WorldWideScience

Sample records for calla energy biomass

  1. Energy from Biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carioca, J. O. B.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Discusses how biomass in the form of fuelwood, crop residues, and animal dung can be converted into fuels such as biogas and ethanol to replace or supplement fossil fuels. Argues for future decentralized, integrated biomass energy development. (TW)

  2. Energy from Biomass for Conversion of Biomass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abolins, J.; Gravitis, J.

    2009-01-01

    Along with estimates of minimum energy required by steam explosion pre-treatment of biomass some general problems concerning biomass conversion into chemicals, materials, and fuels are discussed. The energy necessary for processing biomass by steam explosion auto-hydrolysis is compared with the heat content of wood and calculated in terms of the amount of saturated steam consumed per unit mass of the dry content of wood biomass. The fraction of processed biomass available for conversion after steam explosion pre-treatment is presented as function of the amount of steam consumed per unit mass of the dry content of wood. The estimates based on a simple model of energy flows show the energy required by steam explosion pre-treatment of biomass being within 10% of the heat content of biomass - a realistic amount demonstrating that energy for the process can be supplied from a reasonable proportion of biomass used as the source of energy for steam explosion pre-treatment.

  3. BIOMASS ENERGY AND ENERGY FORESTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fahrettin Tilki

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available Biomass fuels account for nearly 14% of the world’s energy. Energy forestry has been investigated since the mid-1960s to produce fiber for the paper and pulp industry. In the 1970s, following the oil crises, the emphasis switched to producing woody biomass for energy using fast-growing trees. Fastgrowing broadleaved trees, such as poplars and willows are grown at close spacing and under intensive management systems more akin to agriculture practice than forestry. In Turkey, rehabilitation studies in especially oak coppice stands are thought to be a part of the energy forestry, but the areas coppice stands grow on and species common in those areas are not suitable for modern energy forestry used in developed countries.

  4. Switchgrass for biomass energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum) is a native warm-season grass and is the model herbaceous perennial biomass energy feedstock for the USA. More than 75-years of experience confirm that switchgrass will be productive and sustainable on rain-fed marginally-productive cropland east of the 100th meridian....

  5. Biomass plantations - energy farming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paul, S.

    1981-02-01

    Mounting oil import bills in India are restricting her development programmes by forcing the cutting down of the import of other essential items. But the countries of the tropics have abundant sunlight and vast tracts of arable wastelands. Energy farming is proposed in the shape of energy plantations through forestry or energy cropping through agricultural media, to provide power fuels for transport and the industries and also to provide fuelwoods for the domestic sector. Short rotation cultivation is discussed and results are given of two main species that are being tried, ipil-ipil and Casuarina. Evaluations are made on the use of various crops such as sugar cane, cassava and kenaf as fuel crops together with hydrocarbon plants and aquatic biomass. (Refs. 20)

  6. Biomass living energy; Biomasse l'energie vivante

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    Any energy source originating from organic matter is biomass, which even today is the basic source of energy for more than a quarter of humanity. Best known for its combustible properties, biomass is also used to produce biofuels. This information sheet provides also information on the electricity storage from micro-condensers to hydroelectric dams, how to save energy facing the increasing of oil prices and supply uncertainties, the renewable energies initiatives of Cork (Ireland) and the Switzerland european energy hub. (A.L.B.)

  7. Wind, biomass, hydrogen: renewable energies; Vent, biomasse, hydrogene: energies renouvelables

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rakotosson, V.; Brousse, Th.; Guillemet, Ph.; Scudeller, Y.; Crosnier, O.; Dugas, R.; Favier, F.; Zhou, Y.; Taberna, P.M.; Simon, P.; Toupin, M.; Belanger, D.; Ngo, Ch.; Djamie, B.; Guyard, Ch.; Tamain, B.; Ruer, J.; Ungerer, Ph.; Bonal, J.; Flamant, G

    2007-06-15

    This press kit gathers a series of articles about renewable energies: the compared availabilities of renewable energy sources (comparison at a given time); offshore wind turbines (projects under development, cost optimisation); hydrogen for transports: present day situation (production, transport and storage, hydrogen conversion into mechanical energy, indirect use in biomass conversion); biomass: future carbon source (resource potential in France, pyrolysis and fermentation, development of biofuels and synthetic fuels, stakes for agriculture); beneficial standards for the heat pumps market (market organization and quality approach); collecting solar energy (solar furnaces and future solar power plants, hydrogen generation). (J.S.)

  8. Biomass energy and marginal areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chassany, J.P.

    1984-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the conditions and effects of a possible development of the biomass energy upgrading in uneconomical or not rentable areas. The physical, social and economical characteristics of these regions (in France) are described; then the different types of biomass are presented (agricultural wastes, energetic cultures, forest and land products and residues, food processing effluents, municipal wastes) as well as the various energy process (production of alcohol, methane, thermochemical processes, vegetable oils). The development and the feasability of these processes in marginal areas are finally analyzed taking into account the accessibility of the biomass and the technical and commercial impacts.

  9. Energy from biomass and waste

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Faaij, A.P.C.

    2001-01-01

    Biomass, a broad term for all organic matter of plants, trees and crops, is currently regarded as a renewable energy source which can contribute substantially to the world's energy supply in the future. Various scenarios for the development of energy supply and demand, such as compiled by the World

  10. Fiscalini Farms Biomass Energy Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    William Stringfellow; Mary Kay Camarillo; Jeremy Hanlon; Michael Jue; Chelsea Spier

    2011-09-30

    In this final report describes and documents research that was conducted by the Ecological Engineering Research Program (EERP) at the University of the Pacific (Stockton, CA) under subcontract to Fiscalini Farms LP for work under the Assistance Agreement DE-EE0001895 'Measurement and Evaluation of a Dairy Anaerobic Digestion/Power Generation System' from the United States Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory. Fiscalini Farms is operating a 710 kW biomass-energy power plant that uses bio-methane, generated from plant biomass, cheese whey, and cattle manure via mesophilic anaerobic digestion, to produce electricity using an internal combustion engine. The primary objectives of the project were to document baseline conditions for the anaerobic digester and the combined heat and power (CHP) system used for the dairy-based biomass-energy production. The baseline condition of the plant was evaluated in the context of regulatory and economic constraints. In this final report, the operation of the plant between start-up in 2009 and operation in 2010 are documented and an interpretation of the technical data is provided. An economic analysis of the biomass energy system was previously completed (Appendix A) and the results from that study are discussed briefly in this report. Results from the start-up and first year of operation indicate that mesophilic anaerobic digestion of agricultural biomass, combined with an internal combustion engine, is a reliable source of alternative electrical production. A major advantage of biomass energy facilities located on dairy farms appears to be their inherent stability and ability to produce a consistent, 24 hour supply of electricity. However, technical analysis indicated that the Fiscalini Farms system was operating below capacity and that economic sustainability would be improved by increasing loading of feedstocks to the digester. Additional operational modifications, such as increased utilization of

  11. Energy from biomass. Teaching material; Energie aus Biomasse. Ein Lehrmaterial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-04-01

    The textbook discusses the available options for power and heat generation from biomass as well as the limits of biomass-based power supply. The main obstacle apart from the high cost is a lack of knowledge, which the book intends to remedy. It addresses students of agriculture, forestry, environmental engineering, heating systems engineering and apprentice chimney sweepers, but it will also be useful to all other interested readers. [German] Biomasse kann aufgrund seiner vielfaeltigen Erscheinungs- und Umwandlungsformen sowohl als Brennstoff zur Waerme- und Stromgewinnung oder als Treibstoff eingesetzt werden. Die energetische Nutzung von Biomasse birgt zudem nicht zu verachtende Vorteile. Zum einen wegen des Beitrags zum Klimaschutz aufgrund der CO{sub 2}-Neutralitaet oder einfach, weil Biomasse immer wieder nachwaechst und von fossilen Ressourcen unabhaengig macht. All den bisher erschlossenen Moeglichkeiten der energetischen Nutzung von Biomasse moechte dieses Lehrbuch Rechnung tragen. Es zeigt aber auch die Grenzen auf, die mit der Energieversorgung durch Bioenergie einhergehen. Hohe Kosten und ein erhebliches Informationsdefizit behinderten bisher eine verstaerkte Nutzung dieses Energietraeges. Letzterem soll dieses Lehrbuch entgegenwirken. Das vorliegende Lehrbuch wurde fuer die Aus- und Weiterbildung erstellt. Es richtet sich vor allem an angehende Land- und Forstwirte, Umwelttechniker, Heizungsbauer und Schornsteinfeger, ist aber auch fuer all diejenigen interessant, die das Thema ''Energie aus Biomasse'' verstehen und ueberblicken moechten. (orig.)

  12. Forestry and biomass energy projects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Swisher, J.N.

    1994-01-01

    This paper presents a comprehensive and consistent methodology to account for the costs and net carbon flows of different categories of forestry and biomass energy projects and describes the application of the methodology to several sets of projects in Latin America. The results suggest that both...... is sufficient as either a national or global strategy for sustainable land use or carbon emission reduction. The methodology allows consistent comparisons of the costs and quantities of carbon stored in different types of projects and/or national programs, facilitating the inclusion of forestry and biomass...... biomass energy development and forestry measures including reforestation and forest protection can contribute significantly to the reduction of global CO2 emissions, and that local land-use capacity must determine the type of project that is appropriate in specific cases. No single approach alone...

  13. Fiscalini Farms Biomass Energy Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    William Stringfellow; Mary Kay Camarillo; Jeremy Hanlon; Michael Jue; Chelsea Spier

    2011-09-30

    In this final report describes and documents research that was conducted by the Ecological Engineering Research Program (EERP) at the University of the Pacific (Stockton, CA) under subcontract to Fiscalini Farms LP for work under the Assistance Agreement DE-EE0001895 'Measurement and Evaluation of a Dairy Anaerobic Digestion/Power Generation System' from the United States Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory. Fiscalini Farms is operating a 710 kW biomass-energy power plant that uses bio-methane, generated from plant biomass, cheese whey, and cattle manure via mesophilic anaerobic digestion, to produce electricity using an internal combustion engine. The primary objectives of the project were to document baseline conditions for the anaerobic digester and the combined heat and power (CHP) system used for the dairy-based biomass-energy production. The baseline condition of the plant was evaluated in the context of regulatory and economic constraints. In this final report, the operation of the plant between start-up in 2009 and operation in 2010 are documented and an interpretation of the technical data is provided. An economic analysis of the biomass energy system was previously completed (Appendix A) and the results from that study are discussed briefly in this report. Results from the start-up and first year of operation indicate that mesophilic anaerobic digestion of agricultural biomass, combined with an internal combustion engine, is a reliable source of alternative electrical production. A major advantage of biomass energy facilities located on dairy farms appears to be their inherent stability and ability to produce a consistent, 24 hour supply of electricity. However, technical analysis indicated that the Fiscalini Farms system was operating below capacity and that economic sustainability would be improved by increasing loading of feedstocks to the digester. Additional operational modifications, such as increased utilization of

  14. Biomass to energy; La valorisation energetique de la biomasse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-06-15

    This road-map proposes by the Group Total aims to inform the public on the biomass to energy. It explains the biomass principle, the possibility of biomass to energy conversion, the first generation of biofuels (bio ethanol, ETBE, bio diesel, flex fuel) and their advantages and limitations, the european regulatory framework and policy with the evolutions and Total commitments in the domain. (A.L.B.)

  15. Biomass gasification for energy production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lundberg, H.; Morris, M.; Rensfelt, E. [TPS Termiska Prosesser Ab, Nykoeping (Sweden)

    1997-12-31

    Biomass and waste are becoming increasingly interesting as fuels for efficient and environmentally sound power generation. Circulating fluidized bed (CFB) gasification for biomass and waste has been developed and applied to kilns both in the pulp and paper industry and the cement industry. A demonstration plant in Greve-in- Chianti, Italy includes two 15 MW{sub t}h RDF-fuelled CFB gasifiers of TPS design, the product gas from which is used in a cement kiln or in steam boiler for power generation. For CFB gasification of biomass and waste to reach a wider market, the product gas has to be cleaned effectively so that higher fuel to power efficiencies can be achieved by utilizing power cycles based on engines or gas turbines. TPS has developed both CFB gasification technology and effective secondary stage tar cracking technology. The integrated gasification - gas-cleaning technology is demonstrated today at pilot plant scale. To commercialise the technology, the TPS`s strategy is to first demonstrate the process for relatively clean fuels such as woody biomass and then extend the application to residues from waste recycling. Several demonstration projects are underway to commercialise TPS`s gasification and gas cleaning technology. In UK the ARBRE project developed by ARBRE Energy will construct a gasification plant at Eggborough, North Yorkshire, which will provide gas to a gas turbine and steam turbine generation system, producing 10 MW and exporting 8 Mw of electricity. It has been included in the 1993 tranche of the UK`s Non Fossil Fuel Obligation (NFFO) and has gained financial support from EC`s THERMIE programme as a targeted BIGCC project. (author)

  16. Switchgrass for Biomass Energy: Status and Progress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Switchgrass has been identified as a perennial biomass energy crop because it can produce high biomass yields on marginal land that is not suitable for grain crop production and provides many conservation benefits. The cellulose and hemi-cellulose of the biomass from switchgrass cell walls can be b...

  17. Launching Plan B:Biomass Energy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    China’s first biomass electricity company focuses on helping farmers as it strives to expand In April 2011,the world’s largest biomass power company,China National Bio Energy Co.Ltd.(NBE),began building a biomass power plant in Shangcai County of central China’s Henan Province.The new plant,due to reach

  18. Estimates of US biomass energy consumption 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-05-06

    This report is the seventh in a series of publications developed by the Energy Information Administration (EIA) to quantify the biomass-derived primary energy used by the US economy. It presents estimates of 1991 and 1992 consumption. The objective of this report is to provide updated estimates of biomass energy consumption for use by Congress, Federal and State agencies, biomass producers and end-use sectors, and the public at large.

  19. Biomass Energy Data Book: Edition 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wright, Lynn L [ORNL; Boundy, Robert Gary [ORNL; Badger, Philip C [ORNL; Perlack, Robert D [ORNL; Davis, Stacy Cagle [ORNL

    2009-12-01

    The Biomass Energy Data Book is a statistical compendium prepared and published by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) under contract with the Biomass Program in the Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) program of the Department of Energy (DOE). Designed for use as a convenient reference, the book represents an assembly and display of statistics and information that characterize the biomass industry, from the production of biomass feedstocks to their end use, including discussions on sustainability. This is the second edition of the Biomass Energy Data Book which is only available online in electronic format. There are five main sections to this book. The first section is an introduction which provides an overview of biomass resources and consumption. Following the introduction to biomass, is a section on biofuels which covers ethanol, biodiesel and bio-oil. The biopower section focuses on the use of biomass for electrical power generation and heating. The fourth section is on the developing area of biorefineries, and the fifth section covers feedstocks that are produced and used in the biomass industry. The sources used represent the latest available data. There are also four appendices which include frequently needed conversion factors, a table of selected biomass feedstock characteristics, assumptions for selected tables and figures, and discussions on sustainability. A glossary of terms and a list of acronyms are also included for the reader's convenience.

  20. Biomass Energy Data Book: Edition 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boundy, Robert Gary [ORNL; Diegel, Susan W [ORNL; Wright, Lynn L [ORNL; Davis, Stacy Cagle [ORNL

    2011-12-01

    The Biomass Energy Data Book is a statistical compendium prepared and published by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) under contract with the Biomass Program in the Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) program of the Department of Energy (DOE). Designed for use as a convenient reference, the book represents an assembly and display of statistics and information that characterize the biomass industry, from the production of biomass feedstocks to their end use, including discussions on sustainability. This is the fourth edition of the Biomass Energy Data Book which is only available online in electronic format. There are five main sections to this book. The first section is an introduction which provides an overview of biomass resources and consumption. Following the introduction to biomass, is a section on biofuels which covers ethanol, biodiesel and bio-oil. The biopower section focuses on the use of biomass for electrical power generation and heating. The fourth section is on the developing area of biorefineries, and the fifth section covers feedstocks that are produced and used in the biomass industry. The sources used represent the latest available data. There are also two appendices which include frequently needed conversion factors, a table of selected biomass feedstock characteristics, and discussions on sustainability. A glossary of terms and a list of acronyms are also included for the reader's convenience.

  1. Biomass Energy Data Book: Edition 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wright, Lynn L [ORNL; Boundy, Robert Gary [ORNL; Perlack, Robert D [ORNL; Davis, Stacy Cagle [ORNL; Saulsbury, Bo [ORNL

    2006-09-01

    The Biomass Energy Data Book is a statistical compendium prepared and published by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) under contract with the Office of the Biomass Program and the Office of Planning, Budget and Analysis in the Department of Energy's Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) program. Designed for use as a desk-top reference, the book represents an assembly and display of statistics and information that characterize the biomass industry, from the production of biomass feedstocks to their end use. This is the first edition of the Biomass Energy Data Book and is currently only available online in electronic format. There are five main sections to this book. The first section is an introduction which provides an overview of biomass resources and consumption. Following the introduction to biomass is a section on biofuels which covers ethanol, biodiesel and BioOil. The biopower section focuses on the use of biomass for electrical power generation and heating. The fourth section is about the developing area of biorefineries, and the fifth section covers feedstocks that are produced and used in the biomass industry. The sources used represent the latest available data. There are also three appendices which include measures of conversions, biomass characteristics and assumptions for selected tables and figures. A glossary of terms and a list of acronyms are also included for the reader's convenience.

  2. Biomass Energy Data Book: Edition 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boundy, Robert Gary [ORNL; Davis, Stacy Cagle [ORNL

    2010-12-01

    The Biomass Energy Data Book is a statistical compendium prepared and published by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) under contract with the Biomass Program in the Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) program of the Department of Energy (DOE). Designed for use as a convenient reference, the book represents an assembly and display of statistics and information that characterize the biomass industry, from the production of biomass feedstocks to their end use, including discussions on sustainability. This is the third edition of the Biomass Energy Data Book which is only available online in electronic format. There are five main sections to this book. The first section is an introduction which provides an overview of biomass resources and consumption. Following the introduction to biomass, is a section on biofuels which covers ethanol, biodiesel and bio-oil. The biopower section focuses on the use of biomass for electrical power generation and heating. The fourth section is on the developing area of biorefineries, and the fifth section covers feedstocks that are produced and used in the biomass industry. The sources used represent the latest available data. There are also four appendices which include frequently needed conversion factors, a table of selected biomass feedstock characteristics, and discussions on sustainability. A glossary of terms and a list of acronyms are also included for the reader's convenience.

  3. 3rd annual biomass energy systems conference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-10-01

    The main objectives of the 3rd Annual Biomass Energy Systems Conference were (1) to review the latest research findings in the clean fuels from biomass field, (2) to summarize the present engineering and economic status of Biomass Energy Systems, (3) to encourage interaction and information exchange among people working or interested in the field, and (4) to identify and discuss existing problems relating to ongoing research and explore opportunities for future research. Abstracts for each paper presented were edited separately. (DC)

  4. Energy Recovery from Contaminated Biomass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiří Moskalík

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study focuses on thermal gasification methods of contaminated biomass in an atmospheric fluidized bed, especially biomass contaminated by undesirable substances in its primary use. For the experiments, chipboard waste was chosen as a representative sample of contaminated biomass. In the experiments, samples of gas and tar were taken for a better description of the process of gasifying chipboard waste. Gas and tar samples also provide information about the properties of the gas that is produced.

  5. Agricultural Residues and Biomass Energy Crops

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2016-06-01

    There are many opportunities to leverage agricultural resources on existing lands without interfering with production of food, feed, fiber, or forest products. In the recently developed advanced biomass feedstock commercialization vision, estimates of potentially available biomass supply from agriculture are built upon the U.S. Department of Agriculture’s (USDA’s) Long-Term Forecast, ensuring that existing product demands are met before biomass crops are planted. Dedicated biomass energy crops and agricultural crop residues are abundant, diverse, and widely distributed across the United States. These potential biomass supplies can play an important role in a national biofuels commercialization strategy.

  6. Biomass in a sustainable energy system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boerjesson, Paal

    1998-04-01

    In this thesis, aspects of an increase in the utilization of biomass in the Swedish energy system are treated. Modern bioenergy systems should be based on high energy and land use efficiency since biomass resources and productive land are limited. The energy input, including transportation, per unit biomass produced is about 4-5% for logging residues, straw and short rotation forest (Salix). Salix has the highest net energy yield per hectare among the various energy crops cultivated in Sweden. The CO{sub 2} emissions from the production and transportation of logging residues, straw and Salix, are equivalent to 2-3% of those from a complete fuel-cycle for coal. Substituting biomass for fossil fuels in electricity and heat production is, in general, less costly and leads to a greater CO{sub 2} reduction per unit biomass than substituting biomass derived transportation fuels for petrol or diesel. Transportation fuels produced from cellulosic biomass provide larger and less expensive CO{sub 2} emission reductions than transportation fuels from annual crops. Swedish CO{sub 2} emissions could be reduced by about 50% from the present level if fossil fuels are replaced and the energy demand is unchanged. There is a good balance between potential regional production and utilization of biomass in Sweden. Future biomass transportation distances need not be longer than, on average, about 40 km. About 22 TWh electricity could be produced annually from biomass in large district heating systems by cogeneration. Cultivation of Salix and energy grass could be utilized to reduce the negative environmental impact of current agricultural practices, such as the emission of greenhouse gases, nutrient leaching, decreased soil fertility and erosion, and for the treatment of municipal waste and sludge, leading to increased recirculation of nutrients. About 20 TWh biomass could theoretically be produced per year at an average cost of less than 50% of current production cost, if the economic

  7. Driftless Area Initiative Biomass Energy Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bertjens, Steve; Wright, Angie; Lieurance, Mike; berguson, bill; Buchman, Dan

    2012-12-31

    The Driftless Area Initiative Biomass Energy Project evaluated the potential for biomass energy production and utilization throughout the Driftless Region of Illinois, Iowa, Minnesota and Wisconsin. The research and demonstration aspect of the project specifically focused on biomass energy feedstock availability and production potential in the region, as well as utilization potential of biomass feedstocks for heat, electrical energy production, or combined heat and power operations. The Driftless Region was evaluated because the topography of the area offers more acres of marginal soils on steep slopes, wooded areas, and riparian corridors than the surrounding “Corn Belt”. These regional land characteristics were identified as potentially providing opportunity for biomass feedstock production that could compete with traditional agriculture commodity crops economically. The project researched establishment methods and costs for growing switchgrass on marginal agricultural lands to determine the economic and quantitative feasibility of switchgrass production for biomass energy purposes. The project was successful in identifying the best management and establishment practices for switchgrass in the Driftless Area, but also demonstrated that simple economic payback versus commodity crops could not be achieved at the time of the research. The project also analyzed the availability of woody biomass and production potential for growing woody biomass for large scale biomass energy production in the Driftless Area. Analysis determined that significant resources exist, but costs to harvest and deliver to the site were roughly 60% than that of natural gas at the time of the study. The project contributed significantly to identifying both production potential of biomass energy crops and existing feedstock availability in the Driftless Area. The project also analyzed the economic feasibility of dedicated energy crops in the Driftless Area. High commodity crop prices and

  8. Driftless Area Initiative Biomass Energy Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wright, Angie [Northeast Iowa Resource Conservation & Development, Inc., Postville, IA (United States); Bertjens, Steve [Natural Resources Conservation Service, Madison, WI (United States); Lieurance, Mike [Northeast Iowa Resource Conservation & Development, Inc., Postville, IA (United States); Berguson, Bill [Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States). Natural Resources Research Inst.; Buchman, Dan [Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States). Natural Resources Research Inst.

    2012-12-31

    The Driftless Area Initiative Biomass Energy Project evaluated the potential for biomass energy production and utilization throughout the Driftless Region of Illinois, Iowa, Minnesota and Wisconsin. The research and demonstration aspect of the project specifically focused on biomass energy feedstock availability and production potential in the region, as well as utilization potential of biomass feedstocks for heat, electrical energy production, or combined heat and power operations. The Driftless Region was evaluated because the topography of the area offers more acres of marginal soils on steep slopes, wooded areas, and riparian corridors than the surrounding “Corn Belt”. These regional land characteristics were identified as potentially providing opportunity for biomass feedstock production that could compete with traditional agriculture commodity crops economically. The project researched establishment methods and costs for growing switchgrass on marginal agricultural lands to determine the economic and quantitative feasibility of switchgrass production for biomass energy purposes. The project was successful in identifying the best management and establishment practices for switchgrass in the Driftless Area, but also demonstrated that simple economic payback versus commodity crops could not be achieved at the time of the research. The project also analyzed the availability of woody biomass and production potential for growing woody biomass for large scale biomass energy production in the Driftless Area. Analysis determined that significant resources exist, but costs to harvest and deliver to the site were roughly 60% greater than that of natural gas at the time of the study. The project contributed significantly to identifying both production potential of biomass energy crops and existing feedstock availability in the Driftless Area. The project also analyzed the economic feasibility of dedicated energy crops in the Driftless Area. High commodity crop prices

  9. Clean energy and agriculture. 5. ; Utilization of biomass for energy. Clean energy to nogyo. 5. ; Biomass energy no riyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haga, K. (National Institute of Agro-Environmental Sciences, Tsukuba (Japan))

    1992-10-01

    This paper reviews characteristics of biomass energy, which is regarded as renewable and clean, and present features of its utilization as well as their problems. Biomass energy resources are substantially such cultivated plants as saccharine crops, fatty and oily crops, petroleum plants, and aquatic plants. In addition, organic waste including agricultural and livestock waste is also the other important resource. Utilization of biomass for energy can be realized through applying such conversion technologies as methane fermentation, alcoholic fermentation, and thermal decomposition to the biomass resources. For the utilization, it is most important to make much of the viewpoints such as durable utilization corresponding to reproduction, competitive relation with food crops, and environmental protection. Biomass energy should be thought to be strictly limited to small-sized and regionally distributed energy. Therefore, it will be said that agriculture is appropriate to utilize biomass energy because it can practice both production and utilization of the biomass. 22 refs., 2 figs., 4 tabs.

  10. The relative cost of biomass energy transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Searcy, Erin; Flynn, Peter; Ghafoori, Emad; Kumar, Amit

    2007-04-01

    Logistics cost, the cost of moving feedstock or products, is a key component of the overall cost of recovering energy from biomass. In this study, we calculate for small- and large-project sizes, the relative cost of transportation by truck, rail, ship, and pipeline for three biomass feedstocks, by truck and pipeline for ethanol, and by transmission line for electrical power. Distance fixed costs (loading and unloading) and distance variable costs (transport, including power losses during transmission), are calculated for each biomass type and mode of transportation. Costs are normalized to a common basis of a giga Joules of biomass. The relative cost of moving products vs feedstock is an approximate measure of the incentive for location of biomass processing at the source of biomass, rather than at the point of ultimate consumption of produced energy. In general, the cost of transporting biomass is more than the cost of transporting its energy products. The gap in cost for transporting biomass vs power is significantly higher than the incremental cost of building and operating a power plant remote from a transmission grid. The cost of power transmission and ethanol transport by pipeline is highly dependent on scale of project. Transport of ethanol by truck has a lower cost than by pipeline up to capacities of 1800 t/d. The high cost of transshipment to a ship precludes shipping from being an economical mode of transport for distances less than 800 km (woodchips) and 1500 km (baled agricultural residues).

  11. Environmental implications of increased biomass energy use

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miles, T.R. Sr.; Miles, T.R. Jr. (Miles (Thomas R.), Portland, OR (United States))

    1992-03-01

    This study reviews the environmental implications of continued and increased use of biomass for energy to determine what concerns have been and need to be addressed and to establish some guidelines for developing future resources and technologies. Although renewable biomass energy is perceived as environmentally desirable compared with fossil fuels, the environmental impact of increased biomass use needs to be identified and recognized. Industries and utilities evaluating the potential to convert biomass to heat, electricity, and transportation fuels must consider whether the resource is reliable and abundant, and whether biomass production and conversion is environmentally preferred. A broad range of studies and events in the United States were reviewed to assess the inventory of forest, agricultural, and urban biomass fuels; characterize biomass fuel types, their occurrence, and their suitability; describe regulatory and environmental effects on the availability and use of biomass for energy; and identify areas for further study. The following sections address resource, environmental, and policy needs. Several specific actions are recommended for utilities, nonutility power generators, and public agencies.

  12. Biomass energy systems program summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-07-01

    Research programs in biomass which were funded by the US DOE during fiscal year 1978 are listed in this program summary. The conversion technologies and their applications have been grouped into program elements according to the time frame in which they are expected to enter the commercial market. (DMC)

  13. Switchgrass a valuable biomass crop for energy

    CERN Document Server

    2012-01-01

    The demand of renewable energies is growing steadily both from policy and from industry which seeks environmentally friendly feed stocks. The recent policies enacted by the EU, USA and other industrialized countries foresee an increased interest in the cultivation of energy crops; there is clear evidence that switchgrass is one of the most promising biomass crop for energy production and bio-based economy and compounds. Switchgrass: A Valuable Biomass Crop for Energy provides a comprehensive guide to  switchgrass in terms of agricultural practices, potential use and markets, and environmental and social benefits. Considering this potential energy source from its biology, breed and crop physiology to its growth and management to the economical, social and environmental impacts, Switchgrass: A Valuable Biomass Crop for Energy brings together chapters from a range of experts in the field, including a foreword from Kenneth P. Vogel, to collect and present the environmental benefits and characteristics of this a ...

  14. Biomassa e energia Biomass and energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Goldemberg

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Biomass was the dominating source of energy for human activities until the middle 19th century, when coal, oil, gas and other energy sources became increasingly important but it still represents ca. 10% of the worldwide energy supply. The major part of biomass for energy is still "traditional biomass" used as wood and coal extracted from native forests and thus non-sustainable, used with low efficiency for cooking and home heating, causing pollution problems. This use is largely done in rural areas and it is usually not supported by trading activities. There is now a strong trend to the modernization of biomass use, especially making alcohol from sugar cane thus replacing gasoline, or biodiesel to replace Diesel oil, beyond the production of electricity and vegetable coal using wood from planted forests. As recently as in 2004, sustainable "modern biomass" represented 2% of worldwide energy consumption. This article discusses the perspectives of the "first" and "second" technology generations for liquid fuel production, as well as biomass gaseification to make electricity or syngas that is in turn used in the Fischer-Tropsch process.

  15. Biomass gasification and energy production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahinpey, N.; Nikoo, M.B. [Regina Univ., SK (Canada). Faculty of Engineering

    2007-07-01

    The ASPEN PLUS simulation program was used to model an atmospheric fluidized bed biomass gasifier. The aim of the study was develop a simulation capable of accurately predicting steady state performance of the gasifier in relation to hydrodynamics and reaction kinetics. The influences of feed decomposition, volatile reactions, gas gasification and gas-solid separation were considered through modularized ASPEN PLUS models. The ASPEN PLUS yield reactor was used to simulate biomass feed decomposition. A separation column model was used to separate volatile materials and solids. Experimental data from a pine biomass gasification experiment conducted in a laboratory-scale fluidized bed gasifier was used to validate the simulation results. Good agreement was shown for gas composition, although carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) rates were slightly underestimated. The study also demonstrated that higher temperatures improved the gasification process and carbon conversion. The optimized gasification process produced more carbon monoxide (CO) and less CO{sub 2}. The introduction of lower temperature steam to the gasification process increased tar output. It was concluded that the conversion efficiency increased when the equivalence ratio was increased. 7 refs., 1 tab., 12 figs.

  16. Energy from biomass and wastes: 1979 update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klass, D.L.

    1979-01-01

    The R and D activities in progress in the United States on the development of biomass and wastes as renewable energy sources have reached the point where all phases of the technology are under active investigation. Highlights of this effort are briefly reviewed from the standpoint of energy impact, funding, carbon dioxide build-up in the atmosphere, and biomass production and its conversion to energy and synthetic fuels. Special attention is given to alcohols because of the current interest in gasohol. Significant accomplishments were reported in 1979, and it is expected that commercial utilization of this information will begin to gather more momentum.

  17. LCA of biomass-based energy systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tonini, Davide; Astrup, Thomas Fruergaard

    2012-01-01

    supplied could be significantly reduced (from 68 to 17 Gg CO2-eq/PJ) by increased use of wind and residual biomass resources as well as by electrifying the transport sector. Energy crops for production of biofuels and the use of these biofuels for heavy terrestrial transportation were responsible for most......Decrease of fossil fuel consumption in the energy sector is an important step towards more sustainable energy production. Environmental impacts related to potential future energy systems in Denmark with high shares of wind and biomass energy were evaluated using life-cycle assessment (LCA). Based...... on the reference year 2008, energy scenarios for 2030 and 2050 were assessed. For 2050 three alternatives for supply of transport fuels were considered: (1) fossil fuels, (2) rapeseed based biodiesel, and (3) Fischer–Tropsch based biodiesel. Overall, the results showed that greenhouse gas emissions per PJ energy...

  18. Biomass energy: Another driver of land acquisitions?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cotula, Lorenzo; Finnegan, Lynn; MacQueen, Duncan

    2011-08-15

    As governments in the global North look to diversify their economies away from fossil fuel and mitigate climate change, plans for biomass energy are growing fast. These are fuelling a sharp rise in the demand for wood, which, for some countries, could outstrip domestic supply capacity by as much as 600 per cent. It is becoming clear that although these countries will initially look to tap the temperate woodlands of developed countries, there are significant growth rate advantages that may lead them to turn to the tropics and sub-tropics to fill their biomass gap in the near future. Already there is evidence of foreign investors acquiring land in Africa, South America and Southeast Asia to establish tree plantations for biomass energy. If left unchecked, these trends could increase pressures on land access and food security in some of the world's poorest countries and communities.

  19. Quantifying the Carbon Intensity of Biomass Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodson, E. L.; Wise, M.; Clarke, L.; McJeon, H.; Mignone, B.

    2012-12-01

    Regulatory agencies at the national and regional level have recognized the importance of quantitative information about greenhouse gas emissions from biomass used in transportation fuels or in electricity generation. For example, in the recently enacted California Low-Carbon Fuel Standard, the California Air Resources Board conducted a comprehensive study to determine an appropriate methodology for setting carbon intensities for biomass-derived transportation fuels. Furthermore, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency is currently conducting a multi-year review to develop a methodology for estimating biogenic carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions from stationary sources. Our study develops and explores a methodology to compute carbon emission intensities (CIs) per unit of biomass energy, which is a metric that could be used to inform future policy development exercises. To compute CIs for biomass, we use the Global Change Assessment Model (GCAM), which is an integrated assessment model that represents global energy, agriculture, land and physical climate systems with regional, sectoral, and technological detail. The GCAM land use and land cover component includes both managed and unmanaged land cover categories such as food crop production, forest products, and various non-commercial land uses, and it is subdivided into 151 global land regions (wiki.umd.edu/gcam), ten of which are located in the U.S. To illustrate a range of values for different biomass resources, we use GCAM to compute CIs for a variety of biomass crops grown in different land regions of the U.S. We investigate differences in emissions for biomass crops such as switchgrass, miscanthus and willow. Specifically, we use GCAM to compute global carbon emissions from the land use change caused by a marginal increase in the amount of biomass crop grown in a specific model region. Thus, we are able to explore how land use change emissions vary by the type and location of biomass crop grown in the U.S. Direct

  20. Biomass Compositional Analysis for Energy Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hames, Bonnie R.

    In its broadest definition, biomass can be described as all material that was or is a part of a living organism. For renewable energy applications, however, the definition of biomass is usually limited to include only materials that are plant-derived such as agricultural residues (e.g., wheat straw, corn stover) by-products of industrial processes (e.g., sawdust, sugar cane bagasse, pulp residues, distillers grains), or dedicated energy crops (e.g., switchgrass, sorghum, Miscanthus, short-rotation woody crops). This chapter describes analytical methods developed to measure plant components with an emphasis on the measurement of components that are important for biomass conversion. The methods described here can be viewed as a portfolio of analytical methods, with consistent assumptions and compatible sample preparation steps, selected for simplicity, robust application, and the ability to obtain a summative mass closure on most samples that accurately identifies greater than 95% of the mass of a plant biomass sample. The portfolio of methods has been successfully applied to a wide variety of biomass feedstock as well as liquid and solid fractions of both thermochemical pretreatment and enzymatic saccharification (1).

  1. Biomass compositional analysis for energy applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hames, Bonnie R

    2009-01-01

    In its broadest definition, biomass can be described as all material that was or is a part of a living organism. For renewable energy applications, however, the definition of biomass is usually limited to include only materials that are plant-derived such as agricultural residues (e.g., wheat straw, corn stover) by-products of industrial processes (e.g., sawdust, sugar cane bagasse, pulp residues, distillers grains), or dedicated energy crops (e.g., switchgrass, sorghum, Miscanthus, short-rotation woody crops). This chapter describes analytical methods developed to measure plant components with an emphasis on the measurement of components that are important for biomass conversion. The methods described here can be viewed as a portfolio of analytical methods, with consistent assumptions and compatible sample preparation steps, selected for simplicity, robust application, and the ability to obtain a summative mass closure on most samples that accurately identifies greater than 95% of the mass of a plant biomass sample. The portfolio of methods has been successfully applied to a wide variety of biomass feedstock as well as liquid and solid fractions of both thermochemical pretreatment and enzymatic saccharification (1).

  2. Sustainable Production of Switchgrass for Biomass Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) is a C4 grass native to the North American tallgrass prairies, which historically extended from Mexico to Canada. It is the model perennial warm-season grass for biomass energy. USDA-ARS in Lincoln, NE has studied switchgrass continuously since 1936. Plot-scale rese...

  3. Energy Production from Marine Biomass (Ulva lactuca)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nikolaisen, Lars; Daugbjerg Jensen, Peter; Svane Bech, Karin;

    The background for this research activity is that the 2020 goals for reduction of the CO2 emissions to the atmosphere are so challenging that exorbitant amounts of biomass and other renewable sources of energy must be mobilised in order to – maybe – fulfil the ambitious 2020 goals. The macroalgae...

  4. Wallowa County Integrated Biomass Energy Center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christoffersen, Nils [Wallowa Resources Community Solutions Inc., Wallowa, OR (United States)

    2014-05-02

    The Integrated Biomass Energy Center (IBEC) is an approximately 0.1 MW CHP integrated biorefinery in Northeastern Oregon which will demonstrate and validate small-scale combined heat and power from lignin intermediates/residues. IBEC will be co-located with feedstock suppliers and thermal and power customers for distributed generation. The project was developed by Wallowa Resources Community Solutions Inc.

  5. Waste and biomass as energy resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klass, Donald L.

    1978-11-01

    Organic fuels can be manufactured by converting major sources of continuously renewable nonfossil carbon to synfuels that are interchangeable with, or can be substituted for, natural gas and petroleum-derived fuels. Promising sources of this carbon are waste materials, such as urban refuse, and biomass produced from solar energy by photosynthesis. The development of this concept is presented in this paper. The broad scope of the technology and its potential impact on energy supplies are reviewed. The renewable feature of both wastes and biomass makes them valuable natural resources that inevitably will be fully developed and commercialized as sources of energy-intensive products and synfuels. The perpetual availability of organic fuels will permit the conservation of valuable fossil fuel reserves, and, as time passes, offer a long-term solution to independence from foreign energy supplies and fossil fuel depletion.

  6. Energy from biomass. Ethics and practice; Energie aus Biomasse. Ethik und Praxis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franke, Silke (ed.)

    2013-06-01

    The implementation of the energy policy turnaround inevitably results in modifications of the land use and landscape. Besides the discussion about the environmental consequences, a debate about ethical issues increasingly arose. Under this aspect, the booklet under consideration contains the following contributions: (1) Renewable energy sources - the role of bioenergy (Bernard Widmann); (2) Energy from biomass - An ethic analysis (Stephan Schleissing); (3) Culture for our landscapes - combination of biomass and water protection (Frank Wagener); (4) Cultivation of energy crops - short rotation coppices (Frank Burger); (5) Bioenergy region Straubing-Bogen: Excellent in the matter of renewable energy sources (Josefine Eichwald); (6) Rural development - motor for the energy policy turnaround (Roland Spiller).

  7. Biomass energy systems information user study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belew, W.W.; Wood, B.L.; Marle, T.L.; Reinhardt, C.L.

    1981-02-01

    The results of a series of telephone interviews with groups of users of information on biomass energy systems are described. These results, part of a larger study on many different solar technologies, identify types of information each group needed and the best ways to get information to each group. This report is 1 of 10 discussing study results. The overall study provides baseline data about information needs in the solar community. Results from 12 biomass groups of respondents are analyzed in this report: Federally Funded Researchers (2 groups), Nonfederally Funded Researchers (2 groups), Representatives of Manufacturers (2 groups), Representatives of State Forestry Offices, Private Foresters, Forest Products Engineers, Educators, Cooperative Extension Service County Agents, and System Managers. The data will be used as input to the determination of information products and services the Solar Energy Research Institute, the Solar Energy Information Data Bank Network, and the entire information outreach community should be preparing and disseminating.

  8. BIOMASS-TO-ENERGY FEASIBILITY STUDY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cecil T. Massie

    2002-09-03

    The purpose of this study was to assess the economic and technical feasibility of producing electricity and thermal energy from biomass by gasification. For an economic model we chose a large barley malting facility operated by Rahr Malting Co. in Shakopee, Minnesota. This plant provides an excellent backdrop for this study because it has both large electrical loads and thermal loads that allowed us to consider a wide range of sizes and technical options. In the end, eleven scenarios were considered ranging from 3.1 megawatts (MWe) to 19.8 MWe. By locating the gasification and generation at an agricultural product processing plant with large electrical and thermal loads, the expectation was that some of the limitations of stand-alone biomass power plants would be overcome. In addition, since the process itself created significant volumes of low value biomass, the hope was that most of the biomass gathering and transport issues would be handled as well. The development of low-BTU gas turbines is expected to fill a niche between the upper limit of multiple spark ignited engine set systems around 5 MWe and the minimum reasonable scale for steam turbine systems around 10 MWe.

  9. Limits to solar and biomass energy growth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schiffman, Y.M.; D' Alessio, G.J.

    1983-01-01

    Drawing on some 45 assessments made by the Technology Assessments of Solar Energy (TASE), the authors examine the potential for commercialization of solar and biomass technologies. The book is divided into four major parts: Part I describes and compares technologies; Part II describes the natural and capital resources necessary for commercialization; Part III examines social, economic, and environmental impacts and institutional and regulatory factors; and Part IV analyzes the consequences of several deployment scenarios. The authors conclude that the disproportionate resource requirements for a modest energy contribution will be liminting factor. 103 references, 80 figures, 32 tables. (DCK)

  10. Potential evaluation of biomass-based energy sources for Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    Mustafa Ozcan; Semra Öztürk; Yuksel Oguz

    2015-01-01

    Turkey has great potential with respect to renewable energy sources (RES) and, among such sources, “biomass energy” is of particular importance. The purpose of this study is to determine the primary electrical energy potential obtainable from the biomass potential, according to different biomass source types. In this study, the biomass sources of municipal solid wastes, energy crops, animal manure and urban wastewater treatment sludge are evaluated. For each source, individual biogas and biom...

  11. Biomass district energy in North America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maker, T. [Energy Efficiency Associates, Calais, VT (United States)

    1999-06-01

    The advantages of district heating plants, fueled by sustainably produced biomass are reviewed, and numerous successful examples in Canada and the United States are described. Canadian systems include the Trigen PEI system in Charlottetown, systems in the First Nations communities of Ouje-Bougoumou and Grassy Narrows, and systems serving public facilities in New Brunswick and Nova Scotia. In the United States, District Energy St. Paul has recently announced a 25 MW CHP plant fired with municipal tree thinnings and other wood wastes. There are two large state office complexes in Vermont that have been fired with sawmill residues and whole-tree chips for the last 15 years. There are also mini-district heating systems serving small communities, or just a few buildings, that have been pioneered in Vermont, Prince Edward Island and elsewhere. Other systems described include biomass thermal energy plants developed in Vermont (`the Vermont Model`) to serve public schools, a 300 KW waste wood boiler developed by a PEI manufacturer and installed in several multi-building settings on farms and greenhouses, and the hand-fired high efficiency cordwood boiler produced by a Minnesota firm that have been used in a number of multi-building applications in native American villages in Alaska. It has been estimated that compared to building energy retrofits and efficiency improvements which might reduce fossil fuel consumption by 10 to 30 per cent, connecting buildings to a biomass-fired district energy system can reduce fossil fuel use and net CO{sub 2} emissions by as much as 80 to 90 per cent. 12 refs.

  12. Biomass energy conversion workshop for industrial executives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1979-01-01

    The rising costs of energy and the risks of uncertain energy supplies are increasingly familiar problems in industry. Bottom line profits and even the simple ability to operate can be affected by spiralling energy costs. An often overlooked alternative is the potential to turn industrial waste or residue into an energy source. On April 9 and 10, 1979, in Claremont, California, the Solar Energy Research Institute (SERI), the California Energy Commission (CEC), and the Western Solar Utilization Network (WSUN) held a workshop which provided industrial managers with current information on using residues and wastes as industrial energy sources. Successful industrial experiences were described by managers from the food processing and forest product industries, and direct combustion and low-Btu gasification equipment was described in detail. These speakers' presentations are contained in this document. Some major conclusions of the conference were: numerous current industrial applications of wastes and residues as fuels are economic and reliable; off-the-shelf technologies exist for converting biomass wastes and residues to energy; a variety of financial (tax credits) and institutional (PUC rate structures) incentives can help make these waste-to-energy projects more attractive to industry. However, many of these incentives are still being developed and their precise impact must be evaluated on a case-by-case basis.

  13. Energy Ontologies: Wind, Biomass, and Fossil Transportation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heidi Scott

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This article uses literary sources to draw ontological distinctions among three distinct energy sources: wind power, biomass, and fossil fuels. The primary aim is to demonstrate how radically our fossil fuel regime has changed human ontology in the last two centuries during which we have entered the Anthropocene. Because this radical transformation contains myriad elements, this article will focus on transportation: the speed, quality, and quantity of travel permitted by successive energy sources. To consider the comparative literatures of energy as they relate to transportation, we will begin with wind, then consider muscle-driven biomass giving way to coal locomotion, and conclude with the highest octane fuel, petroleum. The central interest is in how the fuel depicted in literature illuminates historical moments in which the interfaces between self, society, and nature are configured by specific energy regimes. By using literature as a source text, we may arrive at an emotionally and philosophically more robust synthesis of energy history than the social and natural sciences, relying upon objective accounts and statistics, are able to provide. By re-reading literature through the lens of the Anthropocene, we gain perspective on how earlier insights into the relationship between energy and experience can inform our explorations of today’s ontological reality. Energy literature instructs us out of the fossil fuel mindset of world domination and back to a physical realm in which we are small actors in a world guided by capricious forces. Such a reality requires hard muscular work and emotional immersion to restore an ethic of care and sustainability.

  14. Biomass energy in the making; La biomasse: une energie en devenir

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon

    2008-07-01

    Wood, straw, agricultural residues, organic wastes, biomass is everywhere you look. But the efficient use of this source of green electricity - the world's second largest renewable energy source - requires optimization of biomass collection and combustion processes. Biomass is back on the political agenda. In mid-June of this year, the French government gave this renewable energy a boost by selecting twenty-two projects to generate power and heat with biomass. The plants, to be commissioned by 2010, will be located in eleven different regions and will consume energy from organic plant matter. The power generated will be bought at a firm price of 128 euros per megawatt-hour. Most of the fuel will come from forest and paper industry waste, but straw and even grape pomace will be used in some cases. The plants will have a combined generating capacity of 300 MWh, raising France's installed biomass capacity to a total of 700 MWe. A drop of water in the ocean in the overall scheme of France's electricity. It is true that France has long neglected biomass. In 2004, electricity generated from biological resources represented a mere 1.74 TWhe in France, just 0.3% of its power consumption. This will rise to 0.6% once the new plants have come on line. The trend is the same in all of the EU's 27 member states, according to Eurostat, the statistical office of the European Communities: the amount of electricity generated from biomass (including biogas, municipal waste and wood) has practically doubled in six years, rising from 40 to 80 TWhe between 2000 and 2005. This is an improvement, but it still only represents 2.5% of the electricity supplied to Europeans. On a global scale, biomass contributes just 1% of total electric power generation. Yet biomass is an energy resource found all over the world, whether as agricultural waste, wood chips, or dried treatment plant sludge, to name but a few. Biomass power plants have managed to gain a foothold mainly in

  15. Biotrade1: international trade in renewable energy from biomass

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Agterberg, A.E.; Faaij, A.P.C.

    2006-01-01

    This paper discusses international trade in renewable energy from biomass. Main objective is to compare options for international trade in energy from biomass and to compare these options with non-trade options like domestic use of biomass and afforestation. Aspects that are taken into account are c

  16. WOOD BIOMASS FOR ENERGY IN MONTENEGRO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gradimir Danon

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Wood biomass has got its place in the energy balance of Montenegro. A little more than 6% of the total energy consumption is obtained by burning wood. Along with the appropriate state measures, it is economically and environmentally justified to expect Montenegro to more than double the utilization of the existing renewable energy sources including wood biomass, in the near future. For the purpose of achieving this goal, ‘Commercial Utilisation of the Wood Residue as a Resource for Economic Development in the North of Montenegro' project was carried out in 2007. The results of this project were included in the plan of the necessary interventions of the Government and its Agencies, associations or clusters, non-government organisations and interested enterprises. The plan was made on the basis of the wood residue at disposal and the attitude of individual subjects to produce and/or use solid bio-fuels and consists of a proposal of collection and utilisation of the wood residue for each individual district in the north of Montenegro. The basic factors of sustainability of future commercialisation of the wood residue were: availability of the wood raw material, and thereby the wood residue; the development of wood-based fuel markets, and the size of the profit.

  17. Modelling of biomass utilization for energy purpose

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grzybek, Anna (ed.)

    2010-07-01

    the overall farms structure, farms land distribution on several separate subfields for one farm, villages' overpopulation and very high employment in agriculture (about 27% of all employees in national economy works in agriculture). Farmers have low education level. In towns 34% of population has secondary education and in rural areas - only 15-16%. Less than 2% inhabitants of rural areas have higher education. The structure of land use is as follows: arable land 11.5%, meadows and pastures 25.4%, forests 30.1%. Poland requires implementation of technical and technological progress for intensification of agricultural production. The reason of competition for agricultural land is maintenance of the current consumption level and allocation of part of agricultural production for energy purposes. Agricultural land is going to be key factor for biofuels production. In this publication research results for the Project PL0073 'Modelling of energetical biomass utilization for energy purposes' have been presented. The Project was financed from the Norwegian Financial Mechanism and European Economic Area Financial Mechanism. The publication is aimed at moving closer and explaining to the reader problems connected with cultivations of energy plants and dispelling myths concerning these problems. Exchange of fossil fuels by biomass for heat and electric energy production could be significant input in carbon dioxide emission reduction. Moreover, biomass crop and biomass utilization for energetical purposes play important role in agricultural production diversification in rural areas transformation. Agricultural production widening enables new jobs creation. Sustainable development is going to be fundamental rule for Polish agriculture evolution in long term perspective. Energetical biomass utilization perfectly integrates in the evolution frameworks, especially on local level. There are two facts. The fist one is that increase of interest in energy crops in Poland

  18. Modelling of biomass utilization for energy purpose

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grzybek, Anna (ed.)

    2010-07-01

    the overall farms structure, farms land distribution on several separate subfields for one farm, villages' overpopulation and very high employment in agriculture (about 27% of all employees in national economy works in agriculture). Farmers have low education level. In towns 34% of population has secondary education and in rural areas - only 15-16%. Less than 2% inhabitants of rural areas have higher education. The structure of land use is as follows: arable land 11.5%, meadows and pastures 25.4%, forests 30.1%. Poland requires implementation of technical and technological progress for intensification of agricultural production. The reason of competition for agricultural land is maintenance of the current consumption level and allocation of part of agricultural production for energy purposes. Agricultural land is going to be key factor for biofuels production. In this publication research results for the Project PL0073 'Modelling of energetical biomass utilization for energy purposes' have been presented. The Project was financed from the Norwegian Financial Mechanism and European Economic Area Financial Mechanism. The publication is aimed at moving closer and explaining to the reader problems connected with cultivations of energy plants and dispelling myths concerning these problems. Exchange of fossil fuels by biomass for heat and electric energy production could be significant input in carbon dioxide emission reduction. Moreover, biomass crop and biomass utilization for energetical purposes play important role in agricultural production diversification in rural areas transformation. Agricultural production widening enables new jobs creation. Sustainable development is going to be fundamental rule for Polish agriculture evolution in long term perspective. Energetical biomass utilization perfectly integrates in the evolution frameworks, especially on local level. There are two facts. The fist one is that increase of interest in energy crops in Poland

  19. [Applications of GIS in biomass energy source research].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Xian-Ming; Wang, Wu-Kui; Li, Yi-Wei; Sun, Wen-Xiang; Shi, Hai; Zhang, Da-Hong

    2010-03-01

    Biomass resources have the characteristics of widespread and dispersed distribution, which have close relations to the environment, climate, soil, and land use, etc. Geographic information system (GIS) has the functions of spatial analysis and the flexibility of integrating with other application models and algorithms, being of predominance to the biomass energy source research. This paper summarized the researches on the GIS applications in biomass energy source research, with the focus in the feasibility study of bioenergy development, assessment of biomass resources amount and distribution, layout of biomass exploitation and utilization, evaluation of gaseous emission from biomass burning, and biomass energy information system. Three perspectives of GIS applications in biomass energy source research were proposed, i. e., to enrich the data source, to improve the capacity on data processing and decision-support, and to generate the online proposal.

  20. Potential evaluation of biomass-based energy sources for Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Ozcan

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Turkey has great potential with respect to renewable energy sources (RES and, among such sources, “biomass energy” is of particular importance. The purpose of this study is to determine the primary electrical energy potential obtainable from the biomass potential, according to different biomass source types. In this study, the biomass sources of municipal solid wastes, energy crops, animal manure and urban wastewater treatment sludge are evaluated. For each source, individual biogas and biomass energy potential calculations are made. Methods for energy conversion from wastes applicable to the conditions of Turkey, and technical and economic parameters are used. As a result of the calculations made, the total primary energy value of biogas obtainable from the examined sources is 188.21 TWh/year. The total primary energy value related to the potential of the evaluated biomass sources is 278.40 TWh/year.

  1. Biomass use in chemical and mechanical pulping with biomass-based energy supply

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holmberg, Jonas M.; Gustavsson, Leif [Department of Engineering Physics and Mathematics, Mid Sweden University, SE-831 25 Oestersund (Sweden)

    2007-12-15

    The pulp and paper industry is energy intensive and consumes large amounts of wood. Biomass is a limited resource and its efficient use is therefore important. In this study, the total amount of biomass used for pulp and for energy is estimated for the production of several woodfree (containing only chemical pulp) and mechanical (containing mechanical pulp) printing paper products, under Swedish conditions. Chemical pulp mills today are largely self-sufficient in energy while mechanical pulp mills depend on large amounts of external electricity. Technically, all energy used in pulp- and papermaking can be biomass based. Here, we assume that all energy used, including external electricity and motor fuels, is based on forest biomass. The whole cradle-to-gate chain is included in the analyses. The results indicate that the total amount of biomass required per tonne paper is slightly lower for woodfree than for mechanical paper. For the biomass use per paper area, the paper grammage is decisive. If the grammage can be lowered by increasing the proportion of mechanical pulp, this may lower the biomass use per paper area, despite the higher biomass use per unit mass in mechanical paper. In the production of woodfree paper, energy recovery from residues in the mill accounts for most of the biomass use, while external electricity production accounts for the largest part for mechanical paper. Motor fuel production accounts for 5-7% of the biomass use. The biomass contained in the final paper product is 21-42% of the total biomass use, indicating that waste paper recovery is important. The biomass use was found to be about 15-17% lower for modelled, modern mills compared with mills representative of today's average technology. (author)

  2. Current Status and Prospects of Biomass Energy Industry in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    At present biomass energy industry is in its infancy in China and it has a bright future. Biomass energy production used grain as raw materials has entered industrialization phase.Some key technologies of biomass energy industry are coming to mature.China has issued relevant industrial standards laws and regulations,and has provided support in finance,loan,tax,etc.But China's biomass energy industry is faced with many problems which need to be solved.For example,taking grain as raw materials is unsustain...

  3. Renewable energy potential from biomass residues in Egypt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Said, N.; Zamorano, M. [Civil Engineering Dept., Univ. of Granada, Campus de Fuentenueva, Granada (Spain); El-Shatoury, S.A. [Botany Dept., Faculty of Sciences, Suez Canal Univ., Ismailia (Egypt)

    2012-11-01

    Egypt has been one of the developing countries following successful programs for the development of renewable energy resources, with special emphasis on solar, wind and biomass. Utilization of biomass as a source of energy is important from energetic as well as environmental viewpoint. Furthermore, Egypt produces millions of biomass waste every year causing pollution and health problems. So, the incorporation of biomass with other renewable energy will increase the impact of solving energy and environmental problem. There is a good potential for the utilization of biomass energy resources in Egypt. Four main types of biomass energy sources are included in this study: agricultural residues, municipal solid wastes, animal wastes and sewage sludge. Analysis of the potential biomass resource quantity and its theoretical energy content has been computed according to literature review. The agriculture crop residue represents the main source of biomass waste with a high considerable amount of the theoretical potential energy in Egypt. Rice straw is considered one of the most important of such residue due to its high amount and its produced energy through different conversion techniques represent a suitable candidate for crop energy production in Egypt.

  4. Limiting biomass consumption for heating in 100% renewable energy systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathiesen, Brian Vad; Lund, Henrik; Connolly, David

    2012-01-01

    The utilisation of biomass poses large challenges in renewable energy systems while buildings account for a substantial part of the energy supply even in 100% renewable energy systems. In this paper the focus is on how the heating sector can reduce its consumption of biomass, thus leaving biomass...... for other sectors, but while still enabling a 100% renewable energy system. The analyses of heating technologies shows that district heating (DH) systems are important in limiting the dependence on biomass and create cost effective solutions. DH systems are especially important in renewable energy systems...... with large amounts of fluctuating sources as it enables fuel efficient and low cost energy systems with thermal heat storages. DH increases the efficiency with the use of combined heat and power production (CHP), while reducing the biomass demand by enabling the use of other renewable resources such as large...

  5. Biomass I. Science Activities in Energy [and] Teacher's Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oak Ridge Associated Universities, TN.

    Designed for science students in fourth, fifth, and sixth grades, the activities in this unit illustrate principles and problems related to biomass as a form of energy. (The word biomass is used to describe all solid material of animal or vegetable origin from which energy may be extracted.) Twelve student activities using art, economics,…

  6. Biomass energy: Sustainable solution for greenhouse gas emission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadrul Islam, A. K. M.; Ahiduzzaman, M.

    2012-06-01

    Biomass is part of the carbon cycle. Carbon dioxide is produced after combustion of biomass. Over a relatively short timescale, carbon dioxide is renewed from atmosphere during next generation of new growth of green vegetation. Contribution of renewable energy including hydropower, solar, biomass and biofuel in total primary energy consumption in world is about 19%. Traditional biomass alone contributes about 13% of total primary energy consumption in the world. The number of traditional biomass energy users expected to rise from 2.5 billion in 2004 to 2.6 billion in 2015 and to 2.7 billion in 2030 for cooking in developing countries. Residential biomass demand in developing countries is projected to rise from 771 Mtoe in 2004 to 818 Mtoe in 2030. The main sources of biomass are wood residues, bagasse, rice husk, agro-residues, animal manure, municipal and industrial waste etc. Dedicated energy crops such as short-rotation coppice, grasses, sugar crops, starch crops and oil crops are gaining importance and market share as source of biomass energy. Global trade in biomass feedstocks and processed bioenergy carriers are growing rapidly. There are some drawbacks of biomass energy utilization compared to fossil fuels viz: heterogeneous and uneven composition, lower calorific value and quality deterioration due to uncontrolled biodegradation. Loose biomass also is not viable for transportation. Pelletization, briquetting, liquefaction and gasification of biomass energy are some options to solve these problems. Wood fuel production is very much steady and little bit increase in trend, however, the forest land is decreasing, means the deforestation is progressive. There is a big challenge for sustainability of biomass resource and environment. Biomass energy can be used to reduce greenhouse emissions. Woody biomass such as briquette and pellet from un-organized biomass waste and residues could be used for alternative to wood fuel, as a result, forest will be saved and

  7. A survey of state clean energy fund support for biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fitzgerald, Garrett; Bolinger, Mark; Wiser, Ryan

    2004-08-20

    This survey reviews efforts by CESA member clean energy funds to promote the use of biomass as a renewable energy source. For each fund, details are provided regarding biomass eligibility for support, specific programs offering support to biomass projects, and examples of supported biomass projects (if available). For the purposes of this survey, biomass is defined to include bio-product gasification, combustion, co-firing, biofuel production, and the combustion of landfill gas, though not all of the programs reviewed here take so wide a definition. Programs offered by non-CESA member funds fall outside the scope of this survey. To date, three funds--the California Energy Commission, Wisconsin Focus on Energy, and the New York State Energy Research and Development Authority--have offered programs targeted specifically at the use of biomass as a renewable energy source. We begin by reviewing efforts in these three funds, and then proceed to cover programs in other funds that have provided support to biomass projects when the opportunity has arisen, but otherwise do not differentially target biomass relative to other renewable technologies.

  8. Energy production from marine biomass (Ulva lactuca)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nikolaisen, L.; Daugbjerg Jensen, P.; Svane Bech, K. [Danish Technological Institute (DTI), Taastrup (Denmark)] [and others

    2011-11-15

    In this project, methods for producing liquid, gaseous and solid biofuel from the marine macroalgae Ulva lactuca has been studied. To get an understanding of the growth conditions of Ulva lactuca, laboratory scale growth experiments describing N, P, and CO{sub 2} uptake and possible N{sub 2}O and CH{sub 4} production are carried out. The macroalgae have been converted to bioethanol and methane (biogas) in laboratory processes. Further the potential of using the algae as a solid combustible biofuel is studied. Harvest and conditioning procedures are described together with the potential of integrating macroalgae production at a power plant. The overall conclusions are: 1. Annual yield of Ulva lactuca is 4-5 times land-based energy crops. 2. Potential for increased growth rate when bubbling with flue gas is up to 20%. 3. Ethanol/butanol can be produced from pretreated Ulva of C6 and - for butanol - also C5 sugars. Fermentation inhibitors can possibly be removed by mechanical pressing. The ethanol production is 0,14 gram pr gram dry Ulva lactuca. The butanol production is lower. 4. Methane yields of Ulva are at a level between cow manure and energy crops. 5. Fast pyrolysis produces algae oil which contains 78 % of the energy content of the biomass. 6. Catalytic supercritical water gasification of Ulva lactuca is feasible and a methane rich gas can be obtained. 7. Thermal conversion of Ulva is possible with special equipment as low temperature gasification and grate firing. 8. Co-firing of Ulva with coal in power plants is limited due to high ash content. 9. Production of Ulva only for energy purposes at power plants is too costly. 10. N{sub 2}O emission has been observed in lab scale, but not in pilot scale production. 11. Analyses of ash from Ulva lactuca indicates it as a source for high value fertilizers. 12. Co-digestion of Ulva lactuca together with cattle manure did not alter the overall fertilization value of the digested cattle manure alone. (LN)

  9. Purification and characterization of fetal hematopoietic cells that express the common acute lymphoblastic leukemia antigen (CALLA)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hokland, P; Rosenthal, P; Griffin, J D

    1983-01-01

    Fetal hematopoietic cells that express the common acute lymphoblastic leukemia antigen (CALLA) were purified from both fetal liver and fetal bone marrow by immune rosetting with sheep erythrocytes coated with rabbit anti-mouse immunoglobulin and by fluorescence-activated cell sorting. Dual...... antigen. Furthermore, using methanol-fixed cells, it could be shown that approximately 20% contained intracytoplasmic mu chains (cyto-mu) and that approximately 15% were positive for the terminal transferase enzyme (TdT) marker. The CALLA+ fetal cells thus closely resemble the childhood acute...... that these cells are relatively immature lymphoid cells, CALLA+ cells do not appear to contain either myeloid precursor cells (CFU-G/M) or the earliest lymphoid stem cells. Udgivelsesdato: 1983-Jan-1...

  10. Biomass measurement from LANDSAT: Drought and energy applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxwell, E. L.

