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Sample records for california unified perspective

  1. Agriculture, irrigation, and drainage on the west side of the San Joaquin Valley, California: Unified perspective on hydrogeology, geochemistry and management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Narasimhan, T.N.; Quinn, N.W.T.

    1996-03-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide a broad understanding of water-related issues of agriculture and drainage on the west side of the San Joaquin Valley. To this end, an attempt is made to review available literature on land and water resources of the San Joaquin Valley and to generate a process-oriented framework within which the various physical-, chemical-, biological- and economic components of the system and their interactions are placed in mutual perspective.

  2. 77 FR 7536 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-13

    ... is finalizing approval of revisions to the San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control District... 40 CFR Part 52 Environmental protection, Air pollution control, Incorporation by reference, Reporting... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Joaquin Valley Unified Air...

  3. 77 FR 745 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-06

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control District (SJVUAPCD) Correction In rule document 2011-33660 appearing on pages...

  4. An Exploratory Study of the Relationship between Organizational Strategy and Performance among California's Largest Unified School Districts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abode, Philip Sanmi

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to understand the nature of the relationship between organizational strategy and district performance among California's largest unified school districts. Organizational strategy was measured using planned and realized strategies (independent variables). Realized strategy is also referred to strategic orientation.…

  5. The Unified State Exam in Russia: Problems and Perspectives

    OpenAIRE

    Denisova-Schmidt, Elena; Leontyeva, Elvira

    2014-01-01

    Since 2009, all Russian students have had to pass the EGE (Unified State Exam), which serves as both school finals and university entrance examinations. The EGE was planned as an efficient instrument to counter corruption in university admission and to promote student mobility. Since its inception, the EGE has only fulfilled half of these goals: while mobility has increased significantly, corruption persists. The paper explains some of the reasons for this. [http://ejournals.bc.edu/ojs/in...

  6. Molecular catalysis science: Perspective on unifying the fields of catalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Rong; Hurlburt, Tyler J; Sabyrov, Kairat; Alayoglu, Selim; Somorjai, Gabor A

    2016-05-10

    Colloidal chemistry is used to control the size, shape, morphology, and composition of metal nanoparticles. Model catalysts as such are applied to catalytic transformations in the three types of catalysts: heterogeneous, homogeneous, and enzymatic. Real-time dynamics of oxidation state, coordination, and bonding of nanoparticle catalysts are put under the microscope using surface techniques such as sum-frequency generation vibrational spectroscopy and ambient pressure X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy under catalytically relevant conditions. It was demonstrated that catalytic behavior and trends are strongly tied to oxidation state, the coordination number and crystallographic orientation of metal sites, and bonding and orientation of surface adsorbates. It was also found that catalytic performance can be tuned by carefully designing and fabricating catalysts from the bottom up. Homogeneous and heterogeneous catalysts, and likely enzymes, behave similarly at the molecular level. Unifying the fields of catalysis is the key to achieving the goal of 100% selectivity in catalysis.

  7. 76 FR 68106 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-03

    ... Unified Air Pollution Control District AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: EPA is finalizing approval of revisions to the San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control... CFR Part 52 Environmental protection, Air pollution control, Incorporation by reference...

  8. 76 FR 26609 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-09

    ... Air Pollution Control District AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: EPA is finalizing approval of revisions to the San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control... Valley Unified Air Pollution Control District (No. 08-17309)] to overturn a District Court ruling that...

  9. 76 FR 45212 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-28

    ... Air Pollution Control District AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Proposed rule. SUMMARY: In this action, we are proposing to approve San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control... the environment. San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control District SJVUAPCD is an extreme...

  10. 75 FR 24408 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-05

    ... authority to address, as appropriate, disproportionate human health or environmental effects, using... Air Pollution Control District AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: EPA is finalizing approval of revisions to the San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control...

  11. 76 FR 33181 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-08

    ... Air Pollution Control District AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Proposed rule. SUMMARY: EPA is proposing to approve a revision to the San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control..., Air pollution control, Intergovernmental relations, Ozone, Reporting and recordkeeping requirements...

  12. 76 FR 67369 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-01

    ... Pollution Control District and Imperial County Air Pollution Control District AGENCY: Environmental... Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control District (SJVUAPCD) and Imperial County Air Pollution Control... Motor Vehicle Assembly, Metal Parts and Products, Plastic Parts and Products and Pleasure Crafts...

  13. 76 FR 47076 - Revision to the California State Implementation Plan, San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-04

    ... Air Pollution Control District AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: EPA is finalizing approval of a revision to the San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control... CFR Part 52 Environmental protection, Air pollution control, Incorporation by reference...

  14. 77 FR 71109 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-29

    ... Air Pollution Control District (SJVUAPCD) AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Final...)(2)). List of Subjects in 40 CFR Part 52 Environmental protection, Air pollution control... Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control District (SJVUAPCD). (1) The following specified portions of...

  15. 76 FR 69135 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-08

    ... Air Pollution Control District AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: EPA is finalizing approval of revisions to the San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control... CFR Part 52 Environmental protection, Air pollution control, Incorporation by reference...

  16. 77 FR 25384 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-30

    ... Air Pollution Control District AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Proposed rule. SUMMARY: EPA is proposing to approve revisions to the San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control... Environmental protection, Air pollution control, Intergovernmental relations, Ozone, Reporting and recordkeeping...

  17. 76 FR 70886 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-16

    ... Air Pollution Control District AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: EPA is finalizing approval of revisions to the San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control... CFR Part 52 Environmental protection, Air pollution control, Incorporation by reference...

  18. 77 FR 5709 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-06

    ... authority to address disproportionate human health or environmental effects with practical, appropriate, and... Air Pollution Control District AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: EPA is finalizing approval of revisions to the San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control...

  19. 76 FR 53640 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-29

    ... not provide EPA with the discretionary authority to address disproportionate human health or... Air Pollution Control District AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: EPA is finalizing approval of revisions to the San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control...

  20. 76 FR 5276 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-31

    ... SJVUAPCD 4308 Boilers, Steam Generators 12/17/09 05/17/10 and Process Heaters--0.075 MMBtu/hr to less than... Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control District. (1) Rule 4308, ``Boilers, Steam Generators and... proposed in the Federal Register on August 2, 2010 and concern oxides of nitrogen (NO X ) from boilers...

  1. 75 FR 57862 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-23

    ... Air Pollution Control District AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: EPA is finalizing approval of revisions to the San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control... of Subjects in 40 CFR Part 52 Environmental protection, Air pollution control, Incorporation by...

  2. 77 FR 35329 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-13

    ... Air Pollution Control District AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Proposed rule. SUMMARY: EPA is proposing to approve revisions to the San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control... of Subjects in 40 CFR Part 52 Environmental protection, Air pollution control, Intergovernmental...

  3. 77 FR 50021 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-20

    ... Air Pollution Control District AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: In this action, EPA is finalizing approval of San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control... plans that are specifically tailored to the nature of the air pollution sources in each state. The Act...

  4. 77 FR 66429 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-05

    ... Air Pollution Control District AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Proposed rule. SUMMARY: EPA is proposing to approve revisions to the San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control.... EPA, January 2001. 9. ``Interim White Paper--Midwest RPO Candidate Control Measure: Glass...

  5. 76 FR 37044 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-24

    ... Air Pollution Control District AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Proposed rule. SUMMARY: EPA is proposing to approve revisions to the San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control... Programs,'' US EPA, January 2001. 5. ``Interim White Paper--Midwest RPO Candidate Control Measure: Glass...

  6. 75 FR 1716 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-13

    .... 6. County Sanitation Districts of Los Angeles County, letter from Stephen R. Maguin and Gregory M. Adams, dated August 11, 2009. 7. County Sanitation Districts of Los Angeles County, letter from Stephen... 13, 2009. 11. Southern California Air Quality Alliance, letter from Curtis L. Coleman, Esq., dated...

  7. 75 FR 1715 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-13

    ... California SIP. Local agency Rule No. Rule title Adopted Submitted SJVAPCD 4306 Boilers, Steam Generators and 10/16/08 03/17/09 Process Heaters--Phase 3. SJVAPCD 4307 Boilers, Steam Generators and 10/16/08 03/17...) * * * (A) * * * (3) Rule 4306, ``Boilers, Steam Generators and Process Heaters-- Phase 3, '' adopted on...

  8. 76 FR 41745 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-15

    ..., polyethylene, and polypropylene products. We are proposing action on a local rule that regulates these emission... Polypropylene Products Manufacturing, amended on September 20, 2007, and submitted by the California Air... ground-level ozone and smog, which harm human health and the environment. Section 110(a) of the CAA...

  9. Modeling Self-Assembly Across Scales: The Unifying Perspective of Smart Minimal Particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alcherio Martinoli

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available A wealth of current research in microengineering aims at fabricating devices of increasing complexity, notably by (self-assembling elementary components into heterogeneous functional systems. At the same time, a large body of robotic research called swarm robotics is concerned with the design and the control of large ensembles of robots of decreasing size and complexity. This paper describes the asymptotic convergence of micro/nano electromechanical systems (M/NEMS on one side, and swarm robotic systems on the other, toward a unifying class of systems, which we denote Smart Minimal Particles (SMPs. We define SMPs as mobile, purely reactive and physically embodied agents that compensate for their limited on-board capabilities using specifically engineered reactivity to external physical stimuli, including local energy and information scavenging. In trading off internal resources for simplicity and robustness, SMPs are still able to collectively perform non-trivial, spatio-temporally coordinated and highly scalable operations such as aggregation and self-assembly (SA. We outline the opposite converging tendencies, namely M/NEMS smarting and robotic minimalism, by reviewing each field’s literature with specific focus on self-assembling systems. Our main claim is that the SMPs can be used to develop a unifying technological and methodological framework that bridges the gap between passive M/NEMS and active, centimeter-sized robots. By proposing this unifying perspective, we hypothesize a continuum in both complexity and length scale between these two extremes. We illustrate the benefits of possible cross-fertilizations among these originally separate domains, with specific emphasis on the modeling of collective dynamics. Particularly, we argue that while most of the theoretical studies on M/NEMS SA dynamics belong so far to one of only two main frameworks—based on analytical master equations and on numerical agent-based simulations

  10. Hybrid suburbia: New research perspectives in France and Southern California

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weber Florian

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Geographical research on French and US suburbia has concentrated in recent decades on urban sprawl and concomitant processes of devaluation and exclusion. In the case of the French banlieues, with their much-publicised urban riots, this particular analytic focus has become overwhelming, with resultant loss to other developments and perspectives. However, certain districts in the first (or inner ring of both French and US suburbia are currently showing distinct urbanisation tendencies in planning and architecture, evident in the new usage of brownfield sites and the ongoing demolition, replacement, and rededication of the older building core. Such processes induce population changes, e.g. the displacement of lower in favour of higher income groups. Overall, they result in an architectonic, social and cultural heterogeneity that escapes the specificity of received categories and merits the term hybridisation. The article describes and compares these processes as exemplified in Greater Paris and San Diego (Southern California.

  11. Kirjandusteoreetilise ühendvälja poole / Unified Theoretical Field Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arne Merilai

    2013-12-01

    view, networks and methodologies. Thus, the in-depth study of literatures, avoiding shallow eclecticism and levelling synthesis, should be implemented within a comprehensive, unified meta-multi-theoretical field that integrates diverse paradigms and polylogical perspectives central to the humanities today. The theorisations may be exclusively collateral, have inclusive intersections or be more generally congenial. The use of one cluster does not exclude the consideration of others, even opposing ones. Although the comparative meta-theory, or general poetics, does not aim to erase inevitable and inspiring incoherencies, a synchronisation of meta-languages can often be achieved at the appropriate levels of description, even between analytical and continental language philosophy evident in pragmapoetics (q.v. Merilai 2003, 2007a, b. While the humanities encourage diversity, no scholar, however astute, is expected to have a full command of all relevant discourses within the whole polysystem; hence the need for shared synergies.

  12. Pasadena, California Perspective View with Aerial Photo and Landsat Overlay

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    This perspective view shows the western part of the city of Pasadena, California, looking north towards the San Gabriel Mountains. Portions of the cities of Altadena and La Canada-Flintridge are also shown. The image was created from three datasets: the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) supplied the elevation data; Landsat data from November 11, 1986 provided the land surface color (not the sky) and U. S. Geological Survey digital aerial photography provides the image detail. The Rose Bowl, surrounded by a golf course, is the circular feature at the bottom center of the image. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, is the cluster of large buildings north of the Rose Bowl at the base of the mountains. A large landfill, Scholl Canyon, is the smooth area in the lower left corner of the scene.This image shows the power of combining data from different sources to create planning tools to study problems that affect large urban areas. In addition to the well-known earthquake hazards, Southern California is affected by a natural cycle of fire and mudflows. Wildfires strip the mountains of vegetation, increasing the hazards from flooding and mudflows for several years afterwards. Data such as shown on this image can be used to predict both how wildfires will spread over the terrain and also how mudflows will be channeled down the canyons.For a full-resolution, annotated version of this image, please select Figure 1, below: [figure removed for brevity, see original site] The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), launched on February 11,2000, uses the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. The mission is designed to collect three-dimensional measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter-long (200-foot) mast, an additional C-band imaging antenna and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is

  13. Analysis of google entry in unified communications from a resource and competence perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Vialle, Pierre

    2011-01-01

    The business communications market has been deeply transformed by technological and product convergence, due to the progressive substitution of traditional TDM-based voice products and services by ToIP (Telephony over IP) based products and services. The adoption of IP and the management of voice applications in the same way as data application has given rise to convergence offerings under the name of Unified Communications, and allowed the entry of data communications vendors, such as Cisco,...

  14. Perspectives on risk: review and discussion of the basis for establishing a unified and holistic approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aven, T. [University of Stavanger, P.O. Box 8002, Stavanger 4068 (Norway)]. E-mail: terje.aven@his.no; Kristensen, V. [University of Stavanger, P.O. Box 8002, Stavanger 4068 (Norway)

    2005-10-01

    There exist many perspectives on risk, including safety engineering, social scientist perspectives, risk perception research and economic decision analysis. Traditionally, some of the different perspectives have been viewed to represent completely different frameworks, and the exchange of ideas and results has been difficult. Much of the existing discussions on risk perspectives have in our view lacked a sufficient level of precision on the fundamental ideas of risk assessments and management. For example, there is more than one line of thinking in risk analysis and assessment and mixing all approaches into one, gives a rather meaningless discussion. In this paper, we review some of the most common perspectives on risk. We show that it is possible to establish a common basis for the different perspectives, by looking at risk as the full spectrum of the dimensions (a) possible consequences and (b) associated uncertainties. Examples from the offshore oil and gas industry are included to illustrate ideas.

  15. Neutral theory and the species abundance distribution: recent developments and prospects for unifying niche and neutral perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Thomas J; Whittaker, Robert J

    2014-01-01

    Published in 2001, The Unified Neutral Theory of Biodiversity and Biogeography (UNTB) emphasizes the importance of stochastic processes in ecological community structure, and has challenged the traditional niche-based view of ecology. While neutral models have since been applied to a broad range of ecological and macroecological phenomena, the majority of research relating to neutral theory has focused exclusively on the species abundance distribution (SAD). Here, we synthesize the large body of work on neutral theory in the context of the species abundance distribution, with a particular focus on integrating ideas from neutral theory with traditional niche theory. First, we summarize the basic tenets of neutral theory; both in general and in the context of SADs. Second, we explore the issues associated with neutral theory and the SAD, such as complications with fitting and model comparison, the underlying assumptions of neutral models, and the difficultly of linking pattern to process. Third, we highlight the advances in understanding of SADs that have resulted from neutral theory and models. Finally, we focus consideration on recent developments aimed at unifying neutral- and niche-based approaches to ecology, with a particular emphasis on what this means for SAD theory, embracing, for instance, ideas of emergent neutrality and stochastic niche theory. We put forward the argument that the prospect of the unification of niche and neutral perspectives represents one of the most promising future avenues of neutral theory research. PMID:25360266

  16. Uncertainty Driven Action (UDA) model: A foundation for unifying perspectives on design activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cash, Philip; Kreye, Melanie

    2017-01-01

    This paper proposes the Uncertainty Driven Action (UDA) model, which unifies the fragmented literature on design activity. The UDA model conceptualises design activity as a process consisting of three core actions: information action, knowledge-sharing action, and representation action, which...... are linked via uncertainty perception. The foundations of the UDA model in the design literature are elaborated in terms of the three core actions and their links to designer cognition and behaviour, utilising definitions and concepts from Activity Theory. The practical relevance and theoretical...... contributions of the UDA model are discussed. This paper contributes to the design literature by offering a comprehensive formalisation of design activity of individual designers, which connects cognition and action, to provide a foundation for understanding previously disparate descriptions of design activity....

  17. [Integrality in the health care perspective: an experience of the Unified Health System in Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seixas, Clarissa Terenzi; Merhy, Emerson Elias; Baduy, Rossana Staevie; Slomp, Helvo

    2016-03-01

    Starting with a discussion of the biomedical model and its implications in the shaping of healthcare professionals and health practices, this article analyzes the concept of integrality as associated with the Unified Health System (SUS) [Sistema Único de Salud] in Brazil. Particular attention is paid to the disputes regarding the meaning of integrality and the ways of putting the concept into practice in everyday health care work. Based in a research study conducted at the national level, the authors suggest two aspects crucial to fostering integrality: an ethical-political project founded in the recognition that other people's lives are worthwhile and enriching; as well as the existence of additional spaces conducive to discovering diverse ways of producing life, in which integrality in health care is also possible and powerful. The authors affirm the relevance of this process as a contribution to the continual construction of the SUS in Brazil.

  18. A unified perspective on preferential solvation and adsorption based on inhomogeneous solvation theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, Seishi; Matubayasi, Nobuyuki

    2018-02-01

    How cosolvents affects solvation has been revealed through the independent determination of solute-solvent and solute-cosolvent interactions guaranteed by the phase rule. Based on the first principles of inhomogeneous solvation theory, we present here a general matrix theory encompassing both preferential solvation and surface adsorption. The central role of the stability conditions, that govern how many excess numbers (surface excesses) are independently determinable, have been clarified from the first principles. The advantage of the inhomogeneous approach has been demonstrated to be in its ease in treating solvation and adsorption in a unified manner, while its disadvantage, for example in membrane dialysis experiments, can be overcome by the inhomogeneous-homogeneous conversion.

  19. A unified model of non-profit sport organizations performance : perspectives from the literature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Manu Claessens; Erik Thibaut; Mathieu Winand; Jeroen Scheerder; Steven Vos

    2014-01-01

    Little consensus has emerged about how organizational performance should be defined and measured. Most studies have used traditional approaches to give their own perspective about organizational performance and effectiveness, but none have recently tried to encompass these different views into one

  20. The sound of emotions-Towards a unifying neural network perspective of affective sound processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frühholz, Sascha; Trost, Wiebke; Kotz, Sonja A

    2016-09-01

    Affective sounds are an integral part of the natural and social environment that shape and influence behavior across a multitude of species. In human primates, these affective sounds span a repertoire of environmental and human sounds when we vocalize or produce music. In terms of neural processing, cortical and subcortical brain areas constitute a distributed network that supports our listening experience to these affective sounds. Taking an exhaustive cross-domain view, we accordingly suggest a common neural network that facilitates the decoding of the emotional meaning from a wide source of sounds rather than a traditional view that postulates distinct neural systems for specific affective sound types. This new integrative neural network view unifies the decoding of affective valence in sounds, and ascribes differential as well as complementary functional roles to specific nodes within a common neural network. It also highlights the importance of an extended brain network beyond the central limbic and auditory brain systems engaged in the processing of affective sounds. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Information resources in state regulatory agencies-a California perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DiZio, S.M. [California Environmental Protection Agency, Sacramento (United States)

    1990-12-31

    Various state regulatory agencies have expressed a need for networking with information gatherers/researchers to produce a concise compilation of primary information so that the basis for regulatory standards can be scientifically referenced. California has instituted several programs to retrieve primary information, generate primary information through research, and generate unique regulatory standards by integrating the primary literature and the products of research. This paper describes these programs.

  2. Water Bodies and Vegetation in the California-Baja California Border Region a Remote Sensors Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinojosa, A.; Mexicano-Vargas, M. L.; Serrato, B. A.

    2007-05-01

    The California-Baja California border region although they share watersheds, similar climate and landscape, there is a big contrast in the vegetation cover and water bodies between the two countries as seen from remote sensors. There is a stronger signature of vegetation and larger number of water bodies in the California side. To do a quantitative estimate of these differences, a comparative analysis of vegetation and water bodies was perfomerd along a strip of 100 km from both sides of the border with remote sensing techniques using Landsat TM images from 1984 to 2006. The strong absorption of water to short wave infrared radiation captured by band 5 of TM Landsat sensor (1.55- 1.75 micrometers) is use to detect water bodies. The histogram segmentation technique was used with TM 5/1 band ratios reinforced with a shades prediction technique using the sun position and a digital elevation model. The aerial extent of detected water bodies is estimated. Also an analysis from 1972 trough 2002 of the Mexican portion of Colorado river delta will be presented, with emphasis on flood events induced by abnormal snowmelts and higher precipitations in the high basin; 250 Landsat image previews were collected , from which 157 were selected to integrate 63 scenes that provide a dynamic picture of the Colorado delta river over 30 years. A regression with the annual averages of inundated areas and annual water flow data from E.U. to Mexico was made with a correlation coefficient of 0.912. The normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) was used to estimate the vegetation greenness in the agricultural valleys and in natural vegetated areas along the mountains on both sides of the border. The spatial distribution of the NDVI and the differences between zones with the same land use regime on both sides of the border is presented.

  3. A unified analysis of crustal motion in Southern California, 1970-2004: The SCEC crustal motion map

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Z.-K.; King, R. W.; Agnew, D. C.; Wang, M.; Herring, T. A.; Dong, D.; Fang, P.

    2011-11-01

    To determine crustal motions in and around southern California, we have processed and combined trilateration data collected from 1970 to 1992, VLBI data from 1979 to 1992, and GPS data from 1986 to 2004: a long temporal coverage required in part by the occurrence of several large earthquakes in this region. From a series of solutions for station positions, we have estimated interseismic velocities, coseismic displacements, and postseismic motions. Within the region from 31°N to 38°N. and east to 114°W, the final product includes estimated horizontal velocities for 1009 GPS, 190 trilateration, and 16 VLBI points, with ties between some of these used to stabilize the solution. All motions are relative to the Stable North American Reference Frame (SNARF) as realized through the velocities of 20 GPS stations. This provides a relatively dense set of horizontal velocity estimates, with well-tested errors, for the past quarter century over the plate boundary from 31°N to 36.5°N. These velocities agree well with those from the Plate Boundary Observatory, which apply to a later time period. We also estimated vertical velocities, 533 of which have errors below 2 mm/yr. Most of these velocities are less than 1 mm/yr, but they show 2-4 mm/yr subsidence in the Ventura and Los Angeles basins and in the Salton Trough. Our analysis also included estimates of coseismic and postseismic motions related to the 1992 Landers, 1994 Northridge, 1999 Hector Mine, and 2003 San Simeon earthquakes. Postseismic motions increase logarithmically over time with a time constant of about 10 days, and generally mimic the direction and relative amplitude of the coseismic offsets.

  4. Perspectives of Key Central Office Staff and School Principals Regarding Resource Allocation Policies and Procedures. A Report Prepared for Twin Rivers Unified School District. SSFR Research Report #02 (TRUSD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, Jay G.; Brown, James R.; Tolleson, Ray; Manship, Karen; Knudson, Joel

    2010-01-01

    This report summarizes the perspectives and attitudes of a selected set of district and school site administrators whom the authors interviewed in Twin Rivers Unified School District (TRUSD) during the fall of 2009. The authors carried out interviews and focus groups with these individuals to gain an understanding of how the current budgeting…

  5. Factors Affecting Student Success in Distance Learning Courses at a Local California Community College: Joint Governance Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, Luis A.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the perspectives of staff and faculty regarding factors affecting student success in distance learning at a California community college (CCC). Participants were members of the leadership group known as the distance learning committee. Data were collected through in-depth interviews using open-ended…

  6. Paradoxical persistence through mixed-system dynamics: towards a unified perspective of reversal behaviours in evolutionary ecology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Paul David; Hastings, Alan

    2011-01-01

    Counterintuitive dynamics of various biological phenomena occur when composite system dynamics differ qualitatively from that of their component systems. Such composite systems typically arise when modelling situations with time-varying biotic or abiotic conditions, and examples range from metapopulation dynamics to population genetic models. These biological, and related physical, phenomena can often be modelled as simple financial games, wherein capital is gained and lost through gambling. Such games have been developed and used as heuristic devices to elucidate the processes at work in generating seemingly paradoxical outcomes across a spectrum of disciplines, albeit in a field-specific, ad hoc fashion. Here, we propose that studying these simple games can provide a much deeper understanding of the fundamental principles governing paradoxical behaviours in models from a diversity of topics in evolution and ecology in which fluctuating environmental effects, whether deterministic or stochastic, are an essential aspect of the phenomenon of interest. Of particular note, we find that, for a broad class of models, the ecological concept of equilibrium reactivity provides an intuitive necessary condition that must be satisfied in order for environmental variability to promote population persistence. We contend that further investigations along these lines promise to unify aspects of the study of a range of topics, bringing questions from genetics, species persistence and coexistence and the evolution of bet-hedging strategies, under a common theoretical purview. PMID:21270032

  7. Negligencia en la Educacion de Estudiantes Mexico-Americanos en el Distrito Escolar Unificado Lucia Mar, Pismo Beach, California. (Educational Neglect of Mexican-American Students in Lucia Mar Unified School District, Pismo Beach, California.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    California State Advisory Committee to the United States Commission on Civil Rights.

