitzer Engineering Laboratories, Inc. (SEL). The objective of the SDN Project is to address Topic Area of Interest 2: Sustain critical energy delivery functions while responding to a cyber-intrusion under Funding Opportunity Announcement DE-FOA-0000797. The goal of the project is to design and commercially release technology that provides a method to sustain critical energy delivery functions during a cyber intrusion and to do this control system operators need the ability to quickly identify and isolate the affected network areas, and re-route critical information and control flows around. The objective of the SDN Project is to develop a Flow Controller that monitors, configures, and maintains the safe, reliable network traffic flows of all the local area networks (LANs) on a control system in the Energy sector. The SDN team identified the core attributes of a control system and produced an SDN flow controller that has the same core attributes enabling networks to be designed, configured and deployed that maximize the whitelisted, deny-bydefault and purpose built networks. This project researched, developed and commercially released technology that: Enables all field networks be to configured and monitored as if they are a single asset to be protected; Enables greatly improved and even precalculated response actions to reliability and cyber events; Supports pre-configured localized response actions tailored to provide resilience against failures and centralized response to cyber-attacks that improve network reliability and availability; Architecturally enables the right subject matter experts, who are usually the information

  9. Metabolic pathways of trichothecenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Qinghua; Dohnal, Vlastimil; Huang, Lingli; Kuca, Kamil; Yuan, Zonghui

    2010-05-01

    Trichothecenes are a group of mycotoxins mainly produced by the fungi of Fusarium genus. Consumers are particularly concerned over the toxicity and food safety of trichothecenes and their metabolites from food-producing animals. The metabolism of T-2 toxin, deoxynivalenol (DON), nivalenol (NIV), fusarenon-X (FX), diacetoxyscirpenol (DAS), 3-acetyldeoxy-nivalenol (3-aDON), and 15-acetyldeoxynivalenol (15-aDON) in rodents, swine, ruminants, poultry, and humans are reviewed in this article. Metabolic pathways of these mycotoxins are very different. The major metabolic pathways of T-2 toxin in animals are hydrolysis, hydroxylation, de-epoxidation, and conjugation. After being transformed to HT-2 toxin, it undergoes further hydroxylation at C-3' to yield 3'-hydroxy-HT-2 toxin, which is considered as an activation pathway, whereas transformation from T-2 to T-2 tetraol is an inactivation pathway in animals. The typical metabolites of T-2 toxin in animals are HT-2 toxin, T-2 triol, T-2 tetraol, neosolaniol (NEO), 3'-hydroxy-HT-2, and 3'-hydroxy-T-2, whereas HT-2 toxin is the main metabolite in humans. De-epoxidation is an important pathway for detoxification in animals. De-epoxy products, DOM-1, and de-epoxy-NIV are the main metabolites of DON and NIV in most animals, respectively. However, the two metabolites are not found in humans. Deacetyl can occur rapidly on the acetyl derivatives, 3-aDON, 15-aDON, and FX. DAS is metabolized in animals to 15-monoacetoxyscirpenol (15-MAS) via C-4 deacetylation and then transformed to scirpentriol (SCP) via C-15 deacetylation. Finally, the epoxy is lost, yielding de-epoxy-SCP. De-epoxy-15-MAS is also the main metabolite of DAS. 15-MAS is the main metabolite in human skin. The review on the metabolism of trichothecenes will help one to well understand the fate of these toxins' future in animals and humans, as well as provide basic information for the risk assessment of them for food safety.

  10. Projective geometry and projective metrics

    CERN Document Server

    Busemann, Herbert

    2005-01-01

    The basic results and methods of projective and non-Euclidean geometry are indispensable for the geometer, and this book--different in content, methods, and point of view from traditional texts--attempts to emphasize that fact. Results of special theorems are discussed in detail only when they are needed to develop a feeling for the subject or when they illustrate a general method. On the other hand, an unusual amount of space is devoted to the discussion of the fundamental concepts of distance, motion, area, and perpendicularity.Topics include the projective plane, polarities and conic sectio

  11. Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Finch, S.M. (comp.)

    1990-01-01

    The objective of the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project is to estimate the radiation doses that populations could have received from nuclear operations at Hanford since 1944. The project is being managed and conducted by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) under the direction of an independent Technical Steering Panel (TSP). The project is divided into the following technical tasks. These tasks correspond to the path radionuclides followed, from release to impact on humans (dose estimates). The Source Terms Task develops estimates of radioactive emissions from Hanford facilities since 1944. The Environmental Transport Task reconstructs the movement of radioactive materials from the areas of release to populations. The Environmental Monitoring Data Task assembles, evaluates, and reports historical environmental monitoring data. The Demographics, Agriculture, Food Habits Task develops the data needed to identify the populations that could have been affected by the releases. In addition to population and demographic data, the food and water resources and consumption patterns for populations are estimated because they provide a primary pathway for the intake of radionuclides. The Environmental Pathways and Dose Estimates Task use the information produced by the other tasks to estimate the radiation doses populations could have received from Hanford radiation. Project progress is documented in this monthly report, which is available to the public. 3 figs., 3 tabs.

  12. Induced Systemic Resistance against Botrytis cinerea by Bacillus cereus AR156 through a JA/ET- and NPR1-Dependent Signaling Pathway and Activates PAMP-Triggered Immunity in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Pingping; Li, Xia; Wang, Shune; Guo, Jianhua; Zhao, Hongwei; Niu, Dongdong

    2017-01-01

    Induced resistance response is a potent and cost effective plant defense against pathogen attack. The effectiveness and underlying mechanisms of the suppressive ability by Bacillus cereus AR156 to Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000 (Pst DC3000) in Arabidopsis has been investigated previously; however, the strength of induced systemic resistance (ISR) activity against Botrytis cinerea remains unknown. Here, we show that root-drench application of AR156 significantly reduces disease incidence through activation of ISR. This protection is accompanied with multilayered ISR defense response activated via enhanced accumulation of PR1 protein expression in a timely manner, hydrogen peroxide accumulation and callose deposition, which is significantly more intense in plants with both AR156 pretreatment and B. cinerea inoculation than that in plants with pathogen inoculation only. Moreover, AR156 can trigger ISR in sid2-2 and NahG mutants, but not in jar1, ein2 and npr1 mutant plants. Our results indicate that AR156-induced ISR depends on JA/ET-signaling pathway and NPR1, but not SA. Also, AR156-treated plants are able to rapidly activate MAPK signaling and FRK1/WRKY53 gene expression, both of which are involved in pathogen associated molecular pattern (PAMP)-triggered immunity (PTI). The results indicate that AR156 can induce ISR by the JA/ET-signaling pathways in an NPR1-dependent manner and involves multiple PTI components.

  13. Induced Systemic Resistance against Botrytis cinerea by Bacillus cereus AR156 through a JA/ET- and NPR1-Dependent Signaling Pathway and Activates PAMP-Triggered Immunity in Arabidopsis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Pingping; Li, Xia; Wang, Shune; Guo, Jianhua; Zhao, Hongwei; Niu, Dongdong

    2017-01-01

    Induced resistance response is a potent and cost effective plant defense against pathogen attack. The effectiveness and underlying mechanisms of the suppressive ability by Bacillus cereus AR156 to Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000 (Pst DC3000) in Arabidopsis has been investigated previously; however, the strength of induced systemic resistance (ISR) activity against Botrytis cinerea remains unknown. Here, we show that root-drench application of AR156 significantly reduces disease incidence through activation of ISR. This protection is accompanied with multilayered ISR defense response activated via enhanced accumulation of PR1 protein expression in a timely manner, hydrogen peroxide accumulation and callose deposition, which is significantly more intense in plants with both AR156 pretreatment and B. cinerea inoculation than that in plants with pathogen inoculation only. Moreover, AR156 can trigger ISR in sid2-2 and NahG mutants, but not in jar1, ein2 and npr1 mutant plants. Our results indicate that AR156-induced ISR depends on JA/ET-signaling pathway and NPR1, but not SA. Also, AR156-treated plants are able to rapidly activate MAPK signaling and FRK1/WRKY53 gene expression, both of which are involved in pathogen associated molecular pattern (PAMP)-triggered immunity (PTI). The results indicate that AR156 can induce ISR by the JA/ET-signaling pathways in an NPR1-dependent manner and involves multiple PTI components. PMID:28293243

  14. The Biocatalytic Desulfurization Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David Nunn; James Boltz; Philip M. DiGrazia; Larry Nace

    2006-03-03

    The material in this report summarizes the Diversa technical effort in development of a biocatalyst for the biodesulfurization of Petro Star diesel as well as an economic report of standalone and combined desulfurization options, prepared by Pelorus and Anvil, to support and inform the development of a commercially viable process. We will discuss goals of the projected as originally stated and their modification as guided by parallel efforts to evaluate commercialization economics and process parameters. We describe efforts to identify novel genes and hosts for the generation of an optimal biocatalyst, analysis of diesel fuels (untreated, chemically oxidized and hydrotreated) for organosulfur compound composition and directed evolution of enzymes central to the biodesulfurization pathway to optimize properties important for their use in a biocatalyst. Finally we will summarize the challenges and issues that are central to successful development of a viable biodesulfurization process.

  15. Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project monthly report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Finch, S.M. (comp.)

    1991-10-01

    The objective of the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project is to estimate the radiation doeses that individuals and populations could have received from nuclear operations at Hanford since 1944. The project is divided into the following technical tasks. These tasks correspond to the path radionuclides followed, from release to impact on humans (dose estimates): Source terms; environmental transport; environmental monitoring data; demographics, agriculture, food habits; environmental pathways and dose estimates.

  16. Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project. Monthly report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Finch, S.M.; McMakin, A.H. [comps.

    1992-02-01

    The objective of the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project is to estimate the radiation doses that individuals and populations could have received from nuclear operations at Hanford since 1944. The project is divided into the following technical tasks. These tasks correspond to the path radionuclides followed, from release to impact on humans (dose estimates): source terms; environmental transport; environmental monitoring data; demography, food consumption, and agriculture; environmental pathways and dose estimates.

  17. Project Prometheus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Steve

    2003-01-01

    Project Prometheus will enable a new paradigm in the scientific exploration of the Solar System. The proposed JIMO mission will start a new generation of missions characterized by more maneuverability, flexibility, power and lifetime. Project Prometheus organization is established at NASA Headquarters: 1.Organization established to carry out development of JIMO, nuclear power (radioisotope), and nuclear propulsion research. 2.Completed broad technology and national capacity assessments to inform decision making on planning and technology development. 3.Awarded five NRA s for nuclear propulsion research. 4.Radioisotope power systems in development, and Plutonium-238 being purchased from Russia. 5.Formulated science driven near-term and long-term plan for the safe utilization of nuclear propulsion based missions. 6.Completed preliminary studies (Pre-Phase A) of JIMO and other missions. 7.Initiated JIMO Phase A studies by Contractors and NASA.

  18. PARTNER Project

    CERN Multimedia

    Ballantine, A; Dixon-Altaber, H; Dosanjh, M; Kuchina, L

    2011-01-01

    Hadrontherapy uses particle beams to treat tumours located near critical organs and tumours that respond poorly to conventional radiation therapy. It has become evident that there is an emerging need for reinforcing research in hadrontherapy and it is essential to train professionals in this rapidly developing field. PARTNER is a 4-year Marie Curie Training project funded by the European Commission with 5.6 million Euros aimed at the creation of the next generation of experts. Ten academic institutes and research centres and two leading companies are participating in PARTNER, that is coordinated by CERN, forming a unique multidisciplinary and multinational European network. The project offers research and training opportunities to 25 young biologists, engineers, physicians and physicists and is allowing them to actively develop modern techniques for treating cancer in close collaboration with leading European Institutions. For this purpose PARTNER relies on cutting edge research and technology development, ef...

  19. Hydropower Projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2015-04-02

    The Water Power Program helps industry harness this renewable, emissions-free resource to generate environmentally sustainable and cost-effective electricity. Through support for public, private, and nonprofit efforts, the Water Power Program promotes the development, demonstration, and deployment of advanced hydropower devices and pumped storage hydropower applications. These technologies help capture energy stored by diversionary structures, increase the efficiency of hydroelectric generation, and use excess grid energy to replenish storage reserves for use during periods of peak electricity demand. In addition, the Water Power Program works to assess the potential extractable energy from domestic water resources to assist industry and government in planning for our nation’s energy future. From FY 2008 to FY 2014, DOE’s Water Power Program announced awards totaling approximately $62.5 million to 33 projects focused on hydropower. Table 1 provides a brief description of these projects.

  20. Identifying dysregulated pathways in cancers from pathway interaction networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Ke-Qin

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cancers, a group of multifactorial complex diseases, are generally caused by mutation of multiple genes or dysregulation of pathways. Identifying biomarkers that can characterize cancers would help to understand and diagnose cancers. Traditional computational methods that detect genes differentially expressed between cancer and normal samples fail to work due to small sample size and independent assumption among genes. On the other hand, genes work in concert to perform their functions. Therefore, it is expected that dysregulated pathways will serve as better biomarkers compared with single genes. Results In this paper, we propose a novel approach to identify dysregulated pathways in cancer based on a pathway interaction network. Our contribution is three-fold. Firstly, we present a new method to construct pathway interaction network based on gene expression, protein-protein interactions and cellular pathways. Secondly, the identification of dysregulated pathways in cancer is treated as a feature selection problem, which is biologically reasonable and easy to interpret. Thirdly, the dysregulated pathways are identified as subnetworks from the pathway interaction networks, where the subnetworks characterize very well the functional dependency or crosstalk between pathways. The benchmarking results on several distinct cancer datasets demonstrate that our method can obtain more reliable and accurate results compared with existing state of the art methods. Further functional analysis and independent literature evidence also confirm that our identified potential pathogenic pathways are biologically reasonable, indicating the effectiveness of our method. Conclusions Dysregulated pathways can serve as better biomarkers compared with single genes. In this work, by utilizing pathway interaction networks and gene expression data, we propose a novel approach that effectively identifies dysregulated pathways, which can not only be used

  1. Projection Methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wagner, Falko Jens; Poulsen, Mikael Zebbelin

    1999-01-01

    When trying to solve a DAE problem of high index with more traditional methods, it often causes instability in some of the variables, and finally leads to breakdown of convergence and integration of the solution. This is nicely shown in [ESF98, p. 152 ff.].This chapter will introduce projection...... methods as a way of handling these special problems. It is assumed that we have methods for solving normal ODE systems and index-1 systems....

  2. Polytope projects

    CERN Document Server

    Iordache, Octavian

    2013-01-01

    How do you know what works and what doesn't? This book contains case studies highlighting the power of polytope projects for complex problem solving. Any sort of combinational problem characterized by a large variety of possibly complex constructions and deconstructions based on simple building blocks can be studied in a similar way. Although the majority of case studies are related to chemistry, the method is general and equally applicable to other fields for engineering or science.

  3. Burnet project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masellis, A; Atiyeh, B

    2009-12-31

    The BurNet project, a pilot project of the Eumedis initiative, has become true. The Eumedis (EUro MEDiterranean Information Society) initiative is part of the MEDA programme of the EU to develop the Information Society in the Mediterranean area. In the health care sector, the objective of Eumedis is: the deployment of network-based solutions to interconnect - using userfriendly and affordable solutions - the actors at all levels of the "health care system" of the Euro-Mediterranean region. The Bur Net project interconnects 17 Burn Centres (BC) in the Mediterranean Area through an information network both to standardize courses of action in the field of prevention, treatment, and functional and psychological rehabilitation of burn patients and to coordinate interactions between BC and emergency rooms in peripheral hospitals using training/information activities and telemedicine to optimize first aid provided to burn patients before referral to a BC. Shared procedure protocols for prevention and the care and rehabilitation of patients, both at individual and mass level, will help to create an international specialized database and a Webbased teleconsultation system.

  4. SUPERSITE PROJECT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Ferrari

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The project is focused on a detailed study of some chemical, physical and toxicological parameters and on health, epidemiological and environmental assessment by interpretative models, in the atmosphere of Emilia-Romagna (Italy. The project rises from the necessity to improve  knowledge about environmental and health aspects of fine and ultrafine particles, in primary and secondary components, in the atmosphere. The project, structured in 7 workpackages, is organized in two measurement programmes: the routine one that has a mainly daily time resolution, and the intensive one with high time resolution and a higher chemical speciation than the routine one. The sampling sites are five: three in urban areas (Bologna, Parma and Rimini, one in a rural area (San Pietro Capofiume and one in a remote area (Monte Cimone. Parallel to outdoor studies, a workpackage  is planned for indoor studies and chemical composition analysis with the  outdoor/indoor ratio for characterizing indoor human exposure to outdoor pollution.

  5. Mapping Nursing Pathways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melanie Birks

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Articulated education pathways between the vocational education training sector and universities provide opportunities for students wishing to progress to higher qualifications. Enrolled nurses seeking to advance their career in nursing can choose to enter baccalaureate degree programs through such alternative entry routes. Awarding of credit for prior studies is dependent on accurate assessment of the existing qualification against that which is sought. This study employed a modified Delphi method to inform the development of an evidence-based, structured approach to mapping the pathway from the nationally consistent training package of the Diploma of Nursing to the diversity of baccalaureate nursing programs across Australia. The findings of this study reflect the practical nature of the role of the enrolled nurse, particularly the greater emphasis placed on direct care activities as opposed to those related to professional development and the generation and use of evidence. These findings provide a valuable summative overview of the relationship between the Diploma of Nursing and the expectations of the registered nurse role.