    1981-01-01

    The theory supporting the use of vegetation indices derived from LANDSAT data for the direct measurement of biomass is reviewed. The use of multispectral data to measure biomass is a natural and viable application since the photosynthetic production of biomass gives vegetation its unique spectral properties. Vegetation indices also perform a normalization function which tends to make them insensitive to atmospheric and soil color variations. Optical and digital LANDSAT products are discussed relative to the use of vegetation indices to monitor drought impact. Based on results obtained in Colorado, operational use of LANDSAT to monitor drought is cost effective, practical and ready for implementation today. The direct measurement of biomass energy resources may also benefit from LANDSAT technology. Measurement of total biomass and annual primary production may be feasible. Identification of that component of biomass resources available for energy use will require other sources of information, however.

  11. Biomass energy: the scale of the potential resource.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field, Christopher B; Campbell, J Elliott; Lobell, David B

    2008-02-01

    Increased production of biomass for energy has the potential to offset substantial use of fossil fuels, but it also has the potential to threaten conservation areas, pollute water resources and decrease food security. The net effect of biomass energy agriculture on climate could be either cooling or warming, depending on the crop, the technology for converting biomass into useable energy, and the difference in carbon stocks and reflectance of solar radiation between the biomass crop and the pre-existing vegetation. The area with the greatest potential for yielding biomass energy that reduces net warming and avoids competition with food production is land that was previously used for agriculture or pasture but that has been abandoned and not converted to forest or urban areas. At the global scale, potential above-ground plant growth on these abandoned lands has an energy content representing approximately 5% of world primary energy consumption in 2006. The global potential for biomass energy production is large in absolute terms, but it is not enough to replace more than a few percent of current fossil fuel usage. Increasing biomass energy production beyond this level would probably reduce food security and exacerbate forcing of climate change.

  12. Assessment of the externalities of biomass energy for electricity production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Linares, P.; Leal, J.; Saez, R.M.

    1996-10-01

    This study presents a methodology for the quantification of the socioeconomic and environmental externalities of the biomass fuel cycle. It is based on the one developed by the ExternE Project of the European Commission, based in turn in the damage function approach, and which has been extended and modified for a better adaptation to biomass energy systems. The methodology has been applied to a 20 MW biomass power plant, fueled by Cynara cardunculus, in southern Spain. The externalities addressed have been macroeconomic effects, employment, CO{sub 2}, fixation, erosion, and non-point source pollution. The results obtained should be considered only as subtotals, since there are still other externalities to be quantified. anyway, and in spite of the uncertainty existing, these results suggest that total cost (those including internal and external costs) of biomass energy are lower than those of conventional energy sources, what, if taken into account, would make biomass more competitive than it is now. (Author)

  13. Assessment of the externalise of biomass energy for electricity production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Linares, P.; Leal, J.; Saez, R.M.

    1996-07-01

    This study presents a methodology for the quantification of the socioeconomic and environmental externalities of the biomass fuel cycle. It is based on the one developed by the ExternE Project of the European Commission, based in turm in the damage function approach, and which has been extended and modified for a better adaptation to biomass energy systems. The methodology has been applied to a 20 MW biomass power plant, fueled by Cynara cardunculus, in southern Spain. The externalities addressed have been macroeconomic effects, employment, CO2, fixation, erosion, and non-point source pollution. The results obtained should be considered only as subtotals, since there are still other externalities to be quantified. Anyway, and in spite of the uncertainty existing, these results suggest that the total cost (those including internal and external costs) of biomass energy are lower than those of conventional energy sources, what, if taken into account, would make biomass more competitive than it is now. (Author) 44 refs.

  14. Valorization of jatropha fruit biomass for energy applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marasabessy, A.

    2015-01-01

    Valorization of Jatropha fruit biomass for energy applications Ahmad Marasabessy

    Thesis Abstract

    Our research objectives were to develop sustainable technologies of Jatropha oil extraction and Jatropha biomass fractionatio

  15. Environmental implications of increased biomass energy use. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miles, T.R. Sr.; Miles, T.R. Jr. [Miles (Thomas R.), Portland, OR (United States)

    1992-03-01

    This study reviews the environmental implications of continued and increased use of biomass for energy to determine what concerns have been and need to be addressed and to establish some guidelines for developing future resources and technologies. Although renewable biomass energy is perceived as environmentally desirable compared with fossil fuels, the environmental impact of increased biomass use needs to be identified and recognized. Industries and utilities evaluating the potential to convert biomass to heat, electricity, and transportation fuels must consider whether the resource is reliable and abundant, and whether biomass production and conversion is environmentally preferred. A broad range of studies and events in the United States were reviewed to assess the inventory of forest, agricultural, and urban biomass fuels; characterize biomass fuel types, their occurrence, and their suitability; describe regulatory and environmental effects on the availability and use of biomass for energy; and identify areas for further study. The following sections address resource, environmental, and policy needs. Several specific actions are recommended for utilities, nonutility power generators, and public agencies.

  16. Biomass energy research program 2008 - 2011; Energieforschungsprogramm Biomasse fuer die Jahre 2008-2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hermle, S.; Binggeli, D.; Guggisberg, B.

    2008-07-01

    This report published by the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) discusses the Swiss research program on energy from biomass for the years 2008 to 2011. The Swiss government's energy research programs are defined every four years in co-operation with the Swiss Federal Energy Research Commission. This paper describes the concept for the biomass area. Research into modern technological concepts and ways of transforming biomass into energy are discussed and main areas of research to be addressed are discussed. Three main technological areas are defined: combustion, gasification and anaerobic fermentation. Important themes to be examined include system optimisation and integration, quality assurance and the promotion of new technologies. National and international networking between research and practice is commented on, as are the possibilities for the funding of the work.

  17. Energy conversion of biomass in coping with global warming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yokoyama, Shin-ya; Ogi, Tomoko; Minowa, Tomoaki [National Inst. for Resources and Environment, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan)

    1993-12-31

    The main purpose of the present paper is to propose energy conversion technologies of biomass in coping with global warming. Among thermochemical conversion, liquid fuel production by high pressure process is mainly introduced. Biomass is a term used to describe materials of biological origin, either purpose-grown or arising as by-products, residues or wastes from forestry, agriculture and food processing. Such biomass is a renewable energy sources dependent on solar energy. Through photosynthesis, plants converts carbon dioxide into organic materials used in their growth. Energy can be recovered from the plant materials by several processes, the simplest way is burning in air. As far as biomass is used in this way, there is no atmospheric accumulation of carbon dioxide making no effect on the Greenhouse Effect, provided that the cycle of regrowth and burning is sustained.

  18. Integration of Lignocellulosic Biomass into Renewable Energy Generation Concepts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KUSCH Sigrid

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available In all European countries various lignocellulosic biomasses such as agricultural residues (straw, strawcontaining dung or fractions from municipal solid waste are available in large amounts, but currently hardly any of thispotential is being used for energy generation. This paper reviews the different options for including lignocellulosicbiomass into renewable energy generation schemes. Not all wastes are suitable to be treated by principally availabletechniques such as anaerobic digestion, ethanol production or thermal valorisation. The present paper gives an overviewof utilisation options for lignocellulosic biomass to either produce biofuels or to integrate such biomass into anaerobicdigestion. Biorefinery concepts are discussed as well.

  19. Alfalfa -- a sustainable crop for biomass energy production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfalfa (Medicago sativa) has the potential to be a significant contributor to America's renewable energy future. In an alfalfa biomass energy production system, alfalfa forage would be separated into stem and leave fractions. The stems would be processed to produce energy, and the leaves would be s...

  20. Characterization of Spanish biomass wastes for energy use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, Roberto; Pizarro, Consuelo; Lavín, Antonio G; Bueno, Julio L

    2012-01-01

    Energy plays an important role in the world's present and future. The best way to absorb the huge increase in energy demands is through diversification. In this context biomass appears as an attractive source for a number of environmental, economical, political and social reasons. There are several techniques used to obtain energy from biomass. Among these techniques, the most commonly used throughout the world is a thermo-chemical process to obtain heat. To optimize the combustion process in adequate reactors, a comprehensive study of the characterization of biomass fuel properties is needed, which includes proximate analysis (determination of moisture, ash, volatile and fixed carbon content), ultimate analysis (C, H, N, S and O composition) and calorimetry, focusing on biomass fuels obtained in Spain.

  1. Energy Efficiency of Biogas Produced from Different Biomass Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Begum, Shahida; Nazri, A. H.

    2013-06-01

    Malaysia has different sources of biomass like palm oil waste, agricultural waste, cow dung, sewage waste and landfill sites, which can be used to produce biogas and as a source of energy. Depending on the type of biomass, the biogas produced can have different calorific value. At the same time the energy, being used to produce biogas is dependent on transportation distance, means of transportation, conversion techniques and for handling of raw materials and digested residues. An energy systems analysis approach based on literature is applied to calculate the energy efficiency of biogas produced from biomass. Basically, the methodology is comprised of collecting data, proposing locations and estimating the energy input needed to produce biogas and output obtained from the generated biogas. The study showed that palm oil and municipal solid waste is two potential sources of biomass. The energy efficiency of biogas produced from palm oil residues and municipal solid wastes is 1.70 and 3.33 respectively. Municipal solid wastes have the higher energy efficiency due to less transportation distance and electricity consumption. Despite the inherent uncertainties in the calculations, it can be concluded that the energy potential to use biomass for biogas production is a promising alternative.

  2. THE POTENTIAL FOR BIOMASS ENERGY IN THREE ALBANIAN REGIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Jupe

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Biomass combustion is amongst the oldest and the most mature technique for conversion of biomass to energy; but still a great challenge lies ahead in developing new; more efficient and environmentally sustainable -systems. In light of the European Action and the National Strategy in the energy sector; Albania has enacted a friendly policy regarding renewable energy sources; including biomass. Execution of such projects is delegated to both regional and local authorities for various technical; economic and socio-environmental considerations as well as for an integrated approach to the land use planning. This paper identifies the main sources of biomass energy in three different regions of Albania i.e. Korça; Tirana and Vlora. It shows the weight of each possibility on the total potential for energy production by biomass as well as the type and distribution of each biomass. The manner how the potential offered by forestry; agriculture and agro-industry would be utilized will; apart from availability of appropriate technology; also depend on the ability of economic operators to organize themselves efficiently while respecting environmental sustainability.

  3. 1994 Washington State directory of Biomass Energy Facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deshaye, J.A.; Kerstetter, J.D.

    1994-03-01

    This is the fourth edition of the Washington Directory of Biomass Energy Facilities, the first edition was published in 1987. The purpose of this directory is to provide a listing of and basic information about known biomass producers and users within the state to help demonstrate the importance of biomass energy in fueling our state`s energy needs. In 1992 (latest statistical year), estimates show that the industrial sector in Washington consumed nearly 128 trillion Btu of electricity, nearly 49.5 trillion Btu of petroleum, over 82.2 trillion Btu of natural gas, and over 4.2 trillion Btu of coal. Facilities listed in this directory generated approximately 114 trillion Btu of biomass energy - 93 trillion were consumed from waste wood and spent chemicals. In the total industrial energy picture, wood residues and chemical cooking liquors placed second only to electricity. This directory is divided into four main sections biogas production, biomass combustion, ethanol production, and solid fuel processing facilities. Each section contains maps and tables summarizing the information for each type of biomass. Provided in the back of the directory for reference are a conversion table, a table of abbreviations, a glossary, and an index. Chapter 1 deals with biogas production from both landfills and sewage treatment plants in the state. Biogas produced from garbage and sewage can be scrubbed and used to generate electricity. At the present time, biogas collected at landfills is being flared on-site, however four landfills are investigating the feasibility of gas recovery for energy. Landfill biogas accounted for approximately 6 percent of the total biomass reported. Sewage treatment biogas accounted for 0.6 percent. Biogas generated from sewage treatment plants is primarily used for space and process heat, only one facility presently scrubs and sells methane. Together, landfill and sewage treatment plant biogas represented over 6.6 percent of the total biomass reported.

  4. VT Renewable Energy Sites - Woody Biomass

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) The Renewable Energy Atlas of Vermont and this dataset were created to assist town energy committees, the Clean Energy Development Fund and other...

  5. Marginal land-based biomass energy production in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Ya; Xie, Jia-Sui; Geng, Shu

    2010-01-01

    Fast economic development in China has resulted in a significant increase in energy demand. Coal accounts for 70% of China's primary energy consumption and its combustion has caused many environmental and health problems. Energy security and environmental protection requirements are the main drivers for renewable energy development in China. Small farmland and food security make bioenergy derived from corn or sugarcane unacceptable to China: the focus should be on generating bioenergy from ligno-cellulosic feedstock sources. As China cannot afford biomass energy production from its croplands, marginal lands may play an important role in biomass energy production. Although on a small scale, marginal land has already been used for various purposes. It is estimated that some 45 million hm(2) of marginal land could be brought into high potential biomass energy production. For the success of such an initiative, it will likely be necessary to develop multipurpose plants. A case study, carried out on marginal land in Ningnan County, Sichuan Province with per capita cropland of 0.07 ha, indicated that some 380,000 tons of dry biomass could be produced each year from annual pruning of mulberry trees. This study supports the feasibility of producing large quantities of biomass from marginal land sources.

  6. Energy conservation options for cooking with biomass in Ghana

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Per Sieverts; Næraa, Rikke; Karlsson, Kenneth

    1996-01-01

    . An energy chain for the cooking process is established and the possible conservation options are surveyed in kitchen performance tests in Abodom in the tropical zone of Ghana. The energy consumption for the food preparation has been measured and energy saving options have been determined for some parts...... of the energy chain. The results show that the possible options for energy conservation through the entire energy chain of the present technology are at least of the same magnitude as that involved in just switching to a more efficient biomass stove. The heat loss is largest while simmering when the boiling......Cooking is the main energy consuming activity in Ghana. This is mainly due to a generally low material standard of living, but also because the cooking process itself is energy inefficient. The fuel for cooking in Ghana is mainly biomass either in the form of wood, agricultural residues or charcoal...

  7. Biomasse til energi og økologisk jordbrug

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Bent T; Meyer, Niels I; Nielsen, Vilhjalmur

    Biomass is foreseen to play an important role in the Danish energy supply in the future. In recent years however, concerned ecological farmers have claimed that crop residues and animal manure should be returned to the fields with as small loss in carbon and nutrients content as possible. This has...... of ecological farmers on the use of biomass for energy are described, and empirical studies and models of the impact of soil carbon and nutrients on soil productivity are presented. The impact on the soil carbon balance of incorporating straw and manure to the field and the effects of land use changes...... created uncertainty concerning the realistic potential of biomass for energy. In order to analyse this question the Danish Energy Agency has funded a preliminary, interdiciplinary study concerning the relevance of the claims of the ecological farmers. The principles of ecological farming and the claims...

  8. Low-Energy Electron Scattering by Sugarcane Lignocellulosic Biomass Molecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Eliane; Sanchez, Sergio; Bettega, Marcio; Lima, Marco; Varella, Marcio

    2012-06-01

    The use of second generation (SG) bioethanol instead of fossil fuels could be a good strategy to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. However, the efficient production of SG bioethanol has being a challenge to researchers around the world. The main barrier one must overcome is the pretreatment, a very important step in SG bioethanol aimed at breaking down the biomass and facilitates the extraction of sugars from the biomass. Plasma-based treatment, which can generate reactive species, could be an interesting possibility since involves low-cost atmospheric-pressure plasma. In order to offer theoretical support to this technique, the interaction of low-energy electrons from the plasma with biomass is investigated. This study was motived by several works developed by Sanche et al., in which they understood that DNA damage arises from dissociative electron attachment, a mechanism in which electrons are resonantly trapped by DNA subunits. We will present elastic cross sections for low-energy electron scattering by sugarcane biomass molecules, obtained with the Schwinger multichannel method. Our calculations indicate the formation of π* shape resonances in the lignin subunits, while a series of broad and overlapping σ* resonances are found in cellulose and hemicellulose subunits. The presence of π* and σ* resonances could give rise to direct and indirect dissociation pathways in biomass. Then, theoretical resonance energies can be useful to guide the plasma-based pretreatment to break down specific linkages of interest in biomass.

  9. Biomass for energy - small scale technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salvesen, F.; Joergensen, P.F. [KanEnergi, Rud (Norway)

    1997-12-31

    The bioenergy markets and potential in EU region, the different types of biofuels, the energy technology, and the relevant applications of these for small-scale energy production are reviewed in this presentation

  10. Energy potential of fruit tree pruned biomass in Croatia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bilandzija, N.; Voca, N.; Kricka, T.; Martin, A.; Jurisic, V.

    2012-11-01

    The world's most developed countries and the European Union (EU) deem that the renewable energy sources should partly substitute fossil fuels and become a bridge to the utilization of other energy sources of the future. This paper will present the possibility of using pruned biomass from fruit cultivars. It will also present the calculation of potential energy from the mentioned raw materials in order to determine the extent of replacement of non-renewable sources with these types of renewable energy. One of the results of the intensive fruit-growing process, in post pruning stage, is large amount of pruned biomass waste. Based on the calculated biomass (kg ha{sup 1}) from intensively grown woody fruit crops that are most grown in Croatia (apple, pear, apricots, peach and nectarine, sweet cherry, sour cherry, prune, walnut, hazelnut, almond, fig, grapevine, and olive) and the analysis of combustible (carbon 45.55-49.28%, hydrogen 5.91-6.83%, and sulphur 0.18-0.21%) and non-combustible matters (oxygen 43.34-46.6%, nitrogen 0.54-1.05%, moisture 3.65-8.83%, ashes 1.52-5.39%) with impact of lowering the biomass heating value (15.602-17.727 MJ kg{sup 1}), the energy potential of the pruned fruit biomass is calculated at 4.21 PJ. (Author) 31 refs.

  11. Biomass as a raw material for energy: a future potential energy source; Biomasse als Energierohstoff: Ein zukunftstraechtiger Energietraeger

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bestebroer, S.I. [KEMA Nederland B.V., Arnheim (Netherlands); Smakman, G.J.J. [Novem, Utrecht (Netherlands); Kwant, K.W. [Novem, Utrecht (Netherlands)

    1996-07-01

    Growing interest in the utilization of biomass in energy production in the Netherlands had led to the foundation of a commission, in which all partners participating in electricity supply in the Netherlands work collectively on evaluating the further development of converting biomass to energy and also on formulating the arrangement solutions. The commission has come to the conclusion that the combined combustion of organic residues and the operation of smaller independent plants for biomass processing are, at the present time, realistic options. After the year 2000, the introduction of wood as a raw material for energy on a larger scale will be taken into consideration. (orig.) [Deutsch] Das wachsende Interesse an der Nutzung von Biomasse in der Energieerzeugung fuehrte in den Niederlanden zur Gruendung einer Kommission, in der alle an der niederlaendischen Energieversorgung beteiligten Partner gemeinsam an der Bewertung der weiteren Entwicklung der Umwandlung von Biomasse in Energie sowie an der Formulierung von Loesungsansaetzen arbeiteten. Die Kommission kam zu dem Schluss, dass die Mitverbrennung organischer Rueckstaende und der Betrieb kleinerer eigenstaendiger Anlagen zur Biomasse-Verstromung zum heutigen Zeitpunkt realistische Optionen sind. Nach dem Jahre 2000 wird die Einfuhr von Holz als Energierohstoff im groesseren Massstab in Erwaegung gezogen. (orig.)

  12. Biomass for Energy and the Impacts on Food Security

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nonhebel, Sanderine; Barbir, F; Ulgiati, S

    2010-01-01

    In climate policies in the developed world the use of biomass as an energy source plays an important role Indications exist that these policies are affecting global food security In this chapter we compare the global demands for food, feed and energy in the near future We distinguish between develop

  13. Department of Energy Recovery Act Investment in Biomass Technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2010-11-01

    The American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 (Recovery Act) provided more than $36 billion to the Department of Energy (DOE) to accelerate work on existing projects, undertake new and transformative research, and deploy clean energy technologies across the nation. Of this funding, $1029 million is supporting innovative work to advance biomass research, development, demonstration, and deployment.

  14. Biomass energy from crop and forest residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pimentel, D; Moran, M A; Fast, S; Weber, G; Bukantis, R; Balliett, L; Boveng, P; Cleveland, C; Hindman, S; Young, M

    1981-06-05

    Residues remaining after the harvest of crop and forestry products are being proposed as a substantial energy source for the nation. An estimated 22 percent of the residues might be utilized, providing a renewable source of high-grade energy with the potential of supplying 1 percent of the current U.S. gasoline consumption as ethanol or 4 percent of the total electrical energy used. These net energy benefits are limited by high energy costs to collect, transport, and process the residues. Environmental threats include soil erosion, water runoff, and nutrient loss.

  15. Comparative study of different waste biomass for energy application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motghare, Kalyani A; Rathod, Ajit P; Wasewar, Kailas L; Labhsetwar, Nitin K

    2016-01-01

    Biomass is available in many varieties, consisting of crops as well as its residues from agriculture, forestry, and the agro-industry. These different biomass find their way as freely available fuel in rural areas but are also responsible for air pollution. Emissions from such solid fuel combustion to indoor, regional and global air pollution largely depend on fuel types, combustion device, fuel properties, fuel moisture, amount of air supply for combustion and also on climatic conditions. In both economic and environment point of view, gasification constitutes an attractive alternative for the use of biomass as a fuel, than the combustion process. A large number of studies have been reported on a variety of biomass and agriculture residues for their possible use as renewable fuels. Considering the area specific agriculture residues and biomass availability and related transportation cost, it is important to explore various local biomass for their suitability as a fuel. Maharashtra (India) is the mainstay for the agriculture and therefore, produces a significant amount of waste biomass. The aim of the present research work is to analyze different local biomass wastes for their proximate analysis and calorific value to assess their potential as fuel. The biomass explored include cotton waste, leaf, soybean waste, wheat straw, rice straw, coconut coir, forest residues, etc. mainly due to their abundance. The calorific value and the proximate analysis of the different components of the biomass helped in assessing its potential for utilization in different industries. It is observed that ash content of these biomass species is quite low, while the volatile matter content is high as compared to Indian Coal. This may be appropriate for briquetting and thus can be used as a domestic fuel in biomass based gasifier cook stoves. Utilizing these biomass species as fuel in improved cook-stove and domestic gasifier cook-stoves would be a perspective step in the rural energy and

  16. Energy Efficiency and Air Quality Repairs at Lyonsdale Biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brower, Michael R; Morrison, James A; Spomer, Eric; Thimot, Carol A

    2012-07-31

    This project enabled Lyonsdale Biomass, LLC to effect analyses, repairs and upgrades for its biomass cogeneration facility located in Lewis County, New York and close by the Adirondack Park to reduce air emissions by improving combustion technique and through the overall reduction of biomass throughput by increasing the system's thermodynamic efficiency for its steam-electrical generating cycle. Project outcomes result in significant local, New York State, Northeast U.S. and national benefits including improved renewable energy operational surety, enhanced renewable energy efficiency and more freedom from foreign fossil fuel source dependence. Specifically, the reliability of the Lyonsdale Biomass 20MWe woody biomass combined-heat and power (CHP) was and is now directly enhanced. The New York State and Lewis County benefits are equally substantial since the facility sustains 26 full-time equivalency (FTE) jobs at the facility and as many as 125 FTE jobs in the biomass logistics supply chain. Additionally, the project sustains essential local and state payment in lieu of taxes revenues. This project helps meet several USDOE milestones and contributes directly to the following sustainability goals:  Climate: Reduces greenhouse gas emissions associated with bio-power production, conversion and use, in comparison to fossil fuels. Efficiency and Productivity: Enhances efficient use of renewable resources and maximizes conversion efficiency and productivity. Profitability: Lowers production costs. Rural Development: Enhances economic welfare and rural development through job creation and income generation. Standards: Develop standards and corresponding metrics for ensuring sustainable biopower production. Energy Diversification and Security: Reduces dependence on foreign oil and increases energy supply diversity. Net Energy Balance: Ensures positive net energy balance for all alternatives to fossil fuels.

  17. BIOMASS AS AN ALTERNATIVE SOURCE OF ENERGY IN INDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DEEPAK PALIWAL,

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The fossil fuel is a main source of energy for generation of electricity in India. Overall, about 80% of greenhouse gas (GHS emissions are related to the production and use of energy, and particularly, burning of fossils fuels. The environmental problems are associated with the generation of conventional sources of energy.The Kyoto protocol has established flexible mechanisms for developing countries to meet there GHG reduction commitment. Therefore, renewable source of energy is an alternative to conserve the natural resources and reduce the pollution burden. At present renewable sources of energy such as solar, wind, geothermal and hydropower provide small fraction of energy need. The most prevalent source is biomass, which accounts around 12% of total energy requirement. This source of energy includes wood, logging waste, sawdust, animal dung and vegetables consisting of grass, leaves, grass residues and agricultural waste. The biomass is abundant in nature which can be trapped as source of energy for generation of electricity for the rural as well as urban population. The technology needs to be developed for use of biomass as a source of energy. This paperdiscusses about its prospects in Asia and particularly in India. The recent developments and projects in India are discussed. A note on pollution control strategies has also been added.

  18. [Biomass energy utilization in microbial fuel cells: potentials and challenges].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Liping; Cheng, Shaoan

    2010-07-01

    Microbial fuel cells (MFCs) that can harvest biomass energy from organic wastes through microbial catalysis have garnered more and more attention within the past decade due to its potential benefits to ecological environment. In this article, the updated progress in MFCs is reviewed, with a focus on frontier technologies such as chamber configurations, feedstock varieties and the integration of MFCs with microbial electrolysis cells for hydrogen production. And on the other hand, the challenges like development of cost-effective electrode materials, improvement of biomass energy recovery and power output, design and optimization of commercial MFC devices are presented.

  19. A REVIEW ON BIOMASS DENSIFICATION TECHNOLOGIE FOR ENERGY APPLICATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    JAYA SHANKAR TUMULURU; CHRISTOPHER T. WRIGHT

    2010-08-01

    The world is currently facing challenges to reduce the dependence on fossil fuels and to achieve a sustainable renewable supply. Renewable energies represent a diversity of energy sources that can help to maintain the equilibrium of different ecosystems. Among the various sources of renewable energy, biomass is finding more uses as it is considered carbon neutral since the carbondioxide released during its use is already part of the carbon cycle (Arias et al., 2008). Increasing the utilization of biomass for energy can help to reduce the negative CO2 impact on the environment and help to meet the targets established in the Kyoto Protocol (UN, 1998). Energy from biomass can be produced from different processes like thermochemical (combustion, gasification, and pyrolysis), biological (anaerobic digestion, fermentation) or chemical (esterification) where direct combustion can provide a direct near-term energy solution (Arias et al., 2008). Some of the inherent problems with raw biomass materials, like low bulk density, high moisture content, hydrophilic nature and low calorific value, limit the ease of use of biomass for energy purposes (Arias et al., 2008). In fact, due to its low energy density compared to fossil fuels, high volumes of biomass will be needed; adding to problems associated with storage, transportation and feed handling at a cogeneration plant. Furthermore, grinding biomass pulverizes, can be very costly and in some cases impractical. All of these drawbacks have given rise to the development of new technologies in order to increase the quality of biomass fuels. The purpose of the work is mainly in four areas 1) Overview of the torrefaction process and to do a literature review on i) Physical properties of torrefied raw material and torrefaction gas composition. 2) Basic principles in design of packed bed i) Equations governing the flow of material in packed bed ii) Equations governing the flow of the gases in packed bed iii) Effect of physical

  20. ANALYSIS OF THERMAL-CHEMICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF BIOMASS ENERGY PELLETS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zorica Gluvakov

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In modern life conditions, when emphasis is on environmental protection and sustainable development, fuels produced from biomass are increasingly gaining in importance, and it is necessary to consider the quality of end products obtained from biomass. Based on the existing European standards, collected literature and existing laboratory methods, this paper presents results of testing individual thermal - chemical properties of biomass energy pellets after extrusion and cooling the compressed material. Analysing samples based on standard methods, data were obtained on the basis of which individual thermal-chemical properties of pellets were estimated. Comparing the obtained results with the standards and literature sources, it can be said that moisture content, ash content and calorific values are the most important parameters for quality analysis which decide on applicability and use-value of biomass energy pellets, as biofuel. This paper also shows the impact of biofuels on the quality of environmental protection. The conclusion provides a clear statement of quality of biomass energy pellets.

  1. Biomass energy: Employment generation and its contribution to poverty alleviation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Openshaw, Keith [2430 Shenandoah St., Vienna, VA 22180 (United States)

    2010-03-15

    Studies were undertaken in Malawi from 1995 to 1997 and 2007 to 2008 to estimate the supply and demand of household energy. Because little is known about the supply chain for biomass, surveys were carried out for urban areas on its production, transport and trade as well as sustainable supply. Also, because biomass is used by all people for a multitude of purposes, a complete picture was made of regional and urban biomass supply and demand. The results indicated that biomass is not only the principal energy, accounting for 89 percent of demand, but also the main traded energy in the two time periods accounting for 56-59 percent of commercial demand. Petroleum products supplied 26-27 percent, electricity 8-12 percent and coal 6-10 percent. The market value of traded woodfuel was US$ 48.8 million and US$ 81.0 million in 1996 and 2008 respectively, about 3.5 percent of gross domestic product (GDP). The study found that in 1996 and 2008 respectively, the equivalent of 93,500 and 133,000 full-time people was employed in the biomass supply chain, approximately 2 percent of the potential workforce. In contrast, about 3400 and 4600 people were employed in the supply chain of other fuels in these years. If the Malawi findings are applied to the current estimated wood energy consumption in sub-Saharan Africa, then approximately 13 million people could be employed in commercial biomass energy; this highlights its importance as a means to assist with sustainable development and poverty alleviation. (author)

  2. Biomass based energy. A review on raw materials and processing methods; Energie aus Biomasse. Eine Uebersicht ueber Rohstoffe und Verfahren

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woellauer, P.

    2007-07-01

    The book reviews the variety of biogenic raw materials and the technologically important biomass conversion techniques. The chapter on the different kinds of biomass includes a) wood from forestry, landscape culturing and saw mills, bark and old wood; b) plants (corn, miscanthus, cannabis, wheat, rye, sugar beets, grass, rape, etc.), residuals and wastes (straw, liquid manure, slaughthouse wastes, kitchen wastes, sewage sludge, others). The chapter on biomass conversion processing discusses combustion, oxidation in spercritical water, gasification and reforming, fermentation, extrusion or extraction, and downstream processes. The chapter on biomass based electricity and mechanical energy includes refrigeration engineering, direct utilization: Otto engines, Diesel engines, microgas turbine fuel cells, and heat processing: Striling engine, vapour turbine, ORC turbine, externally fired gas turbine, and the Kalina process.

  3. Solar biomass energy: an overview of u.s. Potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burwell, C C

    1978-03-10

    The U.S. annual biomass production for food, lumber, paper, and fiber, if used exclusively for energy, would provide 25 percent of current energy requirements. The collection of unharvested wood residues and cull trees for direct use as fuel for small nearby space-heating applications-especially for peak winter conditions-is an important near-term solar energy opportunity. Improved management of hundreds of millions of acres of productive forest land is an important opportunity for the long term. Harvest of cropland residues for energy values, new biomass production using intensive short-rotation silviculture, resubstitution of natural products for petroleum-based synthetics, and forest management for large-scale production of electricity and synthetic fuels are judged to be less appropriate directions for the U.S. energy system to take.

  4. Impact of novel energy sources: OTEC, wind, goethermal, biomass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, A. S., Jr.

    1978-01-01

    Alternate energy conversion methods such as ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC), wind power, geothermal wells and biomass conversion are being explored, and re-examined in some cases, for commercial viability. At a time when United States fossil fuel and uranium resources are found to be insufficient to supply national needs into the twenty-first century, it is essential to broaden the base of feasible energy conversion technologies. The motivations for development of these four alternative energy forms are established. Primary technical aspects of OTEC, wind, geothermal and biomass energy conversion systems are described along with a discussion of relative advantages and disadvantages of the concepts. Finally, the sentiment is voiced that each of the four systems should be developed to the prototype stage and employed in the region of the country and in the sector of economy which is complimentary to the form of system output.

  5. Sustainable utilisation of forest biomass for energy - Possibilities and problems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stupak, I.; Asikainen, A.; Jonsell, M.;

    2007-01-01

    The substitution of biomass for fossil fuels in energy consumption is a measure to mitigate global warming, as well as having other advantages. Political action plans for increased use exist at both European and national levels. This paper briefly reviews the contents of recommendations. guidelines....... and other synthesis publications on Sustainable use of forest biomass for energy. Topics are listed and an overview of advantages. disadvantages, and trade-offs between them is given, from the viewpoint of society in general and the forestry or the Nordic and Baltic countries, the paper also identifies...... the extent to which wood for energy is and energy sectors in particular. F included in forest legislation and forest certification standards under the "Programme for the Endorsement of Forest Certification" (PEFC) and the "Forest Stewardship Council" (FSC) schemes. Energy and forest policies at EU...

  6. Energy-efficient photobioreactor configuration for algal biomass production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pegallapati, Ambica Koushik; Arudchelvam, Yalini; Nirmalakhandan, Nagamany

    2012-12-01

    An internally illuminated photobioreactor (IIPBR) design is proposed for energy-efficient biomass production. Theoretical rationale of the IIPBR design and its advantages over the traditional bubble column photobioreactors (PBRs) are presented, followed by experimental results from prototype scale cultivation of freshwater and marine algal strains in an 18L IIPBR. Based on theoretical considerations, the proposed IIPBR design has the potential to support 160% higher biomass density and higher biomass productivity per unit energy input, B/E, than a bubble column PBR of equal incident area per unit culture volume. Experimental B/E values recorded in this study with fresh water algae and marine algae (1.42 and 0.37 gW(-1)d(-1), respectively) are at least twice as those reported in the literature for comparable species cultivated in bubble column and airlift PBRs.

  7. Development of Switchgrass Into a Biomass Energy Crop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) is a North American prairie grass that is being developed into a biomass energy crop in the USA and other countries. Research on switchgrass as a pasture and forage crop was initiated in the mid-1930's in an U.S. Department of Agriculture and University of Nebraska ...

  8. Fuels and chemicals from biomass using solar thermal energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giori, G.; Leitheiser, R.; Wayman, M.

    1981-01-01

    The significant nearer term opportunities for the application of solar thermal energy to the manufacture of fuels and chemicals from biomass are summarized, with some comments on resource availability, market potential and economics. Consideration is given to the production of furfural from agricultural residues, and the role of furfural and its derivatives as a replacement for petrochemicals in the plastics industry.

  9. Agronomic Considerations for Simulating Switchgrass for Biomass Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.), a perennial warm-season grass native to North America, is a prime candidate for dedicated biomass energy for many regions of the USA. USDA-ARS in Lincoln, NE has conducted switchgrass research since the 1930’s. Plot-scale research has been conducted on switchgrass ...

  10. Conflicts on Use of Agricultural Biomass for Energy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyer, Niels I; Nielsen, Vilhjalmur; Christensen, Bent T.

    1997-01-01

    The use of biomass for energy puposes may conflict with the need to maintain soil quality of arable fields. Concerned ecological farmers claim that crop residues and animal manure should all be returned to the fields with as small a loss in carbon and nutrients content as possible. If a large part...

  11. Energy analysis of biochemical conversion processes of biomass to bioethanol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bakari, M.; Ngadi, M.; Bergthorson, T. [McGill Univ., Ste-Anne-de-Bellevue, PQ (Canada). Dept. of Bioresource Engineering

    2010-07-01

    Bioethanol is among the most promising of biofuels that can be produced from different biomass such as agricultural products, waste and byproducts. This paper reported on a study that examined the energy conversion of different groups of biomass to bioethanol, including lignocelluloses, starches and sugar. Biochemical conversion generally involves the breakdown of biomass to simple sugars using different pretreatment methods. The energy needed for the conversion steps was calculated in order to obtain mass and energy efficiencies for the conversions. Mass conversion ratios of corn, molasses and rice straw were calculated as 0.3396, 0.2300 and 0.2296 kg of bioethanol per kg of biomass, respectively. The energy efficiency of biochemical conversion of corn, molasses and rice straw was calculated as 28.57, 28.21 and 31.33 per cent, respectively. The results demonstrated that lignocelluloses can be efficiently converted with specific microorganisms such as Mucor indicus, Rhizopus oryzae using the Simultaneous Saccharification and Fermentation (SSF) methods.

  12. Photosynthetic pathway and biomass energy production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marzola, D L; Bartholomew, D P

    1979-08-10

    The current interest in locating new or alternative sources of energy has focused attention on solar energy capture by crops that can be subsequently utilized as a substitute for fossil fuels. The very high productivity of sugarepane and the fact that it accumulates sugars that are directly fermentable to alcohol may have caused seemingly less productive crops to be overlooked. We show here that recoverable alcohol from achievable commercial yields of pineapple can actually equal that of sugarcane, with the pineapple crop requiring only a fraction of the water used by sugarcane. Pineapple is well adapted to the subhumid or semiarid tropics and thus is particularly well suited for exploiting large areas not now under cultivation with any crop of commercial value.

  13. Challenges in meeting biomass energy needs in West Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dianka, M. [GAA/RPTES, Dakar (Senegal)

    2001-07-01

    Biomass energy represents conciderable potential for West Africa. However, the traditional methods of tapping into this biomass have not only had grave consequences for the environment, but have only been able to partially resolve the crucial issue of how to sustainably supply households with domestic fuels. Nevertheless, recent progress made in the improvement of technologies enhancing biomass energy provides a glimpse at interesting perspectives fostering the modernisating and better assesment of the biocombustible and biofuel industries. Reflection conducted over these past years by a group of African experts, brought together around the ASG at the instigation of the RPTES Programme and founded on a new approach to forest resource management, illustrates the attention public powers are granting increasingly to biomass energy, which had been relegated to the back burner for so long, to the benefit of more 'conventional' energy sources. Considering the complexity of biomass energy issues, and their direct links to poverty, it is evident that isolated actions will never succeed in solving the problems currently faced. Thus it is essential to promote regional collaboration and partnerships for more effective actions and to capitalise on experiences, with the aim of ensuring sustainable development for the continent of Africa. Today, given the economic potential of more than US$6 billion generated by African forests, this implies the introduction of sustainable strategies which will result in increasing incomes and improving welfare in general. West Africa, masthead of the continent, will certainly not be an isolated case. Consequently, vigorous action supporting the sustainable management of natural resources as part of poverty alleviation programmes should be undertaken post-haste, in compliance with the Abuja Treaty establishing the African Economic Community. (au)

  14. A Spatial Model of the Biomass to Energy Cycle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Möller, Bernd

    2003-01-01

    by location. This paper aims to contribute to the development of a biomass to energy evaluation and mapping system, using geographical information systems (GIS). A GIS-based in-forest residue model considers forest growth and choice of harvest method. Data from a sawmill survey is used to assess sawmill resi...... and the costs of accumulated amounts of wood residues can now be calculated almost instantly for each location in the country. It is assumed that this approach will facilitate the assessment of future biomass markets....

  15. Energy from Biomass: technology assessment of small-medium scale biomass conversion systems

    OpenAIRE

    Cutz Ijchajchal, Luis Leonardo

    2016-01-01

    Mención Internacional en el título de doctor Bioenergy is a key resource to addressing challenges such as climate change (anthropogenic CO₂ emissions), pollution (suspended particles), energy security and human well-being. Currently, most of the biomass produced worldwide is consumed for cooking and space heating which has raised concerns among governments and policy-makers, especially due to threats to human health. The present thesis focuses on studying the technical and economic feasibi...

  16. Energy balance for steam generation system with biomass dryer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramos, Pedro A.R. [Instituto Superior Politecnico Jose Antonio Echeverria (CUJAE), Ciudad de La Habana (Cuba). Facultad Ingenieria Mecanica]. E-mail: pedro@economia.cujae.edu.cu; Lombardi, Geraldo; Santos, Antonio Moreira dos [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil). Escola de Engenharia]. E-mails: lombardi@sc.usp.br; asantos@sc.usp.br

    2008-07-01

    Water content is a major drainer of the energy available in the biomass, which justifies the proposal of a drying system with the potential to increase 80% of the biomass low heating value, also increasing the production of steam in the boiler and cogeneration of electricity. An example of biomass is the sugar cane bagasse of an alcohol mill producing 120,000 liters of alcohol per day, whose humidity from the extraction section is usually 50%. The present paper determines the increases in the mass flow rates of steam in the boiler, in the cogeneration of electricity and in the pay back time of the drying system and of the alcohol mill, as a consequence of the bagasse drying from 50 to 35%, considering 30% of air excess over the stoichiometric value admitted in the boiler for the bagasse burning. It also provides subsidies for the development and deployment of a drying system for the current boilers. (author)

  17. Strategies on biomass energies in EU

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xenakis, E. [European Commission, Bruxelles (Belgium)

    1997-08-01

    The main EU programmes, supporting the renewable deployment, are the research and development programmes JOULE, THERMIE and FAIR, included in the 4th framework programme, the ALTENER programme and the `Community Support Framework` programme. Research and development (R and E) activity within the JOULE and THERMIE programmes are divided into five areas, of which the third concerns the renewable energies. The support could range from 40 to 100 % of the cost. JOULE programme is research oriented, while the THERMIE programme is demonstration oriented. The FAIR programme is also a specific research and development programme for agriculture and agrifood industry. It could cover, among others, projects in connection with the biogas exploitation. The ALTENER programme provides support for the so called `software` actions, promoting renewables, mainly training and information actions, including events like the present one. Furthermode, it provides support for technical specifications, creation of infrastructure for the promotion of renewables and so on. ALTENER does not support investments. Finally the `Community Support Framework` programme promoting the regional development, could, in some cases, support traditional technology investments in relation to renewables. (au)

  18. Energy and conservation benefits from managed prairie biomass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jungers, Jacob M.; Trost, Jared J.; Lehman, Clarence L.; Tilman, David; Booth, Elaine

    2011-01-01

    Marginally productive land, such as that enrolled in the Conservation Reserve Program (CRP), may provide acreage and economic incentives for cellulosic energy production. Improving the yields from these lands will help establish a biomass producer?s position in the marketplace. The effects of water and nitrogen on biomass yields were investigated in both a plot-scale experiment and a broad-scale survey of CRP lands. The plot-scale experiment demonstrated that irrigation improved mixed-species prairie biomass yields more than nitrogen fertilizer on coarse-textured, marginally productive soils. Experimental plots amended with both irrigation and moderate (but not high) nitrogen produced more biomass than other treatment combinations, but this trend was not statistically significant. The survey of biomass yields on CRP lands across four Midwestern States indicates that yields are better correlated with June rainfall than any other individual month. Applying nutrient-enriched water such as agricultural runoff could benefit prairie yields if applied at appropriate times.

  19. Biomass Energy Self-Sufficiency Resource Alternatives for a Forested Air Force Installation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-05-01

    to support basewide biomass energy systems. The study confirmed the feasibility of a biomass energy plantation supplying the required fuel wood to...support the basewide biomass energy systems while, at the same time not conflicting with any of the operational missions of Eglin AFB. This conclusion is...have an installation that provides all of its electrical and thermal energy requirements through the utilization of the Biomass Energy Island concept. (Author)

  20. Technical and economic analysis of using biomass energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piaskowska-Silarska Małgorzata

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In the first part of the article were presented the technical possibilities of obtaining solid biomass, biogas, landfill gas, a biogas from wastewater treatment plants, bioethanol and biodiesel. Then processes was described, allowing use of energy from biomass. As first was discussed the incineration which includes drying and degassing of the wood materials, wood gas burning at 1200°C, post-combustion gas and heat transfer in the heat exchanger. Then had been described gasification, or thermochemical conversion process, occurring at high temperature. It is two-stage process. In the first chamber at deficiency of air and at relatively low temperatures (450–800°C, the fuel is being degasified, resulting in creating combustible gas and a mineral residue (charcoal. In the second stage, secondary combustion chamber and at a temperature of about 1000–1200°C and in the presence of excess of oxygen resultant gas is burned. A further process is pyrolysis. It consists of the steps of drying fuel to a moisture level below 10%, milling the biomass into very small particles, the pyrolysis reaction, separation of solid products, cooling and collecting bio-oil. Then discusses co-generation, which is combined production of heat and electricity. In this situation where the biomass contains too much water it can be used for energy purposes through biochemical processes. The alcoholic fermentation results in decomposition of carbohydrates taking place under anaerobic conditions, and the product is bioethanol. Another biochemical process used for the production of liquid biofuels is esterification of vegetable oils. Methane fermentation in turn causes a decomposition of macromolecular organic substances with limited oxygen available. As a result, we obtain alcohols, lower organic acids, methane, carbon dioxide and water. There was analysis of economic increasing of solid biomass energy, biogas and liquid biofuels in the following article.

  1. Forest Biomass Energy Resources in China: Quantity and Distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caixia Zhang

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available As one of the most important renewable and sustainable energy sources, the forest biomass energy resource has always been the focus of attention of scholars and policy makers. However, its potential is still uncertain in China, especially with respect to its spatial distribution. In this paper, the quantity and distribution of Chinese forest biomass energy resources are explored based mainly on forestry statistics data rather than forest resource inventory data used by most previous studies. The results show that the forest biomass energy resource in China was 169 million tons in 2010, of which wood felling and bucking residue (WFBR,wood processing residue (WPR, bamboo processing residue, fuel wood and firewood used by farmers accounted for 38%, 37%, 6%, 4% and 15%, respectively. The highest resource was located in East China, accounting for nearly 39.0% of the national amount, followed by the Southwest and South China regions, which accounted for 17.4% and 16.3%, respectively. At the provincial scale, Shandong has the highest distribution, accounting for 11.9% of total resources, followed by Guangxi and Fujian accounting for 10.3% and 10.2%, respectively. The actual wood-processing residue (AWPR estimated from the actual production of different wood products (considering the wood transferred between regions showed apparent differences from the local wood processing residue (LWPR, which assumes that no wood has been transferredbetween regions. Due to the large contribution of WPR to total forestry bioenergy resources, the estimation of AWPR will provide a more accurate evaluation of the total amount and the spatial distribution of forest biomass energy resources in China.

  2. Easetech Energy: Advanced Life Cycle Assessment of Energy from Biomass and Waste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Astrup, Thomas Fruergaard; Turconi, Roberto; Tonini, Davide

    SUMMARY: Biomass and waste are expected to play a key role in future energy systems based on large shares of renewable energy resources. The LCA model EASETECH Energy was developed specifically for modelling large and complex energy systems including various technologies and several processing st...

  3. Production and trading of biomass for energy: an overview of the global status

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heinimö, J.; Junginger, Martin

    2009-01-01

    The markets for industrially used biomass for energy purposes are developing rapidly toward being international commodity markets. Determining international traded biomass volumes for energy purposes is difficult, for several reasons, such as challenges regarding the compilation of statistics on the

  4. Biomass as energy resource of Bosnia and Herzegovina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gvero, P. (University of Banja Luka, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Banja Luka (Bosnia and Herzegowina)); Petrovic, S. (IGT R and D Centre for Gas Technology, Sarajevo (Bosnia and Herzegowina)); Ballard Tremeer, G. (ECO Ltd., London (United Kingdom)); Maslac, S. (UNDP, Banja Luka Office (Bosnia and Herzegowina))

    2007-07-01

    The production, harvesting and processing of timber is one of the country's oldest economic activities, and has a major strategic importance for the country's economic development, especially in post war period. Some statistical estimations shows that the wood export value within the total Bosnia and Herzegovina export value is probably in order of 15%. It is further estimated that 15% of the total population receives its livelihood through the activities in forestry and forest industry. Sustainable development of the present and future energy systems has to be based on two strategies: energy efficiency and renewable energy sources. Bosnia and Herzegovina thanking to great hydro potential, biomass, geothermal energy etc. belongs to the list of the countries which will development of energy sector mainly based on renewable energy sources. In a present period biomass plays significant role in households and wood processing industry sectors. Bosnia and Herzegovina has large biomass resources: the growing stock is equivalent to 7.44 x 106 m3 of wood giving an annual sustainable production volume of about 4.43 x 106 m3. Because of large potential of biomass, this energy source will play more important role in whole energy sector of Bosnia and Herzegovina. This paper gives some data regarding to biomass energy potential collected from different sources in Republic of Srpska and Federation of B and H as consisting parts of the Bosnia and Herzegovina and recouped on one place. This paper also gives short analysis of potential biomass resource use. There are a lot of large industrial energy systems in the Country, mainly in wood processing industry, which was passed through privatization process in last couple years. Now, new owners of this mainly to large capacities for them, looking for the chances in ESCO business, electricity production, district heating systems. This paper gives short analysis of potential cogeneration systems based on biomass. Some analysis

  5. Nanotechnology makes biomass electrolysis more energy efficient than water electrolysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Y. X.; Lavacchi, A.; Miller, H. A.; Bevilacqua, M.; Filippi, J.; Innocenti, M.; Marchionni, A.; Oberhauser, W.; Wang, L.; Vizza, F.

    2014-06-01

    The energetic convenience of electrolytic water splitting is limited by thermodynamics. Consequently, significant levels of hydrogen production can only be obtained with an electrical energy consumption exceeding 45 kWh kg-1H2. Electrochemical reforming allows the overcoming of such thermodynamic limitations by replacing oxygen evolution with the oxidation of biomass-derived alcohols. Here we show that the use of an original anode material consisting of palladium nanoparticles deposited on to a three-dimensional architecture of titania nanotubes allows electrical energy savings up to 26.5 kWh kg-1H2 as compared with proton electrolyte membrane water electrolysis. A net energy analysis shows that for bio-ethanol with energy return of the invested energy larger than 5.1 (for example, cellulose), the electrochemical reforming energy balance is advantageous over proton electrolyte membrane water electrolysis.

  6. Energy Opportunities from Lignocellulosic Biomass for a Biorefinery Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franco Cotana

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This work presents some energy considerations concerning a biorefinery case study that has been carried out by the CRB/CIRIAF of the University of Perugia. The biorefinery is the case study of the BIT3G project, a national funded research project, and it uses the lignocellulosic biomass that is available in the territory as input materials for biochemical purposes, such as cardoon and carthamus. The whole plant is composed of several sections: the cardoon and carthamus seed milling, the oil refinement facilities, and the production section of some high quality biochemicals, i.e., bio-oils and fatty acids. The main goal of the research is to demonstrate energy autonomy of the latter section of the biorefinery, while only recovering energy from the residues resulting from the collection of the biomass. To this aim, this work presents the quantification of the energy requirements to be supplied to the considered biorefinery section, the mass flow, and the energy and chemical characterization of the biomass. Afterwards, some sustainability strategies have been qualitatively investigated in order to identify the best one to be used in this case study; the combined heat and power (CHP technology. Two scenarios have been defined and presented: the first with 6 MWt thermal input and 1.2 MWe electrical power as an output and the second with 9 MWt thermal input and 1.8 MWe electrical power as an output. The first scenario showed that 11,000 tons of residual biomass could ensure the annual production of about 34,000 MWht, equal to about the 72% of the requirements, and about 9600 MWhe, equal to approximately 60% of the electricity demand. The second scenario showed that 18,000 tons of the residual biomass could ensure the total annual production of about 56,000 MWht, corresponding to more than 100% of the requirements, and about 14,400 MWhe, equal to approximately 90% of the electricity demand. In addition, the CO2 emissions from the energy valorization

  7. Local biomass as a decentral source of energy; Kommunale Biomasse als dezentraler Energietraeger

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schlederer, Swantje Mignon; Guenthert, F. Wolfgang [Univ. der Bundeswehr Muenchen, Neubiberg (Germany). Inst. fuer Wasserwesen, Siedlungswasserwirtschaft und Abfalltechnik

    2013-03-15

    The production of wood based fuels such as wooden logs, wood chip, wooden briquettes or pellets has become standard practice. The easy handling of wood as an energy source has contributed to its popularity. A growing demand for wood based fuels has resulted in higher prices and the increasing demand is being met more and more by imports. The florafuel-Procedure provides an alternative to this trend by processing stalks and biomass waste, which in turn means a considerably broader raw material base. The procedure, which produces fuel in the form of pellets or briquettes to generate electricity or heat, is currently being optimised at the University of the German Federal Armed Forces in Munich (Universitaet der Bundeswehr Muenchen) and is about to complete a demonstration plant which should prove its economic viability. Substances such as chlorine and potassium which normally cause concern during the combustion of stalks and stems can be significantly reduced through this production process. Moreover, the materials used as an energy source do not compete with food production. The fuel produced can be easily transported and stored. It can be used to meet both base load and peak load demands and has therefore proven to be highly flexible. Easy handling, little storage space and low capital expenditure are important characteristics of the florafuel-Procedure. Compared to other production processes, the florafuel-Procedure shows a very favourable energy balance for biomass based on stalks and stems. (orig.)

  8. Biomass - alternative renewable energy source to the fossil fuels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koruba Dorota

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the fossil fuels combustion effects in terms of the dangers of increasing CO2 concentration in the atmosphere. Based on the bibliography review the negative impact of increased carbon dioxide concentration on the human population is shown in the area of the external environment, particularly in terms of the air pollution and especially the impact on human health. The paper presents biomass as the renewable energy alternative source to fossil fuels which combustion gives a neutral CO2 emissions and therefore should be the main carrier of primary energy in Poland. The paper presents the combustion heat results and humidity of selected dry wood pellets (pellets straw, energy-crop willow pellets, sawdust pellets, dried sewage sludge from two sewage treatment plants of the Holly Cross province pointing their energy potential. In connection with the results analysis of these studies the standard requirements were discussed (EN 14918:2010 “Solid bio-fuels-determination of calorific value” regarding the basic parameters determining the biomass energy value (combustion heat, humidity.

  9. Energy-Based Evaluations on Eucalyptus Biomass Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago L. Romanelli

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Dependence on finite resources brings economic, social, and environmental concerns. Planted forests are a biomass alternative to the exploitation of natural forests. In the exploitation of the planted forests, planning and management are key to achieve success, so in forestry operations, both economic and noneconomic factors must be considered. This study aimed to compare eucalyptus biomass production through energy embodiment of anthropogenic inputs and resource embodiment including environmental contribution (emergy for the commercial forest in the Sao Paulo, Brazil. Energy analyses and emergy synthesis were accomplished for the eucalyptus production cycles. It was determined that emergy synthesis of eucalyptus production and sensibility analysis for three scenarios to adjust soil acidity (lime, ash, and sludge. For both, energy analysis and emergy synthesis, harvesting presented the highest input demand. Results show the differences between energy analysis and emergy synthesis are in the conceptual underpinnings and accounting procedures. Both evaluations present similar trends and differ in the magnitude of the participation of an input due to its origin. For instance, inputs extracted from ores, which represent environmental contribution, are more relevant for emergy synthesis. On the other hand, inputs from industrial processes are more important for energy analysis.

  10. Evaluation of biomass combustion based energy systems by cumulative energy demand and energy yield coefficient

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nussbaumer, T.; Oser, M.

    2004-07-01

    This final report prepared for the International Energy Agency (IEA) Bioenergy Task 32 presents a method for a comparison of different energy systems with respect to the overall energy yield during their life cycles. For this purpose, the Cumulative Energy Demand (CED) based on primary energy and the Energy Yield Factor (EYC) are introduced and determined for the following scenarios: Log wood, wood chips, and wood pellets for residential heating and - except for log wood - also for district heating. As an alternative to heat production, power production via combustion and use of the electricity for decentralised heat pumps is also looked at. The evaluation and comparison of both the EYC for all fuels and the EYC{sub N}R for the non-renewable part enables a ranking of energy systems without a subjective weighing of non-renewable and renewable fuels to be made. For a sustainable energy supply, it is proposed to implement renewable energy systems in future which achieve an energy yield EYC{sub N}R of at least greater than 2 but favourably greater than 5. The evaluation of the different scenarios presented is proposed as the future basis for the choice of the most efficient energy systems based on biomass combustion.

  11. An overview of biomass energy utilization in Vojvodina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dodic, Sinisa N. [Department of Biotechnology and Pharmaceutical Engineering, Faculty of Technology, University of Novi Sad, Bul. cara Lazara 1, 21000 Novi Sad, Vojvodina (RS); Faculty of Entrepreneurial Management, Modene 2, 21000 Novi Sad, Vojvodina (RS); Popov, Stevan D.; Dodic, Jelena M.; Rankovic, Jovana A.; Zavargo, Zoltan Z. [Department of Biotechnology and Pharmaceutical Engineering, Faculty of Technology, University of Novi Sad, Bul. cara Lazara 1, 21000 Novi Sad, Vojvodina (RS); Golusin, Mirjana T. [Faculty of Entrepreneurial Management, Modene 2, 21000 Novi Sad, Vojvodina (RS)

    2010-01-15

    The Autonomous Province of Vojvodina is an autonomous province in Serbia. It is located in the northern part of the country, in the Pannonia plain. Vojvodina is an energy-deficient province. Energy plays a pivotal role in socio-economic development by raising the standard of living. Biomass has been used by mankind as an energy source for thousands of years. Traditional fuels like firewood, dung and crop residues currently contribute a major share in meeting the everyday energy requirements of rural and low-income urban households in Vojvodina. Contribution of the renewable energy sources in the total consumption of energy in Vojvidina is less than 1%, i.e. it amounts to 280 KWh/year. Production of biodiesel in the year 2008 was 0.07 million tons, what is for 133% higher with respect to the production in the year 2007 (0.03 million tons). In Vojvodina, as the raw materials for bioethanol production are seen primarily sugar beet, corn, wheat surpluses, potato surpluses and waste potato, as well as the raw materials intended for these purposes grown on the uncultivated soils, such as hybrid broomcorn, Jerusalem artichoke and triticale. With introduction of new technologies for cultivation and collecting of biomass production of the electrical energy could be raised to 6.4 GWh/m{sup 2} year, what, with retention of the contemporary consumption, would represent the significant 9% of the total consumption in the province. According to programme of realisation of energy strategy of Vojvodina/Serbia in the field of the renewable energy sources for to period till the year 2010 and its completion, till the year 2015, in Vojvodina could be created conditions for the employment of about 24,000 workers, i.e. 4000 employed for maintenance of the newly constructed plants, 17,000 employed on designing and manufacturing of plants and 3000 employed in auxiliary activities. (author)

  12. Energy analysis of Organic Rankine Cycles for biomass applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Algieri Angelo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The present paper aims at analysing the performances of Organic Rankine Cycles (ORCs adopted for the exploitation of the biomass resulting from the pruning residues in a 3000 hectares district in Southern Italy. A parametric energy analysis has been carried out to define the influence of the main plant operating conditions. To this purpose, both subcritical and transcritical power plants have been examined and saturated and superheated conditions at the turbine inlet have been imposed. Moreover, the effect of the working fluid, condensation temperature, and internal regeneration on system performances has been investigated. The results show that ORC plants represent an interesting and sustainable solution for decentralised and small-scale power production. Furthermore, the analysis highlights the significant impact of the maximum temperature and the noticeable effect of internal regeneration on the performances of the biomass power plants.

  13. Energy potential of sugar cane biomass in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rípoli Tomaz Caetano Cannavam

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Brazil is a developing tropical country with abundant biomass resources. Sugar cane (Saccahrum spp. is primarily produced to obtain sugar and alcohol. Presently sugar cane is burned before harvest. If the cane were not burned before harvest, the trash (tops and leaves could be collected and burned to produce steam to generate electricity, or be converted into alcohol fuel and decrease the severe air pollution problems caused by sugar cane burning. Based upon logical assumptions and appropriate data, we estimate the number of people that could be served each year by this biomass if its energy was converted into electricity. From trash and bagasse, 7.0x10(6 and 5.5x10(6 people y-1 could be served, respectively.

  14. Economic viability of present-day biomass energy installations; Wirtschaftlichkeit von heutigen Biomasse-Energieanlagen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Markus Sommerhalder, M.; Schelske, O. [Ernst Basler und Partner AG, Zuerich (Switzerland); Nussbaumer, T. [Verenum, Zuerich (Switzerland); Engeli, H. [Engeli Engineering, Neerach (Switzerland); Membrez, Y.; Ndoh, M.; Tacchini, C. [EREP SA, Aclens (Switzerland)

    2007-03-15

    This illustrated, comprehensive report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) takes a look at the economic viability of biomass energy installations. The installations examined included wood-fired installations, biogas installations and those using bio-diesel and bio-ethanol. The system boundaries involved are defined and various factors that influence cost calculations are examined. The resulting heat and electricity prices for various energy sources and systems are presented and discussed. Examples of small and large-scale installations are presented. For wood-energy, combined heat and power system producing electricity at powers of 1 to 5 MWe are looked at and the various factors influencing their viability are discussed. Biogas installations of various sizes are discussed and the differing investment costs involved are commented on. Here, large industrial installations using communal green wastes are also examined and the influence of communal waste-collection charges on the price for the electricity generated is discussed, as is the influence of the market for the residual compost produced. The production and use of biogas in public wastewater treatment plants is also looked at, including the use of co-substrates. As far as biogenic liquid fuels such as bio-diesel and bio-ethanol are concerned, the report takes a brief look at the situation concerning installations in Switzerland and reviews the production costs involved. Various conclusions are drawn for the various energy sources reviewed as well as for the prices for heat and electrical energy obtained.

  15. First biomass conference of the Americas: Energy, environment, agriculture, and industry. Proceedings, Volume 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-10-01

    This conference was designed to provide a national and international forum to support the development of a viable biomass industry. Although papers on research activities and technologies under development that address industry problems comprised part of this conference, an effort was made to focus on scale-up and demonstration projects, technology transfer to end users, and commercial applications of biomass and wastes. The conference was divided into these major subject areas: Resource Base, Power Production, Transportation Fuels, Chemicals and Products, Environmental Issues, Commercializing Biomass Projects, Biomass Energy System Studies, and Biomass in Latin America. The papers in this third volume deal with Environmental Issues, Biomass Energy System Studies, and Biomass in Latin America. Concerning Environmental Issues, the following topics are emphasized: Global Climate Change, Biomass Utilization, Biofuel Test Procedures, and Commercialization of Biomass Products. Selected papers have been indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  16. A techno-economic evaluation of a biomass energy conversion park

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dael, Van M.; Passel, van S.; Pelkmans, L.; Guisson, R.; Reumermann, P.; Luzardo, N.M.; Witters, N.; Broeze, J.

    2013-01-01

    Biomass as a renewable energy source has many advantages and is therefore recognized as one of the main renewable energy sources to be deployed in order to attain the target of 20% renewable energy use of final energy consumption by 2020 in Europe. In this paper the concept of a biomass Energy Conve

  17. Biomass: An Alternative Source of Energy for Eighth or Ninth Grade Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heyward, Lillie; Murff, Marye

    This teaching unit develops the possibility of using biomass as an alternative source of energy. The concept of biomass is explained and the processes associated with its conversion to energy are stated. Suggestions for development of biomass technology in different geographic areas are indicated. Lessons for 6 days are presented for use with…

  18. Energy from biomass — Some basic physical and related considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gloyne, R. W.

    1983-09-01

    The production of vegetable matter (biomass) by photosynthesis is determined by species and by meteorological factors (especially, but not exclusively, solar radiation). Annual net primary production of land-based biomass corresponds to only about 1/1000 of the intercepted irradiation at ground level, but even so, is 10 times the world's estimated energy needs. The exploitation of this energy potential at any one place is critically influenced by the economic, political and social factors, amongst which are the competition from agriculture (especially food crops), forestry, industrial and urban (including leisure) needs for land and resources. Social factors (e.g. population and population density) also constitute prime influences. Strategies for utilisation range from the cultivation of special energy crops (readily conceivable on the American/ Australasian continents); to the more efficient manipulation of current land-use patterns (including “opportunity” cropping); to the more effective exploitation of biologi cal wastes (e.g. methane from sewage), probably the only immediately practical possibility in any densely populated and highly industrialised country. The spatial pattern of solar irradiation at ground level is complex. In the summer, total daily irradiation in continental high latitudes can exceed that in maritime temperate regions; and this combined with species differences and the almost infinite variety of shape and orientation of plant parts, result in a photosynthetic production of biomass which does not conform completely to a zonal pattern, but in broad terms annual dry matter production varies from a few kg/ha in Arctic Tundra to tens of tonnes in temperate latitudes rising to nearly 100 t/ha for perennial tropical crops. If a species could be developed to grow throughout the year at the current seasonal rate, a yield of 150 t/yr, ha) seems possible.

  19. Assessment of potential biomass energy production in China towards 2030 and 2050

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhao, Guangling

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to provide a more detailed picture of potential biomass energy production in the Chinese energy system towards 2030 and 2050. Biomass for bioenergy feedstocks comes from five sources, which are agricultural crop residues, forest residues and industrial wood waste......, energy crops and woody crops, animal manure, and municipal solid waste. The potential biomass production is predicted based on the resource availability. In the process of identifying biomass resources production, assumptions are made regarding arable land, marginal land, crops yields, forest growth rate......, and meat consumption and waste production. Four scenarios were designed to describe the potential biomass energy production to elaborate the role of biomass energy in the Chinese energy system in 2030. The assessment shows that under certain restrictions on land availability, the maximum potential biomass...