    California State Advisory Committee (SAC) of the U.S. Commission on Civil Rights held hearings in Santa Maria, California (May 20, 1972) to collect information on civil rights problems of Mexican American students in the Lucia Mar School District. Major issues were community complaints about the arrest of 26 Mexican American students and some…

  8. From Paper to Practice: Challenges Facing a California Charter School. A Report Presented to the San Diego Unified School Board. Technical Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    WestEd, San Francisco, CA.

    Signed into law on September 2, 1992, California's charter-school law has led to the approval of over 100 charter schools. San Diego City Schools (SDCS) was one of the first districts to sponsor charter schools, including the Harriet Tubman School, 1 year after the law became effective. This report provides a brief overview and summary of a case…

  9. From Paper to Practice: Challenges Facing a California Charter School. A Report Presented to the San Diego Unified School Board. Executive Summary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    WestEd, San Francisco, CA.

    Signed into law on September 2, 1992, California's charter-school law has led to the approval of over 100 charter schools. San Diego City Schools (SDCS) was one of the first districts to sponsor charter schools, including the Harriet Tubman School, 1 year after the law became effective. This document provides a brief overview and summary of a case…

  10. Advantages of a Unified Earth and Space Science Approach for Geoscience Education: Perspectives from the National Center for Atmospheric Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, R. M.; Barnes, T.; Bergman, J.; Carbone, L.; Eastburn, T.; Foster, S.; Gardiner, L.; Genyuk, J.; Henderson, S.; Lagrave, M.; Munoz, R.; Russell, R.; Araujo-Pradere, E.; Metcalfe, T.; Mastie, D.; Pennington, P.

    2005-05-01

    The intellectual divisions common among scientists involved in research in specific disciplines are frequently not shared by the broader community of learners. For example, in K-12 education, the Earth sciences and the space sciences have generally been taught in an integrated approach, until opportunities for more advanced courses become available at the higher grade levels in some fortunate school districts. When scientists involved in EPO activities retain a perspective limited to their particular science mission, rather than stepping back to a broader perspective that places the research in a larger context, they risk limiting the usefulness of these activities to a broad cross-section of learners that seek to learn in a contextual framework. The re-integration of Earth and space sciences within NASA's Science Mission Directorate provides an opportunity to more systematically take advantage of the fact that Earth is one of many examples of possible planetary evolution scenarios presented in our solar system and beyond. This development should encourage integration of research across the SMD into a broader context that encourages the development of higher learning skills and a systems thinking approach. At the National Center for Atmospheric Research, the interdisciplinary nature of the research problems we address requires an approach that integrates Earth and space science, and we parallel this in our education and outreach activities, ranging from our exhibits on climate change to our professional development workshops and online courses to our websites and curriculum development efforts. The Windows to the Universe project (http://www.windows.ucar.edu), initiated at the University of Michigan with support from NASA in 1995 and now developed and maintained at the University Corporation for Atmospheric Research, has maintained this integrated approach from its inception with great success - leading to over 6 million users of our English and Spanish language

  11. Unifying perspective: Solitary traveling waves as discrete breathers in Hamiltonian lattices and energy criteria for their stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuevas-Maraver, Jesús; Kevrekidis, Panayotis G.; Vainchtein, Anna; Xu, Haitao

    2017-09-01

    In this work, we provide two complementary perspectives for the (spectral) stability of solitary traveling waves in Hamiltonian nonlinear dynamical lattices, of which the Fermi-Pasta-Ulam and the Toda lattice are prototypical examples. One is as an eigenvalue problem for a stationary solution in a cotraveling frame, while the other is as a periodic orbit modulo shifts. We connect the eigenvalues of the former with the Floquet multipliers of the latter and using this formulation derive an energy-based spectral stability criterion. It states that a sufficient (but not necessary) condition for a change in the wave stability occurs when the functional dependence of the energy (Hamiltonian) H of the model on the wave velocity c changes its monotonicity. Moreover, near the critical velocity where the change of stability occurs, we provide an explicit leading-order computation of the unstable eigenvalues, based on the second derivative of the Hamiltonian H''(c0) evaluated at the critical velocity c0. We corroborate this conclusion with a series of analytically and numerically tractable examples and discuss its parallels with a recent energy-based criterion for the stability of discrete breathers.

  12. Quantity and quality: unifying food web and ecosystem perspectives on the role of resource subsidies in freshwaters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcarelli, Amy M; Baxter, Colden V; Mineau, Madeleine M; Hall, Robert O

    2011-06-01

    Although the study of resource subsidies has emerged as a key topic in both ecosystem and food web ecology, the dialogue over their role has been limited by separate approaches that emphasize either subsidy quantity or quality. Considering quantity and quality together may provide a simple, but previously unexplored, framework for identifying the mechanisms that govern the importance of subsidies for recipient food webs and ecosystems. Using a literature review of > 90 studies of open-water metabolism in lakes and streams, we show that high-flux, low-quality subsidies can drive freshwater ecosystem dynamics. Because most of these ecosystems are net heterotrophic, allochthonous inputs must subsidize respiration. Second, using a literature review of subsidy quality and use, we demonstrate that animals select for high-quality food resources in proportions greater than would be predicted based on food quantity, and regardless of allochthonous or autochthonous origin. This finding suggests that low-flux, high-quality subsidies may be selected for by animals, and in turn may disproportionately affect food web and ecosystem processes (e.g., animal production, trophic energy or organic matter flow, trophic cascades). We then synthesize and review approaches that evaluate the role of subsidies and explicitly merge ecosystem and food web perspectives by placing food web measurements in the context of ecosystem budgets, by comparing trophic and ecosystem production and fluxes, and by constructing flow food webs. These tools can and should be used to address future questions about subsidies, such as the relative importance of subsidies to different trophic levels and how subsidies may maintain or disrupt ecosystem stability and food web interactions.

  13. Hydroclimatic Characteristics of the 2012–2015 California Drought from an Operational Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minxue He

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available California experienced an extraordinary drought from 2012–2015 (which continues into 2016. This study, from an operational perspective, reviewed the development of this drought in a hydroclimatic framework and examined its characteristics at different temporal and spatial scales. Observed and reconstructed operational hydrologic indices and variables widely used in water resources planning and management at statewide and (hydrologic regional scales were employed for this purpose. Parsimonious metrics typically applied in drought assessment and management practices including the drought monitor category, percent of average, and rank were utilized to facilitate the analysis. The results indicated that the drought was characterized by record low snowpack (statewide four-year accumulated deficit: 280%-of-average, exceptionally low April-July runoff (220%-of-average deficit, and significantly below average reservoir storage (93%-of-average deficit. During the period from 2012–2015, in general, water year 2015 stood out as the driest single year; 2014–2015 was the driest two-year period; and 2013–2015 tended to be the driest three-year period. Contrary to prior studies stating that the 2012–2015 drought was unprecedented, this study illustrated that based on eight out of 28 variables, the 2012–2015 drought was not without precedent in the record period. Spatially, on average, the South Coast Region, the Central Coast Region, the Tulare Region, and the San Joaquin Region generally had the most severe drought conditions. Overall, these findings are highly meaningful for water managers in terms of making better informed adaptive management plans.

  14. Ethanol Fuels Incentives Applied in the U.S.: Reviewed from California's Perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MacDonald, Tom [California Energy Commision, Sacramento, CA (United States)

    2004-01-01

    This report describes measures employed by state governments and by the federal government to advance the production and use of ethanol fuel in the United States. The future of ethanol as an alternative transportation fuel poses a number of increasingly-important issues and decisions for California government, as the state becomes a larger consumer, and potentially a larger producer, of ethanol.

  15. [Budget impact of the incorporation of GeneXpert MTB/RIF for diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis from the perspective of the Brazilian Unified National Health System, Brazil, 2013-2017].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Márcia Ferreira Teixeira; Steffen, Ricardo; Entringer, Aline; Costa, Ana Carolina Carioca da; Trajman, Anete

    2017-10-09

    The study aimed to estimate the budget impact of GeneXpert MTB/RIF for diagnosis of tuberculosis from the perspective of the Brazilian National Program for Tuberculosis Control, drawing on a static model using the epidemiological method, from 2013 to 2017. GeneXpert MTB/RIF was compared with two diagnostic sputum smear tests. The study used epidemiological, population, and cost data, exchange rates, and databases from the Brazilian Unified National Health System. Sensitivity analysis of scenarios was performed. Incorporation of GeneXpert MTB/RIF would cost BRL 147 million (roughly USD 45 million) in five years and would have an impact of 23 to 26% in the first two years and some 11% between 2015 and 2017. The results can support Brazilian and other Latin American health administrators in planning and managing the decision on incorporating the technology.

  16. How have mandated nurse staffing ratios affected hospitals? Perspectives from California hospital leaders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Susan A; Spetz, Joanne; Seago, Jean Ann; Kaiser, Jennifer; Dower, Catherine; Herrera, Carolina

    2009-01-01

    In 1999, California became the first state to pass legislation mandating minimum nurse-to-patient ratios. Regulations detailing specific ratios by type of hospital unit were released in 2002, with phased-in implementation beginning in 2004 and completed in 2008. These ratios were implemented at a time of severe registered nurse (RN) shortage in the state and a worsening financial position for many hospitals. This article presents an analysis of qualitative data from interviews with healthcare leaders about the impact of nurse staffing ratios. Twenty hospitals (including public, not-for-profit, and for-profit institutions) representing major geographic regions of California were approached. Twelve agreed to participate; semistructured in-person and telephone interviews were conducted with 23 hospital leaders. Several key themes emerged from the analysis. Most hospitals found it difficult and expensive to find more RNs to hire to meet the ratios. Meeting the staffing requirements on all units, at all times, was challenging and had negative impacts, such as a backlog of patients in the emergency department and a decrease of other ancillary staff. Hospital leaders do not believe that ratios have had an impact on patient quality of care. Findings related to nurse satisfaction were mixed. Increased RN staffing improved satisfaction with patient workload, but dissatisfaction with issues of decision-making control (e.g., decisions on when best to take a meal break) were taken out of the nurse's hands to meet ratio requirements. Further research should continue to monitor patient outcomes as other states consider similar ratio regulations. Results of this study will be useful to healthcare managers searching for ways to reduce unnecessary administrative costs while continuing to maintain the level of administrative activities required for the provision of safe, effective, high-quality care.

  17. Air Pollution Distribution Patterns in the San Bernardino Mountains of Southern California: a 40-Year Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej Bytnerowicz

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Since the mid-1950s, native pines in the San Bernardino Mountains (SBM in southern California have shown symptoms of decline. Initial studies in 1963 showed that ozone (O3 generated in the upwind Los Angeles Basin was responsible for the injury and decline of sensitive trees. Ambient O3 decreased significantly by the mid-1990s, resulting in decreased O3 injury and improved tree growth. Increased growth of trees may also be attributed to elevated atmospheric nitrogen (N deposition. Since most of the N deposition to mixed conifer forest stands in the SBM results from dry deposition of nitric acid vapor (HNO3 and ammonia (NH3, characterization of spatial and temporal distribution of these two pollutants has become essential. Although maximum daytime O3 concentrations over last 40 years have significantly decreased (~3-fold, seasonal means have been reduced much less (~1.5-fold, with 2-week long means occasionally exceeding 100 ppb in the western part of the range. In the same area, significantly elevated concentrations of HNO3 and NH3, up to 17.5 and 18.5 μg/m3 as 2-week averages, respectively, have been determined. Elevated levels of O3 and increased N deposition together with long-term drought predispose the SBM forests to massive bark beetle attacks making them susceptible to catastrophic fires.

  18. The Unified Astronomy Thesaurus

    OpenAIRE

    Accomazzi, Alberto; Gray, Norman; Erdmann, Chris; Biemesderfer, Chris; Frey, Katie; Soles, Justin

    2014-01-01

    The Unified Astronomy Thesaurus (UAT) is an open, interoperable and community-supported thesaurus which unifies the existing divergent and isolated Astronomy & Astrophysics vocabularies into a single high-quality, freely-available open thesaurus formalizing astronomical concepts and their inter-relationships. The UAT builds upon the existing IAU Thesaurus with major contributions from the astronomy portions of the thesauri developed by the Institute of Physics Publishing, the American Institu...

  19. Perspectives on Higher Education: Eight Disciplinary and Comparative Views. Papers presented at the Summer Seminar (University of California, Los Angeles, California 1982).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Burton R., Ed.

    Eight perspectives on higher education are provided in essays based on papers presented at a 1982 seminar. The historical perspective is provided by Harold Perkin with attention to turning points in higher education in Europe, Japan, and the United States. Maurice Kogan considers the political view and specifically intrainstitutional issues, the…

  20. The cooperation of two libraries from the perspectives of user information needs and participation in a unified library and information system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majda Steinbuch

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available The author states that there is not enough cooperation among high school and university libraries in Slovenia, which can be seen both in searching through Iibrary science literature or studying library practice. On the example of the library of the II. High School in Maribor, the Maribor University Library and the whole library-information system of the Maribor University, the author points out that such cooperation is essential, from the perspective of user information needs, as well as education and training of the future active users of university libraries.This is even more important as both types of libraries pertain to the field of education.

  1. The Unified Astronomy Thesaurus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdmann, Christopher; Frey, Katie

    2015-08-01

    The Unified Astronomy Thesaurus (UAT) is an open, interoperable and community-supported thesaurus which unifies the existing divergent and isolated Astronomy & Astrophysics vocabularies into a single high-quality, freely-available open thesaurus formalizing astronomical concepts and their inter-relationships. The UAT builds upon both the International Astronomical Union Thesaurus and the International Virtual Observatory Alliance Thesaurus with major contributions from the astronomy portions of the thesauri developed by the Institute of Physics Publishing, the American Institute of Physics, and SPIE, donated to the American Astronomical Society (AAS). In this talk, I will describe the effort behind the creation of the UAT, its continued development through the leadership of the AAS, and discuss some of its current and potential applications.

  2. Operation Unified Protector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buhl, Kenneth Øhlenschlæger

    2012-01-01

    Formålet med denne artikel er at se nærmere på erfaringerne fra den maritime kampagne under den militære indsats i konflikten i Libyen i 2011, som i NATO regi blev kendt som Operation Unified Protector (OUP). Dækningen i de danske medier fokuserede primært på luftkampagnen, hvilket må tilskrives...

  3. 76 FR 59254 - Interim Final Determination To Stay and Defer Sanctions, San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-26

    ... Air Pollution Control District AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Interim final... Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control District (SJVUAPCD) portion of the California State... Part 52 Environmental protection, Air pollution control, Incorporation by reference, Intergovernmental...

  4. The remodeling of the fibers texture Comment on "Towards a unified approach in the modeling of fibrosis: A review with research perspectives" by Martine Ben Amar and Carlo Bianca

    Science.gov (United States)

    Napoli, Gaetano

    2016-07-01

    The term fibrosis refers to the development of fibrous connective tissue, in an organ or in a tissue, as a reparative response to injury or damage. The review article by Ben Amar and Bianca [1] proposes a unified multiscale approach for the modeling of fibrosis, accounting for phenomena occurring at different spatial scales (molecular, cellular and macroscopic). The main aim is to define a general unified framework able to describe the mechanisms, not yet completely understood, that trigger physiological and pathological fibrosis.

  5. Unifying the Universe the physics of heaven and earth

    CERN Document Server

    Padamsee, Hasan S

    2003-01-01

    Unifying the Universe: The Physics of Heaven and Earth provides a solid background in basic physics. With a humanistic perspective, it shows how science is significant for more than its technological consequences. The book includes clear and well-planned links to the arts and philosophies of relevant historical periods to bring science and the humanities together.

  6. ISSUES OF UNIFIED TELEMEDICINE COUNSELLING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. G. Astashevich

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The questions of the construction and operation of the unified telemedicine electronic consulting system are considered, as well as relevant directions of telemedicine consultations development.

  7. Can altruism be unified?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsey, Grant

    2016-04-01

    There is clearly a plurality of forms of altruism. Classically, biological altruism is distinguished from psychological altruism. Recent discussions of altruism have attempted to distinguish even more forms of altruism. I will focus on three altruism concepts, biological altruism, psychological altruism, and helping altruism. The questions I am concerned with here are, first, how should we understand these concepts? and second, what relationship do these concepts bear to one another? In particular, is there an essence to altruism that unifies these concepts? I suggest that while there is no essence to altruism, this does not mean that the array of altruism concepts is completely disunified. Instead, I propose we place all the concepts into a common framework-an altruism space-that could lead to new questions about how this space can be filled. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Perspectives of Central Office Staff, Principals, Teachers, and School Site Councils on Resource Allocation and "Budgeting for Student Achievement" Implementation in 2010-11. A Report Prepared for the Los Angeles Unified School District

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haxton, Clarisse L.; Chambers, Jay G.; Manship, Karen; Cruz, Lisa; O'Neil, Caitlin

    2012-01-01

    As part of the evaluation of the Strategic School Funding for Results (SSFR) project (called Budgeting for Student Success, or BSA, in Los Angeles Unified School District), the American Institutes for Research (AIR) conducted surveys of principals, teachers, and members of School Site Councils (SSCs) to gather information on their attitudes and…

  9. Perspectives of Key Central Office Staff and School Principals Regarding Resource Allocation Policies and Procedures--Technical Appendix. A Report Prepared for Twin Rivers Unified School District. SSFR Research Report #02 (TRUSD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, Jay G.; Brown, James R.; Tolleson, Ray; Manship, Karen; Knudson, Joel

    2010-01-01

    Strategic School Funding for Results (SSFR) interviews in Twin Rivers Unified School District (TRUSD) took place in October 2009. Three key district officials were interviewed, and five principals (representing elementary, middle, and high schools) participated in a focus group. District officials were chosen for interviews because of their key…

  10. Sistema de Informação em Saúde do Trabalhador: desafios e perspectivas para o SUS Occupational Health Information System: challenges and perspectives in the Brazilian Unified Health System (SUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Augusto Facchini

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available O presente artigo identifica e discute alguns desafios e perspectivas relativos à implantação de um Sistema de Informações em Saúde do Trabalhador (SIST no âmbito do Sistema Único de Saúde (SUS. Os desafios para a coleta, produção e a análise de dados e a disseminação continuada de informações sobre o estado de saúde dos trabalhadores e seus determinantes são revisados. Há destaque para a necessidade de investimentos em capacitação de recursos humanos, articulação e harmonização das bases de dados de interesse à saúde do trabalhador, implantação de infra-estrutura de informática nos níveis locais e da coleta das informações na rede de serviços do SUS, e integração e articulação interministerial. A realização da 3ª Conferência Nacional de Saúde do Trabalhador e a recém aprovada Política Nacional de Segurança e Saúde do Trabalhador representam reforços importantes para o debate sobre a implantação do SIST e sua prioridade na agenda do SUS. A relativa sintonia entre as agendas de técnicos, pesquisadores, trabalhadores e lideranças sindicais na defesa comum de um sistema de informações também é vista como um apoio à implantação do SIST e seu efetivo controle social.This paper presents a review of challenges and perspectives regarding the development of an occupational health information system in the Brazilian Unified Health System (SUS. It stress the need to set up a process of continuous data collection, processing, analyzing and communication of information on worker’s health and its determinants, emphasizing occupational risks. The paper also address the need to support the training of health workers. It is also recommended to take into consideration the feasibility of database standardization that allows linkage and, improvement in the information technologies utilized in health services, especially in community health centers, following a coordinated state action. Both, the 3rd

  11. California Bioregions

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — California regions developed by the Inter-agency Natural Areas Coordinating Committee (INACC) were digitized from a 1:1,200,000 California Department of Fish and...

  12. Progress within the manufacturing sector in Baja California during the transition towards economic opening (1975-1993: A systematic perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lya Margarita Niño Contreras

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available This article studies some of the main economic figures of the industrialization process in system of cities of Baja California within the historic period from 1975 to 1993. Due to its economic relevance, the analysis is focused on the manufacturing sector. A new role is developing among industrial groups with growing changes that began in the late seventies. In this analysis the “shift & share” technique is still useful to identify that kind of industrial behavior. This level of aggregation was used before (CONEPO, 1988 in order to achieve some objectives in accordance with a regional economics scope. At the same time, this period of analysis brings some light into a recent economic phase of special interest, taking into consideration main figures in the national manufacturing sector of the same period.

  13. Seven Deadliest Unified Communications Attacks

    CERN Document Server

    York, Dan

    2010-01-01

    Do you need to keep up with the latest hacks, attacks, and exploits effecting Unified Communications technology? Then you need Seven Deadliest Unified Communication Attacks. This book pinpoints the most dangerous hacks and exploits specific to Unified Communications, laying out the anatomy of these attacks including how to make your system more secure. You will discover the best ways to defend against these vicious hacks with step-by-step instruction and learn techniques to make your computer and network impenetrable. Attacks featured in this book include: UC Ecosystem Attacks Insecure Endpo

  14. Perspectives

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    regards scientific funding4. He never had a big institute in the modern sense and did not dispose of large funds or large numbers of people5. Conflict between Bernal and. Perspectives ... The problems of being a “polytropic scientist” have increased enormously. ... as ever for managing populations. People with power are.

  15. Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarone, Elaine

    2013-01-01

    The topic of this "Perspectives" column is "Requiring a Proficiency Level as a Requirement for U.S. K-12 Teacher Licensure." In 1998, the American Council of Teachers of Foreign Languages (ACTFL) began to work with the National Council for Accreditation of Teacher Education (NCATE), which accredits teacher education programs…

  16. Perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kussmann, Martin; Morine, Melissa J; Hager, Jörg

    2013-01-01

    We review here the status of human type 2 diabetes studies from a genetic, epidemiological, and clinical (intervention) perspective. Most studies limit analyses to one or a few omic technologies providing data of components of physiological processes. Since all chronic diseases are multifactorial...

  17. Perspective

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tamara Shefer

    maintaining safe school environments. This perspective paper outlines the NSSF's approach to preventing school violence. Keywords: national school safety framework, violence prevention, South African schools, school safety. INTRODUCTION. Schools should be safe places for teaching and learning, free of violence and ...

  18. Health Disparities and Delayed Health care among Older Adults in California: A Perspective from Race, Ethnicity, and Immigration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Yan; Xu, Qingwen

    2016-09-01

    To examine racial/ethnic/immigration disparities in health and to investigate the relationships among race/ethnic/immigration status, delayed health care, and health of the elderly. Responses from 13,508 people aged 65 and above were analyzed based on the California Health Interview Survey (CHIS) 2011-2012. Key variables include race/ethnicity/immigration status, health outcome, and delayed health care. Age, gender, education, work status, and annual family income are used as covariates. The findings indicate that Whites (regardless of country of birth) and U.S.-born Asians enjoy better health than Latinos, African-Americans, and Foreign-born Asians. Foreign-born Asians and foreign-born Latinos have the poorest self-reported health and mental health, respectively. Delayed use of health care is negatively associated with both self-reported health and mental health status. Health disparities exist among older adult populations; the combined effects of minority and immigrant status can be approximated from the results in this study. Health care accessibility and the quality of care should be promoted in minority/immigrant populations. Public health nurses have a strong potential to aide in reducing health disparities among an aging American population that continues to exhibit increasing racial/ethnic diversity. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. A new perspective on the geometry of the San Andreas Fault in southern California and its relationship to lithospheric structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuis, Gary S.; Scheirer, Daniel S.; Langenheim, Victoria; Kohler, Monica D.

    2012-01-01

    The widely held perception that the San Andreas fault (SAF) is vertical or steeply dipping in most places in southern California may not be correct. From studies of potential‐field data, active‐source imaging, and seismicity, the dip of the SAF is significantly nonvertical in many locations. The direction of dip appears to change in a systematic way through the Transverse Ranges: moderately southwest (55°–75°) in the western bend of the SAF in the Transverse Ranges (Big Bend); vertical to steep in the Mojave Desert; and moderately northeast (37°–65°) in a region extending from San Bernardino to the Salton Sea, spanning the eastern bend of the SAF in the Transverse Ranges. The shape of the modeled SAF is crudely that of a propeller. If confirmed by further studies, the geometry of the modeled SAF would have important implications for tectonics and strong ground motions from SAF earthquakes. The SAF can be traced or projected through the crust to the north side of a well documented high‐velocity body (HVB) in the upper mantle beneath the Transverse Ranges. The north side of this HVB may be an extension of the plate boundary into the mantle, and the HVB would appear to be part of the Pacific plate.

  20. Perspectives on Information

    CERN Document Server

    Ramage, Magnus

    2011-01-01

    This book presents an insider's perspective on information in a wide range of disciplines, from quantum physics to library science. It reflects the diversity of understanding of information within these disciplines, but also brings clarity and coherence to the different perspectives through promoting information as a unifying concept.