  6. Project Exodus

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-01-01

    Project Exodus is an in-depth study to identify and address the basic problems of a manned mission to Mars. The most important problems concern propulsion, life support, structure, trajectory, and finance. Exodus will employ a passenger ship, cargo ship, and landing craft for the journey to Mars. These three major components of the mission design are discussed separately. Within each component the design characteristics of structures, trajectory, and propulsion are addressed. The design characteristics of life support are mentioned only in those sections requiring it.

  7. FLOAT Project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Eigil V.; Aarup, Bendt

    The objective of the FLOAT project is to study the reliability of high-performance fibre-reinforced concrete, also known as Compact Reinforced Composite (CRC), for the floats of wave energy converters. In order to reach a commercial breakthrough, wave energy converters need to achieve a lower price...... of energy produced, comparable to prices currently obtained from offshore wind power, and this can be done by the use of more suitable materials. The flotation device is a key part of converters, as it accounts for a considerable share of initial investment, up to 27% depending on the converter. CRC floats...

  8. Policy Pathways: Modernising Building Energy Codes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-08-01

    Buildings are the largest consumers of energy worldwide and will continue to be a source of increasing energy demand in the future. Globally, the sector’s final energy consumption doubled between 1971 and 2010 to reach 2 794 million tonnes of oil equivalent (Mtoe), driven primarily by population increase and economic growth. Under current policies, the global energy demand of buildings is projected by the IEA experts to grow by an additional 838 Mtoe by 2035 compared to 2010. The challenges of the projected increase of energy consumption due to the built environment vary by country. In IEA member countries, much of the future buildings stock is already in place, and so the main challenge is to renovate existing buildings stock. In non-IEA countries, more than half of the buildings stock needed by 2050 has yet to be built. The IEA and the UNDP partnered to analyse current practices in the design and implementation of building energy codes. The aim is to consolidate existing efforts and to encourage more attention to the role of the built environment in a low-carbon and climate-resilient world. This joint IEA-UNDP Policy Pathway aims to share lessons learned between IEA member countries and non-IEA countries. The objective is to spread best practices, limit pressures on global energy supply, improve energy security, and contribute to environmental sustainability. Part of the IEA Policy Pathway series, Modernising building energy codes to secure our global energy future sets out key steps in planning, implementation, monitoring and evaluation. The Policy Pathway series aims to help policy makers implement the IEA 25 Energy Efficiency Policy Recommendations endorsed by IEA Ministers (2011).

  9. Bioinformatics of the sugarcane EST project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Telles Guilherme P.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The Sugarcane EST project (SUCEST produced 291,904 expressed sequence tags (ESTs in a consortium that involved 74 sequencing and data mining laboratories. We created a web site for this project that served as a ?meeting point? for receiving, processing, analyzing, and providing services to help explore the sequence data. In this paper we describe the information pathway that we implemented to support this project and a brief explanation of the clustering procedure, which resulted in 43,141 clusters.

  10. Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project Monthly Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Finch, S.M. (comp.)

    1990-01-01

    The objective of the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project is to estimate the radiation doses that populations could have received from nuclear operations at Hanford since 1944. The project is being managed and conducted by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) under the direction of an independent Technical Steering Panel (TSP). The project is divided into the following technical tasks. These tasks correspond to the path radionuclides followed, from release to impact on humans (dose estimates): source terms; environmental transport; environmental monitoring data; demographics; agriculture; food habits; and environmental pathways and dose estimates. 3 figs.

  11. Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project Monthly Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dennis, B.S. (comp.)

    1990-04-01

    This monthly report summarizes the technical progress and project status for the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction (HEDR) Project being conducted at Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) under the direction of a Technical Steering Panel (TSP). The project is divided into the following technical tasks. These tasks address each of the primary steps in the path from radioactive releases to dose estimates: source terms, environmental transport, environmental monitoring data, demographics, agriculture, and food habits, and environmental pathways and dose estimates. The source terms task will develop estimates for radioactive emissions from Hanford facilities since 1944. These estimates will be based on historical measurements and production information. 1 fig., 1 tab.

  12. Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project monthly report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Finch, S.M. (comp.)

    1990-12-01

    The objective of the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project is to estimate the radiation doses that populations could have been have received from nuclear operations at Hanford since 1944. The project is being managed and conducted by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) under the direction of an independent Technical Steering Panel (TSP). The project is divided into the following technical tasks. These tasks correspond to the path radionuclides followed, from release to impact on humans (dose estimates): source terms; environmental transport; environmental monitoring data; demographics, agriculture, food habits; and environmental pathways and dose estimates. 3 figs., 3 tabs.

  13. Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project Monthly Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Finch, S.M. (comp.)

    1991-07-01

    The objective of the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project is to estimate the radiation doses that individuals and populations could have received from nuclear operations at Hanford since 1944. The project is being managed and conducted by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) under the direction of an independent Technical Steering Panel (TSP). The project is divided into the following technical tasks. These tasks correspond to the path radionuclides followed, from release to impact on humans (dose estimates): Source terms; environmental transport; environmental monitoring data; demographics, agriculture, food habits; and environmental pathways and dose estimates. 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  14. Pathways to Global Markets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smith, David E.; Mitry, Darryl J.

    2011-01-01

    For marketing and economic researchers, an important aspect of globalization is the degree to which various consumer behavior dimensions and consumption patterns in different parts of the world are becoming similar, and how multinational companies have identified pathways to global success....... An important case study is McDonald‘s corporation, the world‘s largest fast food restaurant chain. This company has employed divergent marketing and economic strategies in both domestic and the international markets to become a leader in the global marketplace. An overview of the company‘s background......, organizational structures, mission and vision illustrate McDonald‘s strategic focus on its proactive evolution from a small drive-through operation to a global fast-food giant. The strategy is based on its ability to adapt to the cultural differences of the markets that McDonald‘s serves while preserving its...

  15. PROJECT TEAM MOTIVATION IN PROJECT REALISATION

    OpenAIRE

    Perica Jankoviæ

    2014-01-01

    Managing a project team is an everyday activity when managing a project realization. In order to accomplish efficiency at work on a project, it is necessary for all the participants in the project to be motivated and interested, focused on accomplishing the project. To the end of providing greater motivation of the project team for the realization of the project, the project manager should be very well acquainted with the needs and motives of the people he/she is managing and should find the ...

  16. PORTNUS Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loyal, Rebecca E. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2015-07-14

    The objective of the Portunus Project is to create large, automated offshore ports that will the pace and scale of international trade. Additionally, these ports would increase the number of U.S. domestic trade vessels needed, as the imported goods would need to be transported from these offshore platforms to land-based ports such as Boston, Los Angeles, and Newark. Currently, domestic trade in the United States can only be conducted by vessels that abide by the Merchant Marine Act of 1920 – also referred to as the Jones Act. The Jones Act stipulates that vessels involved in domestic trade must be U.S. owned, U.S. built, and manned by a crew made up of U.S. citizens. The Portunus Project would increase the number of Jones Act vessels needed, which raises an interesting economic concern. Are Jones Act ships more expensive to operate than foreign vessels? Would it be more economically efficient to modify the Jones Act and allow vessels manned by foreign crews to engage in U.S. domestic trade? While opposition to altering the Jones Act is strong, it is important to consider the possibility that ship-owners who employ foreign crews will lobby for the chance to enter a growing domestic trade market. Their success would mean potential job loss for thousands of Americans currently employed in maritime trade.

  17. FLORAM project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zulauf, W.E. [Sao Paolos Environmental Secretariat, Sao Paolo (Brazil); Goelho, A.S.R. [Riocell, S.A. (Brazil); Saber, A. [IEA-Instituto de Estudos Avancados (Brazil)] [and others

    1995-12-31

    The project FLORAM was formulated at the `Institute for Advanced Studies` of the University of Sao Paulo. It aims at decreasing the level of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere and thus curbing the green-house effect by way of a huge effort of forestation and reforestation. The resulting forests when the trees mature, will be responsible for the absorption of about 6 billion tons of excess carbon. It represents 5 % of the total amount of CO{sub 2} which is in excess in the earth`s atmosphere and represents 5 % of the available continental surfaces which can be forested as well. Therefore, if similar projects are implemented throughout the world, in theory all the exceeding CO{sub 2}, responsible for the `greenhouse effect`, (27 % or 115 billion tons of carbon) would be absorbed. Regarding this fact, there would be a 400 million hectar increase of growing forests. FLORAM in Brazil aims to plant 20.000.000 ha in 2 years at a cost of 20 billion dollars. If it reaches its goals that will mean that Brazil will have reforested an area almost half as big as France. (author)

  18. Project Explorer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dannenberg, K. K.; Henderson, A.; Lee, J.; Smith, G.; Stluka, E.

    1984-01-01

    PROJECT EXPLORER is a program that will fly student-developed experiments onboard the Space Shuttle in NASA's Get-Away Special (GAS) containers. The program is co-sponsored by the Alabama Space and Rocket Center, the Alabama-Mississippi Section of the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Alabama A&M University and requires extensive support by the University of Alabama in Huntsville. A unique feature of this project will demonstrate transmissions to ground stations on amateur radio frequencies in English language. Experiments Nos. 1, 2, and 3 use the microgravity of space flight to study the solidification of lead-antimony and aluminum-copper alloys, the growth of potassium-tetracyanoplatinate hydrate crystals in an aqueous solution, and the germination of radish seeds. Flight results will be compared with Earth-based data. Experiment No. 4 features radio transmission and will also provide timing for the start of all other experiments. A microprocessor will obtain real-time data from all experiments as well as temperature and pressure measurements taken inside the canister. These data will be transmitted on previously announced amateur radio frequencies after they have been converted into the English language by a digitalker for general reception.

  19. SISCAL project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santer, Richard P.; Fell, Frank

    2003-05-01

    The first "ocean colour" sensor, Coastal Zone Color Scanner (CZCS), was launched in 1978. Oceanographers learnt a lot from CZCS but it remained a purely scientific sensor. In recent years, a new generation of satellite-borne earth observation (EO) instruments has been brought into space. These instruments combine high spectral and spatial resolution with revisiting rates of the order of one per day. More instruments with further increased spatial, spectral and temporal resolution will be available within the next years. In the meantime, evaluation procedures taking advantage of the capabilities of the new instruments were derived, allowing the retrieval of ecologically important parameters with higher accuracy than before. Space agencies are now able to collect and to process satellite data in real time and to disseminate them via the Internet. It is therefore meanwhile possible to envisage using EO operationally. In principle, a significant demand for EO data products on terrestrial or marine ecosystems exists both with public authorities (environmental protection, emergency management, natural resources management, national parks, regional planning, etc) and private companies (tourist industry, insurance companies, water suppliers, etc). However, for a number of reasons, many data products that can be derived from the new instruments and methods have not yet left the scientific community towards public or private end users. It is the intention of the proposed SISCAL (Satellite-based Information System on Coastal Areas and Lakes) project to contribute to the closure of the existing gap between space agencies and research institutions on one side and end users on the other side. To do so, we intend to create a data processor that automatically derives and subsequently delivers over the Internet, in Near-Real-Time (NRT), a number of data products tailored to individual end user needs. The data products will be generated using a Geographical Information System (GIS

  20. ENVISION Project

    CERN Multimedia

    Ballantine, A; Dixon-Altaber, H; Dosanjh, M; Kuchina, L

    2011-01-01

    Hadrontherapy is a highly advanced technique of cancer radiotherapy that uses beams of charged particles (ions) to destroy tumour cells. While conventional X-rays traverse the human body depositing radiation as they pass through, ions deliver most of their energy at one point. Hadrontherapy is most advantageous once the position of the tumour is accurately known, so that healthy tissues can be protected. Accurate positioning is a crucial challenge for targeting moving organs, as in lung cancer, and for adapting the irradiation as the tumour shrinks with treatment. Therefore, quality assurance becomes one of the most relevant issues for an effective outcome of the cancer treatment. In order to improve the quality assurance tools for hadrontherapy, the European Commission is funding ENVISION, a 4-year project that aims at developing solutions for: real-• time non invasive monitoring • quantitative imaging • precise determination of delivered dose • fast feedback for optimal treatment planning • real-t...

  1. Pathway from diagnosis to therapy in cancer pain (Percorso diagnostico terapeutico (PTDA nel dolore oncologico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvatore Palazzo, MD

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The authors present in detail the proposal of a quality improvement project for cancer pain therapies.The project should be implemented through diagnostic and therapeutic pathways and the setting up of a community of oncologists and cancer pain experts.

  2. Commercial Building Design Pathways Using Optimization Analysis: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Long, N.; Hirsch, A.; Lobato, C.; Macumber, D.

    2010-08-01

    Whole-building simulation and analysis has demonstrated a significant energy savings potential in a wide variety of design projects. Commercial building design, however, traditionally integrates simulation and modeling analyses too late in the design process to make a substantial impact on energy use. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) commercial building group created an optimization platform called Opt-E-Plus that uses multivariate and multi-objective optimization theory to navigate a large parameter space and find economically valid, energy-saving solutions. The analysis results provide designers and engineers valuable information that influences the design. The pathways are not full 'construction ready' design alternatives; rather, they offer guidance about performance and cost criteria to reach a range of energy and economic goals. Having this knowledge early in the design phase helps designers establish project goals and direct the design pathway before they make important decisions. Opt-E-Plus has been deployed on several projects, including a retrofit mixed-use building, a new NREL office building, and several nationwide design guides. Each of these projects had different design criteria, goals, and audiences. In each case the analysis results provided pathways that helped inform the design process.

  3. Project Success in Agile Development Software Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farlik, John T.

    2016-01-01

    Project success has multiple definitions in the scholarly literature. Research has shown that some scholars and practitioners define project success as the completion of a project within schedule and within budget. Others consider a successful project as one in which the customer is satisfied with the product. This quantitative study was conducted…

  4. Project Success in Agile Development Software Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farlik, John T.

    2016-01-01

    Project success has multiple definitions in the scholarly literature. Research has shown that some scholars and practitioners define project success as the completion of a project within schedule and within budget. Others consider a successful project as one in which the customer is satisfied with the product. This quantitative study was conducted…

  5. Ace Project as a Project Management Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cline, Melinda; Guynes, Carl S.; Simard, Karine

    2010-01-01

    The primary challenge of project management is to achieve the project goals and objectives while adhering to project constraints--usually scope, quality, time and budget. The secondary challenge is to optimize the allocation and integration of resources necessary to meet pre-defined objectives. Project management software provides an active…

  6. Comparing Pathways to Agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorian Q Fuller

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The transition from foraging systems to agricultural dependence is a persistent focus of archaeological research, and the focus of a major research project supported by the European Research Council (ERC grant no. 323842, ’ComPAg’. Gordon Childe, director of the Institute of Archaeology 1947–1957, influentially defined the Neolithic revolution as that which instigated a series of changes in human societies towards sedentism (settling in one place, larger populations, food production based on domesticated plants and animals, transformed cosmologies and the dawn of new malleable technologies such as ceramics and textiles (Childe 1936.

  7. A pathway to spirituality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Jon A

    2005-01-01

    The phenomenology of mystical experiences has been described throughout all the ages and in all religions. All mystical traditions identify some sense of union with the absolute as the ultimate spiritual goal. I assume that the pathway to both theistic and secular spirituality and our readiness to seek a solution in a psychological merger with something beyond the self evolves out of our human experience. Spirituality is one of man's strategies for dealing with the limitations of the life cycle, separation and loss, biological fragility, transience, and non-existence. Spirituality may serve as the affective component to a belief system or myth that is not rooted in scientific evidence but is lived as if it is true. Spirituality may take many forms, but I will suggest that in some instances it may serve as a reparative process in which one creates in the external world, through symbolic form, a nuance or facet of an internalized mental representation which has become lost or is no longer available to the self; or it may represent the continuity of the self-representation after death through a self-object merger. Lastly I will illustrate from the writings of two of our greatest poets, Dante Alighieri and William Wordsworth, how their poetry became interwoven with a profound spirituality. In Dante we will see the elaboration of a religious spirituality, while in the writings of Wordsworth a secular spirituality emerges interwoven with nature and belatedly his identification with "tragic man" as his mythos.

  8. Corneal pain activates a trigemino-parabrachial pathway in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aicher, Sue A; Hegarty, Deborah M; Hermes, Sam M

    2014-03-06

    Corneal pain is mediated by primary afferent fibers projecting to the dorsal horn of the medulla, specifically the trigeminal nucleus caudalis. In contrast to reflex responses, the conscious perception of pain requires transmission of neural activity to higher brain centers. Ascending pain transmission is mediated primarily by pathways to either the thalamus or parabrachial nuclei. We previously showed that some corneal afferent fibers preferentially contact parabrachial-projecting neurons in the rostral pole of the trigeminal nucleus caudalis, but the role of these projection neurons in transmitting noxious information from the cornea has not been established. In the present study, we show that noxious stimulation of the corneal surface activates neurons in the rostral pole of the nucleus caudalis, including parabrachially projecting neurons that receive direct input from corneal afferent fibers. We used immunocytochemical detection of c-Fos protein as an index of neuronal activation after noxious ocular stimulation. Animals had previously received injections of a retrograde tracer into either thalamic or parabrachial nuclei to identify projection neurons in the trigeminal dorsal horn. Noxious stimulation of the cornea induced c-Fos in neurons sending projections to parabrachial nuclei, but not thalamic nuclei. We also confirmed that corneal afferent fibers identified with cholera toxin B preferentially target trigeminal dorsal horn neurons projecting to the parabrachial nucleus. The parabrachial region sends ascending projections to brain regions involved in emotional and homeostatic responses. Activation of the ascending parabrachial system may explain the extraordinary salience of stimulation of corneal nociceptors.

  9. Evolution of the TOR Pathway.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dam, T.J.P. van; Zwartkruis, F.J.; Bos, J.L.; Snel, B.