  20. Priority order in using biomass resources - Energy systems analyses of future scenarios for Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kwon, Pil Seok; Østergaard, Poul Alberg

    2013-01-01

    for the decrease of biomass are made by use of an hourly energy system analysis model, EnergyPLAN. The results are shown in terms of system configuration, biomass fuel efficiency, system cost, and impacts on the export of electricity. It is concluded that the reduction of biomass in the heat sector is better than......According to some future Danish energy scenarios, biomass will become one of the two main pillars of the future energy system accompanied by wind power. The biomass can be used for generating heat and electricity, and as a transportation fuel in a future energy system according to the scenarios....... This article compares the value of using biomass as a heat source and for electricity generation in a 100% renewable energy system context. The comparison is done by assuming an incremental decrease in the biomass available for the electricity and heat sector, respectively. The assumed scenarios...

  1. Efficient conversion of solar energy to biomass and electricity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parlevliet, David; Moheimani, Navid Reza

    2014-01-01

    The Earth receives around 1000 W.m(-2) of power from the Sun and only a fraction of this light energy is able to be converted to biomass (chemical energy) via the process of photosynthesis. Out of all photosynthetic organisms, microalgae, due to their fast growth rates and their ability to grow on non-arable land using saline water, have been identified as potential source of raw material for chemical energy production. Electrical energy can also be produced from this same solar resource via the use of photovoltaic modules. In this work we propose a novel method of combining both of these energy production processes to make full utilisation of the solar spectrum and increase the productivity of light-limited microalgae systems. These two methods of energy production would appear to compete for use of the same energy resource (sunlight) to produce either chemical or electrical energy. However, some groups of microalgae (i.e. Chlorophyta) only require the blue and red portions of the spectrum whereas photovoltaic devices can absorb strongly over the full range of visible light. This suggests that a combination of the two energy production systems would allow for a full utilization of the solar spectrum allowing both the production of chemical and electrical energy from the one facility making efficient use of available land and solar energy. In this work we propose to introduce a filter above the algae culture to modify the spectrum of light received by the algae and redirect parts of the spectrum to generate electricity. The electrical energy generated by this approach can then be directed to running ancillary systems or producing extra illumination for the growth of microalgae. We have modelled an approach whereby the productivity of light-limited microalgae systems can be improved by at least 4% through using an LED array to increase the total amount of illumination on the microalgae culture.

  2. Effective Assessment of Diabetes Control Using Personal Glucometers (CONTOURLINK, Bayer, Germany; CALLA, Wellion, Austria; LINUS, Agamatrix, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Chlup

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim of this trial was to assess (1 the accuracy and precision of electrochemistry-based glucometers CONTOURLINK, CALLA, and LINUS and (2 the diabetes control using Ambulatory Glycaemic Profiles (AGP as markers of therapeutic effectiveness. Glucometers and COBAS INTEGRA 400 Plus analyzer were used by one laboratory professional to estimate P-glucose (PG in 112 out-patients. There were 112 sets of 12 PG estimations analyzed. In each set, means of 3 capillary PG estimations on 3 respective glucometers and on INTEGRA analyzer were calculated. The statistical program SPSS, v. 15, was applied. The mean INTEGRA PG values ranged from 2.7 to 25.3 mmol/L. There were strong correlations between mean PG on INTEGRA versus CONTOURLINK, versus CALLA, and versus LINUS; PG deviations from INTEGRA were mostly within the range ±15%. Wilcoxon Signed Rank Test revealed differences between CONTOURLINK-INTEGRA and LINUS-INTEGRA; CALLA-INTEGRA showed no difference. SD INTEGRA = 0.061 mmol/L, SD CONTOURLINK/SD CALLA/SD LINUS were 0.256/0.290/0.286 mmol/L. All patients were trained to perform defined 10-point PG profiles to adapt food, exercise, and insulin doses. The PG differences between all tested glucometers and reference values were in borderline of ISO 15197 but worthy of consideration. AGP are helpful markers of diabetes control.

  3. Potential and possibilities of supplying energy from biomass and biogas; Potentiale und Moeglichkeiten der Energiebereitstellung durch Biomasse und Biogas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sonnenberg, H. [Bundesforschungsanstalt fuer Landwirtschaft, Braunschweig (Germany). Inst. fuer Betriebstechnik; Weiland, P.; Ahlgrimm, H.J. [Bundesforschungsanstalt fuer Landwirtschaft (FAL), Braunschweig (Germany). Inst. fuer Technologie

    1998-06-01

    Agriculture`s potential contribution to the energy supply of the ``town of the future`` through the conversion of biomass to energy, including biogas production, is a rather modest one. Supposing that the share of total renewable energy in Germany`s primary energy demand rises to approximately 4%, then the proportion of biomass from biotic raw materials especially produced for the purpose will at the most make up an eighth of this amount. Beyond this, biomass is burdened with other drawbacks such as low supply efficiency, limited availability, and weather-dependent reliability. On the other hand, biomass is well suited for conversion to solid, liquid, and gaseous fuels, including inexpensive ones with low energy density (solid fuels), mostly used for stationary heating applications, as well as more expensive ones such as liquid fuels with a high energy density for mobile applications in the automotive sector. Thanks to its capacity to regenerate, biomass is an inexhaustible resource. Moreover, its natural life cycle has a small impact on the environment. [Deutsch] Der Beitrag, den die Landwirtschaft durch energetische Nutzung von Biomasse, z.B. auch mit der Erzeugung von Biogas, zur Energieversorgung der `Stadt der Zukunft` leisten kann, nimmt sich bescheiden aus. Wird erwartet, dass innerhalb des naechsten Jahrzehnts der Anteil regenerativer Energien insgesamt auf etwa 4% des Primaerenergie-Verbrauchs Deutschlands ansteigen koennte, so duerfte Biomasse als speziell zur Energiegewinnung angebaute nachwachsende Rohstoffe mit bestensfalls 0,5 Prozentpunkten daran beteiligt sein. Es beduerfen darueber hinaus auch Nachteile, wie geringe Bereitstellungseffizienz, beschraenkte Verfuegbarkeit und witterungsabhaengige Zuverlaessigkeit, der Beachtung. Die Biomasse kann jedoch mit Erfolg in feste, fluessige und gasfoermige Energietraeger konvertiert werden, sowohl in preiswerte mit geringer Energiedichte (Festbrennstoffe) fuer bevorzugt stationaeren Heizungs-Einsatz als auch

  4. Proceedings of the Chornobyl phytoremediation and biomass energy conversion workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hartley, J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Tokarevsky, V. [State Co. for Treatment and Disposal of Mixed Hazardous Waste (Ukraine)

    1998-06-01

    Many concepts, systems, technical approaches, technologies, ideas, agreements, and disagreements were vigorously discussed during the course of the 2-day workshop. The workshop was successful in generating intensive discussions on the merits of the proposed concept that includes removal of radionuclides by plants and trees (phytoremediation) to clean up soil in the Chornobyl Exclusion Zone (CEZ), use of the resultant biomass (plants and trees) to generate electrical power, and incorporation of ash in concrete casks to be used as storage containers in a licensed repository for low-level waste. Twelve years after the Chornobyl Nuclear Power Plant (ChNPP) Unit 4 accident, which occurred on April 26, 1986, the primary 4radioactive contamination of concern is from radioactive cesium ({sup 137}Cs) and strontium ({sup 90}Sr). The {sup 137}Cs and {sup 90}Sr were widely distributed throughout the CEZ. The attendees from Ukraine, Russia, Belarus, Denmark and the US provided information, discussed and debated the following issues considerably: distribution and characteristics of radionuclides in CEZ; efficacy of using trees and plants to extract radioactive cesium (Cs) and strontium (Sr) from contaminated soil; selection of energy conversion systems and technologies; necessary infrastructure for biomass harvesting, handling, transportation, and energy conversion; radioactive ash and emission management; occupational health and safety concerns for the personnel involved in this work; and economics. The attendees concluded that the overall concept has technical and possibly economic merits. However, many issues (technical, economic, risk) remain to be resolved before a viable commercial-scale implementation could take place.

  5. Potential For Agricultural Biomass Production for Energy Purposes in Poland: a Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafał Baum

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This article reviews the production capacity of Polish agriculture with respect to biomass used for energy production. The forecast production potential of agricultural biomass in Poland in 2020 includes three key areas: the expected consumption of renewable energy according to energy type, the energy potential of agriculture and barriers to the use of biomass. Studies have shown that in Poland, total energy consumption will significantly increase (over 10% by 2020. Growth of demand for renewable energy will primarily result from strong growth of demand for transport biofuels and electricity. In 2020, approximately 80% of final energy from renewable sources will come from biomass. More than three-quarters of the biomass will be generated from agriculture. In Poland, crops from 1.0 to 4.3 million ha can be used for energy production. The study shows changes in the structure of biomass use, and the analysis confirms the declining share of biomass for heat production and the increasing share of biomass for electricity and biofuels. The main obstacles to the continued use of agricultural biomass are a lack of local markets for biomass energy and poor financial support for energy crop production.

  6. Potential for the energy-oriented use of biomass in Switzerland; Potentiale zur energetischen Nutzung von Biomasse in der Schweiz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oettli, B.; Blum, M.; Peter, M.; Schwank, O. [Infras, Zuerich (Switzerland); Bedniaguine, D.; Dauriat, A.; Gnansounou, G. [Swiss Federal Institute of Technology (EPFL), Laboratory of Energy Systems (LASEN), Lausanne (Switzerland); Chetelat, J.; Golay, G. [Swiss Federal Office of Technology (EPFL), Laboratoire de systemes d' information geographique (LASIG), Lausanne (Switzerland); Hersener, J.-L. [Ingenieurbuero Hersener, Wiesendangen (Switzerland); Meier, U. [Meritec GmbH, Guntershausen (Switzerland); Schleiss, K. [Umwelt- und Kompostberatung, Grenchen (Switzerland)

    2004-07-01

    This comprehensive report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) discusses the potential offered by the use of biomass in the energy area. In the first and main part of the report, the base data and the methodology used are discussed and the theoretical and realisable potentials are examined. Scenarios on reference-energy prices are discussed, whereby the price of oil is taken as primary reference. General estimates of the potential of biomass are presented for 2025 and 2040 and compared with figures for 2003. Conversion paths and various types of installations are discussed. Economic potential and future market-shares of biomass energy-use are discussed. Finally, the external costs of energy supply systems are examined and their influence on the economic potential of biomass technologies is discussed. The second part of the report takes a look at the use of geographic information systems (GIS) for data acquisition and the visualisation of energy-potentials. In the third part of the report, the optimal use of the potential offered by biomass is looked at and the most important results and recommendations of the study group are presented. The report is completed with a list of relevant literature and a comprehensive appendix.

  7. Harvesting forest biomass for energy in Minnesota: An assessment of guidelines, costs and logistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleh, Dalia El Sayed Abbas Mohamed

    The emerging market for renewable energy in Minnesota has generated a growing interest in utilizing more forest biomass for energy. However, this growing interest is paralleled with limited knowledge of the environmental impacts and cost effectiveness of utilizing this resource. To address environmental and economic viability concerns, this dissertation has addressed three areas related to biomass harvest: First, existing biomass harvesting guidelines and sustainability considerations are examined. Second, the potential contribution of biomass energy production to reduce the costs of hazardous fuel reduction treatments in these trials is assessed. Third, the logistics of biomass production trials are analyzed. Findings show that: (1) Existing forest related guidelines are not sufficient to allow large-scale production of biomass energy from forest residue sustainably. Biomass energy guidelines need to be based on scientific assessments of how repeated and large scale biomass production is going to affect soil, water and habitat values, in an integrated and individual manner over time. Furthermore, such guidelines would need to recommend production logistics (planning, implementation, and coordination of operations) necessary for a potential supply with the least site and environmental impacts. (2) The costs of biomass production trials were assessed and compared with conventional treatment costs. In these trials, conventional mechanical treatment costs were lower than biomass energy production costs less income from biomass sale. However, a sensitivity analysis indicated that costs reductions are possible under certain site, prescriptions and distance conditions. (3) Semi-structured interviews with forest machine operators indicate that existing fuel reduction prescriptions need to be more realistic in making recommendations that can overcome operational barriers (technical and physical) and planning and coordination concerns (guidelines and communications

  8. Challenges of Biomass in a Development Model Based on Renewable Energies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuadros, F.; González-González, A.; Ruiz-Celma, A.; López-Rodríguez, F.; García-Sanz-Calcedo, J.; García, J. A.; Mena, A.

    Although fire has been known to mankind for about 500,000 years, the implementation of biomass energy in the world has barely changed since then, having been used mainly for heat production. To this end, an estimated global consumption of biomass accounts for 10.6% of total world consumption of primary energy. However, the use of biomass as transportation fuel or for generation of electricity is not displayed in the annual world, European, or national statistics, as if its contribution to primary energy consumption was insignificant. What is the reason behind this? Why is the development of biomass only limited to its thermal use? Why is the production of biomass for electricity and transportation purposes not increasing? And what is then happening to biomass? The present article addresses issues that, in our view, limit the incursion of biomass in current energy systems and provides some answers to solve them.

  9. Cascading use: a systematic approach to biomass beyond the energy sector

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keegan, D.; Kretschmer, M.; Elbersen, B.S.; Panoutsou, C.

    2013-01-01

    Growing demand for biomass for energy in Europe and beyond, alongside growing interest in the use of biomass to replace petroleum and other conventional materials in the production of industrial products and chemicals, necessitates consideration of how the limited supplies of biomass can be used mos

  10. Preserving elephantgrass and energycane biomass as silage for energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woodard, K.R.; Prine, G.M.; Bates, D.B.; Chynoweth, D.P. (Florida Univ., Gainesville, FL (United States). Inst. of Food and Agricultural Sciences)

    1991-01-01

    Elephantgrass (Pennisetum purpureum Schum.) and energycane (Saccharum sp.) are being evaluated in the colder subtropics of Florida, USA, as biomass energy crops. At one location near Gainesville, annual dry biomass yields of elephantgrass (full-season growth) in excess of 45 Mg ha{sup -1} have been reported. Our objective was to determine if these prolific bunchgrasses could be stored as silage. Three elephantgrasses (two 'tall' and one 'dwarf') and a tall energycane were harvested one, two, and three times per year and ensiled (directcut) during 1986 and 1987. Mean pH values ranged from 3.8 to 4.0 for tall elephantgrass silages made from plants harvested at the different frequencies. Highest pH values were obtained from silages made from immature dwarf elephantgrass plants harvested three times per year (2-year mean was 4.3). Lactic acid was the major end-product of fermentation in most silages with the exception of those made from immature dwarf elephantgrass and energycane plants, where lactic and acetic acids were both major fermentation components. Dry matter (DM) recoveries for all silages ranged from 843 to 984 g kg{sup -1} of DM ensiled. The ease with which elephantgrass and energycane were preserved as silage was attributed to adequate levels of water-soluble carbohydrates and the inherently low buffering capacities in standing forages. (author).

  11. Implementation of a Biomass Energy Island for a Forested Air Force Installation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-01

    pine (CSP) plantations on Eglin AFB to establish Eglin as a Biomass Energy Island (BEI). Previous studies have demonstrated: (1) the feasibility of...AFB as a Biomass Energy Island (BEI). As such, Eglin would satisfy all energy needs of the facility by using 540,000 green tons of wood chips harvested

  12. Strip intercropping strategy for biomass to energy production while on the same time maintaining soil fertility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauggard-Nielsen, Henrik; Jensen, Erik Steen; Carter, Mette Sustmann

    2009-01-01

    In contrast to energy technologies like solar and wind, energy in the form of biomass can be stored and bioenergy produced when needed using a wide range of technologies. However, a substantial rise in the use of biomass for energy is expected, which means additional pressure on farmland...

  13. Impacts of variability in cellulosic biomass yields on energy security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullins, Kimberley A; Matthews, H Scott; Griffin, W Michael; Anex, Robert

    2014-07-01

    The practice of modeling biomass yields on the basis of deterministic point values aggregated over space and time obscures important risks associated with large-scale biofuel use, particularly risks related to drought-induced yield reductions that may become increasingly frequent under a changing climate. Using switchgrass as a case study, this work quantifies the variability in expected yields over time and space through switchgrass growth modeling under historical and simulated future weather. The predicted switchgrass yields across the United States range from about 12 to 19 Mg/ha, and the 80% confidence intervals range from 20 to 60% of the mean. Average yields are predicted to decrease with increased temperatures and weather variability induced by climate change. Feedstock yield variability needs to be a central part of modeling to ensure that policy makers acknowledge risks to energy supplies and develop strategies or contingency plans that mitigate those risks.

  14. Nontraditional Use of Biomass at Certified Forest Management Units: Forest Biomass for Energy Production and Carbon Emissions Reduction in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asep S. Suntana

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Biomass conversion technologies that produce energy and reduce carbon emissions have become more feasible to develop. This paper analyzes the potential of converting biomass into biomethanol at forest management units experiencing three forest management practices (community-based forest management (CBFM, plantation forest (PF, and natural production forest (NPF. Dry aboveground biomass collected varied considerably: 0.26–2.16 Mg/ha/year (CBFM, 8.08–8.35 Mg/ha/year (NPF, and 36.48–63.55 Mg/ha/year (PF. If 5% of the biomass was shifted to produce biomethanol for electricity production, the NPF and PF could provide continuous power to 138 and 2,762 households, respectively. Dedicating 5% of the biomass was not a viable option from one CBFM unit. However, if all biomasses were converted, the CBFM could provide electricity to 19–27 households. If 100% biomass from two selected PF was dedicated to biomethanol production: (1 52,200–72,600 households could be provided electricity for one year; (2 142–285% of the electricity demand in Jambi province could be satisfied; (3 all gasoline consumed in Jambi, in 2009, would be replaced. The net carbon emissions avoided could vary from 323 to 8,503 Mg when biomethanol was substituted for the natural gas methanol in fuel cells and from 294 to 7,730 Mg when it was used as a gasoline substitute.

  15. Biomass Assessment. Assessment of global biomass potentials and their links to food, water, biodiversity, energy demand and economy. Inventory and analysis of existing studies. Supporting document

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dornburg, V.; Faaij, A.; Verweij, P. [Utrecht University, Utrecht (Netherlands); Banse, M.; Van Diepen, K.; Van Keulen, H.; Langeveld, H.; Meeusen, M.; Van de Ven, G.; Wester, F. [Wageningen UR, Wageningen (Netherlands); Alkemade, R.; Ten Brink, B.; Van den Born, G.J.; Van Oorschot, M.; Ros, J.; Smout, F.; Van Vuuren, D.; Van den Wijngaart, R. [Netherlands Environmental Assessment Agency NMP, Bilthoven (Netherlands); Aiking, H. [Vrije Universiteit, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Londo, M.; Mozaffarian, H.; Smekens, K. [ECN Policy Studies, Petten (Netherlands); Lysen, E. (ed.); Van Egmond, S. (ed.) [Utrecht Centre for Energy research UCE, Utrecht University, Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2008-01-15

    This supporting document contains the result from the inventory phase of the biomass assessment of global biomass potentials and their links to food, water, biodiversity, energy demand and economy. This study provides a comprehensive assessment of global biomass potential estimates, focusing on the various factors affecting these potentials, such as food supplies, water use, biodiversity, energy demands and agro-economics.

  16. Pressurized Oxidative Recovery of Energy from Biomass Final Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M. Misra

    2007-06-10

    This study was conducted to evaluate the technical feasibility of using pressurized oxyfuel, the ThermoEnergy Integrated Power System (TIPS), to recover energy from biomass. The study was focused on two fronts—computer simulation of the TIPS plant and corrosion testing to determine the best materials of construction for the critical heat exchanger components of the process. The goals were to demonstrate that a successful strategy of applying the TIPS process to wood waste could be achieved. To fully investigate the technical and economic benefits of using TIPS, it was necessary to model a conventional air-fired biomass power plant for comparison purposes. The TIPS process recovers and utilizes the latent heat of vaporization of water entrained in the fuel or produced during combustion. This latent heat energy is unavailable in the ambient processes. An average composition of wood waste based on data from the Pacific Northwest, Pacific Southwest, and the South was used for the study. The high moisture content of wood waste is a major advantage of the TIPS process. The process can utilize the higher heating value of the fuel by condensing most of the water vapor in the flue gas and making the flue gas a useful source of heat. This is a considerable thermal efficiency gain over conventional power plants which use the lower heating value of the fuel. The elevated pressure also allows TIPS the option of recovering CO2 at near ambient temperatures with high purity oxygen used in combustion. Unlike ambient pressure processes which need high energy multi-stage CO2 compression to supply pipeline quality product, TIPS is able to simply pump the CO2 liquid using very little auxiliary power. In this study, a 15.0 MWe net biomass power plant was modeled, and when a CO2 pump was included it only used 0.1 MWe auxiliary power. The need for refrigeration is eliminated at such pressures resulting in significant energy, capital, and operating and maintenance savings. Since wood

  17. Biomass. Energy carrier and biobased products; Biomasse. Energietraeger und biobasierte Produkte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muecke, W. [Technische Univ. Muenchen (Germany). Inst. fuer Toxikologie und Umwelthygiene; Groeger, G. (eds.) [BioRegionUlm Foerderverein Biotechnologie e.V., Ulm (Germany)

    2006-07-01

    Within the scope of the 3rd Reivensburg Environmental Biotechnology Meeting at 29th June, 2007, at Castle Reivensburg near Guenzburg (Federal Republic of Germany), the following lectures were held: (a) Challenges according to materials management, land use and power generation in the background of precarious economical situation in the Federal Republic of Germany (H.-G. Petersen); (b) Regenerative raw materials in Germany: Plant sources and potentials (W. Luehs, W. Friedt); (c) Biobased industrial products and bioraffinery systems (B. Kamm, M. Kamm); (d) Potential of biomass materials conversion in chemical industries (R. Busch); (e) Environmental compatible processes and low-priced ecological materials from the processing of biotechnological poly-3-hydroxybutyrate (H. Seliger, H. Haeberlein, R. Kohler, P. Sulzberger); (f) New starch from potatoes - a regenerative raw material (T. Servay); (g) Fuels from renewable energy sources: potential, production, perspectives (M. Specht, U. Zuberbuehler, A. Bandi); (h) Application of biogas as a fuel from the view of a car manufacturer (S. Schrahe); (i) Large-scale production of bioethanol (P. Johne, C. Sauter); (j) Environmental political evaluation of the use of biofuels and politics of biofuels of selected countries (J.M. Henke).

  18. Energy potential of biomass from conservation grasslands in Minnesota, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jungers, Jacob M; Fargione, Joseph E; Sheaffer, Craig C; Wyse, Donald L; Lehman, Clarence

    2013-01-01

    Perennial biomass from grasslands managed for conservation of soil and biodiversity can be harvested for bioenergy. Until now, the quantity and quality of harvestable biomass from conservation grasslands in Minnesota, USA, was not known, and the factors that affect bioenergy potential from these systems have not been identified. We measured biomass yield, theoretical ethanol conversion efficiency, and plant tissue nitrogen (N) as metrics of bioenergy potential from mixed-species conservation grasslands harvested with commercial-scale equipment. With three years of data, we used mixed-effects models to determine factors that influence bioenergy potential. Sixty conservation grassland plots, each about 8 ha in size, were distributed among three locations in Minnesota. Harvest treatments were applied annually in autumn as a completely randomized block design. Biomass yield ranged from 0.5 to 5.7 Mg ha(-1). May precipitation increased biomass yield while precipitation in all other growing season months showed no affect. Averaged across all locations and years, theoretical ethanol conversion efficiency was 450 l Mg(-1) and the concentration of plant N was 7.1 g kg(-1), both similar to dedicated herbaceous bioenergy crops such as switchgrass. Biomass yield did not decline in the second or third year of harvest. Across years, biomass yields fluctuated 23% around the average. Surprisingly, forb cover was a better predictor of biomass yield than warm-season grass with a positive correlation with biomass yield in the south and a negative correlation at other locations. Variation in land ethanol yield was almost exclusively due to variation in biomass yield rather than biomass quality; therefore, efforts to increase biomass yield might be more economical than altering biomass composition when managing conservation grasslands for ethanol production. Our measurements of bioenergy potential, and the factors that control it, can serve as parameters for assessing the economic

  19. Energy potential of biomass from conservation grasslands in Minnesota, USA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacob M Jungers

    Full Text Available Perennial biomass from grasslands managed for conservation of soil and biodiversity can be harvested for bioenergy. Until now, the quantity and quality of harvestable biomass from conservation grasslands in Minnesota, USA, was not known, and the factors that affect bioenergy potential from these systems have not been identified. We measured biomass yield, theoretical ethanol conversion efficiency, and plant tissue nitrogen (N as metrics of bioenergy potential from mixed-species conservation grasslands harvested with commercial-scale equipment. With three years of data, we used mixed-effects models to determine factors that influence bioenergy potential. Sixty conservation grassland plots, each about 8 ha in size, were distributed among three locations in Minnesota. Harvest treatments were applied annually in autumn as a completely randomized block design. Biomass yield ranged from 0.5 to 5.7 Mg ha(-1. May precipitation increased biomass yield while precipitation in all other growing season months showed no affect. Averaged across all locations and years, theoretical ethanol conversion efficiency was 450 l Mg(-1 and the concentration of plant N was 7.1 g kg(-1, both similar to dedicated herbaceous bioenergy crops such as switchgrass. Biomass yield did not decline in the second or third year of harvest. Across years, biomass yields fluctuated 23% around the average. Surprisingly, forb cover was a better predictor of biomass yield than warm-season grass with a positive correlation with biomass yield in the south and a negative correlation at other locations. Variation in land ethanol yield was almost exclusively due to variation in biomass yield rather than biomass quality; therefore, efforts to increase biomass yield might be more economical than altering biomass composition when managing conservation grasslands for ethanol production. Our measurements of bioenergy potential, and the factors that control it, can serve as parameters for assessing

  20. Regional allocation of biomass to U.S. energy demands under a portfolio of policy scenarios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullins, Kimberley A; Venkatesh, Aranya; Nagengast, Amy L; Kocoloski, Matt

    2014-01-01

    The potential for widespread use of domestically available energy resources, in conjunction with climate change concerns, suggest that biomass may be an essential component of U.S. energy systems in the near future. Cellulosic biomass in particular is anticipated to be used in increasing quantities because of policy efforts, such as federal renewable fuel standards and state renewable portfolio standards. Unfortunately, these independently designed biomass policies do not account for the fact that cellulosic biomass can equally be used for different, competing energy demands. An integrated assessment of multiple feedstocks, energy demands, and system costs is critical for making optimal decisions about a unified biomass energy strategy. This study develops a spatially explicit, best-use framework to optimally allocate cellulosic biomass feedstocks to energy demands in transportation, electricity, and residential heating sectors, while minimizing total system costs and tracking greenhouse gas emissions. Comparing biomass usage across three climate policy scenarios suggests that biomass used for space heating is a low cost emissions reduction option, while biomass for liquid fuel or for electricity becomes attractive only as emissions reduction targets or carbon prices increase. Regardless of the policy approach, study results make a strong case for national and regional coordination in policy design and compliance pathways.

  1. Progress and Development Strategy of Biomass Energy Utilization Technologies in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wu Chuangzhi; Chen Yong

    2001-01-01

    @@ I. Preface Biomass includes the residues of agriculture, forest and stock breeding, as well as straw, algae and energy crops. In its broad meaning, biomass is a kind of organic matter produced by the photosynthesis of plants, which is not only renewable, but also contains plentiful energy.

  2. EFFECTS OF METACOGNITIVE STRATEGY INSTRUCTION ON THE READING COMPREHENSION OF ENGLISH LANGUAGE LEARNERS THROUGH COGNITIVE ACADEMIC LANGUAGE LEARNING APPROACH (CALLA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Batul Shamsi Nejad

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In order to meet the reading needs of English as-a-Foreign-Language (EFL learners, educators are urged to develop effective instructional means for teaching reading comprehension and reading strategy use. Although studies on foreign language reading strategies are burgeoning in the realm of language acquisition research, recent interest has spotlighted learners’ metacognitive awareness of strategies. This study investigated the effect of metacognitive strategy training on the reading comprehension of 111 intermediate EFL learners. The participants received five sessions of instruction on metacognitive strategies guided by the blueprints of Cognitive Academic Language Learning Approach (CALLA. The results of t-test, and two-ways analysis of variance (ANOVA revealed that there was a significant positive relationship between the students' metacognitive reading strategy use and their reading comprehension performance. There was also a significant positive relationship between the use of CALLA and the students' reading comprehension performance.

  3. The effect of lipid content on the elemental composition and energy capacity of yeast biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minkevich, Igor G; Dedyukhina, Emiliya G; Chistyakova, Tat'yana I

    2010-10-01

    Oleaginous yeasts (18 strains) were grown in ethanol media under various cultivation conditions (33 biomass samples). It was found that lipid and lipid-free fractions of dry biomass have elemental composition and biomass reductivity very close to values which can be considered as biological constants. The energy content of dry biomass strongly depended on the total lipid content. When the lipid content was 64%, the energy value of dry biomass reached 73% of diesel oil; therefore, oleaginous microorganisms can be a promising source of biodiesel fuel. The approach used in this work makes it possible to determine the energy value of biomass by its elemental composition without application of laborious and expensive calorimetric measurements of combustion heats.

  4. Biomass for energy in the European Union - a review of bioenergy resource assessments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bentsen Niclas

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This paper reviews recent literature on bioenergy potentials in conjunction with available biomass conversion technologies. The geographical scope is the European Union, which has set a course for long term development of its energy supply from the current dependence on fossil resources to a dominance of renewable resources. A cornerstone in European energy policies and strategies is biomass and bioenergy. The annual demand for biomass for energy is estimated to increase from the current level of 5.7 EJ to 10.0 EJ in 2020. Assessments of bioenergy potentials vary substantially due to methodological inconsistency and assumptions applied by individual authors. Forest biomass, agricultural residues and energy crops constitute the three major sources of biomass for energy, with the latter probably developing into the most important source over the 21st century. Land use and the changes thereof is a key issue in sustainable bioenergy production as land availability is an ultimately limiting factor.

  5. Sustainable global energy supply based on lignocellulosic biomass from afforestation of degraded areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metzger, Jürgen O; Hüttermann, Aloys

    2009-02-01

    An important aspect of present global energy scenarios is the assumption that the amount of biomass that can be grown on the available area is so limited that a scenario based on biomass as the major source of energy should be unrealistic. We have been investigating the question whether a Biomass Scenario may be realistic. We found that the global energy demand projected by the International Energy Agency in the Reference Scenario for the year 2030 could be provided sustainably and economically primarily from lignocellulosic biomass grown on areas which have been degraded by human activities in historical times. Moreover, other renewable energies will contribute to the energy mix. There would be no competition with increasing food demand for existing arable land. Afforestation of degraded areas and investment for energy and fuel usage of the biomass are not more expensive than investment in energy infrastructure necessary up to 2030 assumed in the fossil energy based Reference Scenario, probably much cheaper considering the additional advantages such as stopping the increase of and even slowly reducing the CO(2) content of the atmosphere, soil, and water conservation and desertification control. Most importantly, investment for a Biomass Scenario would be actually sustainable, in contrast to investment in energy-supply infrastructure of the Reference Scenario. Methods of afforestation of degraded areas, cultivation, and energetic usage of lignocellulosic biomass are available but have to be further improved. Afforestation can be started immediately, has an impact in some few years, and may be realized in some decades.

  6. Sustainable global energy supply based on lignocellulosic biomass from afforestation of degraded areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metzger, Jürgen O.; Hüttermann, Aloys

    2009-02-01

    An important aspect of present global energy scenarios is the assumption that the amount of biomass that can be grown on the available area is so limited that a scenario based on biomass as the major source of energy should be unrealistic. We have been investigating the question whether a Biomass Scenario may be realistic. We found that the global energy demand projected by the International Energy Agency in the Reference Scenario for the year 2030 could be provided sustainably and economically primarily from lignocellulosic biomass grown on areas which have been degraded by human activities in historical times. Moreover, other renewable energies will contribute to the energy mix. There would be no competition with increasing food demand for existing arable land. Afforestation of degraded areas and investment for energy and fuel usage of the biomass are not more expensive than investment in energy infrastructure necessary up to 2030 assumed in the fossil energy based Reference Scenario, probably much cheaper considering the additional advantages such as stopping the increase of and even slowly reducing the CO2 content of the atmosphere, soil, and water conservation and desertification control. Most importantly, investment for a Biomass Scenario would be actually sustainable, in contrast to investment in energy-supply infrastructure of the Reference Scenario. Methods of afforestation of degraded areas, cultivation, and energetic usage of lignocellulosic biomass are available but have to be further improved. Afforestation can be started immediately, has an impact in some few years, and may be realized in some decades.

  7. Biogas energy production from tropical biomass wastes by anaerobic digestion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anaerobic digestion (AD) is an attractive technology in tropical regions for converting locally abundant biomass wastes into biogas which can be used to produce heat, electricity, and transportation fuels. However, investigations on AD of tropical forestry wastes, such as albizia biomass, and food w...

  8. Sustainable biomass-derived hydrothermal carbons for energy applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Falco

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The hydrothermal carbonisation of carbohydrate and protein-rich biomass was systematically investigated, in order to obtain more insights on the potentials of this thermochemical processing technique in relation to the production of functional carbon materials from crude biomass.

  9. Estimation on the Total Quantity of Biomass Energy and Its Environmental Benefit Analysis in Shandong Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    [Objective] The aim was to estimate the total quantity of biomass energy and analyze its environmental benefit in Shandong Province.[Method] Based on the data from the statistics yearbook of Shandong Province in 2010,the total quantity of biomass resources and biomass energy in Shandong Province in 2009 was estimated,and its environmental benefit was analyzed.[Result] Biomass resources in Shandong Province mainly refer to crop residues,forest residues,grassland changed from degraded land.If degraded land be...

  10. Coupling of energy and agricultural policies on promoting the production of biomass energy from energy crops and grasses in Taiwan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsai, Wen-Tien [Graduate Institute of Bioresources, National Pingtung University of Science and Technology, Pingtung 912 (China)

    2009-08-15

    This paper examined promotion programs and implementing regulations that provide a framework for the application of energy and agricultural policies for the local energy crops cultivation by the reactivation of fallow land (about 100,000 ha) and their utilizations in the bioenergy production in Taiwan. The contents were thus addressed on current energy supply and biomass energy production, estimation of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) emissions from energy use (consumption) using the Reference Approach of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) method, national energy goal in biomass energy supply in the near future, and government policies and measures for encouraging bioenergy production and consumption. For the promotion of biofuels, the incentive programs were initiated in the period of 2006-2011. The potential benefits of the program include the upgrade of industrial investment in the bioenergy plants, the reactivation of fallow land (about 100,000 ha), the mitigation of CO{sub 2} emissions, and so on. Concerning the utilization of napier grass (a potential energy grass) as biomass energy (electricity generation) for co-firing, its impacts on ambient air quality and non-CO{sub 2} greenhouse gases (i.e., CH{sub 4} and N{sub 2}O) emissions were also discussed in the paper. (author)

  11. The environmental costs and benefits of biomass energy use in California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morris, G. [Future Resources Associates, Inc., Berkeley, CA (United States)

    1997-05-01

    The California renewable energy industries have worked diligently during the past couple of years to develop public policies conducive to the future of renewable energy production within the context of electric market restructuring and the evolving competitive electric services industry. The state`s biomass power industry has organized itself as the California Biomass Energy Alliance (CBEA), and has participated vigorously in the regulatory and legislative processes. In order to reward biomass power generators for the special services they provide, CBEA has promoted the concept of providing incentives specifically targeted to biomass within the context of any renewables program enacted in the state. This concept has been embraced by the other renewables industry organizations, but resisted by the utilities. This study represents an effort to identify, characterize, ad quantify the environmental costs and benefits of biomass energy use in California, and to elucidate the future role of biomass power production within the context of the evolving deregulation of the California electricity industry. The report begins with a review of the development and growth of the California biomass power industry during the past 15 years. This is followed by an analysis of the biomass fuels market development during the same period. It examines trends in the types and costs of biomass fuels. The environmental performance of the mature California biomass energy industry is analyzed, and takes into account the environmental impacts of the industry, and the impacts that would be associated with disposing of the materials used as fuels if the biomass power industry were not in operation. The analysis is then extended to consider the environmental and economic consequences of the loss of biomass generating capacity since 1993. The report ends with a consideration of the future prospects for the industry in the context of restructuring.

  12. Heating technologies for limiting biomass consumption in 100% renewable energy systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathiesen, Brian Vad; Lund, Henrik; Connolly, David

    2011-01-01

    district heating enables the use of combined heat and power production (CPH) and other renewable resources than biomass such as large-scale solar thermal, large-heat pumps, geothermal heat, industrial surplus heat etc. which is important for reducing the biomass consumption. Where the energy density......The utilisation of biomass poses large challenges in renewable energy systems and buildings account for a substantial part of the energy supply also in 100% renewable energy systems. The analyses of heating technologies show that district heating systems are especially important in limiting...... the dependence on biomass resources and to create cost effective systems. District heating systems are especially important in renewable energy systems with large amounts of fluctuating renewable energy sources as it enables fuel efficient and lower cost energy systems with thermal heat storages. And also...

  13. Hydrothermal conversion of biomass to liquid energy sources; Hydrothermale Konversion von Biomasse zu fluessigen Energietraegern

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kroeger, Michael; Peters, Mario; Klemm, Marco; Nelles, Michael [Deutsches Biomasseforschungszentrum (DBFZ) gemeinnuetzige GmbH, Leipzig (Germany)

    2013-10-01

    Beside thermo-chemical processes like pyrolysis, torrefaction and gasification another process group called hydrothermal conversion of biomass comes into the focus of research and development. Especially for wet biomass this process has several advantages: as the reaction medium is water wet biomass not needs to be dried. Beside the reaction pathways, which are still not completely understood, it is important to investigate reactor concepts. That gives the possibility to continuously process the given biomass to deduce specific process conditions for the production of chemicals and fuels. Experiments were conducted in a newly developed tubular reactor at temperatures from 150 to 270 C and reaction times from 1 to 6 min. By studying the HPLC analysis of the liquid products the formation and degradation of several products which may be utilized as base materials for chemicals and fuels (furfural, 5-HMF etc.) was conducted. The experiments illustrate the possibility to influence product composition to a certain extend only by varying temperature and time of the hydrothermal process. That could result in an economic and feasible way to produce intermediate chemicals from biomass. In a second step these product analysis will be used to develop catalysts and investigate the possibilities of in-situ-hydrogenation and synthesis of further valuable chemicals and fuels. (orig.)

  14. Biomass energy utilisation in Malaysia - prospects and problems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kong, Hoi Why [Forest Research Institute Malaysia, Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia)

    1999-04-01

    An assessment of the contribution of biomass fuels in the rubber, palm oil, cocoa, brick and charcoal industries is given with biomass accounting for about 16% of the total power demand; equivalent to about 2.48 MTOE. The use of biomass in Malaysia is by the direct combustion of wood for heat and power and by gasification with power production via a diesel engine. Challenges facing Malaysia include a rapid increase in demand for power, the need for development funding, environmental issues, and increases in the price of rubber wood, the main fuel source. (uk)

  15. Biomass energy utilisation in Malaysia - prospects and problems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kong, Hoi Why [Forest Research Institute Malaysia, Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia)

    1999-01-01

    An assessment of the contribution of biomass fuels in the rubber, palm oil, cocoa, brick and charcoal industries is given with biomass accounting for about 16% of the total power demand; equivalent to about 2.48 MTOE. The use of biomass in Malaysia is by the direct combustion of wood for heat and power and by gasification with power production via a diesel engine. Challenges facing Malaysia include a rapid increase in demand for power, the need for development funding, environmental issues, and increases in the price of rubber wood, the main fuel source. (uk)

  16. Waste biomass and energy transition. Proven practices, new developments and visions; Abfall-Biomasse und Energiewende. Bewaehrtes, Neues und Visionen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fricke, Klaus [Arbeitskreis fuer die Nutzbarmachung von Siedlungsabfaellen (ANS) e.V., Braunschweig (Germany); Technische Univ. Braunschweig (Germany). Lehrstuhl Abfall- und Ressourcenwirtschaft; Kammann, Claudia [Arbeitskreis fuer die Nutzbarmachung von Siedlungsabfaellen (ANS) e.V., Braunschweig (Germany). Fachausschuss Biokohle; Hochschule Geisenheim Univ. (Germany). Klimafolgenforschung-Klimawandel in Spezialkulturen; Wallmann, Rainer (ed.) [Arbeitskreis fuer die Nutzbarmachung von Siedlungsabfaellen (ANS) e.V., Braunschweig (Germany); Werra-Meissner Kreis, Eschwege (Germany)

    2014-07-01

    This book contains 17 papers that were presented at the 75th meeting of the ANS. The following main topics are covered: waste management in the context of climate protection and the energy turnaround; optimised materials management; carbon: climate killer or indispensable raw material?; climate protection in Germany - why and how?; treatment techniques for waste biomass; the amended Renewable Energy Law - sensible adaptation or impediment to the energy turnaround?; putting ideas into practice: examples and opportunities. Four of the contributions have been abstracted individually for this database. [German] Dieses Buch enthaelt 17 Beitraege, die auf dem 75. Symposium des ANS vorgetragen wurden. Die Themenschwerpunkte waren: Abfallwirtschaft im Kontext des Klimaschutzes und der Energiewende; Optimiertes Stoffmanagement; Kohlenstoff: Klimakiller oder unverzichtbare Rohstoff?; Klimaschutz in Deutschland - Warum und wie?; Behandlungstechniken von Abfall-Biomasse; Novellierung des EEG - Sinnvolle Anpassung oder Breme der Energiewende; Der Weg in die Praxis: Beispiele und Chancen. Vier der Beitraege wurden separarat fuer diese Datenbank aufgenommen.

  17. Pretreatment of woody biomass for biofuel production: energy efficiency, technologies, and recalcitrance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, J Y; Pan, Xuejun; Zalesny, Ronald S

    2010-07-01

    This mini review discusses several key technical issues associated with cellulosic ethanol production from woody biomass: energy consumption for woody biomass pretreatment, pretreatment energy efficiency, woody biomass pretreatment technologies, and quantification of woody biomass recalcitrance. Both total sugar yield and pretreatment energy efficiency, defined as the total sugar recovery divided by total energy consumption for pretreatment, should be used to evaluate the performance of a pretreatment process. A post-chemical pretreatment wood size-reduction approach was proposed to significantly reduce energy consumption. The review also emphasizes using a low liquid-to-wood ratio (L/W) to reduce thermal energy consumption for any thermochemical/physical pretreatment in addition to reducing pretreatment temperature.

  18. Conflicts between Ecological Farming and Energy Use of Biomass from Agriculture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyer, Niels I; Nielsen, Vilhjalmur; Christensen, B.T.

    1996-01-01

    claim that crop residues and animal manure should all be returned to the fields with as small a loss in carbon and nutrients content as possible. More empirical data are needed in order to evaluate the Danish potential for energy from biomass in view of the need for preserving soil quality. If a large......Due to the fluctuating nature of several renewable energy sources such as solar, wind and waves, new methodologies are needed for planning of sustainable energy supply systems. As Denmark has no hydro power, biomass plays an important role in this connection. Especially surplus straw and animal...... manure (for biogas) from agriculture. In the official Danish energy plans biomass is supposed to cover more than 20% of the Danish energy demand by year 2030. However, the use of biomass for energy purposes may conflict with the need to maintain soil quality of arable fields. Concerned ecological farmers...

  19. Banana biomass as potential renewable energy resource: A Malaysian case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tock, Jing Yan; Lai, Chin Lin; Lee, Keat Teong; Tan, Kok Tat; Bhatia, Subhash [School of Chemical Engineering, Engineering Campus, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 14300 Nibong Tebal, Seberang Perai Selatan, Pulau Pinang (Malaysia)

    2010-02-15

    The world has been relying on fossil fuels as its primary source of energy. This unsustainable energy source is not going to last long and thus, gradual shift towards green renewable energy should be practiced. In Malaysia, even though fossil fuel dominates the energy production, renewable energies such as hydropower and biomass are gaining popularity due to the implementation of energy policies and greater understanding on the importance of green energy. Malaysia has been well endowed with natural resources in areas such as agriculture and forestry. Thus, with the availability of feedstock, biomass energy is practical to be conducted and oil palm topped the ranking as biomass source here because of its high production. However, new sources should be sought after as to avoid the over dependency on a single source. Hence, other agriculture biomass should be considered such as banana plant biomass. This paper will discuss on its potential as a new biomass source in Malaysia. Banana plant is chosen as the subject due to its availability, high growth rates, carbon neutrality and the fact that it bears fruit only once a lifetime. Conversion of the biomass to energy can be done via combustion, supercritical water gasification and digestion to produce thermal energy and biogas. The theoretical potential power generation calculated reached maximum of 950 MW meeting more than half of the renewable energy requirement in the Fifth Fuel Policy (Eighth Malaysia Plan 2001-2005). Thus, banana biomass is feasible as a source of renewable energy in Malaysia and also other similar tropical countries in the world. (author)

  20. U.S. Biomass Opportunities for Value-added Biomass Exports based on the European Union Renewable Energy Share Targets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulises Lacoa

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available World energy demand is expected to continue increasing in the coming years. This situation has created a worldwide pressure for the development of alternative fuel and energy sources, pursuing a more environmentally friendly usage of biofuels. The EU has the target of generating 20% of its energy consumption from renewable sources by 2020. Member States have different individual targets to meet this overall target. Meanwhile in the United States, there are about 750 million acres [300 million hectares] of forestland, with slightly more than two-thirds classified as timberland or land capable of producing 20 cubic feet per acre [1.4 m3 per hectare] annually of roundwood. Given these circumstances, this research aimed to understand the U.S. opportunities to export woody biomass based on the targets that the European Union has imposed to its Member States. The data collected allowed several scenario developments by identifying the possible EU’s biomass deficits and U.S.’s capacity to supply the gaps. Considering the physical availability, the U.S. would be able to satisfy between 42 and 48% depending on the energy efficiency scenario. Nevertheless, when considering reasonable biomass prices, only a small portion of the EU demand could be covered by the U.S.

  1. Robust and sustainable bioenergy: Biomass in the future Danish energy system; Robust og baeredygtig bioenergi: Biomasse i fremtidens danske energisystem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skoett, T.

    2012-09-15

    The publication is a collection of articles about new, exciting technologies for the production of bioenergy, which received support from Danish research programmes. The green technologies must be sustainable so that future generations' opportunities for bioenergy use is not restricted, and the solutions must be robust in relation to security of supply, costs and energy economy. In this context, research plays a crucial role. Research is especially carried out within the use of residues as bio-waste, straw, wood and manure for energy purposes, but there are also projects on energy crops, as well as research into how algae from the sea can increase the production of biomass. (LN)

  2. Implications of Perennial Biomass Energy Cropping Systems for Pasture and Forage Lands

    Science.gov (United States)

    The lignocellulose in forage crops represents large source of biomass feedstock for conversion into energy-related end products. With new technologies and processes for biomass production and conversion approaching commercial reality forages could once again fuel agriculture. Some of the most extens...

  3. Oil palm biomass as a sustainable energy source: A Malaysian case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shuit, S.H.; Tan, K.T.; Lee, K.T.; Kamaruddin, A.H. [School of Chemical Engineering, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Engineering Campus, Seri Ampangan, 14300 Nibong Tebal, Pulau Pinang (Malaysia)

    2009-09-15

    It has been widely accepted worldwide that global warming is by far the greatest threat and challenge in the new millennium. In order to stop global warming and to promote sustainable development, renewable energy is a perfect solution to achieve both targets. Presently million hectares of land in Malaysia is occupied with oil palm plantation generating huge quantities of biomass. In this context, biomass from oil palm industries appears to be a very promising alternative as a source of raw materials including renewable energy in Malaysia. Thus, this paper aims to present current scenario of biomass in Malaysia covering issues on availability and sustainability of feedstock as well as current and possible utilization of oil palm biomass. This paper will also discuss feasibility of some biomass conversion technologies and some ongoing projects in Malaysia related to utilization of oil palm biomass as a source of renewable energy. Based on the findings presented, it is definitely clear that Malaysia has position herself in the right path to utilize biomass as a source of renewable energy and this can act as an example to other countries in the world that has huge biomass feedstock. (author)

  4. Biomass production as renewable energy resource at reclaimed Serbian lignite open-cast mines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakovljević Milan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The main goal of this paper is the overview of the scope and dynamics of biomass production as a renewable energy source for substitution of coal in the production of electrical energy in the Kolubara coal basin. In order to successfully realize this goal, it was necessary to develop a dynamic model of the process of coal production, overburden dumping and re-cultivation of dumping sites by biomass planting. The results obtained by simulation of the dynamic model of biomass production in Kolubara mine basin until year 2045 show that 6870 hectares of overburden waste dumps will be re-cultivated by biomass plantations. Biomass production modeling point out the significant benefits of biomass production by planting the willow Salix viminalis cultivated for energy purposes. Under these conditions, a 0.6 % participation of biomass at the end of the period of intensive coal production, year 2037, is achieved. With the decrease of coal production to 15 million tons per year, this percentage steeply rises to 1.4 % in 2045. This amount of equivalent tons of coal from biomass can be used for coal substitution in the production of electrical energy. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR 33039

  5. Economic approach to assess the forest carbon implications of biomass energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daigneault, Adam; Sohngen, Brent; Sedjo, Roger

    2012-06-05

    There is widespread concern that biomass energy policy that promotes forests as a supply source will cause net carbon emissions. Most of the analyses that have been done to date, however, are biological, ignoring the effects of market adaptations through substitution, net imports, and timber investments. This paper uses a dynamic model of forest and land use management to estimate the impact of United States energy policies that emphasize the utilization of forest biomass on global timber production and carbon stocks over the next 50 years. We show that when market factors are included in the analysis, expanded demand for biomass energy increases timber prices and harvests, but reduces net global carbon emissions because higher wood prices lead to new investments in forest stocks. Estimates are sensitive to assumptions about whether harvest residues and new forestland can be used for biomass energy and the demand for biomass. Restricting biomass energy to being sourced only from roundwood on existing forestland can transform the policy from a net sink to a net source of emissions. These results illustrate the importance of capturing market adjustments and a large geographic scope when measuring the carbon implications of biomass energy policies.

  6. Biomass Gasifier Energy Cyber-Physical System Design with Coupling of the Wind and Solar Energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhihuan Zhang

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The air pollution in China has been quite serious, and biomass is extremely rich in large agricultural country. In the view of current situation, highly efficient solar collectors, wind energy and solar energy coupled heating straw gasification system is studied. The stability of continuous gas production is analyzed in various weather conditions including windy, calm, sunny and cloudy. Highly efficient solar panels, wind energy and solar energy coupled heating straw gasification control system is raised. This system overcomes the time variability of the weather conditions to ensure the stability of the continuous gas production under a variety of weather conditions. It has high quality of gas production, strong anti-interference ability and robustness.

  7. Enhancing biomass energy yield from pilot-scale high rate algal ponds with recycling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, J B K; Craggs, R J; Shilton, A N

    2013-09-01

    This paper investigates the effect of recycling on biomass energy yield in High Rate Algal Ponds (HRAPs). Two 8 m(3) pilot-scale HRAPs treating primary settled sewage were operated in parallel and monitored over a 2-year period. Volatile suspended solids were measured from both HRAPs and their gravity settlers to determine biomass productivity and harvest efficiency. The energy content of the biomass was also measured. Multiplying biomass productivity and harvest efficiency gives the 'harvestable biomass productivity' and multiplying this by the energy content defines the actual 'biomass energy yield'. In Year 1, algal recycling was implemented in one of the ponds (HRAPr) and improved harvestable biomass productivity by 58% compared with the control (HRAPc) without recycling (HRAPr: 9.2 g/m(2)/d; HRAPc: 5.8 g/m(2)/d). The energy content of the biomass grown in HRAPr, which was dominated by Pediastrun boryanum, was 25% higher than the control HRAPc which contained a mixed culture of 4-5 different algae (HRAPr: 21.5 kJ/g; HRAPc: 18.6 kJ/g). In Year 2, HRAPc was then seeded with the biomass harvested from the P. boryanum dominated HRAPr. This had the effect of shifting algal dominance from 89% Dictyosphaerium sp. (which is poorly-settleable) to over 90% P. boryanum in 5 months. Operation of this pond was then switched to recycling its own harvested biomass, which maintained P. boryanum dominance for the rest of Year 2. This result confirms, for the first time in the literature, that species control is possible for similarly sized co-occurring algal colonies in outdoor HRAP by algal recycling. With regard to the overall improvement in biomass energy yield, which is a critical parameter in the context of algal cultivation for biofuels, the combined improvements that recycling triggered in biomass productivity, harvest efficiency and energy content enhanced the harvested biomass energy yield by 66% (HRAPr: 195 kJ/m(2)/day; HRAPc: 118 kJ/m(2)/day).

  8. BIOMASS UTILIZATION AS A RENEVABLE ENERGY SOURCE IN POLISH POWER INDUSTRY – CURRENT STATUS AND PERSPECTIVES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beata Gołuchowska

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The depletion of the conventional energy sources, as well as the degradation and pollution of the environment by the exploitation of fossil fuels caused the development of renewable energy sources (RES, including biomass. In Poland, biomass is the most popular renewable energy source, which is closely related to the obligations associated with the membership in the EU. Biomass is the oldest renewable energy source, and its potential, diversity and polymorphism place it over other sources. Besides, the improvement in its parameters, including an increase in its calorific value, resulted in increasing use of biomass as energy source. In the electric power industry biomass is applied in the process of co-combustion with coal. This process may contribute, inter alia, to the reduction in the emissions of carbon, nitrogen and sulfur oxides. The article presents the characteristics of the biomass burned in power boilers of one of the largest Polish power plants, located in Opole Province (Southern Poland. Besides, the impact of biomass on the installation of co-combustion, as well as the advantages and disadvantages of the co-combustion process not only in technological, but also environmental, economic and social aspects were described.

  9. Anaerobic conversion of microalgal biomass to sustainable energy carriers--a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakaniemi, Aino-Maija; Tuovinen, Olli H; Puhakka, Jaakko A

    2013-05-01

    This review discusses anaerobic production of methane, hydrogen, ethanol, butanol and electricity from microalgal biomass. The amenability of microalgal biomass to these bioenergy conversion processes is compared with other aquatic and terrestrial biomass sources. The highest energy yields (kJ g(-1) dry wt. microalgal biomass) reported in the literature have been 14.8 as ethanol, 14.4 as methane, 6.6 as butanol and 1.2 as hydrogen. The highest power density reported from microalgal biomass in microbial fuel cells has been 980 mW m(-2). Sequential production of different energy carriers increases attainable energy yields, but also increases investment and maintenance costs. Microalgal biomass is a promising feedstock for anaerobic energy conversion processes, especially for methanogenic digestion and ethanol fermentation. The reviewed studies have mainly been based on laboratory scale experiments and thus scale-up of anaerobic utilization of microalgal biomass for production of energy carriers is now timely and required for cost-effectiveness comparisons.

  10. The use of biomass for energy in Sweden. Critical factors and lessons learned

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johansson, Bengt; Boerjesson, Paal; Ericsson, Karin; Nilsson, Lars J.; Svenningsson, Per

    2002-08-01

    In this report the development of Swedish biomass use during recent decades is discussed. The relations between biomass supply, biomass demand and various policy initiatives are explored. The objectives are to discuss the most important factors affecting the biomass development and to establish which factors are specific for Swedish conditions and also to identify general factors that are relevant in assessing the possibility of expanding biomass use in different contexts. The focus is on the use of biomass for heat and electricity production. Biomass contributed 14% to the Swedish energy supply in 1999. The major fraction of Swedish biomass is used within the forest industry (63%) and in district heating systems (23%). The remaining fraction is used in small-scale boilers in one- and two family dwellings. Between 1990 and 1999 Swedish bioenergy use (including waste and peat) increased by 44%. During the same period there has been a fourfold increase in the district heating systems. By-products from forestry and the Swedish forest industry dominate the supply of biomass in Sweden, but the importation of biomass increased significantly during the 1990s. A number of factors of various kinds have interacted to bring about the increased use of biomass in Sweden during the past twenty years. These factors can be divided into three categories: structure, policies and actors. The existence of a major forest industry and well-developed district heating systems has enabled a rapid response to strong and standing policy commitments to biomass. The reformation of the taxation system, with the introduction of a high carbon tax on fossil fuels, has led to significantly improved competitiveness for biomass when used for heating purposes.

  11. The Potential for Biomass District Energy Production in Port Graham, Alaska

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Charles Sink, Chugachmiut; Keeryanne Leroux, EERC

    2008-05-08

    This project was a collaboration between The Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) and Chugachmiut – A Tribal organization Serving the Chugach Native People of Alaska and funded by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Tribal Energy Program. It was conducted to determine the economic and technical feasibility for implementing a biomass energy system to service the Chugachmiut community of Port Graham, Alaska. The Port Graham tribe has been investigating opportunities to reduce energy costs and reliance on energy imports and support subsistence. The dramatic rise in the prices of petroleum fuels have been a hardship to the village of Port Graham, located on the Kenai Peninsula of Alaska. The Port Graham Village Council views the forest timber surrounding the village and the established salmon industry as potential resources for providing biomass energy power to the facilities in their community. Benefits of implementing a biomass fuel include reduced energy costs, energy independence, economic development, and environmental improvement. Fish oil–diesel blended fuel and indoor wood boilers are the most economical and technically viable options for biomass energy in the village of Port Graham. Sufficient regional biomass resources allow up to 50% in annual heating savings to the user, displacing up to 70% current diesel imports, with a simple payback of less than 3 years for an estimated capital investment under $300,000. Distributive energy options are also economically viable and would displace all imported diesel, albeit offering less savings potential and requiring greater capital. These include a large-scale wood combustion system to provide heat to the entire village, a wood gasification system for cogeneration of heat and power, and moderate outdoor wood furnaces providing heat to 3–4 homes or community buildings per furnace. Coordination of biomass procurement and delivery, ensuring resource reliability and technology acceptance, and arbitrating

  12. Energy Analysis of a Biomass Co-firing Based Pulverized Coal Power Generation System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc A. Rosen

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The results are reported of an energy analysis of a biomass/coal co-firing based power generation system, carried out to investigate the impacts of biomass co-firing on system performance. The power generation system is a typical pulverized coal-fired steam cycle unit, in which four biomass fuels (rice husk, pine sawdust, chicken litter, and refuse derived fuel and two coals (bituminous coal and lignite are considered. Key system performance parameters are evaluated for various fuel combinations and co-firing ratios, using a system model and numerical simulation. The results indicate that plant energy efficiency decreases with increase of biomass proportion in the fuel mixture, and that the extent of the decrease depends on specific properties of the coal and biomass types.

  13. First Biomass Conference of the Americas: Energy, environment, agriculture, and industry. Proceedings, Volume 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-10-01

    This conference was designed to provide a national and international forum to support the development of a viable biomass industry. Although papers on research activities and technologies under development that address industry problems comprised part of this conference, an effort was made to focus on scale-up and demonstration projects, technology transfer to end users, and commercial applications of biomass and wastes. The conference was divided into these major subject areas: Resource Base, Power Production, Transportation Fuels, Chemicals and Products, Environmental Issues, Commercializing Biomass Projects, Biomass Energy System Studies, and Biomass in Latin America. The papers in this second volume cover Transportation Fuels, and Chemicals and Products. Transportation Fuels topics include: Biodiesel, Pyrolytic Liquids, Ethanol, Methanol and Ethers, and Commercialization. The Chemicals and Products section includes specific topics in: Research, Technology Transfer, and Commercial Systems. Selected papers have been indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  14. Process energy comparison for the production and harvesting of algal biomass as a biofuel feedstock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weschler, Matthew K; Barr, William J; Harper, Willie F; Landis, Amy E

    2014-02-01

    Harvesting and drying are often described as the most energy intensive stages of microalgal biofuel production. This study analyzes two cultivation and eleven harvest technologies for the production of microalgae biomass with and without the use of drying. These technologies were combined to form 122 different production scenarios. The results of this study present a calculation methodology and optimization of total energy demand for the production of algal biomass for biofuel production. The energetic interaction between unit processes and total process energy demand are compared for each scenario. Energy requirements are shown to be highly dependent on final mass concentration, with thermal drying being the largest energy consumer. Scenarios that omit thermal drying in favor of lipid extraction from wet biomass show the most promise for energy efficient biofuel production. Scenarios which used open ponds for cultivation, followed by settling and membrane filtration were the most energy efficient.

  15. [Biomass- and energy allocation in Eucalyptus urophylla x Eucalyptus tereticornis plantations at different stand ages].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Qun-Ying; Chen, Shao-Xiong; Han, Fei-Yang; Chen, Wen-Ping; Wu, Zhi-Hua

    2010-01-01

    An investigation was made on the biomass- and energy allocation in 1-4-year-old Eucalyptus urophylla x Eucalyptus tereticornis plantations at Beipo Forest Farm of Suixi County in Guangdong Province. Stand age had significant effects on the retained biomass of the plantations (P biomass was in the range of 10.61-147.28 t x hm(-2). Both the total biomass and the biomass of above- and belowground components increased with increasing stand age. The proportions of leaf-, branch- and bark biomass to total biomass decreased with year, while that of stem biomass was in reverse. The biomass allocation of the components in 1- and 2-year-old plantations decreased in order of stem > branch > bark > root > leaf, and that in 3- and 4 -year-old plantations was in order of stem > root > branch > bark > leaf. The mean ash content (AC) of the five components at different stand ages ranged from 0.47% to 5.91%, being the highest in bark and the lowest in stem. The mean gross caloric value (GCV) and ash free caloric value (AFCV) of different components ranged from 17.33 to 20. 60 kJ x g(-1) and from 18.42 to 21.59 kJ x g(-1) respectively. Of all the components, leaf had the highest GVC and AFCV, while bark had the lowest ones. Stand age had significant effects on the GVC of branch, stem, and bark, and on the AFCV of leaf, stem, and bark (P 0.05). The retained energy of 1-4-year-old plantations ranged from 199.98 to 2837.20 GJ x hm(-2), with significant differences among the stand ages (P energy of various components and plantations increased with stand age, and the energy allocation of various components had the same trend as biomass allocation.

  16. Biofuels for fuel cells: renewable energy from biomass fermentation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lens, P.N.L.; Westermann, P.; Haberbauer, M.; Moreno, A.

    2005-01-01

    This book has been produced under the auspices of the Network ‘Biomass Fermentation Towards Usage in Fuel Cells’. The Network comprises nine partners from eight European countries and is funded by the European Science Foundation. This volume includes a chapter, from each of the member institutions,

  17. Spatial and temporal effects in drying biomass for energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liang, T.; Khan, M.A.; Meng, Q. [Hawaii Univ., Honolulu, HI (United States)

    1996-10-01

    This study evaluates the impact of the moisture content of biomass on thermal efficiency and relative boiler size which directly represent the economic merits of biomass drying. A model for predicting the moisture content of bundled Leucaena (Leucocephala) trees under open environment was validated for tropical Hawaii. Cumulative precipitation and evapotranspiration (ET) are the major factors affecting the biomass moisture content change. ET was computed using Hargreave`s model, which requires only temperature and solar radiation data. Integration of these models made it possible to calculate the thermal efficiency and relative boiler size when using bundled trees as a fuel under a given drying regime and for a specific geographical location. A geographic information system provided the temperature and precipitation data required for evaluating the spatial variation in boiler efficiency and size for the 1440 km{sup 2} island of Kauai. Depending on the time of harvest, the Leucaena moisture content varied from 35 to 69% (on wet basis) following a period of 6 months of in-field drying. Boiler efficiency using fuelwood with this range of moisture content varied from 49 to 73%. Boiler relative size varied from 1.2 to 2.2 times the size required when Leucaena with 0% moisture content is used as a fuel. The spatial and temporal effects on the value of biomass were thus found to be important factors for various sites in the study area. The methods for quantifying the merit of biomass moisture management proposed in this paper demonstrate how GIS modeling can lead to appropriate decision-making capability in bioenergy. (Author)

  18. Sustainable biomass-derived hydrothermal carbons for energy applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Falco, Camillo

    2012-01-15

    The need to reduce humankind reliance on fossil fuels by exploiting sustainably the planet renewable resources is a major driving force determining the focus of modern material research. For this reason great interest is nowadays focused on finding alternatives to fossil fuels derived products/materials. For the short term the most promising substitute is undoubtedly biomass, since it is the only renewable and sustainable alternative to fossil fuels as carbon source. As a consequence efforts, aimed at finding new synthetic approaches to convert biomass and its derivatives into carbon-based materials, are constantly increasing. In this regard, hydrothermal carbonisation (HTC) has shown to be an effective means of conversion of biomass-derived precursors into functional carbon materials. However the attempts to convert raw biomass, in particular lignocellulosic one, directly into such products have certainly been rarer. Unlocking the direct use of these raw materials as carbon precursors would definitely be beneficial in terms of HTC sustainability. For this reason, in this thesis the HTC of carbohydrate and protein-rich biomass was systematically investigated, in order to obtain more insights on the potentials of this thermochemical processing technique in relation to the production of functional carbon materials from crude biomass. First a detailed investigation on the HTC conversion mechanism of lignocellulosic biomass and its single components (i.e. cellulose, lignin) was developed based on a comparison with glucose HTC, which was adopted as a reference model. In the glucose case it was demonstrated that varying the HTC temperature allowed tuning the chemical structure of the synthesised carbon materials from a highly cross-linked furan-based structure (T = 180 C) to a carbon framework composed of polyaromatic arene-like domains. When cellulose or lignocellulosic biomass was used as carbon precursor, the furan rich structure could not be isolated at any of the

  19. A study of energy balances in biomass drying and pelleting processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mani, S.; Sokhansanj, S. [British Columbia Univ., Vancouver, BC (Canada). Dept. of Chemical and Biological Engineering

    2004-07-01

    Making pellets from biomass is considered to be the best way to use biomass as a replacement for fossil fuels. This study developed a simulation tool and a rotary biomass drying model to optimize unit operations for pellet production. A pelletizing plant layout was presented along with a table indicating the typical energy and power consumptions per ton of pellets produced. The importance of the drying process was discussed with reference to drying results for timothy grass, alfalfa stems and leaves. It was shown that a dryer control system can reduce energy consumption from 12 GJ/ton to 6.5 GJ/ton. This drop in energy consumption by nearly 50 per cent is due to a reduction in moisture from 70 per cent to 10 per cent. Future research will focus on reducing the environmental emissions from the biomass dryer. tabs., figs.