  1. The Simplest Unified Growth Theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strulik, Holger; Weisdorf, Jacob Louis

    This paper provides a unified growth theory, i.e. a model that explains the very long-run economic and demographic development path of industrialized economies, stretching from the pre-industrial era to present-day and beyond. Making strict use of Malthus' (1798) so-called preventive check...... hypothesis - that fertility rates vary inversely with the price of food - the current study offers a new and straightforward explanation for the demographic transition and the break with the Malthusian era. The current framework lends support to existing unified growth theories and is well in tune...

  2. Toward a Unified Science Curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Showalter, Victor M.

    The two major models of science curriculum change, textbook revision and national curriculum projects, are derived from, and reinforce, the present curriculum structure. This is undesirable in a time of increasing fluidity and change, because adaptation to new situations is difficult. Unified science, based on the premise that science is a unity,…

  3. A time for multi-scale modeling of anti-fibrotic therapies. Comment on "Towards a unified approach in the modeling of fibrosis: A review with research perspectives" by Martine Ben Amar and Carlo Bianca

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Min

    2016-07-01

    The development of anti-fibrotic therapies in diversities of diseases becomes more and more urgent recently, such as in pulmonary, renal and liver fibrosis [1,2], as well as in malignant tumor growths [3]. As reviewed by Ben Amar and Bianca [4], various theoretical, experimental and in-silico models have been developed to understand the fibrosis process, where the implication on therapeutic strategies has also been frequently demonstrated (e.g., [5-7]). In [4], these models are analyzed and sorted according to their approaches, and in the end of [4], a unified multi-scale approach was proposed to understand fibrosis. While one of the major purposes of extensive modeling of fibrosis is to shed light on therapeutic strategies, the theoretical, experimental and in-silico studies of anti-fibrosis therapies should be conducted more intensively.

  4. Perspectives of Central Office Staff, Principals, Teachers, and School Site Councils on Resource Allocation and SSFR Implementation in 2010-11. A Report Prepared for the Twin Rivers Unified School District

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haxton, Clarisse L.; Chambers, Jay G.; Manship, Karen; Cruz, Lisa; O'Neil, Caitlin

    2012-01-01

    As part of the evaluation of the Strategic School Funding for Results (SSFR) project, American Institutes for Research (AIR) conducted surveys of principals, teachers, and members of School Site Councils (SSCs) to gather information on the attitudes and perspectives regarding the implementation of key components of the SSFR model in Twin Rivers…

  5. Regional Governance in Brazil's Unified Health System: a conceptual essay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Patrícia Tavares; Tanaka, Oswaldo Yoshimi; Denis, Jean-Louis

    2017-04-01

    This article is a conceptual essay aimed at supporting analyses of the regionalization processes implemented in Brazil's Unified Health System, from the perspective of regional governance. The authors conducted a literature review in the social sciences, public administration, and critical geography, focusing on the concepts of governance, territorial governance, and regional governance in the debate on development. In dialogue with these contributions to the analysis of recent regulation and implementation of health sector regionalization in Brazil, with special reference to use of the Organizational Contract for Public Action (COAP) in the country's health regions, the article concludes that the research on governance as a modern approach to linking public policies highlights the timeliness of developing methodologies and critical reflection on the relevant national processes in Brazil for future health sector proposals, thereby pointing to a new stage in the improvement of the Unified Health System.

  6. Grand unified brane world scenario

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arai, Masato; Blaschke, Filip; Eto, Minoru; Sakai, Norisuke

    2017-12-01

    We present a field theoretical model unifying grand unified theory (GUT) and brane world scenario. As a concrete example, we consider S U (5 ) GUT in 4 +1 dimensions where our 3 +1 dimensional spacetime spontaneously arises on five domain walls. A field-dependent gauge kinetic term is used to localize massless non-Abelian gauge fields on the domain walls and to assure the charge universality of matter fields. We find the domain walls with the symmetry breaking S U (5 )→S U (3 )×S U (2 )×U (1 ) as a global minimum and all the undesirable moduli are stabilized with the mass scale of MGUT. Profiles of massless standard model particles are determined as a consequence of wall dynamics. The proton decay can be exponentially suppressed.

  7. Multicultural Graduation Requirements among California's Community Colleges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, Shelly L.; Uerling, Donald F.; Piland, William E.

    2012-01-01

    This examination of the current status of multicultural education among California community colleges emerged from a perspective that the inclusion of multicultural education has become a major goal of California's leaders within the past five years. The literature revealed minority students tend to have lower retention rates because they become…

  8. Improving Racial and Ethnic Distribution and Intergroup Relations; An Advisory Report to the Board of Education, Vallejo Unified School District.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunsky, Frederic R.; And Others

    As the result of field observation and a review of school data, this report presents the findings of a study of minority-group education and intergroup relations in the Vallejo Unified School District in California. It analyzes the racial and ethnic distribution o f students in the school district and describes the amount of equal educational…

  9. Improving Ethnic Balance and Intergroup Relations; An Advisory Report to the Board of Education, Corona Unified School Districts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    California State Dept. of Education, Sacramento. Bureau of Intergroup Relations.

    This report contains the findings of a field study of the ethnic and racial composition and intergroup relations in the schools in the Corona Unified School District, California. These findings are information on (1) the district's approaches to desegregation and its policy on intergroup relations, (2) students' achievement differences, (3)…

  10. California Air Basins

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — Air ResourcesCalifornia Air Resources BoardThe following datasets are from the California Air Resources Board: * arb_california_airbasins - California Air BasinsThe...

  11. Einstein's theory of unified fields

    CERN Document Server

    Tonnelat, Marie Antoinette

    2014-01-01

    First published in1966, here is presented a comprehensive overview of one of the most elusive scientific speculations by the pre-eminent genius of the 20th century. The theory is viewed by some scientists with deep suspicion, by others with optimism, but all agree that it represents an extreme challenge. As the author herself affirms, this work is not intended to be a complete treatise or 'didactic exposition' of the theory of unified fields, but rather a tool for further study, both by students and professional physicists. Dealing with all the major areas of research whic

  12. Unified approach to dense matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Byung-Yoon [CSSM, University of Adelaide, Adelaide 5005 (Australia); Lee, Hee-Jung [Departament de Fisica Teorica and Institut de Fisica Corpuscular Universitat de Valencia and Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas, E-46100 Burjassot (Valencia) (Spain); Vento, Vicente [Departament de Fisica Teorica and Institut de Fisica Corpuscular Universitat de Valencia and Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas, E-46100 Burjassot (Valencia) (Spain); Kim, Joon-Il [Department of Physics, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of); Min, Dong-Pil [Department of Physics, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of); Rho, Mannque [Department of Physics, Hanyang University, Seoul 133-791, Korea, and Service de Physique Theorique, CE Saclay, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France)

    2005-04-15

    We apply the Skyrme model to dense hadronic matter, which provides a unified approach to high density, valid in the large N {sub c} limit. In our picture, dense hadronic matter is described by the classical soliton configuration with minimum energy for the given baryon number density. By incorporating the meson fluctuations on such ground state we obtain an effective Lagrangian for meson dynamics in a dense medium. Our starting point has been the Skyrme model defined in terms of pions, thereafter we have extended and improved the model by incorporating other degrees of freedom such as dilaton, kaons and vector mesons.

  13. A unifying concept for astrobiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaisson, E. J.

    2003-04-01

    Evolution, broadly construed, has become a powerful unifying concept in much of science - not only in the biological evolution of plants and animals, but also in the physical evolution of stars and planets, and the cultural evolution of society and its many varied products. This paper (1) explores the bulk structure and functioning of open, non-equilibrium, thermodynamic systems relevant to the interdisciplinary field of astrobiology, (2) places the astrobiological landscape into an even larger, cosmological context, (3) defines life, complexity and evolution writ large, (4) claims that life depends ultimately on the expansion of the Universe and the flow of energy derived therefrom and (5) proposes a quantitative metric to characterize the rise of complexity throughout all of natural history. That metric is neither information nor negentropy, for these inveterate yet qualitative terms cannot be quantified, nor even defined, to everyone's satisfaction in today's scientific community. Rather, the newly proposed metric is normalized energy flow, a revision of a long-cherished term - energy - that is physically intuitive, well defined and readily measurable. All ordered systems = from rocky planets and shining stars, to buzzing bees and redwood trees - can be best judged empirically and uniformly by gauging the amount of energy acquired, stored and expressed by those systems. Appeals to anthropism are unnecessary to appreciate the impressive hierarchy of the cosmic evolutionary narrative, including a technological civilization that now embraces an energetics agenda designed to better understand, and perhaps to unify, all the natural sciences.

  14. Unifying physical concepts of reality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gilbert, T.L.

    1983-08-01

    Physics may be characterized as the science of matter and energy. It anchors the two ends of the frontiers of science: the frontier of the very small and the frontier of the very large. All of the phenomena that we observe and study at the frontiers of science - all external experiences - are manifestations of matter and energy. One may, therefore, use physics to exemplify both the diversity and unity of science. This theme will be developed in two separate examples: first by sketching, very briefly, the historical origins of frontiers of the very small and very large and the converging unity of these two frontiers; and then by describing certain unifying concepts that play a central role in physics and provide a framework for relating developments in different sciences.

  15. A unifying process capability metric

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Jay Flaig

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available A new economic approach to process capability assessment is presented, which differs from the commonly used engineering metrics. The proposed metric consists of two economic capability measures – the expected profit and the variation in profit of the process. This dual economic metric offers a number of significant advantages over other engineering or economic metrics used in process capability analysis. First, it is easy to understand and communicate. Second, it is based on a measure of total system performance. Third, it unifies the fraction nonconforming approach and the expected loss approach. Fourth, it reflects the underlying interest of management in knowing the expected financial performance of a process and its potential variation.

  16. Towards a Unified Programming Language

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Ole Lehrmann

    2000-01-01

    The goal of research in programming languages should be to develop languages that integrates the best of concepts and constructs from the various programming paradigms. We do not argue for a multi-paradigm language, where the programmer alternates between the different paradigms/styles. Instead, we...... style and where more research is needed. In addition to traditional paradigms such as object-oriented-, imperative-functional- and logic programming, we also discuss concurrent programming and prototype-based programming. We discuss language features such as the BETA pattern construct, virtual...... find that the languages of the future should integrate the best available concepts and constructs in such a way that the programmer does not think of multiple paradigms when using a given language. In this paper, we describe to what extent the BETA language has been successful in obtaining a unified...

  17. Towards a Unified Programming Language

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Ole Lehrmann

    2000-01-01

    The goal of research in programming languages should be to develop languages that integrates the best of concepts and constructs from the various programming paradigms. We do not argue for a multi-paradigm language, where the programmer alternates between the different paradigms/styles. Instead, we...... find that the languages of the future should integrate the best available concepts and constructs in such a way that the programmer does not think of multiple paradigms when using a given language. In this paper, we describe to what extent the BETA language has been successful in obtaining a unified...... style and where more research is needed. In addition to traditional paradigms such as object-oriented-, imperative-functional- and logic programming, we also discuss concurrent programming and prototype-based programming. We discuss language features such as the BETA pattern construct, virtual...

  18. A unifying philosophy of governance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sankarshan Acharya

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Bertrand Russell won Nobel Prize for arguing that science has triumphed over religion. Since religions are based on god, Russell’s argument implies that science has triumphed over both religion and god. But neither Russell nor anyone else has ever defined religion and god, rationally. The assertion about triumph of science (which is founded on rationality over concepts such as religion and god (which are not defined rationally or scientifically in the extant literature cannot be rational. This paper offers a novel rational philosophical foundation for the concepts of god, religion and science in which the claim that science triumphs over religion is redundant. This paper also presents substantial new insights about epistemic truths to help resolve current problems facing humanity like financial moral hazard and terrorism which have unnerved nations worldwide. The humanity now begs to answer a fundamental question of how we can govern ourselves. This paper offers a coherent set of credible answers. In particular, it offers a coherent unified philosophy about how humans have universally formed beliefs to govern themselves and how this philosophy could help resolve current problems. The universal rendering of beliefs articulated here subsumes the extant characterization of probability beliefs in mathematics, science, engineering, economics, religion and philosophy. The universal beliefs so articulated in this paper obviate the currently prevalent philosophical conflicts between religion and science or between theism and atheism and paves the way for optimal governance for prosperity amid stability. This philosophy also offers a rational characterization of the spiritual notion of Nirvana or salvation of the soul and the notion of epistemic truth. The unifying philosophy can help humanity achieve unity, stability and prosperity, sans financial moral hazard, antagonism, wars, nuclear proliferation, global warming and atmospheric pollution.

  19. Seagrass from Unified Florida Reef Tract Map (NODC Accession 0123059)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset is a subset of the Unified Map representing Seagrass areas. Version 1.1 - December 2013. The Unified Florida Reef Tract Map (Unified Reef Map) provides...

  20. A Unified Grand Tour of Theoretical Physics

    CERN Document Server

    Lawrie, Ian D

    2002-01-01

    A unified account of the principles of theoretical physics, A Unified Grand Tour of Theoretical Physics, Second Edition stresses the inter-relationships between areas that are usually treated as independent. The profound unifying influence of geometrical ideas, the powerful formal similarities between statistical mechanics and quantum field theory, and the ubiquitous role of symmetries in determining the essential structure of physical theories are emphasized throughout.This second edition conducts a grand tour of the fundamental theories that shape our modern understanding of the physical wor

  1. A Product Line Enhanced Unified Process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Weishan; Kunz, Thomas

    2006-01-01

    activities are added and could be conducted side by side with other classical UP activities. In this way both the advantages of Unified Process and software product lines could co-exist in UPEPL. We show how to use UPEPL with an industrial mobile device product line in our case study.......The Unified Process facilitates reuse for a single system, but falls short handling multiple similar products. In this paper we present an enhanced Unified Process, called UPEPL, integrating the product line technology in order to alleviate this problem. In UPEPL, the product line related...

  2. What influences Latino grocery shopping behavior? Perspectives on the small food store environment from managers and employees in San Diego, California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez-Flack, Jennifer C; Baquero, Barbara; Linnan, Laura A; Gittelsohn, Joel; Pickrel, Julie L; Ayala, Guadalupe X

    2016-01-01

    To inform the design of a multilevel in-store intervention, this qualitative study utilized in-depth semistructured interviews with 28 managers and 10 employees of small-to-medium-sized Latino food stores (tiendas) in San Diego, California, to identify factors within the tienda that may influence Latino customers' grocery-shopping experiences and behaviors. Qualitative data analysis, guided by grounded theory, was performed using open coding. Results suggest that future interventions should focus on the physical (i.e., built structures) and social (i.e., economic and sociocultural) dimensions of store environments, including areas where the two dimensions interact, to promote the purchase of healthy food among customers.

  3. Geometer energy unified field theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera, Susana; Rivera, Anacleto

    GEOMETER - ENERGY UNIFIED FIELD THEORY Author: Anacleto Rivera Nivón Co-author: Susana Rivera Cabrera This work is an attempt to find the relationship between the Electromagnetic Field and the Gravitational Field. Despite it is based on the existence of Strings of Energy, it is not the same kind of strings that appears on other theories like Superstring Theory, Branas Theory, M - Theory, or any other related string theories. Here, the Strings are concentrated energy lines that vibrates, and experiences shrinking and elongations, absorbing and yielding on each contraction and expansion all that is found in the Universe: matter and antimatter, waves and energy in all manifestations. In contrast to superstring theory, which strings are on the range of the Length of Planck, these Strings can be on the cosmological size, and can contain many galaxies, or clusters, or groups of galaxies; but also they can reach as small sizes as subatomic levels. Besides, and contrary to what it is stated in some other string theories that need the existence of ten or more dimensions, the present proposal sustains in only four particular dimensions. It has been developed a mathematical support that will try to help to improve the understanding of the phenomena that take place at the Universe.

  4. Education and counseling of pregnant patients with chronic hepatitis B: perspectives from obstetricians and perinatal nurses in Santa Clara County, California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Elizabeth J; Cheung, Chrissy M; So, Samuel K S; Chang, Ellen T; Chao, Stephanie D

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to better understand the barriers to perinatal hepatitis B prevention and to identify the reasons for poor hepatitis B knowledge and delivery of education to hepatitis B surface-antigen- positive pregnant women among healthcare providers in Santa Clara County, California. Qualitative interviews were conducted with 16 obstetricians and 17 perinatal nurses in Santa Clara County, California, which has one of the largest populations in the United States at high risk for perinatal hepatitis B transmission. Most providers displayed a lack of self-efficacy attributed to insufficient hepatitis B training and education. They felt discouraged from counseling and educating their patients because of a lack of resources and discouraging patient attitudes such as stigma and apathy. Providers called for institutional changes from the government, hospitals, and nonprofit organizations to improve care for patients with chronic hepatitis B. Early and continuing provider training, increased public awareness, and development of comprehensive resources and new programs may contribute to reducing the barriers for health care professionals to provide counseling and education to pregnant patients with chronic hepatitis B infection.

  5. Unified Approach in the DSS Development Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The structure of today's decision support environment become very complex due to new generation of Business Intelligence applications and technologies like Data Warehouse, OLAP (On Line Analytical Processing and Data Mining. In this respect DSS development process are not simple and needs an adequate methodology or framework able to manage different tools and platforms to achieve manager's requirements. The DSS development process must be view like a unified and iterative set of activities and operations. The new techniques based on Unified Process (UP methodology and UML (Unified Modeling Language it seems to be appropriate for DSS development using prototyping and RAD (Rapid Application Development techniques. In this paper we present a conceptual framework for development and integrate Decision Support Systems using Unified Process Methodology and UML.

  6. Exhaustivity and intonation: a unified theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westera, M.

    2017-01-01

    This dissertation presents a precise, unified and explanatory theory of human conversation, centered on two broad phenomena: exhaustivity implications and intonational meaning. In a nutshell: (i) speakers have two types of communicative intentions, namely information sharing and attention sharing,

  7. Unified Dark Matter Scalar Field Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele Bertacca

    2010-01-01

    of a single scalar field accounts for a unified description of the Dark Matter and Dark Energy sectors, dubbed Unified Dark Matter (UDM models. In this framework, we consider the general Lagrangian of -essence, which allows to find solutions around which the scalar field describes the desired mixture of Dark Matter and Dark Energy. We also discuss static and spherically symmetric solutions of Einstein's equations for a scalar field with noncanonical kinetic term, in connection with galactic halo rotation curves.

  8. A genomic perspective to assessing quality of mass-reared SIT flies used in Mediterranean fruit fly (Ceratitis capitata) eradication in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Temperature sensitive lethal (tsl) mutants of the tephritid C. capitata are used extensively in control programs involving sterile insect technique in California. These flies are artificially reared and treated with ionizing radiation to render males sterile for further release en masse into the field to compete with wild males and disrupt establishment of invasive populations. Recent research suggests establishment of C. capitata in California, despite the fact that over 250 million sterile flies are released weekly as part of the state’s preventative program. In this project, genome-level quality assessment was performed, measured as expression differences between the Vienna-7 tsl mutants used in SIT programs and wild flies. RNA-seq was performed to provide a genome-wide map of the messenger RNA populations in C. capitata, and to investigate significant expression changes in Vienna-7 mass reared flies. Results Flies from the Vienna-7 colony showed a markedly reduced abundance of transcripts related to visual and chemical responses, including light stimuli, neural development and signaling pathways when compared to wild flies. In addition, genes associated with muscle development and locomotion were shown to be reduced. This suggests that the Vienna-7 line may be less competitive in mating and host plant finding where these stimuli are utilized. Irradiated flies showed several transcripts representing stress associated with irradiation. Conclusions There are significant changes at the transcriptome level that likely alter the competitiveness of mass reared flies and provide justification for pursuing methods for strain improvement, increasing competitiveness of mass-reared flies, or exploring alternative SIT approaches to increase the efficiency of eradication programs. PMID:24495485

  9. On the Feasibility of a Unified Modelling and Programming Paradigm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haxthausen, Anne Elisabeth; Peleska, Jan

    2016-01-01

    In this article, the feasibility of a unified modelling and programming paradigm is discussed from the perspective of large scale system development and verification in collaborative development environments. We motivate the necessity to utilise multiple formalisms for development and verification......, in particular for complex cyber-physical systems or systems of systems. Though modelling, programming, and verification will certainly become more closely integrated in the future, we do not expect a single formalism to become universally applicable and accepted by the development and verification communities....... The multi-formalism approach requires to translate verification artefacts (assertions, test cases, etc.) between different representations, in order to allow for the verification of emergent properties based on local verification results established with different methods and modelling techniques...

  10. Thermoacoustics a unifying perspective for some engines and refrigerators

    CERN Document Server

    Swift, Gregory W

    2017-01-01

    This updated new edition provides an introduction to the field of thermoacoustics. All of the key aspects of the topic are introduced, with the goal of helping the reader to acquire both an intuitive understanding and the ability to design hardware, build it, and assess its performance. Weaving together intuition, mathematics, and experimental results, this text equips readers with the tools to bridge the fields of thermodynamics and acoustics. At the same time, it remains firmly grounded in experimental results, basing its discussions on the distillation of a body of experiments spanning several decades and countries. The book begins with detailed treatment of the fundamental physical laws that underlie thermoacoustics. It then goes on to discuss key concepts, including simple oscillations, waves, power, and efficiency. The remaining portions of the book delve into more advanced topics and address practical concerns in applications  chapters on hardware and m easurements. With its careful progression and e...

  11. A unified theory of development: a dialectic integration of nature and nurture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sameroff, Arnold

    2010-01-01

    The understanding of nature and nurture within developmental science has evolved with alternating ascendance of one or the other as primary explanations for individual differences in life course trajectories of success or failure. A dialectical perspective emphasizing the interconnectedness of individual and context is suggested to interpret the evolution of developmental science in similar terms to those necessary to explain the development of individual children. A unified theory of development is proposed to integrate personal change, context, regulation, and representational models of development.

  12. Flutes of Fire: Essays on California Indian Languages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinton, Leanne

    This comprehensive text examines various aspects of the Native American languages of California, including historical perspectives, daily usage, language domains, language maintenance, men's and women's language, and counting systems. Chapter 1 surveys the Indian languages spoken in California and shows how many people speak each one. Part 2 is a…

  13. Prospects of a Unified Management System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Tine Herreborg; Simonsen, Gorm

    2002-01-01

    In this article, the trend among management systems towards a common structure and the inclusion of additional areas of corporate concern (quality, environment, occupational health and safety and social responsibility) is outlined. The article suggests that a large part of the work associated...... with implementing and maintaining standardised management systems can be rationalised by developing a ?unified system?. The unified system is proposed to consist of a common basic standard of general managerial methodology expandable with supplements, which are related to the specific areas of concern...... that the company could wish to include in their management system and possibly have certified. It is estimated that such a unified management system would contribute to synergy between the activities related to each area of concern, resulting in a more careful and efficient treatment of the increasing number...

  14. California Political Districts

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — This is a series of district layers pertaining to California'spolitical districts, that are derived from the California State Senateand State Assembly information....

  15. IDEA: A Unifying Theory for Evaluation Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bella, Giampaolo; Giustolisi, Rosario

    2017-01-01

    Secure systems for voting, exams, auctions and conference paper management are theorised to address the same problem, that of secure evaluations. In support of such a unifying theory comes a model for Secure Evaluation Systems (SES), which offers innovative common grounds to understand all four...

  16. Unified chromatography: Fundamentals, instrumentation and applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Meire R; Andrade, Felipe N; Fumes, Bruno H; Lanças, Fernando M

    2015-09-01

    The concept of unified chromatography has been in existence for 50 years after the work of Giddings proposing that all modes of chromatography (gas chromatography, liquid chromatography, supercritical fluid chromatography and so on) may be treated together under a single unified theory. His idea was partially fulfilled 23 years later by Ishii, Takeuchi and colleagues, who demonstrated for the first time the possibility to analyze a complex sample containing substances with a wide range of boiling points and polarities in the same instrument and column, just by varying the mobile phase pressure and temperature to change from one chromatographic mode to another. This approach has been demonstrated through application to the separation of complex mixtures in several areas including crude oil, edible oils and polymers. Still, unified chromatography has not yet been fully developed. In the present work, we will review the fundamentals, instrumentation and several applications of the technique. Also discussed are the drawbacks that still hinder development, as well as the recent developments and trends in instrumentation and columns that suggest the most feasible ways forward to the full development of unified chromatography. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Unified approach to alpha decay calculations

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2014-05-02

    May 2, 2014 ... a small error in E can cause a much bigger error in τ. Due to this reason, in many analyses of α decay one uses experimentally measured E rather than the theoretically calculated one, even though a more satisfactory theoretical approach should generate both E and τ within a unified framework. Further ...

  18. Towards a Unified Global ICT Infrastructure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Ole Brun

    2006-01-01

    A successful evolution towards a unified global WAN platform allowing for the coexistence and interoperability of all kind of services requires careful planning of the next generation global cooperative wired and wireless information infrastructure. The absence of commonly agreed upon and adopted...

  19. Transnational Entrepreneurship : Toward a unifying theoretical framework

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drori, Israel; Honig, Benson; Ginsberg, Ari

    2006-01-01

    This paper seeks to develop a unifying analytical framework to advance the study of Transnational Entrepreneurship (TE), which refers to the processes of creating and growing new business ventures across national boundaries by social actors. We first examine relevant research literatures and

  20. Discovery of the Grand Unified Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, Radhakrishnan

    2010-11-01

    I have discovered the Grand Unified Theory which unites quantum with classical mechanics. This discovery is based on a geocentric universe, the myth of empty space, four states of matter in three dimensional space and space-time exponentiation, instead of space-time curvature.