    2011-01-01

    The TOR kinase is a major regulator of growth in eukaryotes. Many components of the TOR pathway are implicated in cancer and metabolic diseases in humans. Analysis of the evolution of TOR and its pathway may provide fundamental insight into the evolution of growth regulation in eukaryotes and provid

  10. Novel protein regulates ERK pathway

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ The ERK (extracellular signal-regulated kinase) pathway plays a critical role in the vital processes of living cells such as proliferation and differentiation.Recently, CAS scientists in Shanghai have discovered a novel mechanism of spatial regulation on ERK pathway. The result was published in the 4 September issue of the Proceedings of National Academy of Sciences(PNAS).

  11. Autism: Many Genes, Common Pathways?

    OpenAIRE

    Geschwind, Daniel H.

    2008-01-01

    Autism is a heterogeneous neurodevelopmental syndrome with a complex genetic etiology. It is still not clear whether autism comprises a vast collection of different disorders akin to intellectual disability or a few disorders sharing common aberrant pathways. Unifying principles among cases of autism are likely to be at the level of brain circuitry in addition to molecular pathways.

  12. Autism: many genes, common pathways?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geschwind, Daniel H

    2008-10-31

    Autism is a heterogeneous neurodevelopmental syndrome with a complex genetic etiology. It is still not clear whether autism comprises a vast collection of different disorders akin to intellectual disability or a few disorders sharing common aberrant pathways. Unifying principles among cases of autism are likely to be at the level of brain circuitry in addition to molecular pathways.

  13. Evolution of the TOR Pathway.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dam, T.J.P. van; Zwartkruis, F.J.; Bos, J.L.; Snel, B.

    2011-01-01

    The TOR kinase is a major regulator of growth in eukaryotes. Many components of the TOR pathway are implicated in cancer and metabolic diseases in humans. Analysis of the evolution of TOR and its pathway may provide fundamental insight into the evolution of growth regulation in eukaryotes and provid

  14. Novel metabolic pathways in Archaea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Takaaki; Atomi, Haruyuki

    2011-06-01

    The Archaea harbor many metabolic pathways that differ to previously recognized classical pathways. Glycolysis is carried out by modified versions of the Embden-Meyerhof and Entner-Doudoroff pathways. Thermophilic archaea have recently been found to harbor a bi-functional fructose-1,6-bisphosphate aldolase/phosphatase for gluconeogenesis. A number of novel pentose-degrading pathways have also been recently identified. In terms of anabolic metabolism, a pathway for acetate assimilation, the methylaspartate cycle, and two CO2-fixing pathways, the 3-hydroxypropionate/4-hydroxybutyrate cycle and the dicarboxylate/4-hydroxybutyrate cycle, have been elucidated. As for biosynthetic pathways, recent studies have clarified the enzymes responsible for several steps involved in the biosynthesis of inositol phospholipids, polyamine, coenzyme A, flavin adeninedinucleotide and heme. By examining the presence/absence of homologs of these enzymes on genome sequences, we have found that the majority of these enzymes and pathways are specific to the Archaea. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Biogenetic Pathways for Marine Terpenoids

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑其煌; 苏镜娱; 黄起鹏; 王植材; 刘璇; 高碧; 曾陇梅; 郑德炫

    1994-01-01

    A reasonable theoretical elucidation of biogenetic pathways is given for marine ter-penoids——halogenated terpenoids,cernbranolides and tetracyclic tetraterpenoids in marine organisms ac-cording to biogenesis,and the possibility of studying biogenetic pathways by chemical synthesis and molecu-lar probe method is discussed.

  16. KeyPathwayMinerWeb

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    List, Markus; Alcaraz, Nicolas; Dissing-Hansen, Martin;

    2016-01-01

    We present KeyPathwayMinerWeb, the first online platform for de novo pathway enrichment analysis directly in the browser. Given a biological interaction network (e.g. protein-protein interactions) and a series of molecular profiles derived from one or multiple OMICS studies (gene expression...

  17. Project Lyman

    CERN Document Server

    McCandliss, Stephan R; Blair, William P; Kaiser, Mary Elizabeth; Feldman, Paul D; Meurer, Gerhardt R; Dixon, William V; Sahnow, David J; Neufeld, David A; Lupu, Roxana E; Fleming, Brian; Smee, Stephen A; Andersson, B G; Moseley, Samuel H; Kutyrev, Alexander S; Li, Mary J; Sonneborn, George; Siegmund, Oswald H W; Vallerga, John V; Welsh, Barry Y; Stiavelli, Massimo; Windhorst, Rogier A; Shapley, Alice E

    2008-01-01

    We explore the design of a space mission, Project Lyman, which has the goal of quantifying the ionization history of the universe from the present epoch to a redshift of z ~ 3. Observations from WMAP and SDSS show that before a redshift of z >~ 6 the first collapsed objects, possibly dwarf galaxies, emitted Lyman continuum (LyC) radiation shortward of 912 A, reionizing most of the universe. How LyC escapes from galactic environments, whether it induces positive or negative feedback on the local and global collapse of structures, and the role played by clumping, molecules, metallicity and dust are major unanswered theoretical questions, requiring observational constraint. Numerous intervening Lyman limit systems, which frustrate the detection of LyC from high z objects, thin below z ~ 3 where there are a few objects with apparently very high fesc. At low z there are only controversial detections and a handful of upper limits. A wide-field multi-object spectroscopic survey with moderate spectral and spatial res...

  18. Refining the quantitative pathway of the Pathways to Mathematics model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sowinski, Carla; LeFevre, Jo-Anne; Skwarchuk, Sheri-Lynn; Kamawar, Deepthi; Bisanz, Jeffrey; Smith-Chant, Brenda

    2015-03-01

    In the current study, we adopted the Pathways to Mathematics model of LeFevre et al. (2010). In this model, there are three cognitive domains--labeled as the quantitative, linguistic, and working memory pathways--that make unique contributions to children's mathematical development. We attempted to refine the quantitative pathway by combining children's (N=141 in Grades 2 and 3) subitizing, counting, and symbolic magnitude comparison skills using principal components analysis. The quantitative pathway was examined in relation to dependent numerical measures (backward counting, arithmetic fluency, calculation, and number system knowledge) and a dependent reading measure, while simultaneously accounting for linguistic and working memory skills. Analyses controlled for processing speed, parental education, and gender. We hypothesized that the quantitative, linguistic, and working memory pathways would account for unique variance in the numerical outcomes; this was the case for backward counting and arithmetic fluency. However, only the quantitative and linguistic pathways (not working memory) accounted for unique variance in calculation and number system knowledge. Not surprisingly, only the linguistic pathway accounted for unique variance in the reading measure. These findings suggest that the relative contributions of quantitative, linguistic, and working memory skills vary depending on the specific cognitive task. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Transportation Energy Pathways LDRD.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barter, Garrett.; Reichmuth, David.; Westbrook, Jessica; Malczynski, Leonard A.; Yoshimura, Ann S.; Peterson, Meghan B.; West, Todd H.; Manley, Dawn Kataoka; Guzman, Katherine Dunphy; Edwards, Donna M.; Hines, Valerie Ann-Peters

    2012-09-01

    This report presents a system dynamics based model of the supply-demand interactions between the USlight-duty vehicle (LDV) fleet, its fuels, and the corresponding primary energy sources through the year2050. An important capability of our model is the ability to conduct parametric analyses. Others have reliedupon scenario-based analysis, where one discrete set of values is assigned to the input variables and used togenerate one possible realization of the future. While these scenarios can be illustrative of dominant trendsand tradeoffs under certain circumstances, changes in input values or assumptions can have a significantimpact on results, especially when output metrics are associated with projections far into the future. Thistype of uncertainty can be addressed by using a parametric study to examine a range of values for the inputvariables, offering a richer source of data to an analyst.The parametric analysis featured here focuses on a trade space exploration, with emphasis on factors thatinfluence the adoption rates of electric vehicles (EVs), the reduction of GHG emissions, and the reduction ofpetroleum consumption within the US LDV fleet. The underlying model emphasizes competition between13 different types of powertrains, including conventional internal combustion engine (ICE) vehicles, flex-fuel vehicles (FFVs), conventional hybrids(HEVs), plug-in hybrids (PHEVs), and battery electric vehicles(BEVs).We find that many factors contribute to the adoption rates of EVs. These include the pace of technologicaldevelopment for the electric powertrain, battery performance, as well as the efficiency improvements inconventional vehicles. Policy initiatives can also have a dramatic impact on the degree of EV adoption. Theconsumer effective payback period, in particular, can significantly increase the market penetration rates ifextended towards the vehicle lifetime.Widespread EV adoption can have noticeable impact on petroleum consumption and greenhouse gas

  20. Trigemino-solitarii-facial pathway in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zerari-Mailly, Fawzia; Buisseret, Pierre; Buisseret-Delmas, Catherine; Nosjean, Anne

    2005-06-27

    This study was undertaken to identify premotor neurons in the nucleus tractus solitarii (NTS) serving as relay neurons between the sensory trigeminal complex (STC) and the facial motor nucleus in rats. Trigemino-solitarii connections were first investigated following injections of anterograde and/or retrograde (biotinylated dextran amine, biocytin, or gold-HRP) tracers in STC or NTS. Trigemino-solitarii neurons were abundant in the ventral and dorsal parts of the STC and of moderate density in its intermediate part. They project throughout the entire rostrocaudal extent of the NTS with a strong lateral preponderance. Solitarii-trigeminal neurons were observed mostly in the rostral and rostrolateral NTS. They mainly project to the ventral and dorsal parts of the spinal trigeminal nucleus but not to the principal nucleus. Additional neurons located in the middle NTS were found to project exclusively to the spinal trigeminal nucleus pars caudalis. No solitarii-trigeminal cells were observed in the caudal NTS. In addition, evidence was obtained of NTS retrogradely labeled neurons contacted by anterogradely labeled trigeminal terminals. Second, solitarii-facial projections were analyzed following injections of anterograde and retrograde tracers into the NTS and the facial nucleus, respectively. NTS neurons, except those of the rostrolateral part, reached the dorsal aspect of the facial nucleus. Finally, simultaneous injections of anterograde tracer in the STC and retrograde tracer in the facial nucleus gave retrogradely labeled neurons in the NTS receiving contacts from anterogradely labeled trigeminal boutons. Thus, the present data demonstrate for the first time the existence of a trigemino-solitarii-facial pathway. This could account for the involvement of the NTS in the control of orofacial motor behaviors.

  1. Different Pathways for Achieving Cleaner Urban Areas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schippl, J.; Gudmundsson, Henrik; Sørensen, Claus Hedegaard

    2016-01-01

    The 2011 White Paper on Transport of the European Commission spells out a series of targets for 2030 and 2050. One of the 10 targets is explicitly related to urban transport and stipulates: ''Halve the use of 'conventionally fuelled' cars in urban transport by 2030; phase them out in cities by 2050....... Achieve essentially CO2-free city logistics in major urban centres by 2030.'' With this paper we present and discuss a roadmap that deals with the question who needs to do what by when in order to reach the White Paper goal for urban transport. The ''stakeholder-driven'' roadmap was developed in the FP7...... project TRANSFORuM. The paper will present the key findings and the suggested action steps identified in the roadmap. The paper will also exemplify three possible urban transformation pathways towards the urban target. This approach emerged from stakeholder consultations which highlighted the need to take...

  2. Electronic SSKIN pathway: reducing device-related pressure ulcers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Natalie

    2016-08-11

    This article describes how an interprofessional project in a London NHS Foundation Trust was undertaken to develop an intranet-based medical device-related pressure ulcer prevention and management pathway for clinical staff working across an adult critical care directorate, where life-threatening events require interventions using medical devices. The aim of this project was to improve working policies and processes to define key prevention strategies and provide clinicians with a clear, standardised approach to risk and skin assessment, equipment use, documentation and reporting clinical data using the Trust's CareVue (electronic medical records), Datix (incident reporting and risk-management tool) and eTRACE (online clinical protocol ordering) systems. The process included the development, trial and local implementation of the pathway using collaborative teamwork and the SSKIN care bundle tool. The experience of identifying issues, overcoming challenges, defining best practice and cascading SSKIN awareness training is shared.

  3. Protein design for pathway engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eriksen, Dawn T; Lian, Jiazhang; Zhao, Huimin

    2014-02-01

    Design and construction of biochemical pathways has increased the complexity of biosynthetically-produced compounds when compared to single enzyme biocatalysis. However, the coordination of multiple enzymes can introduce a complicated set of obstacles to overcome in order to achieve a high titer and yield of the desired compound. Metabolic engineering has made great strides in developing tools to optimize the flux through a target pathway, but the inherent characteristics of a particular enzyme within the pathway can still limit the productivity. Thus, judicious protein design is critical for metabolic and pathway engineering. This review will describe various strategies and examples of applying protein design to pathway engineering to optimize the flux through the pathway. The proteins can be engineered for altered substrate specificity/selectivity, increased catalytic activity, reduced mass transfer limitations through specific protein localization, and reduced substrate/product inhibition. Protein engineering can also be expanded to design biosensors to enable high through-put screening and to customize cell signaling networks. These strategies have successfully engineered pathways for significantly increased productivity of the desired product or in the production of novel compounds.

  4. Protein Design for Pathway Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eriksen, Dawn T.; Lian, Jiazhang; Zhao, Huimin

    2013-01-01

    Design and construction of biochemical pathways has increased the complexity of biosynthetically-produced compounds when compared to single enzyme biocatalysis. However, the coordination of multiple enzymes can introduce a complicated set of obstacles to overcome in order to achieve a high titer and yield of the desired compound. Metabolic engineering has made great strides in developing tools to optimize the flux through a target pathway, but the inherent characteristics of a particular enzyme within the pathway can still limit the productivity. Thus, judicious protein design is critical for metabolic and pathway engineering. This review will describe various strategies and examples of applying protein design to pathway engineering to optimize the flux through the pathway. The proteins can be engineered for altered substrate specificity/selectivity, increased catalytic activity, reduced mass transfer limitations through specific protein localization, and reduced substrate/product inhibition. Protein engineering can also be expanded to design biosensors to enable high through-put screening and to customize cell signaling networks. These strategies have successfully engineered pathways for significantly increased productivity of the desired product or in the production of novel compounds. PMID:23558037

  5. Storytelling in Projects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munk-Madsen, Andreas; Andersen, Peter Bøgh

    2006-01-01

    project managers should not only be concerned with project plans, but also with project stories. In this paper we explore some basic principles for transforming project plans into appealing stories. We discuss what may happen to stories once they are released into public space. And we illustrate how......Plans and stories are two different ways of communicating about projects. Project plans are formalized descriptions, primarily supporting coordination. Project stories are accounts whose primary function is emotional appeal. Project stories influence the projects’ chances of success. Therefore...... the possibilities of telling favorable stories may have repercussions on the project planning....

  6. Pathway elucidation and metabolic engineering of specialized plant metabolites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salomonsen, Bo

    , these projects have increased revenues on fermentative production of several biochemicals. The use of systems biology is, however, not limited to microorganisms. Recent advances in biotechnology methods have provided a wealth of data within functional genomics, metabolomics, transcriptomics, proteomics...... and fluxomics for a considerable number of organisms. Unfortunately, transferring the wealth of data to valuable information for metabolic engineering purposes is a non-obvious task. This PhD thesis describes a palate of tools used in generation of cell factories for production of specialized plant metabolites......, namely the plant defense compounds camalexin and glucosinolates. The thesis shows methodologies for elucidation of biosynthesis pathways and describes how to transfer obtained knowledge of metabolic pathways to other organisms through establishment of a synthetic biology platform. Through pathway...

  7. Managing projects using a project management approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marko D. Andrejić

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Modern management theory treats all complex tasks and duties like projects and make these projects possible to be managed by a particular organizational-management concept in order to achieve a goal effectively. A large number of jobs and tasks performed in the system of defense or for defense purposes have the characteristics of projects. Project management is both a skill and a science of monitoring human, material, financial, energy and other resources to achieve required objectives within the given limits: deadlines, time, budget, possibility of realization and the satisfaction of the interests of all project participants. Project management is a traditional area of applied (or functional management focused on managing complex and uncertain situations with defined goals. Introduction In conditions of rapid change and high uncertainty, only adaptive organizations survive, i. e. those that are able not only to react quickly to changes but also to proactively take advantage of changes. Development of project management The biggest influence on the development of the area had complex jobs within the engineering profession. In parallel with the traditional approach new approaches began to develop, while the traditional one still remained in use. Contrary to the traditional engineering approach, a dynamic model first developed in order to respond to demands for greater control of costs. Project management Project management is a skill and knowledge of human and material resources to achieve set objectives within prescribed limits: deadlines, time, budget, possibility of realization, and the satisfaction of all participants in the project. In order to realize a project effectively, it is necessary to manage it rationally. Planning and project management A project plan is a document that allows all team members insight on where to go, when to start and when to arrive, what is necessary to be done in order to achieve the project objectives and what

  8. Jasmonate Signal Pathway in Arabidopsis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao-Yi Shan; Zhi-Long Wang; Daoxin Xie

    2007-01-01

    Jasmonates (JAs), which include jasmonic acid and its cyclopentane derivatives are synthesized from the octadecanoid pathway and widely distributed throughout the plant kingdom. JAs modulate the expression of numerous genes and mediate responses to stress, wounding, insect attack, pathogen infection, and UV damage. They also affect a variety of processes in many plant developmental processes. The JA signal pathway involves two important events: the biosynthesis of JA and the transduction of JA signal. Several important Arabidopsis mutants in jasmonate signal pathway were described in this review.