  20. Quantification of fuel moisture effects on biomass consumed derived from fire radiative energy retrievals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Alistair M. S.; Tinkham, Wade T.; Roy, David P.; Boschetti, Luigi; Kremens, Robert L.; Kumar, Sanath S.; Sparks, Aaron M.; Falkowski, Michael J.

    2013-12-01

    Satellite based fire radiant energy retrievals are widely applied to assess biomass consumed and emissions at regional to global scales. A known potential source of uncertainty in biomass burning estimates arises from fuel moisture but this impact has not been quantified in previous studies. Controlled fire laboratory experiments are used in this study to examine the biomass consumed and the radiant energy release (Fire Radiative Energy, FRE, (MJ)) for western white pine needle fuels burned with water content (WC, unitless) from 0.01 to 0.14. Results indicate a significant relationship: FRE per kilogram of fuel consumed = -5.32 WC + 3.025 (r2 = 0.83, n = 24, P FRE and fuel consumed can lead to systematic biases. A methodological framework to derive a revised formula that enables the estimation of biomass consumed from FRE, which explicitly takes into account fuel water content, is presented.

  1. Sustainable biomass-derived hydrothermal carbons for energy applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Falco, Camillo

    2012-01-15

    The need to reduce humankind reliance on fossil fuels by exploiting sustainably the planet renewable resources is a major driving force determining the focus of modern material research. For this reason great interest is nowadays focused on finding alternatives to fossil fuels derived products/materials. For the short term the most promising substitute is undoubtedly biomass, since it is the only renewable and sustainable alternative to fossil fuels as carbon source. As a consequence efforts, aimed at finding new synthetic approaches to convert biomass and its derivatives into carbon-based materials, are constantly increasing. In this regard, hydrothermal carbonisation (HTC) has shown to be an effective means of conversion of biomass-derived precursors into functional carbon materials. However the attempts to convert raw biomass, in particular lignocellulosic one, directly into such products have certainly been rarer. Unlocking the direct use of these raw materials as carbon precursors would definitely be beneficial in terms of HTC sustainability. For this reason, in this thesis the HTC of carbohydrate and protein-rich biomass was systematically investigated, in order to obtain more insights on the potentials of this thermochemical processing technique in relation to the production of functional carbon materials from crude biomass. First a detailed investigation on the HTC conversion mechanism of lignocellulosic biomass and its single components (i.e. cellulose, lignin) was developed based on a comparison with glucose HTC, which was adopted as a reference model. In the glucose case it was demonstrated that varying the HTC temperature allowed tuning the chemical structure of the synthesised carbon materials from a highly cross-linked furan-based structure (T = 180 C) to a carbon framework composed of polyaromatic arene-like domains. When cellulose or lignocellulosic biomass was used as carbon precursor, the furan rich structure could not be isolated at any of the

  2. Stakeholder perspectives on converting forest biomass to energy in Oregon, USA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stidham, Melanie; Simon-Brown, Viviane [Department of Forest Ecosystems and Society, College of Forestry, Oregon State University, 321 Richardson Hall, Corvallis, OR 97331 (United States)

    2011-01-15

    Within the state of Oregon, USA, there is considerable interest in the possibility of converting forest biomass to energy. A number of studies have assessed the technical feasibility of forest biomass energy, but few have focused on social aspects, an important consideration in projects involving public forests. This study explores the social context of converting forest biomass to energy, using qualitative research methods. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with forty individuals representing nine different stakeholder groups. Information gained through interviews was used to understand stakeholder views on forest biomass energy, including their perspectives on potential barriers and opportunities in Oregon. Findings indicate the most challenging barrier will be access to long-term, consistent supply. A related challenge is the long history of contention between parties over forest products coming from public lands. However, findings also show that there are many areas of common ground between these groups that have historically been at odds, such as agreement on the necessity of restoration treatments in certain forest types, the by-product of which could be used for biomass generation. Potential conflicts still exist, for instance over projects in mixed conifer forests. Development of policies and projects through inclusive, collaborative approaches could alleviate controversies, potentially allowing more activities to move forward. Information provided by this research creates a foundation for discussions as forest biomass energy becomes an increasingly prominent issue in Oregon, the western USA, and other regions of the world. (author)

  3. Biogas energy production from tropical biomass wastes by anaerobic digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Xumeng; Matsumoto, Tracie; Keith, Lisa; Li, Yebo

    2014-10-01

    Anaerobic digestion (AD) is an attractive technology in tropical regions for converting locally abundant biomass wastes into biogas which can be used to produce heat, electricity, and transportation fuels. However, investigations on AD of tropical forestry wastes, such as albizia biomass and food wastes, such as taro, papaya, and sweet potato, are limited. In this study, these tropical biomass wastes were evaluated for biogas production by liquid AD (L-AD) and/or solid-state AD (SS-AD), depending on feedstock characteristics. When albizia leaves and chips were used as feedstocks, L-AD had greater methane yields (161 and 113 L kg(-1)VS, respectively) than SS-AD (156.8 and 59.6 L kg(-1)VS, respectively), while SS-AD achieved 5-fold higher volumetric methane productivity than L-AD. Mono-digestion and co-digestion of taro skin, taro flesh, papaya, and sweet potato achieved methane yields from 345 to 411 L kg(-1)VS, indicating the robustness of AD technology.

  4. Waste biomass-to-energy supply chain management: a critical synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iakovou, E; Karagiannidis, A; Vlachos, D; Toka, A; Malamakis, A

    2010-10-01

    The development of renewable energy sources has clearly emerged as a promising policy towards enhancing the fragile global energy system with its limited fossil fuel resources, as well as for reducing the related environmental problems. In this context, waste biomass utilization has emerged as a viable alternative for energy production, encompassing a wide range of potential thermochemical, physicochemical and bio-chemical processes. Two significant bottlenecks that hinder the increased biomass utilization for energy production are the cost and complexity of its logistics operations. In this manuscript, we present a critical synthesis of the relative state-of-the-art literature as this applies to all stakeholders involved in the design and management of waste biomass supply chains (WBSCs). We begin by presenting the generic system components and then the unique characteristics of WBSCs that differentiate them from traditional supply chains. We proceed by discussing state-of-the-art energy conversion technologies along with the resulting classification of all relevant literature. We then recognize the natural hierarchy of the decision-making process for the design and planning of WBSCs and provide a taxonomy of all research efforts as these are mapped on the relevant strategic, tactical and operational levels of the hierarchy. Our critical synthesis demonstrates that biomass-to-energy production is a rapidly evolving research field focusing mainly on biomass-to-energy production technologies. However, very few studies address the critical supply chain management issues, and the ones that do that, focus mainly on (i) the assessment of the potential biomass and (ii) the allocation of biomass collection sites and energy production facilities. Our analysis further allows for the identification of gaps and overlaps in the existing literature, as well as of critical future research areas.

  5. Economic Potential of Biomass from Unused Agriculture Land for Energy Use

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pfeifer, A.; Dominkovic, Dominik Franjo; Ćosić, B.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper the energy potential of biomass from growing short rotation coppice (SRC) on unused agricultural land in the Republic of Croatia was examined. At present, SRC is not completely recognized in Croatian legislative and considerations in energy strategy and action plans. The paper aspires...... to contribute to better understanding of the role SRC can take in national and local energy planning. The methodology is provided for regional analysis of biomass energy potential on unused agricultural land and for assessing the cost of the biomass at the power plant (PP) location considering transport...... plants and appropriate size of seasonal heat storage is discussed for each case study. Case studies have shown the potential for use of previously unused agricultural land to help achieve national targets for renewable energy sources as well as reducing carbon dioxide emissions, help diversify...

  6. Assessment of industrial activity in the utilization of biomass for energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-09-01

    The objective of this report is to help focus the federal programs in biomass energy, by identifying the status and objectives of private sector activity in the biomass field as of mid-1979. In addition, the industry's perceptions of government activities are characterized. Findings and conclusions are based principally on confidential interviews with executives in 95 companies. These included forest products companies, agricultural products companies, equipment manufacturers, electric and gas utilities petroleum refiners and distributors, research and engineering firms, and trade organizations, as listed in Exhibit 1. Interview findings have been supplemented by research of recent literature. The study focused on four key questions: (1) what is the composition of the biomass industry; (2) what are the companies doing; (3) what are their objectives and strategies; and (4) what are the implications for government policy. This executive summary provides highlights of the key findings and conclusions. The summary discussion is presented in seven parts: (1) overview of the biomass field; (2) structure of the biomass industry today; (3) corporate activities in biomass-related areas; (4) motivations for these activities; (5) industry's outlook on the future for energy-from-biomass; (6) industry's view of government activities; and (7) implications for Federal policy.

  7. Energy-efficient biomass processing with pulsed electric fields for bioeconomy and sustainable development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golberg, Alexander; Sack, Martin; Teissie, Justin; Pataro, Gianpiero; Pliquett, Uwe; Saulis, Gintautas; Stefan, Töpfl; Miklavcic, Damijan; Vorobiev, Eugene; Frey, Wolfgang

    2016-01-01

    Fossil resources-free sustainable development can be achieved through a transition to bioeconomy, an economy based on sustainable biomass-derived food, feed, chemicals, materials, and fuels. However, the transition to bioeconomy requires development of new energy-efficient technologies and processes to manipulate biomass feed stocks and their conversion into useful products, a collective term for which is biorefinery. One of the technological platforms that will enable various pathways of biomass conversion is based on pulsed electric fields applications (PEF). Energy efficiency of PEF treatment is achieved by specific increase of cell membrane permeability, a phenomenon known as membrane electroporation. Here, we review the opportunities that PEF and electroporation provide for the development of sustainable biorefineries. We describe the use of PEF treatment in biomass engineering, drying, deconstruction, extraction of phytochemicals, improvement of fermentations, and biogas production. These applications show the potential of PEF and consequent membrane electroporation to enable the bioeconomy and sustainable development.

  8. Switchgrass biomass energy storage project. Final report, September 23, 1996--December 31, 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, G.A.; Teel, A.; Brown, S.S. [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    1996-07-01

    The Chariton Valley Biomass Power Project, sponsored by the Chariton Valley RC&D Inc., a USDA-sponsored rural development organization, the Iowa Department of Natural Resources Energy Bureau (IDNR-EB), and IES Utilities, a major Iowa energy company, is directed at the development of markets for energy crops in southern Iowa. This effort is part of a statewide coalition of public and private interests cooperating to merge Iowa`s agricultural potential and its long-term energy requirements to develop locally sustainable sources of biomass fuel. The four-county Chariton Valley RC&D area (Lucas, Wayne, Appanoose and Monroe counties) is the site of one of eleven NREL/EPRI feasibility studies directed at the potential of biomass power. The focus of renewable energy development in the region has centered around the use of swithgrass (Panicum virgatum, L.). This native Iowa grass is one of the most promising sustainable biomass fuel crops. According to investigations by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), switchgrass has the most potential of all the perennial grasses and legumes evaluated for biomass production.

  9. Biomass storage for further energy use through biogas production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atem, A.D. [Instituto CEDIAC, Facultad de Ingenieria, Universidad Nacional de Cuyo, Centro Universitario, 5500 Mendoza (Argentina); Instituto de Medio Ambiente, Facultad de Ingenieria, Universidad Nacional de Cuyo, Centro Universitario, 5500 Mendoza (Argentina); Instituto de Energia, Universidad Nacional de Cuyo, Centro Universitario, 5500 Mendoza (Argentina); Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cientificas y Tecnicas - CONICET, Mendoza (Argentina); Indiveri, M.E. [Instituto de Medio Ambiente, Facultad de Ingenieria, Universidad Nacional de Cuyo, Centro Universitario, 5500 Mendoza (Argentina); Instituto de Energia, Universidad Nacional de Cuyo, Centro Universitario, 5500 Mendoza (Argentina); Llamas, S. [Instituto de Medio Ambiente, Facultad de Ingenieria, Universidad Nacional de Cuyo, Centro Universitario, 5500 Mendoza (Argentina)

    2010-06-15

    The present work approaches the residual biomass conservation for later digestion in an anaerobic batch reactor. Twenty 4 L capacity PET reactors were used. A measuring device was constructed to quantify the biogas production. As substrate were used tomato wastes from local industry and rumen fluid as inoculum. Digestion start up was able to be controlled by varying the temperature, during a period of 118 days was not verified biogas production. After re-inoculated with rumen fluid stabilized for 34 days, biogas production was verified. They were obtained 0.10 m{sup 3} of biogas per kilogram of volatile solids, with 50% of methane content. (author)

  10. Biomass energy production. Citations from the International Aerospace Abstracts data base

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, P. W.

    1980-01-01

    These 210 citations from the international literature describe the production and/or utilization of most forms of biomass as a source of energy, fuel, food, and chemical intermediates or feedstocks. Biomass conversion by incineration, gasification, pyrolysis, hydrolysis, anaerobic digestion, or fermentation, as well as by catalytic, photosynthetic, chemosynthetic, and bio-electrochemical means are among the conversion processes considered. Discussions include biomass plantation and material productivity, transportation and equipment requirements, effects, comparisons of means and efficiencies of utilization and conversion, assessments of limitations, and evaluations of economic potential.

  11. Energy from biomass. Summaries of the Biomass Projects carried out as part of the Department of Trade and Industry's New and Renewable Energy Programme. Vol. 5: straw, poultry litter and energy crops as energy sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-01-01

    These volumes of summaries provide easy access to the many projects carried out in the Energy from Biomass programme area as part of the Department of Trade and Industry's New and Renewable Energy Programme. The summaries in this volume cover contractor reports on the subject published up to December 1997. (author)

  12. Biomass and Energy of Casuarina equisetiofolia Plantations in Southeast Coast of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YEGongfu; ZHANGQinghai; LINYiming

    2005-01-01

    The biomass and energy production of Casuarina equisetifolia plantations aged 14 were studied in Huian County, Fujian Province, Southeast of China. The standing crop biomass was 152.60 t/ha, in which the biomass of bole was 67.02 t/ha, accounting for 43.94 % of the total, while that of root was 36.83 t/ha and 24.14 %, respectively. Net primary productivity was 10.17t/(ha.a).The range of gross caloric of components was 19.29~20.23 kJ/g, with the average 19.70 kJ/g. The standing crop energy was 2 987×106 kJ/ha. Net energy production was 196.8×106 kJ/ha, while solar energy conversion efficiency was 0.90%.

  13. Opportunities for utilization of non-conventional energy sources for biomass pretreatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Rawel; Krishna, Bhavya B; Kumar, Jitendra; Bhaskar, Thallada

    2016-01-01

    The increasing concerns over the depletion of fossil resources and its associated geo-political issues have driven the entire world to move toward sustainable forms of energy. Pretreatment is the first step in any biochemical conversion process for the production of valuable fuels/chemicals from lignocellulosic biomass to eliminate the lignin and produce fermentable sugars by hydrolysis. Conventional techniques have several limitations which can be addressed by using them in tandem with non-conventional methods for biomass pretreatment. Electron beam and γ (gamma)-irradiation, microwave and ultrasound energies have certain advantages over conventional source of energy and there is an opportunity that these energies can be exploited for biomass pretreatment.

  14. Priority of domestic biomass resources for energy: Importance of national environmental targets in a climate perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tonini, Davide; Vadenbo, Carl; Astrup, Thomas Fruergaard

    2017-01-01

    that utilizing the energy potential of manure and straw represents the primary opportunity for further global warming mitigation. For this purpose, co-digestion (for manure) and combustion with heat-and-power production (for straw) appear as the most promising technologies. The utilization of biomass (or biogas......) for electricity/heat is generally preferred, as long as coal/oil is still used within the energy system. Yet, to fulfill environmental targets for renewable energy in the transport sector, the diversion of a significant share of biogas (and/or other biofuels) from these more beneficial uses is necessary....... To completely phase out coal/oil, additional biomass (to current domestic resources) must be included, either through domestic energy crops cultivation or biomass/biofuel import; alternatively, natural gas could be used....

  15. Research advances in the study of Pistacia chinensis Bunge, a superior tree species for biomass energy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Hong-lin; Zhang Zhi-xiang; Lin Shan-zhi; Li Xiao-xu

    2007-01-01

    As a renewable energy, biomass energy has aroused wide attention and studies of this issue have become a hot topic throughout the world. Pistacia chinensis Bunge (Anacardiaceae) is a superior species for biomass energy with high oil content in seeds and wide geographic distribution. It is a dioeciously, deciduous arbor, flowering from March to April and bearing fruits from September to November. The classification, regional distribution and biological characteristics of P. chinensis are stated in this paper,then, research advances in the growth, breeding and physiology of this species are summarized. The problems in present studies are broached. Finally, a future direction for research is proposed.

  16. Transportation Energy Futures Series: Projected Biomass Utilization for Fuels and Power in a Mature Market

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruth, M.; Mai, T.; Newes, E.; Aden, A.; Warner, E.; Uriarte, C.; Inman, D.; Simpkins, T.; Argo, A.

    2013-03-01

    The viability of biomass as transportation fuel depends upon the allocation of limited resources for fuel, power, and products. By focusing on mature markets, this report identifies how biomass is projected to be most economically used in the long term and the implications for greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and petroleum use. In order to better understand competition for biomass between these markets and the potential for biofuel as a market-scale alternative to petroleum-based fuels, this report presents results of a micro-economic analysis conducted using the Biomass Allocation and Supply Equilibrium (BASE) modeling tool. The findings indicate that biofuels can outcompete biopower for feedstocks in mature markets if research and development targets are met. The BASE tool was developed for this project to analyze the impact of multiple biomass demand areas on mature energy markets. The model includes domestic supply curves for lignocellulosic biomass resources, corn for ethanol and butanol production, soybeans for biodiesel, and algae for diesel. This is one of a series of reports produced as a result of the Transportation Energy Futures (TEF) project, a Department of Energy-sponsored multi-agency project initiated to pinpoint underexplored strategies for abating GHGs and reducing petroleum dependence related to transportation.

  17. Transportation Energy Futures Series. Projected Biomass Utilization for Fuels and Power in a Mature Market

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruth, M. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Mai, T. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Newes, E. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Aden, A. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Warner, E. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Uriarte, C. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Inman, D. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Simpkins, T. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Argo, A. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2013-03-01

    The viability of biomass as transportation fuel depends upon the allocation of limited resources for fuel, power, and products. By focusing on mature markets, this report identifies how biomass is projected to be most economically used in the long term and the implications for greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and petroleum use. In order to better understand competition for biomass between these markets and the potential for biofuel as a market-scale alternative to petroleum-based fuels, this report presents results of a micro-economic analysis conducted using the Biomass Allocation and Supply Equilibrium (BASE) modeling tool. The findings indicate that biofuels can outcompete biopower for feedstocks in mature markets if research and development targets are met. The BASE tool was developed for this project to analyze the impact of multiple biomass demand areas on mature energy markets. The model includes domestic supply curves for lignocellulosic biomass resources, corn for ethanol and butanol production, soybeans for biodiesel, and algae for diesel. This is one of a series of reports produced as a result of the Transportation Energy Futures (TEF) project, a Department of Energy-sponsored multi-agency project initiated to pinpoint underexplored strategies for abating GHGs and reducing petroleum dependence related to transportation.

  18. Glucanocellulosic ethanol: the undiscovered biofuel potential in energy crops and marine biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falter, Christian; Zwikowics, Claudia; Eggert, Dennis; Blümke, Antje; Naumann, Marcel; Wolff, Kerstin; Ellinger, Dorothea; Reimer, Rudolph; Voigt, Christian A

    2015-09-01

    Converting biomass to biofuels is a key strategy in substituting fossil fuels to mitigate climate change. Conventional strategies to convert lignocellulosic biomass to ethanol address the fermentation of cellulose-derived glucose. Here we used super-resolution fluorescence microscopy to uncover the nanoscale structure of cell walls in the energy crops maize and Miscanthus where the typical polymer cellulose forms an unconventional layered architecture with the atypical (1, 3)-β-glucan polymer callose. This raised the question about an unused potential of (1, 3)-β-glucan in the fermentation of lignocellulosic biomass. Engineering biomass conversion for optimized (1, 3)-β-glucan utilization, we increased the ethanol yield from both energy crops. The generation of transgenic Miscanthus lines with an elevated (1, 3)-β-glucan content further increased ethanol yield providing a new strategy in energy crop breeding. Applying the (1, 3)-β-glucan-optimized conversion method on marine biomass from brown macroalgae with a naturally high (1, 3)-β-glucan content, we not only substantially increased ethanol yield but also demonstrated an effective co-fermentation of plant and marine biomass. This opens new perspectives in combining different kinds of feedstock for sustainable and efficient biofuel production, especially in coastal regions.

  19. BIOMASS AS AN ALTERNATIVE SOURCE OF ENERGY IN INDIA

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    The fossil fuel is a main source of energy for generation of electricity in India. Overall, about 80% of greenhouse gas (GHS) emissions are related to the production and use of energy, and particularly, burning of fossils fuels. The environmental problems are associated with the generation of conventional sources of energy.The Kyoto protocol has established flexible mechanisms for developing countries to meet there GHG reduction commitment. Therefore, renewable source of energy is an alternat...

  20. Do biomass harvesting guidelines influence herpetofauna following harvests of logging residues for renewable energy?.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritts, Sarah; Moorman, Christopher; Grodsky, Steven; Hazel, Dennis; Homyack, Jessica; Farrell, Chris; Castleberry, Steven

    2016-04-01

    Forests are a major supplier of renewable energy; however, gleaning logging residues for use as woody biomass feedstock could negatively alter habitat for species dependent on downed wood. Biomass Harvesting Guidelines (BHGs) recommend retaining a portion of woody biomass on the forest floor following harvest. Despite BHGs being developed to help ensure ecological sustainability, their contribution to biodiversity has not been evaluated experimentally at operational scales. We compared herpetofauanal evenness, diversity, and richness and abundance of Anaxyrus terrestris and Gastrophryne carolinensis among six treatments that varied in volume and spatial arrangement of woody biomass retained after clearcutting loblolly pine (Pinus taeda) plantations in North Carolina, USA (n = 4), 2011-2014 and Georgia (n = 4), USA 2011-2013. Treatments were: (1) biomass harvest with no BHGs, (2) 15% retention with biomass clustered, (3) 15% retention with biomass dispersed, (4) 30% retention with biomass clustered, (5) 30% retention with biomass dispersed, and (6) no biomass harvest. We captured individuals with drift fence arrays and compared evenness, diversity, and richness metrics among treatments with repeated-measure, linear mixed-effects models. We determined predictors of A. terrestris and G. carolinensis abundances using a priori candidate N-mixture models with woody biomass volume, vegetation structure, and groundcover composition as covariates. We had 206 captures of 25 reptile species and 8710 captures of 17 amphibian species during 53690 trap nights. Herpetofauna diversity, evenness, and richness were similar among treatments. A. terrestris abundance was negatively related to volume of retained woody biomass in treatment units in North Carolina in 2013. G. carolinensis abundance was positively related with volume of retained woody debris in treatment units in Georgia in 2012. Other relationships between A. terrestris and G. carolinensis abundances and habitat metrics

  1. Energy efficiency analysis of reactor for torrefaction of biomass with direct heating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuzmina, J. S.; Director, L. B.; Shevchenko, A. L.; Zaichenko, V. M.

    2016-11-01

    Paper presents energy analysis of reactor for torrefaction with direct heating of granulated biomass by exhaust gases. Various schemes of gas flow through the reactor zones are presented. Performed is a comparative evaluation of the specific energy consumption for the considered schemes. It has been shown that one of the most expensive processes of torrefaction technology is recycling of pyrolysis gases.

  2. Biomass as a Sustainable Energy Source: An Illustration of Chemical Engineering Thermodynamic Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohan, Marguerite A.; May, Nicole; Assaf-Anid, Nada M.; Castaldi, Marco J.

    2006-01-01

    The ever-increasing global demand for energy has sparked renewed interest within the engineering community in the study of sustainable alternative energy sources. This paper discusses a power generation system which uses biomass as "fuel" to illustrate the concepts taught to students taking a graduate level chemical engineering process…

  3. Environmental and energy performance of the biomass to synthetic natural gas supply chain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miedema, Jan Hessels; Moll, Henri; Benders, Reinerus

    2016-01-01

    A quarter of the total primary energy demand in the European Union is met by natural gas. Synthetic natural gas produced through biomass gasification can contribute to a more sustainable energy supply system. A chain analysis of the energetic performance of synthetic natural gas where the upstream,

  4. Biomass Assessment. Assessment of global biomass potentials and their links to food, water, biodiversity, energy demand and economy. Inventory and analysis of existing studies. Main report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dornburg, V.; Faaij, A.; Verweij, P. [Utrecht University, Utrecht (Netherlands); Banse, M.; Van Diepen, K.; Van Keulen, H.; Langeveld, H.; Meeusen, M.; Van de Ven, G.; Wester, F. [Wageningen UR, Wageningen (Netherlands); Alkemade, R.; Ten Brink, B.; Van den Born, G.J.; Van Oorschot, M.; Ros, J.; Smout, F.; Van Vuuren, D.; Van den Wijngaart, R. [Netherlands Environmental Assessment Agency NMP, Bilthoven (Netherlands); Aiking, H. [Vrije Universiteit, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Londo, M.; Mozaffarian, H.; Smekens, K. [ECN Policy Studies, Petten (Netherlands); Lysen, E. (ed.); Van Egmond, S. (ed.) [Utrecht Centre for Energy research UCE, Utrecht University, Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2008-01-15

    The increased use and potential growth of biomass for energy has triggered a heated debate on the sustainability of those developments as biomass production is now also associated with increased competition with food and feed production, loss of forest cover and the like. Besides such competition, also the net reduction in greenhouse gas emissions is questioned in case land-use for biomass is associated with clearing forest, with conversion of peat land, as well as with high fossil energy inputs for machinery, fertilisers and other agrochemicals. Although available studies give a reasonable insight in the importance of various parameters, the integration between different arenas is still limited. This causes confusion in public as well as scientific debate, with conflicting views on the possibilities for sustainable use of biomass as a result. This study aims to tackle this problem by providing a more comprehensive assessment of the current knowledge with respect to biomass resource potentials.

  5. Allocation of Energy Use in the Biomass-based Fuel Ethanol System and Its Use in Decision Making

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LENG Ru-bo; YU Sui-ran; FANG Fang; DAI Du; WANG Cheng-tao

    2005-01-01

    The Chinese government is developing biomass ethanol as one of its automobile fuels for energy security and environmental improvement reasons. The energy efficiency of the biomass-based fuel ethanol is critical issue. To investigate the energy use in the three biomass-base ethanol fuel systems, energy content approach, Market value approach and Product displacement approach methods were used to allocate the energy use based on life cycle energy assessment. The results shows that the net energy of corn based, wheat based, and cassava-based ethanol fuel are 12543MJ, 10299MJ and 13112MJ when get one ton biomassbased ethanol, respectively, and they do produce positive net energy.

  6. Hydrogen rich gas from oil palm biomass as a potential source of renewable energy in Malaysia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohammed, M.A.A.; Salmiaton, A.; Wan Azlina, W.A.K.G.; Mohammad Amran, M.S.; Fakhru' l-Razi, A. [Department of Chemical and Environmental Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM Serdang, Selangor (Malaysia); Taufiq-Yap, Y.H. [Centre of Excellence for Catalysis Science and Technology and Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, University Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM Serdang, Selangor (Malaysia)

    2011-02-15

    Oil palm is one of the major economic crops in many countries. Malaysia alone produces about 47% of the world's palm oil supply and can be considered as the world's largest producer and exporter of palm oil. Malaysia also generates huge quantity of oil palm biomass including oil palm trunks, oil palm fronds, empty fruit bunches (EFB), shells and fibers as waste from palm oil fruit harvest and oil extraction processing. At present there is a continuously increasing interest in the utilization of oil palm biomass as a source of clean energy. One of the major interests is hydrogen from oil palm biomass. Hydrogen from biomass is a clean and efficient energy source and is expected to take a significant role in future energy demand due to the raw material availability. This paper presents a review which focuses on different types of thermo-chemical processes for conversion of oil palm biomass to hydrogen rich gas. This paper offers a concise and up-to-date scenario of the present status of oil palm industry in contributing towards sustainable and renewable energy. (author)

  7. PERFORMANCE STUDIES ON DOWNDRAFT GASIFIER WITH BIOMASS ENERGY SOURCES AVAILABLE IN REMOTE VILLAGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. ChristusJeya Singh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Increasing global concern over the environmental issues and depletion of fossil fuels, significant interest has been shown by the researchers to develop alternate energy technologies like biomass, biogas, solar to meet the future energy demand. The prediction of the performance of different biomass energy sources in gasifiers is needed for the implementation of this technology to fulfil the need of decentralized heat and power applications, relevant to remote villages. This study presents the theoretical and experimental studies conducted on a 50 kW downdraft biomass gasifier with various biomass materials such as wood, coconut shell, rubber seed kernel and coir pith which are generally available in villages. Two-zone kinetic equilibrium model approach is used to predict the composition and temperature of the producer gas. The influence of equivalence ratio on the reaction temperature, quality of producer gas and gasifier conversion efficiency are discussed. The experimental and theoretical studies show that the rubber seed kernel can be effectively used as a feedstock of the biomass gasifier to meet the rural energy demand.

  8. Interactions between biomass energy technologies and nutrient and carbon balances at the farm level

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joergensen, Uffe; Molt Petersen, B. [Danish Inst. of Agricultural Science, Dept. of Agroecology, Tjele (Denmark)

    2006-08-15

    Biomass energy is by far the largest renewable energy source in the world (IEA Renewable information (www.iea.org)). Biomass utilisation is closely linked to management and sustainability issues of forestry and agriculture. Carbon is extracted from forests and agriculture to bioenergy facilities, from where it is partly or fully emitted as CO{sub 2} and thus no longer available for sustaining soil organic matter content. Nutrients are extracted as well and, depending of the conversion technology, they may be recycled to farmland or lost as gaseous emissions. Thus, we must be able to describe these effects, and to suggest strategies to alleviate adverse effects on farm sustainability and on the environment. By choosing intelligent combinations of cropping systems and energy conversion technologies, win-win solutions may be achieved. This paper illustrates, via three cases, some agricultural impacts of choice of biomass technology and describes an intriguing possibility for recycling municipal or industrial wastes through the bioenergy chain. (au)

  9. Environmental Multiobjective Optimization of the Use of Biomass Resources for Energy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vadenbo, Carl; Tonini, Davide; Astrup, Thomas Fruergaard

    2017-01-01

    of the optimization model is exemplified by a case aimed at determining the environmentally optimal use of biomass in the Danish energy system in 2025. A multiobjective formulation based on fuzzy intervals for six environmental impact categories resulted in impact reductions of 13-43% compared to the baseline...... environmental consequences. To circumvent the limitations of scenario-based life cycle assessment (LCA), we develop a multiobjective optimization model to systematically identify the environmentally optimal use of biomass for energy under given system constraints. Besides satisfying annual final energy demand......, the model constraints comprise availability of biomass and arable land, technology- and system-specific capacities, and relevant policy targets. Efficiencies and environmental performances of bioenergy conversions are derived using biochemical process models combined with LCA data. The application...

  10. Storage of caatinga forest biomass to improve the quality of wood for energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha Andreia Brand

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: This study aimed to evaluate the quality of forest biomass energy, coming from the Caatinga, for different storage times in the field. The study was conducted in southern Piauí, between January and February (rainy season. Samples were collected containing branches and trunks of various species, and samples of branches and trunks separately in 5 sample units of 20x20m. Samples were evaluated in the general state freshly harvested and samples of branches and logs after 15 and 30 days of storage in piles in the field. The analyzes carried out were: moisture content on wet basis, ash content and calorific value. Moisture content of freshly harvested biomass ranged from 39% with two days after cutting to 79% in biomass cut and left distributed in the field for 10 days. After storage in piles for 15 days, branches showed moisture content of 18% and the logs 21%, and net calorific value of 3432kcal kg-1 and 3274kcal kg-1, respectively. After 30 days, moisture content for branches was 13% and the logs 21%, and net calorific value of 3672kcal kg-1 and 3240kcal kg-1, respectively. Ash content of the biomass was low. Cutting trees in the rainy season, with maintenance of biomass in the field for 10 days, resulted in an increment of moisture content. Branches had the best behaviour during the storage. Fifteen days of storage are sufficient for the caatinga biomass to achieve high-quality energy.

  11. Emission reductions from woody biomass waste for energy as an alternative to open burning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Springsteen, Bruce; Christofk, Tom; Eubanks, Steve; Mason, Tad; Clavin, Chris; Storey, Brett

    2011-01-01

    Woody biomass waste is generated throughout California from forest management, hazardous fuel reduction, and agricultural operations. Open pile burning in the vicinity of generation is frequently the only economic disposal option. A framework is developed to quantify air emissions reductions for projects that alternatively utilize biomass waste as fuel for energy production. A demonstration project was conducted involving the grinding and 97-km one-way transport of 6096 bone-dry metric tons (BDT) of mixed conifer forest slash in the Sierra Nevada foothills for use as fuel in a biomass power cogeneration facility. Compared with the traditional open pile burning method of disposal for the forest harvest slash, utilization of the slash for fuel reduced particulate matter (PM) emissions by 98% (6 kg PM/BDT biomass), nitrogen oxides (NOx) by 54% (1.6 kg NOx/BDT), nonmethane volatile organics (NMOCs) by 99% (4.7 kg NMOCs/BDT), carbon monoxide (CO) by 97% (58 kg CO/BDT), and carbon dioxide equivalents (CO2e) by 17% (0.38 t CO2e/BDT). Emission contributions from biomass processing and transport operations are negligible. CO2e benefits are dependent on the emission characteristics of the displaced marginal electricity supply. Monetization of emissions reductions will assist with fuel sourcing activities and the conduct of biomass energy projects.

  12. Modeling stump biomass of stands using harvester measurements for adaptive energy wood procurement systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vesa, Lauri [ForestCalc Consulting Oy Ltd., 80230 Joensuu (Finland); Palander, Teijo [School of Forest Sciences, University of Eastern Finland, 80100 Joensuu (Finland)

    2010-09-15

    The value and volumes of industrial stump fuel supply are increasing for energy production. Accurate estimates of aboveground and belowground biomass of trees are important when estimating the potential of stumps as a bioenergy source. In this study two stump biomass equations were adapted and tested using them as calibrated stump biomass models computed as the cumulative sum by a local stand. In addition, variables derived from stem measurements of the forest harvester data were examined to predict stump biomass of a stand by applying regression analysis. The true stump yield (dry weight) was used as the reference data in the study. Both biomass models performed well (adjusted R{sup 2} {proportional_to} 0.84) and no advance was found in using other stem dimensions as independent variables in the model. The stand-level model can be used in innovative stump biomass prediction tools for increasing efficiency of energy wood procurement planning to stands within a certain area. In practice, wood procurement managers would need to adapt developed system and decide whether the degree of accuracy/precision provided by the models is acceptable in their local stand harvesting conditions. (author)

  13. A Review on Biomass Torrefaction Process and Product Properties for Energy Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaya Shankar Tumuluru; Shahab Sokhansanj; J. Richard Hess; Christopher T. Wright; Richard D. Boardman

    2011-10-01

    Torrefaction of biomass can be described as a mild form of pyrolysis at temperatures typically ranging between 200 and 300 C in an inert and reduced environment. Common biomass reactions during torrefaction include devolatilization, depolymerization, and carbonization of hemicellulose, lignin and cellulose. Torrefaction process produces a brown to black solid uniform product and also condensable (water, organics, and lipids) and non condensable gases (CO2, CO, and CH4). Typically during torrefaction, 70% of the mass is retained as a solid product, containing 90% of the initial energy content, and 30% of the lost mass is converted into condensable and non-condensable products. The system's energy efficiency can be improved by reintroducing the material lost during torrefaction as a source of heat. Torrefaction of biomass improves its physical properties like grindability; particle shape, size, and distribution; pelletability; and proximate and ultimate composition like moisture, carbon and hydrogen content, and calorific value. Carbon and calorific value of torrefied biomass increases by 15-25%, and moisture content reduces to <3% (w.b.). Torrefaction reduces grinding energy by about 70%, and the ground torrefied biomass has improved sphericity, particle surface area, and particle size distribution. Pelletization of torrefied biomass at temperatures of 225 C reduces specific energy consumption by two times and increases the capacity of the mill by two times. The loss of the OH group during torrefaction makes the material hydrophobic (loses the ability to attract water molecules) and more stable against chemical oxidation and microbial degradation. These improved properties make torrefied biomass particularly suitable for cofiring in power plants and as an upgraded feedstock for gasification.

  14. Energy densification of biomass-derived organic acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, M. Clayton; van Walsum, G. Peter; Schwartz, Thomas J.; van Heiningen, Adriaan

    2013-01-29

    A process for upgrading an organic acid includes neutralizing the organic acid to form a salt and thermally decomposing the resulting salt to form an energy densified product. In certain embodiments, the organic acid is levulinic acid. The process may further include upgrading the energy densified product by conversion to alcohol and subsequent dehydration.

  15. Biomass power generation: toward a sustainable energy future

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ 16 October, 2005 was a day of celebration for the Guangzhou Institute of Energy Conversion(GIEC), CAS, as its technology ofbiomass gasification and power generation (BGPG) was chosen by an evaluation panel of the United Nations Industrial Development Organization as one of the 10 top investment scenarios to apply new technologies for renewable energy utilization.

  16. Uncertainty of biomass contributions from agriculture and forestry to renewable energy resources under climate change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Gutsch

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In the future, Germany's land-use policies and the impacts of climate change on yields will affect the amount of biomass available for energy production. We used recent published data on biomass potentials in the federal states of Germany to assess the uncertainty caused by climate change effects in the potential supply of biomass available for energy production. In this study we selected three climate scenarios representing the maximum, mean and minimum temperature increase for Germany out of 21 CMIP5-projections driven by the Representative Concentration Pathways (RCP 8.5 scenario. Each of the three selected projections was downscaled using the regional statistical climate model STARS. We analysed the yield changes of four biomass feedstock crops (forest, short-rotation coppices (SRC, cereal straw (winter wheat and energy maize for the period 2031–2060 in comparison to 1981–2010. The mean annual yield changes of energy wood from forest and short-rotation coppices were modelled using the process-based forest growth model 4C. The yield changes of winter wheat and energy maize from agricultural production were simulated with the statistical yield model IRMA. Germany's annual biomass potential of 1500 PJ varies between minus 5 % and plus 8 % depending on the climate scenario realisation. Assuming that 1500 PJ of biomass utilisation can be achieved, climate change effects of minus 75 (5 % PJ or plus 120 (8 % PJ do not impede overall bioenergy targets of 1287 PJ in 2020 and 1534 PJ in 2050. In five federal states the climate scenarios lead to decreasing yields of energy maize and winter wheat. Impacts of climate scenarios on forest yields are mainly positive and show both positive and negative effects on yields of SRC.

  17. A techno-economic evaluation of a biomass energy conversion park

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Dael, M.; Van Passel, S.; Witters, N. [Centre for Environmental Sciences, Hasselt University, Agoralaan Gebouw D, 3590 Diepenbeek (Belgium); Pelkmans, L.; Guisson, R. [VITO, Boeretang 200, 2400 Mol (Belgium); Reumermann, P. [BTG Biomass Technology Group, Josink Esweg 34, 7545 PN Enschede (Netherlands); Marquez Luzardo, N. [School of Life Sciences and Environmental Technology, Avans Hogeschool, Hogeschoollaan 1, 4800 RA Breda (Netherlands); Broeze, J. [Agrotechnology and Food Sciences Group, Wageningen University, Bomenweg 2, 6703 HD Wageningen (Netherlands)

    2013-04-15

    Biomass as a renewable energy source has many advantages and is therefore recognized as one of the main renewable energy sources to be deployed in order to attain the target of 20% renewable energy use of final energy consumption by 2020 in Europe. In this paper the concept of a biomass Energy Conversion Park (ECP) is introduced. A biomass ECP can be defined as a synergetic, multi-dimensional biomass conversion site with a highly integrated set of conversion technologies in which a multitude of regionally available biomass (residue) sources are converted into energy and materials. A techno-economic assessment is performed on a case study in the Netherlands to illustrate the concept and to comparatively assess the highly integrated system with two mono-dimensional models. The three evaluated models consist of (1) digestion of the organic fraction of municipal solid waste, (2) co-digestion of manure and co-substrates, and (3) integration. From a socio-economic point of view it can be concluded that it is economically and energetically more interesting to invest in the integrated model than in two separate models. The integration is economically feasible and environmental benefits can be realized. For example, the integrated model allows the implementation of a co-digester. Unmanaged manure would otherwise represent a constant pollution risk. However, from an investor's standpoint one should firstly invest in the municipal solid waste digester since the net present value (NPV) of this mono-dimensional model is higher than that of the multi-dimensional model. A sensitivity analysis is performed to identify the most influencing parameters. Our results are of interest for companies involved in the conversion of biomass. The conclusions are useful for policy makers when deciding on policy instruments concerning manure processing or biogas production.

  18. Anaerobic biotechnological approaches for production of liquid energy carriers from biomass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karakashev, Dimitar Borisov; Thomsen, Anne Belinda; Angelidaki, Irini

    2007-01-01

    In recent years, increasing attention has been paid to the use of renewable biomass for energy production. Anaerobic biotechnological approaches for production of liquid energy carriers (ethanol and a mixture of acetone, butanol and ethanol) from biomass can be employed to decrease environmental...... is determined by substrates and microbial communities available as well as the operating conditions applied. In this review, we evaluate the recent biotechnological approaches employed in ethanol and ABE fermentation. Practical applicability of different technologies is discussed taking into account...... the microbiology and biochemistry of the processes....

  19. Biomass recycle as a means to improve the energy efficiency of CELSS algal culture systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radmer, R.; Cox, J.; Lieberman, D.; Behrens, P.; Arnett, K.

    1987-01-01

    Algal cultures can be very rapid and efficient means to generate biomass and regenerate the atmosphere for closed environmental life support systems. However, as in the case of most higher plants, a significant fraction of the biomass produced by most algae cannot be directly converted to a useful food product by standard food technology procedures. This waste biomass will serve as an energy drain on the overall system unless it can be efficiently recycled without a significant loss of its energy content. Experiments are reported in which cultures of the alga Scenedesmus obliquus were grown in the light and at the expense of an added carbon source, which either replaced or supplemented the actinic light. As part of these experiments, hydrolyzed waste biomass from these same algae were tested to determine whether the algae themselves could be made part of the biological recycling process. Results indicate that hydrolyzed algal (and plant) biomass can serve as carbon and energy sources for the growth of these algae, suggesting that the efficiency of the closed system could be significantly improved using this recycling process.

  20. Assessing the interactions among U.S. climate policy, biomass energy, and agricultural trade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wise, Marshall A.; McJeon, Haewon C.; Calvin, Katherine V.; Clarke, Leon E.; Kyle, G. Page

    2014-09-01

    Energy from biomass is potentially an important contributor to U.S. climate change mitigation efforts. However, an important consideration to large-scale implementation of bioenergy is that the production of biomass competes with other uses of land. This includes traditionally economically productive uses, such as agriculture and forest products, as well as storage of carbon in forests and non-commercial lands. In addition, in the future, biomass may be more easily traded, meaning that increased U.S. reliance on bioenergy could come with it greater reliance on imported energy. Several approaches could be implemented to address these issues, including limits on U.S. biomass imports and protection of U.S. and global forests. This paper explores these dimensions of bioenergy’s role in U.S. climate policy and the relationship to these alternative measures for ameliorating the trade and land use consequences of bioenergy. It first demonstrates that widespread use of biomass in the U.S. could lead to imports; and it highlights that the relative stringency of domestic and international carbon mitigation policy will heavily influence the degree to which it is imported. Next, it demonstrates that while limiting biomass imports would prevent any reliance on other countries for this energy supply, it would most likely alter the balance of trade in other agricultural products against which biomass competes; for example, it might turn the U.S. from a corn exporter to a corn importer. Finally, it shows that increasing efforts to protect both U.S. and international forests could also affect the balance of trade in other agricultural products.

  1. FY 1997 report on the research study for preparation of NEDO`s vision. Biomass energy; 1997 nendo chosa hokokusho (NEDO vision sakutei ni muketa chosa kenkyu). Biomass energy ni tsuite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    Research study was made on the current usage, technological development and future subjects of biomass energy. The current use of biomass energy over the world estimated to be nearly a billion t/y oil equivalent. This value is estimated to be only a part of a pure primary biomass yield of 73 billion t/y oil equivalent showing a large supply potential. The evaluation result of a biomass energy potential in the world by GLUE (Global Land Use and Energy Model) considering worldwide biomass flow and competition of land use showed that no change of land use form in advanced areas is predicted, and no production of new biomass energy from forests in advancing areas is also expected. Production of biomass energy from farm products is promising in advanced areas, while the potential of biomass residue is high in advancing areas showing the possibility of energy development. Development of new biotechnologies such as molecular control of bio-production functions is expected to increase biomass resources. 76 refs., 26 figs., 30 tabs.

  2. Agronomic, Energetic and Environmental Aspects of Biomass Energy Crops Suitable for Italian Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppina M. D’Agosta

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The review, after a short introduction on the tendencies of the European Community Policy on biomasses, describes the agronomic, energy potential and environmental aspects of biomass crops for energy in relation to the research activity carried out in Italy on this topic, differentiating crops on the basis of the main energy use: biodiesel and bioethanol (which refers to “first generation biofuel”, heat and electricity. Currently, many of the crops for potential energy purposes are food crops (wheat, barley, corn, rapeseed, soybean, sunflower, grain sorghum, sugar beet and their production may be used as biofuel source (bioethanol and biodiesel since their crop management aspects are well known and consequently they are immediately applicable. Other species that could be used, highly productive in biomass, such as herbaceous perennial crops (Arundo donax, Miscanthus spp., cardoon, annual crops (sweet sorghum, short rotation woody crops (SRF have been carefully considered in Italy, but they still exhibit critical aspects related to propagation technique, low-input response, harvest and storage technique, cultivars and mechanization. Crops for food, however, often have negative energetic indices and environmental impacts (carbon sequestration, Life Cycle Assessment, consequent to their low productivity. Conversely, crops which are more productive in biomass, show both a more favourable energy balance and environmental impact.

  3. Agronomic, Energetic and Environmental Aspects of Biomass Energy Crops Suitable for Italian Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppina M. D’Agosta

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The review, after a short introduction on the tendencies of the European Community Policy on biomasses, describes the agronomic, energy potential and environmental aspects of biomass crops for energy in relation to the research activity carried out in Italy on this topic, differentiating crops on the basis of the main energy use: biodiesel and bioethanol (which refers to “first generation biofuel”, heat and electricity. Currently, many of the crops for potential energy purposes are food crops (wheat, barley, corn, rapeseed, soybean, sunflower, grain sorghum, sugar beet and their production may be used as biofuel source (bioethanol and biodiesel since their crop management aspects are well known and consequently they are immediately applicable. Other species that could be used, highly productive in biomass, such as herbaceous perennial crops (Arundo donax, Miscanthus spp., cardoon, annual crops (sweet sorghum, short rotation woody crops (SRF have been carefully considered in Italy, but they still exhibit critical aspects related to propagation technique, low-input response, harvest and storage technique, cultivars and mechanization. Crops for food, however, often have negative energetic indices and environmental impacts (carbon sequestration, Life Cycle Assessment, consequent to their low productivity. Conversely, crops which are more productive in biomass, show both a more favourable energy balance and environmental impact.

  4. Evaluation energy efficiency of bioconversion knot rejects to ethanol in comparison to other thermochemically pretreated biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhaojiang; Qin, Menghua; Zhu, J Y; Tian, Guoyu; Li, Zongquan

    2013-02-01

    Rejects from sulfite pulp mill that otherwise would be disposed of by incineration were converted to ethanol by a combined physical-biological process that was comprised of physical refining and simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF). The energy efficiency was evaluated with comparison to thermochemically pretreated biomass, such as those pretreated by dilute acid (DA) and sulfite pretreatment to overcome recalcitrance of lignocelluloses (SPORL). It was observed that the structure deconstruction of rejects by physical refining was indispensable to effective bioconversion but more energy intensive than that of thermochemically pretreated biomass. Fortunately, the energy consumption was compensated by the reduced enzyme dosage and the elevated ethanol yield. Furthermore, adjustment of disk-plates gap led to reduction in energy consumption with negligible influence on ethanol yield. In this context, energy efficiency up to 717.7% was achieved for rejects, much higher than that of SPORL sample (283.7%) and DA sample (152.8%).

  5. Integrated design and evaluation of biomass energy system taking into consideration demand side characteristics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ren, Hongbo [Ritsumeikan Global Innovation Research Organization, Ritsumeikan University, 56-1 Toji-in Kitamachi, Kita-Ku, 603-8577 Kyoto (Japan); Zhou, Weisheng; Nakagami, Ken' ichi [College of Policy Sciences, Ritsumeikan University, 603-8577 Kyoto (Japan); Gao, Weijun [Faculty of Environmental Engineering, The University of Kitakyushu, 808-0135 Kitakyushu (Japan)

    2010-05-15

    In this paper, a linear programming model has been developed for the design and evaluation of biomass energy system, while taking into consideration demand side characteristics. The objective function to be minimized is the total annual cost of the energy system for a given customer equipped with a biomass combined cooling, heating and power (CCHP) plant, as well as a backup boiler fueled by city gas. The results obtained from the implementation of the model demonstrate the optimal system capacities that customers could employ given their electrical and thermal demands. As an illustrative example, an investigation addresses the optimal biomass CCHP system for a residential area located in Kitakyushu Science and Research Park, Japan. In addition, sensitivity analyses have been elaborated in order to show how the optimal solutions would vary due to changes of some key parameters including electricity and city gas tariffs, biogas price, electricity buy-back price, as well as carbon tax rate. (author)

  6. Energy-efficient methane production from macroalgal biomass through chemo disperser liquefaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamilarasan, K; Kavitha, S; Rajesh Banu, J; Arulazhagan, P; Yeom, Ick Tae

    2017-03-01

    In this study, an effort has been made to reduce the energy cost of liquefaction by coupling a mechanical disperser with a chemical (sodium tripolyphosphate). In terms of the cost and specific energy demand of liquefaction, the algal biomass disintegrated at 12,000rpm for 30min, and an STPP dosage of about 0.04g/gCOD was chosen as an optimal parameter. Chemo disperser liquefaction (CDL) was found to be energetically and economically sustainable in terms of liquefaction, methane production, and net profit (15%, 0.14gCOD/gCOD, and 4 USD/Ton of algal biomass) and preferable to disperser liquefaction (DL) (10%, 0.11 gCOD/gCOD, and -475 USD/Ton of algal biomass).

  7. Energy-, exergy- and emergy analysis of biomass production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hovelius, K.

    1997-11-01

    In this report, results from analyzing salix-, winter wheat-, and winter rape cultivations from energy, exergy, and EMERGY perspectives are presented. The exchange in terms of energy for this Salix cultivation is 28 times , but if instead an exergy analysis is done the exchange for exactly the same process is 36 times. The energy analysis gives an energy exchange of 8.1 for winter wheat cultivation, and 5.7 for winter rape cultivation. Corresponding exchanges for the exergy analysis are 9.3 for winter wheat and 6.6 for winter rape. The EMERGY analysis gives a transformity for salix of 1.04E+11 sej/kg DM, for winter wheat 3.85E+11 sej/kg DM, and for winter rape 1.03E+12 sej/kg DM. Thus, the EMERGY need is bigger for rape cultivation than for winter wheat and salix cultivations. The NEYR is the ratio between the EMERGY yield and the EMERGY invested from society (economy, services and other resources), and it is 1.10 for this salix cultivation, and 0.66 for both the winter wheat and the winter rape cultivations. The EIR is the ratio between the EMERGY invested from society and the EMERGY invested from the environment, and it is 2.23 for this salix cultivation, 11.5 for the winter wheat cultivation , and 11.8 for the winter rape cultivation. 26 refs, 11 figs, 25 tabs

  8. Primary energy savings using heat storage for biomass heating systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitrović Dejan M.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available District heating is an efficient way to provide heat to residential, tertiary and industrial users. The heat storage unit is an insulated water tank that absorbs surplus heat from the boiler. The stored heat in the heat storage unit makes it possible to heat even when the boiler is not working, thus increasing the heating efficiency. In order to save primary energy (fuel, the boiler operates on nominal load every time it is in operation (for the purpose of this research. The aim of this paper is to analyze the water temperature variation in the heat storage, depending on the heat load and the heat storage volume. Heat load is calculated for three reference days, with average daily temperatures from -5 to 5°C. The primary energy savings are also calculated for those days in the case of using heat storage in district heating.[Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR 33051: The concept of sustainable energy supply of settlements with energy efficient buildings

  9. Biomass energy systems program summary. Information current as of September 30, 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-10-01

    This program summary describes each of the DOE's Biomass Energy System's projects funded or in existence during fiscal year 1979 and reflects their status as of September 30, 1979. The summary provides an overview of the ongoing research, development, and demonstration efforts of the preceding fiscal year as well. (DMC)

  10. Advanced system demonstration for utilization of biomass as an energy source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-10-01

    The results of a 20 month study to explore the technical and economic feasibility of fuelwood utilization to operate a 50 megawatt energy conversion facility are described. The availability of biomass as a fuel source, the methods of harvesting and collecting the fuelstock, the costs of providing adequate fuel to the plant, and other requirements for fueling the proposed conversion facility are investigated. (MHR)

  11. Second biomass conference of the Americas: Energy, environment, agriculture, and industry. Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-01-01

    This volume provides the proceedings for the Second Biomass Conference of the Americas: Energy, Environment, Agriculture, and Industry which was held August 21-24, 1995. The volume contains copies of full papers as provided by the researchers. Individual papers were separately indexed and abstracted for the database.

  12. The influence of biomass energy consumption on CO2 emissions: a wavelet coherence approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilgili, Faik; Öztürk, İlhan; Koçak, Emrah; Bulut, Ümit; Pamuk, Yalçın; Muğaloğlu, Erhan; Bağlıtaş, Hayriye H

    2016-10-01

    In terms of today, one may argue, throughout observations from energy literature papers, that (i) one of the main contributors of the global warming is carbon dioxide emissions, (ii) the fossil fuel energy usage greatly contributes to the carbon dioxide emissions, and (iii) the simulations from energy models attract the attention of policy makers to renewable energy as alternative energy source to mitigate the carbon dioxide emissions. Although there appears to be intensive renewable energy works in the related literature regarding renewables' efficiency/impact on environmental quality, a researcher might still need to follow further studies to review the significance of renewables in the environment since (i) the existing seminal papers employ time series models and/or panel data models or some other statistical observation to detect the role of renewables in the environment and (ii) existing papers consider mostly aggregated renewable energy source rather than examining the major component(s) of aggregated renewables. This paper attempted to examine clearly the impact of biomass on carbon dioxide emissions in detail through time series and frequency analyses. Hence, the paper follows wavelet coherence analyses. The data covers the US monthly observations ranging from 1984:1 to 2015 for the variables of total energy carbon dioxide emissions, biomass energy consumption, coal consumption, petroleum consumption, and natural gas consumption. The paper thus, throughout wavelet coherence and wavelet partial coherence analyses, observes frequency properties as well as time series properties of relevant variables to reveal the possible significant influence of biomass usage on the emissions in the USA in both the short-term and the long-term cycles. The paper also reveals, finally, that the biomass consumption mitigates CO2 emissions in the long run cycles after the year 2005 in the USA.

  13. Clean energy for development and economic growth: Biomass and other renewable options to meet energy and development needs in poor nations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lilley, Art; Pandey, Bikash; Karstad, Elsen; Owen, Matthew; Bailis, Robert; Ribot, Jesse; Masera, Omar; Diaz, Rodolpho; Benallou, Abdelahanine; Lahbabi, Abdelmourhit

    2012-10-01

    The document explores the linkages between renewable energy, poverty alleviation, sustainable development, and climate change in developing countries. In particular, the paper places emphasis on biomass-based energy systems. Biomass energy has a number of unique attributes that make it particularly suitable to climate change mitigation and community development applications.

  14. Individual biomass facility reports. Supplement to some employment and earnings implications of regional biomass energy utilization: New England and the Cornbelt States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, J. R.; Bell, S. E.; Blair, L. M.; Gove, R. M.; Stevenson, W.; Tamura, R. F.

    1981-08-01

    Research was conducted to determine the direct employment and earnings implications of regional biomass energy utilization. Details of the primary data collected during the course of the investigation are provided. A case studies approach was used to observe and analyze various biomass energy systems. Visits were made to existing biomass facilities and data on their operation and employment requirements were collected. Information on planned or potential future facilities was also obtained. When this information was analyzed, a fairly accurate picture of the current situation as well as the rate and direction of future development in biomass was attained. Separate descriptions are included for each facility visited or for each interview obtained. The facility reports are organized according to fuel cycle (wood-fuel, alcohol-fuel, municipal solid waste facilities, others).

  15. Prospects for energy recovery during hydrothermal and biological processing of waste biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerber Van Doren, Léda; Posmanik, Roy; Bicalho, Felipe A; Tester, Jefferson W; Sills, Deborah L

    2017-02-01

    Thermochemical and biological processes represent promising technologies for converting wet biomasses, such as animal manure, organic waste, or algae, to energy. To convert biomass to energy and bio-chemicals in an economical manner, internal energy recovery should be maximized to reduce the use of external heat and power. In this study, two conversion pathways that couple hydrothermal liquefaction with anaerobic digestion or catalytic hydrothermal gasification were compared. Each of these platforms is followed by two alternative processes for gas utilization: 1) combined heat and power; and 2) combustion in a boiler. Pinch analysis was applied to integrate thermal streams among unit processes and improve the overall system efficiency. A techno-economic analysis was conducted to compare the feasibility of the four modeled scenarios under different market conditions. Our results show that a systems approach designed to recover internal heat and power can reduce external energy demands and increase the overall process sustainability.

  16. Spatial distribution of biomass consumption as energy in rural areas of the Indo-Gangetic plain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saud, T. [National Physical Laboratory, Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR), New Delhi-110012 (India); Indira Gandhi Institute of Technology, Guru Gobind Singh Indraprastha University, Delhi-110006 (India); Singh, D.P.; Gadi, Ranu [Indira Gandhi Institute of Technology, Guru Gobind Singh Indraprastha University, Delhi-110006 (India); Mandal, T.K.; Saxena, M.; Sharma, S.K.; Gautam, R.; Mukherjee, A.; Bhatnagar, R.P. [National Physical Laboratory, Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR), New Delhi-110012 (India); Pathak, H. [Division of Environmental Sciences, Indian Agricultural Research Institute, New Delhi-110012 (India)

    2011-02-15

    Biomass is widely used as energy source in rural households in India. Biomass samples and socio-economic data have been collected at district level in the rural areas of Indo-Gangetic plain (IGP), India to determine the emissions of trace gases and aerosols from domestic fuels. Dung cake, fuelwood and crop residue are main sources of energy in rural areas of the IGP. Dung cake is the major domestic fuel (80-90%) in the rural areas of Delhi, Punjab, Haryana, Uttar Pradesh, Bihar and West Bengal, whereas, 99% of rural households in Uttarakhand use wood as the main energy source. Using crop production data and usage of crop residues as energy, new consumption values have been estimated (21.13 Mt). Present information on the domestic fuel usage would be helpful in determining budgets estimates of trace gases and aerosols for India. (author)

  17. Sustainable Biomass Energy and Indigenous Cultural Models of Well-being in an Alaska Forest Ecosystem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Munish Sikka

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Oil-dependent indigenous communities in remote regions of Alaska and elsewhere are facing an unprecedented crisis. With the cost of fuel and transport skyrocketing, energy costs are crippling local economies, leading to increasing outmigration and concern for their very existence in the future. What can be done to address this energy crisis, and promote energy security, sustainability and resilience in rural forest communities? We examine the potential of developing a sustainable biomass-energy industry in Southeast Alaska, home to nearly 16,000 Alaska Natives in a dozen rural and two urban communities within the United States’ largest national forest: The Tongass. Although the potential for biomass energy has long been touted, realization of the opportunity has been catalyzed only recently as part of a model of sustainable development being enacted by the region’s largest Native corporation, Sealaska, and its subsidiary, Haa Aaní (“Our Land” L.L.C. In this paper we examine the unique nature of Alaska Native corporations and their potential as engines of sustainable development, particularly through Sealaska’s emerging cultural model of sustainability in relation to social-ecological well-being. We assess the economic, ecological, and atmospheric emissions parameters of a wood-biomass energy industry at various scales according to the “triple bottom line” of sustainability. Finally, we address what additional policy and support measures may be necessary to nurture the successful transition to biomass energy at a sustainable scale to support rural indigenous communities, a more resilient, renewable energy system, and a lower carbon footprint.

  18. Energie nécessaire au broyage de la biomasse et des produits densifiés

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Temmerman, M.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Milling energy needs for biomass and densified products. The literature about energy requirements for product milling in mining industry shows the subject has been, and still is, considered by numerous authors. Several milling theories have been proposed for these industries, especially concerning ores milling. The main mining milling theories and some of their evolutions are described in this paper. Biomass milling has been, by far, less studied. Nevertheless, few measurements are available about energy needed for milling of particular biomass, in particular systems. But studies taking into account enough characteristics of the milled material (origin, moisture content, particle size distribution are scarce. In consequence, nearly none biomass milling model has been proposed. Concerning densified products (pellets and briquettes apparently no data are available yet. Considering the milling theories, this study selects parameters that have to be taken into account when milling modeling comes to an end for biomass or densified biomass.

  19. Environmental assessment of energy production from waste and biomass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tonini, Davide

    by assessing a specific pilot-plant operated in Copenhagen, Denmark. The waste refining treatment was compared with a number of different state-of-the-art technologies such as incineration, mechanical-biological treatment and landfilling in bioreactor. The results highlighted that production of liquid...... captured during growth of the plants. This, however, neglects that using the land for energy crops implies that the same land cannot be used for other purposes, including food cropland, forestry, grassland, etc. This may induce cascading effects converting natural biomes into arable land with associated...... impacts. Waste, such as municipal solid waste, does not involve land use change impacts. However, existing and emerging waste treatment technologies offer different environmental benefits and drawbacks which should be evaluated in order to recommend appropriate technologies in selected scenarios...