  1. Generalized closed sets: a unified approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiling Cao

    2001-10-01

    Full Text Available We investigate various classes of generalized closed sets of a topological space in a unified way by studying the notion of qr-closed sets. New characterizations of some existing classes of generalized closed sets and topological spaces are given. A new class of generalized closed sets are introduced.

  2. A Unifying Curriculum for Museum-Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Povis, Kaleen E.

    2011-01-01

    There are over two dozen schools in the United States with the word "museum" in their names. However, the philosophy and pedagogy that tie these schools together is unclear. A consistent definition, criteria for classification, and a unifying curriculum to guide museum- schools is lacking. Yet, museum-schools continue to open across the country.…

  3. Unifying Learning Object Repositories in MACE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prause, Christian; Ternier, Stefaan; De Jong, Tim; Apelt, Stefan; Scholten, Marius; Wolpers, Martin; Eisenhauer, Markus; Vandeputte, Bram; Specht, Marcus; Duval, Erik

    2007-01-01

    Prause, C., Ternier, S., De Jong, T., Apelt, S., Scholten, M., Wolpers, M., et al. (2007). Unifying Learning Object Repositories in MACE. In D. Massart, J.-N. Colin & F. V. Assche (Eds.). Proceedings of the First International Workshop on Learning Object Discovery & Exchange (LODE'07). September,

  4. The Unified Behavior Framework for the Simulation of Autonomous Agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-01

    higher priority. . . . . . 10 2.6 A UML diagram of the Unified Behavior Framework (UBF) [4]. . . . . . . . . 13 2.7 A graphical depiction of the...artificial intelligence USAF United States Air Force CRA Charles River Analytics UML Unified Modeling Language HOTAS hands on throttle-and-stick IFF...unifying them under one framework [4]. A Unified Modeling Language ( UML ) diagram of the UBF is shown in Figure 2.6. The paper presented in chapter 3

  5. Unified Behavior Framework for Discrete Event Simulation Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-26

    Layered Behaviors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 2.3 UML Diagram for the UBF...Framework UML Unified Modeling Language VESPA Visual Environment for Scenario Preparation and Analysis x UNIFIED BEHAVIOR FRAMEWORK FOR DISCRETE...Unified Modeling Language ( UML ) is also assumed, specifically in regards to UML notation as discussion of the UBF includes its depiction through a UML

  6. Unified performance analysis of hybrid-ARQ with incremental redundancy over free-space optical channels

    KAUST Repository

    Zedini, Emna

    2014-09-01

    In this paper, we carry out a unified performance analysis of hybrid automatic repeat request (HARQ) with incremental redundancy (IR) from an information theoretic perspective over a point-to-point free-space optical (FSO) system. First, we introduce a novel unified expression for the distribution of a single FSO link modeled by the Gamma fading that accounts for pointing errors subject to both types of detection techniques at the receiver side (i.e. heterodyne detection and intensity modulation with direct detection (IM/DD)). Then, we provide analytical expressions for the outage probability, the average number of transmissions, and the average transmission rate for HARQ with IR, assuming a maximum number of rounds for the HARQ protocol. In our study, the communication rate per HARQ round is constant. Our analysis demonstrates the importance of HARQ in improving the performance and reliability of FSO communication systems. All the given results are verified via computer-based Monte-Carlo simulations.

  7. Can the laws of physics be unified ?

    CERN Document Server

    Langacker, Paul

    2017-01-01

    The standard model of particle physics describes our current understanding of nature's fundamental particles and their interactions, yet gaps remain. For example, it does not include a quantum theory of gravity, nor does it explain the existence of dark matter. Once complete, however, the standard model could provide a unified description of the very building blocks of the universe. Researchers have been chasing this dream for decades, and many wonder whether such a dream can ever be made a reality. Can the Laws of Physics Be Unified? is a short introduction to this exciting frontier of physics. The book is accessibly written for students and researchers across the sciences, and for scientifically minded general readers. Paul Langacker begins with an overview of the key breakthroughs that have shaped the standard model, and then describes the fundamental particles, their interactions, and their role in cosmology. He goes on to explain field theory, internal symmetries, Yang-Mills theories, strong and electro...

  8. Multi-planed unified switching topologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Dong; Heidelberger, Philip; Sugawara, Yutaka

    2017-07-04

    An apparatus and method for extending the scalability and improving the partitionability of networks that contain all-to-all links for transporting packet traffic from a source endpoint to a destination endpoint with low per-endpoint (per-server) cost and a small number of hops. An all-to-all wiring in the baseline topology is decomposed into smaller all-to-all components in which each smaller all-to-all connection is replaced with star topology by using global switches. Stacking multiple copies of the star topology baseline network creates a multi-planed switching topology for transporting packet traffic. Point-to-point unified stacking method using global switch wiring methods connects multiple planes of a baseline topology by using the global switches to create a large network size with a low number of hops, i.e., low network latency. Grouped unified stacking method increases the scalability (network size) of a stacked topology.

  9. Unified models of the cosmological dark sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zimdahl, W; Velten, H E S [Universidade Federal do EspIrito Santo, Departamento de Fisica, Av. Fernando Ferrari, 514, Campus de Goiabeiras, CEP 29075-910, Vitoria, EspIrito Santo (Brazil); Hipolito-Ricaldi, W S, E-mail: winfried.zimdahl@pq.cnpq.br, E-mail: hipolito@ceunes.ufes.br, E-mail: velten@cce.ufes.br [Universidade Federal do EspIrito Santo, Departamento de Ciencias Matematicas e Naturais, CEUNES Rodovia BR 101 Norte, km. 60, CEP 29932-540, Sao Mateus, Espirito Santo (Brazil)

    2011-09-22

    We model the cosmological substratum by a viscous fluid that is supposed to provide a unified description of the dark sector and pressureless baryonic matter. In the homogeneous and isotropic background the total energy density of this mixture behaves as a generalized Chaplygin gas. The perturbations of this energy density are intrinsically non-adiabatic and source relative entropy perturbations. The resulting baryonic matter power spectrum is shown to be compatible with the 2dFGRS and SDSS (DR7) data. A joint statistical analysis, using also Hubble-function and supernovae Ia data, shows that, different from other studies, there exists a maximum in the probability distribution for a negative present value q{sub 0} {approx} -0.53 of the deceleration parameter. Moreover, different from other approaches, the unified model presented here favors a matter content that is of the order of the baryonic matter abundance suggested by big-bang nucleosynthesis.

  10. Finite Unified Theories and the Higgs boson

    CERN Document Server

    Heinemeyer, Sven; Zoupanos, George

    2012-01-01

    All-loop Finite Unified Theories (FUTs) are very interesting N = 1 supersymmetric Grand Unified Theories (GUTs) realising an old field theory dream, and moreover have a remarkable predictive power due to the required reduction of couplings. Based on this theoretical framework phenomenologically consistent FUTs have been constructed. Here we review two FUT models based on the SU(5) gauge group, which can be seen as special, restricted and thus very predictive versions of the MSSM. We show that from the requirement of correct prediction of quark masses and other experimental constraints a light Higgs-boson mass in the range M_h ~ 121 - 126 GeV is predicted, in striking agreement with recent experimental results from ATLAS and CMS. The model furthermore naturally predicts a relatively heavy spectrum with colored supersymmetric particles above ~ 1.5 TeV in agreement with the non-observation of those particles at the LHC.

  11. Viruses of the Archaea: a unifying view

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prangishvili, David; Forterre, Patrick; Garrett, Roger Antony

    2006-01-01

    DNA viruses of the Archaea have highly diverse and often exceptionally complex morphotypes. Many have been isolated from geothermally heated hot environments, raising intriguing questions about their origins, and contradicting the widespread notion of limited biodiversity in extreme environments....... Here, we provide a unifying view on archaeal viruses, and present them as a particular assemblage that is fundamentally different in morphotype and genome from the DNA viruses of the other two domains of life, the Bacteria and Eukarya....

  12. Building the Unified Medical Language System

    OpenAIRE

    Humphreys, Betsy L.; Lindberg, Donald A.B.

    1989-01-01

    The National Library of Medicine's Unified Medical Language System (UMLS) [1] project has moved from a period of background studies and exploration of alternatives to the actual construction of the first versions of important UMLS components. This paper discusses the UMLS development strategy and assumptions, describes briefly the UMLS components as currently envisioned, and then focuses on the content of the first version of the UMLS Metathesaurus (Meta-1), its central vocabulary component.

  13. A unified framework for spline estimators

    OpenAIRE

    Schwarz, Katsiaryna; Krivobokova, Tatyana

    2016-01-01

    This article develops a unified framework to study the asymptotic properties of all periodic spline-based estimators, that is, of regression, penalized and smoothing splines. The explicit form of the periodic Demmler-Reinsch basis in terms of exponential splines allows the derivation of an expression for the asymptotic equivalent kernel on the real line for all spline estimators simultaneously. The corresponding bandwidth, which drives the asymptotic behavior of spline estimators, is shown to...

  14. A Unified System for Ensuring Drug Safety

    OpenAIRE

    Cave, Neil G.

    2002-01-01

    There are currently two systems in the United States to ensure the safety of pharmaceutical products: tort and regulation. The shared goal of tort law and Food and Drug Administrative (“FDAâ€) regulation is to make beneficial drugs available to patients while keeping unsafe drugs off the market. This goal will be better served if the two are combined into a unified system, wherein each functions in the role best suited to its relative strengths and weaknesses. In...

  15. Unifying physics of accelerators, lasers and plasma

    CERN Document Server

    Seryi, Andrei

    2015-01-01

    Unifying Physics of Accelerators, Lasers and Plasma introduces the physics of accelerators, lasers and plasma in tandem with the industrial methodology of inventiveness, a technique that teaches that similar problems and solutions appear again and again in seemingly dissimilar disciplines. This unique approach builds bridges and enhances connections between the three aforementioned areas of physics that are essential for developing the next generation of accelerators.

  16. A unified architecture of transcriptional regulatory elements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, Robin; Sandelin, Albin Gustav; Danko, Charles G.

    2015-01-01

    Gene expression is precisely controlled in time and space through the integration of signals that act at gene promoters and gene-distal enhancers. Classically, promoters and enhancers are considered separate classes of regulatory elements, often distinguished by histone modifications. However...... and enhancers are considered a single class of functional element, with a unified architecture for transcription initiation. The context of interacting regulatory elements and the surrounding sequences determine local transcriptional output as well as the enhancer and promoter activities of individual elements....

  17. AVERAGE SCORE OF THE UNIFIED STATE EXAMINATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. M. Nurieva

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Summing up the results of the Unified State Exam (USE is traditionally based on comparing the average scores for institutions or territories, without taking into account what the indicator of the quality of education really represents.The aim of the article is to clarify the content «average score» on the example of the Mathematics federal testing results.Methodology and research methods. The methodology of comprehensive analysis is used, including the methods of comparative and statistical data analysis published following the exam results. As well, the parallel analysis of data used in the researches of the National Research University «The Higher School of Economics» (HSE was conducted.Results and scientific novelty. It is found out that the average score in the Unified State Exam in mathematics largely depends on peculiarities of testing and assessment materials, a scoring system of leveling nature and results of training students for solving simple problems.Practical significance. The authors suppose that the study findings will contribute to the improvement of methods and technologies of carrying the Unified State Exam. 

  18. Unified strength theory and its applications

    CERN Document Server

    Yu, Mao-Hong

    2004-01-01

    This is a completely new theory dealing with the yield and failure of materials under multi-axial stresses. It provides a system of yield and failure criteria adopted for most materials, from metallic materials to rocks, concretes, soils, polymers etc. The Unified Strength Theory has been applied successfully to analyse the elastic limit, plastic limit capacities, the dynamic response behavior for some structures under static and moderate impulsive load, and may be implemented in some elasto-plastic finite element computer codes. The Unified Strength Theory is described in detail and by using this theory a series of results can be obtained. The Unified Strength Theory can improve the conservative Mohr-Coulomb Theory, and since intermediate principal stress is not taken into account in the Mohr-Coulomb theory and most experimental data is not pertainable to the Mohr-Coulomb Theory, a considerable economic benefit may be obtained. The book can also increase the effect of most commercial finite element computer ...

  19. THE DEVELOPMENT OF CADASTRAL DOMAIN MODEL ORIENTED AT UNIFIED REAL ESTATE REGISTRATION OF CHINA BASED ON ONTOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Li

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available With the certain regulation of unified real estate registration taken by the Property Law and the step-by-step advance of simultaneous development in urban and rural in China, it is the premise and foundation to clearly specify property rights and their relations in promoting the integrated management of urban and rural land. This paper aims at developing a cadastral domain model oriented at unified real estate registration of China from the perspective of legal and spatial, which set up the foundation for unified real estate registration, and facilitates the effective interchange of cadastral information and the administration of land use. The legal cadastral model is provided based on the analysis of gap between current model and the demand of unified real estate registration, which implies the restrictions between different rights. Then the new cadastral domain model is constructed based on the legal cadastral domain model and CCDM (van Oosterom et al., 2006, which integrate real estate rights of urban land and rural land. Finally, the model is validated by a prototype system. The results show that the model is applicable for unified real estate registration in China.

  20. The Development of Cadastral Domain Model Oriented at Unified Real Estate Registration of China Based on Ontology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, M.; Zhu, X.; Shen, C.; Chen, D.; Guo, W.

    2012-07-01

    With the certain regulation of unified real estate registration taken by the Property Law and the step-by-step advance of simultaneous development in urban and rural in China, it is the premise and foundation to clearly specify property rights and their relations in promoting the integrated management of urban and rural land. This paper aims at developing a cadastral domain model oriented at unified real estate registration of China from the perspective of legal and spatial, which set up the foundation for unified real estate registration, and facilitates the effective interchange of cadastral information and the administration of land use. The legal cadastral model is provided based on the analysis of gap between current model and the demand of unified real estate registration, which implies the restrictions between different rights. Then the new cadastral domain model is constructed based on the legal cadastral domain model and CCDM (van Oosterom et al., 2006), which integrate real estate rights of urban land and rural land. Finally, the model is validated by a prototype system. The results show that the model is applicable for unified real estate registration in China.

  1. Model of unified gauge fields; Le modele des champs de jauge unifies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leite Lopes, J. [Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Fisicas (CBPF), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    1998-04-01

    In this work, we discuss the physical ideas which represents the basis for the unified gauge field model. Despite of the difficulties that we presently have for embodying in a natural manner muons and hadrons in that model, we have the feeling that we are on the way which seems to lead to the construction of a theory in which the Maxwell electromagnetic field and the Fermi weak interaction field are manifestations of a unique subjacent physical entity - the unified gauge fields. (author) 22 refs., 6 figs.

  2. Teale California shoreline

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — California Spatial Information System (CaSIL) is a project designed to improve access to geo-spatial and geo-spatial related data information throughout the state of...

  3. Mediterranean California, Chapter 13

    Science.gov (United States)

    M.E. Fenn; E.B. Allen; L.H. Geiser

    2011-01-01

    The Mediterranean California ecoregion (CEC 1997; Fig 2.2) encompasses the greater Central Valley, Sierra foothills, and central coast ranges of California south to Mexico and is bounded by the Pacific Ocean, Sierra Nevada Mountains and Mojave Desert.

  4. California Condor Critical Habitat

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — These Data identify (in general) the areas where critical habitat for the California Condor occur. Critical habitat for the species consists of the following 10...

  5. Unified limiting form of graviton radiation at extreme energies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciafaloni, Marcello; Colferai, Dimitri; Coradeschi, Francesco; Veneziano, Gabriele

    2016-02-01

    We derive the limiting form of graviton radiation in gravitational scattering at trans-Planckian energies (E ≫MP) and small deflection angles. We show that—owing to the graviton's spin 2—such a limiting form unifies the soft and Regge regimes of emission, by covering a broad angular range, from forward fragmentation to the deeply central region. The single-exchange emission amplitudes have a nice expression in terms of the transformation phases of helicity amplitudes under rotations. As a result, the multiple-exchange emission amplitudes can be resummed via an impact parameter b -space factorization theorem that takes into account all coherence effects. We then see the emergence of an energy spectrum of the emitted radiation which, being tuned on ℏ/R ˜MP2/E ≪MP, is reminiscent of Hawking's radiation. Such a spectrum is much softer than the one naïvely expected for increasing input energies and neatly solves a potential energy crisis. Furthermore, by including rescattering corrections in the (quantum) factorization formula, we are able to recover the classical limit and find the corresponding quantum corrections. Perspectives for the extrapolation of such limiting radiation towards the classical collapse regime (where b is of the order of the gravitational radius R ) are also discussed.

  6. Toward A Unifying Taxonomy and Definition for Meditation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan David Nash

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available One of the well-documented concerns confronting scholarly discourse about meditation is the plethora of semantic constructs and the lack of a unified definition and taxonomy. In recent years there have been several notable attempts to formulate new lexicons in order to define and categorize meditation methods. While these constructs have been useful and have encountered varying degrees of acceptance, they have also been subject to misinterpretation and debate, leaving the field devoid of a consensual paradigm. This paper attempts to influence this ongoing discussion by proposing two new models which hold the potential for enhanced scientific reliability and acceptance. Regarding the quest for a universally acceptable taxonomy, we suggest a paradigm shift away from the fabrication of categories based exclusively on first-person perspectives. As an alternative, we propose a new taxonomic system based on a third-person paradigm borrowed, in part, from the psychological and cognitive sciences. With regard to the elusive definitional problem, we propose a model of meditation as a dynamic process composed of several related but distinct stages. The overall goal is to provide researchers with a reliable nomenclature with which to categorize and classify diverse meditation methods, and a conceptual framework which can provide direction for their research and a theoretical basis for their findings.

  7. Softly broken finite supersymmetric grand unified theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kazakov, D.I. [Joint Inst. for Nucl. Res., Dubna (Russian Federation). Bogoliubov Lab. of Theor. Phys.; Kalmykov, M.Yu. [Joint Inst. for Nucl. Res., Dubna (Russian Federation). Bogoliubov Lab. of Theor. Phys.; Kondrashuk, I.N. [Joint Inst. for Nucl. Res., Dubna (Russian Federation). Bogoliubov Lab. of Theor. Phys.; Gladyshev, A.V. [Physics Department, Moscow State University, 119 899 Moscow (Russian Federation)

    1996-07-15

    In the context of the standard SUSY GUT scenario, we present a detailed analysis of the softly broken finite supersymmetric grand unified theory. The model, albeit nonminimal, remains very rigid due to the requirement of finiteness. It is based on the SU(5) gauge group and is UV finite to all orders of perturbation theory. It contains three generations of the matter fields together with four pairs of Higgses. The requirement of UV finiteness fixes all the Yukawa couplings at the GUT scale. Imposing the condition of universality on the soft couplings at the Planck scale and then extending the condition of finiteness to them, one gets a completely finite unified theory above M{sub GUT}. This makes the fine-tuning procedure more meaningful and leads to the usual Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model below M{sub GUT}. All the masses of the ordinary particles including Higgses are obtained due to the Higgs mechanism at the electro-weak scale. The hierarchy of quark and lepton masses is related to that of v.e.v.`s of the Higgs fields and is governed by the Higgs mixing matrix in the generation space. Superpartners develop their masses according to the RG equations starting from the soft terms at the Planck scale. The suggestion of complete finiteness and maximal simplicity of the unified theory leads to the connection between the initial values of soft SUSY breaking parameters, namely m{sub 0}{sup 2}=1/3m{sub 1/2}{sup 2}, A{sub t}=A{sub b}=A{sub {tau}}=-m{sub 1/2}, B=-m{sub 1/2}, so that the number of free parameters is less than that of the MSSM. (orig.).

  8. Softly broken finite supersymmetric grand unified theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazakov, D. I.; Kalmykov, M. Yu.; Kondrashuk, I. N.; Gladyshev, A. V.

    1996-02-01

    In the context of the standard SUSY GUT scenario, we present a detailed analysis of the softly broken finite supersymmetric grand unified theory. The model, albeit nonminimal, remains very rigid due to the requirement of finiteness. It is based on the SU(5) gauge group and is UV finite to all orders of perturbation theory. It contains three generations of the matter fields together with four pairs of Higgses. The requirement of UV finiteness fixes all the Yukawa couplings at the GUT scale. Imposing the condition of universality on the soft couplings at the Planck scale and then extending the condition of finiteness to them, one gets a completely finite unified theory above MGUT. This makes the fine-tuning procedure more meaningful and leads to the usual Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model below MGUT. All the masses of the ordinary particles including Higgses are obtained due to the Higgs mechanism at the electro-weak scale. The hierarchy of quark and lepton masses is related to that of v.e.v.'s of the Higgs fields and is governed by the Higgs mixing matrix in the generation space. Superpartners develop their masses according to the RG equations starting from the soft terms at the Planck scale. The suggestion of complete finiteness and maximal simplicity of the unified theory leads to the connection between the initial values of soft SUSY breaking parameters, namely m 02 = {1}/{3}m {1}/{2}2, A t = A b = A τ= -m {1}/{2}, B = -m {1}/{2}, so that the number of free parameters is less than that of the MSSM.

  9. Unified mask data formats for EB writers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuriyama, Koki; Suzuki, Toshio; Hirumi, Junji; Yoshioka, Nobuyuki; Hojo, Yutaka; Kawase, Yuichi; Hara, Shigehiro; Hoga, Morihisa; Watanabe, Satoshi W.; Inoue, Masa; Kawase, Hidemuchi; Kamimoto, Tomoko

    2003-08-01

    Mask data preparation is a complicated process because many kinds of pattern files and jobdeck files flow into mask manufacturers. This situation has a significant impact on data preparation operations especially in mask manufacturers. In this paper, we propose a solution to this problem: use of unified mask data formats for EB writers and a model of data preparation flow from a device manufacturer to an EB writer. The unified formats consist of pattern data format named "NEO", and mask layout format named "MALY". NEO is a stream format which retains upper compatibility to GDSII and has higher compression rate than GDSII. NEO is intended to be a general input format of Variable-Shaped-Beam (VSB) mask writers in principle, not particularly designed for any specific equipment or software. Data conversion process between mask writers being taken into account, NEO requires some constraints for VSB mask writers, such as removal of overlapping figures. Due to many differences in jobdeck syntax and functions among mask writers, it is a complicated task to edit or modify a jobdeck, and convert it into another format. MALY is a text-based format whose purpose is to standardize mask layout information among mask writers. This unification of mask layout information optimized for EB writers is expected to reduce workload of mask data preparation significantly. Besides the information described in MALY, some other information specific to the target EB writer, such as drawing parameters, has to be prepared separately. This paper illustrates a model of data flow and benefits of using these unified formats. The format and the data flow are effective in reducing data handling cost, providing flexible data handling solution. Applying the handling flow using NEO and MALY would result in reducing the load on mask manufacturers. Moreover, device manufacturers would be freed from the need to specify the mask writer to be used when ordering masks to mask manufacturers.

  10. TOWARDS A UNIFIED VIEW OF METAHEURISTICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El-Ghazali Talbi

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available This talk provides a complete background on metaheuristics and presents in a unified view the main design questions for all families of metaheuristics and clearly illustrates how to implement the algorithms under a software framework to reuse both the design and code. The key search components of metaheuristics are considered as a toolbox for: - Designing efficient metaheuristics (e.g. local search, tabu search, simulated annealing, evolutionary algorithms, particle swarm optimization, scatter search, ant colonies, bee colonies, artificial immune systems for optimization problems. - Designing efficient metaheuristics for multi-objective optimization problems. - Designing hybrid, parallel and distributed metaheuristics. - Implementing metaheuristics on sequential and parallel machines.

  11. Leading gravitational corrections and a unified universe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Codello, Alessandro; Jain, Rajeev Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Leading order gravitational corrections to the Einstein-Hilbert action can lead to a consistent picture of the universe by unifying the epochs of inflation and dark energy in a single framework. While the leading local correction induces an inflationary phase in the early universe, the leading...... nonlocal term leads to an accelerated expansion of the universe at the present epoch. We argue that both the leading UV and IR terms can be obtained within the framework of a covariant effective field theory of gravity. The perturbative gravitational corrections therefore provide a fundamental basis...

  12. Interactive analysis environment of unified accelerator libraries

    CERN Document Server

    Fine, V; Talman, R

    2006-01-01

    Unified Accelerator Libraries (UAL, http://www.ual.bnl.gov) software is an open accelerator simulation environment addressing a broad spectrum of accelerator tasks ranging from efficient online-oriented modeling to full-scale realistic beam dynamics studies. The paper introduces a new package integrating UAL simulation algorithms with the QT-based Graphical User Interface and the ROOT data analysis and visualization framework (http://root.cern.ch). The primary user application is implemented as an interactive and configurable Accelerator Physics Player. Its interface to visualization components is based on the QT layer (http://root.bnl.gov) supported by the STAR experiment.

  13. Management of the Unified Astronomy Thesaurus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frey, K.; Erdmann, C.; Accomazzi, A.; Rubin, L.; Biemesderfer, C.; Gray, N.; Soles, J.