  9. Neuroinflammation pathways: a general review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shabab, Tara; Khanabdali, Ramin; Moghadamtousi, Soheil Zorofchian; Kadir, Habsah Abdul; Mohan, Gokula

    2017-07-01

    Activated microglial cells play an important role in immune and inflammatory responses in central nervous system and neurodegenerative diseases. Many pro-apoptotic pathways are mediated by signaling molecules that are produced during neuroinflammation. In glial cells, NF-κB, a transcription factor, initiates and regulates the expression of several inflammatory processes during inflammation which are attributed to the pathology of the several neurodegenerative diseases. In this review, we discuss the most important neuroinflammatory mediators with their pathways. Attenuating cytokines production and controlling microglial inflammatory response, which are the result of understanding neuroinflammation pathways, are considered therapeutic strategies for treating neurodegenerative diseases with an inflammatory component.

  10. PaxtoolsR: pathway analysis in R using Pathway Commons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luna, Augustin; Babur, Özgün; Aksoy, Bülent Arman; Demir, Emek; Sander, Chris

    2016-04-15

    PaxtoolsR package enables access to pathway data represented in the BioPAX format and made available through the Pathway Commons webservice for users of the R language to aid in advanced pathway analyses. Features include the extraction, merging and validation of pathway data represented in the BioPAX format. This package also provides novel pathway datasets and advanced querying features for R users through the Pathway Commons webservice allowing users to query, extract and retrieve data and integrate these data with local BioPAX datasets. The PaxtoolsR package is compatible with versions of R 3.1.1 (and higher) on Windows, Mac OS X and Linux using Bioconductor 3.0 and is available through the Bioconductor R package repository along with source code and a tutorial vignette describing common tasks, such as data visualization and gene set enrichment analysis. Source code and documentation are at http://www.bioconductor.org/packages/paxtoolsr This plugin is free, open-source and licensed under the LGPL-3. paxtools@cbio.mskcc.org or lunaa@cbio.mskcc.org. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press.

  11. The Snail-Induced Sulfonation Pathway in Breast Cancer Metastasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-01

    AD_________________ Award Number: W81XWH-11-1-0494   TITLE: The Snail -Induced Sulfonation... Snail -Induced Sulfonation Pathway in Breast Cancer Metastasis 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-11-1-0494 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Dr...provided funding for a 3-year project that has resulted in fundamental new insights into how the transcription factor Snail can control gene

  12. Capital projects coordination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zubović Jovan

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper looks at the difficulties of managing modem capital projects and endeavors to reduce the complexities to simpler and more understandable terms. It examines the project environment, defines project management and discusses points of difference from traditional management. In the second part of the paper are presented fundamentals for project success for different types of projects.

  13. Signaling pathways in a Citrus EST database

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Mehta

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Citrus spp. are economically important crops, which in Brazil are grown mainly in the State of São Paulo. Citrus cultures are attacked by several pathogens, causing severe yield losses. In order to better understand this culture, the Millenium Project (IAC Cordeirópolis was launched in order to sequence Citrus ESTs (expressed sequence tags from different tissues, including leaf, bark, fruit, root and flower. Plants were submitted to biotic and abiotic stresses and investigated under different development stages (adult vs. juvenile. Several cDNA libraries were constructed and the sequences obtained formed the Citrus ESTs database with almost 200,000 sequences. Searches were performed in the Citrus database to investigate the presence of different signaling pathway components. Several of the genes involved in the signaling of sugar, calcium, cytokinin, plant hormones, inositol phosphate, MAPKinase and COP9 were found in the citrus genome and are discussed in this paper. The results obtained may indicate that similar mechanisms described in other plants, such as Arabidopsis, occur in citrus. Further experimental studies must be conducted in order to understand the different signaling pathways present.

  14. Integrated Project Management System description. [UMTRAP Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1987-03-01

    The Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project is a Department of Energy (DOE) designated Major System Acquisition (MSA). To execute and manage the Project mission successfully and to comply with the MSA requirements, the UMTRA Project Office ( Project Office'') has implemented and operates an Integrated Project Management System (IPMS). The Project Office is assisted by the Technical Assistance Contractor's (TAC) Project Integration and Control (PIC) Group in system operation. Each participant, in turn, provides critical input to system operation and reporting requirements. The IPMS provides a uniform structured approach for integrating the work of Project participants. It serves as a tool for planning and control, workload management, performance measurement, and specialized reporting within a standardized format. This system description presents the guidance for its operation. Appendices 1 and 2 contain definitions of commonly used terms and abbreviations and acronyms, respectively. 17 figs., 5 tabs.

  15. Signal Transduction Pathways that Regulate CAB Gene Expression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chory, Joanne

    2004-12-31

    The process of chloroplast differentiation, involves the coordinate regulation of many nuclear and chloroplast genes. The cues for the initiation of this developmental program are both extrinsic (e.g., light) and intrinsic (cell-type and plastid signals). During this project period, we utilized a molecular genetic approach to select for Arabidopsis mutants that did not respond properly to environmental light conditions, as well as mutants that were unable to perceive plastid damage. These latter mutants, called gun mutants, define two retrograde signaling pathways that regulate nuclear gene expression in response to chloroplasts. A major finding was to identify a signal from chloroplasts that regulates nuclear gene transcription. This signal is the build-up of Mg-Protoporphyrin IX, a key intermediate of the chlorophyll biosynthetic pathway. The signaling pathways downstream of this signal are currently being studied. Completion of this project has provided an increased understanding of the input signals and retrograde signaling pathways that control nuclear gene expression in response to the functional state of chloroplasts. These studies should ultimately influence our abilities to manipulate plant growth and development, and will aid in the understanding of the developmental control of photosynthesis.

  16. Signal Transduction Pathways that Regulate CAB Gene Expression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chory, Joanne

    2006-01-16

    The process of chloroplast differentiation, involves the coordinate regulation of many nuclear and chloroplast genes. The cues for the initiation of this developmental program are both extrinsic (e.g., light) and intrinsic (cell-type and plastid signals). During this project period, we utilized a molecular genetic approach to select for Arabidopsis mutants that did not respond properly to environmental light conditions, as well as mutants that were unable to perceive plastid damage. These latter mutants, called gun mutants, define two retrograde signaling pathways that regulate nuclear gene expression in response to chloroplasts. A major finding was to identify a signal from chloroplasts that regulates nuclear gene transcription. This signal is the build-up of Mg-Protoporphyrin IX, a key intermediate of the chlorophyll biosynthetic pathway. The signaling pathways downstream of this signal are currently being studied. Completion of this project has provided an increased understanding of the input signals and retrograde signaling pathways that control nuclear gene expression in response to the functional state of chloroplasts. These studies should ultimately influence our abilities to manipulate plant growth and development, and will aid in the understanding of the developmental control of photosynthesis.

  17. Phylogenetic Origin and Diversification of RNAi Pathway Genes in Insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowling, Daniel; Pauli, Thomas; Donath, Alexander; Meusemann, Karen; Podsiadlowski, Lars; Petersen, Malte; Peters, Ralph S; Mayer, Christoph; Liu, Shanlin; Zhou, Xin; Misof, Bernhard; Niehuis, Oliver

    2017-01-06

    RNA interference (RNAi) refers to the set of molecular processes found in eukaryotic organisms in which small RNA molecules mediate the silencing or down-regulation of target genes. In insects, RNAi serves a number of functions, including regulation of endogenous genes, anti-viral defense, and defense against transposable elements. Despite being well studied in model organisms, such as Drosophila, the distribution of core RNAi pathway genes and their evolution in insects is not well understood. Here we present the most comprehensive overview of the distribution and diversity of core RNAi pathway genes across 100 insect species, encompassing all currently recognized insect orders. We inferred the phylogenetic origin of insect-specific RNAi pathway genes and also identified several hitherto unrecorded gene expansions using whole-body transcriptome data from the international 1KITE (1000 Insect Transcriptome Evolution) project as well as other resources such as i5K (5000 Insect Genome Project). Specifically, we traced the origin of the double stranded RNA binding protein R2D2 to the last common ancestor of winged insects (Pterygota), the loss of Sid-1/Tag-130 orthologs in Antliophora (fleas, flies and relatives, and scorpionflies in a broad sense), and confirm previous evidence for the splitting of the Argonaute proteins Aubergine and Piwi in Brachyceran flies (Diptera, Brachycera). Our study offers new reference points for future experimental research on RNAi-related pathway genes in insects.

  18. Multiple pathways regulate shoot branching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine eRameau

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Shoot branching patterns result from the spatio-temporal regulation of axillary bud outgrowth. Numerous endogenous, developmental and environmental factors are integrated at the bud and plant levels to determine numbers of growing shoots. Multiple pathways that converge to common integrators are most probably involved. We propose several pathways involving not only the classical hormones auxin, cytokinins and strigolactones, but also other signals with a strong influence on shoot branching such as gibberellins, sugars or molecular actors of plant phase transition. We also deal with recent findings about the molecular mechanisms and the pathway involved in the response to shade as an example of an environmental signal controlling branching. We propose the TCP transcription factor TB1/BRC1 and the polar auxin transport stream in the stem as possible integrators of these pathways. We finally discuss how modeling can help to represent this highly dynamic system by articulating knowledges and hypothesis and calculating the phenotype properties they imply.

  19. From project management to project leadership

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F. Braun; M. Avital

    2010-01-01

    It is virtually a truism that good leadership practices can help project managers with attaining the desired project outcome. However, a better understanding of which leadership practices enable project managers to be more effective warrants further investigation. Subsequently, in this study, we inv

  20. Managing Projects for Change: Contextualised Project Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tynan, Belinda; Adlington, Rachael; Stewart, Cherry; Vale, Deborah; Sims, Rod; Shanahan, Peter

    2010-01-01

    This paper will detail three projects which focussed on enhancing online learning at a large Australian distance education University within a School of Business, School of Health and School of Education. Each project had special funding and took quite distinctive project management approaches, which reflect the desire to embed innovation and…

  1. From project management to project leadership

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Braun, F.; Avital, M.

    2010-01-01

    It is virtually a truism that good leadership practices can help project managers with attaining the desired project outcome. However, a better understanding of which leadership practices enable project managers to be more effective warrants further investigation. Subsequently, in this study, we

  2. The Oxylipin Pathway in Arabidopsis

    OpenAIRE

    Creelman, Robert A.; Mulpuri, Rao

    2002-01-01

    Oxylipins are acyclic or cyclic oxidation products derived from the catabolism of fatty acids which regulate many defense and developmental pathways in plants. The dramatic increase in the volume of publications and reviews on these compounds since 1997 documents the increasing interest in this compound and its role in plants. Research on this topic has solidified our understanding of the chemistry and biosynthetic pathways for oxylipin production. However, more information is still needed on...

  3. Microsoft Project 2007 bible

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Marmel, Elaine J

    2007-01-01

    "Take control of your projects with this in-depth guide Whether you're managing a project for a small team or supervising a corporate assignment involving hundreds, the power of Microsoft Project 2007...

  4. Information technology project management

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Schwalbe, Kathy

    2014-01-01

    ... (IT) projects that extend well beyond standard project management requirements. No book offers more up-to-the minute insights and software tools for IT project management success, including updates that reflect the latest PMBOKʼ...

  5. Information technology project management

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Schwalbe, Kathy

    2014-01-01

    ... (IT) projects that extend well beyond standard project management requirements. No book offers more up-to-the minute insights and software tools for IT project management success, including updates that reflect the latest PMBOK...

  6. Session on computation in biological pathways

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karp, P.D. [SRI International, Menlo Park, CA (United States); Riley, M. [Marine Biological Lab., Woods Hole, MA (United States)

    1996-12-31

    The papers in this session focus on the development of pathway databases and computational tools for pathway analysis. The discussion involves existing databases of sequenced genomes, as well as techniques for studying regulatory pathways.

  7. Web Project Management

    OpenAIRE

    Suralkar, Sunita; Joshi, Nilambari; Meshram, B B

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes about the need for Web project management, fundamentals of project management for web projects: what it is, why projects go wrong, and what's different about web projects. We also discuss Cost Estimation Techniques based on Size Metrics. Though Web project development is similar to traditional software development applications, the special characteristics of Web Application development requires adaption of many software engineering approaches or even development of comple...

  8. MANAGING MULTICULTURAL PROJECT TEAMS

    OpenAIRE

    Scarlat, Cezar; Carmen-Laura ZARZU; Adriana PRODAN

    2014-01-01

    The article is based on literature review and authors’ own recent experience in managing multicultural project teams, in international environment. This comparative study considers two groups of projects: technical assistance (TA) projects versus information technology (IT) projects. The aim is to explore the size and structure of the project teams – according to the team formation and its lifecycle, and to identify some distinctive attributes of the project teams – both similarities and diff...

  9. Web Project Management

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes about the need for Web project management, fundamentals of project management for web projects: what it is, why projects go wrong, and what's different about web projects. We also discuss Cost Estimation Techniques based on Size Metrics. Though Web project development is similar to traditional software development applications, the special characteristics of Web Application development requires adaption of many software engineering approaches or even development of comple...

  10. USAID Anticorruption Projects Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Agency for International Development — The Anticorruption Projects Database (Database) includes information about USAID projects with anticorruption interventions implemented worldwide between 2007 and...

  11. Project 2010 For Dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Muir, Nancy C

    2010-01-01

    A friendly reference guide to Microsoft Project, the leading enterprise project management software. As project management software, Microsoft Project allows you to oversee your business activities effectively. You can manage resources, share project info, perform modeling and scenario analysis, and standardize reporting processes. This easy-to-understand guide is completely updated to cover the latest changes and newest enhancements to Project 2010 and shows you how to get Project 2010 to work for you. After an introduction to basic project management concepts, you'll discover the mechanics o

  12. Advanced energy projects; FY 1995 research summaries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-09-01

    The AEP Division supports projects to explore novel energy-related concepts which are typically at an early stage of scientific development, and high-risk, exploratory concepts. Topical areas presently receiving support are: novel materials for energy technology, renewable and biodegradable materials, exploring uses of new scientific discoveries, alternate pathways to energy efficiency, alternative energy sources, and innovative approaches to waste treatment and reduction. There were 46 research projects during FY 1995; ten were initiated during that fiscal year. The summaries are separated into grant and laboratory programs, and small business innovation research programs.

  13. Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project. Monthly report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McMakin, A.H.; Cannon, S.D.; Finch, S.M. [comps.

    1992-07-01

    The objective of the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction (HEDR) Project is to estimate the radiation doses that individuals and populations could have received from nuclear operations at Hanford since 1944. The TSP consists of experts in environmental pathways, epidemiology, surface-water transport, ground-water transport, statistics, demography, agriculture, meteorology, nuclear engineering, radiation dosimetry, and cultural anthropology. Included are appointed technical members representing the states of Oregon, Washington, and Idaho, a representative of Native American tribes, and an individual representing the public. The project is divided into the following technical tasks. These tasks correspond to the path radionuclides followed from release to impact on humans (dose estimates): Source terms, environmental transport, environmental monitoring data, demography, food consumption, and agriculture, and environmental pathways and dose estimates. Progress is discussed.

  14. Striatal direct pathway modulates response time in execution of visual discrimination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukabori, Ryoji; Okada, Kana; Nishizawa, Kayo; Kai, Nobuyuki; Kobayashi, Kenta; Uchigashima, Motokazu; Watanabe, Masahiko; Tsutsui, Yuji; Kobayashi, Kazuto

    2012-03-01

    The dorsal striatum in the basal ganglia circuitry is a principal structure that mediates the acquisition and performance of instrumental learning. The projections from the dorsal striatum are composed of two subpopulations of medium spiny neurons that constitute the direct and indirect pathways. The mechanism by which these striatal projections control the learning processes of instrumental actions remains unknown. We addressed the behavioral role of the striatal direct (striatonigral) pathway in the performance of visual discrimination. Immunotoxin targeting of the striatal neuronal type containing dopamine D(1) receptor in mice resulted in a moderate level of elimination of the striatonigral pathway. Targeting of the neural pathway from the whole region of the dorsal striatum lengthened the response time but did not affect the accuracy of response selection in a two-choice reaction time task dependent on light stimulus. This lengthened motor response was induced early in the test sessions and was gradually restored to normal levels during repetitive sessions. In addition, subregion-specific pathway targeting revealed that the delay in learned motor response was generated by the elimination of the striatonigral pathway arising from the dorsomedial striatum but not from the dorsolateral striatum. Our findings indicate that the striatonigral pathway, in particular from the dorsomedial striatum, contributes to the regulation of response time in the execution of visual discrimination. The restoration of motor response deficits during repetitive sessions suggests the presence of a mechanism by which the response facilitation is acquired through continuation of learning despite the removal of the striatonigral pathway.

  15. Pathway engineering to improve ethanol production by thermophilic bacteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lynd, L.R.

    1998-12-31

    Continuation of a research project jointly funded by the NSF and DOE is proposed. The primary project goal is to develop and characterize strains of C. thermocellum and C. thermosaccharolyticum having ethanol selectivity similar to more convenient ethanol-producing organisms. An additional goal is to document the maximum concentration of ethanol that can be produced by thermophiles. These goals build on results from the previous project, including development of most of the genetic tools required for pathway engineering in the target organisms. As well, we demonstrated that the tolerance of C. thermosaccharolyticum to added ethanol is sufficiently high to allow practical utilization should similar tolerance to produced ethanol be demonstrated, and that inhibition by neutralizing agents may explain the limited concentrations of ethanol produced in studies to date. Task 1 involves optimization of electrotransformation, using either modified conditions or alternative plasmids to improve upon the low but reproducible transformation, frequencies we have obtained thus far.