  20. Environmental multi-objective optimization of the use of biomass resources for energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vadenbo, Carl; Tonini, Davide; Astrup, Thomas Fruergaard

    2017-02-17

    Bioenergy is often considered an important component, alongside other renewables, to mitigate global warming and to reduce fossil fuel dependency. Determining sustainable strategies for utilizing biomass resources, however, requires a holistic perspective to reflect a wider range of potential environmental consequences. To circumvent the limitations of scenario-based life cycle assessment (LCA), we develop a multi-objective optimization model to systematically identify the environmentally-optimal use of biomass for energy under given system constraints. Besides satisfying annual final energy demand, the model constraints comprise availability of biomass and arable land, technology- and system-specific capacities, and relevant policy targets. Efficiencies and environmental performances of bioenergy conversions are derived using biochemical process models combined with LCA data. The application of the optimization model is exemplified by a case aimed at determining the environmentally-optimal use of biomass in the Danish energy system in 2025. A multi-objective formulation based on fuzzy intervals for six environmental impact categories resulted in impact reductions of 13-43% compared to the baseline. The robustness of the optimal solution was analyzed with respect to parameter uncertainty and choice of environmental objectives.

  1. BIOMASS TO ENERGY IN THE SOUTHERN UNITED STATES: SUPPLY CHAIN AND DELIVERED COST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronalds W. Gonzalez

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Supply chain and delivered cost models for seven feedstocks (loblolly pine, Eucalyptus, natural hardwood, switchgrass, Miscanthus, sweet sorghum, and corn stover were built, simulating a supply of 453,597 dry tons per year to a biorefinery. Delivered cost of forest-based feedstocks ranged from $69 to $71 per dry ton. On the other hand, delivered cost of agricultural biomass ranged from $77.60 to $102.50 per dry ton. The total production area required for fast growing feedstocks was estimated as between 22,500 to 27,000 hectares, while the total production area for feedstocks with lower biomass productivity ranged from 101,200 to 202,300 hectares (corn stover and natural hardwood, respectively. Lower delivered cost per ton of carbohydrate and million BTU were found for loblolly pine, Eucalyptus, and natural hardwood. In addition, agricultural biomass had higher delivered costs for carbohydrate and energy value.

  2. Biomass Energy Utilization in Northeast Badia of Jordan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Al-Smairan

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Biogas systems can contribute to rural development, utilization of renewable energy, climate change mitigation, as well as environmental protection. Due to its multiple benefits, the Jordan Government must made great efforts to promote the development of biogas systems in rural areas, especially household biogas plants and medium scale biogas plants for intensive livestock and poultry farms. In order to better promote and improve biogas systems in rural Jordan, a comprehensive literature review of the various sources was undertaken for this research. This study aimed at exploring weaknesses in the biogas value chain that hinder wider dissemination of the technology in Jordan. The methodology used is holistic, combing literature review with interviews with farmers and observations of processes across the value chain in Jordan Badia regions, where biogas technology has no any history in Badia. It was revealed that wider dissemination of biogas is hampered by weaknesses in the processes and linkages among the actors. Many potential users are not aware of the technology and therefore the market remains slim. All these, coupled with inadequate policy environment, lack of stakeholder development, missing linkage to finance and few technicians, render the market unattractive to entrepreneurs who would have invested in the dissemination of the technology. The government should conduct awareness campaigns through media, translate current policies into actions to development key stakeholders, set the required institutional framework and programmes to support biogas dissemination activities. It should also train more technicians and concentrate on research and development.

  3. Decentralized power generation from solid biomass in the course of the Renewable Energy Law (EEG); Dezentrale Stromerzeugung aus fester Biomasse im Rahmen des Erneuerbare-Energien-Gesetzes (EEG)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sauter, Philipp; Witt, Janet; Billig, Eric [DBFZ Deutsches Biomasseforschungszentrum gemeinnuetzige GmbH, Leipzig (Germany). Bereich Bioenergiesysteme

    2012-07-01

    The increased use of renewable energy sources is the stated goal of the German and European climate policy. According to the German government, in 2020, 35 % of electricity production will be covered by renewable energy (currently 20 %). To achieve this goal, the federal government has enacted the EEG. Currently, solid biomass plays an important role by having a share of 10 % of renewable electricity production while providing combined heat and power (CHP). Since the enactment of the EEG in 2000, the number, as well as the installed capacity of biomass (thermal) power plants (CHP) increased more than tenfold. During the first two versions of the EEG (EEG 2000 and EEG 2004) mainly larger (> MW{sub el}) and medium (> 500 MW{sub el}) sized biomass CHP-plants were installed. Later on (EEG 2009), progressively smaller biomass CHP-plants were built. This is due to the increasing scarcity of fuel wood as well as technological advances in power generation of small biomass CHP-plants - initially in the use of ORC turbines and most recently in the development of thermochemical gasifiers with a gas engine attached. In total, German CHP-plants using solid biomass produced 9 590 GWhel EEG relevant electricity in 2011. Therefore, more than 7.8 million tbone dry wood is used (except the fuel used in CHP-plants of the pulp and paper industry). It is expected, that the use of other types of biomass, such as straw, miscanthus and other energy crops will increase in the near future and mostly small, heat-operated biomass CHP-plants will be installed. (orig.)

  4. Production of Solid sustainable Energy Carriers from biomass by means of TORrefaction (SECTOR)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Witt, Janet; Bienert, Kathrin [DBFZ Deutsches Biomasseforschungszentrum gemeinnuetzige GmbH, Leipzig (Germany). Bereich Bioenergiesysteme; Zwart, Robin; Kiel, Jaap; Englisch, Martin; Wojcik, Magdalena

    2012-07-01

    SECTOR is a large-scale European project with a strong consortium of over 20 partners from industry and science. The project is focussed on the further development of torrefaction-based technologies for the production of solid bioenergy carriers up to pilot-plant scale and beyond, and on supporting the market introduction of torrefaction-based bioenergy carriers as a commodity renewable solid fuel. The torrefaction of biomass materials is considered to be a very promising technology for the promotion of the large-scale implementation of bioenergy. During torrefaction biomass is heated up in the absence of oxygen to a temperature of 250-320 C. By combining torrefaction with pelletisation or briquetting, biomass materials can be converted into a high-energy-density commodity solid fuel or bioenergy carrier with improved behaviour in (long-distance) transport, handling and storage, and also with superior properties in many major end-use applications. Torrefaction has the potential to provide a significant contribution to an enlarged raw material portfolio for biomass fuel production inside Europe by including both agricultural and forestry biomass. In this way, the SECTOR project is expected to shorten the time-to-market of torrefaction technology and to promote market introduction within stringent sustainability boundary conditions. The European Union provides funding for this project within the Seventh Framework Programme. The project has a duration of 42 months and started in January 2012. (orig.)

  5. Multilanguage Web application to assess biomass energy production: economic and energetic analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berruto, Remigio; Busato, Patrizia; Piccarolo, Pietro [University of Turin (Italy). Dipt. di Economia e Ingegneria Agraria, Forestale e Ambientale (DEIAFA)], E-mail: remigio.berruto@unito.it

    2008-07-01

    One of the main difficulties in the development of biomass supply chains is the lack of reliable and complete information, which is needed to carry out a correct feasibility study. The aim of the research is contributing to knowledge which can be exploited in designing and evaluating biomass supply chains, within a standardized system approach. For this purpose has been implemented by DEIAFA a Web application - www.energyfarm.unito.it - to investigate the biomass supply chains under the technical, economic and energetic aspects. The first set of procedures allow the evaluation of field and logistic operations related to biomass cultivation, harvest and transport to the point of use. Another set of procedures refers to the feasibility study of biomass power plant. All procedures share a common database, ensuring their proper integration. EnergyFarm{sup R} represents a step toward the standardization of data and calculation procedures. In the future, it will be possible to foresee also in the same application the computing of the results with different standards (ASAE, EU, etc.). The interface to the application is provided in English and Italian languages. (author)

  6. Energy from biomass. Summaries of the Biomass Projects carried out as part of the Department of Trade and Industry's New and Renewable Energy Programme. Vol. 3: converting wood fuel to energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-12-01

    These volumes of summaries provide easy access to the many projects carried out in the Energy from Biomass programme area as part of the Department of Trade and Industry's New and Renewable Energy Programme. The summaries in this volume cover contractor reports on the subject published up to December 1997. (author)

  7. Impact of forest biomass residues to the energy supply chain on regional air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafael, S; Tarelho, L; Monteiro, A; Sá, E; Miranda, A I; Borrego, C; Lopes, M

    2015-02-01

    The increase of the share of renewable energy in Portugal can be met from different sources, of which forest biomass residues (FBR) can play a main role. Taking into account the demand for information about the strategy of FBR to energy, and its implications on the Portuguese climate policy, the impact of energy conversion of FBR on air quality is evaluated. Three emission scenarios were defined and a numerical air quality model was selected to perform this evaluation. The results reveal that the biomass thermal plants contribute to an increment of the pollutant concentrations in the atmosphere, however restricted to the surrounding areas of the thermal plants, and most significant for NO₂ and O₃.

  8. Energy and exergy analyses of a biomass-based hydrogen production system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohce, M K; Dincer, I; Rosen, M A

    2011-09-01

    In this paper, a novel biomass-based hydrogen production plant is investigated. The system uses oil palm shell as a feedstock. The main plant processes are biomass gasification, steam methane reforming and shift reaction. The modeling of the gasifier uses the Gibbs free energy minimization approach and chemical equilibrium considerations. The plant, with modifications, is simulated and analyzed thermodynamically using the Aspen Plus process simulation code (version 11.1). Exergy analysis, a useful tool for understanding and improving efficiency, is used throughout the investigation, in addition to energy analysis. The overall performance of the system is evaluated, and its efficiencies become 19% for exergy efficiency and 22% energy efficiency while the gasifier cold gas efficiency is 18%.

  9. A decision model for cost effective design of biomass based green energy supply chains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yılmaz Balaman, Şebnem; Selim, Hasan

    2015-09-01

    The core driver of this study is to deal with the design of anaerobic digestion based biomass to energy supply chains in a cost effective manner. In this concern, a decision model is developed. The model is based on fuzzy multi objective decision making in order to simultaneously optimize multiple economic objectives and tackle the inherent uncertainties in the parameters and decision makers' aspiration levels for the goals. The viability of the decision model is explored with computational experiments on a real-world biomass to energy supply chain and further analyses are performed to observe the effects of different conditions. To this aim, scenario analyses are conducted to investigate the effects of energy crop utilization and operational costs on supply chain structure and performance measures.

  10. Biomass energy: State of the technology present obstacles and future potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dobson, L.

    1993-06-23

    The prevailing image of wood and waste burning as dirty and environmentally harmful is no longer valid. The use of biomass combustion for energy can solve many of our nation`s problems. Wood and other biomass residues that are now causing expensive disposal problems can be burned as cleanly and efficiently as natural gas, and at a fraction of the cost. New breakthroughs in integrated waste-to-energy systems, from fuel handling, combustion technology and control systems to heat transfer and power generation, have dramatically improved system costs, efficiencies, cleanliness of emissions, maintenance-free operation, and end-use applications. Increasing costs for fossil fuels and for waste disposal strict environmental regulations and changing political priorities have changed the economics and rules of the energy game. This report will describe the new rules, new playing fields and key players, in the hope that those who make our nation`s energy policy and those who play in the energy field will take biomass seriously and promote its use.

  11. Possible indicators for bio-mass burning in a small Swedish city as studied by energy dispersive fluorescence (EDXRF) spectrometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Selin Lindgren, Eva; Henriksson, Dag; Lundin, Magnus

    2006-01-01

    Biomass is increasingly used in energy plants of different size and sophistication in Sweden. Biomass is also available in Sweden owing to its large forest-covered areas. Incineration of biomass in an environmentally friendly manner is one of the key issues in Swedish policy for sustainable...... development. Hence there is ongoing research on the effects of biomass burning on the air quality in Swedish cities. The relative contributions of anthropogenic sources to pollution in the urban environment are usually difficult to evaluate owing to the complexity of the ambient aerosol. In order...... of biomass burning to particulate air pollution. In order to identify typical indicators for biomass burning, principle component analysis was performed on data on elemental contents and black carbon. Analysis suggests that the K/Zn ratio will be useful as an indicator for biomass incineration....

  12. Effect of biomass feedstock chemical and physical properties on energy conversion processes: Volume 2, Appendices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Butner, R.S.; Elliott, D.C.; Sealock, L.J., Jr.; Pyne, J.W.

    1988-12-01

    This report presents an exploration of the relationships between biomass feedstocks and the conversion processes that utilize them. Specifically, it discusses the effect of the physical and chemical structure of biomass on conversion yields, rates, and efficiencies in a wide variety of available or experimental conversion processes. A greater understanding of the complex relationships between these conversion systems and the production of biomass for energy uses is required to help optimize the complex network of biomass production, collection, transportation, and conversion to useful energy products. The review of the literature confirmed the scarcity of research aimed specifically at identifying the effect of feedstock properties on conversion. In most cases, any mention of feedstock-related effects was limited to a few brief remarks (usually in qualitative terms) in the conclusions, or as a topic for further research. Attempts to determine the importance of feedstock parameters from published data were further hampered by the lack of consistent feedstock characterization and the difficulty of comparing results between different experimental systems. Further research will be required to establish quantitative relationships between feedstocks and performance criteria in conversion. 127 refs., 4 figs., 7 tabs.

  13. Biomass pyrolysis for biochar or energy applications? A life cycle assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Jens F; Iribarren, Diego; Dufour, Javier

    2015-04-21

    The application of biochar as a soil amendment is a potential strategy for carbon sequestration. In this paper, a slow pyrolysis system for generating heat and biochar from lignocellulosic energy crops is simulated and its life-cycle performance compared with that of direct biomass combustion. The use of the char as biochar is also contrasted with alternative use options: cofiring in coal power plants, use as charcoal, and use as a fuel for heat generation. Additionally, the influence on the results of the long-term stability of the biochar in the soil, as well as of biochar effects on biomass yield, is evaluated. Negative greenhouse gas emissions are obtained for the biochar system, indicating a significant carbon abatement potential. However, this is achieved at the expense of lower energy efficiency and higher impacts in the other assessed categories when compared to direct biomass combustion. When comparing the different use options of the pyrolysis char, the most favorable result is obtained for char cofiring substituting fossil coal, even assuming high long-term stability of the char. Nevertheless, a high sensitivity to biomass yield increase is found for biochar systems. In this sense, biochar application to low-quality soils where high yield increases are expected would show a more favorable performance in terms of global warming.

  14. Design of Off-Grid Home with SOLAR-WIND-BIOMASS Energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smruti Ranjan Pradhan,

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to the limited reserves of fossil fuels and global environmental concerns for the production of electrical power generation and utilization, it is very necessary to use renewable energy sources. By use of hybrid systems we can implement renewable energy sources which are very economical for remote villages, homes etc. In particular, rapid advances in wind-turbine generator ,biomass generator and photovoltaic technologies have brought opportunities for the utilization of wind and solar resources for electric power generation world-wide .So by the use of hybrid systems consisting of Biomass ,PV and also wind for production of electrical energy in these remote areas can be more economical . If the development of a computer-based approach for evaluating, the general performance of standalone hybrid PV- Biomass-wind generating systems are analyzed ,then these results are useful for developing and installing hybrid systems in remote areas This paper focuses the economical consideration and simulation approach for a standalone hybrid systems having PV, wind and Biomass for electrical production in remote areas. In this paper we are taken the average solar radiation, quantity of biomass, average wind speed for the remote area for prediction of general performance of the generating system. Simulation studies were carried out using HOMER software Simulation results will be given for performance evaluation of a stand-alone hybrid wind-PV generating unit for a residential house which is to be located in a remote area . The system is a off grid one. Finally, the results obtained and methods are suggested to enhance the performance of the proposed model

  15. Identification and cloning of a prethymic precursor T lymphocyte from a population of common acute lymphoblastic leukemia antigen (CALLA)-positive fetal bone marrow cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hokland, P; Hokland, M; Daley, J

    1987-01-01

    We have cloned common acute lymphoblastic leukemia (CALLA)-positive cells from human fetal bone marrow containing less than 1 in 10,000 E-RFC in round-bottomed microtiter wells (one cell per well) using the autocloning unit of an EPICS-V cell sorter. Expansion of such cells (with IL-2 and heavily...... irradiated autologous thymocytes as feeder cells) resulted in growth in 6-14% of the wells (mean, 11%) with cells with mature T lymphocyte phenotype. Two-color fluorescence analysis of outgrowing cultures furthermore ascertained that these cells had differentiated through a phase of simultaneous expression...... of T4 and T8 antigens and at the same time expression of the thymocyte-associated T6 antigens. Thus, given the fact that 10-20% of T cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALLs) are CALLA+, we have been able to identify a human prethymic T lymphocyte population that might be the normal counterpart...

  16. Techno-economic assessment of a solar PV, fuel cell, and biomass gasifier hybrid energy system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anand Singh

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The interest of power is expanding step by step all through the world. Because of constrained measure of fossil fuel, it is vital to outline some new non-renewable energy frameworks that can diminish the reliance on ordinary energy asset. A hybrid off-grid renewable energy framework might be utilized to reduction reliance on the traditional energy assets. Advancement of crossover framework is a procedure to choose the best mix of part and there cost that can give shabby, solid and successful option energy resource. In this paper sun oriented photovoltaic, fuel cell, biomass gasifier generator set, battery backup and power conditioning unit have been simulated and optimized for educational institute, energy centre, Maulana Azad National Institute of Technology, Bhopal in the Indian state of Madhya Pradesh. The area of the study range on the guide situated of 23°12′N latitude and 77°24′E longitude. In this framework, the essential wellspring of power is sun based solar photovoltaic system and biomass gasifier generator set while fuel cell and batteries are utilized as reinforcement supply. HOMER simulator has been utilized to recreate off the grid and it checks the specialized and financial criteria of this hybrid energy system. The execution of every segment of this framework is dissected lastly delicate examination has been performing to enhance the mixture framework at various conditions. In view of the recreation result, it is found that the cost of energy (COE of a biomass gasifier generator set, solar PV and fuel cell crossover energy system has been found to be 15.064 Rs/kWh and complete net present cost Rs.51,89003. The abundance power in the proposed framework is observed to be 36 kWh/year with zero rates unmet electrical burden.

  17. Issues of geothermal and biomass energy efficiency in agriculture, industry, transports and domestic consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cornelia Nistor

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Increasing energy efficiency should be a concern for both the firm managers and any leader at any level, given that energy efficiency significantly reduce production costs. An important aspect of this is the use of renewable energy sources, in different types of activities, depending on the possibilities to produce it on favorable terms, to supply at relatively low costs and to efficiently consume it both in the producing units and the households. A skilful and powerful leader will seek and support, through its influence, all the means that determine the reduction of the production costs and obtain a profit as high as possible. Wider use of renewable energy promotes concern for the environment through clean energy, for reducing pollution and for facilitate, in some cases, even the increase of the production with the same costs or lower costs. In agriculture, industry, transports and household consumption, a high importance presents the geothermal energy and the biomass as source of energy.

  18. Field biomass as energy resource for the future; Peltobiomassat tulevaisuuden energiaresurssina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pahkala, K.; Loetjoenen, T. (eds.)

    2012-11-01

    Bioenergy can be derived from biomasses especially produced for bioenergy or from by-products, side streams and waste from wood processing industry, agriculture and forestry, or e.g. municipal waste. In the Nordic countries and Russia forests are a natural source of bioenergy. In many other European countries forests may be too scarce for bioenergy use. Therefore field biomasses form an interesting potential source for bioenergy. Production of field biomasses for non-food purposes has been criticized, especially as there is not enough food for everyone even at present, and in the future more food has to be produced as the world population increases. We studied the field biomass potential in different European countries with different scenarios for development. 'Good development' scenario includes improvements in plant breeding and food production and processing technologies, with increasing yields and decreasing waste of food products and raw materials. 'Bad development' scenario assumes stagnating yields and little improvement in technologies in the OECD countries, and only small improvements in former Soviet Union countries. The foci of the present research were the effects of development of food production, population growth and climate change on regional potential of field biomasses for bioenergy and sustainable use of crop residues and grasses for bioenergy. The field area that could be allocated to energy crops after growing enough food for the citizens of each country depends mostly on the diet. Growing food for vegetarian diet would occupy so little field area that every country under study could set aside at least half of their field area for bioenergy purposes already at present, if the 'good development' scenario was applied. With 'bad development' scenario some of the countries would be unable to set aside fields for bioenergy production even with vegetarian diet. With affluent diet there would be little field

  19. Feasibility Study of Grid Connected PV-Biomass Integrated Energy System in Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barakat, Shimaa; Samy, M. M.; Eteiba, Magdy B.; Wahba, Wael Ismael

    2016-10-01

    The aim of this paper is to present a feasibility study of a grid connected photovoltaic (PV) and biomass Integrated renewable energy (IRE) system providing electricity to rural areas in the Beni Suef governorate, Egypt. The system load of the village is analyzed through the environmental and economic aspects. The model has been designed to provide an optimal system configuration based on daily data for energy availability and demands. A case study area, Monshaet Taher village (29° 1' 17.0718"N, 30° 52' 17.04"E) is identified for economic feasibility in this paper. HOMER optimization model plan imputed from total daily load demand, 2,340 kWh/day for current energy consuming of 223 households with Annual Average Insolation Incident on a Horizontal Surface of 5.79 (kWh/m2/day) and average biomass supplying 25 tons / day. It is found that a grid connected PV-biomass IRE system is an effective way of emissions reduction and it does not increase the investment of the energy system.

  20. Comparison of the energy and environmental performances of nine biomass/coal co-firing pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabir, Md Ruhul; Kumar, Amit

    2012-11-01

    Life cycle energy and environmental performances of nine different biomass/coal co-firing pathways to power generation were compared. Agricultural residue (AR), forest residue (FR), and whole trees (WT) as feedstock were analyzed for direct (DC) and parallel co-firing (PC) in various forms (e.g., chip, bale and pellet). Biomass co-firing rate lies in the range of 7.53-20.45% (energy basis; rest of the energy comes from coal) for the co-firing pathways, depending on type of feedstock and densification. Net energy ratios (NER) for FR-, WT-, and AR-based co-firing pathways were 0.39-0.42, 0.39-0.41, and 0.37-0.38, greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions were 957-1004, 967-1014, and 1065-1083 kg CO(2eq)/MWh, acid rain precursor (ARP) emissions were 5.16-5.39, 5.18-5.41, and 5.77-5.93 kgSO(2eq)/MWh, and ground level ozone precursor (GOP) emissions were 1.79-1.89, 1.82-1.93, and 1.88-1.91 kg (NO(x)+VOC)/MWh, respectively. Biomass/coal co-firing life cycle results evaluated in this study are relevant for any jurisdiction around the world.

  1. Renewable energy. The Danish case pictured by policy, biomass and wind

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heding, N. [Danish Centre for Forest, Landscape and Planning, Horsholm (Denmark)

    2001-07-01

    The main objective of the first Danish energy plan, Danish Energy Policy 1976, was to safeguard Denmark against supply crises. The next plan, Energy Plan 81, continued to focus on limiting the national dependence on imported oil and due to the increasing unemployment rates high priority was given to socio-economic considerations. The plan boosted the development of the oil and gas fields in the North Sea considerably, and the nation-wide natural gas network was established. Following Energy Plan 81, the first subsidy schemes aimed at the exploitation of straw and chips were introduced, and biomass became a competitive fuel through increasing taxation of fossil fuels. The first chip-fired district heating plants were built and the consumption of wood-chips, straw and firewood in individual dwellings rose markedly. The third energy plan, Energy 2000, is from 1990 and gives high priorities to environmental considerations. The plan is an ambitious attempt to increase the use of environmentally desirable fuels. The fourth and latest plan, Energy 21, was introduced in 1996. A long-term objective in this plan requires that CO{sub 2} emissions must be halved in 2030 compared with 1998. The CO{sub 2} objective shall be achieved through energy savings, better exploitation of the energy resources and contributions from renewable energy sources amounting to 35 per cent of the gross energy consumption in 2030. Energy 21 assumes that renewable energy covers 12-14 percent of the country's total energy consumption in 2005. The majority of this contribution is to come from wind power and biomass.

  2. Transcriptome analysis of colored calla lily (Zantedeschia rehmannii Engl.) by Illumina sequencing: de novo assembly, annotation and EST-SSR marker development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Zunzheng; Sun, Zhenzhen; Cui, Binbin; Zhang, Qixiang; Xiong, Min; Wang, Xian; Zhou, Di

    2016-01-01

    Colored calla lily is the short name for the species or hybrids in section Aestivae of genus Zantedeschia. It is currently one of the most popular flower plants in the world due to its beautiful flower spathe and long postharvest life. However, little genomic information and few molecular markers are available for its genetic improvement. Here, de novo transcriptome sequencing was performed to produce large transcript sequences for Z. rehmannii cv. 'Rehmannii' using an Illumina HiSeq 2000 instrument. More than 59.9 million cDNA sequence reads were obtained and assembled into 39,298 unigenes with an average length of 1,038 bp. Among these, 21,077 unigenes showed significant similarity to protein sequences in the non-redundant protein database (Nr) and in the Swiss-Prot, Gene Ontology (GO), Cluster of Orthologous Group (COG) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) databases. Moreover, a total of 117 unique transcripts were then defined that might regulate the flower spathe development of colored calla lily. Additionally, 9,933 simple sequence repeats (SSRs) and 7,162 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were identified as putative molecular markers. High-quality primers for 200 SSR loci were designed and selected, of which 58 amplified reproducible amplicons were polymorphic among 21 accessions of colored calla lily. The sequence information and molecular markers in the present study will provide valuable resources for genetic diversity analysis, germplasm characterization and marker-assisted selection in the genus Zantedeschia.

  3. Biomass as an energy source: thermodynamic constraints on the performance of the conversion process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baratieri, M; Baggio, P; Fiori, L; Grigiante, M

    2008-10-01

    In the present work an equilibrium model (gas-solid), based on the minimization of the Gibbs energy, has been used in order to estimate the theoretical yield and the equilibrium composition of the reaction products (syngas and char) of biomass thermochemical conversion processes (pyrolysis and gasification). The data obtained from this model have also been used to calculate the heating value of the fuel gas, in order to evaluate the overall energy efficiency of the thermal conversion stage. The proposed model has been applied both to partial oxidation and steam gasification processes with varying air to biomass (ER) and steam to carbon (SC) ratio values and using different feedstocks; the obtained results have been compared with experimental data and with other model predictions obtaining a satisfactory agreement.

  4. The Energy Efficiency Of Willow Biomass Production In Poland - A Comparative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szczukowski, Stefan; Tworkowski, Józef; Stolarski, Mariusz J.; Krzyżaniak, Michał

    2015-01-01

    Field experiments with willow (Salix L.) coppice cultivation and Eko-Salix systems have been conducted at the University of Warmia and Mazury since 1992. In that wider context, the aim of the work described here was to compare energy inputs involved in setting up a plantation and producing biomass, and to assess the efficiency of willow-chips production under the coppice and Eko-Salix systems. The energy gain determined in the experiments was several to more than twenty times as great as the inputs needed to operate the plantation and to harvest willow biomass, this leaving both systems of willow cultivation under study attractive where setting up short-rotation coppices is concerned.

  5. Biohydrogen production from microalgal biomass: energy requirement, CO2 emissions and scale-up scenarios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Ana F; Ortigueira, Joana; Alves, Luís; Gouveia, Luísa; Moura, Patrícia; Silva, Carla

    2013-09-01

    This paper presents a life cycle inventory of biohydrogen production by Clostridium butyricum through the fermentation of the whole Scenedesmus obliquus biomass. The main purpose of this work was to determine the energy consumption and CO2 emissions during the production of hydrogen. This was accomplished through the fermentation of the microalgal biomass cultivated in an outdoor raceway pond and the preparation of the inoculum and culture media. The scale-up scenarios are discussed aiming for a potential application to a fuel cell hybrid taxi fleet. The H2 yield obtained was 7.3 g H2/kg of S. obliquus dried biomass. The results show that the production of biohydrogen required 71-100 MJ/MJ(H2) and emitted about 5-6 kg CO2/MJ(H2). Other studies and production technologies were taken into account to discuss an eventual process scale-up. Increased production rates of microalgal biomass and biohydrogen are necessary for bioH2 to become competitive with conventional production pathways.

  6. Biomass production and energy source of thermophiles in a Japanese alkaline geothermal pool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, Hiroyuki; Mori, Kousuke; Nashimoto, Hiroaki; Hattori, Shohei; Yamada, Keita; Koba, Keisuke; Yoshida, Naohiro; Kato, Kenji

    2010-02-01

    Microbial biomass production has been measured to investigate the contribution of planktonic bacteria to fluxations in dissolved organic matter in marine and freshwater environments, but little is known about biomass production of thermophiles inhabiting geothermal and hydrothermal regions. The biomass production of thermophiles inhabiting an 85 degrees C geothermal pool was measured by in situ cultivation using diffusion chambers. The thermophiles' growth rates ranged from 0.43 to 0.82 day(-1), similar to those of planktonic bacteria in marine and freshwater habitats. Biomass production was estimated based on cellular carbon content measured directly from the thermophiles inhabiting the geothermal pool, which ranged from 5.0 to 6.1 microg C l(-1) h(-1). This production was 2-75 times higher than that of planktonic bacteria in other habitats, because the cellular carbon content of the thermophiles was much higher. Quantitative PCR and phylogenetic analysis targeting 16S rRNA genes revealed that thermophilic H2-oxidizing bacteria closely related to Calderobacterium and Geothermobacterium were dominant in the geothermal pool. Chemical analysis showed the presence of H2 in gases bubbling from the bottom of the geothermal pool. These results strongly suggested that H2 plays an important role as a primary energy source of thermophiles in the geothermal pool.

  7. The land cover and carbon cycle consequences of large-scale utilizations of biomass as an energy source

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leemans, R; vanAmstel, A; Battjes, C; Kreileman, E; Toet, S

    1996-01-01

    The use of modern biomass for energy generation has been considered in many studies as a possible measure for reducing or stabilizing global carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions. In this paper we assess the impacts of large-scale global utilization of biomass on regional and grid scale land cover, greenho

  8. Assessment of global biomass potentials and their links to food, water, biodiversity, energy demand and economy : supporting document

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dornburg, V.; Faaij, A.P.C.; Verweij, P.A.; Langeveld, H.; van de Ven, G.; Wester, F.; van Keulen, H.; van Diepen, K.; Meeusen, M.; Banse, M.; Ros, J.; van Vuuren, D.P.; van den Born, G.J.; van Ooorschor, R.; Smout, F.; van Vliet, J.; Aiking, H.; Londo, H.M.; Mozaffarian, H.; Smekens, K.

    2008-01-01

    The increased use and potential growth of biomass for energy has triggered a heated debate on the sustainability of those developments as biomass production is now also associated with increased competition with food and feed production, loss of forest cover and the like. Besides such competition, a

  9. Optimizing the torrefaction of mixed softwood by response surface methodology for biomass upgrading to high energy density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jae-Won; Kim, Young-Hun; Lee, Soo-Min; Lee, Hyoung-Woo

    2012-07-01

    The optimal conditions for the torrefaction of mixed softwood were investigated by response surface methodology. This showed that the chemical composition of torrefied biomass was influenced by the severity factor of torrefaction. The lignin content in the torrefied biomass increased with the SF, while holocellulose content decreased. Similarly, the carbon content energy value of torrefied biomass ranged from 19.31 to 22.12 MJ/kg increased from 50.79 to 57.36%, while the hydrogen and oxygen contents decreased. The energy value of torrefied biomass ranged from 19.31 to 22.12 MJ/kg. This implied that the energy contained in the torrefied biomass increased by 4-19%, when compared with the untreated biomass. The energy value and weight loss in biomass slowly increased as the SF increased up until 6.12; and then dramatically increased as the SF increased further from 6.12 to 7.0. However, the energy yield started decreasing at SF value higher than 6.12; and the highest energy yield was obtained at low SF.

  10. Woody biomass pretreatment for cellulosic ethanol production: Technology and energy consumption evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, J Y; Pan, X J

    2010-07-01

    This review presents a comprehensive discussion of the key technical issues in woody biomass pretreatment: barriers to efficient cellulose saccharification, pretreatment energy consumption, in particular energy consumed for wood-size reduction, and criteria to evaluate the performance of a pretreatment. A post-chemical pretreatment size-reduction approach is proposed to significantly reduce mechanical energy consumption. Because the ultimate goal of biofuel production is net energy output, a concept of pretreatment energy efficiency (kg/MJ) based on the total sugar recovery (kg/kg wood) divided by the energy consumption in pretreatment (MJ/kg wood) is defined. It is then used to evaluate the performances of three of the most promising pretreatment technologies: steam explosion, organosolv, and sulfite pretreatment to overcome lignocelluloses recalcitrance (SPORL) for softwood pretreatment. The present study found that SPORL is the most efficient process and produced highest sugar yield. Other important issues, such as the effects of lignin on substrate saccharification and the effects of pretreatment on high-value lignin utilization in woody biomass pretreatment, are also discussed.

  11. Heat storage in forest biomass significantly improves energy balance closure particularly during stable conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Lindroth

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Temperature measurements in trunks and branches in a mature ca. 100 years-old mixed pine and spruce forest in central Sweden were used to estimate the heat storage in the tree biomass. The estimated heat flux in the sample trees and data on biomass distributions were used to scale up to stand level biomass heat fluxes. The rate of change of sensible and latent heat storage in the air layer below the level of the flux measurements was estimated from air temperature and humidity profile measurements and soil heat flux was estimated from heat flux plates and soil temperature measurements. The fluxes of sensible and latent heat from the forest were measured with an eddy covariance system in a tower. The analysis was made for a two-month period in summer of 1995. The tree biomass heat flux was the largest of the estimated storage components and varied between 40 and −35 W m−2 on summer days with nice weather. Averaged over two months the diurnal maximum of total heat storage was 45 W m−2 and the minimum was −35 W m−2. The soil heat flux and the sensible heat storage in air were out of phase with the biomass flux and they reached maximum values that were about 75% of the maximum of the tree biomass heat storage. The energy balance closure improved significantly when the total heat storage was added to the turbulent fluxes. The slope of a regression line with sum of fluxes and storage as independent and net radiation as dependent variable, increased from 0.86 to 0.95 for half-hourly data and the scatter was also reduced. The most significant finding was, however, that during nights with strongly stable conditions when the sensible heat flux dropped to nearly zero, the total storage matched the net radiation nearly perfectly. Another interesting result was that the mean energy imbalance started to increase when the Richardson number became more negative than ca. −0.1. In fact, the largest energy deficit

  12. Availability of Biomass for Energy Purposes in Nordic and Baltic Countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rytter, Lars; Andreassen, Kjell; Bergh, Jonas;

    2015-01-01

    in a European perspective where 38 % of the land area is forest (EU-27). Although some forest areas are protected, 75–92 % of the area can still be used for wood production. Further, substantial agriculture land areas may also be available for production of biomass for energy. Coniferous species dominate...... areas and changes of tree species and management systems.......This review compiles information on the current state of the forests and analyses the potential of forest fuels for energy purposes in Denmark, Finland, Norway, Sweden, Estonia and Latvia. In these countries the forest area is 61 mill. ha, corresponding to 52 % of the land areas, which is high...

  13. Energy resources and technologies, today and tomorrow with emphasis on pellets from woody biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cleveland, James

    2010-09-15

    There is a good case to be made for increased development of pellet and briquette production facilities in North America to alleviate our dependence on foreign oil, reduce carbon emissions and provide a continuously renewable energy source. Fuel from woody biomass, in the form of pellets and briquettes have the capability to provide the best near term solution to offsetting fossil fuels for power generation. Due to their transportability, existing transportation systems, and the vast amount of harvestable wood, this fuel will be a viable energy solution for future needs.

  14. Introduction to energy balance of biomass production; Introduccion al calculo del balance energetico de la produccion de Biomasa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manzanares, P.

    1997-11-01

    During last years, energy crops have been envisaged as an interesting alternative to biomass residues utilization as renewable energy source. In this work, main parameters used in calculating the energy balance of an energy crop are analyzed. The approach consists of determining energy equivalents for the different inputs and outputs of the process, thus obtaining energy ratios of the system, useful to determine if the energy balance is positive, that is, if the system generates energy. Energy costs for inputs and assessment approaches for energy crop yields (output) are provided. Finally, as a way of illustration, energy balances of some representative energy crops are shown. (Author) 15 refs.

  15. Optimization of low energy sonication treatment for granular activated carbon colonizing biomass assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saccani, G; Bernasconi, M; Antonelli, M

    2014-01-01

    This study is aimed at optimizing a low energy sonication (LES) treatment for granular activated carbon (GAC)-colonizing biomass detachment and determination, evaluating detachment efficiency and the effects of ultrasound exposure on bacterial cell viability. GAC samples were collected from two filters fed with groundwater. Conventional heterotrophic plate count (HPC) and fluorescence microscopy with a double staining method were used to evaluate cell viability, comparing two LES procedures, without and with periodical bulk substitution. A 20 min LES treatment, with bulk substitution after cycles of 5 min as maximum treatment time, allowed to recover 87%/100% of attached biomass, protecting detached bacteria from ultrasound damaging effects. Observed viable cell inactivation rate was 6.5/7.9% cell/min, with membrane-compromised cell damage appearing to be even higher (11.5%/13.1% cell/min). Assessing bacterial detachment and damaging ultrasound effects, fluorescence microscopy turned out to be more sensitive compared to conventional HPC. The optimized method revealed a GAC-colonizing biomass of 9.9 x 10(7) cell/gGAC for plant 1 and 8.8 x 10(7) cell/gGAC for plant 2, 2 log lower than reported in literature. The difference between the two GAC-colonizing biomasses is higher in terms of viable cells (46.3% of total cells in plant 1 GAC-colonizing biomass compared to the 33.3% in plant 2). Studying influent water contamination through multivariate statistical analyses, apossible combined toxic and genotoxic effect of chromium VI and trichloroethylene was suggested as a reason for the lower viable cell fraction observed in plant 2 GAC-colonizing population.

  16. Characterization of residues from plant biomass for use in energy generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luana Elis de Ramos e Paula

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The use of plant residues for energy purposes is already a reality, yet in order to ensure suitability and recommend a given material as being a good energy generator, it is necessary to characterize the material through chemical analysis and determine its calorific value. This research aimed to analyze different residues from plant biomass, characterizing them as potential sources for energy production. For the accomplishment of this study, the following residues were used: wood processing residue (sawdust and planer shavings; coffee bean parchment and coffee plant stem; bean stem and pod; soybean stem and pod; rice husk; corn leaf, stem, straw and cob; and sugar cane straw and bagasse. For residue characterization the following analyses were done: chemical analysis, immediate chemical analysis, calorific value and elemental analysis. All procedures were conducted at the Laboratory of Forest Biomass Energy of the Federal University of Lavras. In general, all residues showed potential for energetic use. Rice husk was found to have higher lignin content, which is an interesting attribute as far as energy production is concerned. Its high ash content, however, led to a reduction in calorific value and fixed carbon. The remaining residues were found to have similar energetic characteristics, with corn cob showing greater calorific value, followed by coffee plant stem, both also containing higher levels of carbon and fixed carbon. A high correlation was found of higher calorific value with volatile materials, carbon and hydrogen contents.

  17. Combined Municipal Solid Waste and biomass system optimization for district energy applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rentizelas, Athanasios A; Tolis, Athanasios I; Tatsiopoulos, Ilias P

    2014-01-01

    Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) disposal has been a controversial issue in many countries over the past years, due to disagreement among the various stakeholders on the waste management policies and technologies to be adopted. One of the ways of treating/disposing MSW is energy recovery, as waste is considered to contain a considerable amount of bio-waste and therefore can lead to renewable energy production. The overall efficiency can be very high in the cases of co-generation or tri-generation. In this paper a model is presented, aiming to support decision makers in issues relating to Municipal Solid Waste energy recovery. The idea of using more fuel sources, including MSW and agricultural residue biomass that may exist in a rural area, is explored. The model aims at optimizing the system specifications, such as the capacity of the base-load Waste-to-Energy facility, the capacity of the peak-load biomass boiler and the location of the facility. Furthermore, it defines the quantity of each potential fuel source that should be used annually, in order to maximize the financial yield of the investment. The results of an energy tri-generation case study application at a rural area of Greece, using mixed MSW and biomass, indicate positive financial yield of investment. In addition, a sensitivity analysis is performed on the effect of the most important parameters of the model on the optimum solution, pinpointing the parameters of interest rate, investment cost and heating oil price, as those requiring the attention of the decision makers. Finally, the sensitivity analysis is enhanced by a stochastic analysis to determine the effect of the volatility of parameters on the robustness of the model and the solution obtained.

  18. Carbon, energy and forest biomass: new opportunities and needs for forest management in Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Forest biomass provides a relevant fraction of world energy needs, not only in developing Countries. In Italy, several factors are presently contributing to a new interest for this resource, ranging from regulatory quotas for renewables to the increasing price of fossil fuel to the emergence of a European carbon stock exchange. This focus on renewable resources constitutes an important opportunity for the forest sector and for society by and large, but because of the potential dimensions of the emerging market it also requires new planning instruments, in order to avoid a sudden and widespread resumption of coppice management and a reduction of standing carbon stock in forest ecosystems, which would run contrary to the objectives of the Kyoto Protocol. An example of the future demand for biomasses in Central Italy is presented, based on the possible use of fuelwood in new coal-fired power plants by the 'co-firing' technology.

  19. Economic feasibility of a wood biomass energy system under evolving demand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giorgio Guariso

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In some European regions, particularly in mountainous areas, the demand for energy is evolving due to the decrease of resident population and the adoption of energy efficiency measures. Such changes are rapid enough to significantly impact on the planning process of wood-to-energy chains that are supposed to work for the following 20–25 years. The paper summarizes a study in an Italian pre-alpine district where some municipality shows a declining resident population together with increasing summer tourism. The planning of conversion plants to exploit the local availability of wood is formulated as a mathematical programming problem that maximizes the economic return of the investment, under time-varying parameters that account for the demand evolution. Such a demand is estimated from current trends, while biomass availability and transport is computed from the local cartography, through standard GIS operations. Altogether, the mixed integer optimization problem has 11 possible plant locations of different sizes and technologies taking their feedstock from about 200 parcels. The problem is solved with a commercial software package and shows that the optimal plan changes if one considers the foreseen evolution of the energy demand. As it always happen in this type of biomass-based plants, while the problem formulation is general and may be applied to other cases, the solution obtained is strongly dependent on local values and thus cannot be extrapolated to different contexts.

  20. Experiments on torrefied wood pellet: study by gasification and characterization for waste biomass to energy applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rollinson, Andrew N; Williams, Orla

    2016-05-01

    Samples of torrefied wood pellet produced by low-temperature microwave pyrolysis were tested through a series of experiments relevant to present and near future waste to energy conversion technologies. Operational performance was assessed using a modern small-scale downdraft gasifier. Owing to the pellet's shape and surface hardness, excellent flow characteristics were observed. The torrefied pellet had a high energy density, and although a beneficial property, this highlighted the present inflexibility of downdraft gasifiers in respect of feedstock tolerance due to the inability to contain very high temperatures inside the reactor during operation. Analyses indicated that the torrefaction process had not significantly altered inherent kinetic properties to a great extent; however, both activation energy and pre-exponential factor were slightly higher than virgin biomass from which the pellet was derived. Thermogravimetric analysis-derived reaction kinetics (CO2 gasification), bomb calorimetry, proximate and ultimate analyses, and the Bond Work Index grindability test provided a more comprehensive characterization of the torrefied pellet's suitability as a fuel for gasification and also other combustion applications. It exhibited significant improvements in grindability energy demand and particle size control compared to other non-treated and thermally treated biomass pellets, along with a high calorific value, and excellent resistance to water.

  1. Optimising the Environmental Sustainability of Short Rotation Coppice Biomass Production for Energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioannis Dimitriou

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Purpose: Solid biomass from short rotation coppice (SRC has the potential to significantly contribute to European renewable energy targets and the expected demand for wood for energy, driven mainly by market forces and supported by the targets of national and European energy policies. It is expected that in the near future the number of hectares under SRC will increase in Europe. Besides producing biomass for energy, SRC cultivation can result in various benefits for the environment if it is conducted in a sustainable way. This paper provides with an overview of these environmental benefits. Discussion and Conclusions: The review of existing literature shows that SRC helps to improve water quality, enhance biodiversity, prevent erosion, reduce chemical inputs (fertilizers, pesticides and mitigate climate change due to carbon storage. To promote and disseminate environmentally sustainable production of SRC, based on existing literature and own project experience, a set of sustainability recommendations for SRC production is developed. In addition to numerous environmental benefits, sustainable SRC supply chains can bring also economic and social benefits. However, these aspects of sustainability are not addressed in this paper since they are often country specific and often rely on local conditions and policies. The sustainable practices identified in this manuscript should be promoted among relevant stakeholder to stimulate sustainable local SRC production.

  2. Experiments on torrefied wood pellet: study by gasification and characterization for waste biomass to energy applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rollinson, Andrew N.; Williams, Orla

    2016-05-01

    Samples of torrefied wood pellet produced by low-temperature microwave pyrolysis were tested through a series of experiments relevant to present and near future waste to energy conversion technologies. Operational performance was assessed using a modern small-scale downdraft gasifier. Owing to the pellet's shape and surface hardness, excellent flow characteristics were observed. The torrefied pellet had a high energy density, and although a beneficial property, this highlighted the present inflexibility of downdraft gasifiers in respect of feedstock tolerance due to the inability to contain very high temperatures inside the reactor during operation. Analyses indicated that the torrefaction process had not significantly altered inherent kinetic properties to a great extent; however, both activation energy and pre-exponential factor were slightly higher than virgin biomass from which the pellet was derived. Thermogravimetric analysis-derived reaction kinetics (CO2 gasification), bomb calorimetry, proximate and ultimate analyses, and the Bond Work Index grindability test provided a more comprehensive characterization of the torrefied pellet's suitability as a fuel for gasification and also other combustion applications. It exhibited significant improvements in grindability energy demand and particle size control compared to other non-treated and thermally treated biomass pellets, along with a high calorific value, and excellent resistance to water.

  3. Effect of growth regulators on the postharvest longevity of cut flowers and leaves of the calla lily (Zantedeschia Spreng.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beata Janowska

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The conditioning of flowers of the calla lily cultivar 'Albomaculata' in BA at concentrations of 50-150 mg×dm-3 extends their postharvest longevity by 6.2-14.5 days. An extension of the longevity of the flowers by 15 days can be obtained after the application of a solution of 8HQS with saccharose on a continuous basis. Effective in improving the longevity of leaves of cultivar 'Sunglow' is GA3 at a concentration of 400 mg×dm-3. What is more, its application at concentrations of 300-400 mg×dm-3 boosts their greenness index. GA3 at concentrations of 50 and 100 mg×dm-3 extends the postharvest longevity of leaves of the cultivar 'Black Eyed Beauty' by 18 and 11 days, respectively, while BA shortens it. A combined application of BA and GA3 inhibits chlorophyll degradation, while GA3 and a mixture of BA and GA3 inhibit protein degradation.

  4. BioMeeT. Planning of biomass based methanol energy combine - Trollhaettan region. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brandberg, Aake; Hjortsberg, Hans; Saevbark, Bengt [Ecotraffic R and D AB, Stockholm (Sweden); Ekbom, Tomas; Hjerpe, Carl-Johan; Landaelv, Ingvar [Nykomb Synergetics AB, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2000-04-01

    The conversion of biomass in an energy combine based on primary gasification yields a gas that can be used as fuels gas, for synthesis of motor fuels (methanol or other) or for electric power production. The study gives examples of alternative product mixes. The conclusions of the study are: (1) Potential of new, not yet utilised biomass is available, and new areas of applications, where oil is presently used, are needed to develop the potential. Motor fuel production (methanol, DME) is a presumption in the BioMeeT-study. (2) Yield figures in the energy combine are comparable to those of now used bio-systems for power and co-generation. (3) Which one of the cases in the BioMeeT-project is the most favourable cannot be decided on a plant-to-plant basis alone but the entire system for supply energy carriers in the region has to be considered, as the all plants within the system may change. This would require further investigations. Moreover, the results will be different in various regions in Sweden and Europe due to the markets for all energy carriers. (4) At today's conditions in the Trollhaettan region it must be stated that there is only room for dedicated bio-methanol/DME production (provided such a market will come) with moderate addition to the district heating system as in the BAL-project. (5) In the longer term the future supply of all energy carriers, including new electric power and new bio-fuels, has to be considered for new plants and at renewals. In such a case an energy combine as in the BioMeeT-project may be a central conversion plant with gas deliveries to satellites such as local co-generation, district heat and industries in a regional system within a 50 - 100 km radius. This should be included in regional planning for the future. (6) Estimated investment costs per kW feedstock input is higher for the energy combine compared to present technologies (mature technologies for power and heat) but have to be judged for all plants taken together in

  5. The Economics of Mitigation of Water Pollution Externalities from Biomass Production for Energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naveen Adusumilli

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available To fulfill the national bioenergy goals of the United States, conversion of marginal lands to intensive biomass crop production and/or application of greater amounts of nutrients to existing cropland could be expected. Such change in agricultural practices could produce unintended environmental consequences such as water quality degradation. Select Best Management Practices (BMPs are evaluated for water quality mitigation effectiveness as well as for their relative cost-effectiveness, issues that are often ignored in evaluation of biofuels as a sustainable solution for energy demand. The water quality impacts of converting pastureland to intensive biomass production for biofuel, evaluated using the Soil Water Assessment Tool (SWAT, indicate significant increases in erosion and nutrient loadings to water bodies. Hydrologic and economic evaluation of the BMPs indicate their implementation produced effective water pollution mitigation but at substantial costs, accentuating the sustainability issue related to the economics of renewable fuels. U.S. national energy policy designed around achieving energy independence should also consider environmental and economic trade-offs for biofuels to be an economically and environmentally sustainable alternative to fossil fuels.

  6. Sustainable energy transitions in emerging economies: The formation of a palm oil biomass waste-to-energy niche in Malaysia 1990–2011

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Ulrich Elmer; Nygaard, Ivan

    2014-01-01

    in addressing how transitions towards more sustainable development pathways in this region may be achieved. This paper contributes to the abovementioned literature by examining the conducive and limiting factors for development and proliferation of a palm oil biomass waste-to-energy niche in Malaysia during...... the period 1990–2011. Rising oil prices, strong pressure on the palm oil industry from environmental groups, and a persisting palm oil biomass waste disposal problem in Malaysia appear to have been conducive to niche proliferation, and on top of this national renewable energy policies and large-scale donor...... programmes have specifically supported the utilisation of palm oil biomass waste for energy. However, in spite of this, the niche development process has only made slow progress. The paper identifies reluctant implementation of energy policy, rise in biomass resource prices, limited network formation...

  7. Energetic evaluation of the biomass utilization. Use of biomass under the changing framework conditions within the energy policy turnaround; Energetische Bewertung der Bioabfallverwertung. Nutzung der Biomasse unter den veraenderten Rahmenbedingungen innerhalb der Energiewende

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oldhafer, Nils [umwelttechnik und ingenieure GmbH, Hannover (Germany)

    2013-03-01

    The contribution under consideration reports on the energetic evaluation of waste biomass from two pints of view. The first point of view corresponds to the necessary critical questioning of the possible growth rates of the plant-specific efficiency. The second point of view corresponds to the necessary alteration of power generating plants in the light of the energy policy turnaround. The author presents three theses for power generation plants within the range of renewable energy sources: (a) The utilization of biomass as well as the power generation plants resulting from this work in the base load. These plants must have a grid relieving effect and have to supply control energy; (b) Due to the requirements of the volatile market of renewable energy sources, the power generation plants biomass fermentation and biomass-fired cogeneration plants have to achieve a more rapid load change behaviour between maximal and minimal behaviour of a plant; (c) Supplementary to the first two thesis, correlative primary and secondary storages should be designed.

  8. Biomass Energy and Sustai nable Develop ment%生物质能与可持续发展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李维俊; 高鹏

    2013-01-01

    Biomass energy is a hot topic in the energy sources and eco -environment fields .The category of biomass energy resources is summarized in the paper .Some common preparation methods of biomass energy and their characterizations are introduced and pointed out that the development of biomass in the status and trends at home and abroad .Developing biomass energy is critical to ensure national energy security and achieve the sustainable development of energy .%生物质能是当前能源和生态环境领域研究的热点。本文对生物质能的资源分类和利用方式进行了分析和研究,指出了生物质能在国内外的发展现状和趋势。明确了开发利用生物质能源,对保障国家能源安全、实现可持续发展意义重大。

  9. RENEWABLE ENERGY AND ENVIRONMENTAL SUSTAINABILITY USING BIOMASS FROM DAIRY AND BEEF ANIMAL PRODUCTION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sweeten, John M; Annamalai, Kalyan; Auvermann, Brent; Mukhtar, Saqib; Capareda, Sergio C.; Engler, Cady; Harman, Wyatte; Reddy, J N; DeOtte, Robert; Parker, David B.; Stewart, B. A.

    2012-05-03

    The Texas Panhandle is regarded as the "Cattle Feeding Capital of the World", producing 42% of the fed beef cattle in the United States within a 200-mile radius of Amarillo generating more than 5 million tons of feedlot manure/year. Apart from feedlots, the Bosque River Region in Erath County, just north of Waco, Texas with about 110,000 dairy cattle in over 250 dairies, produces 1.8 million tons of manure biomass (excreted plus bedding) per year. While the feedlot manure has been used extensively for irrigated and dry land crop production, most dairies, as well as other concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFO's), the dairy farms utilize large lagoon areas to store wet animal biomass. Water runoff from these lagoons has been held responsible for the increased concentration of phosphorus and other contaminates in the Bosque River which drains into Lake Waco -- the primary source of potable water for Waco's 108,500 people. The concentrated animal feeding operations may lead to land, water, and air pollution if waste handling systems and storage and treatment structures are not properly managed. Manure-based biomass (MBB) has the potential to be a source of green energy at large coal-fired power plants and on smaller-scale combustion systems at or near confined animal feeding operations. Although MBB particularly cattle biomass (CB) is a low quality fuel with an inferior heat value compared to coal and other fossil fuels, the concentration of it at large animal feeding operations can make it a viable source of fuel. The overall objective of this interdisciplinary proposal is to develop environmentally benign technologies to convert low-value inventories of dairy and beef cattle biomass into renewable energy. Current research expands the suite of technologies by which cattle biomass (CB: manure, and premature mortalities) could serve as a renewable alternative to fossil fuel. The work falls into two broad categories of research and development

  10. RENEWABLE ENERGY AND ENVIRONMENTAL SUSTAINABILITY USING BIOMASS FROM DAIRY AND BEEF ANIMAL PRODUCTION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sweeten, John; Annamalai, Kalyan; Auvermann, Brent; Mukhtar, Saqib; Capareda, Sergio C; Engler, Cady; Harman, Wyatte; Reddy, J N; DeOtte, Robert; Parker, David B; Stewart, B A

    2012-05-02

    The Texas Panhandle is regarded as the "Cattle Feeding Capital of the World", producing 42% of the fed beef cattle in the United States within a 200-mile radius of Amarillo generating more than 5 million tons of feedlot manure /year. Apart from feedlots, the Bosque River Region in Erath County, just north of Waco, Texas with about 110,000 dairy cattle in over 250 dairies, produces 1.8 million tons of manure biomass (excreted plus bedding) per year. While the feedlot manure has been used extensively for irrigated and dry land crop production, most dairies, as well as other concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFO's), the dairy farms utilize large lagoon areas to store wet animal biomass. Water runoff from these lagoons has been held responsible for the increased concentration of phosphorus and other contaminates in the Bosque River which drains into Lake Waco—the primary source of potable water for Waco's 108,500 people. The concentrated animal feeding operations may lead to land, water, and air pollution if waste handling systems and storage and treatment structures are not properly managed. Manure-based biomass (MBB) has the potential to be a source of green energy at large coal-fired power plants and on smaller-scale combustion systems at or near confined animal feeding operations. Although MBB particularly cattle biomass (CB) is a low quality fuel with an inferior heat value compared to coal and other fossil fuels, the concentration of it at large animal feeding operations can make it a viable source of fuel. The overall objective of this interdisciplinary proposal is to develop environmentally benign technologies to convert low-value inventories of dairy and beef cattle biomass into renewable energy. Current research expands the suite of technologies by which cattle biomass (CB: manure, and premature mortalities) could serve as a renewable alternative to fossil fuel. The work falls into two broad categories of research and development. Category

  11. RENEWABLE ENERGY AND ENVIRONMENTAL SUSTAINABILITY USING BIOMASS FROM DAIRY AND BEEF ANIMAL PRODUCTION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalyan Annamalai, John M. Sweeten,

    2012-05-03

    The Texas Panhandle is regarded as the 'Cattle Feeding Capital of the World', producing 42% of the fed beef cattle in the United States within a 200-mile radius of Amarillo generating more than 5 million tons of feedlot manure/year. Apart from feedlots, the Bosque River Region in Erath County, just north of Waco, Texas with about 110,000 dairy cattle in over 250 dairies, produces 1.8 million tons of manure biomass (excreted plus bedding) per year. While the feedlot manure has been used extensively for irrigated and dry land crop production, most dairies, as well as other concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFO's), the dairy farms utilize large lagoon areas to store wet animal biomass. Water runoff from these lagoons has been held responsible for the increased concentration of phosphorus and other contaminates in the Bosque River which drains into Lake Waco - the primary source of potable water for Waco's 108,500 people. The concentrated animal feeding operations may lead to land, water, and air pollution if waste handling systems and storage and treatment structures are not properly managed. Manure-based biomass (MBB) has the potential to be a source of green energy at large coal-fired power plants and on smaller-scale combustion systems at or near confined animal feeding operations. Although MBB particularly cattle biomass (CB) is a low quality fuel with an inferior heat value compared to coal and other fossil fuels, the concentration of it at large animal feeding operations can make it a viable source of fuel. The overall objective of this interdisciplinary proposal is to develop environmentally benign technologies to convert low-value inventories of dairy and beef cattle biomass into renewable energy. Current research expands the suite of technologies by which cattle biomass (CB: manure, and premature mortalities) could serve as a renewable alternative to fossil fuel. The work falls into two broad categories of research and development

  12. Improving material and energy recovery from the sewage sludge and biomass residues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kliopova, Irina, E-mail: irina.kliopova@ktu.lt; Makarskienė, Kristina

    2015-02-15

    Highlights: • SRF production from 10–40 mm fraction of pre-composted sludge and biomass residues. • The material and energy balance of compost and SRF production. • Characteristics of raw materials and classification of produced SRF. • Results of the efficiency of energy recovery, comparison analysis with – sawdust. - Abstract: Sewage sludge management is a big problem all over the world because of its large quantities and harmful impact on the environment. Energy conversion through fermentation, compost production from treated sludge for agriculture, especially for growing energetic plants, and treated sludge use for soil remediation are widely used alternatives of sewage sludge management. Recently, in many EU countries the popularity of these methods has decreased due to the sewage sludge content (heavy metals, organic pollutions and other hazards materials). This paper presents research results where the possibility of solid recovered fuel (SRF) production from the separate fraction (10–40 mm) of pre-composted materials – sewage sludge from municipal waste water treatment plant and biomass residues has been evaluated. The remaining fractions of pre-composted materials can be successfully used for compost or fertiliser production, as the concentration of heavy metals in the analysed composition is reduced in comparison with sewage sludge. During the experiment presented in this paper the volume of analysed biodegradable waste was reduced by 96%: about 20% of input biodegradable waste was recovered to SRF in the form of pellets with 14.25 MJ kg{sup −1} of the net calorific value, about 23% were composted, the rest – evaporated and discharged in a wastewater. The methods of material-energy balances and comparison analysis of experiment data have been chosen for the environmental impact assessment of this biodegradable waste management alternative. Results of the efficiency of energy recovery from sewage sludge by SRF production and burning

  13. RENEWABLE ENERGY AND ENVIRONMENTAL SUSTAINABILITY USING BIOMASS FROM DAIRY AND BEEF ANIMAL PRODUCTION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sweeten, John M; Annamalai, Kalyan; Auvermann, Brent; Mukhtar, Saqib; Capareda, Sergio C.; Engler, Cady; Harman, Wyatte; Reddy, J N; DeOtte, Robert; Parker, David B.; Stewart, B. A.

    2012-05-03

    The Texas Panhandle is regarded as the "Cattle Feeding Capital of the World", producing 42% of the fed beef cattle in the United States within a 200-mile radius of Amarillo generating more than 5 million tons of feedlot manure/year. Apart from feedlots, the Bosque River Region in Erath County, just north of Waco, Texas with about 110,000 dairy cattle in over 250 dairies, produces 1.8 million tons of manure biomass (excreted plus bedding) per year. While the feedlot manure has been used extensively for irrigated and dry land crop production, most dairies, as well as other concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFO's), the dairy farms utilize large lagoon areas to store wet animal biomass. Water runoff from these lagoons has been held responsible for the increased concentration of phosphorus and other contaminates in the Bosque River which drains into Lake Waco -- the primary source of potable water for Waco's 108,500 people. The concentrated animal feeding operations may lead to land, water, and air pollution if waste handling systems and storage and treatment structures are not properly managed. Manure-based biomass (MBB) has the potential to be a source of green energy at large coal-fired power plants and on smaller-scale combustion systems at or near confined animal feeding operations. Although MBB particularly cattle biomass (CB) is a low quality fuel with an inferior heat value compared to coal and other fossil fuels, the concentration of it at large animal feeding operations can make it a viable source of fuel. The overall objective of this interdisciplinary proposal is to develop environmentally benign technologies to convert low-value inventories of dairy and beef cattle biomass into renewable energy. Current research expands the suite of technologies by which cattle biomass (CB: manure, and premature mortalities) could serve as a renewable alternative to fossil fuel. The work falls into two broad categories of research and development

  14. RENEWABLE ENERGY AND ENVIRONMENTAL SUSTAINABILITY USING BIOMASS FROM DAIRY AND BEEF ANIMAL PRODUCTION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John M. Sweeten, Kalyan Annamalai

    2012-05-03

    The Texas Panhandle is regarded as the 'Cattle Feeding Capital of the World', producing 42% of the fed beef cattle in the United States within a 200-mile radius of Amarillo generating more than 5 million tons of feedlot manure/year. Apart from feedlots, the Bosque River Region in Erath County, just north of Waco, Texas with about 110,000 dairy cattle in over 250 dairies, produces 1.8 million tons of manure biomass (excreted plus bedding) per year. While the feedlot manure has been used extensively for irrigated and dry land crop production, most dairies, as well as other concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFO's), the dairy farms utilize large lagoon areas to store wet animal biomass. Water runoff from these lagoons has been held responsible for the increased concentration of phosphorus and other contaminates in the Bosque River which drains into Lake Waco - the primary source of potable water for Waco's 108,500 people. The concentrated animal feeding operations may lead to land, water, and air pollution if waste handling systems and storage and treatment structures are not properly managed. Manure-based biomass (MBB) has the potential to be a source of green energy at large coal-fired power plants and on smaller-scale combustion systems at or near confined animal feeding operations. Although MBB particularly cattle biomass (CB) is a low quality fuel with an inferior heat value compared to coal and other fossil fuels, the concentration of it at large animal feeding operations can make it a viable source of fuel. The overall objective of this interdisciplinary proposal is to develop environmentally benign technologies to convert low-value inventories of dairy and beef cattle biomass into renewable energy. Current research expands the suite of technologies by which cattle biomass (CB: manure, and premature mortalities) could serve as a renewable alternative to fossil fuel. The work falls into two broad categories of research and development

  15. RENEWABLE ENERGY AND ENVIRONMENTAL SUSTAINABILITY USING BIOMASS FROM DAIRY AND BEEF ANIMAL PRODUCTION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sweeten, John; Annamalai, Kalyan; Auvermann, Brent; Mukhtar, Saqib; Capareda, Sergio C; Engler, Cady; Harman, Wyatte; Reddy, J N; DeOtte, Robert; Parker, David B; Stewart, B A

    2012-05-02

    The Texas Panhandle is regarded as the "Cattle Feeding Capital of the World", producing 42% of the fed beef cattle in the United States within a 200-mile radius of Amarillo generating more than 5 million tons of feedlot manure /year. Apart from feedlots, the Bosque River Region in Erath County, just north of Waco, Texas with about 110,000 dairy cattle in over 250 dairies, produces 1.8 million tons of manure biomass (excreted plus bedding) per year. While the feedlot manure has been used extensively for irrigated and dry land crop production, most dairies, as well as other concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFO's), the dairy farms utilize large lagoon areas to store wet animal biomass. Water runoff from these lagoons has been held responsible for the increased concentration of phosphorus and other contaminates in the Bosque River which drains into Lake Waco—the primary source of potable water for Waco's 108,500 people. The concentrated animal feeding operations may lead to land, water, and air pollution if waste handling systems and storage and treatment structures are not properly managed. Manure-based biomass (MBB) has the potential to be a source of green energy at large coal-fired power plants and on smaller-scale combustion systems at or near confined animal feeding operations. Although MBB particularly cattle biomass (CB) is a low quality fuel with an inferior heat value compared to coal and other fossil fuels, the concentration of it at large animal feeding operations can make it a viable source of fuel. The overall objective of this interdisciplinary proposal is to develop environmentally benign technologies to convert low-value inventories of dairy and beef cattle biomass into renewable energy. Current research expands the suite of technologies by which cattle biomass (CB: manure, and premature mortalities) could serve as a renewable alternative to fossil fuel. The work falls into two broad categories of research and development. Category

  16. Location Optimization for Biomass Trigeneration System with Pit Thermal Energy Storage: the Case of the City of Petrinja

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ćosić, B.; Dominkovic, Dominik Franjo; Ban, M.