    2015-04-01

    The Unified Astronomy Thesaurus (UAT) is an open, interoperable, and community-supported thesaurus of astronomical and astrophysical concepts and their relationships. Management of the UAT is based on a community-supported approach. This will ensure that the thesaurus stays current by allowing users to suggest an addition or revision. These suggestions will then be subjected to a thorough expert review process before being accepted for addition to the UAT or rejected. Many leading astronomical institutions, professional associations, journal publishers, learned societies, and data repositories support the UAT as a standard astronomical terminology.

  14. Deja vu: The Unified Command Plan of the Future Revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-19

    Approved for Public Release; Distribution is Unlimited Déjà vu : The Unified Command Plan of the Future Revisited A Monograph by Lieutenant...DD-MM-YYYY) 19-05-2011 2. REPORT TYPE Monograph 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) JUL 2010 – MAY 2011 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Déjà vu : The Unified...i SCHOOL OF ADVANCED MILITARY STUDIES MONOGRAPH APPROVAL Lieutenant Colonel Edward Francis Martignetti Title of Monograph: Déjà vu : The Unified

  15. Unifying hydrotropy under Gibbs phase rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, Seishi; Matubayasi, Nobuyuki

    2017-09-13

    The task of elucidating the mechanism of solubility enhancement using hydrotropes has been hampered by the wide variety of phase behaviour that hydrotropes can exhibit, encompassing near-ideal aqueous solution, self-association, micelle formation, and micro-emulsions. Instead of taking a field guide or encyclopedic approach to classify hydrotropes into different molecular classes, we take a rational approach aiming at constructing a unified theory of hydrotropy based upon the first principles of statistical thermodynamics. Achieving this aim can be facilitated by the two key concepts: (1) the Gibbs phase rule as the basis of classifying the hydrotropes in terms of the degrees of freedom and the number of variables to modulate the solvation free energy; (2) the Kirkwood-Buff integrals to quantify the interactions between the species and their relative contributions to the process of solubilization. We demonstrate that the application of the two key concepts can in principle be used to distinguish the different molecular scenarios at work under apparently similar solubility curves observed from experiments. In addition, a generalization of our previous approach to solutes beyond dilution reveals the unified mechanism of hydrotropy, driven by a strong solute-hydrotrope interaction which overcomes the apparent per-hydrotrope inefficiency due to hydrotrope self-clustering.

  16. A Unified Theoretical Framework for Cognitive Sequencing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tejas Savalia

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The capacity to sequence information is central to human performance. Sequencing ability forms the foundation stone for higher order cognition related to language and goal-directed planning. Information related to the order of items, their timing, chunking and hierarchical organization are important aspects in sequencing. Past research on sequencing has emphasized two distinct and independent dichotomies: implicit versus explicit and goal-directed versus habits. We propose a theoretical framework unifying these two streams. Our proposal relies on brain's ability to implicitly extract statistical regularities from the stream of stimuli and with attentional engagement organizing sequences explicitly and hierarchically. Similarly, sequences that need to be assembled purposively to accomplish a goal require engagement of attentional processes. With repetition, these goal-directed plans become habits with concomitant disengagement of attention. Thus attention and awareness play a crucial role in the implicit-to-explicit transition as well as in how goal-directed plans become automatic habits. Cortico-subcortical loops ─ basal ganglia-frontal cortex and hippocampus-frontal cortex loops ─ mediate the transition process. We show how the computational principles of model-free and model-based learning paradigms, along with a pivotal role for attention and awareness, offer a unifying framework for these two dichotomies. Based on this framework, we make testable predictions related to the potential influence of response-to-stimulus interval (RSI on developing awareness in implicit learning tasks.

  17. A unified innovation approach to emerging markets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agarwal, Nivedita; Brem, Alexander; Grottke, Michael

    2014-01-01

    for emerging markets (2) and establish relative importance of key factors for product managers while conceptualizing a new product for emerging markets. In the first part, the study assembles the list of characteristics from the selected innovation theories revolving around emerging markets. Subsequently......Previous research shows a plethora of overlapping and interrelated innovation approaches to understand the bottom of the pyramid customer needs and markets specifications. This research attempts to (1) identify the key factors that make a product relevant to be considered as an innovation...... the identified characteristics are clustered into eight key factors using semantic similarities scores and Ward’s clustering method. An analytical hierarchy process method is employed to obtain the priorities of these eight key factors. The study concludes with a Unified Innovation Framework which presents...

  18. Grand-Unified-Theory Baryogenesis after Preheating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kolb, E.W.; Linde, A.; Riotto, A. [NASA/Fermilab Astrophysics Center, Fermilab National Accelerator Laboratory, Batavia, Illinois 60510-0500 (United States)]|[Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Enrico Fermi Institute, University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60637-1433 (United States)]|[Department of Physics, Stanford University, Stanford, Californiaw 94305-4060 (United States)

    1996-11-01

    At the end of inflation the Universe is frozen in a near zero-entropy state with energy density in a coherent scalar field and must be {open_quote}{open_quote}defrosted{close_quote}{close_quote} to produce the observed entropy and baryon number. We propose that the baryon asymmetry is generated by the decay of supermassive grand-unified-theory (GUT) bosons produced nonthermally in a preheating phase after inflation. We show that baryogenesis is possible for an inflaton mass of order 10{sup 13} GeV and a GUT Higgs boson mass of order 10{sup 14} GeV, thus solving many drawbacks facing GUT baryogenesis in the old reheating scenario. {copyright} {ital 1996 The American Physical Society.}

  19. Large neutrino mixing angles in unified theories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babu, K. S.; Barr, S. M.

    1996-02-01

    Typically in unified theories the neutrino mixing angles, like the Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa (CKM) angles of the quarks, are related to the small mass ratios between fermions of different generations and are therefore quite small. A new approach for explaining the intergenerational mass hierarchies is proposed here which, while giving small CKM angles, naturally leads to neutrino angles of order unity. Such large mixing angles may be required for a resolution of the atmospheric neutrino anomaly and may also be relevant for the solar neutrino puzzle. The mechanism presented here provides a framework in which novel approaches to the fermion mass question can arise. In particular, within this framework a variant of the texture idea allows highly predictive models to be constructed, an illustrative example of which is given. It is shown how the neutrino mixing angles may be completely determined in such schemes.

  20. Explaining religiosity: towards a unified theoretical model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stolz, Jörg

    2009-06-01

    The article presents a unified theoretical model, explaining differences in Christian and 'alternative' religiosity at individual and collective levels. The model reconstructs and integrates the most important theories explaining religiosity (deprivation, regulation, socialization, cultural production, and ethnicity) as complementary causal mechanisms in a rational-action based framework. It is maintained that the mechanisms of the various theories are not exclusive, but complementary, and that integration into the general model is both theoretically and empirically beneficial. The model is tested on representative data from Switzerland. Substantively, I find for the Swiss case that Christian religiosity can be best explained by a religious socialization mechanism. The most important mechanisms accounting for alternative religiosity involve deprivation, gender, and age.

  1. Unified Theoretical Framework for Polycrystalline Pattern Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adland, Ari; Xu, Yechuan; Karma, Alain

    2013-06-01

    The rate of curvature-driven grain growth in polycrystalline materials is well known to be limited by interface dissipation. We show analytically and by simulations that, for systems forming modulated phases or nonequilibrium patterns with crystal ordering, growth is limited by bulk dissipation associated with lattice translation, which dramatically slows down grain coarsening. We also show that bulk dissipation is reduced by thermal noise and that this reduction leads to faster coarsening behavior dominated by interface dissipation for a high Peierls-Nabarro barrier to dislocation motion and high noise. Those results provide a unified theoretical framework for understanding and modeling polycrystalline pattern evolution in diverse systems over a broad range of length and time scales.

  2. Clafer: Unifying Class and Feature Modeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bąk, Kacper; Diskin, Zinovy; Antkiewicz, Michal

    2015-01-01

    We present Clafer (class, feature, reference), a class modeling language with first-class support for feature modeling. We designed Clafer as a concise notation for meta-models, feature models, mixtures of meta- and feature models (such as components with options), and models that couple feature...... models and meta-models via constraints (such as mapping feature configurations to component configurations or model templates). Clafer allows arranging models into multiple specialization and extension layers via constraints and inheritance. We identify several key mechanisms allowing a meta......-modeling language to express feature models concisely. Clafer unifies basic modeling constructs, such as class, association, and property, into a single construct, called clafer. We provide the language with a formal semantics built in a structurally explicit way. The resulting semantics explains the meaning...

  3. On the History of Unified Field Theories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goenner Hubert F.M.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available This article is intended to give a review of the history of the classical aspects of unified field theories in the 20th century. It includes brief technical descriptions of the theories suggested, short biographical notes concerning the scientists involved, and an extensive bibliography. The present first installment covers the time span between 1914 and 1933, i.e., when Einstein was living and working in Berlin - with occasional digressions into other periods. Thus, the main theme is the unification of the electromagnetic and gravitational fields augmented by short-lived attempts to include the matter field described by Schrödinger's or Dirac's equations. While my focus lies on the conceptual development of the field, by also paying attention to the interaction of various schools of mathematicians with the research done by physicists, some prosopocraphical remarks are included.

  4. A unified grand tour of theoretical physics

    CERN Document Server

    Lawrie, Ian D

    2013-01-01

    A Unified Grand Tour of Theoretical Physics invites its readers to a guided exploration of the theoretical ideas that shape our contemporary understanding of the physical world at the fundamental level. Its central themes, comprising space-time geometry and the general relativistic account of gravity, quantum field theory and the gauge theories of fundamental forces, and statistical mechanics and the theory of phase transitions, are developed in explicit mathematical detail, with an emphasis on conceptual understanding. Straightforward treatments of the standard models of particle physics and cosmology are supplemented with introductory accounts of more speculative theories, including supersymmetry and string theory. This third edition of the Tour includes a new chapter on quantum gravity, focusing on the approach known as Loop Quantum Gravity, while new sections provide extended discussions of topics that have become prominent in recent years, such as the Higgs boson, massive neutrinos, cosmological perturba...

  5. Allometry and growth: A unified view

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Martino, S.; De Siena, S.

    2012-09-01

    Allometry is crucial in biology; scaling relations are implied in laws of growth of living systems. The self similarity of Gompertzian growths of biological organisms plays a key role, in this regard, in biological similitude. The origin of allometric relationships and values of the scaling exponents is a source of debate, as well as the origin of the range of biological scales. But, besides biology, scaling and growth characterize many different complex systems. Encompassing these aspects in a unified view is an interesting target. In this paper we propose a coarse but significant model that is applied to astrophysical structures and biological organisms. The inclusion of such different systems suggests applications to fields where allometry is emerging, such as economics, urban planning and the social sciences.

  6. Centrally managed unified shared virtual address space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkes, John

    2018-02-13

    Systems, apparatuses, and methods for managing a unified shared virtual address space. A host may execute system software and manage a plurality of nodes coupled to the host. The host may send work tasks to the nodes, and for each node, the host may externally manage the node's view of the system's virtual address space. Each node may have a central processing unit (CPU) style memory management unit (MMU) with an internal translation lookaside buffer (TLB). In one embodiment, the host may be coupled to a given node via an input/output memory management unit (IOMMU) interface, where the IOMMU frontend interface shares the TLB with the given node's MMU. In another embodiment, the host may control the given node's view of virtual address space via memory-mapped control registers.

  7. Unified physicochemical property estimation relationships (UPPER).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lian, Bo; Yalkowsky, Samuel H

    2014-09-01

    The knowledge of physicochemical properties of organic compounds becomes increasingly important in pharmaceutical sciences, chemical engineering, and other fields. In this study, we developed UPPER (Unified Physicochemical Property Estimation Relationships), a comprehensive model for the estimation of 20 physicochemical properties of organic compounds. UPPER is a system of thermodynamically sound relationships that relate the various phase-transition properties to one another, which includes transition heats, transition entropies, transition temperatures, molar volume, vapor pressure, solubilities and partition coefficients in different solvents, and so on. UPPER integrates group contributions with the molecular geometric factors that affect transition entropies. All of the predictions are directly based on molecular structure. As a result, the proposed model provides a simple and accurate prediction of the properties studied. UPPER is designed to predict industrially, pharmaceutically, and environmentally relevant physicochemical properties. It can be an aid for the efficient design and synthesis of compounds with optimal physicochemical properties. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association.

  8. Centrally managed unified shared virtual address space

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilkes, John

    2018-02-13

    Systems, apparatuses, and methods for managing a unified shared virtual address space. A host may execute system software and manage a plurality of nodes coupled to the host. The host may send work tasks to the nodes, and for each node, the host may externally manage the node's view of the system's virtual address space. Each node may have a central processing unit (CPU) style memory management unit (MMU) with an internal translation lookaside buffer (TLB). In one embodiment, the host may be coupled to a given node via an input/output memory management unit (IOMMU) interface, where the IOMMU frontend interface shares the TLB with the given node's MMU. In another embodiment, the host may control the given node's view of virtual address space via memory-mapped control registers.

  9. Hilltop supernatural inflation and SUSY unified models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kohri, Kazunori [Cosmophysics Group, Theory Center, IPNS KEK, and The Graduate University for Advanced Studies (Sokendai), 1-1 Oho, Tsukuba, 305-0801 (Japan); Lim, C.S. [Department of Mathematics, Tokyo Woman' s Christian University, Tokyo, 167-8585 (Japan); Lin, Chia-Min [Department of Physics, Chuo University, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo, 112 (Japan); Mimura, Yukihiro, E-mail: kohri@post.kek.jp, E-mail: lim@lab.twcu.ac.jp, E-mail: lin@chuo-u.ac.jp, E-mail: mimura@hep1.phys.ntu.edu.tw [Department of Physics, National Taiwan University, Taipei, 10617 Taiwan (China)

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we consider high scale (100TeV) supersymmetry (SUSY) breaking and realize the idea of hilltop supernatural inflation in concrete particle physics models based on flipped-SU(5)and Pati-Salam models in the framework of supersymmetric grand unified theories (SUSY GUTs). The inflaton can be a flat direction including right-handed sneutrino and the waterfall field is a GUT Higgs. The spectral index is n{sub s} = 0.96 which fits very well with recent data by PLANCK satellite. There is no both thermal and non-thermal gravitino problems. Non-thermal leptogenesis can be resulted from the decay of right-handed sneutrino which plays (part of) the role of inflaton.

  10. Hilltop supernatural inflation and SUSY unified models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohri, Kazunori; Lim, C. S.; Lin, Chia-Min; Mimura, Yukihiro

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we consider high scale (100TeV) supersymmetry (SUSY) breaking and realize the idea of hilltop supernatural inflation in concrete particle physics models based on flipped-SU(5)and Pati-Salam models in the framework of supersymmetric grand unified theories (SUSY GUTs). The inflaton can be a flat direction including right-handed sneutrino and the waterfall field is a GUT Higgs. The spectral index is ns = 0.96 which fits very well with recent data by PLANCK satellite. There is no both thermal and non-thermal gravitino problems. Non-thermal leptogenesis can be resulted from the decay of right-handed sneutrino which plays (part of) the role of inflaton.

  11. Coral Reef and Hardbottom from Unified Florida Reef Tract Map (NODC Accession 0123059)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset is a subset of the Unified Map representing Coral reef and Hardbottom areas. Version 1.1 - December 2013. The Unified Florida Reef Tract Map (Unified...

  12. Water use in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandt, Justin; Sneed, Michelle; Rogers, Laurel Lynn; Metzger, Loren F.; Rewis, Diane; House, Sally F.

    2014-01-01

    As part of the USGS National Water Use Compilation, the California Water Science Center works in cooperation with local, State, and Federal agencies as well as academic and private organizations to collect and report total water withdrawals for California. The 2010 California water use data are aggregated here, in this website, for the first time. The California Water Science Center released these data ahead of the online USGS National Water Use Compilation circular report, in response to increased interest associated with current drought conditions. The national report is expected to be released late in 2014. The data on this website represents the most current California water use data available in the USGS National Water Use Compilation. It contains a section on water use in California for 2010. Water-use estimates are compiled by withdrawal source type, use category, and county. Withdrawal source types include groundwater, both fresh and saline,

  13. Southern California Particle Center

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — At the Southern California Particle Center, center researchers will investigate the underlying mechanisms that produce the health effects associated with exposure to...

  14. A unified modeling framework for service design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jayasinghe Arachchig, J.

    2013-01-01

    Service-oriented architectures are the upcoming business standard for realizing enterprise information systems, thus creating a need for analysis and design methods that are truly service-oriented. Most research on this topic so far takes a strict software engineering perspective. Separation of the

  15. California's High School Dropouts: Examining the Fiscal Consequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuit, David A.; Springer, Jeffrey A.

    2010-01-01

    This report analyzes the economic and social costs of the high school dropout problem in California from the perspective of a state taxpayer. The authors' analysis considers the consequences of this problem in terms of labor market, tax revenue, public health, and incarceration costs. The authors' quantification of these costs reveals the sizeable…

  16. Spain: Europe's California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilvert, Calvin

    1994-01-01

    Contends that, as Spain integrates into the European Economic Community, it is considered to be Europe's California. Asserts that making regional comparisons between California and Spain can be an effective teaching method. Provides comparisons in such areas as agriculture and tourism. (CFR)

  17. California-Baja California border master plan - plan maestro fronterizo California-Baja California : executive summary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-09-01

    Crossborder travel at the six land ports of entry (POEs) in the California-Baja California region has grown : significantly over the years. The San Diego County-Tijuana/Tecate region is home to the San Ysidro- : Puerta Mxico, the Otay Mesa-Mesa de ...

  18. California-Baja California border master plan - plan maestro fronterizo California-Baja California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-09-01

    Crossborder travel at the six land ports of entry (POEs) in the California-Baja California region has grown : significantly over the years. The San Diego County-Tijuana/Tecate region is home to the San Ysidro- : Puerta Mxico, the Otay Mesa-Mesa de ...

  19. California's Reference Crisis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Childers, Thomas A.

    1994-01-01

    Social and economic issues affecting the vitality of public libraries in California are discussed. A 1993 study by the California State Library identified diminishing reference skills and reference collections, reduced funding which impacted staffing, increased demand, technology change, and language/culture issues as contributing factors to…

  20. Pragmatic Information as a Unifying Biological Concept

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Maleeh

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to introduce a developed reading of Roederer’s interpretation of pragmatic information as a good candidate for a Unifying Information Concept required for an as-yet-unavailable Science of Information. According to pragmatic information, information and information processing are exclusive attributes of biological systems related to the very definition of life. I will apply the notion to give new accounts in the following areas: (1 quantum interpretation: based on a modified version of David Bohm’s interpretation of quantum mechanics, I propose an ontological, information-based interpretation of quantum mechanics which, unlike Roederer’s interpretation, satisfies all conditions of pragmatic information; (2 artificial intelligence: the notion successfully distinguishes natural living systems from artifacts and natural non-living systems, providing a context to pose an information-based argument against the thesis of Strong Artificial Intelligence; (3 phenomenal consciousness: I will use pragmatic information to modify and update Chalmers’s Double-aspect Theory of Information to be explanatorily more powerful regarding the physical aspect of his theory; (4 causation: based on pragmatic information, I pose a new account of causation which differentiates causation in biology from causation in natural abiotic world.

  1. Argumentation and Inference: A Unified Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christophe Fouqueré

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available We propose in this paper to use Ludics as a unified framework for the analysis of dialogue and the reasoning system. Not only is Ludics a logical theory, but it may also be built by means of concepts of game theory. We first present the main concepts of Ludics. A design is an abstraction and a generalization of the concept of proof. Interaction between designs is equivalent to cut elimination or modus ponens in logical theories. It appears to be a natural means for representing dialogues and also for reasoning. A design is a set of sequences of alternate actions, similar to a move in game theory. We apply Ludics to argumentative dialogues. We discuss how to model the speech acts of argumentative dialogues in terms of dialogue acts. A dialogue act is given by a Ludics action together with the expression that reveals the action in a turn of speech. We show also how arguments may be stored in a commitment state used for reasoning. Finally we revisit an example of juridical dialogue that has been analyzed by Prakken in a different framework.

  2. UPM: unified policy-based network management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, Eddie; Saxena, Achint

    2001-07-01

    Besides providing network management to the Internet, it has become essential to offer different Quality of Service (QoS) to users. Policy-based management provides control on network routers to achieve this goal. The Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) has proposed a two-tier architecture whose implementation is based on the Common Open Policy Service (COPS) protocol and Lightweight Directory Access Protocol (LDAP). However, there are several limitations to this design such as scalability and cross-vendor hardware compatibility. To address these issues, we present a functionally enhanced multi-tier policy management architecture design in this paper. Several extensions are introduced thereby adding flexibility and scalability. In particular, an intermediate entity between the policy server and policy rule database called the Policy Enforcement Agent (PEA) is introduced. By keeping internal data in a common format, using a standard protocol, and by interpreting and translating request and decision messages from multi-vendor hardware, this agent allows a dynamic Unified Information Model throughout the architecture. We have tailor-made this unique information system to save policy rules in the directory server and allow executions of policy rules with dynamic addition of new equipment during run-time.

  3. A Unifying Theory of Branching Morphogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannezo, Edouard; Scheele, Colinda L G J; Moad, Mohammad; Drogo, Nicholas; Heer, Rakesh; Sampogna, Rosemary V; van Rheenen, Jacco; Simons, Benjamin D

    2017-09-21

    The morphogenesis of branched organs remains a subject of abiding interest. Although much is known about the underlying signaling pathways, it remains unclear how macroscopic features of branched organs, including their size, network topology, and spatial patterning, are encoded. Here, we show that, in mouse mammary gland, kidney, and human prostate, these features can be explained quantitatively within a single unifying framework of branching and annihilating random walks. Based on quantitative analyses of large-scale organ reconstructions and proliferation kinetics measurements, we propose that morphogenesis follows from the proliferative activity of equipotent tips that stochastically branch and randomly explore their environment but compete neutrally for space, becoming proliferatively inactive when in proximity with neighboring ducts. These results show that complex branched epithelial structures develop as a self-organized process, reliant upon a strikingly simple but generic rule, without recourse to a rigid and deterministic sequence of genetically programmed events. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Constraints on dissipative unified dark matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Velten, Hermano [Universidade Federal do Espírito Santo, Av. Fernando Ferrari, Goiabeiras, Vitória (Brazil); Schwarz, Dominik J., E-mail: velten@physik.uni-bielefeld.de, E-mail: dschwarz@physik.uni-bielefeld.de [Fakultät für Physik, Universität Bielefeld, Postfach 100131, 33501 Bielefeld (Germany)

    2011-09-01

    Modern cosmology suggests that the Universe contains two dark components — dark matter and dark energy — both unkown in laboratory physics and both lacking direct evidence. Alternatively, a unified dark sector, described by a single fluid, has been proposed. Dissipation is a common phenomenon in nature and it thus seems natural to consider models dominated by a viscous dark fluid. We focus on the study of bulk viscosity, as isotropy and homogeneity at large scales implies the suppression of shear viscosity, heat flow and diffusion. The generic ansatz ξ∝ρ{sup ν} for the coefficient of bulk viscosity (ρ denotes the mass/energy density), which for ν = −1/2 mimics the ΛCDM background evolution, offers excellent fits to supernova and H(z) data. We show that viscous dark fluids suffer from large contributions to the integrated Sachs-Wolfe effect (generalising a previous study by Li and Barrow) and a suppression of structure growth at small-scales (as seen from a generalized Meszaros equation). Based on recent observations, we conclude that viscous dark fluid models (with ξ∝ρ{sup ν} and neglecting baryons) are strongly challenged.

  5. A unified grand tour of theoretical physics

    CERN Document Server

    Griffiths, J

    2002-01-01

    Anyone offering a grand tour is faced with several options. Should they concentrate on what may be considered to be essential features, or should they attempt to present a brief glimpse of almost everything? The present offering is a compromise between these two extremes. The area considered - theoretical physics - is now such a vast subject that some kind of compromise is essential. Indeed, the field is now so wide that few could even attempt to review it in a single-authored work. My task here is to assess how well this book has succeeded in its main aim of providing a unified (though introductory) tour of this subject. Constrained within a single volume, this is clearly not an updated Landau-Lifschitz. It cannot be expected to take any particular topic to the level of recent research. Nevertheless, it does seem to cover the broad range of essential topics which now constitute the subject. It starts (most appropriately in my opinion) with geometry. It then covers classical physics, general relativity and qu...

  6. Aspects Of Grand Unified And String Phenomenology

    CERN Document Server

    Walker, J W

    2005-01-01

    Explored in this report is the essential interconnectedness of Grand Unified and String Theoretic Phenomenology. In order to extract a modeled connection to low-energy physics from the context of superstring theory, it is presently necessary to input some preferred region of parameter space in which to search. This need may be well filled by a parallel study of Grand Unification, which is by contrast in immediate proximity to a wealth of experimental data. The favored GUT so isolated may then reasonably transfer this phenomenological correlation to a string embedding, receiving back by way of trade a greater sense of primary motivation, and potentially enhanced predictability for parameters taken as input in a particle physics context. The Flipped SU(5) GUT will be our preferred framework in which to operate and first receives an extended study in a non-string derived setting. Of particularly timely interest are predictions for super-particle mass ranges and the interrelated question of proton decay lifetime....