  16. Pathways to a Shared European Information Infrastructure for Cultural Heritage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan Kenny

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available The ARENA project was created to confront issues of data preservation and archiving, dissemination and European information interoperability in archaeology. In achieving these goals the project raised many issues that deserve deeper discussion. This paper provides some of this discourse considering aspects of: European identity and projects funded by European money; The importance of technical and human networking to interoperability; Dealing with Language; Spatial Issues; Describing Data, the role of Metadata; Digitisation of historic data; Preservation and Publication. This paper sets out to draw together these vital pathways that must all be followed if archaeology and heritage management in Europe is to be served by a suitable network and information infrastrucure. Some of the issues raised here have a resonance in other papers in this ARENA special edition of Internet Archaeology, others are discussed in greater detail elsewhere.

  17. Final Report: Hydrogen Production Pathways Cost Analysis (2013 – 2016)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James, Brian David [Strategic Analysis Inc., Arlington, VA (United States); DeSantis, Daniel Allan [Strategic Analysis Inc., Arlington, VA (United States); Saur, Genevieve [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-09-30

    This report summarizes work conducted under a three year Department of Energy (DOE) funded project to Strategic Analysis, Inc. (SA) to analyze multiple hydrogen (H2) production technologies and project their corresponding levelized production cost of H2. The analysis was conducted using the H2A Hydrogen Analysis Tool developed by the DOE and National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL). The project was led by SA but conducted in close collaboration with the NREL and Argonne National Laboratory (ANL). In-depth techno-economic analysis (TEA) of five different H2 production methods was conducted. These TEAs developed projections for capital costs, fuel/feedstock usage, energy usage, indirect capital costs, land usage, labor requirements, and other parameters, for each H2 production pathway, and use the resulting cost and system parameters as inputs into the H2A discounted cash flow model to project the production cost of H2 ($/kgH2). Five technologies were analyzed as part of the project and are summarized in this report: Proton Exchange Membrane technology (PEM), High temperature solid oxide electrolysis cell technology (SOEC), Dark fermentation of biomass for H2 production, H2 production via Monolithic Piston-Type Reactors with rapid swing reforming and regeneration reactions, and Reformer-Electrolyzer-Purifier (REP) technology developed by Fuel Cell Energy, Inc. (FCE).

  18. Storytelling in Projects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munk-Madsen, Andreas; Andersen, Peter Bøgh

    2006-01-01

    project managers should not only be concerned with project plans, but also with project stories. In this paper we explore some basic principles for transforming project plans into appealing stories. We discuss what may happen to stories once they are released into public space. And we illustrate how...

  19. Standardizing Healthcare Projects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Does, R.J.M.M.; Vermaat, T.M.B.; de Koning, H.; Bisgaard, S.; van den Heuvel, J.

    2006-01-01

    The project oriented deployment of teams to solve specific welldefined chronic problems is core to Six Sigma. Indeed, this capitalizes on J.M. Juran's wise observation that "quality problems are solved project by project and in no other way." It is well-known that poor project definitions and early

  20. IT Project Selection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Keld

    2016-01-01

    Selecting the right IT projects is increasingly important for many organizations. Project portfolio managers play a key role during project selection, but even though they have a great impact on the selection process, we have little knowledge about how they decide which projects to recommend for ...

  1. Introduction to the Project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuhn, Johan M.; Malchow-Møller, Nikolaj; Sørensen, Anders

    In this note a short introduction to the project “Employment Effects of Entrepreneurs” is presented. First, we describe the purpose of the project; second, we present the background; third, we briefly describe the three papers that constitute the output of the project, and fourth, we discuss two...... important qualifications for the understanding of the contributions and results established in the project....

  2. Project Decision Chain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rolstadås, Asbjørn; Pinto, Jeffrey K.; Falster, Peter

    2015-01-01

    To add value to project performance and help obtain project success, a new framework for decision making in projects is defined. It introduces the project decision chain inspired by the supply chain thinking in the manufacturing sector and uses three types of decisions: authorization, selection...

  3. Projects as value constellations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Markus

    Creating value has been outlined as very central to projects applying the organizational perspective to projects. It has been suggested that value is created in value constellations or project networks, where actors work together to create value. However, research on the value creation process...... in value constellations is scarce, and through an exploratory study of two project networks in a cultural setting we investigate how value is created in value constellations. We outline how each project may be a distinct type of value constellation, one project creates value for the partners of the network...... as a consortium, and the project creates value primarily for others as a facilitator....

  4. Modern project-management

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2003-01-01

    This lecture will focus on the following issues: - The current state of the art in Project Management, especially the integration of Project Management with general management activities, and the integrated view of resources allocation. - Overview of the project life cycle, the phases and the deliverables - Necessity and limits of planning in a research environment - Organizational aspects of the projects the roles of the stakeholders - How to get the resources when they are needed - Risk Management in Projects - Earned value - How to keep a project on track (schedule and budget) - Management of the suppliers - Closing of the project

  5. IT Project Selection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Keld

    2016-01-01

    Selecting the right IT projects is increasingly important for many organizations. Project portfolio managers play a key role during project selection, but even though they have a great impact on the selection process, we have little knowledge about how they decide which projects to recommend...... the development of methods that better fit current practice. The study is based on naturalistic decision-making theory and interviews with experienced project portfolio managers who, when selecting projects, primarily rely on political skills, experience and personal networks rather than on formal IT project...

  6. Project stakeholder management

    CERN Document Server

    Eskerod, Pernille

    2013-01-01

    Carrying out a project as planned is not a guarantee for success. Projects may fail because project management does not take the requirements, wishes and concerns of stakeholders sufficiently into account. Projects can only be successful though contributions from stakeholders. And in the end, it is the stakeholders that evaluate whether they find that the project is a success. To manage stakeholders effectively, you need to know your stakeholders, their behaviours and attitudes towards the project. In Project Stakeholder Management, the authors give guidance on how to adopt an analytical and s

  7. Introduction to the Project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuhn, Johan M.; Malchow-Møller, Nikolaj; Sørensen, Anders

    In this note a short introduction to the project “Employment Effects of Entrepreneurs” is presented. First, we describe the purpose of the project; second, we present the background; third, we briefly describe the three papers that constitute the output of the project, and fourth, we discuss two ...... important qualifications for the understanding of the contributions and results established in the project.......In this note a short introduction to the project “Employment Effects of Entrepreneurs” is presented. First, we describe the purpose of the project; second, we present the background; third, we briefly describe the three papers that constitute the output of the project, and fourth, we discuss two...

  8. LXR signaling pathways and atherosclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calkin, Anna; Tontonoz, Peter

    2010-01-01

    First discovered as orphan receptors, liver X receptors (LXRs) were subsequently identified as the nuclear receptor target of the cholesterol metabolites, oxysterols.1 There are 2 LXR receptors encoded by distinct genes: LXRα is most highly expressed in the liver, adipose, kidney, adrenal tissues and macrophages, and LXRβ is ubiquitously expressed. Despite differential tissue distribution, these isoforms have 78% homology in their ligand-binding domain and appear to respond to the same endogenous ligands. Work over the past 10 years has shown that the LXR pathway regulates lipid metabolism and inflammation via both the induction and repression of target genes. Given the importance of cholesterol regulation and inflammation in the development of cardiovascular disease, it is not surprising that activation of the LXR pathway attenuates various mechanisms underlying atherosclerotic plaque development.2 In this minireview we will discuss the impact of the LXR pathway on both cholesterol metabolism and atherosclerosis. PMID:20631351

  9. Submarine Combat Systems Engineering Project Capstone Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-06

    Combat Systems Engineering Project Capstone Project by John Becker Denman Sweetman Shaun Cookinham Mark Wasilewski Shawn Goode Samuel D...This report was prepared by: John Becker Denman Sweetman Shaun Cookinham Mark Wasilewski Shawn Goode Samuel D. Winograd David Rhodes...ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) John Becker, Shaun Cookinham, Shawn Goode, David Rhodes 5d. PROJECT NUMBER Mark Wasilewski , Samuel Winograd 5e. TASK

  10. Project Phase Dependent Configuration of Project Management Information Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Bērziša, S; Grabis, J.

    2012-01-01

    Project management information systems ensure the collection and display of project information. The project information changes depend upon the project environment. According to project environment and requirements, the configuration of project management information system is ensured by means of an approach to configuration of project management information systems. However, topicality of information and access to it change during the project life cycle depending upo...

  11. Methodologies of Project Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wojciech Macek

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents comparison of three most popular project management standardsbelonging to a wider group of models (for example, PMBOK, Prince 2, CMMI, ISO 10006,BS 6079, IPMA Competence Baseline, European Commission Project Cycle ManagementGuidelines. The author discusses methods of project management according to PMBoK,Prince 2 and ISO 10006, some chosen criteria and fields of knowledge, such as generalregulations of standards, project range management, resources management, and processesconnected with risk, systems of project quality management.

  12. Project delivery system (PDS)

    CERN Document Server

    2001-01-01

    As business environments become increasingly competitive, companies seek more comprehensive solutions to the delivery of their projects. "Project Delivery System: Fourth Edition" describes the process-driven project delivery systems which incorporates the best practices from Total Quality and is aligned with the Project Management Institute and ISO Quality Standards is the means by which projects are consistently and efficiently planned, executed and completed to the satisfaction of clients and customers.

  13. Tissue factor pathway inhibitor endocytosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, A L; Broze, G J

    1997-10-01

    Tissue factor pathway inhibitor (TFPI), a 42 kD protein, provides the physiological inhibition of tissue factor initiated coagulation by inhibition of both factor Xa and factor VIIa/tissue factor. In plasma, most TFPI is lipoprotein bound with an additional "releasable" pool bound to the endothelial cell surface. TFPI clearance is via receptor mediated endocytosis into liver. Heparin sulfate proteoglycans and LRP (low density lipoprotein receptor-related protein), an extremely large (∼600 kD) cell surface protein, primarily mediate this clearance, although additional TFPI binding sites and endocytosis pathways exist. (Trends Cardiovasc Med 1997; 7:234-239). © 1997, Elsevier Science Inc.

  14. Phase II Final Project Report SBIR Project: "A High Efficiency PV to Hydrogen Energy System"

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slade, A; Turner, J; Stone, K; McConnell, R

    2008-09-02

    The innovative research conducted for this project contributed greatly to the understanding of generating low-cost hydrogen from solar energy. The project’s research identified two highly leveraging and complementary pathways. The first pathway is to dramatically increase the efficiency of converting sunlight into electricity. Improving solar electric conversion efficiency directly increases hydrogen production. This project produced a world record efficiency for silicon solar cells and contributed to another world record efficiency for a solar concentrator module using multijunction solar cells. The project’s literature review identified a second pathway in which wasted heat from the solar concentration process augments the electrolysis process generating hydrogen. One way to do this is to use a “heat mirror” that reflects the heat-producing infrared and transmits the visible spectrum to the solar cells; this also increases solar cell conversion efficiency. An economic analysis of this concept confirms that, if long-term concentrator photovoltaic (CPV) and solid-oxide electrolyzer cost goals can be achieved, hydrogen will be produced from solar energy cheaper than the cost of gasoline. The potential public benefits from this project are significant. The project has identified a potential energy source for the nation’s future electricity and transportation needs that is entirely “home grown” and carbon free. As CPV enter the nation’s utility markets, the opportunity for this approach to be successful is greatly increased. Amonix strongly recommends further exploration of this project’s findings.

  15. [Pathways of flowering regulation in plants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yongping; Yang, Jing; Yang, Mingfeng

    2015-11-01

    Flowering, the floral transition from vegetative growth to reproductive growth, is induced by diverse endogenous and exogenous cues, such as photoperiod, temperature, hormones and age. Precise flowering time is critical to plant growth and evolution of species. The numerous renewal molecular and genetic results have revealed five flowering time pathways, including classical photoperiod pathway, vernalization pathway, autonomous pathway, gibberellins (GA) pathway and newly identified age pathway. These pathways take on relatively independent role, and involve extensive crosstalks and feedback loops. This review describes the complicated regulatory network of this floral transition to understand the molecular mechanism of flowering and provide references for further research in more plants.

  16. A decade on: has the use of integrated care pathways made a difference in Lanarkshire?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kent, P; Chalmers, Y

    2006-10-01

    This article aimed to: (1) review the work carried out in Lanarkshire between 1996 and 1999 on a Scottish Executive funded project and (2) to discuss the situation from 1999 to 2006. (1) This 3-year project led to the successful development and implementation of over 100 integrated care pathways in an urban teaching hospital (Glasgow) and a district general hospital (Lanarkshire) and was the first in-depth study of integrated care pathways to be undertaken in Scotland. The main report on the project was produced in 1999 (Clinical Audit and Quality using Integrated Pathways of Care) and reported increased adherence to British Thoracic Society and Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network guidelines and multiple best practice statements, and improved standards of documentation. The general findings were that process indicators were improved by integrated care pathway use and there was some suggestion of improved length of stay with no apparent effect on outcome. Evidence was found that integrated care pathways have made a difference for both patients and staff. (2) This provides an update of integrated care pathway development in a changing environment within NHS Lanarkshire and examines some of the key factors for success.

  17. Auditory pathways: anatomy and physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickles, James O

    2015-01-01

    This chapter outlines the anatomy and physiology of the auditory pathways. After a brief analysis of the external, middle ears, and cochlea, the responses of auditory nerve fibers are described. The central nervous system is analyzed in more detail. A scheme is provided to help understand the complex and multiple auditory pathways running through the brainstem. The multiple pathways are based on the need to preserve accurate timing while extracting complex spectral patterns in the auditory input. The auditory nerve fibers branch to give two pathways, a ventral sound-localizing stream, and a dorsal mainly pattern recognition stream, which innervate the different divisions of the cochlear nucleus. The outputs of the two streams, with their two types of analysis, are progressively combined in the inferior colliculus and onwards, to produce the representation of what can be called the "auditory objects" in the external world. The progressive extraction of critical features in the auditory stimulus in the different levels of the central auditory system, from cochlear nucleus to auditory cortex, is described. In addition, the auditory centrifugal system, running from cortex in multiple stages to the organ of Corti of the cochlea, is described.

  18. KeyPathwayMinerWeb

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    List, Markus; Alcaraz, Nicolas; Dissing-Hansen, Martin

    2016-01-01

    such as data integration, input of background knowledge, batch runs for parameter optimization and visualization of extracted pathways. In addition to an intuitive web interface, we also implemented a RESTful API that now enables other online developers to integrate network enrichment as a web service...

  19. The lectin pathway of complement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ballegaard, Vibe Cecilie Diederich; Haugaard, Anna Karen; Garred, P

    2014-01-01

    The pattern recognition molecules of the lectin complement pathway are important components of the innate immune system with known functions in host-virus interactions. This paper summarizes current knowledge of how these intriguing molecules, including mannose-binding lectin (MBL), Ficolin-1, -2...

  20. Loco signaling pathway in longevity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yuh-Ru; Parikh, Hardik; Park, Yongkyu

    2011-05-01

    Despite the various roles of regulator of G protein signaling (RGS) protein in the G protein signaling pathway that have been defined, the function of RGS has not been characterized in longevity signaling pathways. We found that reduced expression of Loco, a Drosophila RGS protein, resulted in a longer lifespan of flies with stronger resistance to stress, higher MnSOD activity and increased fat content. In contrast, overexpression of the loco gene shortened the fly lifespan significantly, lowered stress resistance and reduced fat content, also indicating that the RGS domain containing GTPase-activating protein (GAP) activity is related to the regulation of longevity. Interestingly, expressional changes of yeast RGS2 and rat RGS14, homologs to the fly Loco, also affected oxidative stress resistance and longevity in the respective species. It is known that Loco inactivates inhibitory Gαi•GTP protein to reduce activity of adenylate cyclase (AC) and RGS14 interacts with activated H-Ras and Raf-1 kinases, which subsequently inhibits ERK phosphorylation. We propose that Loco/RGS14 protein may regulate stress resistance and longevity as an activator in AC-cAMP-PKA pathway and/or as a molecular scaffold that sequesters active Ras and Raf from Ras•GTP-Raf-MEK-ERK signaling pathway. Consistently, our data showed that downregulation of Loco significantly diminishes cAMP amounts and increases p-ERK levels with higher resistance to the oxidative stress.

  1. Solvents and vapor intrusion pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Scott D; Krieger, Gary R; Palmer, Robert B; Waksman, Javier C

    2004-08-01

    Vapor intrusion must be recognized appropriately as a separate pathway of contamination. Although many issues resemble those of other forms of contamination (particularly its entryway, which is similar to that of radon seepage), vapor intrusion stands apart as a unique risk requiring case-specific action. This article addresses these issues and the current understanding of the most appropriate and successful remedial actions.

  2. Critical nodes in signalling pathways

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taniguchi, Cullen M; Emanuelli, Brice; Kahn, C Ronald

    2006-01-01

    Physiologically important cell-signalling networks are complex, and contain several points of regulation, signal divergence and crosstalk with other signalling cascades. Here, we use the concept of 'critical nodes' to define the important junctions in these pathways and illustrate their unique role...