    2015-01-01

    The combined production of electricity, heat and cold in biomass trigeneration power plants integrated with seasonal pit thermal energy storage ensures maximum utilization of biomass resources and at the same time reduction of variable operation costs of the system. Beside optimal size...... of trigeneration system, location allocation problem is additional factor which need to be taken into account. In this study, optimization of the location of biomass trigeneration power plant was considered. The system combined biomass cogeneration power plant, absorbers and the seasonal pit thermal energy storage......, four case studies were done for the city of Petrinja for which economic assessment of choosing optimal and non-optimal location was performed. Case studies have shown that significant amount of yearly spending on fuel can be avoided, if the optimal location has been chosen for the power plant location...

  17. Energy from biomass. Summaries of the Biomass Projects carried out as part of the Department of Trade and Industry`s New and Renewable Energy Programme. Vol. 4: anaerobic digestion for biogas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-12-01

    These volumes of summaries provide easy access to the many projects carried out in the Energy from Biomass programme area as part of the Department of Trade and Industry`s New and Renewable Energy Programme. The summaries in this volume cover contractor reports on the subject published up to December 1997. (author)

  18. Metabolic engineering of biomass for high energy density: oilseed-like triacylglycerol yields from plant leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanhercke, Thomas; El Tahchy, Anna; Liu, Qing; Zhou, Xue-Rong; Shrestha, Pushkar; Divi, Uday K; Ral, Jean-Philippe; Mansour, Maged P; Nichols, Peter D; James, Christopher N; Horn, Patrick J; Chapman, Kent D; Beaudoin, Frederic; Ruiz-López, Noemi; Larkin, Philip J; de Feyter, Robert C; Singh, Surinder P; Petrie, James R

    2014-02-01

    High biomass crops have recently attracted significant attention as an alternative platform for the renewable production of high energy storage lipids such as triacylglycerol (TAG). While TAG typically accumulates in seeds as storage compounds fuelling subsequent germination, levels in vegetative tissues are generally low. Here, we report the accumulation of more than 15% TAG (17.7% total lipids) by dry weight in Nicotiana tabacum (tobacco) leaves by the co-expression of three genes involved in different aspects of TAG production without severely impacting plant development. These yields far exceed the levels found in wild-type leaf tissue as well as previously reported engineered TAG yields in vegetative tissues of Arabidopsis thaliana and N. tabacum. When translated to a high biomass crop, the current levels would translate to an oil yield per hectare that exceeds those of most cultivated oilseed crops. Confocal fluorescence microscopy and mass spectrometry imaging confirmed the accumulation of TAG within leaf mesophyll cells. In addition, we explored the applicability of several existing oil-processing methods using fresh leaf tissue. Our results demonstrate the technical feasibility of a vegetative plant oil production platform and provide for a step change in the bioenergy landscape, opening new prospects for sustainable food, high energy forage, biofuel and biomaterial applications.

  19. Energy performance of an integrated bio-and-thermal hybrid system for lignocellulosic biomass waste treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kan, Xiang; Yao, Zhiyi; Zhang, Jingxin; Tong, Yen Wah; Yang, Wenming; Dai, Yanjun; Wang, Chi-Hwa

    2017-03-01

    Lignocellulosic biomass waste, a heterogeneous complex of biodegradables and non-biodegradables, accounts for large proportion of municipal solid waste. Due to limitation of single-stage treatment, a two-stage hybrid AD-gasification system was proposed in this work, in which AD acted as pre-treatment to convert biodegradables into biogas followed by gasification converting solid residue into syngas. Energy performance of single and two-stage systems treating 3 typical lignocellulosic wastes was studied using both experimental and numerical methods. In comparison with conventional single-stage gasification treatment, this hybrid system could significantly improve the quality of produced gas for all selected biomass wastes and show its potential in enhancing total gas energy production by a maximum value of 27% for brewer's spent grain treatment at an organic loading rate (OLR) of 3gVS/L/day. The maximum overall efficiency of the hybrid system for horticultural waste treatment was 75.2% at OLR of 11.3gVS/L/day, 5.5% higher than conventional single-stage system.

  20. Development of High Yield Feedstocks and Biomass Conversion Technology for Renewable Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hashimoto, Andrew G. [Univ. of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI (United States); Crow, Susan [Univ. of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI (United States); DeBeryshe, Barbara [Univ. of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI (United States); Ha, Richard [Hamakua Springs County Farms, Hilo, HI (United States); Jakeway, Lee [Hawaiian Commercial and Sugar Company, Puunene, HI (United States); Khanal, Samir [Univ. of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI (United States); Nakahata, Mae [Hawaiian Commercial and Sugar Company, Puunene, HI (United States); Ogoshi, Richard [Univ. of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI (United States); Shimizu, Erik [Univ. of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI (United States); Stern, Ivette [Univ. of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI (United States); Turano, Brian [Univ. of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI (United States); Turn, Scott [Univ. of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI (United States); Yanagida, John [Univ. of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI (United States)

    2015-04-09

    This project had two main goals. The first goal was to evaluate several high yielding tropical perennial grasses as feedstock for biofuel production, and to characterize the feedstock for compatible biofuel production systems. The second goal was to assess the integration of renewable energy systems for Hawaii. The project focused on high-yield grasses (napiergrass, energycane, sweet sorghum, and sugarcane). Field plots were established to evaluate the effects of elevation (30, 300 and 900 meters above sea level) and irrigation (50%, 75% and 100% of sugarcane plantation practice) on energy crop yields and input. The test plots were extensive monitored including: hydrologic studies to measure crop water use and losses through seepage and evapotranspiration; changes in soil carbon stock; greenhouse gas flux (CO2, CH4, and N2O) from the soil surface; and root morphology, biomass, and turnover. Results showed significant effects of environment on crop yields. In general, crop yields decrease as the elevation increased, being more pronounced for sweet sorghum and energycane than napiergrass. Also energy crop yields were higher with increased irrigation levels, being most pronounced with energycane and less so with sweet sorghum. Daylight length greatly affected sweet sorghum growth and yields. One of the energy crops (napiergrass) was harvested at different ages (2, 4, 6, and 8 months) to assess the changes in feedstock characteristics with age and potential to generate co-products. Although there was greater potential for co-products from younger feedstock, the increased production was not sufficient to offset the additional cost of harvesting multiple times per year. The feedstocks were also characterized to assess their compatibility with biochemical and thermochemical conversion processes. The project objectives are being continued through additional support from the Office of Naval Research, and the Biomass Research and Development

  1. Biomass energy in organic farming - the potential role of short rotation coppice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joergensen, Uffe; Dalgaard, Tommy [Danish Inst. of Agricultural Sciences (DIAS), Dept. of Agroecology, Research Centre Foulum, Tjele (Denmark); Kristensen, Erik Steen [Danish Research Centre for Organic Farming (DARCOF), Research Centre Foulum, Tjele (Denmark)

    2005-02-01

    One of the aims of organic farming is to 'reduce the use of non-renewable resources (e.g. fossil fuels) to a minimum'. So far, however, only very little progress has been made to introduce renewable energy in organic farming. This paper presents energy balances of Danish organic farming compared with energy balances of conventional farming. In general, the conversion to organic farming leads to a lower energy use (approximately 10% per unit of product). But the production of energy in organic farming is very low compared with the extensive utilisation of straw from conventional farming in Denmark (energy content of straw used for energy production was equivalent to 18% of total energy input in Danish agriculture in 1996). Biomass is a key energy carrier with a good potential for on-farm development. Apart from utilising farm manure and crop residues for biogas production, the production of nutrient efficient short rotation coppice (SRC) is an option in organic farming. Alder (Alnus spp.) is an interesting crop due to its symbiosis with the actinomycete Frankia, which has the ability to fix up to 185 kg/ha nitrogen (N{sub 2}) from the air. Yields obtained at different European sites are presented and the R and D needed to implement energy cropping in organic farming is discussed. Possible win-win solutions for SRC production in organic farming that may facilitate its implementation are; the protection of ground water quality in intensively farmed areas, utilisation of wastewater for irrigation, or combination with outdoor animal husbandry such as pigs or poultry. (Author)

  2. Energy efficiency analysis: biomass-to-wheel efficiency related with biofuels production, fuel distribution, and powertrain systems.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Dong Huang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Energy efficiency analysis for different biomass-utilization scenarios would help make more informed decisions for developing future biomass-based transportation systems. Diverse biofuels produced from biomass include cellulosic ethanol, butanol, fatty acid ethyl esters, methane, hydrogen, methanol, dimethyether, Fischer-Tropsch diesel, and bioelectricity; the respective powertrain systems include internal combustion engine (ICE vehicles, hybrid electric vehicles based on gasoline or diesel ICEs, hydrogen fuel cell vehicles, sugar fuel cell vehicles (SFCV, and battery electric vehicles (BEV. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We conducted a simple, straightforward, and transparent biomass-to-wheel (BTW analysis including three separate conversion elements--biomass-to-fuel conversion, fuel transport and distribution, and respective powertrain systems. BTW efficiency is a ratio of the kinetic energy of an automobile's wheels to the chemical energy of delivered biomass just before entering biorefineries. Up to 13 scenarios were analyzed and compared to a base line case--corn ethanol/ICE. This analysis suggests that BEV, whose electricity is generated from stationary fuel cells, and SFCV, based on a hydrogen fuel cell vehicle with an on-board sugar-to-hydrogen bioreformer, would have the highest BTW efficiencies, nearly four times that of ethanol-ICE. SIGNIFICANCE: In the long term, a small fraction of the annual US biomass (e.g., 7.1%, or 700 million tons of biomass would be sufficient to meet 100% of light-duty passenger vehicle fuel needs (i.e., 150 billion gallons of gasoline/ethanol per year, through up to four-fold enhanced BTW efficiencies by using SFCV or BEV. SFCV would have several advantages over BEV: much higher energy storage densities, faster refilling rates, better safety, and less environmental burdens.

  3. Energy Efficiency Analysis: Biomass-to-Wheel Efficiency Related with Biofuels Production, Fuel Distribution, and Powertrain Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Wei-Dong; Zhang, Y-H Percival

    2011-01-01

    Background Energy efficiency analysis for different biomass-utilization scenarios would help make more informed decisions for developing future biomass-based transportation systems. Diverse biofuels produced from biomass include cellulosic ethanol, butanol, fatty acid ethyl esters, methane, hydrogen, methanol, dimethyether, Fischer-Tropsch diesel, and bioelectricity; the respective powertrain systems include internal combustion engine (ICE) vehicles, hybrid electric vehicles based on gasoline or diesel ICEs, hydrogen fuel cell vehicles, sugar fuel cell vehicles (SFCV), and battery electric vehicles (BEV). Methodology/Principal Findings We conducted a simple, straightforward, and transparent biomass-to-wheel (BTW) analysis including three separate conversion elements -- biomass-to-fuel conversion, fuel transport and distribution, and respective powertrain systems. BTW efficiency is a ratio of the kinetic energy of an automobile's wheels to the chemical energy of delivered biomass just before entering biorefineries. Up to 13 scenarios were analyzed and compared to a base line case – corn ethanol/ICE. This analysis suggests that BEV, whose electricity is generated from stationary fuel cells, and SFCV, based on a hydrogen fuel cell vehicle with an on-board sugar-to-hydrogen bioreformer, would have the highest BTW efficiencies, nearly four times that of ethanol-ICE. Significance In the long term, a small fraction of the annual US biomass (e.g., 7.1%, or 700 million tons of biomass) would be sufficient to meet 100% of light-duty passenger vehicle fuel needs (i.e., 150 billion gallons of gasoline/ethanol per year), through up to four-fold enhanced BTW efficiencies by using SFCV or BEV. SFCV would have several advantages over BEV: much higher energy storage densities, faster refilling rates, better safety, and less environmental burdens. PMID:21765941

  4. Harvesting microalgal biomass using a magnetically induced membrane vibration (MMV) system: filtration performance and energy consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilad, M R; Discart, V; Vandamme, D; Foubert, I; Muylaert, K; Vankelecom, Ivo F J

    2013-06-01

    This study was performed to investigate the effectiveness of submerged microfiltration to harvest both a marine diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum and a Chlorella vulgaris in a recently developed magnetically induced membrane vibrating (MMV) system. We assess the filtration performance by conducting the improved flux step method (IFM), fed-batch concentration filtrations and membrane fouling autopsy using two lab-made membranes with different porosity. The full-scale energy consumption was also estimated. Overall results suggest that the MMV offers a good fouling control and the process was proven to be economically attractive. By combining the membrane filtration (15× concentration) with centrifugation to reach a final concentration of 25% w/v, the energy consumption to harvest P. tricornutum and C. vulgaris was, respectively, as low as 0.84 and 0.77kWh/m(3), corresponding to 1.46 and 1.39 kWh/kg of the harvested biomass.

  5. Dynamic Biogas Upgrading for Integration of Renewable Energy from Wind, Biomass and Solar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jurgensen, Lars

    The Sabatier process is investigated as a storage scheme for renewable energy. Hydrogen derived from fluctuating renewable energy sources like wind and solar is converted to methane by the hydrogenation/methanation of carbon oxides. Biogas from anaerobic digestion is considered in this study...... as a high concentrated source of carbon dioxide. By using the Sabatier process, the CO2 content of the biogas is converted to CH4, which is a new upgrading process for biogas. By switching between (i) this upgrading process during periods of extensive electricity production from wind and solar, and (ii......) combined heat and power production from biogas during periods of electricity demand, bioenergy utilization becomes a dynamic process. In such a process scheme, biomass, wind, and solar could be integrated in a local context. This thesis aims to demonstrate the feasibility of the dynamic biogas upgrading...

  6. Power generation prior food safety? Biomass in the conflict area of energy security and hunger crisis; Energieerzeugung vor Ernaehrungssicherung? Biomasse im Spannungsfeld von Energiesicherung und Hungerkrise

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueller, Monika C.M. (ed.)

    2011-07-01

    Within the international meeting of the Evangelische Akademie Loccum (Rehburg-Loccum, Federal Republic of Germany) at 13rd to 15th May, 2009 the following lectures were held: (1) Biomass - Energy of the future (Daniela Thraen); (2) Bio energy and cultivation of energy crops in Lower Saxony. State of the art and perspectives (Gerd Carsten Hoeher); (3) Bioenergy and food security project in FAO (Mirella Salvatore); (4) Appetite for hunger and competition in land use (Elmar Altvater); (5) Biodiesel poles in Northeast Brasilia. Efficiencies and experiences of a project for the integration of small farmers into the national Biodiesel program (Stefan Goertz); (6) Bioenergy in Africa: Chance to overcome energy poverty or driver of hunger (Hamimu Hongo); (7) Cultivation of Jatropha for direct utilization of oil: Win-Win situation for small farmers and companies? (Lorenz Kirchner); (8) Energy security by means of sufficient power generation. Energy and fuels from biomass result in renaissance of the agriculture and offer chances for fight against poverty and for avoidance of hunger to developing countries (Nasir El Bassam).

  7. Trends in Benthic macroinvertebrate community Biomass and Energy Budgets in Lake Sevan, 1928-2004

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stapanian, Martin A.; Jenderedjian, K.; Hakobyan, S.

    2012-01-01

    Water levels of Lake Sevan (Armenia) were artificially lowered by nearly 20 m between 1949 and 1997. Lowered water levels, combined with increased eutrophication, were associated with seasonally anoxic conditions (lasting 1–4 months) near the bottom of the profundal zone each year during 1976–2004. In addition, the extents of the macrophyte zone and of certain substrate types were severely reduced following drawdown. Maximal depth of occurrence decreased by 2–44 m for at least for 50 species of benthic macroinvertebrates between 1982 and 2004 compared to 1937–1961. Species richness of benthic macroinvertebrates declined from 25 to three species at depths where seasonal anoxia occurred. Total biomass increased by a factor of 10 from the period 1928–1948 to 1976–1979 then declined by a factor of 3 to 4 between 1987 and 2004. Energy flow through detritivores was more than tripled during 1976–2004 compared to 1928–1971, a result of increased plankton primary production. In contrast, energy flow through herbivorous benthic macroinvertebrates decreased by a factor of nearly 5, due to reduced areal coverage of macrophytes. Energy flow through filter feeders did not change over the time period examined, but energy flow through the entire zoobenthos community was nearly tripled. The biomasses of Oligochaeta, Chironomidae, and total zoobenthos showed a delayed response to changes in primary production of 7–9, 2, and 2–4 years, respectively. These patterns may provide a basis to predict results of restoration efforts based on the abundance of the zoobenthos in future years as the level of the lake is restored and water quality improves.

  8. Evaluating energy efficiency and emissions of charred biomass used as a fuel for household cooking in rural Kenya

    OpenAIRE

    Achour, Nemer

    2015-01-01

    In sub-Saharan Africa a large share of the energy use utilize biomass as a fuel. In some countries more than 90 percent of the energy use is biomass. This energy is primarily used for cooking, heating and drying. Cooking food on an open fire or using a traditional stove will combust the firewood inefficiently and leads to pollution in the form of particulate matter, carbon monoxide and other hazardous pollutants. Indoor pollution has serious health effects and especially women and children ar...

  9. Renewable energy from biomass: a sustainable option? - Hydrogen production from alcohols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balla, Zoltán; Kith, Károly; Tamás, András; Nagy, Orsolya

    2015-04-01

    Sustainable development requires us to find new energy sources instead of fossil fuels. One possibility is the hydrogen fuel cell, which uses significantly more efficient than the current combustion engines. The task of the hydrogen is clean, carbon-free renewable energy sources to choose in the future by growing degree. Hungary can play a role in the renewable energy sources of biomass as a renewable biomass annually mass of about 350 to 360 million tons. The biomass is only a very small proportion of fossil turn carbonaceous materials substitution, while we may utilize alternative energy sources as well. To the hydrogen production from biomass, the first step of the chemical transformations of chemical bonds are broken, which is always activation energy investment needs. The methanol and ethanol by fermentation from different agricultural products is relatively easy to produce, so these can be regarded as renewable energy carriers of. The ethanol can be used directly, and used in several places in the world are mixed with the petrol additive. This method is the disadvantage that the anhydrous alcohol is to be used in the combustion process in the engine more undesired by-products may be formed, and the fuel efficiency of the engine is significantly lower than the efficiency of the fuel cells. More useful to produce hydrogen from the alcohol and is used in a fuel cell electric power generation. Particularly attractive option for the so-called on-board reforming of alcohols, that happens immediately when the vehicle hydrogen production. It does not need a large tank of hydrogen, because the hydrogen produced would be directly to the fuel cell. The H2 tank limit use of its high cost, the significant loss evaporation, the rare-station network, production capacity and service background and lack of opportunity to refuel problems. These can be overcome, if the hydrogen in the vehicle is prepared. As volume even 700 bar only about half the H2 pressure gas can be stored

  10. Energy requirements for wet solvent extraction of lipids from microalgal biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Gregory J O

    2016-04-01

    Biofuel production from microalgae requires energy efficient processes for extracting and converting triacylglyceride lipids to fuel, compatible with coproduction of protein feeds and nutraceuticals. Wet solvent extraction involves mechanical cell rupture, lipid extraction via solvent contacting, physical phase separation, thermal solvent recovery, and transesterification. A detailed analysis of the effect of key process parameters on the parasitic energy demand of this process was performed. On a well-to-pump basis, between 16% and 320% of the resultant biodiesel energy was consumed depending solely on the process parameters. Highly positive energy balances can be achieved, but only if a correctly designed process is used. This requires processing concentrated biomass (ca 25%w/w) with a high triacylglyceride content (ca 30%w/w), and an efficient extraction process employing a non-polar solvent, low solvent-to-paste ratio, and efficient energy recovery. These requirements preclude many laboratory scale processes and polar co-solvents as viable options for large-scale biofuel production.

  11. A Low-cost, High-yield Process for the Direct Productin of High Energy Density Liquid Fuel from Biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agrawal, Rakesh

    2014-02-21

    The primary objective and outcome of this project was the development and validation of a novel, low-cost, high-pressure fast-hydropyrolysis/hydrodeoxygenation (HDO) process (H{sub 2}Bioil) using supplementary hydrogen (H{sub 2}) to produce liquid hydrocarbons from biomass. The research efforts under the various tasks of the project have culminated in the first experimental demonstration of the H2Bioil process, producing 100% deoxygenated >C4+ hydrocarbons containing 36-40% of the carbon in the feed of pyrolysis products from biomass. The demonstrated H{sub 2}Bioil process technology (i.e. reactor, catalyst, and downstream product recovery) is scalable to a commercial level and is estimated to be economically competitive for the cases when supplementary H{sub 2} is sourced from coal, natural gas, or nuclear. Additionally, energy systems modeling has revealed several process integration options based on the H{sub 2}Bioil process for energy and carbon efficient liquid fuel production. All project tasks and milestones were completed or exceeded. Novel, commercially-scalable, high-pressure reactors for both fast-hydropyrolysis and hydrodeoxygenation were constructed, completing Task A. These reactors were capable of operation under a wide-range of conditions; enabling process studies that lead to identification of optimum process conditions. Model compounds representing biomass pyrolysis products were studied, completing Task B. These studies were critical in identifying and developing HDO catalysts to target specific oxygen functional groups. These process and model compound catalyst studies enabled identification of catalysts that achieved 100% deoxygenation of the real biomass feedstock, sorghum, to form hydrocarbons in high yields as part of Task C. The work completed during this grant has identified and validated the novel and commercially scalable H2Bioil process for production of hydrocarbon fuels from biomass. Studies on model compounds as well as real biomass

  12. Biomass for energy production. Economic evaluation, efficiency comparison and optimal utilization of biomass; Biomasse zur Energiegewinnung. Oekonomische Bewertung, Effizienzvergleich und optimale Biomassenutzung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeddies, Juergen [Hohenheim Univ., Stuttgart (Germany). Inst. fuer Landwirtschaftliche Betriebslehre; Schoenleber, Nicole

    2015-07-01

    An optimized and/or goal-oriented use of available biomass feedstock for energetic conversion requires a detailed analysis of bioenergy production lines according to technical and economic efficiency indicators. Accordingly, relevant parameters of selected production lines supplying heat, electricity and fuel have been studied and used as data base for an optimization model. Most favorable combination of bioenergy lines considering political and economic objectives are analyzed by applying a specifically designed linear optimization model. Modeling results shall allow evaluation of political courses of action.

  13. Metabolic engineering of sugarcane to accumulate energy-dense triacylglycerols in vegetative biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zale, Janice; Jung, Je Hyeong; Kim, Jae Yoon; Pathak, Bhuvan; Karan, Ratna; Liu, Hui; Chen, Xiuhua; Wu, Hao; Candreva, Jason; Zhai, Zhiyang; Shanklin, John; Altpeter, Fredy

    2016-02-01

    Elevating the lipid content in vegetative tissues has emerged as a new strategy for increasing energy density and biofuel yield of crops. Storage lipids in contrast to structural and signaling lipids are mainly composed of glycerol esters of fatty acids, also known as triacylglycerol (TAG). TAGs are one of the most energy-rich and abundant forms of reduced carbon available in nature. Therefore, altering the carbon-partitioning balance in favour of TAG in vegetative tissues of sugarcane, one of the highest yielding biomass crops, is expected to drastically increase energy yields. Here we report metabolic engineering to elevate TAG accumulation in vegetative tissues of sugarcane. Constitutive co-expression of WRINKLED1 (WRI1), diacylglycerol acyltransferase1-2 (DGAT1-2) and oleosin1 (OLE1) and simultaneous cosuppression of ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase (AGPase) and a subunit of the peroxisomal ABC transporter1 (PXA1) in transgenic sugarcane elevated TAG accumulation in leaves or stems by 95- or 43-fold to 1.9% or 0.9% of dry weight (DW), respectively, while expression or suppression of one to three of the target genes increased TAG levels by 1.5- to 9.5-fold. Accumulation of TAG in vegetative progeny plants was consistent with the results from primary transgenics and contributed to a total fatty acid content of up to 4.7% or 1.7% of DW in mature leaves or stems, respectively. Lipid droplets were visible within mesophyll cells of transgenic leaves by confocal fluorescence microscopy. These results provide the basis for optimizations of TAG accumulation in sugarcane and other high yielding biomass grasses and will open new prospects for biofuel applications.

  14. Determining the potential of inedible weed biomass for bio-energy and ethanol production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siripong Premjet

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Surveys of indigenous weeds in six provinces located in the low northern part of Thailand were undertaken to determine the potential of weed biomass for bio-energy and bio-ethanol. The results reveal that most of the weed samples had low moisture contents and high lower heating values (LHVs. The LHVs at the highest level, ranging from 17.7 to 18.9 Mg/kg, and at the second highest level, ranging from 16.4 to 17.6 Mg/kg, were obtained from 11 and 31 weed species, respectively. It was found that most of the collected weed samples contained high cellulose and low lignin contents. Additionally, an estimate of the theoretical ethanol yields based on the amount of cellulose and hemicellulose in each weed species indicated that a high ethanol yield resulted from weed biomasses with high cellulose and hemicellulose contents. Among the collected weed species, the highest level of ethanol yield, ranging from 478.9 to 548.5 L/ton (substrate, was achieved from 11 weed species. It was demonstrated that most of the collected weed species tested have the potential for thermal conversion and can be used as substrates for ethanol production.

  15. An integrated approach to energy recovery from biomass and waste: Anaerobic digestion-gasification-water treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milani, M; Montorsi, L; Stefani, M

    2014-07-01

    The article investigates the performance of an integrated system for the energy recovery from biomass and waste based on anaerobic digestion, gasification and water treatment. In the proposed system, the organic fraction of waste of the digestible biomass is fed into an anaerobic digester, while a part of the combustible fraction of the municipal solid waste is gasified. Thus, the obtained biogas and syngas are used as a fuel for running a cogeneration system based on an internal combustion engine to produce electric and thermal power. The waste water produced by the integrated plant is recovered by means of both forward and inverse osmosis. The different processes, as well as the main components of the system, are modelled by means of a lumped and distributed parameter approach and the main outputs of the integrated plant such as the electric and thermal power and the amount of purified water are calculated. Finally, the implementation of the proposed system is evaluated for urban areas with a different number of inhabitants and the relating performance is estimated in terms of the main outputs of the system.

  16. Energy Characterization and Gasification of Biomass Derived by Hazelnut Cultivation: Analysis of Produced Syngas by Gas Chromatography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Monarca

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Modern agriculture is an extremely energy intensive process. However, high agricultural productivities and the growth of green revolution has been possible only by large amount of energy inputs, especially those coming from fossil fuels. These energy resources have not been able to provide an economically viable solution for agricultural applications. Biomass energy-based systems had been extensively used for transportation and on farm systems during World War II: the most common and reliable solution was wood or biomass gasification. The latter means incomplete combustion of biomass resulting in production of combustible gases which mostly consist of carbon monoxide (CO, hydrogen (H2 and traces of methane (CH4. This mixture is called syngas, which can be successfully used to run internal combustion engines (both compression and spark ignition or as substitute for furnace oil in direct heat applications. The aim of the present paper is to help the experimentation of innovative plants for electric power production using agro-forest biomass derived by hazelnut cultivations. An additional purpose is to point out a connection among the chemical and physical properties of the outgoing syngas by biomass characterization and gas-chromatography analysis.

  17. Biomass Briquette Production: A Propagation of Non-Convention Technology and Future of Pollution Free Thermal Energy Sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manoj Kumar Sharma

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Biomass briquettes are a biofuel substitute to coal and charcoal. Briquettes are mostly used in the developing world where cooking fuels are not as easily available. Briquettes are used to heat industrial boilers in order to produce electricity from steam. The briquettes are con-fired with coal in order to create the heat supplied to the boiler. People have been using biomass briquettes since before recorded history. Biomass briquettes are made from agriculture waste and are a replacement for fossils fuels such as oil or coal, and can be used to heat boiler in manufacturing plants. Biomass briquettes are a renewable source of energy and avoid adding fossils carbon to the atmosphere. The extrusion production technology of briquettes is the process of extrusion screw wastes (straw, sunflower husks, buckwheat, etc. or finely shredded wood waste (sawdust under high pressure. There is a tremendous scope to bring down the waste of convention energy sources to a considerable level through the development, propagation of non-convention briquettes technology i.e. briquettes machine , briquettes plant, biomass briquettes plant for production of agro residue briquettes to meet thermal energy requirement . Therefore this substitute energy medium is given national priority as appears to be the only permanent solution into restriction of the national laws and avoid pollutions.

  18. Field biomass as energy resource for the future; Peltobiomassat tulevaisuuden energiaresurssina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pahkala, K.; Loetjoenen, T. (eds.)

    2012-11-01

    Bioenergy can be derived from biomasses especially produced for bioenergy or from by-products, side streams and waste from wood processing industry, agriculture and forestry, or e.g. municipal waste. In the Nordic countries and Russia forests are a natural source of bioenergy. In many other European countries forests may be too scarce for bioenergy use. Therefore field biomasses form an interesting potential source for bioenergy. Production of field biomasses for non-food purposes has been criticized, especially as there is not enough food for everyone even at present, and in the future more food has to be produced as the world population increases. We studied the field biomass potential in different European countries with different scenarios for development. 'Good development' scenario includes improvements in plant breeding and food production and processing technologies, with increasing yields and decreasing waste of food products and raw materials. 'Bad development' scenario assumes stagnating yields and little improvement in technologies in the OECD countries, and only small improvements in former Soviet Union countries. The foci of the present research were the effects of development of food production, population growth and climate change on regional potential of field biomasses for bioenergy and sustainable use of crop residues and grasses for bioenergy. The field area that could be allocated to energy crops after growing enough food for the citizens of each country depends mostly on the diet. Growing food for vegetarian diet would occupy so little field area that every country under study could set aside at least half of their field area for bioenergy purposes already at present, if the 'good development' scenario was applied. With 'bad development' scenario some of the countries would be unable to set aside fields for bioenergy production even with vegetarian diet. With affluent diet there would be little field

  19. Production of Biofuel from Waste Lignocellulosic Biomass Materials Based on Energy Saving Viewpoint

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takano, Maki; Hoshino, Kazuhiro

    To develop biofuel production from waste lignocellulosic biomass materials the rice straw was selected one of renewable material and the degradation condition about pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis to obtain effectively fermentable sugars was investigated. Rice straw was pretreated by five kinds of methods and then the components ratio of rice straw was examined. First, the steam explosion was selected based on the degradability and the requirement energy. In addition, the best suitable combination of two cellulases to effective and economical hydrolyze was determined from the degradability of these pretreated rice straws. In the simultaneous saccharification and fermentation of the steam explosion rice straw by combining cellulase cocktail and a novel fermenting fungus, 13.2 g/L ethanol was able to product for 96 h.

  20. Environmental assessment of gasification technology for biomass conversion to energy in comparison with other alternatives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nguyen, T Lan T; Hermansen, John Erik; Nielsen, Rasmus Glar

    2013-01-01

    on gasification technology appears to be more environmentally friendly than straw direct combustion in all impact categories considered. The comparison with coal results in the same conclusion as that reached in the comparison with straw direct combustion. The comparison with natural gas shows that using straw......This paper assesses the environmental performance of biomass gasification for electricity production based on wheat straw and compares it with that of alternatives such as straw-fired electricity production and fossil fuel-fired electricity production. In the baseline simulation, we assume......Wh of electricity from straw through gasification would lead to a global warming potential of 0.08 kg CO2e, non-renewable energy use of 0.2 MJ primary, acidification of 1.3 g SO2e, respiratory inorganics of 0.08 g PM2.5e and eutrophication potential of -1.9 g NO3e. The production of electricity from straw based...

  1. Advanced system demonstration for utilization of biomass as an energy source. Environmental report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCollom, M.

    1979-01-01

    The conclusions and findings of extensive analyses undertaken to assess the environmental impacts and effects of the proposal to assist in an Advanced System Demonstration for Utilization of Biomass as an Energy Source by means of a wood-fueled power plant. Included are a description of the proposed project, a discussion of the existing environment that the project would affect, a summary of the project's impacts on the natural and human environments, a discussion of the project's relationships to other government policies and plans, and an extensive review of the alternatives which were considered in evaluating the proposed action. All findings of the research undertaken are discussed. More extensive presentations of the methods of analysis used to arrive at the various conclusions are available in ten topical technical appendices.

  2. Biomass Support for the China Renewable Energy Law: Final Report, December 2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2006-10-01

    Final subcontractor report giving an overview of the biomass power generation technologies used in China. Report covers resources, technologies, foreign technologies and resources for comparison purposes, biomass potential in China, and finally government policies in China that support/hinder development of the using biomass in China for power generation.

  3. In vivo packaging of triacylglycerols enhances Arabidopsis leaf biomass and energy density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winichayakul, Somrutai; Scott, Richard William; Roldan, Marissa; Hatier, Jean-Hugues Bertrand; Livingston, Sam; Cookson, Ruth; Curran, Amy Christina; Roberts, Nicholas John

    2013-06-01

    Our dependency on reduced carbon for energy has led to a rapid increase in the search for sustainable alternatives and a call to focus on energy densification and increasing biomass yields. In this study, we generated a uniquely stabilized plant structural protein (cysteine [Cys]-oleosin) that encapsulates triacylglycerol (TAG). When coexpressed with diacylglycerol O-acyltransferase (DGAT1) in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), we observed a 24% increase in the carbon dioxide (CO2) assimilation rate per unit of leaf area and a 50% increase in leaf biomass as well as approximately 2-, 3-, and 5-fold increases in the fatty acid content of the mature leaves, senescing leaves, and roots, respectively. We propose that the coexpression led to the formation of enduring lipid droplets that prevented the futile cycle of TAG biosynthesis/lipolysis and instead created a sustained demand for de novo lipid biosynthesis, which in turn elevated CO2 recycling in the chloroplast. Fatty acid profile analysis indicated that the formation of TAG involved acyl cycling in Arabidopsis leaves and roots. We also demonstrate that the combination of Cys-oleosin and DGAT1 resulted in the highest accumulation of fatty acids in the model single-cell eukaryote, Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Our results support the notion that the prevention of lipolysis is vital to enabling TAG accumulation in vegetative tissues and confirm the earlier speculation that elevating fatty acid biosynthesis in the leaf would lead to an increase in CO2 assimilation. The Cys-oleosins have applications in biofuels, animal feed, and human nutrition as well as in providing a tool for investigating fatty acid biosynthesis and catabolism.

  4. Economic and energy efficiency of salvaging biomass from wildfire burnt areas for bioenergy production in northwestern Ontario: A case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gautam, Shuva; Pulkki, Reino; Shahi, Chander; Leitch, Mathew [Faculty of Natural Resources Management, Lakehead University, 955 Oliver Road, Thunder Bay, Ontario (Canada)

    2010-11-15

    Wildfire burnt forest biomass can be salvaged as feedstock for bioenergy power generating stations. Despite availability of such forest biomass in northwestern Ontario, its procurement has generally been considered uneconomic and no studies have looked into the cost of harvesting, processing, and transporting the burnt material for bioenergy production. In order to meet the demand of biomass for proposed and existing power generating stations using renewable fuels, a standard costing model is used to determine the feasibility of procuring biomass from burnt areas using a full-tree to roadside, roadside grinder to mill system. The case-study was conducted at the Hogarth Plantations near Thunder Bay, Ontario, Canada. The total cost incurred for processing and delivery of biomass from wildfire burnt area with a hauling distance of 7 km and total trip cycle time of 2.55 h was found to be $29.65 gt{sup -1}, with net energy content of 11.4 GJ gt{sup -1}. The total procurement cost depends on the hauling distance and a linear relationship between the two was established. The energy analysis found a net energy output to input ratio of 35:1 for the operation. (author)

  5. Densified biomass can cost-effectively mitigate greenhouse gas emissions and address energy security in thermal applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Thomas O; McNeal, Frederick M; Spatari, Sabrina; G Abler, David; Adler, Paul R

    2012-01-17

    Regional supplies of biomass are currently being evaluated as feedstocks in energy applications to meet renewable portfolio (RPS) and low carbon fuel standards. We investigate the life cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and associated abatement costs resulting from using densified switchgrass for thermal and electrical energy. In contrast to the large and positive abatement costs for using biomass in electricity generation ($149/Mg CO(2)e) due to the low cost of coal and high feedstock and power plant operation costs, abatement costs for replacing fuel oil with biomass in thermal applications are large and negative (-$52 to -$92/Mg CO(2)e), resulting in cost savings. Replacing fuel oil with biomass in thermal applications results in least cost reductions compared to replacing coal in electricity generation, an alternative that has gained attention due to RPS legislation and the centralized production model most often considered in U.S. policy. Our estimates indicate a more than doubling of liquid fuel displacement when switchgrass is substituted for fuel oil as opposed to gasoline, suggesting that, in certain U.S. locations, such as the northeast, densified biomass would help to significantly decarbonize energy supply with regionally sourced feedstock, while also reducing imported oil. On the basis of supply projections from the recently released Billion Ton Report, there will be enough sustainably harvested biomass available in the northeast by 2022 to offset the entirety of heating oil demand in the same region. This will save NE consumers between $2.3 and $3.9 billion annually. Diverting the same resource to electricity generation would cost the region $7.7 billion per year. While there is great need for finding low carbon substitutes for coal power and liquid transportation fuels in the U.S., we argue that in certain regions it makes cost- (and GHG mitigation-) effective sense to phase out liquid heating fuels with locally produced biomass first.

  6. Energy consumption of biomass in the residential sector of Italy in 1999; I consumi energetici di biomasse nel settore residenziale in Italia nel 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerardi, V. [ENEA, Divisione Fonti Rinnovabili di Energia, Centro Ricerche Casaccia, Rome (Italy); Perrella, G. [ENEA, Divisione Promozione Usi Efficienti e Diversificazione dell' Energia, Centro Ricerche Casaccia, Rome (Italy)

    2001-07-01

    The report aims at showing the situation in Italian residential sector in the year 1999 about the consumption of biomass like energy source. Data presented are the result of a statistical survey on the Italian family. Taking into account the year 1999, the survey allowed to estimate a national consumption of vegetal fuels equal to about 14 Mt, with an average value by family of 3 t. The following aspects have been put in evidence: the consumption of biomass in Italy is characterised mainly bu the use of wood, 98.5% out of the total vegetal fuel consumption. Olive pits, charcoal and nutshells can be considered as marginal. Biomass supplying system by the families is related to the single biomass typology; in the case of wood there is a substantial equilibrium between the purchase (42.5%) and the self production/supplies (47%). In the case of olive pits the supplying system is mostly the purchase, on the contrary for the nutshells is the self production/supplies; Biomass are mostly used in the principal house (84.8% of the families using biomass); the families expressed satisfaction; the energetic systems that use vegetal fuels have a complementary character in relation to the systems not fuelled with biomass. [Italian] Il rapporto mira a descrivere la situazione dei consumi di biomassa come fonte di energia nel settore residenziale italiano nell'anno 1999. I dati presentati sono il risultato di una specifica indagine statistica sulle famiglie italiane. Con riferimento all'anno 1999, l'indagine ha permesso di stimare un consumo nazionale di combustibili vegetali pari a circa 14 milioni di tonnellate, con un consumo medio per famiglia utilizzatrice stimbabile in circa 3 tonnellate. L'indagine ha permesso di evidenziare i seguenti aspetti: il consumo in Italia di biomassa e' prevalentemente caratterizzato dall'impego di legna, che rappresenta il 98,5% del consumo totale di combustibili vegetali. La sansa, la carbonella e i gusci di

  7. Thermal distillation system utilizing biomass energy burned in stove by means of heat pipe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroshi Tanaka

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available A thermal distillation system utilizing a part of the thermal energy of biomass burned in a stove during cooking is proposed. The thermal energy is transported from the stove to the distiller by means of a heat pipe. The distiller is a vertical multiple-effect diffusion distiller, in which a number of parallel partitions in contact with saline-soaked wicks are set vertically with narrow gaps of air. A pilot experimental apparatus was constructed and tested with a single-effect and multiple-effect distillers to investigate primarily whether a heat pipe can transport thermal energy adequately from the stove to the distiller. It was found that the temperatures of the heated plate and the first partition of the distiller reached to about 100 °C and 90 °C, respectively, at steady state, showing that the heat pipe works sufficiently. The distilled water obtained was about 0.75 and 1.35 kg during the first 2 h of burning from a single-effect and multiple-effect distillers, respectively.

  8. Utilisation of biomass gasification by-products for onsite energy production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vakalis, S; Sotiropoulos, A; Moustakas, K; Malamis, D; Baratieri, M

    2016-06-01

    Small scale biomass gasification is a sector with growth and increasing applications owing to the environmental goals of the European Union and the incentivised policies of most European countries. This study addresses two aspects, which are at the centre of attention concerning the operation and development of small scale gasifiers; reuse of waste and increase of energy efficiency. Several authors have denoted that the low electrical efficiency of these systems is the main barrier for further commercial development. In addition, gasification has several by-products that have no further use and are discarded as waste. In the framework of this manuscript, a secondary reactor is introduced and modelled. The main operating principle is the utilisation of char and flue gases for further energy production. These by-products are reformed into secondary producer gas by means of a secondary reactor. In addition, a set of heat exchangers capture the waste heat and optimise the process. This case study is modelled in a MATLAB-Cantera environment. The model is non-stoichiometric and applies the Gibbs minimisation principle. The simulations show that some of the thermal energy is depleted during the process owing to the preheating of flue gases. Nonetheless, the addition of a secondary reactor results in an increase of the electrical power production efficiency and the combined heat and power (CHP) efficiency.

  9. Technology assessment of solar energy: An evaluation of widespread deployment of solar and biomass technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schiffman, Y.; D' Alessio, G.J.

    1980-12-01

    The following summarizes significance of the results of the analyses performed: Air Quality - Both increases and decreases in emissions of certain energy related criteria pollutants: essentially no influence on long-range transport of energy-related pollutants; moderate regional decreases in SO /SUB x/ and NO /SUB x/ ; significant increases in biomass-related particulate emissions in certain regions and subregions; minor changes in nonenergy related criteria pollutants associated with manufacturing solar on a national basis. Water Quality - Relatively minor increases and decreases in water pollution nationally; some significant increases in erosion in agricultural states; some potential local benefits associated with reduced conventional waste disposal requirements; and some potential penalties associated with increased solar working fluid disposal. Water Resources - Nationally insignificant especially in the Eastern U.S., but with some potential local problems in the West associated with discretionary water use for cleaning solar systems; some local benefits in the East associated with reduction in mandatory water use by conventional power plant cooling systems. Land Resources - On-site solar energy demands in moderately sized communities can be exceeded in all but the most dense land use sectors, this would offset adverse local land use impacts, but is highly influenced by local land use planning decisions.

  10. Biomass potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asplund, D. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland)

    1996-12-31

    Biomass resources of the industrialised countries are enormous, if only a small fraction of set-aside fields were used for energy crops. Forest resources could also be utilised more efficiently than at present for large-scale energy production. The energy content of the annual net growth of the total wood biomass is estimated to be 180 million toe in Europe without the former USSR, and about 50 million toe of that in the EC area, in 1990. Presently, the harvesting methods of forest biomass for energy production are not yet generally competitive. Among the most promising methods are integrated harvesting methods, which supply both raw material to the industry and wood fuel for energy production. Several new methods for separate harvesting of energy wood are being developed in many countries. (orig.)

  11. My Biomass, Your Biomass, Our Solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    The US is pursuing an array of renewable energy sources to reduce reliance on imported fossil fuels and reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Biomass energy and biomass ethanol are key components in the pursuit. The need for biomass feedstock to produce sufficient ethanol to meet any of the numerous stat...

  12. National implications of high solar and biomass energy growth. Final report of the TASE project. A technology assessment of solar energy systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schiffman, Y.M.; D' Alessio, G.

    1982-09-01

    The Technology Assessment of Solar Energy (TASE) Project is a comprehensive multi-year analysis of the environmental, resource and community impacts which could result in the year 2000 if major national incentives were adopted to accelerate solar and biomass energy use. The study uses a comparative approach to examine: (a) the potential impacts of large numbers of solar and biomass units, and (b) the potential reductions in the impacts of new conventional technologies which they would displace. In addition, TASE examines the indirect pollution impacts associated with the manufacturing of solar systems at greater and lesser rates. Overall, massive incentives for solar and biomass energy over the next 20 years can lead to major stress on national capital and finished materials resources as well as to significant air pollution and safety problems. Rapid growth rates for solar systems could markedly increase energy damand in the manufacturing sector. The capital resource and materials problems would derive from emphasis on high, near term growth of solar technologies. The potential environmental and safety problems would derive largely from emphasis on decentralized, uncontrolled biomass combustion. A range of less costly general approaches lies in greater near term emphasis on more mature, competitive technologies, and specifically on biomass rather than solar technologies.In particular this emphasis should be on larger scale biomass technologies with economical pollution controls rather than on small, uncontrolled units; on bio-harvesting safety measures; on larger scale solar technologies which are far less energy and materials intensive and hence less costly than smaller solar technologies per unit energy output; on more gradual growth rates for active solar energy systems, especially small systems.

  13. Progress in the technology of energy conversion from woody biomass in Indonesia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tjutju Nurhayati; Yani Waridi; Han Roliadi

    2006-01-01

    Sustainable and renewable natural resources as biomass that contains carbon and hydrogen elements can be a potential raw materials for energy conversion. In Indonesia, they comprise variable-sized wood from forests (i.e. natural forests, plantations and community forests that commonly produce small-diameter logs used as firewood by local people), woody residues from logging and wood industries, oil-palm shell waste from crude palm oil factories, coconut shell wastes from coconut plantations, traditional markets as well as skimmed coconut oil and straws from rice cultivation.Four kinds of energy-conversion technologies have been empirically tested in Indonesia. First, gasification of rubber wood from unproductive rubber trees to generate heat energy for the drying of fermented chocolate seeds. Secondly, energy conversion from organic vegetable waste by implementing thermophylic fermentation methods that produce biogas as a fuel and for generating electricity and also concurrently generate organic by-products called hygen compost. Thirdly, gasification of charcoal and wood sawdust for electricity generation. Finally, environment-friendly energy conversion by carbonizing small-diameter logs, sawdust, wood slabs and coconut shells into charcoal. This yielded charcoal integrated with wood vinegar production through condensation of smoke/vapors emitted during carbonization, thereby mitigating the impact of air pollution. Among the four experimental technologies that of integrated charcoal and wood vinegar production had been spectacularly developed and favored by rural communities. This technology brought added value to the process and product due to the wood vinegar,useful as bio-pesticide,plant-growth hormone and organic fertilizer. Such integrated and environment-friendly production, therefore,should be sustained, because Indonesia occupies a significant and worldwide position as charcoal-producing and marketing country.The technology of integrated wood vinegar

  14. ENERGY PROPERTIES OF MULTIFLORA ROSE (ROSA MULTIFLORA THUNB. AND ENVIRONMENTAL BENEFITS FROM THE COMBUSTION OF ITS BIOMASS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina Kowalczyk-Juśko

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the results of a study on multiflora rose, one of the energy crop plants. The yield of aerial parts was determined in a field experiment, and the calorific value and chemical composition of the biomass were determined in laboratory tests. The results were used to calculate the amount of hard coal that can be replaced by multiflora rose biomass and the air pollution emissions from combustion of coal and multiflora rose. Combustion of multiflora rose biomass from an area of 1 ha in place of hard coal with equivalent energy value was found able to reduce emissions of SO2 by 98.9%, NO2 by 27.8%, particulates by over 18% and CO by 8.5%. The actual CO2 emissions from biomass combustion proved somewhat higher than in the case of coal; however, carbon dioxide emitted into the atmosphere during combustion of plant biomass is equal to the amount taken in by the plants during their growing period. Therefore the CO2 emissions are considered to be zero.

  15. Quantifying the Effects of Biomass Market Conditions and Policy Incentives on Economically Feasible Sites to Establish Dedicated Energy Crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandhya Nepal

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This study used a spatially-explicit model to identify the amount and spatial distribution of economically feasible sites for establishing dedicated energy crops under various market and policy scenarios. A sensitivity analysis was performed for a biomass market with different discount rates and biomass prices as well as policy scenarios including propriety tax exemption, carbon offset payments, and the inclusion of farmland for biomass production. The model was applied to a four-county study area in Kentucky representing conditions commonly found in the Ohio River Valley. Results showed that both biomass price and discount rate have a can strongly influence the amount of economically efficient sites. Rising the biomass price by 5 $·t−1 and lowering discount rate by 1% from the baseline scenario (40 $·t−1 and 5% resulted in an over fourteen fold increment. Property tax exemption resulted in a fourfold increase, a carbon payment on only 1 $·t−1 caused a twelve fold increase and extending the landbase from marginal land to farmland only slightly increase the economically efficient sites. These results provide an objective evaluation of market and policy scenarios in terms of their potential to increase land availability for establishing dedicated energy crops and to promote the bioenergy industry.

  16. Amino acid digestibility and concentration of digestible and metabolizable energy in a threonine biomass product fed to weanling pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, F N; Sulabo, R C; Stein, H H

    2014-10-01

    Production of crystalline l-Thr results in the generation of a Thr biomass that contains more than 80% CP, 5.20% Lys, 5.10% Val, 4.52% Thr, 4.15% Ile, and 1.06% Trp. This Thr biomass product can possibly be used as a feed ingredient in diets fed to weanling pigs, but there is little information about the nutritional value of this product. The objective of this work was to determine the AA digestibility and energy concentration in Thr biomass and to compare these values to values obtained for fish meal in diets fed to pigs. The apparent ileal digestibility (AID) and the standardized ileal digestibility (SID) of CP and AA were determined in Exp. 1. Nine pigs (initial BW: 13.4 ± 2.5 kg) were equipped with a T-cannula in the distal ileum and allotted to a triplicated 3 × 3 Latin square design with 3 diets and 3 periods in each square. One diet contained 20.0% Thr biomass as the sole source of AA, and a second diet contained 25.0% fish meal as the sole source of AA. The last diet was a N-free diet that was used to measure basal endogenous losses of AA and CP. Results indicated that the AID and SID of all AA except Trp, Gly, and Pro were greater (P biomass than in fish meal. In Exp. 2, 24 pigs (initial BW: 18.1 ± 3.5 kg) were placed in metabolism cages and randomly allotted to 3 diets. The first diet contained 96.4% corn, the second diet contained 79.3% corn and 17.0% Thr biomass, and the third diet contained 75.3% corn and 24.0% fish meal. Total collection of feces and urine was performed for 5 d after a 5-d adaptation period, and all samples of ingredients, diets, feces, and urine were analyzed for GE. Digestible energy and ME were then calculated. The DE in the Thr biomass was greater (P biomass was also greater (P biomass is an excellent source of AA and ME. Therefore, the Thr biomass is a viable ingredient that can be used as an alternative to fish meal and possibly other animal proteins in diets for pigs.

  17. Forests: future fibre and fuel values : Woody biomass for energy and materials: resources, markets, carbon flows and sustainability impacts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sikkema, R.

    2014-01-01

    From energy outlooks, it becomes clear that global bioenergy consumption is expected to grow further; specifically the demand for wood for electricity and heating, together with agricultural biomass for liquid biofuels. The EU has an ambitious and integrated policy in order to address climate change

  18. Biomass Residues to Renewable Energy: A Life Cycle Perspective Applied at a Local Scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esmeralda Neri

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Italy, like every country member of the European Union (EU, will have to achieve the objectives required by the Energy Roadmap 2050. The purpose of the study was to evaluate the environmental impacts of residue recovery arising from the management of public and private green feedstocks, activity of the cooperative “Green City” in the Bologna district, and usage in a centralized heating system to produce thermal energy for public buildings. Results, obtained using the ReCipe impact assessment method, are compared with scores achieved by a traditional methane boiler. The study shows some advantages of the biomass-based system in terms of greenhouse gases (GHGs emissions and consumption of non-renewable fuels, which affect climate change (−41% and fossil resources depletion (−40%, compared to the use of natural gas (NG. Moreover, scores from network analysis denote the great contribution of feedstock transportation (98% of the cumulative impact. The main reason is attributable to all requirements to cover distances, in particular due to stages involved in the fuel supply chains. Therefore, it is clear that greater environmental benefits could be achieved by reducing supply transport distances or using more sustainable engines.

  19. GHG Emissions and Costs of Developing Biomass Energy in Malaysia: Implications on Energy Security in the Transportation and Electricity Sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Mohd Nor Azman

    Malaysia's transportation sector accounts for 48% of the country's total energy use. The country is expected to become a net oil importer by the year 2011. To encourage renewable energy development and relieve the country's emerging oil dependence, in 2006 the government mandated blending 5% palm-oil biodiesel in petroleum diesel. Malaysia produced 16 million tonnes of palm oil in 2007, mainly for food use. This study addresses maximizing bioenergy use from oil-palm to support Malaysia's energy initiative while minimizing greenhouse gas emissions from land use change. When converting primary and secondary forests to oil-palm plantations between 270 - 530 g and 120 -190 g CO2 equivalent (CO2-eq) per MJ of biodiesel produced, respectively, is released. However, converting degraded lands results in the capture of between 23 to 85 g CO2-eq per MJ of biodiesel produced. Using various combinations of land types, Malaysia could meet the 5% biodiesel target with a net GHG savings of about 1.03 million tonnes (4.9% of the transportation sector's diesel emissions) when accounting for the emissions savings from the diesel fuel displaced. Fossil fuels contributed about 93% to Malaysia's electricity generation mix and emit about 65 million tonnes (Mt) or 36% of the country's 2010 Greenhouse Gas (GHG) emissions. The government has set a target to install 330 MW biomass electricity by 2015, which is hoped to avoid 1.3 Mt of GHG emissions annually. The availability of seven types of biomass residues in Peninsular Malaysia is estimated based on residues-to-product ratio, recoverability and accessibility factor and other competing uses. It was found that there are approximately 12.2 Mt/yr of residues. Oil-palm residues contribute about 77% to the total availability with rice and forestry residues at 17%. Electricity from biomass can be produced via direct combustion in dedicated power plants or co-fired with coal. The co-firing of the residues at four existing coal plants in

  20. Energy conversion of biomass with supercritical and subcritical water using large-scale plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okajima, Idzumi; Sako, Takeshi

    2014-01-01

    Exploiting unused or waste biomass as an alternative fuel is currently receiving much attention because of the potential reductions in CO2 emissions and the lower cost in comparison to expensive fossil fuels. If we are to use biomass domestically or industrially, we must be able to convert biomass to high-quality and easy-to-use liquid, gas, or solid fuels that have high-calorific values, low moisture and ash contents, uniform composition, and suitable for stored over long periods. In biomass treatment, hot and high-pressure water including supercritical and subcritical water is an excellent solvent, as it is clean and safe and its action on biomass can be optimized by varying the temperature and pressure. In this article, the conversion of waste biomass to fuel using hot and high-pressure water is reviewed, and the following examples are presented: the production of large amounts of hydrogen from waste biomass, the production of cheap bioethanol from non-food raw materials, and the production of composite powder fuel from refractory waste biomass in the rubble from the Great East Japan Earthquake. Several promising techniques for the conversion of biomass have been demonstrated in large-scale plants and commercial deployment is expected in the near future.

  1. The Forest Energy Chain in Tuscany: Economic Feasibility and Environmental Effects of Two Types of Biomass District Heating Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio Fagarazzi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to examine two biomass district heating plants operating in Tuscany, with a specific focus on the ex-post evaluation of their economic and financial feasibility and of their environmental benefits. The former biomass district heating plant supplies only public users (Comunità Montana della Lunigiana, CML: administrative body that coordinates the municipalities located in mountain areas, the latter supplies both public and private users (Municipality of San Romano in Garfagnana. Ex-post investment analysis was performed to check both the consistency of results with the forecasts made in the stage of the project design and on the factors, which may have reduced or jeopardized the estimated economic performance of the investment (ex-ante assessment. The results of the study point out appreciable results only in the case of biomass district heating plants involving private users and fuelled by biomasses sourced from third parties. In this case, the factors that most influence ex-post results include the conditions of the woody biomass local market (market prices, the policies of energy selling prices to private users and the temporal dynamics of private users’ connection. To ensure the consistency of ex-post economic outcome with the expected results it is thus important to: (i have good knowledge of the woody local market; (ii define energy selling prices that should be cheap for private users but consistent with energy production costs and (iii constrain private users beforehand to prevent errors in the plant design and in the preliminary estimate of return on investment. Moreover, the results obtained during the monitoring activities could help in providing information on the effectiveness of the supporting measures adopted and also to orient future choices of policy makers and particularly designers, to identify the most efficient configuration of district heating organization for improving energy and

  2. Forests: future fibre and fuel values : Woody biomass for energy and materials: resources, markets, carbon flows and sustainability impacts

    OpenAIRE

    Sikkema, R.

    2014-01-01

    From energy outlooks, it becomes clear that global bioenergy consumption is expected to grow further; specifically the demand for wood for electricity and heating, together with agricultural biomass for liquid biofuels. The EU has an ambitious and integrated policy in order to address climate change and security of energy supply towards 2020.Proposed policies with more stringent goals for the 2030 horizon are: 40% greenhouse gas emission (GHG) reduction, and further increase of Renewable Ener...

  3. Sustainability assessment of forest biomass supply chain at local scale: carrying capacity of the system for energy valorisation

    OpenAIRE

    Martire, S; Castellani, V.; Sala, S.

    2011-01-01

    Evaluation of the trade-off between the benefits coming from forest resources’ use and the conservation of forest ecosystems is needed. Considering the use of biomass for energy purpose, on one hand the use of wood resources should be based on an evaluation of the “carrying capacity” of the forest ecosystem and site-specific characteristics; on the other hand, the role of biomass valorisation has to be assessed considering the socio economic benefit or drawbacks due to the further development...

  4. Contenu énergétique des alcools d'origine fossile ou biomasse Energy Content of Alcohols of Fossil Or Biomass Origin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arlie J. P.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available En utilisant une méthode basée sur le contenu énergétique, défini comme étant la quantité d'énergie mise en oeuvre dans le processus de fabrication depuis la matière première jsuqu'au produit considéré, on compare les filières de production basées sur des matières premières soit d'origine fossile, soit d'origine biomasse. Ces filières peuvent être utilisées pour produire les divers alcools que sont le méthanol, l'éthanol et le butanol. II est montré, qu'en l'état actuel des technologies de fabrication, la comparaison énergétique est très en faveur de la filière matière première renouvelable qui fait apparaître un gain énergétique qui varie suivant les cas étudiés entre 0,1 et 1,5 tep par tonne de produit. Production routes based on raw materials from either fossil or biomass origin are compared using a method based on the energy content, which is defined as being the amount of energy implemented in the manufacturing process starting with the raw material and going to the product being considered. These routes can be used to produce different alcohols such as methanol, ethanol and butanol. Given the current state of manufacturing technologies, this article shows that an energy comparison is highly in favor of the renewable raw-material route which shows an energy gain that varies, according to the cases examined, between 0. 1 and 1. 5 tOE per ton of product.

  5. Swamp future. Energy for Western Pomerania Grid formation and potentials for the thermal utilization of biomass from paludi culture; MoorZukunft. Energie fuer Vorpommern. Netzwerkbildung und Potentiale fuer die thermische Verwertung von Biomasse aus Paludikultur

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nordt, Anke; Schroeder, Christian [Greifswald Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Botanik und Landschaftsoekologie; Schroeder, Philipp

    2013-10-01

    MoorZukunft aims to initiate pilot projects for utilisation biomass from ''wet'' peatland for energy purposes. Also alternative concepts of funding regional cooperations are to be developed. The implementation of paludiculture, the sustainable cultivation of rewetted peatland, needs innovative unions between farmers who produce primary material for paludi-products and biomass consumers for energy or material utilisation. Areas for implementing paludiculture are identified and potential partners for regional use and consumption are cross-linked. Business models will be developed with the parties of possible cooperations, i.g. between farmer and municipal energy supplier and functional attended until realisation. The procedure to initiate pilot projects will be explained. This expands from requests of areas and partners until possible forms of organisation locally shared utilisation partnerships. (orig.)

  6. Improving material and energy recovery from the sewage sludge and biomass residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kliopova, Irina; Makarskienė, Kristina

    2015-02-01

    Sewage sludge management is a big problem all over the world because of its large quantities and harmful impact on the environment. Energy conversion through fermentation, compost production from treated sludge for agriculture, especially for growing energetic plants, and treated sludge use for soil remediation are widely used alternatives of sewage sludge management. Recently, in many EU countries the popularity of these methods has decreased due to the sewage sludge content (heavy metals, organic pollutions and other hazards materials). This paper presents research results where the possibility of solid recovered fuel (SRF) production from the separate fraction (10-40 mm) of pre-composted materials--sewage sludge from municipal waste water treatment plant and biomass residues has been evaluated. The remaining fractions of pre-composted materials can be successfully used for compost or fertiliser production, as the concentration of heavy metals in the analysed composition is reduced in comparison with sewage sludge. During the experiment presented in this paper the volume of analysed biodegradable waste was reduced by 96%: about 20% of input biodegradable waste was recovered to SRF in the form of pellets with 14.25 MJ kg(-1) of the net calorific value, about 23% were composted, the rest--evaporated and discharged in a wastewater. The methods of material-energy balances and comparison analysis of experiment data have been chosen for the environmental impact assessment of this biodegradable waste management alternative. Results of the efficiency of energy recovery from sewage sludge by SRF production and burning, comparison analysis with widely used bio-fuel-sawdust and conclusions made are presented.

  7. Life-Cycle Energy and GHG Emissions of Forest Biomass Harvest and Transport for Biofuel Production in Michigan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fengli Zhang

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available High dependence on imported oil has increased U.S. strategic vulnerability and prompted more research in the area of renewable energy production. Ethanol production from renewable woody biomass, which could be a substitute for gasoline, has seen increased interest. This study analysed energy use and greenhouse gas emission impacts on the forest biomass supply chain activities within the State of Michigan. A life-cycle assessment of harvesting and transportation stages was completed utilizing peer-reviewed literature. Results for forest-delivered ethanol were compared with those for petroleum gasoline using data specific to the U.S. The analysis from a woody biomass feedstock supply perspective uncovered that ethanol production is more environmentally friendly (about 62% less greenhouse gas emissions compared with petroleum based fossil fuel production. Sensitivity analysis was conducted with key inputs associated with harvesting and transportation operations. The results showed that research focused on improving biomass recovery efficiency and truck fuel economy further reduced GHG emissions and energy consumption.

  8. Influence of chemical properties of biomass plant agricultural origin on outlays energy incurred during the production of pellets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Artur KRASZKIEWICZ

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, was analysed made the measurements of the content of water, carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, sulphur and chlorine in plant biomass of agricultural origin in the context of the impact of these features on the energy expenditures incurred in its pelleting. For the examined raw materials statistical analysis results showed negative linear trend between energy expenditures and: water content, total sulfur and chlorine. Positive linear trend between energy expenditures and: contents of carbon, hydrogen, and nitrogen. Wherein the coefficients of correlation expenditures energy and: carbon, hydrogen and chlorine are significant p<0.05.