  7. Statistical mechanics unifies different ecological patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewar, Roderick C; Porté, Annabel

    2008-04-07

    Recently there has been growing interest in the use of maximum relative entropy (MaxREnt) as a tool for statistical inference in ecology. In contrast, here we propose MaxREnt as a tool for applying statistical mechanics to ecology. We use MaxREnt to explain and predict species abundance patterns in ecological communities in terms of the most probable behaviour under given environmental constraints, in the same way that statistical mechanics explains and predicts the behaviour of thermodynamic systems. We show that MaxREnt unifies a number of different ecological patterns: (i) at relatively local scales a unimodal biodiversity-productivity relationship is predicted in good agreement with published data on grassland communities, (ii) the predicted relative frequency of rare vs. abundant species is very similar to the empirical lognormal distribution, (iii) both neutral and non-neutral species abundance patterns are explained, (iv) on larger scales a monotonic biodiversity-productivity relationship is predicted in agreement with the species-energy law, (v) energetic equivalence and power law self-thinning behaviour are predicted in resource-rich communities. We identify mathematical similarities between these ecological patterns and the behaviour of thermodynamic systems, and conclude that the explanation of ecological patterns is not unique to ecology but rather reflects the generic statistical behaviour of complex systems with many degrees of freedom under very general types of environmental constraints.

  8. A unified neurofuzzy model for classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Ming; Hong, Xia; Harris, Chris J.

    2014-10-01

    This work proposes a unified neurofuzzy modelling scheme. To begin with, the initial fuzzy base construction method is based on fuzzy clustering utilising a Gaussian mixture model (GMM) combined with the analysis of covariance (ANOVA) decomposition in order to obtain more compact univariate and bivariate membership functions over the subspaces of the input features. The mean and covariance of the Gaussian membership functions are found by the expectation maximisation (EM) algorithm with the merit of revealing the underlying density distribution of system inputs. The resultant set of membership functions forms the basis of the generalised fuzzy model (GFM) inference engine. The model structure and parameters of this neurofuzzy model are identified via the supervised subspace orthogonal least square (OLS) learning. Finally, instead of providing deterministic class label as model output by convention, a logistic regression model is applied to present the classifier's output, in which the sigmoid type of logistic transfer function scales the outputs of the neurofuzzy model to the class probability. Experimental validation results are presented to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed neurofuzzy modelling scheme.

  9. 76 FR 68103 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-03

    ... at http://www.regulations.gov or in hard copy at EPA Region IX, 75 Hawthorne Street, San Francisco..., which is based on scientific studies. Earthjustice asserts that 1.44 tons per day (tpd) (the median of...

  10. 76 FR 56134 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-12

    ...: volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions from steam enhanced crude oil production and aerospace coating... Submitted SJVUAPCD 4401 Steam-Enhanced Crude Oil 06/16/11 07/28/11 Production Wells. SJVUAPCD 4605 Aerospace...-line instructions. 2. E-mail: [email protected] . 3. Mail or deliver: Andrew Steckel (Air-4), U.S...

  11. 76 FR 56132 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-12

    ... Fiberglass Boat Manufacturing Materials,'' EPA-453/R-08-004, September 2008. B. Does the rule meet the... economically significant regulatory action based on health or safety risks subject to Executive Order 13045 (62...

  12. 76 FR 52623 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-23

    ... Air Pollution Control District AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Proposed rule... respiratory and cardiovascular disease, decreased lung function, visibility impairment, and damage to... Subjects in 40 CFR Part 52 Environmental protection, Air pollution control, Intergovernmental relations...

  13. 75 FR 28509 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-21

    ... Air Pollution Control District AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Proposed rule..., including premature mortality, aggravation of respiratory and cardiovascular disease, decreased lung... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION...

  14. 77 FR 35327 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-13

    ... major processes covered by Rule 4682, extrusion foam and expanded polystyrene molding production, and... volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions from the manufacture of polystyrene, polyethylene, and...). ] Table 1--Submitted Rules Local agency Rule No. Rule title Adopted Submitted SJVUAPCD 4682 Polystyrene...

  15. 77 FR 64427 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-22

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... Air Pollution Control District AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Final rule...\\ and the Los Angeles County Sanitation District confirmed the VOC concentration limits for wastewater...

  16. 77 FR 24883 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-26

    ... oxides of nitrogen (NO X ) from solid fuel fired boilers, steam generators and process heaters. We are... Boilers, Steam 12/15/11 02/23/12 Generators and Process Heaters. On March 13, 2012, EPA determined that... monoxide (CO) emissions from solid fuel fired boilers, steam generators and process heaters. EPA's...

  17. 76 FR 16696 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-25

    ... (CO), oxides of sulfur (SO 2 ) and particulate matter emissions from boilers, steam generators and... Options for Boilers, Steam Generators and Process Heaters greater than 5.0 MMbtu/hr. We proposed to...) * * * (7) Rule 4320, ``Advance Emission Reduction Options for Boilers, Steam Generators and Process Heaters...

  18. 77 FR 214 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-04

    ... roots to biomass rather than landfill or compost. Nonetheless, at this time, we do not have sufficient... environmental effects with practical, appropriate, and legally permissible methods under Executive Order 12898... may take effect, the agency promulgating the rule must submit a rule report, which includes a copy of...

  19. 77 FR 58312 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-20

    ..., and 12/15/2011 02/23/2012 Polypropylene Products Manufacturing. We proposed to approve this rule... Technology Transfer and Advancement Act of 1995 (15 U.S.C. 272 note) because application of those... District. (1) Rule 4682, ``Polystyrene, Polyethylene, and Polypropylene Products Manufacturing,'' amended...

  20. 77 FR 73322 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Monterey Bay Unified Air Pollution Control...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-10

    ... Submitted MBUAPCD 400 Visible Emissions...... 08/15/12 09/20/12 On October 15, 2012, EPA determined that the... submit regulations that control PM and other emissions. Rule 400 limits visible emissions, generally by... relevant requirements. We do not think anyone will object to this approval, so we are finalizing it without...

  1. 77 FR 2228 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-17

    ... party: Brent Newell, Center on Race, Poverty & the Environment (CRPE); letter dated and received October..., Poverty and the Environment, to Frances Wicher and Andrew Steckel, EPA. \\13\\ 75 FR 10435, March 8, 2010... * * *.''\\16\\ \\15\\ August 31, 2009 Letter from Brent Newell, Center on Race, Poverty and the Environment, to...

  2. 76 FR 56706 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-14

    ... volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions from confined animal facilities (CAFs) and biosolids, animal... will not know your identity or contact information unless you provide it in the body of your comment... SJVUAPCD 4570 Confined Animal Facilities..... 10/21/10 4/5/11 SJVUAPCD 4565 Biosolids, Animal Manure, and 3...

  3. 76 FR 38340 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-30

    ... Air Pollution Control District (SJVUAPCD) AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION... of Subjects in 40 CFR Part 52 Environmental protection, Air pollution control, Intergovernmental... emission sources under the Clean Air Act as amended in 1990 (CAA or the Act). We are taking comments on...

  4. 76 FR 35167 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-16

    ... Air Pollution Control District (SJVUAPCD) AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION... preempt tribal law. List of Subjects in 40 CFR Part 52 Environmental protection, Air pollution control... architectural coatings. We are approving a local rule that regulates these emission sources under the Clean Air...

  5. 76 FR 39777 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollutions...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-07

    ... volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions from crude oil production operations and refineries. Under... No. Rule title Amended Submitted SJVUAPCD 4402 Crude Oil Production Sumps. 12/17/92 08/24/07 SJVUAPCD... simultaneously proposed a limited disapproval because some rule provisions conflict with section 110 and part D...

  6. 75 FR 60623 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... that the term ``biomass'' covers, including various kinds of plant materials, wood materials and... 4352 for solid fuels other than municipal solid waste and biomass (i.e., coal, petroleum coke, and/or... in Rule 4352 for units firing solid fuels other than municipal solid waste and biomass (i.e., coal...

  7. 77 FR 65305 - Approval of Air Quality Implementation Plans; California; San Joaquin Valley Unified Air...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-26

    ... INFORMATION CONTACT section. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Lisa Beckham, EPA Region IX, (415) 972-3811, beckham[email protected] . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Throughout this document, ``we'', ``us'', and ``our... (SJVUAPCD). (1) Letter dated May 18, 2012 from David Warner, SJVUAPCD, to Gerardo Rios, United States...

  8. 77 FR 66548 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-06

    ..., the NH 3 / NO X ratio, the excess oxygen level, and the degree of ammonia/flue gas mixing. Also, stratification of both temperature and NO X in the flue gas can affect the performance of the SNCR control. The... ratio, oxygen levels, degree of ammonia/flue gas mixing, and other factors specific to the particular...

  9. Unified paths to future space settlements coming to clearer focus

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Anita Gale; Ron Kohl; Mike Snyder

    2015-01-01

    .... Although they have yet to see unified planning of integrated infrastructure components to enable future space settlement, paths to developing bits of infrastructure that can help achieve that goal...

  10. Unified Nonlinear Flight Dynamics and Aeroelastic Simulator Tool Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ZONA Technology, Inc. (ZONA) proposes a R&D effort to develop a Unified Nonlinear Flight Dynamics and Aeroelastic Simulator (UNFDAS) Tool that will combine...

  11. North Coast Unified Air Quality Management District: PSD Delegation Agreements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agreements for Partial Delegation of the Federal Prevention of Significant Deterioration (PSD) Program Set Forth in 40 CPR 52.21 by the United States Environmental Protection Agency, Region 9 to the North Coast Unified Air Quality Management District.

  12. Electrostatics and confinement in Einstein's unified field theory

    OpenAIRE

    Antoci, S.; Liebscher, D. -E.; Mihich, L.

    2007-01-01

    A way for appending sources at the right-hand sides of the field equations of Einstein's unified field theory is recalled. Two exact solutions endowed with point sources in equilibrium are shown, and their physical meaning is discussed.

  13. A Unified Access Model for Interconnecting Heterogeneous Wireless Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-05-01

    validation of the proposed network design for unified network access, and it lays the foundation for implementing a Software-Defined Networking ( SDN ...testing real-world applications. Most importantly, our simulation serves as a template for implementing a unified MAC layer network using SDN . SDN ...is a network program with a programmable, centralized control plane.4 SDN protocols can be used to mediate access between nodes of an HN. The method

  14. A unified multiwavelength model of galaxy formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacey, Cedric G.; Baugh, Carlton M.; Frenk, Carlos S.; Benson, Andrew J.; Bower, Richard G.; Cole, Shaun; Gonzalez-Perez, Violeta; Helly, John C.; Lagos, Claudia D. P.; Mitchell, Peter D.

    2016-11-01

    We present a new version of the GALFORM semi-analytical model of galaxy formation. This brings together several previous developments of GALFORM into a single unified model, including a different initial mass function (IMF) in quiescent star formation and in starbursts, feedback from active galactic nuclei suppressing gas cooling in massive haloes, and a new empirical star formation law in galaxy discs based on their molecular gas content. In addition, we have updated the cosmology, introduced a more accurate treatment of dynamical friction acting on satellite galaxies, and updated the stellar population model. The new model is able to simultaneously explain both the observed evolution of the K-band luminosity function and stellar mass function, and the number counts and redshift distribution of sub-mm galaxies selected at 850 μm. This was not previously achieved by a single physical model within the Λcold dark matter framework, but requires having an IMF in starbursts that is somewhat top-heavy. The new model is tested against a wide variety of observational data covering wavelengths from the far-UV to sub-mm, and redshifts from z = 0 to 6, and is found to be generally successful. These observations include the optical and near-infrared (IR) luminosity functions, H I mass function, fraction of early type galaxies, Tully-Fisher, metallicity-luminosity and size-luminosity relations at z = 0, as well as far-IR number counts, and far-UV luminosity functions at z ˜ 3-6. Discrepancies are, however, found in galaxy sizes and metallicities at low luminosities, and in the abundance of low-mass galaxies at high-z, suggesting the need for a more sophisticated model of supernova feedback.

  15. Unified Model of Multiple Wind Turbines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutule, A.; Kochukov, O.

    2014-08-01

    An approach is proposed to the modelling of wind farms in the electric power system long-term planning. It allows a specialist to perform calculations based on scanty information and offers a set of ready-to-use data for easy, fast, and precise modelling. The authors exemplify the calculations of wind speed probability density and power curves and give an idea for relevant corrections. They also show how to pass from a single wind turbine model to the unified model of multiple wind turbines which would meet the requirements of long-term planning tasks. The paper presents the data on wind farms that are operating in UK and Oceania Rakstā ir apskatīta vēja elektrostaciju modelēšana ilgtermiņa attīstības plānošanas uzdevumos. Modelēšana tika veikta, izmantojot ierobežotu datu apjomu, kuri bija piejami lietotājam. Gatavie dati deva iespēju veikt ātru un precīzu modelēšanu. Raksts piedāva metodi kā pāriet no viena vēja ģeneratora modeli uz vēja elektrostaciju (vairāki vēja ģeneratori) modeli, kas atbilst ilgtermiņa attīstības plānošanas prasībām. Rakstā atspoguļoti dati no Okeānijas un Lielbritānijas eksistējošām vēja elektrostacijām

  16. A unified approach to sparse signal processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marvasti, Farokh; Amini, Arash; Haddadi, Farzan; Soltanolkotabi, Mahdi; Khalaj, Babak Hossein; Aldroubi, Akram; Sanei, Saeid; Chambers, Janathon

    2012-12-01

    A unified view of the area of sparse signal processing is presented in tutorial form by bringing together various fields in which the property of sparsity has been successfully exploited. For each of these fields, various algorithms and techniques, which have been developed to leverage sparsity, are described succinctly. The common potential benefits of significant reduction in sampling rate and processing manipulations through sparse signal processing are revealed. The key application domains of sparse signal processing are sampling, coding, spectral estimation, array processing, component analysis, and multipath channel estimation. In terms of the sampling process and reconstruction algorithms, linkages are made with random sampling, compressed sensing, and rate of innovation. The redundancy introduced by channel coding in finite and real Galois fields is then related to over-sampling with similar reconstruction algorithms. The error locator polynomial (ELP) and iterative methods are shown to work quite effectively for both sampling and coding applications. The methods of Prony, Pisarenko, and MUltiple SIgnal Classification (MUSIC) are next shown to be targeted at analyzing signals with sparse frequency domain representations. Specifically, the relations of the approach of Prony to an annihilating filter in rate of innovation and ELP in coding are emphasized; the Pisarenko and MUSIC methods are further improvements of the Prony method under noisy environments. The iterative methods developed for sampling and coding applications are shown to be powerful tools in spectral estimation. Such narrowband spectral estimation is then related to multi-source location and direction of arrival estimation in array processing. Sparsity in unobservable source signals is also shown to facilitate source separation in sparse component analysis; the algorithms developed in this area such as linear programming and matching pursuit are also widely used in compressed sensing. Finally

  17. California Immigrants Today

    OpenAIRE

    Cornelius, Wayne A.

    1990-01-01

    This paper will focus on the Mexico-origin component of the California immigrant population. Drawing on the results of field studies conducted throughout California and in west-central Mexico during the last ten years,the paper will describe how the profile of Mexican migration to California has changed since the 197Os, suggest explanations for these changes, and discuss their implications for public policy. Effects of the long-running economic crisis in Mexico and of the 1986 U.S. immigra-ti...

  18. A unifying Bayesian account of contextual effects in value-based choice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Rigoli

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Empirical evidence suggests the incentive value of an option is affected by other options available during choice and by options presented in the past. These contextual effects are hard to reconcile with classical theories and have inspired accounts where contextual influences play a crucial role. However, each account only addresses one or the other of the empirical findings and a unifying perspective has been elusive. Here, we offer a unifying theory of context effects on incentive value attribution and choice based on normative Bayesian principles. This formulation assumes that incentive value corresponds to a precision-weighted prediction error, where predictions are based upon expectations about reward. We show that this scheme explains a wide range of contextual effects, such as those elicited by other options available during choice (or within-choice context effects. These include both conditions in which choice requires an integration of multiple attributes and conditions where a multi-attribute integration is not necessary. Moreover, the same scheme explains context effects elicited by options presented in the past or between-choice context effects. Our formulation encompasses a wide range of contextual influences (comprising both within- and between-choice effects by calling on Bayesian principles, without invoking ad-hoc assumptions. This helps clarify the contextual nature of incentive value and choice behaviour and may offer insights into psychopathologies characterized by dysfunctional decision-making, such as addiction and pathological gambling.

  19. A unifying Bayesian account of contextual effects in value-based choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigoli, Francesco; Mathys, Christoph; Friston, Karl J; Dolan, Raymond J

    2017-10-01

    Empirical evidence suggests the incentive value of an option is affected by other options available during choice and by options presented in the past. These contextual effects are hard to reconcile with classical theories and have inspired accounts where contextual influences play a crucial role. However, each account only addresses one or the other of the empirical findings and a unifying perspective has been elusive. Here, we offer a unifying theory of context effects on incentive value attribution and choice based on normative Bayesian principles. This formulation assumes that incentive value corresponds to a precision-weighted prediction error, where predictions are based upon expectations about reward. We show that this scheme explains a wide range of contextual effects, such as those elicited by other options available during choice (or within-choice context effects). These include both conditions in which choice requires an integration of multiple attributes and conditions where a multi-attribute integration is not necessary. Moreover, the same scheme explains context effects elicited by options presented in the past or between-choice context effects. Our formulation encompasses a wide range of contextual influences (comprising both within- and between-choice effects) by calling on Bayesian principles, without invoking ad-hoc assumptions. This helps clarify the contextual nature of incentive value and choice behaviour and may offer insights into psychopathologies characterized by dysfunctional decision-making, such as addiction and pathological gambling.

  20. California Ocean Uses Atlas

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset is a result of the California Ocean Uses Atlas Project: a collaboration between NOAA's National Marine Protected Areas Center and Marine Conservation...

  1. University of Southern California

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The focus of the University of Southern California (USC) Children''s Environmental Health Center is to develop a better understanding of how host susceptibility and...

  2. California Data Exchange Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to make July &28;Water Smart Month.&29; &28;Conserving ... Remote sensors today indicate that statewide, snowpack water content is 54 percent of ... California ranked first, along with Texas, on ...

  3. Coastal California Digital Imagery

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This digital ortho-imagery dataset is a survey of coastal California. The project area consists of approximately 3774 square miles. The project design of the digital...

  4. Kelp distribution off California

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set delineates kelp beds (Nereocystis leutkeana and Macrocystis spp.) along the Pacific Coast of California. Multiple years of kelp mapping data for the...

  5. California Harpoon Fishery

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains vessel logbook and landings data from harpoon vessels that fish within 200 miles of the California coast, from 1974 to present. The harpoon...

  6. Earthquakes in Southern California

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — There have been many earthquake occurrences in Southern California. This set of slides shows earthquake damage from the following events: Imperial Valley, 1979,...

  7. California Watershed Hydrologic Units

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — This dataset is intended to be used as a tool for water-resource management and planning activities, particularly for site-specific and localized studies requiring a...

  8. Unified functional network and nonlinear time series analysis for complex systems science: The pyunicorn package

    CERN Document Server

    Donges, Jonathan F; Beronov, Boyan; Wiedermann, Marc; Runge, Jakob; Feng, Qing Yi; Tupikina, Liubov; Stolbova, Veronika; Donner, Reik V; Marwan, Norbert; Dijkstra, Henk A; Kurths, Jürgen

    2015-01-01

    We introduce the pyunicorn (Pythonic unified complex network and recurrence analysis toolbox) open source software package for applying and combining modern methods of data analysis and modeling from complex network theory and nonlinear time series analysis. pyunicorn is a fully object-oriented and easily parallelizable package written in the language Python. It allows for the construction of functional networks such as climate networks in climatology or functional brain networks in neuroscience representing the structure of statistical interrelationships in large data sets of time series and, subsequently, investigating this structure using advanced methods of complex network theory such as measures and models for spatial networks, networks of interacting networks, node-weighted statistics or network surrogates. Additionally, pyunicorn provides insights into the nonlinear dynamics of complex systems as recorded in uni- and multivariate time series from a non-traditional perspective by means of recurrence qua...

  9. The application of the unified modeling language in object-oriented analysis of healthcare information systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aggarwal, Vinod

    2002-10-01

    This paper concerns itself with the beneficial effects of the Unified Modeling Language (UML), a nonproprietary object modeling standard, in specifying, visualizing, constructing, documenting, and communicating the model of a healthcare information system from the user's perspective. The author outlines the process of object-oriented analysis (OOA) using the UML and illustrates this with healthcare examples to demonstrate the practicality of application of the UML by healthcare personnel to real-world information system problems. The UML will accelerate advanced uses of object-orientation such as reuse technology, resulting in significantly higher software productivity. The UML is also applicable in the context of a component paradigm that promises to enhance the capabilities of healthcare information systems and simplify their management and maintenance.

  10. Self-efficacy as a unifying construct in nursing-social work collaboration with vulnerable populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Washington, Olivia G M; Moxley, David P

    2013-03-01

    The authors consider self-efficacy practice as an organizing construct guiding nursing-social work action research in partnership with older homeless and formerly homeless African-American women. The authors, both academics who together have worked with members of this vulnerable population for a decade and a half, report on their unifying action research perspective immersed in self-efficacy theory. We examine how our adaptations of Bandura's classic four sources of self-efficacy form a distinctive intervention practice designed to help older African-American women emerge from homelessness. We amplify the incorporation of the four sources (vicarious experience and exposure to powerful role models, emotional arousal and accompanying catharsis, verbal persuasion, and role performance) into a grand strategy useful in working collaboratively with members of vulnerable populations, so they can achieve outcomes that improve their functional health, well-being and ultimately their quality of life. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  11. A unified approach to feature-centric analysis of object-oriented software

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olszak, Andrzej; Jørgensen, Bo Nørregaard

    2010-01-01

    Feature-centric comprehension of software is a prerequisite to incorporating modifications requested by users during software evolution and maintenance. However, feature-centric understanding of large object-oriented programs is difficult to achieve due to size, complexity and implicit cha......-racter of mappings between features and source code. In this paper, we address these issues through our unified approach to feature-centric analysis of object-oriented software. Our approach supports discovery of feature-code traceability links and their analysis from three perspectives and at three levels...... of abstraction. We further improve scalability of analysis by partitioning features into canonical groups. To demonstrate feasibility our approach, we use our NetBeans-integrated tool Featureous for conducting a case study of feature-centric analysis of the JHotDraw project. Lastly, we discuss how Featureous...

  12. Introduction to quantum mechanics a time-dependent perspective

    CERN Document Server

    Tannor, David J

    2007-01-01

    "Introduction to Quantum Mechanics" covers quantum mechanics from a time-dependent perspective in a unified way from beginning to end. Intended for upper-level undergraduate and graduate courses this text will change the way people think about and teach quantum mechanics in chemistry and physics departments.

  13. Nothing From Everything- A Unified Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehra, Vijay Kumar

    2016-07-01

    Nothing From Everything-A Unified Theory is a philosophical insight into principles of nature through principle of complementary spontaneity and principle of vertical continuity. This work is intended to explain various cosmological phenomena in light of behaviour of particles in range of their respective and relative speed of light. This theory explains creation of Universe from nothing or zero spacetime through scalar energy field collapsing into Higgs field resulting into giving mass to various particles. The energy particles taking origin from nothing while moving away from zero space-time would create space-time of their own order because energy/matter needs space to exist. The particles while moving away from zero space-time would end up in breaking symmetry of matter/energy at their mass infinity (highest possible mass of any particle, which is function of speed of spin). This break in symmetry would lead to curving of particles upon themselves and hence would lead to creation of antiparticles going back in time towards zero spacetime. Therefore the Universe could have been created by alternate layers of particles and antiparticles and also alternate layers of matter and antimatter with decelerating speed of light, which would lead to creation a closed and flat Universe. With increase in mass of Universe (creation of more and more Universe's matter from nothing), the gravitational force of Universe is bound to increase and hence with quantum by quantum increase in gravity, it would apply brakes on relative speed of photon/light out of its reference frame or designated space and hence speed of photon would decrease. If closed and flat Universe was created with decelerating speed of light, then such Universe is bound to contract back with accelerating speed of light which would have inverse impact on gravitational constant across various spacetime zones of Universe. And hence mass bodies would drift away spontaneously purely on basis and proportional to

  14. Unified Spatial Intersection Algorithms Based on Conformal Geometric Algebra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Conformal Geometric Algebra has been introduced into geographic information science as a mathematical theory because of its advantages in terms of uniform multidimensional representation and computation. The traditional intersection computation between two geometric objects of different types is not unified. In this study, we propose algorithms based on Conformal Geometric Algebra to determine the spatial relationships between geographic objects in a unified manner. The unified representation and intersection computation can be realized for geometric objects of different dimensions. Different basic judgment rules are provided for different simple geometries. The algorithms are designed and implemented using MapReduce to improve the efficiency of the algorithms. From the results of several experiments we provide, the correctness and effectiveness of the algorithms can be verified.

  15. A Unified Framework for DPLL(T + Certificates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Zhou

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Satisfiability Modulo Theories (SMT techniques are widely used nowadays. SMT solvers are typically used as verification backends. When an SMT solver is invoked, it is quite important to ensure the correctness of its results. To address this problem, we propose a unified certificate framework based on DPLL(T, including a uniform certificate format, a unified certificate generation procedure, and a unified certificate checking procedure. The certificate format is shown to be simple, clean, and extensible to different background theories. The certificate generation procedure is well adapted to most DPLL(T-based SMT solvers. The soundness and completeness for DPLL(T + certificates were established. The certificate checking procedure is straightforward and efficient. Experimental results show that the overhead for certificates generation is only 10%, which outperforms other methods, and the certificate checking procedure is quite time saving.