  3. Reverse Engineering Adverse Outcome Pathways

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perkins, Edward; Chipman, J.K.; Edwards, Stephen; Habib, Tanwir; Falciani, Francesco; Taylor, Ronald C.; Van Aggelen, Graham; Vulpe, Chris; Antczak, Philipp; Loguinov, Alexandre

    2011-01-30

    The toxicological effects of many stressors are mediated through unknown, or poorly characterized, mechanisms of action. We describe the application of reverse engineering complex interaction networks from high dimensional omics data (gene, protein, metabolic, signaling) to characterize adverse outcome pathways (AOPs) for chemicals that disrupt the hypothalamus-pituitary-gonadal endocrine axis in fathead minnows. Gene expression changes in fathead minnow ovaries in response to 7 different chemicals, over different times, doses, and in vivo versus in vitro conditions were captured in a large data set of 868 arrays. We examined potential AOPs of the antiandrogen flutamide using two mutual information theory methods, ARACNE and CLR to infer gene regulatory networks and potential adverse outcome pathways. Representative networks from these studies were used to predict a network path from stressor to adverse outcome as a candidate AOP. The relationship of individual chemicals to an adverse outcome can be determined by following perturbations through the network in response to chemical treatment leading to the nodes associated with the adverse outcome. Identification of candidate pathways allows for formation of testable hypotheses about key biologic processes, biomarkers or alternative endpoints, which could be used to monitor an adverse outcome pathway. Finally, we identify the unique challenges facing the application of this approach in ecotoxicology, and attempt to provide a road map for the utilization of these tools. Key Words: mechanism of action, toxicology, microarray, network inference

  4. The Phenylpropanoid Pathway in Arabidopsis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraser, Christopher M.; Chapple, Clint

    2011-01-01

    The phenylpropanoid pathway serves as a rich source of metabolites in plants, being required for the biosynthesis of lignin, and serving as a starting point for the production of many other important compounds, such as the flavonoids, coumarins, and lignans. In spite of the fact that the phenylpropanoids and their derivatives are sometimes classified as secondary metabolites, their relevance to plant survival has been made clear via the study of Arabidopsis and other plant species. As a model system, Arabidopsis has helped to elucidate many details of the phenylpropanoid pathway, its enzymes and intermediates, and the interconnectedness of the pathway with plant metabolism as a whole. These advances in our understanding have been made possible in large part by the relative ease with which mutations can be generated, identified, and studied in Arabidopsis. Herein, we provide an overview of the research progress that has been made in recent years, emphasizing both the genes (and gene families) associated with the phenylpropanoid pathway in Arabidopsis, and the end products that have contributed to the identification of many mutants deficient in the phenylpropanoid metabolism: the sinapate esters. PMID:22303276

  5. The oxylipin pathway in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creelman, Robert A; Mulpuri, Rao

    2002-01-01

    Oxylipins are acyclic or cyclic oxidation products derived from the catabolism of fatty acids which regulate many defense and developmental pathways in plants. The dramatic increase in the volume of publications and reviews on these compounds since 1997 documents the increasing interest in this compound and its role in plants. Research on this topic has solidified our understanding of the chemistry and biosynthetic pathways for oxylipin production. However, more information is still needed on how free fatty acids are produced and the role of beta-oxidation in the biosynthetic pathway for oxylipins. It is also becoming apparent that oxylipin content and composition changes during growth and development and during pathogen or insect attack. Oxylipins such as jasmonic acid (JA) or 12-oxo-phytodienoic acid modulate the expression of numerous genes and influence specific aspects of plant growth, development and responses to abiotic and biotic stresses. Although oxylipins are believed to act alone, several examples were presented to illustrate that JA-induced responses are modulated by the type and the nature of crosstalk with other signaling molecules such as ethylene and salicylic acid. How oxylipins cause changes in gene expression and instigate a physiological response is becoming understood with the isolation of mutations in both positive and negative regulators in the jasmonate signaling pathway and the use of cDNA microarrays.

  6. Regulation of apoptotic signal transduction pathways by the heat shock proteins

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI; Zhengyu; ZHAO; Xia; WEI; Yuquan

    2004-01-01

    The study about apoptotic signal transductions has become a project to reveal the molecular mechanisms of apoptosis. Heat shock proteins (hsps), which play an important role in cell growth and apoptosis, have attracted great attentions. A lot of researches have showed there is a hsps superfamily including hsp90, hsp70, hsp60 and hsp27, etc., which regulates the biological behaviors of cells, particularly apoptotic signal transduction in Fas pathway, JNK/SAPK pathway and caspases pathway at different levels, partly by the function of molecular chaperone.

  7. A PROJECT WITHIN MICROSOFT PROJECT 2007

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emil COSMA

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this article is to emphasize the innumerable advantages of the Microsoft Project 2007 projecting environment that a project manager could benefit of. More exactly, Project Management stands for a function that is recognized within the majority of domains. A project is defined as “a temporary effort made for creating a product or a unique service”. A projects’ administrative programme within an informational system (such as Microsoft Project, Primavera Planner represents a “database that is in concordance with time”. It should help proceeding the required operations and, at the same time, to look and behave the same way other frequently utilized productive programmes. It keeps accounts of all information regarding the job requests, period and the project’s needed resources and visualizes the project’s plan in standard, well-defined formats, organizes the activities and resources consistently and efficiently,shares information regarding the project with all persons involved in an intranet or Internet network, and communicates efficiently with the resources and other involved persons, permitting at the same time the project manager to take the final control/decision as his/her responsibility.

  8. Simulation of Biochemical Pathway Adaptability Using Evolutionary Algorithms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bosl, W J

    2005-01-26

    The systems approach to genomics seeks quantitative and predictive descriptions of cells and organisms. However, both the theoretical and experimental methods necessary for such studies still need to be developed. We are far from understanding even the simplest collective behavior of biomolecules, cells or organisms. A key aspect to all biological problems, including environmental microbiology, evolution of infectious diseases, and the adaptation of cancer cells is the evolvability of genomes. This is particularly important for Genomes to Life missions, which tend to focus on the prospect of engineering microorganisms to achieve desired goals in environmental remediation and climate change mitigation, and energy production. All of these will require quantitative tools for understanding the evolvability of organisms. Laboratory biodefense goals will need quantitative tools for predicting complicated host-pathogen interactions and finding counter-measures. In this project, we seek to develop methods to simulate how external and internal signals cause the genetic apparatus to adapt and organize to produce complex biochemical systems to achieve survival. This project is specifically directed toward building a computational methodology for simulating the adaptability of genomes. This project investigated the feasibility of using a novel quantitative approach to studying the adaptability of genomes and biochemical pathways. This effort was intended to be the preliminary part of a larger, long-term effort between key leaders in computational and systems biology at Harvard University and LLNL, with Dr. Bosl as the lead PI. Scientific goals for the long-term project include the development and testing of new hypotheses to explain the observed adaptability of yeast biochemical pathways when the myosin-II gene is deleted and the development of a novel data-driven evolutionary computation as a way to connect exploratory computational simulation with hypothesis

  9. Two-Electron Transfer Pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jiaxing; Balamurugan, D; Zhang, Peng; Skourtis, Spiros S; Beratan, David N

    2015-06-18

    The frontiers of electron-transfer chemistry demand that we develop theoretical frameworks to describe the delivery of multiple electrons, atoms, and ions in molecular systems. When electrons move over long distances through high barriers, where the probability for thermal population of oxidized or reduced bridge-localized states is very small, the electrons will tunnel from the donor (D) to acceptor (A), facilitated by bridge-mediated superexchange interactions. If the stable donor and acceptor redox states on D and A differ by two electrons, it is possible that the electrons will propagate coherently from D to A. While structure-function relations for single-electron superexchange in molecules are well established, strategies to manipulate the coherent flow of multiple electrons are largely unknown. In contrast to one-electron superexchange, two-electron superexchange involves both one- and two-electron virtual intermediate states, the number of virtual intermediates increases very rapidly with system size, and multiple classes of pathways interfere with one another. In the study described here, we developed simple superexchange models for two-electron transfer. We explored how the bridge structure and energetics influence multielectron superexchange, and we compared two-electron superexchange interactions to single-electron superexchange. Multielectron superexchange introduces interference between singly and doubly oxidized (or reduced) bridge virtual states, so that even simple linear donor-bridge-acceptor systems have pathway topologies that resemble those seen for one-electron superexchange through bridges with multiple parallel pathways. The simple model systems studied here exhibit a richness that is amenable to experimental exploration by manipulating the multiple pathways, pathway crosstalk, and changes in the number of donor and acceptor species. The features that emerge from these studies may assist in developing new strategies to deliver multiple

  10. Genomic encyclopedia of sugar utilization pathways in the Shewanella genus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Overbeek Ross

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Carbohydrates are a primary source of carbon and energy for many bacteria. Accurate projection of known carbohydrate catabolic pathways across diverse bacteria with complete genomes constitutes a substantial challenge due to frequent variations in components of these pathways. To address a practically and fundamentally important challenge of reconstruction of carbohydrate utilization machinery in any microorganism directly from its genomic sequence, we combined a subsystems-based comparative genomic approach with experimental validation of selected bioinformatic predictions by a combination of biochemical, genetic and physiological experiments. Results We applied this integrated approach to systematically map carbohydrate utilization pathways in 19 genomes from the Shewanella genus. The obtained genomic encyclopedia of sugar utilization includes ~170 protein families (mostly metabolic enzymes, transporters and transcriptional regulators spanning 17 distinct pathways with a mosaic distribution across Shewanella species providing insights into their ecophysiology and adaptive evolution. Phenotypic assays revealed a remarkable consistency between predicted and observed phenotype, an ability to utilize an individual sugar as a sole source of carbon and energy, over the entire matrix of tested strains and sugars. Comparison of the reconstructed catabolic pathways with E. coli identified multiple differences that are manifested at various levels, from the presence or absence of certain sugar catabolic pathways, nonorthologous gene replacements and alternative biochemical routes to a different organization of transcription regulatory networks. Conclusions The reconstructed sugar catabolome in Shewanella spp includes 62 novel isofunctional families of enzymes, transporters, and regulators. In addition to improving our knowledge of genomics and functional organization of carbohydrate utilization in Shewanella, this study led to a

  11. Advanced Energy Projects FY 1996 research summaries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-09-01

    The mission of the Advanced Energy Projects Division (AEP) is to explore the scientific feasibility of novel energy-related concepts. These concepts are typically at an early stage of scientific development and, therefore, are premature for consideration by applied research or technology development programs. The portfolio of projects is dynamic, but reflects the broad role of the Department in supporting research and development for improving the Nation`s energy posture. Topical areas presently receiving support include: alternative energy sources; innovative concepts for energy conversion and storage; alternate pathways to energy efficiency; exploring uses of new scientific discoveries; biologically-based energy concepts; renewable and biodegradable materials; novel materials for energy technology; and innovative approaches to waste treatment and reduction. Summaries of the 70 projects currently being supported are presented. Appendices contain budget information and investigator and institutional indices.

  12. Overview about project planning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catalin Drob

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to present the main aspects regarding project planning. This study is generally based on the fourth edition of the Guide to the Project Management Body of Knowledge (PMBOK Guide developed by the Project Management Institute (PMI in 2008. According to this edition of PMBOK, project planning involves a group of processes required to establish the scope of the project, refine the objectives, and define the actions that must be undertaken to attain the objectives of the project.

  13. Project management case studies

    CERN Document Server

    Kerzner, Harold R

    2013-01-01

    A new edition of the most popular book of project management case studies, expanded to include more than 100 cases plus a ""super case"" on the Iridium Project Case studies are an important part of project management education and training. This Fourth Edition of Harold Kerzner''s Project Management Case Studies features a number of new cases covering value measurement in project management. Also included is the well-received ""super case,"" which covers all aspects of project management and may be used as a capstone for a course. This new edition:Contains 100-plus case studies drawn from re

  14. Information systems project management

    CERN Document Server

    Olson, David

    2014-01-01

    Information Systems Project Management addresses project management in the context of information systems. It deals with general project management principles, with focus on the special characteristics of information systems. It is based on an earlier text, but shortened to focus on essential project management elements.This updated version presents various statistics indicating endemic problems in completing information system projects on time, within budget, at designed functionality. While successful completion of an information systems project is a challenge, there are some things that ca

  15. Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project monthly report, August 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McMakin, A.H.; Cannon, S.D.; Finch, S.M. [comps.

    1992-09-01

    The objective of the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction (HEDR) Project is to estimate the radiation doses that individuals and populations could have received from nuclear operations at Hanford since 1944. The project is divided into the following technical tasks. These tasks correspond to the path radionuclides followed from release to impact on humans (dose estimates): source terms; environmental transport; environmental monitoring data; demography; food consumption; and agriculture; and environmental pathway and dose estimates.

  16. Project report - an overview of the project and experiences with project management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Michael Søgaard; Mikkelsen, Bent Egberg

    1996-01-01

    A collection of the project planning and the experiences with project management from the Catering 2000 project.As appendieces articles etc. from journals, newspapers etc. about the project.......A collection of the project planning and the experiences with project management from the Catering 2000 project.As appendieces articles etc. from journals, newspapers etc. about the project....

  17. Three dopamine pathways induce aversive odor memories with different stability.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshinori Aso

    Full Text Available Animals acquire predictive values of sensory stimuli through reinforcement. In the brain of Drosophila melanogaster, activation of two types of dopamine neurons in the PAM and PPL1 clusters has been shown to induce aversive odor memory. Here, we identified the third cell type and characterized aversive memories induced by these dopamine neurons. These three dopamine pathways all project to the mushroom body but terminate in the spatially segregated subdomains. To understand the functional difference of these dopamine pathways in electric shock reinforcement, we blocked each one of them during memory acquisition. We found that all three pathways partially contribute to electric shock memory. Notably, the memories mediated by these neurons differed in temporal stability. Furthermore, combinatorial activation of two of these pathways revealed significant interaction of individual memory components rather than their simple summation. These results cast light on a cellular mechanism by which a noxious event induces different dopamine signals to a single brain structure to synthesize an aversive memory.

  18. Direct and indirect dorsolateral striatum pathways reinforce different action strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vicente, Ana M; Galvão-Ferreira, Pedro; Tecuapetla, Fatuel; Costa, Rui M

    2016-04-04

    The basal ganglia, and the striatum in particular, are critical for action reinforcement [1,2]. The dorsal striatum, which can be further subdivided into dorsomedial (DMS) and dorsolateral (DLS) striatum, is mainly composed of two subpopulations of striatal medium spiny projection neurons (MSNs): dopamine D1 receptor-expressing MSNs that constitute the striatonigral or direct pathway (dMSNs); and dopamine D2 receptor-expressing MSNs that constitute the striatopallidal or indirect pathway (iMSNs) [3]. It has been suggested that each pathway has opposing roles in reinforcement, with dMSNs being important to learn positive reinforcement and iMSNs to learn to avoid undesired actions (Go/No-Go) [1]. Furthermore, optogenetic self-stimulation of dMSNs in DMS leads to reinforcement of actions, while self-stimulation of iMSNs leads to avoidance of actions [2]. However, in DLS, which has been implicated in the consolidation of well-trained actions and habits in mice [4,5], both pathways are active during lever-pressing for reward [6]. Furthermore, extensive skill training leads to long-lasting potentiation of glutamatergic inputs into both dMSNs and iMSNs [4]. We report here that, in DLS, both dMSNs and iMSNs are involved in positive reinforcement, but support different action strategies.

  19. Language and Development in FG Syndrome with Callosal Agenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCardle, Peggy; Wilson, Bruce

    1993-01-01

    The FG syndrome is characterized by unusual facies; sudden infant death; developmental delay; and abnormalities of the cardiac, gastrointestinal, and central nervous systems. Serial evaluations of one case with isolated agenesis of the corpus callosum found consistent patterns over time in specific language impairments in syntactic and…

  20. Perinatal exposure to music protects spatial memory against callosal lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amagdei, Anca; Balteş, Felicia Rodica; Avram, Julia; Miu, Andrei C

    2010-02-01

    Several studies have indicated that the exposure of rodents to music modulates brain development and neuroplasticity, by mechanisms that involve facilitated hippocampal neurogenesis, neurotrophin synthesis and glutamatergic signaling. This study focused on the potential protection that the perinatal exposure to music, between postnatal days 2 and 32, could offer against functional deficits induced by neonatal callosotomy in rats. The spontaneous alternation and marble-burying behaviors were longitudinally measured in callosotomized and control rats that had been exposed to music or not. The results indicated that the neonatal callosotomy-induced spontaneous alternation deficits that became apparent only after postnatal day 45, about the time when the rat corpus callosum reaches its maximal levels of myelination. The perinatal exposure to music efficiently protected the spontaneous alternation performance against the deficits induced by callosotomy. The present findings may offer important insights into music-induced neuroplasticity, relevant to brain development and neurorehabilitation. Copyright 2009 ISDN. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Left hand tactile agnosia after posterior callosal lesion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balsamo, Maddalena; Trojano, Luigi; Giamundo, Arcangelo; Grossi, Dario

    2008-09-01

    We report a patient with a hemorrhagic lesion encroaching upon the posterior third of the corpus callosum but sparing the splenium. She showed marked difficulties in recognizing objects and shapes perceived through her left hand, while she could appreciate elementary sensorial features of items tactually presented to the same hand flawlessly. This picture, corresponding to classical descriptions of unilateral associative tactile agnosia, was associated with finger agnosia of the left hand. This very unusual case report can be interpreted as an instance of disconnection syndrome, and allows a discussion of mechanisms involved in tactile object recognition.

  2. Reliability of measuring regional callosal atrophy in neurodegenerative diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeroen Van Schependom, MSc Eng, PhD

    2016-01-01

    In summary, we have constructed an algorithm that reliably detects the CC in 3D T1 images in a fully automated way in healthy controls and different neurodegenerative diseases. Although the CC area and the circularity are the most reliable features (ICC > 0.97; the reliability of the thickness profile (ICC > 0.90; excluding the tip is sufficient to warrant its inclusion in future clinical studies.