  9. Electric energy generation using biomass gasification; Generacion de energia electrica a partir de la gasificacion de biomassa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruiz, J.; Arauzo, J.; Gonzalo, Alberto; Sanchez, Jose Luis [Universidad de Zaragoza, Aragon (Spain). Inst. de Investigacion. Grupo de Procesos Termoquimicos; Rocha, J.D. [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), Campinas, SP (Brazil). Nucleo Interdisciplinar de Planejamento Energetico (NIPE); Mesa Perez, J.M. [Bioware Tecnologia, Campinas, SP (Brazil)

    2004-07-01

    Gasification experiments have been carried out with a atmospheric pressure down draft gasifier of a capacity of 250 kg/h of biomass. Biomass used have been almond shells and olive cut. Results obtained show a similar behaviour in gas composition with two biomass. A small fraction of the generated gas from the gasifier has been fed to a small generator of 4 kV A. The gas has been previously cleaned and dried by means of a scrubber and a condenser, to remove tar products. The generator has been operated with a great stability without any modification, and energy generated with gas from gasification are relatively close to the values obtained with conventional fuels such as gasoline or commercial butane. (author)

  10. Woody biomass consumption in Montenegro and its contribution to the realization of the national 2020 renewable energy target

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glavonjić Branko D.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is the continuation of the presentation of results obtained in comprehensive research of woody biomass consumption in Montenegro conducted as a part of the FODEMO/MONSTAT project “Wood fuels consumption in Montenegro”. The previous paper (No.2, 2013 showed results of wood fuels consumption for households heating and this paper shows their consumption for the other energy purposes as well as its participation in total final energy consumption in Montenegro. Total consumption of woody biomass for energy and non-energy purposes in Montenegro in 2011 was 1.06 million m3, out of which 732.9 thousand m3 or 69.1% was in the form of firewood and 326.6 thousand m3 or 30.8% was in the form of industrial roundwood. Additionally, 251 m3 of woody biomass in the form of wood residue were used for the needs of charcoal producers and households. Apart from this, 423 tonnes of wood briquettes, 948 tonnes of wood pellets, 1039 tonnes of charcoal, 86,193 m3 of wood residue from industry and 5,254 m3 of wood waste from construction industry were also used for energy purposes. Total final consumption of wood energy, which includes the consumption of all wood fuel categories, was 7,275.04 TJ or 173,761 toe (tonne of oil equivalent in Montenegro in 2011, which is equal to the value of 2,020,844,444 kWh. The size of energy values and significance of wood energy is best shown by the fact that wood is the third most important energy-generating product in final energy consumption in Montenegro, just behind petroleum products and electricity. Compared to final consumption of electricity of 12,290 TJ, value of wood energy in the amount of 7,275.04 TJ is 59.2% of electricity consumption.

  11. A renewable energy scenario for Aalborg Municipality based on low-temperature geothermal heat, wind power and biomass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Poul Alberg; Mathiesen, Brian Vad; Möller, Bernd;

    2010-01-01

    Aalborg Municipality, Denmark, wishes to investigate the possibilities of becoming independent of fossil fuels. This article describes a scenario for supplying Aalborg Municipality’s energy needs through a combination of low-temperature geothermal heat, wind power and biomass. Of particular focus...... in the scenario is how low-temperature geothermal heat may be utilised in district heating (DH) systems. The analyses show that it is possible to cover Aalborg Municipality’s energy needs through the use of locally available sources in combination with significant electricity savings, heat savings, reductions...... in industrial fuel use and savings and fuel-substitutions in the transport sector. With biomass resources being finite, the two marginal energy resources in Aalborg are geothermal heat and wind power. If geothermal heat is utilised more, wind power may be limited and vice versa. The system still relies...

  12. Grassland bird response to harvesting switchgrass as a biomass energy crop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, A.M.; Sample, D.W.; Ribic, C.A.; Paine, L.; Undersander, D.J.; Bartelt, G.A.

    2005-01-01

    The combustion of perennial grass biomass to generate electricity may be a promising renewable energy option. Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum) grown as a biofuel has the potential to provide a cash crop for farmers and quality nesting cover for grassland birds. In southwestern Wisconsin (near lat. 42??52???, long. 90??08???), we investigated the impact of an August harvest of switchgrass for bioenergy on community composition and abundance of Wisconsin grassland bird species of management concern. Harvesting the switchgrass in August resulted in changes in vegetation structure and bird species composition the following nesting season. In harvested transects, residual vegetation was shorter and the litter layer was reduced in the year following harvest. Grassland bird species that preferred vegetation of short to moderate height and low to moderate density were found in harvested areas. Unharvested areas provided tall, dense vegetation structure that was especially attractive to tall-grass bird species, such as sedge wren (Cistothorus platensis) and Henslow's sparrow (Ammodramus henslowii). When considering wildlife habitat value in harvest management of switchgrass for biofuel, leaving some fields unharvested each year would be a good compromise, providing some habitat for a larger number of grassland bird species of management concern than if all fields were harvested annually. In areas where most idle grassland habitat present on the landscape is tallgrass, harvest of switchgrass for biofuel has the potential to increase the local diversity of grassland birds.

  13. Photosynthetic microbial desalination cells (PMDCs) for clean energy, water and biomass production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokabian, Bahareh; Gude, Veera Gnaneswar

    2013-12-01

    Current microbial desalination cell (MDC) performances are evaluated with chemical catalysts such as ferricyanide, platinum catalyzed air-cathodes or aerated cathodes. All of these methods improve power generation potential in MDCs, however, they are not preferable for large scale applications due to cost, energy and environmental toxicity issues. In this study, performance of microbial desalination cells with an air cathode and an algae biocathode (Photosynthetic MDC - PMDC) were evaluated, both under passive conditions (no mechanical aeration or mixing). The results indicate that passive algae biocathodes perform better than air cathodes and enhance COD removal and utilize treated wastewater as the growth medium to obtain valuable biomass for high value bioproducts. Maximum power densities of 84 mW m(-3) (anode volume) or 151 mW m(-3) (biocathode volume) and a desalination rate of 40% were measured with 0.9 : 1 : 0.5 volumetric ratios of anode, desalination and algae biocathode chambers respectively. This first proof-of-concept study proves that the passive mechanisms can be beneficial in enhancing the sustainability of microbial desalination cells.

  14. Biomass as an energy source. An efficiency comparison from the view of land use; Biomasse als Energietraeger. Ein Effizienzvergleich aus Sicht der Landnutzung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grosse, Werner [TU Dresden (Germany). Inst. fuer Internationale Forst- und Holzwirtschaft

    2011-07-01

    The growth in the world population correlates to this day with an increase in the consumption of resources. This rising consumption is coupled with greater use of land, and a decrease in the global forest area. These contrasting developments demand new concepts with regard to efficient land use. Efficiency in this context describes the relationship between the outcome and the outlay; essentially the degree of efficiency of a procedure with respect to the use of a commodity. Presented in the paper is an analysis of how, with more efficient technologies than those employed to date, biomass can be made available for energetic use. The backdrop to this is the more rapid increase in the energetic use of wood than material use in Europe and in the Federal republic of Germany, and a forecast annual wood shortfall (in Germany) of as much as 40 million m{sup 3} by the year 2020. The focus of this study is on the establishment of short rotation coppice on agricultural land, which is compared with the cultivation of annual agricultural energy crops on the basis of energy balances. Short rotation coppice plantations achieve an output: input ratio in the energy balance of up to 60: 1, whereas in the case of maize, for example, the ratio falls to 15: 1. In the course of economically-driven efforts to produce more biomass for the generation of heat, electricity and fuels, while at the same time attaining a positive ecological appraisal, such efficiency considerations must be accounted for to a greater extent than has been the case to date. (orig.)

  15. Improving biomass resource recycling capacity of Rubrivivax gelatinosus cultivated in wastewater through regulating the generation and use of energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Pan; Wang, Yan-ling; Zhang, Guang-ming; Liu, Xian-shu; Du, Cong; Tong, Qing-yue; Li, Ning

    2014-01-01

    This paper investigated Mg2+ enhancement of biomass production through regulating the generation and use of energy in Rubrivivax gelatinosus wastewater treatment. Results showed that proper Mg2+ dosage range was 1.5-15 mg/L. With optimal Mg2+ dosage (10 mg/L), biomass production (5010 mg/L) was improved by 60%. Both protein and chemical oxygen demand (COD) removals reached above 90%. Biomass yield improved by 38%. Hydraulic retention time was shortened by 25%. Mechanism analysis indicated that as activator, Mg2+ promoted specifically isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH) and Ca2+ / Mg2+ -ATPase activities in energy metabolism, and then improved the generation of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and the use of ATP. This enhanced the secretion and activity of protease, protein and COD removals, and then led to more biomass production. With 10 mg/L Mg2+, IDH and Ca2+ / Mg2+ -ATPase activities, ATP production, protease activity were improved by 43.8%, 40.6%, 39.4% and 46.5%, respectively.

  16. Agro-industrial lignocellulosic biomass a key to unlock the future bio-energy: A brief review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahid Anwar

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available From the last several years, in serious consideration of the worldwide economic and environmental pollution issues there has been increasing research interest in the value of bio-sourced lignocellulosic biomass. Agro-industrial biomass comprised on lignocellulosic waste is an inexpensive, renewable, abundant and provides a unique natural resource for large-scale and cost-effective bio-energy collection. To expand the range of natural bio-resources the rapidly evolving tools of biotechnology can lower the conversion costs and also enhance target yield of the product of interest. In this background green biotechnology presents a promising approach to convert most of the solid agricultural wastes particularly lignocellulosic materials into liquid bio based energy-fuels. In fact, major advances have already been achieved to competitively position cellulosic ethanol with corn ethanol. The present summarized review work begins with an overview on the physico-chemical features and composition of agro-industrial biomass. The information is also given on the multi-step processing technologies of agro-industrial biomass to fuel ethanol followed by a brief summary of future considerations.

  17. Availability of local woody biomass for large-scale energy production in the Netherlands. Case study : Vattenfall biomass plant in Utrecht.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broekema, Pieter

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY Several potential studies have demonstrated that there is a relatively high potential for the combustion of local woody biomass. Vattenfall investigates the feasibility of building a plant in Utrecht, which will fully run on woody biomass. The pl

  18. Genome-Wide Analysis of miRNA targets in Brachypodium and Biomass Energy Crops

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Green, Pamela J. [Univ. of Delaware, Newark, DE (United States)

    2015-08-11

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) contribute to the control of numerous biological processes through the regulation of specific target mRNAs. Although the identities of these targets are essential to elucidate miRNA function, the targets are much more difficult to identify than the small RNAs themselves. Before this work, we pioneered the genome-wide identification of the targets of Arabidopsis miRNAs using an approach called PARE (German et al., Nature Biotech. 2008; Nature Protocols, 2009). Under this project, we applied PARE to Brachypodium distachyon (Brachypodium), a model plant in the Poaceae family, which includes the major food grain and bioenergy crops. Through in-depth global analysis and examination of specific examples, this research greatly expanded our knowledge of miRNAs and target RNAs of Brachypodium. New regulation in response to environmental stress or tissue type was found, and many new miRNAs were discovered. More than 260 targets of new and known miRNAs with PARE sequences at the precise sites of miRNA-guided cleavage were identified and characterized. Combining PARE data with the small RNA data also identified the miRNAs responsible for initiating approximately 500 phased loci, including one of the novel miRNAs. PARE analysis also revealed that differentially expressed miRNAs in the same family guide specific target RNA cleavage in a correspondingly tissue-preferential manner. The project included generation of small RNA and PARE resources for bioenergy crops, to facilitate ongoing discovery of conserved miRNA-target RNA regulation. By associating specific miRNA-target RNA pairs with known physiological functions, the research provides insights about gene regulation in different tissues and in response to environmental stress. This, and release of new PARE and small RNA data sets should contribute basic knowledge to enhance breeding and may suggest new strategies for improvement of biomass energy crops.

  19. Skylarks trade size and energy content in weed seeds to maximize total ingested lipid biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaba, Sabrina; Collas, Claire; Powolny, Thibaut; Bretagnolle, François; Bretagnolle, Vincent

    2014-10-01

    The trade-off between forage quality and quantity has been particularly studied in herbivore organisms, but much less for seed eating animals, in particular seed-eating birds which constitute the bulk of wintering passerines in European farmlands. The skylark is one of the commonest farmland birds in winter, mainly feeding on seeds. We focus on weed seeds for conservation and management purposes. Weed seeds form the bulk of the diet of skylarks during winter period, and although this is still a matter for discussion, weed seed predation by granivorous has been suggested as an alternative to herbicides used to regulate weed populations in arable crops. Our objectives were to identify whether weed seed traits govern foraging decisions of skylarks, and to characterize key seed traits with respect to size, which is related to searching and handling time, and lipid content, which is essential for migratory birds. We combined a single-offer experiment and a multiple-offer one to test for feeding preferences of the birds by estimating seed intake on weed seed species differing in their seed size and seed lipid content. Our results showed (1) a selective preference for smaller seeds above a threshold of seed size or seed size difference in the pair and, (2) a significant effect of seed lipid biomass suggesting a trade-off between foraging for smaller seeds and selecting seeds rich in lipids. Skylarks foraging decision thus seems to be mainly based on seed size, that is presumably a 'proxy' for weed seed energy content. However, there are clearly many possible combinations of morphological and physiological traits that must play crucial role in the plant-bird interaction such as toxic compound or seed coat.

  20. Bioenergy options for New Zealand : the role of residual biomass and forestry resources in national energy supply

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hall, P. [Scion, Rotorua (New Zealand)

    2010-07-01

    This paper reported on a study that was conducted to determine bioenergy options for New Zealand. The study showed that current biomass residuals had the potential to contribute approximately 57 PJ per annum between 2005 and 2010. New Zealand has the potential to grow forest biomass on a greater scale from land that is currently providing low economic returns from sheep and cattle grazing. Four afforestation scenarios of 0.8, 1.8, 3.3, and 4.9 million ha were then analyzed in order to determine their production potential as well as economic and environmental impacts. The study showed that the 1.8 m ha scenario provided the highest volumes of biomass in relation to economic and environmental outcomes. The use of chip log technologies resulted in the production of 200 PJ, or nearly two thirds of the country's domestic liquid fuel consumption. Existing forest stands in New Zealand were able to supply 12 million m{sup 3}, or 83 PJ of primary energy. Results demonstrated that New Zealand has the capacity to obtain most of its transport fuel needs from forest biomass.

  1. Global Characterization of Biomass-Burning Patterns using Satellite Measurements of Fire Radiative Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichoku, Charles; Giglio, Louis; Wooster, Martin J.; Remer, Lorraine A.

    2008-01-01

    Remote sensing is the most practical means of measuring energy release from large open-air biomass burning. Satellite measurement of fire radiative energy (FRE) release rate or power (FRP) enables distinction between fires of different strengths. Based on a 1-km resolution fire data acquired globally by the MODerate-resolution Imaging Spectro-radiometer (MODIS) sensor aboard the Terra and Aqua satellites from 2000 to 2006, instanteaneous FRP values ranged between 0.02 MW and 1866 MW, with global daily means ranging between 20 and 40 MW. Regionally, at the Aqua-MODIS afternoon overpass, the mean FRP values for Alaska, Western US, Western Australia, Quebec and the rest of Canada are significantly higher than these global means, with Quebec having the overall highest value of 85 MW. Analysis of regional mean FRP per unit area of land (FRP flux) shows that a peak fire season in certain regions, fires can be responsible for up to 0.2 W/m(sup 2) at peak time of day. Zambia has the highest regional monthly mean FRP flux of approximately 0.045 W/m(sup 2) at peak time of day and season, while the Middle East has the lowest value of approximately 0.0005 W/m(sup 2). A simple scheme based on FRP has been devised to classify fires into five categories, to facilitate fire rating by strength, similar to earthquakes and hurricanes. The scheme uses MODIS measurements of FRP at 1-km resolution as follows: catagory 1 (less than 100 MW), category 2 (100 to less than 500 MW), category 3 (500 to less than 1000 MW), category 4 (1000 to less than 1500 MW), catagory 5 (greater than or equal to 1500 MW). In most regions of the world, over 90% of fires fall into category 1, while only less than 1% fall into each of categories 3 to 5, although these proportions may differ significantly from day to day and by season. The frequency of occurence of the larger fires is region specific, and could not be explained by ecosystem type alone. Time-series analysis of the propertions of higher category

  2. Mobilization of biomass for energy from boreal forests in Finland & Russia under present sustainable forest management certification and new sustainability requirements for solid biofuels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sikkema, R.; Faaij, A.P.C.; Ranta, T.; Heinimö, J.; Gerasimov, Y.Y.; Karjalainen, T.; Nabuurs, G.J.

    2014-01-01

    Forest biomass is one of the main contributors to the EU's renewable energy target of 20% gross final energy consumption in 2020 (Renewable Energy Directive). Following the RED, new sustainability principles are launched by the European energy sector, such as the Initiative Wood Pellet Buyers (IWPB

  3. Utilization of emergent aquatic plants for biomass-energy-systems development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kresovich, S.; Wagner, C.K.; Scantland, D.A.; Groet, S.S.; Lawhon, W.T.

    1982-02-01

    A review was conducted of the available literature pertaining to the following aspects of emergent aquatic biomass: identification of prospective emergent plant species for management; evaluation of prospects for genetic manipulation; evaluation of biological and environmental tolerances; examination of current production technologies; determination of availability of seeds and/or other propagules, and projections for probable end-uses and products. Species identified as potential candidates for production in biomass systems include Arundo donax, Cyperus papyrus, Phragmites communis, Saccharum spontaneum, Spartina alterniflora, and Typha latifolia. If these species are to be viable candidates in biomass systems, a number of research areas must be further investigated. Points such as development of baseline yield data for managed systems, harvesting conceptualization, genetic (crop) improvement, and identification of secondary plant products require refinement. However, the potential pay-off for developing emergent aquatic systems will be significant if development is successful.

  4. MOBE: Final report; Modelling and Optimization of Biomass-based Energy production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trangbaek, K. (Aalborg Univ., Institut for Elektroniske Systemer, Aalborg (Denmark)); Elmegaard, B. (Danmarks Tekniske Univ., Institut for Mekanisk Teknologi, Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark))

    2008-07-01

    The present report is the documentation of the work in the PSO-project MOBE, ''Modelling and Optimization of biomass-based Energy production''. The aim of the project is to develop better control methods for boilers in central power plant units, so the plant will achieve better controllability with respect to load changes. in particular focus is on the low load operation near and below the Benson point. The introduction of the report includes a description of the challenges the central power stations see in the modern electricity market where wind power delivers a significant prioritized production, and thus, in connection with consumption variations, contributes to the load requirements of the central units. The report documents the work on development of a common simulation platform for the partners in the project and for future model work. The result of this is an integration between the DTU simulation code DNA and Matlab. Other possible tools are suggested. The modelling work in the project has resulted in preliminary studies of time constants of evaporator tubes, an analysis that shows that Ledinegg instabilities do not occur in modern boilers even at low load, development of a validated evaporator model that can be coupled to tools for control system development, and an analysis of two different configurations at the low load system of Benson boilers. Based in a validated power plant model different control strategies have been studied. Because constraints on control signals and temperature gradients are dominating, it is recommended to use model predictive control. It is demonstrated, how such a simulator can handle large low gradients without violating the constraints. By switching between different linearized models the whole load range may be covered. The project indicates that Model predictive control can improve the control in low low significantly. This should be studied further in future projects by realistic tests. At first these

  5. Technical and Economic Forecast in Selection of Optimum Biomass and Local Fossil Fuel Application Technology for Thermal Electric Energy Generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. A. Bokun

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper provides a technical and economic analysis pertaining to selection of optimum biomass and local fossil fuel application technology for thermal electric energy generation while using a matrix of costs and a method of minimum value. Calculation results give grounds to assert that it is expedient to burn in the boiling layer – 69 % and 31 % of wood pellets and wastes, respectively and 54 % of peat and 46 % of slate stones. A steam and gas unit (SGU can fully operate on peat. Taking into account reorientation on decentralized power supply and increase of small power plants up to 3–5 MW the paper specifies variants of the most efficient technologies for burning biomass and local fossil fuels. 

  6. Sustainability: The capacity of smokeless biomass pyrolysis for energy production, global carbon capture and sequestration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Application of modern smokeless biomass pyrolysis for biochar and biofuel production is potentially a revolutionary approach for global carbon capture and sequestration at gigatons of carbon (GtC) scales. A conversion of about 7% of the annual terrestrial gross photosynthetic product (120 GtC y-1) i...

  7. High Tonnage Forest Biomass Production Systems from Southern Pine Energy Plantations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, Steve [Auburn Univ., AL (United States); McDonald, Timothy [Auburn Univ., AL (United States); Fasina, Oladiran [Auburn Univ., AL (United States); Gallagher, Tom [Auburn Univ., AL (United States); Smidt, Mathew [Auburn Univ., AL (United States); Mitchell, Dana [US Dept. of Agriculture (USDA) Forest Service, Washington, DC (United States); Klepac, John [US Dept. of Agriculture (USDA) Forest Service, Washington, DC (United States); Thompson, Jason [US Dept. of Agriculture (USDA) Forest Service, Washington, DC (United States); Sprinkle, Wes [US Dept. of Agriculture (USDA) Forest Service, Washington, DC (United States); Carter, Emily [US Dept. of Agriculture (USDA) Forest Service, Washington, DC (United States); Grace, Johnny [US Dept. of Agriculture (USDA) Forest Service, Washington, DC (United States); Rummer, Robert [US Dept. of Agriculture (USDA) Forest Service, Washington, DC (United States); Corley, Frank [Corley Land Services, Chapman, AL (United States); Somerville, Grant [Tigercat, Brantford, ON (Canada)

    2014-09-01

    In this study, a high-tonnage harvesting system designed specifically to operate efficiently in the expected stand types of a bioenergy scenario was built, deployed, and evaluated in a production setting. Stands on which the system was evaluated exhibited the heavy stocking levels (> 600 stems per acre) and tree size distributions with significant volume in small stems (down to 2” DBH) that were expected in the modified energy plantation silvicultural approach. The harvest system also was designed to be functional in the traditional plantation stands dominating the commercial forestry landscape in the region. The Tigercat 845D feller buncher, which was a prototype machine designed for the high tonnage harvest system, used a boom-mounted prototype DT1802 shear felling head and incorporated a number of options intended to maximize its small-stem productivity, including: a high-speed shear severing system that was cheaper to operate than a saw; a large-pocket felling head that allowed larger accumulations of small stems to be built before expending the time to drop them for the skidder; efficient, low ground pressure, tracked carrier system to decrease the amount of maneuvering, saving time and minimizing soil disturbance; and various energy-saving devices to lower fuel costs and minimize air quality impacts. Overall, the feller buncher represented a quantum advance in small-stem harvesting technology. Extensive testing showed the machine’s production rate to be relatively insensitive to piece size, much less so than comparable traditional equipment. In plantation stands, the feller buncher was able to produce approximately 100 green tons of biomass per productive machine hour (PMH), and in natural stands, it produced nearly 120 green tons per PMH. The ability of the high tonnage feller buncher to maintain high productivity in stands with smaller diameter stems is something that has not been achieved in previous feller buncher designs. The Tigercat 845D feller

  8. A preliminary Study on the Prospect of Biomass Energy%生物质能源发展前景研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    段永斌

    2015-01-01

    通过对生物质能源进行论述,对生物质的种类、储量、用途进行仔细分析,说明生物质能源的资源潜力巨大、应用广范、发展环境好,具有广阔的发展前景。%This paper expounded biomass energy and analyzed the types,reservation and usage of biomass and ex-plained that biomass energy possesses great potentiality and it is widely used and in sound development environment ,it possesses broad development prospect.

  9. Doses de boro no desenvolvimento de copo-de-leite em solução nutritiva Boron doses in the development of calla lily in nutrient solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roseane Rodrigues de Souza

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available O boro desempenha funções importantes em processos biológicos das plantas, como a síntese e estruturação da parede celular, lignificação, metabolismo e transporte de carboidratos, além de participar da divisão e diferenciação celular em tecidos meristemáticos. No entanto, as necessidades nutricionais para o cultivo de copo-de-leite, especialmente de boro, ainda são pouco conhecidas. Assim, objetivou-se avaliar os efeitos de diferentes doses de boro no crescimento e desenvolvimento, teor e acúmulo desse nutriente em plantas de copo-de-leite cultivadas em solução nutritiva. Mudas micropropagadas foram submetidas aos tratamentos com as doses de 0,05; 0,25; 0,50; 0,75; 1,00 e 2,00 mg L-1 de boro em solução nutritiva de Hoagland & Arnon diluída a 30% de sua força iônica. O delineamento experimental foi o inteiramente casualizado, com dez repetições. As plantas não manifestaram sintomas visuais de deficiência ou de toxidez de boro, no entanto, o sistema radicular das plantas cultivadas na dose de 0,05 mg L-1 de boro apresentou-se com o crescimento reduzido. A melhor dose para o desenvolvimento adequado de plantas de copo-de-leite em solução nutritiva é de 1,20 mg L-1 de boro.Boron has essential functions in plant biological processes such as cell wall synthesis and structuralization, lignification, carbohydrates metabolism and transport. This element also acts in cell division and differentiation in meristematic tissues. However, the nutritional needs for calla lily cultivation, and especially boron needs, are still poorly known. Thus, the objective of this work was to evaluate the effects of different boron doses on growth and development, content and accumulation of boron in calla lily plants grown in a nutrient solution. Micropropagated seedlings were submitted to treatments with the doses 0.05; 0.25; 0.50; 0.75; 1.00 and 2.00 mg L-1 boron in Hoagland & Arnon nutrient solution diluted to 30% of its ionic force. The

  10. CARACTHERIZATION OF BIOMASS ENERGY AND CARBONIZATION OF COFFEE GRAINS (Coffea arabica, L AND (Cedrelinga catenaeformis, DUKE WOOD RESIDUES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ailton Teixeira do Vale

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Brazil produces annually two million tons of coffee s husks from farms or industrial processing units. This wastematerial can be used for energy production; currently it is mainly used in agricultural practices as field straw cover up. This paperdeals with coffee s (Coffea arabica, L husks biomass energy characteristics, including wood carbonization. As a reference, the samestudy was performed with a wood species regularly used for building construction named Cedrorana (Cedrelinga catenaeformis,Duke. Coffee s husks was obtained from a farm 150 km far from Brasilia city and cedrorana sawdust from a local saw mill. Thispaper presents results from energy and biomass variables like moisture content, bulk density, lower and superior heating power, ashcontent, fixed carbon, volatile matter and volumetric energy. It has also studied carbonization, charcoal, pyroligneous licqor and noncondensablegases. A comparison between Coffee s husk with 0% moisture content and Cedrorana sawdust portrays the followingresults: bulk density 144.41 kg/m3, fixed carbon 10.31%, superior heating power 4.57 kWh (or 16.46 MJ or 3.933 Mcal/kg, charcoalcontent 40,64% and heating value per cubic meter 2,179 MJ/m3

  11. Utilization of biomass in the county of Vaesternorrland, Sweden. Optimization of energy flow to different demand categories; Biobraenslets utnyttjande i Vaesternorrland. Optimering av energifloeden till olika behovskategorier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jelvehed, P.

    1999-12-01

    The main aim of the project is to minimize the total energy system cost during a ten year period, and to analyze the long-term competitiveness of biomass compared to other energy carriers, and also to make an analysis of cost-efficient measures within the energy system.

  12. Life Cycle Assessment of Selected Biomass and Fossil Fuel Energy Systems in Denmark and Ghana - with a focus on greenhouse gases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Per Sieverts

    1996-01-01

    The aim of the present project has been to establish an LCA methodology for assessing different biomass energy systems in Denmark and Ghana in relation to their emission of greenhouse gases. The biomass systems which have been studied are willow chips, surplus straw and biogas from manure...... PJ of biogas, the total CO2 reduction will be 3.8 million tonnes or 6% of present CO2 emission if biomass substitute natural gas. This relates to the use of present available technologies. In the decades to come new and more efficient technologies will be developed for biomass plants....... This will increase the reduction potential for CO2. GhanaTwo different case studies have been carried out for Ghana. The first is a life cycle analysis of an energy forest plantation in Ghana which has been cultivated with modern equipment. The second LCA is extended with an energy end use chain to determine...

  13. From photons to biomass and biofuels: evaluation of different strategies for the improvement of algal biotechnology based on comparative energy balances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilhelm, Christian; Jakob, Torsten

    2011-12-01

    Microalgal based biofuels are discussed as future sustainable energy source because of their higher photosynthetic and water use efficiency to produce biomass. In the context of climate CO2 mitigation strategies, algal mass production is discussed as a potential CO2 sequestration technology which uses CO2 emissions to produce biomass with high-oil content independent on arable land. In this short review, it is presented how complete energy balances from photon to harvestable biomass can help to identify the limiting processes on the cellular level. The results show that high productivity is always correlated with high metabolic costs. The overall efficiency of biomass formation can be improved by a photobioreactor design which is kinetically adapted to the rate-limiting steps in cell physiology. However, taking into account the real photon demand per assimilated carbon and the energy input for biorefinement, it becomes obvious that alternative strategies must be developed to reach the goal of a real CO2 sequestration.

  14. Energy efficient production of hydrogen and syngas from biomass: development of low-temperature catalytic process for cellulose gasification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asadullah, Mohammad; Ito, Shin-ichi; Kunimori, Kimio; Yamada, Muneyoshi; Tomishige, Keiichi

    2002-10-15

    The Rh/CeO2/M (M = SiO2, Al2O3, and ZrO2) type catalysts with various compositions have been prepared and investigated in the gasification of cellulose, a model compound of biomass, in a fluidized bed reactor at 500-700 degrees C. The conventional nickel and dolomite catalysts have also been investigated. Among the catalysts, Rh/CeO2/SiO2 with 35% CeO2 has been found to be the best catalyst with respect to the carbon conversion to gas and product distribution. The steam addition contributed to the complete conversion of cellulose to gas even at 600 degrees C. Lower steam supply gave the syngas and higher steam supply gave the hydrogen as the major product. Hydrogen and syngas from cellulose or cellulosic biomass gasification are environmentally super clean gaseous fuels for power generation. Moreover, the syngas derived liquid fuels such as methanol, dimethyl ether, and synthetic diesels are also super clean transportation fuels. However, the use of cellulose or cellulosic biomass for energy source through the gasification is challenging because of the formation of tar and char during the gasification process. It is interesting that no tar or char was finally formed in the effluent gas at as low as 500-600 degrees C using Rh/CeO2/SiO2(35) catalyst in this process.

  15. Multi-criteria analysis as a support for national energy policy regarding the use of biomass: Case study of Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đaković Damir D.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Decision makers make decisions taking into account many different factors. That is why different experiences, living standard and other „non-technical“ conditions may lead to different decisions in different countries, or even regions of the same country. This paper deals with information gathered through a survey made among experts already dealing with different aspects of biomass use. Recognized factors influencing the wider use of biomass are arranged in a SWOT (Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, and Threats matrix. This matrix is used as a base to gather the opinions of the experts interviewed. Conclusions were made taking into account the most influential factors on the decision making process in biomass use according to the results. The questions of the survey were chosen according to existing results, as well as based on the authors’ own experience and estimated relevance to the situation of the country analyzed (Republic of Serbia. The survey analysis covered the responses of 62 national experts in this field. Based on the gathered data, a proper multi-criteria analysis was done using the AHP (Analytic Hierarchy Process and ANP (Analytic Network Process methods. Afterwards, recommendations and comments to the decision makers and developers of national energy strategies are presented.

  16. Gasification of lignocellulosic biomass in fluidized beds for renewable energy development: A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alauddin, Zainal Alimuddin Bin Zainal; Lahijani, Pooya [School of Mechanical Engineering, Engineering Campus, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 14300 Nibong Tebal, Penang (Malaysia); Mohammadi, Maedeh; Mohamed, Abdul Rahman [School of Chemical Engineering, Engineering Campus, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 14300 Nibong Tebal, Penang (Malaysia)

    2010-12-15

    A literature review on gasification of lignocellulosic biomass in various types of fluidized bed gasifiers is presented. The effect of several process parameters such as catalytic bed material, bed temperature and gasifying agent on the performance of the gasifier and quality of the producer gas is discussed. Based on the priorities of researchers, the optimum values of various desired outputs in the gasification process including improved producer gas composition, enhanced LHV, less tar and char content, high gas yield and enhanced carbon conversion and cold gas efficiency have been reported. The characteristics and performance of different fluidized bed gasifiers were assessed and the obtained results from the literature have been extensively reviewed. Survey of literature revealed that several industrial biomass gasification plants using fluidized beds are currently conducting in various countries. However, more research and development of technology should be devoted to this field to enhance the economical feasibility of this process for future exploitations. (author)

  17. Assessing land availability to produce biomass for energy: The case of Brazilian charcoal for steel making

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piketty, Marie-Gabrielle [CIRAD and Sao Paulo University (Economic Department and Environmental Science Program) (Brazil)]|[Universidade de Sao Paulo - FEA - Avenida Prof. Luciano Gualberto, 908 CEP: 05 508-900, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Wichert, Marcos [Sao Paulo University, ESALQ, Forestry Science, Avenida Padua Dias, 11 CP 9 Piracicaba, SP, CEP 13418-900 (Brazil); Fallot, Abigail [CIRAD, 73 rue Jean-Francois Breton, TA B-42/16 (Bat. 16, Bur. 26), 34398 Montpellier Cedex 5 (France); Aimola, Luis [Sao Paulo University, Environmental Science Program, Brazil, PROCAM-USP Rua do Anfiteatro, 181 Colmeia, Favo 15, CEP 05508-900, Cidade Universitaria, SP (Brazil)

    2009-02-15

    The paper discusses the availability of biomass in Brazil to supply charcoal to the steel industry on the bases of an initial global assessment of land potentially available for plantations and of Brazilian data that allows refining the assessment and specifying the issue of practical availability. Technical potentials are first assessed through a series of simple rules against direct competition with agriculture, forests and protected areas, and of quantitative criteria, whether geo-climatic (rainfall), demographic (population density) or legal (reserves). Institutional, social and economic factors are then identified and discussed so as to account for the practical availability of Brazilian biomass through six criteria. The ranking of nine Brazilian States according to these criteria brings out the necessary trade-offs in the selection of land for plantations that would efficiently supply charcoal to the steel industry. (author)

  18. Comprehensive evaluation of biomass resources using SD method-aided world energy/land utilization model; SD shuho no sekai energy tochi riyo model ni yoru

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamamoto, H. [Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry, Tokyo (Japan); Yamaji, K. [The University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-02-01

    For the evaluation of the world-wide conflict between the utilization of biomass resources and the restrictions on land utilization, analysis was made using the system dynamics method. In the advanced area, there is scarcely any changes in land utilization, thanks to stable demand for biomass and perfect forestry protection. On the other hand, in the developing area, demand for biomass is increasing and areas of mature forests are decreasing due to imperfect forestry protection. In 2050 and after when the forests will be enjoying the same protection as that in practice in the advanced area, the forest area will stabilize. Mature forests, however, will not stop shrinking, and there will be only 400-million ha of mature forests remaining in 2100. There will be serious food shortage in the developing area because there will be a huge demand for food for livestock. Accordingly, there will be no room at all for the production of energy making crops. Both in advanced and developing areas, the potential is high of cereal residue, livestock`s dung, raw material timber residue, by-products, and refuse energy resources. On the contrary, the potential is low of kitchen refuse, paper, and chemical industry products refuse. 7 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs.

  19. The 1985 Biomass Burning Season in South America: Satellite Remote Sensing of Fires, Smoke, and Regional Radiative Energy Budgets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christopher, Sundar A.; Wang, Min; Berendes, Todd A.; Welch, Ronald M.; Yang, Shi-Keng

    1998-01-01

    Using satellite imagery, more than five million square kilometers of the forest and cerrado regions over South America are extensively studied to monitor fires and smoke during the 1985 biomass burning season. The results are characterized for four major ecosystems, namely: (1) tropical rain forest, (2) tropical broadleaf seasonal, (3) savannah/grass and seasonal woods (SGW), and (4) mild/warm/hot grass/shrub (MGS). The spatial and temporal distribution of fires are examined from two different methods using the multispectral Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer Local Area Coverage data. Using collocated measurements from the instantaneous scanner Earth Radiation Budget Experiment data, the direct regional radiative forcing of biomass burning aerosols is computed. The results show that more than 70% of the fires occur in the MGS and SGW ecosystems due to agricultural practices. The smoke generated from biomass burning has negative instantaneous net radiative forcing values for all four major ecosystems within South America. The smoke found directly over the fires has mean net radiative forcing values ranging from -25.6 to -33.9 W m(exp -2). These results confirm that the regional net radiative impact of biomass burning is one of cooling. The spectral and broadband properties for clear-sky and smoke regions are also presented that could be used as input and/or validation for other studies attempting to model the impact of aerosols on the earth-atmosphere system. These results have important applications for future instruments from the Earth Observing System (EOS) program. Specifically, the combination of the Visible Infrared Scanner and Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) instruments from the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission and the combination of Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer and CERES instruments from the EOS morning crossing mission could provide reliable estimates of the direct radiative forcing of aerosols on a global scale

  20. Microbial surface displayed enzymes based biofuel cell utilizing degradation products of lignocellulosic biomass for direct electrical energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Shuqin; Hou, Chuantao; Liang, Bo; Feng, Ruirui; Liu, Aihua

    2015-09-01

    In this work, a bacterial surface displaying enzyme based two-compartment biofuel cell for the direct electrical energy conversion from degradation products of lignocellulosic biomass is reported. Considering that the main degradation products of the lignocellulose are glucose and xylose, xylose dehydrogenase (XDH) displayed bacteria (XDH-bacteria) and glucose dehydrogenase (GDH) displayed bacteria (GDH-bacteria) were used as anode catalysts in anode chamber with methylene blue as electron transfer mediator. While the cathode chamber was constructed with laccase/multi-walled-carbon nanotube/glassy-carbon-electrode. XDH-bacteria exhibited 1.75 times higher catalytic efficiency than GDH-bacteria. This assembled enzymatic fuel cell exhibited a high open-circuit potential of 0.80 V, acceptable stability and energy conversion efficiency. Moreover, the maximum power density of the cell could reach 53 μW cm(-2) when fueled with degradation products of corn stalk. Thus, this finding holds great potential to directly convert degradation products of biomass into electrical energy.

  1. Central Africa Energy: Utilizing NASA Earth Observations to Explore Flared Gas as an Energy Source Alternative to Biomass in Central Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Amber; White, Charles; Castillo, Christopher; Hitimana, Emmanuel; Nguyen, Kenny; Mishra, Shikher; Clark, Walt

    2014-01-01

    Much of Central Africa's economy is centered on oil production. Oil deposits lie below vast amounts of compressed natural gas. The latter is often flared off during oil extraction due to a lack of the infrastructure needed to utilize it for productive energy generation. Though gas flaring is discouraged by many due to its contributions to greenhouse emissions, it represents a waste process and is rarely tracked or recorded in this region. In contrast to this energy waste, roughly 80% of Africa's population lacks access to electricity and in turn uses biomass such as wood for heat and light. In addition to the dangers incurred from collecting and using biomass, the practice commonly leads to ecological change through the acquisition of wood from forests surrounding urban areas. The objective of this project was to gain insight on domestic energy usage in Central Africa, specifically Angola, Gabon, and the Republic of Congo. This was done through an analysis of deforestation, an estimation of gas flared, and a suitability study for the infrastructure needed to realize the natural gas resources. The energy from potential natural gas production was compared to the energy equivalent of the biomass being harvested. A site suitability study for natural gas pipeline routes from flare sites to populous locations was conducted to assess the feasibility of utilizing natural gas for domestic energy needs. Analyses and results were shared with project partners, as well as this project's open source approach to assessing the energy sector. Ultimately, Africa's growth demands energy for its people, and natural gas is already being produced by the flourishing petroleum industry in numerous African countries. By utilizing this gas, Africa could reduce flaring, recuperate the financial and environmental loss that flaring accounts for, and unlock a plentiful domestic energy source for its people. II. Introduction Background Africa is home to numerous burgeoning economies; a

  2. Discovering the desirable alleles contributing to the lignocellulosic biomass traits in Saccharum germplasm collections for energy cane improvement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Jianping [Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States); Sandhu, Hardev [Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States)

    2017-03-23

    1) The success in crop improvement programs depends largely on the extent of genetic variability available. Germplasm collections assembles all the available genetic resources and are critical for long-term crop improvement. This world sugarcane germplasm collection contains enormous genetic variability for various morphological traits, biomass yield components, adaptation and many quality traits, prospectively imbeds a large number of valuable alleles for biofuel traits such as high biomass yield, quantity and quality of lignocelluloses, stress tolerance, and nutrient use efficiency. The germplasm collection is of little value unless it is characterized and utilized for crop improvement. In this project, we phenotypically and genotypically characterized the sugarcane world germplasm collection (The results were published in two papers already and another two papers are to be published). This data will be made available for public to refer to for germplasm unitization specifically in the sugarcane and energy cane breeding programs. In addition, we are identifying the alleles contributing to the biomass traits in sugarcane germplasm. This part of project is very challenging due to the large genome and highly polyploid level of this crop. We firstly established a high throughput sugarcane genotyping pipeline in the genome and bioinformatics era (a paper is published in 2016). We identified and modified a software for genome-wide association analysis of polyploid species. The results of the alleles associated to the biomass traits will be published soon, which will help the scientific community understand the genetic makeup of the biomass components of sugarcane. Molecular breeders can develop markers for marker assisted selection of biomass traits improvement. Further, the development and release of new energy cane cultivars through this project not only improved genetic diversity but also improved dry biomass yields and resistance to diseases. These new cultivars

  3. Bioenergy co-products derived from microalgae biomass via thermochemical conversion--life cycle energy balances and CO2 emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoo, H H; Koh, C Y; Shaik, M S; Sharratt, P N

    2013-09-01

    An investigation of the potential to efficiently convert lipid-depleted residual microalgae biomass using thermochemical (gasification at 850 °C, pyrolysis at 550 °C, and torrefaction at 300 °C) processes to produce bioenergy derivatives was made. Energy indicators are established to account for the amount of energy inputs that have to be supplied to the system in order to gain 1 MJ of bio-energy output. The paper seeks to address the difference between net energy input-output balances based on a life cycle approach, from "cradle-to-bioenergy co-products", vs. thermochemical processes alone. The experimental results showed the lowest results of Net Energy Balances (NEB) to be 0.57 MJ/MJ bio-oil via pyrolysis, and highest, 6.48 MJ/MJ for gas derived via torrefaction. With the complete life cycle process chain factored in, the energy balances of NEBLCA increased to 1.67 MJ/MJ (bio-oil) and 7.01 MJ/MJ (gas). Energy efficiencies and the life cycle CO2 emissions were also calculated.

  4. Elemental and thermo-chemical analysis of oil palm fronds for biomass energy conversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guangul, Fiseha Mekonnen; Sulaiman, Shaharin Anwar; Raghavan, Vijay R.

    2012-06-01

    Oil palm frond is the most abundant yet untapped biomass waste in Malaysia. This paper investigates the characteristics of raw oil palm fronds and its ash to evaluate its potential utilization as a biomass fuel for gasification process using single throat downdraft gasifier. The morphological nature, elemental content, proximate and ultimate analysis and calorific value were studied. Field emission scanning electron microscopy and x-ray fluorescence were used to investigate the surface morphology, elemental and mineralogical nature of oil palm frond and its ash. The results were compared with other agricultural and forestry biomass wastes. From proximate analysis volatile matter, fixed carbon and ash were found to be 83.5%, 15.2% and 1.3%, respectively on dry basis. From ultimate analysis result values of 44.58%, 4.53%, 0.71% and 0.07% for carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen and sulfur were found respectively on dry basis. Oxygen was determined by difference and found to be 48.81%. The proximate and ultimate analysis results indicate that oil palm frond is better than agricultural wastes and less than most forestry wastes to use as a feedstock in the gasification process in order to get a better quality of syngas. The amount of ash content in OPF was found to be much less than in agricultural wastes and higher than most forestry wastes. From x-ray fluorescence analysis CaO and K2O were found as the major oxides in oil palm fronds and rice husk ash with the amount of 28.46% and 15.71% respectively. The overall results of oil palm fronds were found to be satisfactory to use as a feedstock for the process of gasification.

  5. Woody biomass: Niche position as a source of sustainable renewable chemicals and energy and kinetics of hot-water extraction/hydrolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shijie

    2010-01-01

    The conversion of biomass to chemicals and energy is imperative to sustaining our way of life as known to us today. Fossil chemical and energy sources are traditionally regarded as wastes from a distant past. Petroleum, natural gas, and coal are not being regenerated in a sustainable manner. However, biomass sources such as algae, grasses, bushes and forests are continuously being replenished. Woody biomass represents the most abundant and available biomass source. Woody biomass is a reliably sustainable source of chemicals and energy that could be replenished at a rate consistent with our needs. The biorefinery is a concept describing the collection of processes used to convert biomass to chemicals and energy. Woody biomass presents more challenges than cereal grains for conversion to platform chemicals due to its stereochemical structures. Woody biomass can be thought of as comprised of at least four components: extractives, hemicellulose, lignin and cellulose. Each of these four components has a different degree of resistance to chemical, thermal and biological degradation. The biorefinery concept proposed at ESF (State University of New York - College of Environmental Science and Forestry) aims at incremental sequential deconstruction, fractionation/conversion of woody biomass to achieve efficient separation of major components. The emphasis of this work is on the kinetics of hot-water extraction, filling the gap in the fundamental understanding, linking engineering developments, and completing the first step in the biorefinery processes. This first step removes extractives and hemicellulose fractions from woody biomass. While extractives and hemicellulose are largely removed in the extraction liquor, cellulose and lignin largely remain in the residual woody structure. Xylo-oligomers and acetic acid in the extract are the major components having the greatest potential value for development. Extraction/hydrolysis involves at least 16 general reactions that could

  6. Using CORE Model-Based Systems Engineering Software to Support Program Management in the U.S. Department of Energy Office of the Biomass Project: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riley, C.; Sandor, D.; Simpkins, P.

    2006-11-01

    This paper describes how a model-based systems engineering software, CORE, is helping the U. S. Department of Energy's Office of Biomass Program assist with bringing biomass-derived biofuels to the market. This software tool provides information to guide informed decision-making as biomass-to-biofuels systems are advanced from concept to commercial adoption. It facilitates management and communication of program status by automatically generating custom reports, Gantt charts, and tables using the widely available programs of Microsoft Word, Project and Excel.

  7. Self-heating co-pyrolysis of excessive activated sludge with waste biomass: energy balance and sludge reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Hong-Sheng; Jiang, Hong

    2013-04-01

    In this work, co-pyrolysis of sludge with sawdust or rice husk was investigated. The results showed that the co-pyrolysis technology could be used to dispose of the excessive activated sludge without external energy input. The results also demonstrated that no obvious synergistic effect occurred except for heat transfer in the co-pyrolysis if the co-feeding biomass and sludge had similar thermogravimetric characteristics. The experimental results combined with calculation showed that adding sawdust accounting for 49.6% of the total feedstock or rice husk accounting for 74.7% could produce bio-oil to keep the energy balance of the co-pyrolysis system and self-heat it. The sludge from solar drying bed can be further reduced by 38.6% and 35.1% by weight when co-pyrolyzed with rice husk and sawdust, respectively. This study indicates that sludge reduction without external heat supply through co-pyrolysis of sludge with waste biomass is practically feasible.

  8. Stakeholder analysis in the biomass energy development based on the experts’ opinions: the example of Triglav National Park in Slovenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grilli Gianluca

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a method for identifying and classifying local stakeholders involved in renewable energy development. The method is based on the expert assessment and comprises three main steps: (1 identification of the independent experts considering their expertise and knowledge of the local context; (2 identification of the local stakeholders based on expert assessment; and (3 analytical categorisation of stakeholders taking into account the professional relationship network. Using forest biomass (bioenergy production as example, the stakeholder analysis is illustrated on the case study of Triglav National Park, which is characterised by a high potential of woody biomass production and a large number of stakeholders involved in land use and management. The first stage of stakeholder analysis identifies the key stakeholders to be involved in bioenergy development, through a survey with local experts. The results highlight eight key stakeholders and several primary and secondary stakeholders that should be involved to ensure socially acceptable decision-making about the renewable energy development in the Triglav National Park.

  9. Biomass Residues from Agriculture and Potential Contribution towards Modern Energy Supply in West Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ackom, Emmanuel

    2016-01-01

    Access to modern energy services especially in developing countries is an urgent issue. Globally, 1.3 billion people do not have access to modern energy and the services associated with it. Sub-Saharan Africa is one of the regions have profound lack of modern energy access. The objective of this ......Access to modern energy services especially in developing countries is an urgent issue. Globally, 1.3 billion people do not have access to modern energy and the services associated with it. Sub-Saharan Africa is one of the regions have profound lack of modern energy access. The objective...... prospect for improved quality of life, poverty alleviation and sustainable development....

  10. Management of solid residues in waste-to-energy and biomass systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vehlow, J.; Bergfeldt, B. [Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe GmbH Technik und Umwelt (Germany). Inst. fuer Technische Chemie; Wilen, C.; Ranta, J. [VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Espoo (Finland); Schwaiger, H. [Forschungsgesellschaft Joanneum mbH, Graz (Austria); Visser, H.J.M. [ECN Energy Research Centre of the Netherlands, Petten (Netherlands); Gu, S.; Gyftopoulou, E.; Brammer, J. [Aston Univ., Birmingham (United Kingdom)

    2007-12-15

    A literature review has been performed for getting in-depth information about quality of residues from thermal processes for waste and biomass as well as their disposal or utilisation options and current practices. Residues from waste incineration have been subject to intense research programs for many years and it can be concluded that the quality of bottom ashes has meanwhile a high standard. The question whether an utilisation as secondary building material is accepted or not depends on the definition of acceptable economic impac. For filter ashes and gas cleaning residues the situation is more complex. Their quality is known: due to their high inventory of heavy metals and organic micro-pollutants they are classified as hazardous waste which means they require specific measures for their safe long-term disposal. A number of stabilisation and treatment processes for filter ashes and gas cleaning residues including the recovery of species out of these materials have been developed but none has been implemented in full scale due to economic constraints. There is reason to speculate that even recovery processes which are not profitable for private companies might point out economically useful if future and long-term costs which have to be covered of the society, e.g. for rehabilitation of contaminated sites, are taken into account. Their quality as well as that of residues from combustion of contaminated biomass is mainly depending on the quality of the fuel. The inventory of critical ingredients in fuel produced from waste or waste fractions, especially of halogens and heavy metals, is often rather high and shows typically a wide range of variation. A reliable quality control for such fuels is very difficult. Other residues can - like gas cleaning residues from waste incineration - be inertised in order to meet the criteria for the access to cheaper landfills than those for hazardous waste. A similar conclusion can be drawn for the quality and management of

  11. Characterization of selected application of biomass energy technologies and a solar district heating and cooling system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D' Alessio, Dr., Gregory J.; Blaunstein, Robert P.

    1980-09-01

    The following systems are discussed: energy self-sufficient farms, wood gasification, energy from high-yield silviculture farms, and solar district heating and cooling. System descriptions and environmental data are included for each one. (MHR)

  12. Advanced Breeding, Development, and Release of High Biomass Energy Cane Cultivars in Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Research into alternative energy sources has been on the rise since the 1970s. Novel sources of carbon-neutral energy are currently in high demand, but can pose different challenges in their development. Energy cane is a relatively new generation crop being bred as a source for biofuel feedstock and...

  13. Impact of energy prices and cellulosic biomass supply on agriculture, energy, and the environment: An integrated modeling approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    The accelerated growth in biofuels markets has both created and reinforced linkages between agricultural and energy markets. This study investigates the dynamics in agricultural and biofuel markets under alternative price scenarios for both crude oil and natural gas. Two energy ...

  14. International seminar on biomass and fossil fuels co-firing in power plants and heating plants in Europe; Seminaire international sur la cocombustion de biomasse et d'energies fossiles dans les centrales electriques et les chaufferies en Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    The aim of the European commission which has fixed to 12% the share of renewable energies in the total energy consumption up to 2010, is to develop the biomass sector. Co-firing is a solution that allows to increase significantly the use of biomass because it does not require important investments. Today, about 150 power plants in Europe use co-firing. An Altener project named 'Cofiring' has ben settled in order to bring together and analyze the European experience in this domain and to sustain and rationalize the design of future projects. The conclusions of this study, coordinated by VTT Energy and which involves CARMEN (Germany), CBE (Portugal), the Danish centre for landscape and planning, ITEBE (France), KOBA (Italy), SLU (Sweden), and EVA (Austria), were presented during this international seminar. (J.S.)

  15. World wide biomass resources

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Faaij, A.P.C.

    2012-01-01

    In a wide variety of scenarios, policy strategies, and studies that address the future world energy demand and the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions, biomass is considered to play a major role as renewable energy carrier. Over the past decades, the modern use of biomass has increased rapidly in

  16. Production of bio-energy from low-value biomass by bioconversion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tan Tianwei

    2014-01-01

    Since 1993,China has become a net importer of energy from a net exporter. The total energy con-sumption has been greater than the total supply,and the external dependence of the energy demand increases rapidly. China’s crude oil import volume and imports amount reached 253.78 million tons and 196.664 billion US dollars in 2011,with a growth rate of 6%and 45.3%,respectively,year-on-year. The significant increase in demand for oil and the caused structural contradictions are increasingly becoming the greatest challenge for China’s energy security. The energy crisis has not only touched everyone’s nerves,but also sparked a strong desire to find alternative energy.

  17. Production of bio-energy from low-value biomass by bioconversion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tan Tianwei

    2014-01-01

    Since 1993, China has become a net importer of energy from a net exporter. The total energy con- sumption has been greater than the total supply, and the external dependence of the energy demand increases rapidly. China' s crude oil import volume and imports amount reached 253.78 million tons and 196.664 billion US dollars in 2011, with a growth rate of 6 % and 45.3 %, respectively, year-on-year. The significant increase in demand for oil and the caused structural contradictions are increasingly becoming the greatest challenge for China' s energy security. The energy crisis has not only touched everyone' s nerves, but also sparked a strong desire to find alternative energy.

  18. Environmental emissions and socioeconomic considerations in the production, storage, and transportation of biomass energy feedstocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perlack, R.D.; Ranney, J.W.; Wright, L.L.

    1992-07-01

    An analysis was conducted to identify major sources and approximate levels of emissions to land, air, and water, that may result, in the year 2010, from supplying biofuel conversion facilities with energy crops. Land, fuel, and chemicals are all used in the establishment, maintenance, harvest, handling and transport of energy crops. The operations involved create soil erosion and compaction, particulate releases, air emissions from fuel use and chemical applications, and runoff or leachate. The analysis considered five different energy facility locations (each in a different major crop growing region) and three classes of energy crops -- woody crops, perennial herbaceous grasses, and an annual herbaceous crop (sorghum). All projections had to be based on reasonable assumptions regarding probable species used, type of land used, equipment requirements, chemical input requirements, and transportation fuel types. Emissions were summarized by location and class of energy crop.

  19. Multiplicação in vitro de copo-de-leite: espectros de luz e sacarose Calla lily in vitro multiplication: spectrum of light and sucrose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcia de Nazaré Oliveira Ribeiro

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available O espectro luminoso pode alterar a morfogênese das plantas por meio de uma série de processos mediados por receptores de luz, principalmente na região do vermelho e azul. O objetivo deste trabalho foi determinar um possível tipo de luz mais ativo que a luz branca, de forma a aumentar a eficiência da multiplicação in vitro de copo-de-leite e obter um nível ótimo de sacarose. Para isso, os tratamentos consistiram em quatro diferentes tipos de luz, sob os quais os explantes cresceram (branca, vermelha, azul e verde, fornecidos pelo espectro luminoso das lâmpadas fluorescentes coloridas T8 20W Ecolume 05/1 e sacarose (0; 15; 30; 45 e 60g L-1. O meio de cultura constituiu-se dos sais e das vitaminas de MS, adicionado de 5mg L-1 de BAP e 5,5g L-1 de ágar. O tipo de luz não influencia a multiplicação in vitro de copo-de-leite, e o maior número de brotos (2,0 é obtido em 45g L-1 de sacarose. Observou-se maior número de folhas em luz branca (3,8 e azul (2,9, com 15 e 60g L-1 de sacarose, respectivamente. Maior comprimento dos brotos (3,7cm foi observado em 60g L-1 de sacarose, e maior fitomassa fresca da parte aérea (1,07g foi observada com a utilização de 60g L-1 de sacarose.Light spectrum can modify plant morphogenesis through a number of processes mediated by light receptors, mainly in the red and blue region. The aim of this work was to determine a possible light type more active than the white light, and an optimized sucrose concentration, in order to increase the efficiency of the calla lily in vitro multiplication . To that end, the treatments consisted of four different light types (white, red, blue and green, under which the explants grew, supplied by colored T8 20W Ecolume 05/1 fluorescent lamps and various sucrose concentrations (0; 15; 30; 45 and 60g L-1. The culture medium contained MS salts and vitamins, added of 5mg L-1 BAP and 5.5g L-1 agar. The light type did not influence in vitro propagation of calla lily and there

  20. Coupled production in biorefineries--combined use of biomass as a source of energy, fuels and materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyko, Hildegard; Deerberg, Görge; Weidner, Eckhard

    2009-06-01

    In spite of high prices for fossil raw materials the production of biomass-based products is rarely economically successful today. Depending on the location feedstock prices are currently so high that products from renewable resources are not marketable when produced in existing process chains. Apart from the higher feedstock costs one reason is that at present no optimized production systems exist in contrast to the chemical and petrochemical industry where these systems have been established over the last decades. If we succeed in developing production systems modelled on those of petroleum refineries where we can provide a flexible coupled production of energy, fuels, materials and chemicals chances are good to enable a lastingly successful production on the basis of renewable resources. Based on examples of fat-based and sugar-based concepts ideas for platform oriented biorefineries are outlined.

  1. Biomass Energy, Carbon Removal and Permanent Sequestration. A 'Real Option' for Managing Climate Risk. Interim Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Obersteiner, M.; Riahi, K.; Nilsson, S.; Schrattenholzer, L. [International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis IIASA, Laxenburg (Austria); Azar, C. [Department of Physical Resource Theory, Chalmers University of Technology, Goeteborg University, Goeteborg (Sweden); Moreira, J. [Instituto de Eletrotecnica e Energia, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Moellersten, K.; Yan, J. [Department of Chemical Engineering and Technology, Royal Institute of Technology KTH, Stockholm (Sweden); Read, P. [Economics Department, Massey University, Palmerston North (New Zealand); Yamagata, Y. [Climate Change Research Project, National Institute for Environmental Studies NIES, Ibaraki (Japan)

    2002-06-20

    The United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) calls for stabilization of greenhouse gases (GHGs) at a safe level, and it also prescribes precautionary measures to anticipate, prevent, or minimize the causes of climate change and mitigate their adverse effects. In order to achieve this goal, such measures should be cost-effective and scientific uncertainty on threats of serious or irreversible damage should not be used as a reason for postponing them. In this sense, the UNFCCC can be understood as a responsive climate management scheme that calls for precautionary and anticipatory risk management, where in a continuous sense-response mode, expected climate-related losses are in an uncertainty augmented analysis balanced against adaptation and mitigation costs. In this paper we investigate a component of a wider technological portfolio of climate risk management. In particular, we will investigate the properties of biomass-based sequestration technologies with respect to their potential role in climate risk management. We use the theory of modern asset pricing, commonly known as real option valuation, in order to assess this technology on global and long-term scales. Biomass energy can be used to produce both carbon neutral energy carriers, e.g., electricity and hydrogen, and at the same time offer a permanent CO2 sink by capturing carbon from the biomass at the conversion facility and permanently storing it in geological formations. To illustrate the long-term potential of energy-related biomass use in combination with carbon capture and sequestration, we performed an ex post analysis based on a representative subset of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) reference scenarios developed with the MESSAGE-MACRO modeling framework. The cumulative carbon emissions reduction in the 21st century may exceed 450 gigatons of carbon, which represents more than 35% of the total emissions of the reference scenarios, and could lead, in cases

  2. Methanol production from eucalyptus wood chips. Attachment IV. Health and safety aspects of the eucalypt biomass to methanol energy system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fishkind, H.H.

    1982-06-01

    The basic eucalyptus-to-methanol energy process is described and possible health and safety risks are identified at all steps of the process. The toxicology and treatment for exposure to these substances are described and mitigating measures are proposed. The health and safety impacts and risks of the wood gasification/methanol synthesis system are compared to those of the coal liquefaction and conversion system. The scope of this report includes the health and safety risks of workers (1) in the laboratory and greenhouse, where eucalyptus seedlings are developed, (2) at the biomass plantation, where these seedlings are planted and mature trees harvested, (3) transporting these logs and chips to the refinery, (4) in the hammermill, where the logs and chips will be reduced to small particles, (5) in the methanol synthesis plant, where the wood particles will be converted to methanol, and (6) transporting and dispensing the methanol. Finally, the health and safety risks of consumers using methanol is discussed.

  3. Topical report on sources and systems for aquatic plant biomass as an energy resource

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldman, J.C.; Ryther, J.H.; Waaland, R.; Wilson, E.H.

    1977-10-21

    Background information is documented on the mass cultivation of aquatic plants and systems design that is available from the literature and through consultation with active research scientists and engineers. The biology of microalgae, macroalgae, and aquatic angiosperms is discussed in terms of morphology, life history, mode of existence, and ecological significance, as they relate to cultivation. The requirements for growth of these plants, which are outlined in the test, suggest that productivity rates are dependent primarily on the availability of light and nutrients. It is concluded that the systems should be run with an excess of nutrients and with light as the limiting factor. A historical review of the mass cultivation of aquatic plants describes the techniques used in commercial large-scale operations throughout the world and recent small-scale research efforts. This review presents information on the biomass yields that have been attained to date in various geographical locations with different plant species and culture conditions, emphasizing the contrast between high yields in small-scale operations and lower yields in large-scale operations.

  4. Biomass Scenario Model: BETO Analysis Platform Peer Review; NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bush, B.

    2015-03-23

    The Biomass Scenario Model (BSM) is a unique, carefully validated, state-of-the-art fourth-generation model of the domestic bioenergy supply chain which explicitly focuses on policy issues and their potential side effects. It integrates resource availability, behavior, policy, and physical, technological, and economic constraints. The BSM uses system-dynamics simulation to model dynamic interactions across the supply chain; it tracks the deployment of biofuels given technological development and the reaction of the investment community to those technologies in the context of land availability, the competing oil market, consumer demand for biofuels, and government policies over time. It places a strong emphasis on the behavior and decision-making of various economic agents. The model treats the major infrastructure-compatible fuels. Scenario analysis based on the BSM shows that the biofuels industry tends not to rapidly thrive without significant external actions in the early years of its evolution. An initial focus for jumpstarting the industry typically has strongest results in the BSM in areas where effects of intervention have been identified to be multiplicative. In general, we find that policies which are coordinated across the whole supply chain have significant impact in fostering the growth of the biofuels industry and that the production of tens of billions of gallons of biofuels may occur under sufficiently favorable conditions.

  5. Energy, economic and environmental implications of production of grasses as biomass feedstocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Downing, M.; McLaughlin, S.; Walsh, M.

    1995-08-01

    Perennial prairie grasses offer many advantages to the developing biofuels industry. High yielding varieties of native prairie grasses such as switchgrass, which combine lower levels of nutrient demand, diverse geographical growing range, high net energy yields and high soil and water conservation potential indicate that these grasses could and should supplement annual row crops such as corn in developing alternative fuels markets. Favorable net energy returns, increased soil erosion prevention, and a geographically diverse land base that can incorporate energy grasses into conventional farm practices will provide direct benefits to local and regional farm economies and lead to accelerated commercialization of conversion technologies. Displacement of row crops with perennial grasses will have major agricultural, economic, sociologic and cross-market implications. Thus, perennial grass production for biofuels offers significant economic advantages to a national energy strategy which considers both agricultural and environmental issues.

  6. Energy, economic, and environmental implications of production of grasses as biomass feedstocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Downing, M.; McLaughlin, S.; Walsh, M. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1995-11-01

    Perennial prairie grasses offer many advantages to the developing biofuels industry. High yielding varieties of native prairie grasses such as switchgrass, which combine lower levels of nutrient demand, diverse geographical growing range, high net energy yields and high soil and water conservation potential indicate that these grasses could and should supplement annual row crops such as corn in developing alternative fuels markets. Favorable net energy returns, increased soil erosion prevention, and a geographically diverse land base that can incorporate energy grasses into conventional farm practices will provide direct benefits to local and regional farm economies and lead to accelerated commercialization of conversion technologies. Displacement of row crops with perennial grasses will have major agricultural, economic, sociologic and cross-market implications. Thus, perennial grass production for biofuels offers significant economic advantages to a national energy strategy which considers both agricultural and environmental issues.

  7. High-yield harvest of nanofibers/mesoporous carbon composite by pyrolysis of waste biomass and its application for high durability electrochemical energy storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wu-Jun; Tian, Ke; He, Yan-Rong; Jiang, Hong; Yu, Han-Qing

    2014-12-02

    Disposal and recycling of the large scale biomass waste is of great concern. Themochemically converting the waste biomass to functional carbon nanomaterials and bio-oil is an environmentally friendly apporach by reducing greenhouse gas emissions and air pollution caused by open burning. In this work, we reported a scalable, "green" method for the synthesis of the nanofibers/mesoporous carbon composites through pyrolysis of the Fe(III)-preloaded biomass, which is controllable by adjustment of temperature and additive of catalyst. It is found that the coupled catalytic action of both Fe and Cl species is able to effectively catalyze the growth of the carbon nanofibers on the mesoporous carbon and form magnetic nanofibers/mesoporous carbon composites (M-NMCCs). The mechanism for the growth of the nanofibers is proposed as an in situ vapor deposition process, and confirmed by the XRD and SEM results. M-NMCCs can be directly used as electrode materials for electrochemical energy storage without further separation, and exhibit favorable energy storage performance with high EDLC capacitance, good retention capability, and excellent stability and durability (more than 98% capacitance retention after 10,000 cycles). Considering that biomass is a naturally abundant and renewable resource (over billions tons biomass produced every year globally) and pyrolysis is a proven technique, M-NMCCs can be easily produced at large scale and become a sustainable and reliable resource for clean energy storage.