  16. An Adaptive Unified Differential Evolution Algorithm for Global Optimization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qiang, Ji; Mitchell, Chad

    2014-11-03

    In this paper, we propose a new adaptive unified differential evolution algorithm for single-objective global optimization. Instead of the multiple mutation strate- gies proposed in conventional differential evolution algorithms, this algorithm employs a single equation unifying multiple strategies into one expression. It has the virtue of mathematical simplicity and also provides users the flexibility for broader exploration of the space of mutation operators. By making all control parameters in the proposed algorithm self-adaptively evolve during the process of optimization, it frees the application users from the burden of choosing appro- priate control parameters and also improves the performance of the algorithm. In numerical tests using thirteen basic unimodal and multimodal functions, the proposed adaptive unified algorithm shows promising performance in compari- son to several conventional differential evolution algorithms.

  17. A Unified Weighted Least Norm Method for Redundant Manipulator Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Chen

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available A redundant manipulator usually has multiple kinematic solutions at the velocity level and can be used to optimize other criteria. Although the pseudo inverse of the Jacobian matrix generates a solution with the least 2 norm (LN, it does not consider other constraints imposed by the system or the environment. The general weighted least norm (GWLN method handles these general constraints via the concept of virtual joints, but this is not always feasible when the number of constraints exceeds the degrees of freedom. This paper proposes a unified weighted least norm method (UWLN to unify the LN and the GWLN methods. The UWLN method merges the constraint tasks into a quadratic criterion that poses no limitations on the number of constraint tasks. It also generates a least 2 norm solution when all constraints are deactivated, thereby unifying the LN and GWLN methods. A comparative simulation on a 7-DoF planar manipulator demonstrates the validity of the algorithm.

  18. Mechanical systems a unified approach to vibrations and controls

    CERN Document Server

    Gans, Roger F

    2015-01-01

    This essential textbook covers analysis and control of engineering mechanisms, which include almost any apparatus with moving parts used in daily life, from musical instruments to robots. The text  presents both vibrations and controls with considerable breadth and depth using a unified notation. It strikes a nice balance between the analytical and the practical.  This text contains enough material for a two semester sequence, but it can also be used in a single semester course combining the two topics. Mechanical Systems: A Unified Approach to Vibrations and Controls presents a common notation and approach to these closely related areas. Examples from the both vibrations and controls components are integrated throughout this text. This book also: ·         Presents a unified approach to vibrations and controls, including an excellent diagram that simultaneously discusses embedding classical vibrations (mechanical systems) in a discussion of models, inverse models, and open and closed loop control ...

  19. Canonical duality theory unified methodology for multidisciplinary study

    CERN Document Server

    Latorre, Vittorio; Ruan, Ning

    2017-01-01

    This book on canonical duality theory provides a comprehensive review of its philosophical origin, physics foundation, and mathematical statements in both finite- and infinite-dimensional spaces. A ground-breaking methodological theory, canonical duality theory can be used for modeling complex systems within a unified framework and for solving a large class of challenging problems in multidisciplinary fields in engineering, mathematics, and the sciences. This volume places a particular emphasis on canonical duality theory’s role in bridging the gap between non-convex analysis/mechanics and global optimization.  With 18 total chapters written by experts in their fields, this volume provides a nonconventional theory for unified understanding of the fundamental difficulties in large deformation mechanics, bifurcation/chaos in nonlinear science, and the NP-hard problems in global optimization. Additionally, readers will find a unified methodology and powerful algorithms for solving challenging problems in comp...

  20. Unified Digital Periodic Signal Filters for Power Converter Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Yongheng; Xin, Zhen; Zhou, Keliang

    2017-01-01

    signal processing (e.g., in synchronization and pre-filtering) is also very important for power converter systems. Hence, this paper serves to unify digital periodic signal filters so as to maximize their roles in power converter systems (e.g., enhance the control of ac signals). The unified digital...... signal filters is introduced, which can enhance the filtering performance even under non-nominal conditions. Case studies on a digital synchronization system and also a single-phase photovoltaic system have demonstrated the effectiveness of the unified digital periodic signal filters.......Periodic signal controllers like repetitive and resonant controllers have demonstrated much potential in the control of power electronic converters, where periodic signals (e.g., ac voltages and currents) can be precisely regulated to follow references. Beyond the control of periodic signals, ac...

  1. A novel unified coding analytical method for Internet of Things

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Hong; Zhang, JianHong

    2013-08-01

    This paper presents a novel unified coding analytical method for Internet of Things, which abstracts out the `displacement goods' and `physical objects', and expounds the relationship thereof. It details the item coding principles, establishes a one-to-one relationship between three-dimensional spatial coordinates of points and global manufacturers, can infinitely expand, solves the problem of unified coding in production phase and circulation phase with a novel unified coding method, and further explains how to update the item information corresponding to the coding in stages of sale and use, so as to meet the requirement that the Internet of Things can carry out real-time monitoring and intelligentized management to each item.

  2. Private Schools, California, 2009, California Department of Education

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — California law (California Education Code Section 33190) requires private schools offering or conducting a full-time elementary or secondary level day school for...

  3. Towards a Unified Sentiment Lexicon Based on Graphics Processing Units

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana Ibeth Barbosa-Santillán

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an approach to create what we have called a Unified Sentiment Lexicon (USL. This approach aims at aligning, unifying, and expanding the set of sentiment lexicons which are available on the web in order to increase their robustness of coverage. One problem related to the task of the automatic unification of different scores of sentiment lexicons is that there are multiple lexical entries for which the classification of positive, negative, or neutral {P,N,Z} depends on the unit of measurement used in the annotation methodology of the source sentiment lexicon. Our USL approach computes the unified strength of polarity of each lexical entry based on the Pearson correlation coefficient which measures how correlated lexical entries are with a value between 1 and −1, where 1 indicates that the lexical entries are perfectly correlated, 0 indicates no correlation, and −1 means they are perfectly inversely correlated and so is the UnifiedMetrics procedure for CPU and GPU, respectively. Another problem is the high processing time required for computing all the lexical entries in the unification task. Thus, the USL approach computes a subset of lexical entries in each of the 1344 GPU cores and uses parallel processing in order to unify 155802 lexical entries. The results of the analysis conducted using the USL approach show that the USL has 95.430 lexical entries, out of which there are 35.201 considered to be positive, 22.029 negative, and 38.200 neutral. Finally, the runtime was 10 minutes for 95.430 lexical entries; this allows a reduction of the time computing for the UnifiedMetrics by 3 times.

  4. EDITORIAL: Perspectives Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewhurst, Richard

    2011-05-01

    In this issue, we are delighted to publish the second in a series of articles under the banner of Perspectives. The series commenced in late 2008, when Udo Kaatze [1] published an article about the powerful technique of dielectric spectrometry for liquid measurements. In addition to examining the very wide frequency range from 10-6 Hz to 10-13 Hz, an outline of possible future developments was presented. Some challenging tasks for the future were briefly outlined. The format of the article was different to the usual style of a contributed paper or review article. Instead, it represented a short summary of recent work in the field and offered a viewpoint of an expert in the area. Its commentary noted several milestones that had been recently achieved, and then looked to the future. The Perspective format allowed the author to provide some opinion about the challenges of the future not normally permitted in a Topical Review. The journal now intends to publish several more Perspectives. For example, in this issue David Birch [2] presents a Perspective about another important measurement science, namely fluorescence detections and their future directions. These are based on an old technique which provided the basis for detecting the presence of molecular species. Successful research led to an understanding and description of the phenomenon of molecular fluorescence in terms of excited state energies, transitions, symmetries and rate parameters. More recently, using fluorescence as a probe, and with the exploitation of new technologies, new applications have included the study of protein, vision, photosynthesis, membranes and DNA. Indeed nowhere has fluorescence had more impact than in the biosciences. Once again, the intention of the Perspective article has been to highlight recent milestones within the field. Importantly, it also indicates some of the future challenges. Such Perspectives are an occasional series. They are not intended to deflect from the balance of

  5. [Arabian food pyramid: unified framework for nutritional health messages].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shokr, Adel M

    2008-01-01

    There are several ways to present nutritional health messages, particularly pyramidic indices, but they have many deficiencies such as lack of agreement on a unified or clear methodology for food grouping and ignoring nutritional group inter-relation and integration. This causes confusion for health educators and target individuals. This paper presents an Arabian food pyramid that aims to unify the bases of nutritional health messages, bringing together the function, contents, source and nutritional group servings and indicating the inter-relation and integration of nutritional groups. This provides comprehensive, integrated, simple and flexible health messages.

  6. The Story of California = La Historia de California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartel, Nick

    "The Story of California" is a history and geography of the state of California, intended for classroom use by limited-English-proficient, native Spanish-speaking students in California's urban middle schools. The book is designed with the left page in English and the right page in Spanish to facilitate student transition into…

  7. Ecoregion sections of California deserts

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The dataset delineates ecological sections within California deserts. These deserts occupy the southeastern portion of California and include two ecoregional...

  8. ESSEA On-Line Earth System Science Course at California State University Northridge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simila, G.; Herr, N.; Berry, K.

    2003-12-01

    The ESSEA on-line Earth System Science course at California State University Northridge has been coordinated with the Los Angeles Unified School District since 2000. We have offered the three educational modules (K-4, 5-6, 9-12), one module per semester. The teachers have utilized these courses for both credential and service credits. The impacts on the teacher's classroom were: teachers were educated in Earth System Science (ESS) Analysis and problem-based learning, some teachers implemented the concepts and associated lesson plans, and the student's awareness of ESS improved. Our challenges have included the strategies for teacher recruitment, participation, and retention. The high school module has been incorporated into a course for the geology option in secondary teaching. The geology students have developed an ESS module for the 1994 Northridge earthquake. The course has related connections to our California Science Project and Eisenhower/ Improving Teacher Quality program for in-service teachers, and the new California science standards.

  9. Solar: California, not dreaming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, J.

    2006-03-15

    The California Solar Initiative (CSI) was approved by the California Public Utilities Commission (PUC) in January 2006. The CSI is the largest solar programme of this kind ever in the USA and provides for $3.2 billion in incentives for solar projects between 2007 and 2017. The PUC will oversee a $2.5 billion programme to provide funding for solar installations on commercial and existing residential buildings, while the California Energy Commission (CEC) will manage a separate $350 million fund targeted at new residential building. Existing solar programmes operated by the PUC and CEC will be consolidated into the CSI. The CEC programme will use already allocated funding, but the PUC programme will be funded through revenues collected from customers of the main gas and electric utilities in California. Funds will be distributed via rebates to householders or companies that install solar. As well as solar photovoltaics (PV), rebates will also go to solar thermal power (concentrating solar power) and solar heating and cooling. CSI funding can be used in combination with existing federal tax credits. The aim is a gradual increase from installation of 40 MW of PV in 2005 to 100 MW by 2009. The CSI is also expected to create favourable market conditions for PV manufacturers in California and to encourage investment in production of solar-grade silicon in or near California. Objections from the International Brotherhood of Electrical Workers (IBEW) appear to have been overcome but a number of other potential snags remain. CSI is expected to be replicated in other US states.

  10. Gas-Cooled Thorium Reactor with Fuel Block of the Unified Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Shamanin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Scientific researches of new technological platform realization carried out in Russia are based on ideas of nuclear fuel breeding in closed fuel cycle and physical principles of fast neutron reactors. Innovative projects of low-power reactor systems correspond to the new technological platform. High-temperature gas-cooled thorium reactors with good transportability properties, small installation time, and operation without overloading for a long time are considered perspective. Such small modular reactor systems at good commercial, competitive level are capable of creating the basis of the regional power industry of the Russian Federation. The analysis of information about application of thorium as fuel in reactor systems and its perspective use is presented in the work. The results of the first stage of neutron-physical researches of a 3D model of the high-temperature gas-cooled thorium reactor based on the fuel block of the unified design are given. The calculation 3D model for the program code of MCU-5 series was developed. According to the comparison results of neutron-physical characteristics, several optimum reactor core compositions were chosen. The results of calculations of the reactivity margins, neutron flux distribution, and power density in the reactor core for the chosen core compositions are presented in the work.

  11. Quintessential inflation: A unified scenario of inflation and dark energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossain, Wali

    2018-01-01

    Quintessential inflation unifies inflation and late time acceleration by a single scalar field. Such a scenario, with canonical and non-canonical scalar fields, has been discussed. The scalar field behaves as an inflaton field during inflation and as a quintessence field during late time. Also the predictions of the models has been compared with the recent Planck data.

  12. 78 FR 18235 - Unified Rule for Loss on Subsidiary Stock

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-26

    ... Internal Revenue Service 26 CFR Part 1 Unified Rule for Loss on Subsidiary Stock CFR Correction 0 In Title... following sentence: Sec. 1.1502-32 Investment adjustments. * * * * * (c) * * * (3) * * * For this purpose, the preferred stock is treated as entitled to a distribution no later than the time the distribution...

  13. The coherence problem with th Unified Neutral Theory of biodiversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    James S. Clark

    2012-01-01

    The Unified Neutral Theory of Biodiversity (UNTB), proposed as an alternative to niche theory, has been viewed as a theory that species coexist without niche differences, without fitness differences, or with equal probability of success. Support is claimed when models lacking species differences predict highly aggregated metrics, such as species abundance distributions...

  14. When Unified Teacher Pay Scales Meet Differential Alternative Returns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    This paper quantifies the extent to which unified teacher pay scales and differential alternatives produce opportunity costs that are asymmetric in math and verbal skills. Data from the Baccalaureate and Beyond 1997 and 2003 follow-ups are used to estimate a fully parametric, selection-corrected wage equation for nonteachers, which is then used to…

  15. A unifying theory for the functional architecture of endothermic thermoregulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flouris, Andreas D

    2014-01-01

    Developing a unifying theory for the functional architecture of endothermic thermoregulation has been proven to be a challenging endeavor. Three papers published in this issue of Temperature take a closer look at this problem and add interesting views to our knowledge about the way that endothermic thermoregulation works.

  16. Towards a unified theory of task-specific motivation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Brabander, Cees; Martens, Rob

    2014-01-01

    This study aims to integrate the current proliferation of motivation theories in a Unified Model of Task-specific Motivation (UMTM). According to this model readiness for action results from an interaction between four relatively independent types of valences that can be classified as affective or

  17. Towards a Unified Knowledge-Based Approach to Modality Choice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bachvarova, Y.S.; van Dijk, Elisabeth M.A.G.; Nijholt, Antinus; van der Sluis, I; Theune, Mariet; Reiter, E.; Krahmer, E.

    2007-01-01

    This paper advances a unified knowledge-based approach to the process of choosing the most appropriate modality or combination of modalities in multimodal output generation. We propose a Modality Ontology (MO) that models the knowledge needed to support the two most fundamental processes determining

  18. A Curvature Flow Unifying Symplectic Curvature Flow And Pluriclosed Flow

    OpenAIRE

    Dai, Song

    2013-01-01

    Streets and Tian introduced pluriclosed flow and symplectic curvature flow in recent years. Here we construct a curvature flow to unify these two flows. We show the short time existence of our flow and exhibit an obstruction to long time existence.

  19. A unified classification model based on robust optimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeda, Akiko; Mitsugi, Hiroyuki; Kanamori, Takafumi

    2013-03-01

    A wide variety of machine learning algorithms such as the support vector machine (SVM), minimax probability machine (MPM), and Fisher discriminant analysis (FDA) exist for binary classification. The purpose of this letter is to provide a unified classification model that includes these models through a robust optimization approach. This unified model has several benefits. One is that the extensions and improvements intended for SVMs become applicable to MPM and FDA, and vice versa. For example, we can obtain nonconvex variants of MPM and FDA by mimicking Perez-Cruz, Weston, Hermann, and Schölkopf's (2003) extension from convex ν-SVM to nonconvex Eν-SVM. Another benefit is to provide theoretical results concerning these learning methods at once by dealing with the unified model. We give a statistical interpretation of the unified classification model and prove that the model is a good approximation for the worst-case minimization of an expected loss with respect to the uncertain probability distribution. We also propose a nonconvex optimization algorithm that can be applied to nonconvex variants of existing learning methods and show promising numerical results.

  20. Unified Approach to Universal Cloning and Phase-Covariant Cloning

    OpenAIRE

    Hu, Jia-Zhong; Yu, Zong-Wen; Wang, Xiang-Bin

    2008-01-01

    We analyze the problem of approximate quantum cloning when the quantum state is between two latitudes on the Bloch's sphere. We present an analytical formula for the optimized 1-to-2 cloning. The formula unifies the universal quantum cloning (UQCM) and the phase covariant quantum cloning.

  1. A unifying theory The universe on a string

    CERN Multimedia

    Greene, Brian

    2006-01-01

    Seventy-five years ago, Albert Einstein completed his unified field theory; but, as had happened before and would happen again, Einstein had to go bak to the drawing board. Much progress have been inspired, with the most recent advances coming from an approach called string theory. (1,5 page)

  2. A unified treatment for Lp Brunn-Minkowski type inequalities

    OpenAIRE

    Zou, Du; Xiong, Ge

    2016-01-01

    A unified approach used to generalize classical Brunn-Minkowski type inequalities to Lp Brunn-Minkowski type inequalities, called the Lp transference principle, is refined in this paper. As illustrations of the effectiveness and practicability of this method, several new Lp Brunn-Minkowski type inequalities concerning the mixed volume, moment of inertia, quermassintegral, projection body and capacity are established.

  3. Unifying Approach to Software and Hardware Design for Scientific Calculations

    OpenAIRE

    Litvinov, G. L.; Maslov, V. P.; Rodionov, A. Ya.

    1999-01-01

    A unifying approach to software and hardware design generated by ideas of Idempotent Mathematics is discussed. The so-called idempotent correspondence principle for algorithms, programs and hardware units is described. A software project based on this approach is presented. Key words: universal algorithms, idempotent calculus, software design, hardware design, object oriented programming

  4. Catastrophe Theory: A Unified Model for Educational Change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cryer, Patricia; Elton, Lewis

    1990-01-01

    Catastrophe Theory and Herzberg's theory of motivation at work was used to create a model of change that unifies and extends Lewin's two separate stage and force field models. This new model is used to analyze the behavior of academics as they adapt to the changing university environment. (Author/MLW)

  5. In Search of a Unified Model of Language Contact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winford, Donald

    2013-01-01

    Much previous research has pointed to the need for a unified framework for language contact phenomena -- one that would include social factors and motivations, structural factors and linguistic constraints, and psycholinguistic factors involved in processes of language processing and production. While Contact Linguistics has devoted a great deal…

  6. A unified treatment of single component replacement models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.B.G. Frenk (Hans); R. Dekker (Rommert); M.J. Kleijn (Marcel)

    1997-01-01

    textabstractIn this paper we discuss a general framework for single component replacement models. This framework is based on the regenerative structure of these models and by using results from renewal theory a unified presentation of the discounted and average finite and infinite horizon cost

  7. A unified race algorithm for offline parameter tuning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Dijk, Tim; Mes, Martijn; Schutten, Marco; Gromicho Dos Santos, Joaquim Antonio

    2015-01-01

    This paper proposes uRace, a unified race algorithm for efficient offline parameter tuning of deterministic algorithms. We build on the similarity between a stochastic simulation environment and offline tuning of deterministic algorithms, where the stochastic element in the latter is the unknown

  8. Unified Field Theory and Principle of Representation Invariance

    CERN Document Server

    Ma, Tian

    2012-01-01

    This is part of a research program to establish a unified field model for interactions in nature. The aim of this article is to postulate a new principle of representation invariance (PRI), to provide a needed mathematical foundation for PRI, and to use PRI to refine the unified field equations of four interactions. Intuitively, PRI amounts to saying that all SU(N) gauge theories should be invariant under transformations of different representations of SU(N). With PRI, we are able to substantially reduce the number of to-be-determined parameters in the unified model to two SU(2) and SU(3) constant vectors $\\{\\alpha^1_\\mu \\}$ and $\\{\\alpha^2_k\\}$, containing 11 parameters, which represent the portions distributed to the gauge potentials by the weak and strong charges. Furthermore, both PRI and PID can be directly applied to individual interactions, leading to a unified theory for dark matter and dark energy, and theories on strong and weak interaction potentials. As a direct application of the strong interacti...

  9. Performance Aspects of Orbit Propagation using the Unified State Model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vittaldev, V.; Mooij, E.; Naeije, M.C.

    2010-01-01

    The Unified State Model is a method for expressing orbits using a set of seven elements. The elements consist of a quaternion and three parameters based on the velocity hodograph. The equations of this model and the background theory necessary to understand them have been shown here. Numerical

  10. Unified State Model theory and application in astrodynamics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vittaldev, V.; Mooij, E.; Naeije, M.C.

    2012-01-01

    The Unified State Model is a method for expressing orbits using a set of seven elements. The elements consist of a quaternion and three parameters based on the velocity hodograph. A complete derivation of the original model is given in addition to two proposed modifications. Both modifications

  11. A PDZ domain recapitulates a unifying mechanism for protein folding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gianni, S.; Geierhaas, C.D.; Calosci, N.; Jemth, P.; Vuister, G.W.; Travaglini-Allocatelli, C.; Vendruscolo, M.; Brunori, M.

    2007-01-01

    A unifying view has been recently proposed according to which the classical diffusion-collision and nucleation-condensation models may represent two extreme manifestations of an underlying common mechanism for the folding of small globular proteins. We report here the characterization of the folding

  12. Integration Defended: Berkeley Unified's Strategy to Maintain School Diversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chavez, Lisa; Frankenberg, Erica

    2009-01-01

    In June 2007, the Supreme Court limited the tools that school districts could use to voluntarily integrate schools. In the aftermath of the decision, educators around the country have sought models of successful plans that would also be legal. One such model may be Berkeley Unified School District's (BUSD) plan. Earlier this year, the California…

  13. Quintessential inflation: A unified scenario of inflation and dark energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossain Wali

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Quintessential inflation unifies inflation and late time acceleration by a single scalar field. Such a scenario, with canonical and non-canonical scalar fields, has been discussed. The scalar field behaves as an inflaton field during inflation and as a quintessence field during late time. Also the predictions of the models has been compared with the recent Planck data.

  14. Effects of Unified Power Flow Controller (UPFC) on Distance Relay ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    However, the system performance is often impeded by certain operational or structural factors such as load angle, the voltage magnitude ratio at the line ends, pre-fault line loading and short circuit levels at the line ends. The Unified Power Flow controllers (UPFC) incorporated into the Nigerian 330kV (North-Central) ...

  15. California's Perfect Storm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacon, David

    2010-01-01

    The United States today faces an economic crisis worse than any since the Great Depression of the 1930s. Nowhere is it sharper than in the nation's schools. Last year, California saw a perfect storm of protest in virtually every part of its education system. K-12 teachers built coalitions with parents and students to fight for their jobs and their…

  16. Women of California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Harry

    This publication points out the achievements of women who contributed to the development and history of California from the 16th century, when the Spanish Conquistadores moved westward into the San Francisco Bay area, to the gold rush of 1848, and during the following period when women helped stabilize society on the rugged frontier. Women not…

  17. Peyotism in California

    OpenAIRE

    Stewart, Omer C

    1986-01-01

    The future of Peyotism in California is very uncertain even for the Indian peyotists east of Sierra Nevada. Cause for worry for the future of the Native American Church is the possibility that the supply of peyote may disappear from the "peyote gardens" in Texas.

  18. Higher Education in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Public Policy Institute of California, 2016

    2016-01-01

    Higher education enhances Californians' lives and contributes to the state's economic growth. But population and education trends suggest that California is facing a large shortfall of college graduates. Addressing this short­fall will require strong gains for groups that have been historically under­represented in higher education. Substantial…

  19. California's Future: Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Hans

    2015-01-01

    California's higher education system is not keeping up with the changing economy. Projections suggest that the state's economy will continue to need more highly educated workers. In 2025, if current trends persist, 41 percent of jobs will require at least a bachelor's degree and 36 percent will require some college education short of a bachelor's…

  20. NREL + Southern California Gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berdahl, Sonja E [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-10-09

    NREL and Southern California Gas Company are evaluating a new 'power-to-gas' approach - one that produces methane through a biological pathway and uses the expansive natural gas infrastructure to store it. This approach has the potential to change how the power industry approaches renewable generation and energy storage.