  3. Candidate pathway based analysis for cleft lip with or without cleft palate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Tian-Xiao; Beaty, Terri H; Ruczinski, Ingo

    2012-01-06

    The objective of this research was to identify potential biological pathways associated with non-syndromic cleft lip with or without cleft palate (NSCL/P), and to explore the potential biological mechanisms underlying these associated pathways on risk of NSCL/P. This project was based on the dataset of a previously published genome-wide association (GWA) study on NSCL/P (Beaty et al. 2010). Case-parent trios used here originated from an international consortium (The Gene, Environment Association Studies consortium, GENEVA) formed in 2007. A total of 5,742 individuals from 1,908 CL/P case-parents trios (1,591 complete trios and 317 incomplete trios where one parent was missing) were collected and genotyped using the Illumina Human610-Quad array. Candidate pathways were selected using a list of 356 genes that may be related to oral clefts. In total, 42 candidate pathways, which included 1,564 genes and 40,208 SNPs were tested. Using a pathway-based analysis approach proposed by Wang et al (2007), we conducted a permutation-based test to assess the statistical significance of the nominal p-values of 42 candidate pathways. The analysis revealed several pathways yielding nominally significant p-values. However, controlling for the family wise error rate, none of these pathways could retain statistical significance. Nominal p-values of these pathways were concentrated at the lower tail of the distribution, with more than expected low p-values. A permutation based test for examining this type of distribution pattern yielded an overall p-value of 0.029. Thus, while this pathway-based analysis did not yield a clear significant result for any particular pathway, we conclude that one or more of the genes and pathways considered here likely do play a role in oral clefting.

  4. Project Portfolio Management Software

    OpenAIRE

    Paul POCATILU

    2006-01-01

    In order to design a methodology for the development of project portfolio management (PPM) applications, the existing applications have to be studied. This paper describes the main characteristics of the leading project portfolio management software applications.

  5. Project Portfolio Management Software

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul POCATILU

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to design a methodology for the development of project portfolio management (PPM applications, the existing applications have to be studied. This paper describes the main characteristics of the leading project portfolio management software applications.

  6. Project Weather and Water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Pal J. Kirkeby

    2000-01-01

    Introduces Project Weather and Water with the goal of developing and testing ideas of how to implement weather topics and water physics in an integrated way. Discusses teacher preparation, implementation, and evaluation of this project. (ASK)

  7. Farm Bill project report

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report briefly summarizes projects completed and projects not completed with signed WEA's. Additionally, a table sharing the results of 1990 Canada good nesting...

  8. Earned value project management

    CERN Document Server

    Fleming, Quentin W

    2010-01-01

    Organizations that follow the principles of good Earned Value Management (EVM) create an environment that allows teams to successfully operate and thrive ? even in the face of challenges that could negatively impact their projects. Earned Value Project Management (EVPM) is a methodology used to measure and communicate the real physical progress of a project taking into account the work completed, the time taken and the costs incurred to complete that work. As a result, EVPM allows more educated and effective management decision-making, which helps evaluate and control project risk by measuring project progress in monetary terms. In the first two editions of Earned Value Project Management, Quentin W. Fleming and Joel M. Koppelman provided guidance for project management practitioners already familiar with EVPM, was well as those who were new to the use of this technique. The third edition expanded the information available on of EVPM for medium and smaller projects while still being relevant for larger projec...

  9. Successful project management

    CERN Document Server

    Young, Trevor L

    2016-01-01

    Successful Project Management, 5th edition, is an essential guide for anyone who wants to improve the success rate of their projects. It will help managers to maintain a balance between the demands of the customer, the project, the team and the organization. Covering the more technical aspects of a project from start to completion it contains practised and tested techniques, covering project conception and start-up, how to manage stake holders, effective risk management, project planning and launch and execution. Also including a brand new glossary of key terms, it provides help with evaluating your project as well as practical checklists and templates to ensure success for any ambitious project manager. With over one million copies sold, the hugely popular Creating Success series covers a wide variety of topic, with the latest editions including new chapters such as Tough Conversations and Treating People Right. This indispensable business skills collection is suited to a variety of roles, from someone look...

  10. CHP Project Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Access information and tools to support the CHP project development process, including identifying if your facility is a good fit for CHP, the steps involved with CHP project development, and policies and incentives supportive of CHP.

  11. Collaborative Contracting in Projects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Suprapto, M.

    2016-01-01

    Project practitioners have increasingly recognized the importance of collaborative relationships to ensure successful executions of projects. However, the ability to sustain and consistenly drive real collaborative attitudes and behavior for achieving the desired outcomes remains of enduring practic

  12. Collaborative Contracting in Projects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Suprapto, M.

    2016-01-01

    Project practitioners have increasingly recognized the importance of collaborative relationships to ensure successful executions of projects. However, the ability to sustain and consistenly drive real collaborative attitudes and behavior for achieving the desired outcomes remains of enduring

  13. Project Tasks in Robotics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Torben; Hansen, Poul Erik

    1998-01-01

    Description of the compulsary project tasks to be carried out as a part of DTU course 72238 Robotics......Description of the compulsary project tasks to be carried out as a part of DTU course 72238 Robotics...

  14. Architectural project and research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lotz, Katrine

    2005-01-01

    Discussion of criterias for research including the researchers or designers own project as theme.......Discussion of criterias for research including the researchers or designers own project as theme....

  15. Improved Mass Spectrometer Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Improved Mass Spectrometer project will develop system requirements and analyze the path to space qualification.   The results of this project...

  16. The Alzheimer's Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues The Alzheimer's Project Past Issues / Spring 2009 Table of Contents ... of this page please turn Javascript on. The Alzheimer's Project A 4-Part Documentary Series Starting May ...

  17. The "Old Dogs" Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehrlich, Robert; And Others

    1997-01-01

    Describes a low cost, easily emulated project designed to improve classroom teaching methods. Discusses the benefits of peer evaluation and lists the criteria used for selecting participants. Highlights lessons learned from the project. (JRH)

  18. MANAGING MULTICULTURAL PROJECT TEAMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cezar SCARLAT

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The article is based on literature review and authors’ own recent experience in managing multicultural project teams, in international environment. This comparative study considers two groups of projects: technical assistance (TA projects versus information technology (IT projects. The aim is to explore the size and structure of the project teams – according to the team formation and its lifecycle, and to identify some distinctive attributes of the project teams – both similarities and differences between the above mentioned types of projects. Distinct focus of the research is on the multiculturalism of the project teams: how the cultural background of the team members influences the team performance and team management. Besides the results of the study are the managerial implications: how the team managers could soften the cultural clash, and avoid inter-cultural misunderstandings and even conflicts – in order to get a better performance. Some practical examples are provided as well.

  19. RadWorks Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — For the first two years of the project (FY12-13), the RadWorks project has consisted of two top-level elements. The first element involved the prototype and...

  20. Pro web project management

    CERN Document Server

    Emond, Justin

    2012-01-01

    Caters to an under-served niche market of small and medium-sized web consulting projects Eases people's project management pain Uses a clear, simple, and accessible style that eschews theory and hates walls of text

  1. BioProject

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The BioProject database provides an organizational framework to access information about research projects with links to data that have been or will be deposited...

  2. Capital Projects Application (CPA)

    Data.gov (United States)

    General Services Administration — Capital Projects application (CPA) provides users with the ability to maintain project related financial data for Budget Activity (BA) 51, 55, 64, 01, 02, 03, 04....

  3. Targeting Newlands Project acquisitions

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report is about the effects of the Newlands Project in Nevada and the ways in which the Project will impact water available for wetlands and irrigation. The...

  4. Architectural project and research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lotz, Katrine

    2005-01-01

    Discussion of criterias for research including the researchers or designers own project as theme.......Discussion of criterias for research including the researchers or designers own project as theme....

  5. Application of XML database technology to biological pathway datasets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Keyuan; Nash, Christopher

    2006-01-01

    The study of biological systems has accumulated a significant amount of biological pathway data, which is evident through the continued growth in both the number of databases and amount of data available. The development of BioPAX standard leads to the increased availability of biological pathway datasets through the use of a special XML format, but the lack of standard storage mechanism makes the querying and aggregation of BioPAX compliant data challenging. To address this shortcoming, we have developed a storage mechanism leveraging the existing XML technologies: the XML database and XQuery. The goal of our project is to provide a generic and centralized store with efficient queries for the needs of biomedical research. A SOAP-based Web service and direct HTTP request methods have also developed to facilitate public consumption of the datasets online.

  6. Pathways for balancing CO2 emissions and sinks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Brian; Ciais, Philippe; Janssens, Ivan A.; Peñuelas, Josep; Riahi, Keywan; Rydzak, Felicjan; van Vuuren, Detlef P.; Obersteiner, Michael

    2017-04-01

    In December 2015 in Paris, leaders committed to achieve global, net decarbonization of human activities before 2100. This achievement would halt and even reverse anthropogenic climate change through the net removal of carbon from the atmosphere. However, the Paris documents contain few specific prescriptions for emissions mitigation, leaving various countries to pursue their own agendas. In this analysis, we project energy and land-use emissions mitigation pathways through 2100, subject to best-available parameterization of carbon-climate feedbacks and interdependencies. We find that, barring unforeseen and transformative technological advancement, anthropogenic emissions need to peak within the next 10 years, to maintain realistic pathways to meeting the COP21 emissions and warming targets. Fossil fuel consumption will probably need to be reduced below a quarter of primary energy supply by 2100 and the allowable consumption rate drops even further if negative emissions technologies remain technologically or economically unfeasible at the global scale.

  7. DMPD: Pathways connecting inflammation and cancer. [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 18325755 Pathways connecting inflammation and cancer. Allavena P, Garlanda C, Borre...) (.csml) Show Pathways connecting inflammation and cancer. PubmedID 18325755 Title Pathways connecting infl

  8. Pontine Reticulospinal Projections in the Neonatal Mouse: Internal Organization and Axon Trajectories

    OpenAIRE

    Sivertsen, Magne Sand; Perreault, Marie-Claude; Glover, Joel C.

    2015-01-01

    We recently characterized physiologically a pontine reticulospinal (pRS) projection in the neonatal mouse that mediates synaptic effects on spinal motoneurons via parallel uncrossed and crossed pathways (Sivertsen et al. [2014] J Neurophysiol 112:1628–1643). Here we characterize the origins, anatomical organization, and supraspinal axon trajectories of these pathways via retrograde tracing from the high cervical spinal cord. The two pathways derive from segregated populations of ipsilaterally...

  9. Integrated project support environments the ASPECT project

    CERN Document Server

    Brown, Alan W

    1991-01-01

    A major part of software engineering developments involve the use of computing tools which facilitate the management, maintenance, security, and building of long-scale software engineer projects. Consequently, there have been a proliferation of CASE tools and IPSES. This book looks at IPSES in general and the ASPECT project in particular, providing design and implementation details, as well as locating ASPECT in IPSE developments.Survey of integrated project support environments for more efficient software engineering**Description of a large scale IPSE--ASPECT**Evaluation of formal methods in

  10. Agile & Distributed Project Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pries-Heje, Jan; Pries-Heje, Lene

    2011-01-01

    Scrum has gained surprising momentum as an agile IS project management approach. An obvious question is why Scrum is so useful? To answer that question we carried out a longitudinal study of a distributed project using Scrum. We analyzed the data using coding and categorisation and three carefull...... and coordination mechanisms by allowing both local and global articulation of work in the project. That is why Scrum is especially useful for distributed IS project management and teamwork....

  11. Project Management Performance Drivers

    OpenAIRE

    Ra’ad, Mohammed A.; Najdawi, Mohammad K.

    2010-01-01

    The practice of project management has gained enormous importance over the past several years in various business industries. “In industries as diverse as pharmaceuticals, software, and aerospace, projects drive business” (Wheatley). This gain of importance can be attributed to the magnitude of the impact project performance results in terms of time, cost, and scope have over the project performing entity. “On the basis of data released by the Bureau of Economic Analysis, part of the US De...

  12. Methodologies of project management

    OpenAIRE

    Macek, Wojciech

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents comparison of three most popular project management standards belonging to a wider group of models (for example, PMBOK, Prince 2, CMMI, ISO 10006, BS 6079, IPMA Competence Baseline, European Commission Project Cycle Management Guidelines). The author discusses methods of project management according to PMBoK, Prince 2 and ISO 10006, some chosen criteria and fields of knowledge, such as general regulations of standards, project range management, resources management, and pr...

  13. Agile & Distributed Project Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pries-Heje, Jan; Pries-Heje, Lene

    2011-01-01

    Scrum has gained surprising momentum as an agile IS project management approach. An obvious question is why Scrum is so useful? To answer that question we carried out a longitudinal study of a distributed project using Scrum. We analyzed the data using coding and categorisation and three carefully...... and coordination mechanisms by allowing both local and global articulation of work in the project. That is why Scrum is especially useful for distributed IS project management and teamwork....

  14. Parameters used in the environmental pathways and radiological dose modules of the Phase I air pathway code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shindle, S.F.; Ikenberry, T.A.; Napier, B.A.

    1992-05-01

    This report is a description of work performed for the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction (HEDR) Project. The HEDR Project was established to estimate radiation doses to individuals resulting from releases of radionuclides from the Hanford Site since 1944, when facilities there first began operating. An independent Technical Steering Panel directs the project, which is conducted by Battelle staff from the Pacific Northwest Laboratory. The objective of Phase 1 of the HEDR Project was to demonstrate through calculation that adequate models and support data existed or could be developed to allow estimation of realistic doses to individuals from historical Hanford Site radionuclide releases. The HEDR Phase 1 computer code was used to model the transport of iodine-131 released to the atmosphere from the Hanford Site facilities, through environmental pathways to points of human exposure. Output from the code was preliminary estimates of doses received by members of the public living in the vicinity of the Hanford Site. Later project work continues to build upon Phase 1 progress in order to refine dose estimates.

  15. Hydrogen sulfide in signaling pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olas, Beata

    2015-01-15

    For a long time hydrogen sulfide (H₂S) was considered a toxic compound, but recently H₂S (at low concentrations) has been found to play an important function in physiological processes. Hydrogen sulfide, like other well-known compounds - nitric oxide (NO) and carbon monoxide (CO) is a gaseous intracellular signal transducer. It regulates the cell cycle, apoptosis and the oxidative stress. Moreover, its functions include neuromodulation, regulation of cardiovascular system and inflammation. In this review, I focus on the metabolism of hydrogen sulfide (including enzymatic pathways of H₂S synthesis from l- and d-cysteine) and its signaling pathways in the cardiovascular system and the nervous system. I also describe how hydrogen sulfide may be used as therapeutic agent, i.e. in the cardiovascular diseases.

  16. The USE Project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frøkjær, E.; Hornbæk, K.; Høegh, Rune Thaarup;

    2006-01-01

    This paper provides experience from activities in the USE project. The USE project is a research project that aims at bridging the gap between usability evaluation and user interface design. It is conducted from 2005 to 2008 in collaboration between researchers from Aalborg University...

  17. Building Project Competence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pemsel, Sofia; Wiewiora, Anna

    This research investigates the development of project competence, and particularly, three related dynamic capabilities (shifting, adapting, leveraging) that contribute to project competence development. In doing so, we make use of the emerging literature on knowledge governance and theorize how k...... of dynamic capability building promoting project competence development....

  18. Semi-projective modules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Döman

    1984-03-01

    Full Text Available It is well-known that the submodules of a projective module need not be projective. In this article we investigate a certain projectivity which is preserved under the taking of submodules. This property is used to characterize hereditary rings and QF rings.

  19. Projection: A Bibliography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedrini, D. T.; Pedrini, Bonnie C.

    Sigmund Freud and his associates did much clinical work with the dynamic of projection, especially with regard to paranoid symptoms and syndromes. Much experimental work has also been done with projection. Sears evaluated the results of some of those studies. Murstein and Pryer sub-classified projection and reviewed typical studies. The…

  20. The Sidewalk Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Church, William

    2005-01-01

    In this article, the author features "the sidewalk project" in Littleton High School. The sidewalk project is a collaboration of more than 40 high school physics students, 10 local mentors, and a few regional and national organizations who worked together to invent a way to heat a sidewalk with an alternative energy source. The project, which…

  1. The USE Project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frøkjær, E.; Hornbæk, K.; Høegh, Rune Thaarup

    2006-01-01

    This paper provides experience from activities in the USE project. The USE project is a research project that aims at bridging the gap between usability evaluation and user interface design. It is conducted from 2005 to 2008 in collaboration between researchers from Aalborg University...

  2. The Llama Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganzel, Candy; Stuglik, Jan

    2003-01-01

    At a suburban Indiana elementary school, the Project Approach serves as the basis of the curriculum in all Kindergarten classrooms. The four classes of 5- and 6-year-old children at this school chose to study llamas. This article discusses how the project evolved, describes the three phases of the project, and provides teachers' reflections on the…

  3. The Eggen Card Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silvis, G.

    2014-06-01

    (Abstract only) Olin Eggen, noted astronomer (1919-1998), left to us all his raw observation records recorded on 3x5 cards. This project is to make all this data available as an online resource. History and progress of the project will be presented. Project details available at: https://sites.google.com/site/eggencards/home.

  4. Mayan Forest Road Projects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Conde, Dalia Amor

    2008-01-01

    Road-building projects in the Mayan Biosphere Reserve to connect Mexico and Guatemala were subjected to a cost-benefit evaluation. Up to an estimated 311,000 hectares of jaguar habitat were found to be at risk of deforestation due to these projects. Some of the projects were shown to have negativ...