  8. Kinetic and energy production analysis of pyrolysis of lignocellulosic biomass using a three-parallel Gaussian reaction model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Tianju; Zhang, Jinzhi; Wu, Jinhu

    2016-07-01

    The kinetic and energy productions of pyrolysis of a lignocellulosic biomass were investigated using a three-parallel Gaussian distribution method in this work. The pyrolysis experiment of the pine sawdust was performed using a thermogravimetric-mass spectroscopy (TG-MS) analyzer. A three-parallel Gaussian distributed activation energy model (DAEM)-reaction model was used to describe thermal decomposition behaviors of the three components, hemicellulose, cellulose and lignin. The first, second and third pseudocomponents represent the fractions of hemicellulose, cellulose and lignin, respectively. It was found that the model is capable of predicting the pyrolysis behavior of the pine sawdust. The activation energy distribution peaks for the three pseudo-components were centered at 186.8, 197.5 and 203.9kJmol(-1) for the pine sawdust, respectively. The evolution profiles of H2, CH4, CO, and CO2 were well predicted using the three-parallel Gaussian distribution model. In addition, the chemical composition of bio-oil was also obtained by pyrolysis-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry instrument (Py-GC/MS).

  9. Across-phase biomass pyrolysis stoichiometry, energy balance, and product formation kinetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Predictive correlations between reactions occurring in the gas-, liquid- and solid-phases are necessary to economically utilize the thermochemical conversion of agricultural wastes impacting the food, water, and energy nexus. On the basis of an empirical mass balance (99.7%), this study established...

  10. Biomass Composition and Mineral Removal of Sugarcane and Energy Cane on a Sand Soil in Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Approximately 20% of Sugarcane is grown on sand soils in south Florida, but yields and profits are lower compared to sugarcane grown on organic soils in the region. Energy cane may be an alternative crop on sand soils in the future to improve profits because of the growing interest of increased biom...

  11. Is energy cropping in Europe compatible with biodiversity? – Opportunities and threats to biodiversity from land-based production of biomass for bioenergy purposes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pedroli, G.B.M.; Elbersen, B.S.; Frederiksen, P.; Grandin, U.; Heikkilä, R.; Krogh, P.H.; Izakovicová, Z.; Johansen, A.; Meiresonne, L.; Spijker, J.H.

    2013-01-01

    Based on literature and six country studies (Belgium, Denmark, Finland, Netherlands, Sweden, Slovakia) this paper discusses the compatibility of the EU 2020 targets for renewable energy with conservation of biodiversity. We conclude that increased demand for biomass for bioenergy purposes may lead t

  12. Macro-economic impact of large-scale deployment of biomass resources for energy and materials on a national level-A combined approach for the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoefnagels, R.; Banse, M.A.H.; Dornburg, V.; Faaij, A.

    2013-01-01

    Biomass is considered one of the most important options in the transition to a sustainable energy system with reduced greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and increased security of enegry supply. In order to facilitate this transition with targeted policies and implementation strategies, it is of vital im

  13. Availability of Biomass for Energy Purposes in Nordic and Baltic Countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rytter, Lars; Andreassen, Kjell; Bergh, Jonas

    2015-01-01

    This review compiles information on the current state of the forests and analyses the potential of forest fuels for energy purposes in Denmark, Finland, Norway, Sweden, Estonia and Latvia. In these countries the forest area is 61 mill. ha, corresponding to 52 % of the land areas, which is high...... the forests in Finland, Norway and Sweden, while a more even distribution of conifers and deciduous species is found in Denmark, Estonia and Latvia. The total growing stock is around 7,400 mill. m3 and the annual increment is estimated to about 275 mill. m3 yr-1 Annual growth currently exceeds annual harvest...... energy supply in the area. A changing climate with larger standing volumes may affect the future growth positively and increase the potential harvest levels. Estimates from Finland, Sweden and Norway show an average growth increase of over 30 % by the end of the century and substantially higher...

  14. Torrefaction of woody and agro biomasses as energy carriers for European markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilen, C. [VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Espoo (Finland)], email: carl.wilen@vtt.fi

    2012-07-01

    New large scale bioenergy carriers are coming to the industrial demonstration phase, such as torrefaction and pyrolysis technologies. Torrefied wood pellets (TOP pellets) will give high energy volumetric density and properties similar to coal in large scale utility boilers. Torrefaction offer an interesting opportunity to replace fossil fuels by co-firing TOP pellets in coal fired pulverized combustion (PC) boilers. The production units can operate in standalone mode or integrated to industrial CHP or forest industry fluidised bed boilers. There are currently more than 950 saw, paper and pulp mills in Europe. They offer attractive business options for energy carrier investment based on existing raw material and forest residue logistics. This project creates good understanding of TOP pellet production, properties, potential uses, and competitiveness and European business opportunities. The project also aims at introducing and promoting Finnish solutions for these markets.

  15. Present Situation of Biomass Energy Utilization in China%我国生物质能源利用现状

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐丽华; 罗鹏; 严明

    2016-01-01

    发展储量巨大的可再生生物质能可以帮助缓解世界能源危机,扭转由于大量化石燃料使用造成全球环境恶化的趋势。对生物质进行了分类,介绍了现代生物至能的3种生产转化方式、相应产品及其应用情况,分析各种生物燃料的优缺点和所面临的挑战,进一步指出生物质能的开发利用,对于我国能源结构调整、能源安全以及环境保护具有十分重要的意义。%Developing renewable clean biofuels using wildly available bioenergy can help alleviate the worsening world energy crisis and reverse the trend of deteriorating global environment caused prmiarily by the ever-increasing use of fossil. Three kinds of conversion routes, their corresponding products, and the scale of bio-fuel production and application worldwide were reviewed. The pros and cons of biofuels were analyzed, and the challenges for the development of biofuels were discussed. Development and utilization of biomass energy was significance to Chinese resource structure adjustment, resource safety and environmental protection were further pointed out.

  16. Micro-Cogeneration Incl. The Conversion of Chemical Energy of Biomass to Electric Energy and the Low Potential Heat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huzvar, Jozef; Kapjor, Andrej

    2011-06-01

    This article deals with combined production of heat and electricity for small premises, such as households, where energy consumption is around few kilowatts. This proposal of micro co-generation unit uses as a heat source an automatic burner for combustion of wood pellets. Construction of an equipment for the heat transport can be designed using different basic ways of heat transfer. Electricity is produced by the two-stroke steam engine and the generator.

  17. The Impact of Aerosols Generated from Biomass Burning, Dust Storms, and Volcanoes Upon the Earth's Radiative Energy Budget

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christopher, Sundar A.

    1997-01-01

    A new technique for detecting aerosols from biomass burning and dust is developed. The radiative forcing of aerosols is estimated over four major ecosystems in South America. A new smoke and fire detection scheme is developed for biomass burning aerosols over South America. Surface shortware irradiance calculations are developed in the presence of biomass burning aerosols during the SCAR-B experiment. This new approach utilizes ground based, aircraft, and satellite measurements.

  18. Slow pyrolysis for rural small biomass energy by joint project developments of Brazil and Thailand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kampegowda, Rajesh; Chandayot, Pongchan [Asian University, Chonburi (Thailand)], email: rkempegowda@asianust.ac.th; Pannirselvam, Pagandai V.; Humberto, Maricy; Santos, Joao Matias [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (DEQ/UFRN), Natal, RN (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Quimica. Grupo de Pesquisa em Engenharia de Custos], email: pannirbr@gmail.com

    2008-07-01

    The efficiency for carbonization by slow pyrolysis is still low in the current method studied using rice straw in Thailand and cashewnut shell in Brazil, however direct heating process yields better char yield of 17% as compared to indirect heating with 15% process using horizontal metal drum kiln.where as vertical kiln were mainly used in Brazil. Higher yield is made possible from Brasilian cashew nut shell to make oil and char. Carbon and energy balance was also carried out and the results were compared for the direct and indirect process. Burning by indirect draft gives better results like more char, faster process. Direct draft gives less char, but higher quality (higher C and H2). Also a lot of straw is left unburnt in the direct draft kiln, because of bad temperature distribution and flow inside. The kiln design is found to be more suitable for indirect draft rather than direct draft. Both methods still give rice straw charcoal that has low calorific value with an output char LHV of 4337 kcal/kg as compared to fresh rice straw of 3412 kcal/kg. In the direct heating method output char is enriched to 45% with a still unburnt rice straw left out as compared to indirect heating method with carbon enrichment of 39%. There is a loss of 13% of carbon through the ash in the both the methods. The carbon content in the condensate is in the order of 18.5% for the indirect process as compared to 13.9% in the direct process due to less exhaust and carbon enrichment inside the kiln. There is a loss of 43% of carbon in the exhaust from indirect heating process as compared to direct heating process which is reduced to 26%. The energy balance predicts a heat loss of 14% in exhaust gases. A practical small scale slow pyrolysis project was developed to meet rural energy and heat requirements. to make the clean energy from waste resources possible by the joint project. (author)

  19. Phytotechnological purification of water and bio energy utilization of plant biomass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stom, D. I.; Gruznych, O. V.; Zhdanova, G. O.; Timofeeva, S. S.; Kashevsky, A. V.; Saksonov, M. N.; Balayan, A. E.

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the study was to explore the possibility of using the phytomass of aquatic plants as the substrate in the microbial fuel cells and selection of microorganisms suitable for the generation of electricity on this substrate. The conversion of chemical energy of phytomass of aquatic plants to the electrical energy was carried out in a microbial fuel cells by biochemical transformation. As biological agents in the generation of electricity in the microbial fuel cells was used commercial microbial drugs “Doctor Robic 109K” and “Vostok-EM-1”. The results of evaluation of the characteristics of electrogenic (amperage, voltage) and the dynamics of the growth of microorganisms in the microbial fuel cells presents in the experimental part. As a source of electrogenic microorganisms is possible to use drugs “Dr. Robic 109K” and “Vostok-EM-1” was established. The possibility of utilization of excess phytomass of aquatic plants, formed during the implementation of phytotechnological purification of water, in microbial fuel cells, was demonstrated. The principal possibility of creating hybrid phytotechnology (plant-microbe cells), allowing to obtain electricity as a product, which can be used to ensure the operation of the pump equipment and the creation of a full cycle of resource-saving technologies for water treatment, was reviewed.

  20. Energy potential of biomass and charcoal of Jatropha curcas peel and pie

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ailton Teixeira do Vale

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available In the production of biodiesel from Jatropha curcas, are produced residues in the peel and of pie form. One alternative use of these residues is in the energy production. The present work analyzed the energy potential of the peel and the pie of Jatropha curcas in the following conditions: in natura and charcoal, determining: the moisture content (VITAL, 1997; the ash, fixed carbon and volatile matter (ABNT NBR 8112/86; the density and the gravimetric yield. The peel presented: moisture of 18,9%; density of 100kg/m3; volatile matter of 72,6%, fixed carbon of 13% and 14,4% of ashes and heat combustion of 3.641kcal/kg. The carbonized peel produced 38.1% of charcoal, with: 29% of volatile matter, 45% of fixed carbon and 25% of ashes; and heat combustion of 3.954kcal/kg. The pie presented: moisture of 2.41%, 601kg/m3 of density; volatile matter of 77.84%, fixed carbon 14.21% and 7,95% ashes and 5.122kcal/kg of heat combustion. In the carbonization of the pie, 32% of charcoal was produced containing: 18.27% of volatile matter, 71.29% of fixed carbon, 10.43% of ashes and heat combustion of 6.234kcal/kg. The high ashe contents are related to the fertilization of the plant.

  1. Biomass for bioenergy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bentsen, Niclas Scott

    for displacing fossil resources and is perceived as one of the main pillars of a future low-carbon or no-carbon energy supply. However, biomass, renewable as it is, is for any relevant, time horizon to be considered a finite resource as it replenishes at a finite rate. Conscientious stewardship of this finite......Across the range of renewable energy resources, bioenergy is probably the most complex, as using biomass to support energy services ties into a number of fields; climate change, food production, rural development, biodiversity and environmental protection. Biomass offer several options...... the undesirable impacts of bioenergy done wrong. However, doing bioenergy right is a significant challenge due to the ties into other fields of society. Fundamentally plant biomass is temporary storage of solar radiation energy and chemically bound energy from nutrients. Bioenergy is a tool to harness solar...

  2. Intermediate pyrolysis of biomass energy pellets for producing sustainable liquid, gaseous and solid fuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Y; Brammer, J G; Mahmood, A S N; Hornung, A

    2014-10-01

    This work describes the use of intermediate pyrolysis system to produce liquid, gaseous and solid fuels from pelletised wood and barley straw feedstock. Experiments were conducted in a pilot-scale system and all products were collected and analysed. The liquid products were separated into an aqueous phase and an organic phase (pyrolysis oil) under gravity. The oil yields were 34.1 wt.% and 12.0 wt.% for wood and barley straw, respectively. Analysis found that both oils were rich in heterocyclic and phenolic compounds and have heating values over 24 MJ/kg. The yields of char for both feedstocks were found to be about 30 wt.%, with heating values similar to that of typical sub-bituminous class coal. Gas yields were calculated to be approximately 20 wt.%. Studies showed that both gases had heating values similar to that of downdraft gasification producer gas. Analysis on product energy yields indicated the process efficiency was about 75%.

  3. Physical and thermochemical characterization of rice husk char as a potential biomass energy source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maiti, S; Dey, S; Purakayastha, S; Ghosh, B

    2006-11-01

    The fixed bed pyrolysis of rice husk was studied under conventional conditions with the aim of determining the characteristics of the charcoal formed for its applicability as a solid fuel. Thermoanalytic methods were used to determine the kinetic parameters of its combustion. Palletisation using different binders and techniques to improve the time of sustained combustion of the char pallets were investigated. The optimum temperature for carbonization to obtain a char having moderately high heating value was found as 400 degrees C. For the active char combustion zone, the order of reaction was nearly 1, the activation energy 73.403 kJ/mol and the pre-exponential factor 4.97 x 10(4)min(-1). Addition of starch as a binder and 10% ferrous sulphate heptahydrate or sodium hypophosphite as an additive enhanced the ignitibility of the char pallets.

  4. Rethinking the scale of biomass energy conversion facilities: the case of wood-electric power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frankena, F.

    1987-01-01

    A number of social changes have made proposals to build wood-fired power plants more problematical. The population migration turnaround in non-metropolitan areas is the most notable change. Effects are observed in four controversies that occurred in the United States during the past decade. The common denominator of controversy has been the extent to which large-scale wood-energy development threatens environmental and economic values. The conclusions of this exploration treat technological scale and the scale of government decision making. Local government is the crucial arena for public reception of this technological change. If forests are to be developed for electric power over other possible uses, power plants of 5 megawatts instead of 50 may be the most feasible in terms of social and political criteria.

  5. Mortality and Greenhouse Gas Impacts of Biomass and Petroleum Energy Futures in Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailis, Robert; Ezzati, Majid; Kammen, Daniel M.

    2005-04-01

    We analyzed the mortality impacts and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions produced by household energy use in Africa. Under a business-as-usual (BAU) scenario, household indoor air pollution will cause an estimated 9.8 million premature deaths by the year 2030. Gradual and rapid transitions to charcoal would delay 1.0 million and 2.8 million deaths, respectively; similar transitions to petroleum fuels would delay 1.3 million and 3.7 million deaths. Cumulative BAU GHG emissions will be 6.7 billion tons of carbon by 2050, which is 5.6% of Africa's total emissions. Large shifts to the use of fossil fuels would reduce GHG emissions by 1 to 10%. Charcoal-intensive future scenarios using current practices increase emissions by 140 to 190%; the increase can be reduced to 5 to 36% using currently available technologies for sustainable production or potentially reduced even more with investment in technological innovation.

  6. Socio-economic impact of wood biomass utilization for energy production and its impact on small communities in Northwestern Ontario, Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanzida Baten, C.; Pulkki, R. (Lakehead Univ., Thunder Bay, ON (Canada), Faculty of Natural Resources Management), e-mail: csanzida@lakeheadu.ca, e-mail: rpulkki@lakehaedu.ca

    2010-07-01

    Bioenergy refers to all forms of renewable energy that are derived from plant materials produced by photosynthesis. Biomass fuels can be derived from wood, agricultural crops and other organic residues. These fuels can be obtained from many sources in Canada, including sawmills, woodworking shops, forest operations and farms. This study deals with the socio-economic aspects of bioenergy development. Normally, the socio-economic impact of bioenergy can be measured in terms of economic indices, such as employment, monetary gains, etc. Recently some pulp and paper mills in northwestern Ontario have initiated bioenergy plants to generate heat and electricity for their use. The Ontario Ministry of Energy and Infrastructure is investigating the possibility of replacing coal with renewable forest biomass as feedstock for the Atikokan Power Generating Station (APGS) located in northwestern Ontario. The APGS has already successfully tested 100 % wood biomass feedstock instead of coal. This study evaluates the socio-economic impacts of wood biomass utilization for energy production in small communities in northwestern Ontario Canada. (orig.)

  7. The role of natural resource and environmental economics in determining the trade-offs in consumption and production of energy inputs: The case of biomass energy crops

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Downing, M.; Graham, R.L.

    1993-12-31

    Natural resource economics issues deal with flows and funds of renewable and nonrenewable resources over time. These issues include topics concerned with management of fisheries, forests, mineral, energy resources, the extinction of species and the irreversibility of development over time. Environmental economics issues deal with regulation of polluting activities and the valuation of environmental amenities. In this study we outline a framework for studying both natural resource and environmental economics issues for any renewable or nonrenewable resource. Valuation from both the cost and benefit sides are addressed as they relate to the valuation of environmental programs or policies. By using this top-down approach to analyze and determine the costs and benefits of using renewable or nonrenewable resources, policy-makers on the global, national and local scales may be better informed as to the probable nonmarket and market ramifications of their natural resource and environmental policy decisions. This general framework for analysis is then focused to address biomass energy crops and their usage as inputs to energy production. As with any energy technology, a complete analysis must include an examination of the entire fuel cycle; specifically both production and consumption sides. From a production standpoint, market valuation issues such as crop management techniques, inputs to production, and community economics issues must be addressed as well as nonmarket valuation issues such as soil erosion, ground water effects and carbon sequestration. On the consumption side, market valuation considerations such as energy fuel efficiency and quality, cost of conversion and employment of labor are important factors while the critical nonmarket valuation factors are ambient air visibility, greenhouse gas release, and disposal of the by-products of conversion and combustion.

  8. Energy from biomass gasification as energetic option for clean development; Energia da gaseificacao de biomassa como opcao energetica de desenvolvimento limpo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galvao, Luiz Claudio Ribeiro; Grimoni, Jose Aquiles Baeso; Kinto, Oscar Tadashi; Morales Udaeta, Miguel Edgar [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Escola Politecnica. Grupo de Energia]. E-mail: udaeta@pea.usp.br

    2002-07-01

    This paper presents the study for energy production using biomass in the energetic planning and as a clean development mechanism. The paper defines the Medio Paranapanema region, considered as one of the less developed in the state of Sao Paulo, as application referential, in accordance with the Resource Integrated Planning methodology. The work also presents the state-of-art of the gasification technologies existent in the world. The region analysis and characterization, the biomass resource and the gasification technologies has been used as the methodology by the paper, focusing the Complete Costs Analysis during a planning period of 10 years. A theoretical potential of 4 x 10{sup 3} GW h result has been obtained, by using as fuel the biomass residues of the sugar cane, corn, cotton and manioc. From the obtained results, a preferential planning for the region has been established showing the the feasibility and the sustainability of that technology for electric power production.

  9. Assessment Planning and Evaluation of Renewable Energy Resources: an Interactive Computer Assisted Procedure. [hydroelectricity, biomass, and windpower in the Pittsfield metropolitan region, Massachusetts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aston, T. W.; Fabos, J. G.; Macdougall, E. B.

    1982-01-01

    Adaptation and derivation were used to develop a procedure for assessing the availability of renewable energy resources on the landscape while simultaneously accounting for the economic, legal, social, and environmental issues required. Done in a step-by-step fashion, the procedure can be used interactively at the computer terminals. Its application in determining the hydroelectricity, biomass, and windpower in a 40,000 acre study area of Western Massachusetts shows that: (1) three existing dam sites are physically capable of being retrofitted for hydropower; (2) each of three general areas has a mean annual windspeed exceeding 14 mph and is conductive to windpower; and (3) 20% of the total land area consists of prime agricultural biomass while 30% of the area is prime forest biomass land.

  10. Coal conversion and biomass conversion: Volume 1: Final report on USAID (Agency for International Development)/GOI (Government of India) Alternate Energy Resources and Development Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kulkarni, A.; Saluja, J.

    1987-06-30

    The United States Agency for International Development (AID), in joint collaboration with the Government of India (GOI), supported a research and development program in Alternate Energy Resources during the period March 1983 to June 1987. The primary emphasis of this program was to develop new and advanced coal and biomass conversion technologies for the efficient utilization of coal and biomass feedstocks in India. This final ''summary'' report is divided into two volumes. This Report, Volume I, covers the program overview and coal projects and Volume II summarizes the accomplishments of the biomass projects. The six projects selected in the area of coal were: Evaluation of the Freeboard Performance in a Fluidized-Bed Combustor; Scale-up of AFBC boilers; Rheology, Stability and Combustion of Coal-Water Slurries; Beneficiation of Fine Coal in Dense Medium Cyclones; Hot Gas Cleanup and Separation; and Cold Gas Cleanup and Separation.

  11. Energy, Environmental, and Economic Analyses of Design Concepts for the Co-Production of Fuels and Chemicals with Electricity via Co-Gasification of Coal and Biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eric Larson; Robert Williams; Thomas Kreutz; Ilkka Hannula; Andrea Lanzini; Guangjian Liu

    2012-03-11

    The overall objective of this project was to quantify the energy, environmental, and economic performance of industrial facilities that would coproduce electricity and transportation fuels or chemicals from a mixture of coal and biomass via co-gasification in a single pressurized, oxygen-blown, entrained-flow gasifier, with capture and storage of CO{sub 2} (CCS). The work sought to identify plant designs with promising (Nth plant) economics, superior environmental footprints, and the potential to be deployed at scale as a means for simultaneously achieving enhanced energy security and deep reductions in U.S. GHG emissions in the coming decades. Designs included systems using primarily already-commercialized component technologies, which may have the potential for near-term deployment at scale, as well as systems incorporating some advanced technologies at various stages of R&D. All of the coproduction designs have the common attribute of producing some electricity and also of capturing CO{sub 2} for storage. For each of the co-product pairs detailed process mass and energy simulations (using Aspen Plus software) were developed for a set of alternative process configurations, on the basis of which lifecycle greenhouse gas emissions, Nth plant economic performance, and other characteristics were evaluated for each configuration. In developing each set of process configurations, focused attention was given to understanding the influence of biomass input fraction and electricity output fraction. Self-consistent evaluations were also carried out for gasification-based reference systems producing only electricity from coal, including integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) and integrated gasification solid-oxide fuel cell (IGFC) systems. The reason biomass is considered as a co-feed with coal in cases when gasoline or olefins are co-produced with electricity is to help reduce lifecycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions for these systems. Storing biomass-derived CO

  12. Improvement of the energy conversion efficiency of Chlorella pyrenoidosa biomass by a three-stage process comprising dark fermentation, photofermentation, and methanogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Ao; Cheng, Jun; Ding, Lingkan; Lin, Richen; Huang, Rui; Zhou, Junhu; Cen, Kefa

    2013-10-01

    The effects of pre-treatment methods on saccharification and hydrogen fermentation of Chlorella pyrenoidosa biomass were investigated. When raw biomass and biomass pre-treated by steam heating, by microwave heating, and by ultrasonication were used as feedstock, the hydrogen yields were only 8.8-12.7 ml/g total volatile solids (TVS) during dark fermentation. When biomass was pre-treated by steam heating with diluted acid and by microwave heating with diluted acid, the dark hydrogen yields significantly increased to 75.6 ml/g TVS and 83.3 ml/g TVS, respectively. Steam heating with diluted acid is the preferred pre-treatment method of C. pyrenoidosa biomass to improve hydrogen yield during dark fermentation and photofermentation, which is followed by methanogenesis to increase energy conversion efficiency (ECE). A total hydrogen yield of 198.3 ml/g TVS and a methane yield of 186.2 ml/g TVS corresponding to an overall ECE of 34.0% were obtained through the three-stage process (dark fermentation, photofermentation, and methanogenesis).

  13. Preparation of a cost data bank for DOE/Biomass Energy Systems Branch. Fourth quarterly progress report, July 1-September 30, 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kam, A.Y.; Dickenson, R.L.; Jones, J.L.; Bomberger, D.C.; Chatterjee, A.K.; Fong, W.S.; Meagher, P.C.; Wilhelm, D.J.

    1979-01-01

    The preparation of a biomass conversion technology and cost data bank for the Biomass Energy Systems Branch (BES) of DOE/Solar is described. Technical and economic analyses of a number of BES technology options are currently underway. A total of 22 biomass conversion technology options (14 thermochemical and 8 biochemical) have been selected for inclusion in the data bank. These options cover the production of electric power, steam, gases, liquids, and solid fuels from biomass. The majority of the options are believed to be available now or in the near term. A consistent methodology for construction of the data bank has been developed. For each option, the most up-to-date process/product data are gathered and analyzed. A base case is established to generate estimates for plant investments required, operating cost, and product cost. The estimates are then examined systematically to identify and quantify the uncertainties. The uncertainties are combined using statistical methods to produce error band estimates. Preliminary results for catalytic liquefaction (PETC and LBL processes), gasoline from biomass (China Lake process), and MBG from wood, ethanol fermentation are reported here. A sensitivity analysis for co-generation is also reported.

  14. The biomass like renewable energy in the future. Futuro de la biomasa como energia renovable alternativo de futuro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez Peces, J. (INTECSA. Madrid (Spain))

    1993-01-01

    The energetic contribution of biomass in EC and worldwide figures represents a 14% of the whole demand. For developing countries this figure goes up to 35% and can be a source of employment for manpower decreasing in other sectors. At European level the CEC are promoting research areas through JOULE and LEBEN programs. Current European policy with big subsidies for intensive agricultural production has penalized forest and biomass production. Reforestation and biomass energetics crops are going to be a new strategy with 20 million Ha of agricultural soil transformed and between 10 and 20 million ha of marginal soil transformed. Biomass will be promoted keeping in mind environmental benefits like compost production for soil conditioning. A review of the different biomass sources and treatment techniques (bioconversion, thermal conversion and biodigestion), as well as environmental aspects are given.

  15. Energetic conversion of European semi-natural grassland silages through the integrated generation of solid fuel and biogas from biomass: energy yields and the fate of organic compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hensgen, Frank; Bühle, Lutz; Donnison, Iain; Heinsoo, Katrin; Wachendorf, Michael

    2014-02-01

    Twelve European habitat types were investigated to determine the influence of the IFBB technique (integrated generation of biogas and solid fuel from biomass) on the fate of organic compounds and energy yields of semi-natural grassland biomass. Concentration of organic compounds in silage and IFBB press cake (PC), mass flows within that system and methane yields of IFBB press fluids (PF) were determined. The gross energy yield of the IFBB technique was calculated in comparison to hay combustion (HC) and whole crop digestion (WCD). The IFBB treatment increased fibre and organic matter (OM) concentrations and lowered non-fibre carbohydrates and crude protein concentrations. The PF was highly digestible irrespective of habitat types, showing mean methane yields between 312.1 and 405.0 LN CH4 kg(-1) VS. Gross energy yields for the IFBB system (9.75-30.19MWh ha(-1)) were in the range of HC, outperformed WCD and were influenced by the habitat type.

  16. [Effects of alcohol extracts from three kinds of biomass energy plant tissues on biological activity of Bemisia tabaci].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Fu-cai; Zhou, Gui-sheng; Li, Chuan-ming; Yang, Yi-zhong; Qin, Pei

    2009-03-01

    To test the feasibility of using raw extracts from the tissues of biomass energy plants Ricinus communi and Kosteletzkya virginica as plant protection agents, the alcohol extracts from R. communi seed and leaf and from K. virginica leaf were used to treat adult Bemisia tabaci by spraying. The glutathione S-transferase and carboxylesterase activities in B. tabaci body were measured after treated for 4 h, 24 h, 48 h, 72 h, and 96 h, and the olfaction responses of B. tabaci to the alcohol extracts were detected with a Y-tube olfactomet. All the three alcohol extracts obviously inhibited the glutathione S-transferase and carboxylesterase activities in a concentration-dependent manner. The inhibitory effect of the 250-times diluted alcohol extracts on the two enzyme activities was equivalent to that of 3000 times-diluted 1.8% avermectins. In addition, the 250-times diluted alcohol extracts had obvious repellent effect on B. tabaci, with the repellent coefficient of the alcohol extracts from R. communi seed and leaf and from K, virginica leaf being 100.0%, 96.7%, and 79.4%, respectively. All of these suggested that the test three alcohol extracts had repellent and other biological effects on B. tabaci.

  17. A metabolic and body-size scaling framework for parasite within-host abundance, biomass, and energy flux.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hechinger, Ryan F

    2013-08-01

    Energetics may provide a useful currency for studying the ecology of parasite assemblages within individual hosts. Parasite assemblages may also provide powerful models to study general principles of ecological energetics. Yet there has been little ecological research on parasite-host energetics, probably due to methodological difficulties. However, the scaling relationships of individual metabolic rate with body or cell size and temperature may permit us to tackle the energetics of parasite assemblages in hosts. This article offers the foundations and initial testing of a metabolic theory of ecology (MTE) framework for parasites in hosts. I first provide equations to estimate energetic flux through observed parasite assemblages. I then develop metabolic scaling theory for parasite abundance, energetics, and biomass in individual hosts. In contrast to previous efforts, the theory factors in both host and parasite metabolic scaling, how parasites use host space, and whether energy or space dictates carrying capacity. Empirical tests indicate that host energetic flux can set parasite carrying capacity, which decreases as predicted considering the scaling of host and parasite metabolic rates. The theory and results also highlight that the phenomenon of "energetic equivalence" is not an assumption of MTE but a possible outcome contingent on how species partition resources. Hence, applying MTE to parasites can lend mechanistic, quantitative, predictive insight into the nature of parasitism and can inform general ecological theory.

  18. Sustainable utilisation of forest biomass for energy-Possibilities and problems: Policy, legislation, certification, and recommendations and guidelines in the Nordic, Baltic, and other European countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stupak, I. [Forest and Landscape Denmark, University of Copenhagen, Horsholm Kongevej 11, Horsholm (Denmark)], E-mail: ism@life.ku.dk; Asikainen, A. [Finnish Forest Research Institute, P.O. Box 68, 80101 Joensuu (Finland)], E-mail: antti.asikainen@metla.fi; Jonsell, M. [Department of Ecology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, P.O. Box 7044, SE-750 07 Uppsala (Sweden)], E-mail: mats.jonsell@entom.slu.se; Karltun, E. [Department of Forest Soils, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, P.O. Box 7001, SE-750 07 Uppsala (Sweden)], E-mail: erik.karltun@sml.slu.se; Lunnan, A. [Norwegian Forest and Landscape Institute, P.O. Box 115, N-1431 As (Norway)], E-mail: anders.lunnan@skogoglandskap.no; Mizaraite, D. [Lithuanian Forest Research Institute, Liepu 1, 53101 Girionys (Lithuania)], E-mail: ekonsk@mi.lt; Pasanen, K. [Finnish Forest Research Institute, P.O. Box 68, 80101 Joensuu (Finland)], E-mail: karri.pasanen@metla.fi; Paern, H. [Department of Ecophysiology, Institute of Forestry and Rural Engineering, Estonian University of Life Sciences, Viljandi mnt. 18b, 11216 Tallinn (Estonia)], E-mail: hennp@rmk.ee; Raulund-Rasmussen, K. [Forest and Landscape Denmark, University of Copenhagen, Horsholm Kongevej 11, Horsholm (Denmark)], E-mail: krr@life.ku.dk; Roeser, D. [Finnish Forest Research Institute, P.O. Box 68, 80101 Joensuu (Finland)], E-mail: dominik.roser@metla.fi; Schroeder, M. [Department of Ecology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, P.O. Box 7044, SE-750 07 Uppsala (Sweden)], E-mail: martin.schroeder@entom.slu.se; Varnagiryte, I. [Lithuanian Forest Research Institute, Liepu 1, 53101 Girionys (Lithuania)], E-mail: ivetva@one.lt; Vilkriste, L. [Latvian Forest Research Institute ' SILAVA' , Rigas str. 111, 2169 Salaspils (Latvia)], E-mail: lelde.vilkriste@storaenso.com (and others)

    2007-10-15

    The substitution of biomass for fossil fuels in energy consumption is a measure to mitigate global warming, as well as having other advantages. Political action plans for increased use exist at both European and national levels. This paper briefly reviews the contents of recommendations, guidelines, and other synthesis publications on sustainable use of forest biomass for energy. Topics are listed and an overview of advantages, disadvantages, and trade-offs between them is given, from the viewpoint of society in general and the forestry and energy sectors in particular. For the Nordic and Baltic countries, the paper also identifies the extent to which wood for energy is included in forest legislation and forest certification standards under the 'Programme for the Endorsement of Forest Certification' (PEFC) and the 'Forest Stewardship Council' (FSC) schemes. Energy and forest policies at EU and national levels, and European PEFC forest standards are analysed. With respect to energy policies, the utilisation of wood for energy is generally supported in forest policies, but forest legislation is seldom used as a direct tool to encourage the utilisation of wood for energy. Regulations sometimes restrict use for environmental reasons. Forest certification standards include indicators directly related to the utilisation of wood for energy under several criteria, with most occurrences found under environmental criteria. Roles and problems in relation to policy, legislation, certification standards, recommendations and guidelines, and science are discussed.

  19. Sustainable utilisation of forest biomass for energy - Possibilities and problems: Policy, legislation, certification, and recommendations and guidelines in the Nordic, Baltic, and other European countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stupak, I.; Raulund-Rasmussen, K.; Ingerslev, M.; Ravn, H.P. [Forest and Landscape Denmark, University of Copenhagen, Hoersholm Kongevej 11, Hoersholm (Denmark); Asikainen, A.; Pasanen, K.; Roeser, D. [Finnish Forest Research Institute, P.O. Box 68, 80101 Joensuu (Finland); Jonsell, M.; Schroeder, M. [Department of Ecology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, P.O. Box 7044, SE-750 07 Uppsala (Sweden); Karltun, E. [Department of Forest Soils, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, P.O. Box 7001, SE-750 07 Uppsala (Sweden); Lunnan, A.; Clarke, N. [Norwegian Forest and Landscape Institute, P.O. Box 115, N-1431 Aas (Norway); Mizaraite, D.; Varnagiryte, I.; Ozolincius, R.; Armolaitis, K.; Kairiukstis, L. [Lithuanian Forest Research Institute, Liepu 1, 53101 Girionys (Lithuania); Paern, H.; Mandre, M.; Ots, K. [Department of Ecophysiology, Institute of Forestry and Rural Engineering, Estonian University of Life Sciences, Viljandi mnt. 18b, 11216 Tallinn (Estonia); Vilkriste, L.; Gaitnieks, T.; Indriksons, A. [Latvian Forest Research Institute ' ' SILAVA' ' , Rigas str. 111, 2169 Salaspils (Latvia); Callesen, I. [Forest and Landscape Denmark, University of Copenhagen, Hoersholm Kongevej 11, Hoersholm (Denmark); Risoe National Laboratory, Department of Biosystems, DTU, P.O. Box 49, Frederiksborgvej 399, 4000 Roskilde (Denmark); Saarsalmi, A.; Helmisaari, H.-S.; Kukkola, M.; Tamminen, P. [Vantaa Research Centre, Finnish Forest Research Institute, P.O. Box 18, 01301 Vantaa (Finland); Katzensteiner, K. [Department of Forest and Soil Sciences, Institute of Forest Ecology, University of Natural Resources and Applied Life Sciences, Peter Jordanstr. 82, 1190 Vienna (Austria)

    2007-10-15

    The substitution of biomass for fossil fuels in energy consumption is a measure to mitigate global warming, as well as having other advantages. Political action plans for increased use exist at both European and national levels. This paper briefly reviews the contents of recommendations, guidelines, and other synthesis publications on sustainable use of forest biomass for energy. Topics are listed and an overview of advantages, disadvantages, and trade-offs between them is given, from the viewpoint of society in general and the forestry and energy sectors in particular. For the Nordic and Baltic countries, the paper also identifies the extent to which wood for energy is included in forest legislation and forest certification standards under the ''Programme for the Endorsement of Forest Certification'' (PEFC) and the ''Forest Stewardship Council'' (FSC) schemes. Energy and forest policies at EU and national levels, and European PEFC forest standards are analysed. With respect to energy policies, the utilisation of wood for energy is generally supported in forest policies, but forest legislation is seldom used as a direct tool to encourage the utilisation of wood for energy. Regulations sometimes restrict use for environmental reasons. Forest certification standards include indicators directly related to the utilisation of wood for energy under several criteria, with most occurrences found under environmental criteria. Roles and problems in relation to policy, legislation, certification standards, recommendations and guidelines, and science are discussed. (author)

  20. Biomass energy utilization in rural areas may contribute to alleviating energy crisis and global warming: A case study in a typical agro-village of Shandong, China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng, Y.H. [State Key Laboratory of Quantitative Vegetation Ecology, Institute of Botany, the Chinese Academy of Sciences, 20 Nanxincun, Xiangshan, Beijing 100093 (China); Li, Z.F. [State Key Laboratory of Crop Biology, College of Agronomy, Shandong Agricultural University, Taian, Shandong 271018 (China); Taishan Academy of Science and Technology, Tai' an, Shandong 271000 (China); Feng, S.F.; Wu, G.L.; Li, Y.; Li, C.H. [State Key Laboratory of Crop Biology, College of Agronomy, Shandong Agricultural University, Taian, Shandong 271018 (China); Lucas, M. [Rheinisch-Westfalisch Technische Hochschule, Aachen University, Aachen 52070 (Germany); Jiang, G.M. [State Key Laboratory of Quantitative Vegetation Ecology, Institute of Botany, the Chinese Academy of Sciences, 20 Nanxincun, Xiangshan, Beijing 100093 (China); State Key Laboratory of Crop Biology, College of Agronomy, Shandong Agricultural University, Taian, Shandong 271018 (China)

    2010-12-15

    A biomass energy exploration experiment was conducted in Jiangjiazhuang, a typical agro-village in Shandong, China from 2005 to 2009. The route of this study was designed as an agricultural circulation as: crops {yields} crop residues {yields} ''Bread'' forage {yields} cattle {yields} cattle dung {yields} biogas digester {yields} biogas/digester residues {yields} green fertilizers {yields} crops. About 738.8 tons of crop residues are produced in this village each year. In 2005, only two cattle were fed in this village and 1.1% of the crop residues were used as forage. About 38.5% crop residues were used for livelihood energy, 24.5% were discarded and 29.7% were directly burned in the field. Not more than three biogas digesters were built and merely 2250 m{sup 3} biogas was produced a year relative to saving 1.6 tons standard coal and equivalent to reducing 4.3 tons CO{sub 2} emission. A total of US$ 4491 profits were obtained from cattle benefit, reducing fossil energies/chemical fertilizer application and increasing crop yield. After 5 years experiment, cattle capita had raised gradually up to 146 and some 62.3% crop residues were used as forage. The percentages used as livelihood energy, discarded and burned in the field decreased to 16.3%, 9.2% and 9.8%, respectively. Biogas digesters increased to 123 and 92,250 m{sup 3} biogas was fermented equal to saving 65.9 tons standard coal and reducing 177.9 tons CO{sub 2} emission. In total US$ 60,710 profits were obtained in 2009. In addition, about 989.9 tons green fertilizers were produced from biogas digesters and applied in croplands. The results suggested that livestock and biogas projects were promising strategies to consume the redundant agricultural residues, offer livelihood energy and increase the villagers' incomes. Biogas production and utilization could effectively alleviate energy crisis and CO{sub 2} emission, which might be a great contribution to reach the affirmatory carbon

  1. A process for energy-efficient high-solids fed-batch enzymatic liquefaction of cellulosic biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardona, M J; Tozzi, E J; Karuna, N; Jeoh, T; Powell, R L; McCarthy, M J

    2015-12-01

    The enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulosic biomass is a key step in the biochemical production of fuels and chemicals. Economically feasible large-scale implementation of the process requires operation at high solids loadings, i.e., biomass concentrations >15% (w/w). At increasing solids loadings, however, biomass forms a high viscosity slurry that becomes increasingly challenging to mix and severely mass transfer limited, which limits further addition of solids. To overcome these limitations, we developed a fed-batch process controlled by the yield stress and its changes during liquefaction of the reaction mixture. The process control relies on an in-line, non-invasive magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) rheometer to monitor real-time evolution of yield stress during liquefaction. Additionally, we demonstrate that timing of enzyme addition relative to biomass addition influences process efficiency, and the upper limit of solids loading is ultimately limited by end-product inhibition as soluble glucose and cellobiose accumulate in the liquid phase.

  2. Hydrothermal liquefaction of biomass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toor, Saqib; Rosendahl, Lasse; Hoffmann, Jessica

    2014-01-01

    Biomass is one of the most abundant sources of renewable energy, and will be an important part of a more sustainable future energy system. In addition to direct combustion, there is growing attention on conversion of biomass into liquid en-ergy carriers. These conversion methods are divided...... into liquid biofuels, with the aim of describing the current status and development challenges of the technology. During the hydrothermal liquefaction process, the biomass macromolecules are first hydrolyzed and/or degraded into smaller molecules. Many of the produced molecules are unstable and reactive...... into biochemical/biotechnical methods and thermochemical methods; such as direct combustion, pyrolysis, gasification, liquefaction etc. This chapter will focus on hydrothermal liquefaction, where high pressures and intermediate temperatures together with the presence of water are used to convert biomass...

  3. Biomass pretreatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennessey, Susan Marie; Friend, Julie; Elander, Richard T; Tucker, III, Melvin P

    2013-05-21

    A method is provided for producing an improved pretreated biomass product for use in saccharification followed by fermentation to produce a target chemical that includes removal of saccharification and or fermentation inhibitors from the pretreated biomass product. Specifically, the pretreated biomass product derived from using the present method has fewer inhibitors of saccharification and/or fermentation without a loss in sugar content.

  4. Non-conventional sources in energy. Solar, wind and biomass technologies. Decentralized generation of energy (SHPPs). 3. ed.; Fontes nao-convencionais de energia. As tecnologias solar, eolica e de biomassa. Geracao descentralizada (PCHs)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montenegro, Alexandre de Albuquerque

    2000-07-01

    This work presents the papers submitted to the seminar on energy non-conventional sources, specifically the solar, wind and biomass technologies, held on the year of 1998, at the LABSOLAR/NCTS - Federal University of Santa Catarina, Florianopolis, SC, Brazil.

  5. Climate change and the economics of biomass energy feedstocks in semi-arid agricultural landscapes: A spatially explicit real options analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regan, Courtney M; Connor, Jeffery D; Raja Segaran, Ramesh; Meyer, Wayne S; Bryan, Brett A; Ostendorf, Bertram

    2017-05-01

    The economics of establishing perennial species as renewable energy feedstocks has been widely investigated as a climate change adapted diversification option for landholders, primarily using net present value (NPV) analysis. NPV does not account for key uncertainties likely to influence relevant landholder decision making. While real options analysis (ROA) is an alternative method that accounts for the uncertainty over future conditions and the large upfront irreversible investment involved in establishing perennials, there have been limited applications of ROA to evaluating land use change decision economics and even fewer applications considering climate change risks. Further, while the influence of spatially varying climate risk on biomass conversion economic has been widely evaluated using NPV methods, effects of spatial variability and climate on land use change have been scarcely assessed with ROA. In this study we applied a simulation-based ROA model to evaluate a landholder's decision to convert land from agriculture to biomass. This spatially explicit model considers price and yield risks under baseline climate and two climate change scenarios over a geographically diverse farming region. We found that underlying variability in primary productivity across the study area had a substantial effect on conversion thresholds required to trigger land use change when compared to results from NPV analysis. Areas traditionally thought of as being quite similar in average productive capacity can display large differences in response to the inclusion of production and price risks. The effects of climate change, broadly reduced returns required for land use change to biomass in low and medium rainfall zones and increased them in higher rainfall areas. Additionally, the risks posed by climate change can further exacerbate the tendency for NPV methods to underestimate true conversion thresholds. Our results show that even under severe drying and warming where crop yield

  6. Production of syngas and oil at biomass refinery and their application in low speed two stroke engines for combined cycle electric energy generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinatti, Daltro Garcia [Universidade do Sul de Santa Catarina (UNISUL), Tubarao, SC (Brazil)], E-mail: pinatti@demar.eel.usp.br; Oliveira, Isaias de; Ferreira, Joao Carlos; Romao, Erica Leonor [RM Materiais Refratarios Ltd., Lorena, SP (Brazil)], Emails: isaias@rm-gpc.com.br, joaocarlos@rm-gpc.com.br, ericaromao@rm-gpc.com.br; Conte, Rosa Ana [University of Sao Paulo (DEMAR/EEL/USP), SP (Brazil). Lorena School of Engineering. Dept. of Materials Engineering], E-mail: rosaconte@demar.eel.usp.br

    2009-07-01

    Low speed two stroke engines burn fuels of medium quality with high efficiency (47%) and allows a flexible use of oil (> 8% of total power) and syngas (< 92%, low heating value-LHV>11.2MJ/m{sup 3}). Biomass refinery (BR) generates oil from sludge and oleaginous biomass by low temperature conversion and syngas from lignocellulosic biomass treated by diluted acidic prehydrolysis. BR has low investment cost (US$1,500.00/kW) compared with hydroelectric plants (US$2,500.00/kW) and both generate electric energy with sales price below US$75.00/MWh. It allows distributed generation from 30 MW up to 170 MW or centralized power of 1 GW with six motor generator sets. BR matrix, mass and energy balance, fuels compositions, modulations and scope of supply will be presented. Besides electric energy BR can be tailored to supply other products such as ethanol, H{sub 2} for fuel cells, biodiesel, fertilizer recycling, char and simultaneously maximizes the production of animal protein. (author)

  7. Biomass gasification systems in electric energy generation for isolated communities; Sistemas de gaseificacao de biomassa na geracao de energia eletrica para comunidades isoladas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coelho, Suani Teixeira; Velazquez, Silvia M. Stortine Gonzales; Martins, Osvaldo Stella; Santos, Sandra Maria Apolinario dos; Basaglia, Fernando [Centro Nacional de Referencia em Biomassa (CENBIO), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)], e-mail: suani@iee.usp.br, e-mail: sgvelaz@iee.usp.br, e-mail: omartins@iee.usp.br, e-mail: sandra@iee.usp.br, e-mail: basaglia@iee.usp.br; Ushima, Ademar Hakuo [Instituto de Pesquisas Tecnologicas (IPT), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)], e-mail: adidas@ipt.br

    2004-07-01

    The project 'Comparison Among Existing Technologies of Biomass Gasification', agreement FINEP/CT-ENERG 23.01.0695.00, is a partnership between CENBIO - The Brazilian Reference Center on Biomass, BUN - Biomass Users Network of Brazil, IPT - Technology Research Institute and UA - Amazon University. The main objective of this project is to study a biomass gasifier system and its implantation, using a sustainable way, at isolated communities in the North Region, offering an alternative to replace fossil fuel. The system is composed by a gasifier from Indian Institute of Science - IISc, that can generate 20 kW of output energy, a generator (internal combustion engine), an ashes extractor, a water cooler and treatment system, a dryer and a control panel. The project, developed at IPT, intends to evaluate the operation conditions of the gasification system: gas cleaning, electric power generation and the technology transfer to Brazil, allowing the formation of human resources in the Brazilian North region and collaborating with the national institutions from this area. (author)

  8. Sustainability of the renewable sustainable energies: initial case study for the biomass and the bio fuels; Sustentabilidade das energias renovaveis sustentaveis: estudo inicial de caso para a biomassa e para os biocombustiveis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moret, Artur de Souza [Fundacao Universidade Federal de Rondonia, Porto Velho, RO (Brazil). Grupo de Pesquisa Energia Renovavel Sustentavel]. E-mail: amoret@unir.br

    2006-07-01

    This text will have one brief conceptual quarrel on the existing relations between development, energy and biomass. Intending to show that the use of the biomass with criteria is an important form of implementation of a differentiated and sustainable development. (author)

  9. Biomass recalcitrance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Felby, Claus

    2009-01-01

    , enzymatic hydrolysis, and product fermentation options. Biomass Recalcitrance is essential reading for researchers, process chemists and engineers working in biomass conversion, also plant scientists working in cell wall biology and plant biotechnology. This book examines the connection between biomass...... - this collective resistance is known as "biomass recalcitrance." Breakthrough technologies are needed to overcome barriers to developing cost-effective processes for converting biomass to fuels and chemicals. This book examines the connection between biomass structure, ultrastructure, and composition......, to resistance to enzymatic deconstruction, with the aim of discovering new cost-effective technologies for biorefineries. It contains chapters on topics extending from the highest levels of biorefinery design and biomass life-cycle analysis, to detailed aspects of plant cell wall structure, chemical treatments...

  10. Interesting energy potentials in Ukraine. In special wind power and biomass; Interessante Energiepotenziale in der Ukraine. Vor allem Windenergie und Biomasse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rehbock, Wolfram [Arzinger, Kiew (Ukraine)

    2011-05-30

    Ukraine is still unknown territory to many. In terms of energy policy, the country is usually considered interesting only as a transit country for Russian natural gas. But this view is inaccurate. Ukraine has interesting potentials, ready to be used by Germany resp. the German industry.

  11. Energy balances in the production and end use of alcohols derived from biomass. A fuels-specific comparative analysis of alternate ethanol production cycles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-10-01

    Considerable public interest and debate have been focused on the so-called energy balance issue involved in the conversion of biomass materials into ethanol for fuel use. This report addresses questions of net gains in premium fuels that can be derived from the production and use of ethanol from biomass, and shows that for the US alcohol fuel program, energy balance need not be a concern. Three categories of fuel gain are discussed in the report: (1) Net petroleum gain; (2) Net premium fuel gain (petroleum and natural gas); and (3) Net energy gain (for all fuels). In this study the investment of energy (in the form of premium fuels) in alcohol production includes all investment from cultivating, harvesting, or gathering the feedstock and raw materials, through conversion of the feedstock to alcohol, to the delivery to the end-user. To determine the fuel gains in ethanol production, six cases, encompassing three feedstocks, five process fuels, and three process variations, have been examined. For each case, two end-uses (automotive fuel use and replacement of petrochemical feedstocks) were scrutinized. The end-uses were further divided into three variations in fuel economy and two different routes for production of ethanol from petrochemicals. Energy requirements calculated for the six process cycles accounted for fuels used directly and indirectly in all stages of alcohol production, from agriculture through distribution of product to the end-user. Energy credits were computed for byproducts according to the most appropriate current use.

  12. Northeast Regional Biomass Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lusk, P.D.

    1992-12-01

    The Northeast Regional Biomass Program has been in operation for a period of nine years. During this time, state managed programs and technical programs have been conducted covering a wide range of activities primarily aim at the use and applications of wood as a fuel. These activities include: assessments of available biomass resources; surveys to determine what industries, businesses, institutions, and utility companies use wood and wood waste for fuel; and workshops, seminars, and demonstrations to provide technical assistance. In the Northeast, an estimated 6.2 million tons of wood are used in the commercial and industrial sector, where 12.5 million cords are used for residential heating annually. Of this useage, 1504.7 mw of power has been generated from biomass. The use of wood energy products has had substantial employment and income benefits in the region. Although wood and woodwaste have received primary emphasis in the regional program, the use of municipal solid waste has received increased emphasis as an energy source. The energy contribution of biomass will increase as potentia users become more familiar with existing feedstocks, technologies, and applications. The Northeast Regional Biomass Program is designed to support region-specific to overcome near-term barriers to biomass energy use.

  13. A Hybrid Life-Cycle Assessment of Nonrenewable Energy and Greenhouse-Gas Emissions of a Village-Level Biomass Gasification Project in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingyue Pang

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Small-scale bio-energy projects have been launched in rural areas of China and are considered as alternatives to fossil-fuel energy. However, energetic and environmental evaluation of these projects has rarely been carried out, though it is necessary for their long-term development. A village-level biomass gasification project provides an example. A hybrid life-cycle assessment (LCA of its total nonrenewable energy (NE cost and associated greenhouse gas (GHG emissions is presented in this paper. The results show that the total energy cost for one joule of biomass gas output from the project is 2.93 J, of which 0.89 J is from nonrenewable energy, and the related GHG emission cost is 1.17 × 10−4 g CO2-eq over its designed life cycle of 20 years. To provide equivalent effective calorific value for cooking work, the utilization of one joule of biomass gas will lead to more life cycle NE cost by 0.07 J and more GHG emissions by 8.92 × 10−5 g CO2-eq compared to natural gas taking into consideration of the difference in combustion efficiency and calorific value. The small-scale bio-energy project has fallen into dilemma, i.e., struggling for survival, and for a more successful future development of village-level gasification projects, much effort is needed to tide over the plight of its development, such as high cost and low efficiency caused by decentralized construction, technical shortcomings and low utilization rate of by-products.

  14. Bio-energy utilizes surplusses at the agricultural commodity markets. Large potentials of the biomass; Bioenergie verwertet Ueberschuesse an den Agrarmaerkten. Grosse Potenziale der Biomasse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-03-19

    At the beginning of spring in the northern hemisphere, the situation in agricultural markets relaxes visibly. After the year 2012 was characterized by periods of drought in the United States and some Eastern European countries, in recent months good harvests in major producing countries in the southern hemisphere have provided that the stocks of major agricultural commodities are grown again. Thus, enough resources are still available for the supply of food and energy. There still exists land potential in Europe and on other continents for the use of bio-energy. In addition to new power plant crops, known arable crop cultures contribute to the exploration of such a potential: An example of this is the sugar beet. The view on the global supply balance in agricultural goods inter alia the major staple food rice shows that there exist large surpluses on the food markets. However, these surpluses do not benefit the hungry persons in the world. Hunger is a problem of distribution which is not associated with the growth of bio-energy.

  15. Trapezoidal Numerical Integration of Fire Radiative Power (FRP) Provides More Reliable Estimation of Fire Radiative Energy (FRE) and so Biomass Consumption Than Conventional Estimation Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sathyachandran, S. K.; Roy, D. P.; Boschetti, L.

    2014-12-01

    The Fire Radiative Power (FRP) [MW] is a measure of the rate of biomass combustion and can be retrieved from ground based and satellite observations using middle infra-red measurements. The temporal integral of FRP is the Fire Radiative Energy (FRE) [MJ] and is related linearly to the total biomass consumption and so pyrogenic emissions. Satellite derived biomass consumption and emissions estimates have been derived conventionally by computing the summed total FRP, or the average FRP (arithmetic average of FRP retrievals), over spatial geographic grids for fixed time periods. These two methods are prone to estimation bias, especially under irregular sampling conditions such as provided by polar-orbiting satellites, because the FRP can vary rapidly in space and time as a function of the fire behavior. Linear temporal integration of FRP taking into account when the FRP values were observed and using the trapezoidal rule for numerical integration has been suggested as an alternate FRE estimation method. In this study FRP data measured rapidly with a dual-band radiometer over eight prescribed fires are used to compute eight FRE values using the sum, mean and trapezoidal estimation approaches under a variety of simulated irregular sampling conditions. The estimated values are compared to biomass consumed measurements for each of the eight fires to provide insights into which method provides more accurate and precise biomass consumption estimates. The three methods are also applied to continental MODIS FRP data to study their differences using polar orbiting satellite data. The research findings indicate that trapezoidal FRP numerical integration provides the most reliable estimator.

  16. Potential of cofiring with biomass in Italy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aresta, M.; Tommasi, I.; Galatola, M. [University of Bari (Italy). Dept. of Chemistry

    1997-12-31

    Biomass is considered a potential fuel and a renewable source for the future. In Italy, the utilization of biomass nowadays is addressed, above all, towards thermal energy production. In the near future, however, it is predictable a higher differentiation in order to use biomass with the more suitable technology. In this paper we review the utilization of residual biomasses. (Author)

  17. Bearings for the biomass boom

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MacQueen, Duncan

    2011-03-15

    Biomass energy is booming –– more than two billion people depend on biomass for their energy and the International Energy Agency predicts that biomass' share of the global energy supply will treble by 2050. But in many developing countries it is still regarded as a traditional and dirty solution that is often criminalised, unsustainable and poorly paid. A more sophisticated approach that legalises and secures sustainable production by and for local people could help improve energy security, cut carbon emissions, protect forests and reduce poverty.

  18. Anaerobic digestion as a key technology for biomass valorization: contribution to the energy balance of biofuel chains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pabon Pereira, C.P.; Slingerland, M.A.; Lier, van J.B.; Rabbinge, R.

    2013-01-01

    This chapter discusses the role of anaerobic digestion (AD) within biomass chains. It does so by firstly contextualizing the topic, highlighting the main possibilities opening up for different chains given the intrinsic advantages of AD. Next, a typology of AD cascades is set out and the possibiliti

  19. Evaluation of the potential for using old-field vegetation as an energy feedstock: Biomass yield, chemical composition, environmental concerns, and economics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnston, J.W. Jr.

    1990-07-01

    The major focus of current research on production of biomass for use as energy feedstock involves selection of species and genotypes best suited for specific regions of the United States and development of crop management techniques that maximize biomass productivity while minimizing environmental impacts and economic costs. The two experimental sites, and abandoned soybean field (AS) and an abandoned pasture (AP) were studied. At the AS site, the effects of two harvest frequencies (1 or 2 harvests annually), two nitrogen fertilizer treatments (1 or 2 harvests annually), two nitrogen fertilizer treatments (0 or 87 kg{center dot}ha{sup {minus}1}{center dot}yr{sup {minus}1}), and two phosphorous fertilizer treatments (0 or 111 kg{center dot}ha{sup {minus}1}{center dot}yr{sup {minus}1}) were determined. At the AP site, the effects of two harvest treatments (1 or 2 harvests annually), two fertilizer treatments (56:56:135 kg of N:P:K{center dot}ha{sup {minus}1}{center dot}yr{sup {minus}1}), and two lime treatments (0 or 4600 kg{center dot}ha{sup {minus}1}{center dot}yr{sup {minus}1}) were determined. At both sites, treatments were arranged in a randomized complete block 2 {times} 2 {times} 2 factorial experiment. The results of this research indicated that old-field vegetation is: (1) sufficiently productive to provide significant quantities of energy feedstock; (2) chemically suitable as an energy feedstock; (3) environmentally benign with respect to impacts related to soil erosion and nutrient depletion; (4) relatively unresponsive to fertilizer and lime inputs; and (5) economically competitive with other biomass energy feedstock candidates. 38 refs., 8 figs., 68 tabs.

  20. Aerosols from biomass combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nussbaumer, T.

    2001-07-01

    This report is the proceedings of a seminar on biomass combustion and aerosol production organised jointly by the International Energy Agency's (IEA) Task 32 on bio energy and the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE). This collection of 16 papers discusses the production of aerosols and fine particles by the burning of biomass and their effects. Expert knowledge on the environmental impact of aerosols, formation mechanisms, measurement technologies, methods of analysis and measures to be taken to reduce such emissions is presented. The seminar, visited by 50 participants from 11 countries, shows, according to the authors, that the reduction of aerosol emissions resulting from biomass combustion will remain a challenge for the future.

  1. Effects of biomass particle size on yield and composition of pyrolysis bio-oil derived from Chinese tallow tree (Triadica Sebifera L. and energy cane (Saccharum complex in an inductively heated reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Aguilar

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In the face of fluctuating petroleum costs and a growing demand for energy, the need for an alternative and sustainable energy source has increased. A viable solution for this problem can be attained by using thermochemical conversion, pyrolysis, of existing biomass sources for the production of liquid fuels. This study focuses on the effect that biomass particle size has on the conversion of biomass into liquid pyrolysis oil. Energy cane and Chinese tallow tree biomass were pyrolyzed at 550 ℃. The particle size ranges studied were < 0.5, 0.5 to 1.4, 1.4 to 2.4 and, 2.4 to 4.4 mm. The results indicate that the range from 0.5-1.4 mm is a better range for optimizing bio-oil production while keeping water content low.

  2. 生物质能在我国北方农村的发展对策研究%Approaches for Developing Biomass Energy in Rural Northern China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周游; 曹丽丽

    2014-01-01

    As a new energy resource in rural areas, biomass energy has the characteristics in terms of high calorific value, low pollution and low price. The development of biomass energy in northern rural areas is lagging now, because of lower profits the energy promoters gained and less effective scale it formed. Apart from that, users are used to traditional energy and have doubts about energy conversion. Government departments shall vigorously increase publicity to change farmers' traditional energy concept. In addition, it shall guide enter-prises to broaden marketing channels, rationally manage production scope and scale, and establish a standardized sales process. The pub-licity and demonstration effect could be used and after-sale protection needs to be improved. By doing so, biomass energy could be rolled out with lasting competitiveness and finally help improve the living conditions of rural residents in northern China.%生物质能作为一种农村新能源,兼具热值高、污染小、价格低的特点。目前,我国北方农村生物质能发展相对滞后,其原因在于推广者推广利润较低、未形成有效规模;使用者对传统能源的习惯性依赖以及对能源转换存有顾虑。政府部门应加大对生物质能转换的宣传,大力改变农民传统的能源使用观念;要引导企业拓宽市场推广渠道、合理布局生产范围和规模、建立规范化的产销流程、充分利用宣传和示范效应、完善售后保障等措施,全方位、多角度将其推向市场,获得持久竞争力,最终实现北方农村人民生活条件的改善和社会经济的发展。

  3. Endophyte-assisted promotion of biomass production and metal-uptake of energy crop sweet sorghum by plant-growth-promoting endophyte Bacillus sp. SLS18.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Shenglian; Xu, Taoying; Chen, Liang; Chen, Jueliang; Rao, Chan; Xiao, Xiao; Wan, Yong; Zeng, Guangming; Long, Fei; Liu, Chengbin; Liu, Yutang

    2012-02-01

    The effects of Bacillus sp. SLS18, a plant-growth-promoting endophyte, on the biomass production and Mn/Cd uptake of sweet sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L.), Phytolacca acinosa Roxb., and Solanum nigrum L. were investigated. SLS18 displayed multiple heavy metals and antibiotics resistances. The strain also exhibited the capacity of producing indole-3-acetic acid, siderophores, and 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid deaminase. In pot experiments, SLS18 could not only infect plants effectively but also significantly increase the biomass of the three tested plants in the presence of Mn/Cd. The promoting effect order of SLS18 on the biomass of the tested plants was sweet sorghum > P. acinosa > S. nigrum L. In the presence of Mn (2,000 mg kg(-1)) and Cd (50 mg kg(-1)) in vermiculite, the total Mn/Cd uptakes in the aerial parts of sweet sorghum, P. acinosa, and S. nigrum L. were increased by 65.2%/40.0%, 55.2%/31.1%, and 18.6%/25.6%, respectively, compared to the uninoculated controls. This demonstrates that the symbiont of SLS18 and sweet sorghum has the potential of improving sweet sorghum biomass production and its total metal uptake on heavy metal-polluted marginal land. It offers the potential that heavy metal-polluted marginal land could be utilized in planting sweet sorghum as biofuel feedstock for ethanol production, which not only gives a promising phytoremediation strategy but also eases the competition for limited fertile farmland between energy crops and food crops.

  4. Exploiting the power law distribution properties of satellite fire radiative power retrievals: A method to estimate fire radiative energy and biomass burned from sparse satellite observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, S. S.; Roy, D. P.; Boschetti, L.; Kremens, R.

    2011-10-01

    Instantaneous estimates of the power released by fire (fire radiative power, FRP) are available with satellite active fire detection products. The temporal integral of FRP provides an estimate of the fire radiative energy (FRE) that is related linearly to the amount of biomass burned needed by the atmospheric emissions modeling community. The FRE, however, is sensitive to satellite temporal and spatial FRP undersampling due to infrequent satellite overpasses, cloud and smoke