  5. Projection: A Bibliography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedrini, D. T.; Pedrini, Bonnie C.

    Sigmund Freud and his associates did much clinical work with the dynamic of projection, especially with regard to paranoid symptoms and syndromes. Much experimental work has also been done with projection. Sears evaluated the results of some of those studies. Murstein and Pryer sub-classified projection and reviewed typical studies. The…

  6. NEURAL PATHWAYS OF TRIGEMINAL PROPRIOCEPTIVE AFFERENTS COORDINATE ORAL MOTOR BEHAVIORS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Luo Pifu; Zhang Jingdong; Li Jishuo

    2003-01-01

    Neural pathways and synaptic connections from the trigeminal mesencephalic nucleus (Vme) neurons to the cranial motor nuclei were studied in the rat using double labelling methodologies of intracellular Neurobiotin staining combined with retrograde horseradish peroxidase (HRP) transport, anterograde biotinylated dextran amine (BDA) tracing combined with retrograde HRP transport, and a dual fluorescent labelling of BDA anterograde combined tracing with Cholera Toxin B (CTB) retrograde transport. Direct projections and synapses were demonstrated from Vme neuronal boutons to motoneurons (MNs) of the trigeminal motor nucleus (Vmo), the hypoglossal nucleus (Ⅻ) and the ambiguus nucleus (Amb). Indirect projections and pathways from Vme neurons to the cranial motor nuclei including Vmo, Ⅻ, the facial nucleus (Ⅶ) and the cervical spinal cord (C1~5) were seen to relay on their premotor neurons. The premotor neurons of above cranial motor nuclei were overlapped in bilateral premotor neuronal pool including the parvocellular reticular formation (PCRt) and its alpha division (PCRtA), the dorsomedial part of the spinal trigeminal nucleus oralis (Vodm), and interpolaris (Vidm), the medullary reticular nucleus dorsal division (MdD), the supratrigeminal region (Vsup) and the dorsomedial part of the principal trigeminal sensory nucleus (Vpdm).Synapses between Vme neuronal boutons and Vmo and Ⅻ MNs and Ⅻ premotor neurons were predominantly asymmetric.There were four types of synaptic organizations, i.e. synaptic convergence; synaptic divergence presynaptic inhibition and afferent feedforward inhibition seen between Vme boutons and Vmno, Ⅻ MNs and between Vme boutons and Ⅻ premotor neurons.The results of present studies have demonstrated direct pathways from the trigeminal proprioceptive afferents to Vmo, Ⅻ and Amb MNs, and indirect pathways from the trigeminal proprioceptive afferents to bilateral Vmno, Ⅻ, Ⅶ and C1~s via their premotor neurons. It provides

  7. Identification of Metabolic Pathway Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sepideh eDolatshahi

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The estimation of parameters in even moderately large biological systems is a significant challenge. This challenge is greatly exacerbated if the mathematical formats of appropriate process descriptions are unknown. To address this challenge, the method of dynamic flux estimation (DFE was proposed for the analysis of metabolic time series data. Under ideal conditions, the first phase of DFE yields numerical representations of all fluxes within a metabolic pathway system, either as values at each time point or as plots against their substrates and modulators. However, this numerical result does not reveal the mathematical format of each flux. Thus, the second phase of DFE selects functional formats that are consistent with the numerical trends obtained from the first phase. While greatly facilitating metabolic data analysis, DFE is only directly applicable if the pathway system contains as many dependent variables as fluxes. Because most actual systems contain more fluxes than metabolite pools, this requirement is seldom satisfied. Auxiliary methods have been proposed to alleviate this issue, but they are not general. Here we propose strategies that extend DFE toward general, slightly underdetermined pathway systems.

  8. Dual pathways to prospective remembering

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDaniel, Mark A.; Umanath, Sharda; Einstein, Gilles O.; Waldum, Emily R.

    2015-01-01

    According to the multiprocess framework (McDaniel and Einstein, 2000), the cognitive system can support prospective memory (PM) retrieval through two general pathways. One pathway depends on top–down attentional control processes that maintain activation of the intention and/or monitor the environment for the triggering or target cues that indicate that the intention should be executed. A second pathway depends on (bottom–up) spontaneous retrieval processes, processes that are often triggered by a PM target cue; critically, spontaneous retrieval is assumed not to require monitoring or active maintenance of the intention. Given demand characteristics associated with experimental settings, however, participants are often inclined to monitor, thereby potentially masking discovery of bottom–up spontaneous retrieval processes. In this article, we discuss parameters of laboratory PM paradigms to discourage monitoring and review recent behavioral evidence from such paradigms that implicate spontaneous retrieval in PM. We then re-examine the neuro-imaging evidence from the lens of the multiprocess framework and suggest some critical modifications to existing neuro-cognitive interpretations of the neuro-imaging results. These modifications illuminate possible directions and refinements for further neuro-imaging investigations of PM. PMID:26236213

  9. Dual Pathways to Prospective Remembering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark A Mcdaniel

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available According to the multiprocess framework (McDaniel & Einstein, 2000, the cognitive system can support prospective memory (PM retrieval through two general pathways. One pathway depends on top-down attentional control processes that maintain activation of the intention and/or monitor the environment for the triggering or target cues that indicate that the intention should be executed. A second pathway depends on (bottom-up spontaneous retrieval processes, processes that are often triggered by a PM target cue; critically spontaneous retrieval is assumed to not require monitoring or active maintenance of the intention. Given demand characteristics associated with experimental settings, however, participants are often inclined to monitor, thereby potentially masking discovery of bottom-up spontaneous retrieval processes. In this article, we discuss parameters of laboratory PM paradigms to discourage monitoring and review recent behavioral evidence from such paradigms that implicate spontaneous retrieval in PM. We then re-examine the neuro-imaging evidence from the lens of the multiprocess framework and suggest some critical modifications to existing neuro-cognitive interpretations of the neuro-imaging results. These modifications illuminate possible directions and refinements for further neuro-imaging investigations of PM.

  10. Imbalanced kynurenine pathway in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kegel, Magdalena E; Bhat, Maria; Skogh, Elisabeth; Samuelsson, Martin; Lundberg, Kristina; Dahl, Marja-Liisa; Sellgren, Carl; Schwieler, Lilly; Engberg, Göran; Schuppe-Koistinen, Ina; Erhardt, Sophie

    2014-01-01

    Several studies suggest a role for kynurenic acid (KYNA) in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. It has been proposed that increased brain KYNA levels in schizophrenia result from a pathological shift in the kynurenine pathway toward enhanced KYNA formation, away from the other branch of the pathway leading to quinolinic acid (QUIN). Here we investigate the levels of QUIN in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of patients with schizophrenia and healthy controls, and relate those to CSF levels of KYNA and other kynurenine metabolites from the same individuals. CSF QUIN levels from stable outpatients treated with olanzapine (n = 22) and those of controls (n = 26) were analyzed using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. No difference in CSF QUIN levels between patients and controls was observed (20.6 ± 1.5 nM vs. 18.2 ± 1.1 nM, P = 0.36). CSF QUIN was positively correlated to CSF kynurenine and CSF KYNA in patients but not in controls. The CSF QUIN/KYNA ratio was lower in patients than in controls (P = 0.027). In summary, the present study offers support for an over-activated and imbalanced kynurenine pathway, favoring the production of KYNA over QUIN in patients with schizophrenia.

  11. Pathways to Shape the Bioeconomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Priefer

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available In view of the increasing depletion of fossil fuel resources, the concept “bioeconomy” aims at the gradual replacement of fossil fuels by renewable feedstock. Seen as a comprehensive societal transition, the bioeconomy is a complex field that includes a variety of sectors, actors, and interests and is related to far-reaching changes in today’s production systems. While the objectives pursued—such as reducing dependence on fossil fuels, mitigating climate change, ensuring global food security, and increasing the industrial use of biogenic resources—are not generally contentious, there is fierce controversy over the possible pathways for achieving these objectives. Based on a thorough literature review, the article identifies major lines of conflict in the current discourse. Criticism of the prevalent concept refers mainly to the strong focus on technology, the lack of consideration given to alternative implementation pathways, the insufficient differentiation of underlying sustainability requirements, and the inadequate participation of societal stakeholders. Since today it cannot be predicted which pathway will be the most expedient—the one already being taken or one of the others proposed—this paper suggests pursuing a strategy of diversity concerning the approaches to shape the bioeconomy, the funding of research topics, and the involvement of stakeholders.

  12. Identification of Metabolic Pathway Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolatshahi, Sepideh; Voit, Eberhard O

    2016-01-01

    The estimation of parameters in even moderately large biological systems is a significant challenge. This challenge is greatly exacerbated if the mathematical formats of appropriate process descriptions are unknown. To address this challenge, the method of dynamic flux estimation (DFE) was proposed for the analysis of metabolic time series data. Under ideal conditions, the first phase of DFE yields numerical representations of all fluxes within a metabolic pathway system, either as values at each time point or as plots against their substrates and modulators. However, this numerical result does not reveal the mathematical format of each flux. Thus, the second phase of DFE selects functional formats that are consistent with the numerical trends obtained from the first phase. While greatly facilitating metabolic data analysis, DFE is only directly applicable if the pathway system contains as many dependent variables as fluxes. Because most actual systems contain more fluxes than metabolite pools, this requirement is seldom satisfied. Auxiliary methods have been proposed to alleviate this issue, but they are not general. Here we propose strategies that extend DFE toward general, slightly underdetermined pathway systems.

  13. THE SYNAPTIC CONNECTIONS BETWEEN PV-LI TERMINALS AND THALAMIC PROJECTION NEURONS IN THE THIRD-ORDER NUCLEI OF CENTRAL PATHWAY OF TRIGEMINAL PROPRIOCEPTIVE SENSATION OF THE RAT%大鼠三叉神经本体觉中枢通路上第三级核团内PV样阳性终末与丘脑投射神经元的突触联系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董玉琳; 李金莲

    2004-01-01

    Objective To examine if axonal varicosities with parvalbumin-like immunoreactivity(PV-LI) might make synaptic connections with thalamic projection neurons in the third-order nuclei of central pathway of trigeminal proprioceptive sensation of the rat. Methods The HRP-retrograde tracing method combined with immuno-electron microscopy was used.Projection neurons were retrogradely labeled with wheat germ agglutinin-horseradish peroxidase(WGA-HRP) which was injected into the ventral posteromedial nucleus(VPM) of the thalamus. Results After injection,a number of WGA-HRP-labeled neurons were observed mainly in the principal sensory trigeminal nucleus(Vp),the caudolateral part of supratrigeminal nucleus (Vsup-CL),the area ventral to the motor trigeminal nucleus(AVM) and the area dorsal to the superior olivary nucleus(ADO).Electron microscopy confirmed that axon terminals with PV-LI made synaptic contact on somatic and dendritic profiles which were labeled with WGA-HRP.In addition,some PV-negative axon terminals made synapses with WGA-HRP-labeled somatic or dendritic profiles occasionally showed PV-LI.Conclusion It was indicated that some of PV-containing projection neurons might be involved in the transmission of the trigeminal proprioceptive information from the third-order nuclei to the VPM of thalamus through the mechanism of synaptic transmission.%目的观察大鼠三叉神经本体觉中枢通路上第三级核团内Parvalbumin样阳性轴突终末与丘脑投射神经元之间是否存在突触联系. 方法用HRP逆行追踪和包埋前免疫电镜相结合的双重标记法.将WGA-HRP注入丘脑腹后内侧核逆行标记投射神经元. 结果 WGA-HRP注入丘脑腹后内侧核(VPM)后,WGA-HRP标记神经元主要分布在感觉主核背内侧部(Vpdm)、三叉上核尾外侧部(Vsup-CL)以及三叉神经运动核腹侧区(AVM)和上橄榄核背侧区(ADO).电镜下可见PV样阳性神经元的轴突终末与WGA-HRP标记的胞体或者树突形成突触联系.

  14. NASA Pathways Internship: Spring 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, Oscar, III

    2016-01-01

    I was selected to contribute to the Data Systems and Handling Branch under the Avionics Flight Systems Division at the Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center in Houston, Texas. There I used my knowledge from school, as well as my job experience from the military, to help me comprehend my assigned project and contribute to it. With help from my mentors, supervisors, colleagues, and an excellent NASA work environment, I was able to learn, as well as accomplish, a lot towards my project. Not only did I understand more about embedded systems, microcontrollers, and low-level programming, I also was given the opportunity to explore the NASA community.

  15. The updated RGD Pathway Portal utilizes increased curation efficiency and provides expanded pathway information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayman, G Thomas; Jayaraman, Pushkala; Petri, Victoria; Tutaj, Marek; Liu, Weisong; De Pons, Jeff; Dwinell, Melinda R; Shimoyama, Mary

    2013-02-05

    The RGD Pathway Portal provides pathway annotations for rat, human and mouse genes and pathway diagrams and suites, all interconnected via the pathway ontology. Diagram pages present the diagram and description, with diagram objects linked to additional resources. A newly-developed dual-functionality web application composes the diagram page. Curators input the description, diagram, references and additional pathway objects. The application combines these with tables of rat, human and mouse pathway genes, including genetic information, analysis tool and reference links, and disease, phenotype and other pathway annotations to pathway genes. The application increases the information content of diagram pages while expediting publication.

  16. Underestimation of Project Costs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Harry W.

    2015-01-01

    Large projects almost always exceed their budgets. Estimating cost is difficult and estimated costs are usually too low. Three different reasons are suggested: bad luck, overoptimism, and deliberate underestimation. Project management can usually point to project difficulty and complexity, technical uncertainty, stakeholder conflicts, scope changes, unforeseen events, and other not really unpredictable bad luck. Project planning is usually over-optimistic, so the likelihood and impact of bad luck is systematically underestimated. Project plans reflect optimism and hope for success in a supposedly unique new effort rather than rational expectations based on historical data. Past project problems are claimed to be irrelevant because "This time it's different." Some bad luck is inevitable and reasonable optimism is understandable, but deliberate deception must be condemned. In a competitive environment, project planners and advocates often deliberately underestimate costs to help gain project approval and funding. Project benefits, cost savings, and probability of success are exaggerated and key risks ignored. Project advocates have incentives to distort information and conceal difficulties from project approvers. One naively suggested cure is more openness, honesty, and group adherence to shared overall goals. A more realistic alternative is threatening overrun projects with cancellation. Neither approach seems to solve the problem. A better method to avoid the delusions of over-optimism and the deceptions of biased advocacy is to base the project cost estimate on the actual costs of a large group of similar projects. Over optimism and deception can continue beyond the planning phase and into project execution. Hard milestones based on verified tests and demonstrations can provide a reality check.

  17. Fundamentals of Project Management

    CERN Document Server

    Heagney, Joseph

    2011-01-01

    With sales of more than 160,000 copies, Fundamentals of Project Management has helped generations of project managers navigate the ins and outs of every aspect of this complex discipline. Using a simple step-by-step approach, the book is the perfect introduction to project management tools, techniques, and concepts. Readers will learn how to: ò Develop a mission statement, vision, goals, and objectives ò Plan the project ò Create the work breakdown structure ò Produce a workable schedule ò Understand earned value analysis ò Manage a project team ò Control and evaluate progress at every stage.

  18. Project Management Handbook

    OpenAIRE

    Hyttinen, Kirsi

    2017-01-01

    Project Management has become a core competency, and nearly every manager is involved in managing one or more projects. Moreover, the role of projects in organisations is receiving increasing attention.” In almost every organisation, projects are planned and run on a daily basis. At the same time, we are living in a hectic world with no time for massive reading exercises. This handbook aims to support both perspectives: to run projects smoothly, and to quickly find topics that are releva...

  19. Project Half Double

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svejvig, Per; Gerstrøm, Anna; Frederiksen, Signe Hedeboe

    The Half Double mission: Project Half Double has a clear mission. We want to succeed in finding a project methodology that can increase the success rate of our projects while increasing the development speed of new products and services. We are convinced that by doing so we can strengthen...... projects and to document their development. The purpose of this addendum is thus to document the development in the pilot projects from June 2016 to January 2017 with particular focus on the impact they have created. This Addendum is a supplement and should be read in conjunction with the Phase 1 report...

  20. Allergy immunotherapy across the life cycle to promote active and healthy ageing: from research to policies: An AIRWAYS Integrated Care Pathways (ICPs) programme item (Action Plan B3 of the European Innovation Partnership on active and healthy ageing) and the Global Alliance against Chronic Respiratory Diseases (GARD), a World Health Organization GARD research demonstration project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calderon, M A; Demoly, P; Casale, T; Akdis, C A; Bachert, C; Bewick, M; Bilò, B M; Bohle, B; Bonini, S; Bush, A; Caimmi, D P; Canonica, G W; Cardona, V; Chiriac, A M; Cox, L; Custovic, A; De Blay, F; Devillier, P; Didier, A; Di Lorenzo, G; Du Toit, G; Durham, S R; Eng, P; Fiocchi, A; Fox, A T; van Wijk, R Gerth; Gomez, R M; Haathela, T; Halken, S; Hellings, P W; Jacobsen, L; Just, J; Tanno, L K; Kleine-Tebbe, J; Klimek, L; Knol, E F; Kuna, P; Larenas-Linnemann, D E; Linneberg, A; Matricardi, M; Malling, H J; Moesges, R; Mullol, J; Muraro, A; Papadopoulos, N; Passalacqua, G; Pastorello, E; Pfaar, O; Price, D; Del Rio, P Rodriguez; Ruëff, R; Samolinski, B; Scadding, G K; Senti, G; Shamji, M H; Sheikh, A; Sisul, J C; Sole, D; Sturm, G J; Tabar, A; Van Ree, R; Ventura, M T; Vidal, C; Varga, E M; Worm, M; Zuberbier, T; Bousquet, J

    2016-01-01

    Allergic diseases often occur early in life and persist throughout life. This life-course perspective should be considered in allergen immunotherapy. In particular it is essential to understand whether this al treatment may be used in old age adults. The current paper was developed by a working group of AIRWAYS integrated care pathways for airways diseases, the model of chronic respiratory diseases of the European Innovation Partnership on active and healthy ageing (DG CONNECT and DG Santé). It considered (1) the political background, (2) the rationale for allergen immunotherapy across the life cycle, (3) the unmet needs for the treatment, in particular in preschool children and old age adults, (4) the strategic framework and the practical approach to synergize current initiatives in allergen immunotherapy, its mechanisms and the concept of active and healthy ageing.