  1. FELLOWS ADDRESS California Dreaming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kooten, van Kees

    2017-01-01

    California was the first jurisdiction to mandate a reduction in greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions by 80% below 1990 levels by 2050. This target was subsequently endorsed by the G8 in 2009 and the European Commission in 2014, and is the guiding principle of the 2015 Paris Agreement. To achieve these

  2. Toxicology ontology perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardy, Barry; Apic, Gordana; Carthew, Philip; Clark, Dominic; Cook, David; Dix, Ian; Escher, Sylvia; Hastings, Janna; Heard, David J; Jeliazkova, Nina; Judson, Philip; Matis-Mitchell, Sherri; Mitic, Dragana; Myatt, Glenn; Shah, Imran; Spjuth, Ola; Tcheremenskaia, Olga; Toldo, Luca; Watson, David; White, Andrew; Yang, Chihae

    2012-01-01

    The field of predictive toxicology requires the development of open, public, computable, standardized toxicology vocabularies and ontologies to support the applications required by in silico, in vitro, and in vivo toxicology methods and related analysis and reporting activities. In this article we review ontology developments based on a set of perspectives showing how ontologies are being used in predictive toxicology initiatives and applications. Perspectives on resources and initiatives reviewed include OpenTox, eTOX, Pistoia Alliance, ToxWiz, Virtual Liver, EU-ADR, BEL, ToxML, and Bioclipse. We also review existing ontology developments in neighboring fields that can contribute to establishing an ontological framework for predictive toxicology. A significant set of resources is already available to provide a foundation for an ontological framework for 21st century mechanistic-based toxicology research. Ontologies such as ToxWiz provide a basis for application to toxicology investigations, whereas other ontologies under development in the biological, chemical, and biomedical communities could be incorporated in an extended future framework. OpenTox has provided a semantic web framework for the implementation of such ontologies into software applications and linked data resources. Bioclipse developers have shown the benefit of interoperability obtained through ontology by being able to link their workbench application with remote OpenTox web services. Although these developments are promising, an increased international coordination of efforts is greatly needed to develop a more unified, standardized, and open toxicology ontology framework.

  3. 14 CFR 1221.108 - Establishment of the NASA Unified Visual Communications System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Communications System § 1221.108 Establishment of the NASA Unified Visual Communications System. (a) The NASA Administrator directed the establishment of a NASA Unified Visual Communications System. The system was... responsible for the development and implementation of the NASA Unified Visual Communications System. With the...

  4. Unified functional network and nonlinear time series analysis for complex systems science: The pyunicorn package

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donges, Jonathan; Heitzig, Jobst; Beronov, Boyan; Wiedermann, Marc; Runge, Jakob; Feng, Qing Yi; Tupikina, Liubov; Stolbova, Veronika; Donner, Reik; Marwan, Norbert; Dijkstra, Henk; Kurths, Jürgen

    2016-04-01

    We introduce the pyunicorn (Pythonic unified complex network and recurrence analysis toolbox) open source software package for applying and combining modern methods of data analysis and modeling from complex network theory and nonlinear time series analysis. pyunicorn is a fully object-oriented and easily parallelizable package written in the language Python. It allows for the construction of functional networks such as climate networks in climatology or functional brain networks in neuroscience representing the structure of statistical interrelationships in large data sets of time series and, subsequently, investigating this structure using advanced methods of complex network theory such as measures and models for spatial networks, networks of interacting networks, node-weighted statistics, or network surrogates. Additionally, pyunicorn provides insights into the nonlinear dynamics of complex systems as recorded in uni- and multivariate time series from a non-traditional perspective by means of recurrence quantification analysis, recurrence networks, visibility graphs, and construction of surrogate time series. The range of possible applications of the library is outlined, drawing on several examples mainly from the field of climatology. pyunicorn is available online at https://github.com/pik-copan/pyunicorn. Reference: J.F. Donges, J. Heitzig, B. Beronov, M. Wiedermann, J. Runge, Q.-Y. Feng, L. Tupikina, V. Stolbova, R.V. Donner, N. Marwan, H.A. Dijkstra, and J. Kurths, Unified functional network and nonlinear time series analysis for complex systems science: The pyunicorn package, Chaos 25, 113101 (2015), DOI: 10.1063/1.4934554, Preprint: arxiv.org:1507.01571 [physics.data-an].

  5. 75 FR 8056 - California State Nonroad Engine Pollution Control Standards; California New Nonroad Compression...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-23

    ... AGENCY California State Nonroad Engine Pollution Control Standards; California New Nonroad Compression... conditions justifying California's need for its own nonroad vehicle and engine emissions control program... 3030, 3033 (January 16, 2009); ``California State Nonroad Engine and Vehicle Pollution Control...

  6. Biomonitoring in California Firefighters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Israel, Leslie; McNeel, Sandra; Voss, Robert; Wang, Miaomiao; Gajek, Ryszard; Park, June-Soo; Harwani, Suhash; Barley, Frank; She, Jianwen; Das, Rupali

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To assess California firefighters' blood concentrations of selected chemicals and compare with a representative US population. Methods: We report laboratory methods and analytic results for cadmium, lead, mercury, and manganese in whole blood and 12 serum perfluorinated chemicals in a sample of 101 Southern California firefighters. Results: Firefighters' blood metal concentrations were all similar to or lower than the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) values, except for six participants whose mercury concentrations (range: 9.79 to 13.42 μg/L) were close to or higher than the NHANES reporting threshold of 10 μg/L. Perfluorodecanoic acid concentrations were elevated compared with NHANES and other firefighter studies. Conclusions: Perfluorodecanoic acid concentrations were three times higher in this firefighter group than in NHANES adult males. Firefighters may have unidentified sources of occupational exposure to perfluorinated chemicals. PMID:25563545

  7. BOOK REVIEW: UNIFIED ARCHITECTURAL THEORY: FORM, LANGUAGE, COMPLEXITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farzad Pour Rahimian

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Unified Architectural Theory: Form, Language, Complexity is a compendium of scientific knowledge and practical insight into architectural theory and how it is taught to students. In this guide, Nikos Salingaros, Professor of Mathematics at the University of Texas, offers a succinct summary of his extensive course focusing on how to intelligently approach architectural design by aid of scientific evidence. Unified Architectural Theory seeks to establish a clear articulation of the perdurable framework behind “all of architecture” through centuries that is based on hard scientific facts rather than personal sentiments. The book contains 44 sections and is organised in two parts that respectively give an overview of the course lectures and assignments. The concise format of the sections as well as the apprehensible writing tailored to meet students’ needs make it a great companion for anyone who wants to learn.

  8. Modeling Enterprise Authorization: A Unified Metamodel and Initial Validation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matus Korman

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Authorization and its enforcement, access control, have stood at the beginning of the art and science of information security, and remain being crucial pillar of security in the information technology (IT and enterprises operations. Dozens of different models of access control have been proposed. Although Enterprise Architecture as the discipline strives to support the management of IT, support for modeling access policies in enterprises is often lacking, both in terms of supporting the variety of individual models of access control nowadays used, and in terms of providing a unified ontology capable of flexibly expressing access policies for all or the most of the models. This study summarizes a number of existing models of access control, proposes a unified metamodel mapped to ArchiMate, and illustrates its use on a selection of example scenarios and two business cases.

  9. Robust Synchronisation of Uncertain Fractional-Order Chaotic Unified Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noghredani Naeimadeen

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Fractional-order chaotic unified systems include a variety of fractional-order chaotic systems such as Chen, Lorenz, Lu, Liu, and financial systems. This paper describes a sliding mode controller for synchronisation of fractional-order chaotic unified systems in the presence of uncertainties and external disturbances, and affirms the stability of the controller (which is composed of error dynamics. Moreover, the synchronisation of two separate fractional-order chaotic systems is studied. For this aim, fractional integral sliding surface is defined. Then the sliding mode control rule for stability of error dynamic is presented based on the Lyapunov stability theorem. Simulation results, obtained by using MATLAB, show that the proposed sliding mode has employed an appropriate approach against uncertainties and to reduce the chattering phenomenon that often occurs with sliding mode controllers.

  10. Planetary and Solar Data Labeled with IVOA Unified Content Descriptors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louys, Mireille; Cecconi, Baptiste; Derriere, Sébastien; Erard, S.; André, N.; Preite-Martinez, A.; Ochsenbein, F.; Jacquey, C.; Génot, V.; Henry, F.; Bonnin, X.; Le Sidaner, P.; Chauvin, C.; Fuller, N.; Braga, V. F.; Aboudarham, J.

    2015-09-01

    Astronomical data collections are widely using tabular formats to expose their data to the community and especially in the Virtual Observatory. In order to label the content of physical quantities stored in table columns, The Unified Content Descriptors (UCDs) [Preite Martinez et al. (2011)] labels have been standardized and attached as semantic tags to a wide range of measurements and metadata. This unifies the content description across multiple data collections and archive centers. The Planetary and Solar science communities proposed, together with the IVOA Semantics Working group, to extend this bank of semantic labels for the distribution of their own collections and to adopt compatible standards such as VOTable, TAP, etc. This work shows the new UCD set proposed and how it is made available in the Virtual Observatory framework. A reference vocabulary is set up, UCD assigning tools and tests are presented.

  11. Role-based access in a unified electronic patient record.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skilton, Alysia; Alex Gray, W; Allam, Omnia; Morrey, Dave

    2010-09-01

    As modern healthcare shifts towards a patient-centric model, there is an increasing emphasis on teamwork. Legacy healthcare information systems are ill equipped to meet new requirements arising from this change. Many projects have been undertaken to address various aspects of the challenge of supporting patient-centric work. In the UK, development and adoption of a unified electronic patient record (EPR) that serves practitioners across the country is a high priority. This article considers what additional support healthcare teams will require beyond the cross-discipline unified EPR. A system that considers practitioners as part of a patient's care team and which tracks teams and professional roles is proposed and evaluated as a means to provide each practitioner with a view of the EPR appropriate to his/her professional role and to provide improved support for collaboration among team members.

  12. Should sparticle masses unify at the GUT scale?

    CERN Document Server

    Pomarol, Alex

    1995-01-01

    Gauge and Yukawa (for the third family) coupling unification seem to be the best predictions of the grand-unified theories (GUTs). In supersymmetric GUTs, one also expects that the sparticle masses unify at the GUT scale (for sparticles embedded in the same GUT multiplet). I show under what circumstances GUTs do not lead to sparticle mass unification. In particular, I give examples of SU(5) and SO(10) SUSY GUTs in which squarks and sleptons of a family have different tree-level masses at the unification scale. The models have interesting relations between Yukawa couplings. For example, I present an SO(10) GUT that allows for a large ratio of the top to bottom Yukawas, accounting for the large m_t /m_b. The splittings can also be induced in the Higgs soft masses and accommodate the electroweak breaking.

  13. A simplification of the unified gas kinetic scheme

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Songze; Xu, Kun

    2016-01-01

    Unified gas kinetic scheme (UGKS) is an asymptotic preserving scheme for the kinetic equations. It is superior for transition flow simulations, and has been validated in the past years. However, compared to the well known discrete ordinate method (DOM) which is a classical numerical method solving the kinetic equations, the UGKS needs more computational resources. In this study, we propose a simplification of the unified gas kinetic scheme. It allows almost identical numerical cost as the DOM, but predicts numerical results as accurate as the UGKS. Based on the observation that the equilibrium part of the UGKS fluxes can be evaluated analytically, the equilibrium part in the UGKS flux is not necessary to be discretized in velocity space. In the simplified scheme, the numerical flux for the velocity distribution function and the numerical flux for the macroscopic conservative quantities are evaluated separately. The simplification is equivalent to a flux hybridization of the gas kinetic scheme for the Navier-S...

  14. Research and Design in Unified Coding Architecture for Smart Grids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gang Han

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Standardized and sharing information platform is the foundation of the Smart Grids. In order to improve the dispatching center information integration of the power grids and achieve efficient data exchange, sharing and interoperability, a unified coding architecture is proposed. The architecture includes coding management layer, coding generation layer, information models layer and application system layer. Hierarchical design makes the whole coding architecture to adapt to different application environments, different interfaces, loosely coupled requirements, which can realize the integration model management function of the power grids. The life cycle and evaluation method of survival of unified coding architecture is proposed. It can ensure the stability and availability of the coding architecture. Finally, the development direction of coding technology of the Smart Grids in future is prospected.

  15. Constructal Law and the Unifying Principle of Design

    CERN Document Server

    Lorente, Sylvie; Bejan, Adrian

    2013-01-01

    Design happens everywhere, whether in animate objects (e.g., dendritic lung structures, bacterial colonies, and corals), inanimate patterns (river basins, beach slope, and dendritic crystals), social dynamics (pedestrian traffic flows), or engineered systems (heat dissipation in electronic circuitry). This “design in nature” often takes on remarkably similar patterns, which can be explained under one unifying Constructal Law. This book explores the unifying power of the Constructal Law and its applications in all domains of design generation and evolution, ranging from biology and geophysics to globalization, energy, sustainability, and security.  The Constructal Law accounts for the universal tendency of flow systems to morph into evolving configurations that provide greater and easier access over time. The Constructal Law resolves the many and contradictory ad hoc statements of “optimality”, end design, and destiny in nature, such as minimum and maximum entropy production and minimum and maximum fl...

  16. Unified dark fluid in Brans-Dicke theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tripathy, Sunil K. [Indira Gandhi Institute of Technology, Department of Physics, Dhenkanal, Odisha (India); Behera, Dipanjali [Government College of Engineering, Department of Physics, Kalahandi, Odisha (India); Mishra, Bivudutta [Birla Institute of Technology and Science-Pilani, Department of Mathematics, Hyderabad (India)

    2015-04-01

    Anisotropic dark energy cosmological models are constructed in the frame work of generalised Brans-Dicke theory with a self-interacting potential. A unified dark fluid characterised by a linear equation of state is considered as the source of dark energy. The shear scalar is considered to be proportional to the expansion scalar simulating an anisotropic relationship among the directional expansion rates. The dynamics of the universe in the presence of a unified dark fluid in anisotropic background have been discussed. The presence of an evolving scalar field makes it possible to get an accelerating phase of expansion even for a linear relationship among the directional Hubble rates. It is found that the anisotropy in expansion rates does not affect the scalar field, the self-interacting potential, but it controls the non-evolving part of the Brans-Dicke parameter. (orig.)

  17. SUGARLOAF ROADLESS AREA, CALIFORNIA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Robert E.; Campbell, Harry W.

    1984-01-01

    On the basis of geologic, geochemical, and geophysical investigations and a survey of mines, quarries, and prospects the Sugarloaf Roadless Area, California, has little promise for the occurrence of metallic mineral or energy resources. Units of carbonate rock and graphitic schist have demonstrated resources of magnesian marble and graphite. Sand, gravel, and construction stone other than carbonate rock are present in the roadless area, but similar or better quality materials are abundant and more accessible outside the area.

  18. D-Brane superstrings and new perspective of our world

    CERN Document Server

    Hashimoto, Koji

    2012-01-01

    Superstring theory is a promising theory which can potentially unify all the forces and the matters in particle physics. A new multi-dimensional object which is called "D-brane" was found. It drastically changed our perspective of a unified world. We may live on membrane-like hypersurfaces in higher dimensions ("braneworld scenario"), or we can create blackholes at particle accelarators, or the dynamics of quarks is shown to be equivalent to the higher dimensional gravity theory. All these scenarios are explained in this book with plain words but with little use of equations and with many figures. The book starts with a summary of long-standing problems in elementary particle physics and explains the D-branes and many applications of them. It ends with future roads for a unified ultimate theory of our world.  

  19. Inter-laboratory trial of a unified bioaccessibility testing procedure

    OpenAIRE

    Wragg, J.; Cave, M.; Taylor, H.; Basta, N.; Brandon, E.; Casteel, S.; Gron, C.; Oomen, A.; Van de Wiele, T.

    2009-01-01

    This report describes the factual results of a unified bioaccessibility protocol undertaken as a part of the Environmental Geochemistry and Health project of the Environment and Health Programme of the British Geological Survey. In 2005 the Bioaccessibility Research Group of Europe (BARGE) undertook a joint decision to progress research in the field of in vitro bioaccessibility method development for the harmonisation of the use of bioaccessibility in human health risk assessment of contamina...

  20. Chassidic Teachings and Modern Psychology: Toward a More Unified Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Akiva

    2016-06-01

    This article describes how many modern psychological constructs and theories exist in older as well as newer Chassidic and Jewish teachings, particularly those of Chabad Lubavitch. This exploration points toward a potential benefit for a unification of psychology and Chassidic teachings. Psychological theories and constructs explored are Freudian psychoanalysis, cognitive dissonance, cognitive restructuring/reframing, self-efficacy/planned behavior, and logotherapy/existentialism. The article then concludes with a discussion of possible implications of moving toward a unified approach for clinical practitioners.

  1. Improving Software Performance in the Compute Unified Device Architecture

    OpenAIRE

    Alexandru PIRJAN

    2010-01-01

    This paper analyzes several aspects regarding the improvement of software performance for applications written in the Compute Unified Device Architecture CUDA). We address an issue of great importance when programming a CUDA application: the Graphics Processing Unit’s (GPU’s) memory management through ranspose ernels. We also benchmark and evaluate the performance for progressively optimizing a transposing matrix application in CUDA. One particular interest was to research how well the op...

  2. An Investigation of Unified Memory Access Performance in CUDA

    OpenAIRE

    Landaverde, Raphael; Zhang, Tiansheng; Coskun, Ayse K.; Herbordt, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Managing memory between the CPU and GPU is a major challenge in GPU computing. A programming model, Unified Memory Access (UMA), has been recently introduced by Nvidia to simplify the complexities of memory management while claiming good overall performance. In this paper, we investigate this programming model and evaluate its performance and programming model simplifications based on our experimental results. We find that beyond on-demand data transfers to the CPU, the GPU is also able to re...

  3. Formalizing relations between use cases in the unified modeling language

    OpenAIRE

    Giandini, Roxana Silvia; Pons, Claudia; Baum, Gabriel Alfredo

    2000-01-01

    The Unified Modeling Language (UML) is a semi-formal graphical language that has been accepted as standard to model object-oriented software systems. This language defines various kinds of diagrams that are used to describe different aspects or views of a system. In particular, Use Cases diagrams are used to capture the requirements of the systems and to guide their development process. The different Use Cases defined throughout a development process are not independent but it is possible to ...

  4. Skinner-Rusk unified formalism for higher-order systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prieto-Martínez, Pedro Daniel; Román-Roy, Narciso

    2012-07-01

    The Lagrangian-Hamiltonian unified formalism of R. Skinner and R. Rusk was originally stated for autonomous dynamical systems in classical mechanics. It has been generalized for non-autonomous first-order mechanical systems, first-order and higher-order field theories, and higher-order autonomous systems. In this work we present a generalization of this formalism for higher-order non-autonomous mechanical systems.

  5. DiPS: A Unifying Approach for developing System Software

    OpenAIRE

    Michiels, Sam; Matthijs, Frank; Walravens, Dirk; Verbaeten, Pierre

    2002-01-01

    In this paper we unify three essential features for flexible system software: a component oriented approach, self-adaptation and separation of concerns.We propose DiPS (Distrinet Protocol Stack), a component framework, which offers components, an anonymous interaction model and connectors to handle non-functional aspects such as concurrency. DiPS has effectively been used in industrial protocol stacks and device drivers.

  6. Process Integration: Unifying Concepts, Industrial Applications and Software Implementation

    OpenAIRE

    Mann, James Gainey

    1999-01-01

    This dissertation is a complete unifying approach to the fundamentals, industrial applications and software implementation of an important branch of process-engineering principles and practice, called process integration. The latter refers to the system-oriented, thermodynamically-based and integrated approaches to the analysis, synthesis and retrofit of process plants, focusing on integrating the use of materials and energy, and minimizing the generation of emissions and wastes. This work ex...

  7. The unified Riemann-Liouville fractional derivative formulae

    OpenAIRE

    R. C. Soni; Deepika Singh

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, we obtain two unified fractional derivative formulae. The first involves the product of two general class of polynomials and the multivariable $H$-function. The second fractional derivative formula also involves the product of two general class of polynomials and the multivariable $H$-function and has been obtained by the application of the first fractional derivative formula twice and it has two independent variables instead of one. The polynomials and the functions involved i...

  8. Unified Stochastic Geometry Model for MIMO Cellular Networks with Retransmissions

    KAUST Repository

    Afify, Laila H.

    2016-10-11

    This paper presents a unified mathematical paradigm, based on stochastic geometry, for downlink cellular networks with multiple-input-multiple-output (MIMO) base stations (BSs). The developed paradigm accounts for signal retransmission upon decoding errors, in which the temporal correlation among the signal-to-interference-plus-noise-ratio (SINR) of the original and retransmitted signals is captured. In addition to modeling the effect of retransmission on the network performance, the developed mathematical model presents twofold analysis unification for MIMO cellular networks literature. First, it integrates the tangible decoding error probability and the abstracted (i.e., modulation scheme and receiver type agnostic) outage probability analysis, which are largely disjoint in the literature. Second, it unifies the analysis for different MIMO configurations. The unified MIMO analysis is achieved by abstracting unnecessary information conveyed within the interfering signals by Gaussian signaling approximation along with an equivalent SISO representation for the per-data stream SINR in MIMO cellular networks. We show that the proposed unification simplifies the analysis without sacrificing the model accuracy. To this end, we discuss the diversity-multiplexing tradeoff imposed by different MIMO schemes and shed light on the diversity loss due to the temporal correlation among the SINRs of the original and retransmitted signals. Finally, several design insights are highlighted.

  9. Improvement of unified mask data formats for EB writers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Toshio; Hirumi, Junji; Yoshioka, Nobuyuki; Hojyo, Yutaka; Kawase, Yuichi; Hara, Shigehiro; Kuriyama, Koki; Hoga, Morihisa; Watanabe, Satoshi W.; Kawase, Hidemichi; Kamimoto, Tomoko; Kato, Kokoro

    2004-08-01

    Mask data preparation (MDP) is a complicated process because many kinds of EB data files and jobdeck data files are used in mask manufacturers and EB data files continue to become bigger. Therefore we have developed unified mask data formats for Variable-Shaped-Beam (VSB) EB writers with efficient data compaction. The unified mask data formats are composed of a pattern data format for EB writers named "NEO" and a layout format named "MALY". We released NEO and MALY on April 2003. To evaluate NEO and MALY, we have made a prototype system of MDP such as a converter from design data to NEO/MALY and converters from NEO/MALY to each EB data. We have evaluated about functions and performance of the MDP flow using real design data in device manufacturers. As a result, some improvements in NEO and MALY were achieved and we have revised the specification of NEO and MALY as the final version. We have confirmed that NEO and MALY can be used for a set of unified mask data formats among VSB EB writers and can reduce complexity of mask data handling in mask manufacturers. They will be put to practical use in MDP flow.

  10. Creation and Maintenance of a Unified Astronomy Thesaurus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Norman; Erdmann, C.; Accomazzi, A.; Soles, J.; McCann, G.; Cassar, M.; Biemesderfer, C.

    2013-01-01

    We describe a collaborative effort to update and unify the various vocabularies currently in use in Astronomy into a single thesaurus that can be further developed and updated through broad community participation. The Unified Astronomy Thesaurus (UAT) will be an open, interoperable and community-supported thesaurus which unifies the existing divergent and isolated Astronomy & Astrophysics thesauri into a single high-quality, freely-available open thesaurus formalizing astronomical concepts and their inter-relationships. The UAT builds upon the existing IAU Thesaurus with major contributions from the Astronomy portions of the thesauri developed by the Institute of Physics Publishing and the American Institute of Physics. While the AAS has assumed formal ownership of the UAT, the work will be available under a Creative Commons License, ensuring its widest use while protecting the intellectual property of the contributors. We envision that development and maintenance will be stewarded by a broad group of parties having a direct stake in it. This includes professional associations (IVOA, IAU), learned societies (AAS, RAS), publishers (IOP, AIP), librarians and other curators working for major astronomy institutes and data archives. While the impetus behind the creation of a single thesaurus has been the wish to support semantic enrichment of the literature, we expect that use of the UAT (along with other vocabularies and ontologies currently being developed) will be much broader and will have a greater impact on discovery of both literatue and data products.

  11. The Sustainability Cycle and Loop: models for a more unified understanding of sustainability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hay, Laura; Duffy, Alex; Whitfield, R I

    2014-01-15

    In spite of the considerable research on sustainability, reports suggest that we are barely any closer to a more sustainable society. As such, there is an urgent need to improve the effectiveness of human efforts towards sustainability. A clearer and more unified understanding of sustainability among different people and sectors could help to facilitate this. This paper presents the results of an inductive literature investigation, aiming to develop models to explain the nature of sustainability in the Earth system, and how humans can effectively strive for it. The major contributions are two general and complementary models, that may be applied in any context to provide a common basis for understanding sustainability: the Sustainability Cycle (S-Cycle), and the Sustainability Loop (S-Loop). Literature spanning multiple sectors is examined from the perspective of three concepts, emerging as significant in relation to our aim. Systems are shown to provide the context for human action towards sustainability, and the nature of the Earth system and its sub-systems is explored. Activities are outlined as a fundamental target that humans need to sustain, since they produce the entities both needed and desired by society. The basic behaviour of activities operating in the Earth system is outlined. Finally, knowledge is positioned as the driver of human action towards sustainability, and the key components of knowledge involved are examined. The S-Cycle and S-Loop models are developed via a process of induction from the reviewed literature. The S-Cycle describes the operation of activities in a system from the perspective of sustainability. The sustainability of activities in a system depends upon the availability of resources, and the availability of resources depends upon the rate that activities consume and produce them. Humans may intervene in these dynamics via an iterative process of interpretation and action, described in the S-Loop model. The models are briefly

  12. Ecoregions of California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffith, Glenn E.; Omernik, James M.; Smith, David W.; Cook, Terry D.; Tallyn, Ed; Moseley, Kendra; Johnson, Colleen B.

    2016-02-23

    Ecoregions denote areas of general similarity in ecosystems and in the type, quality, and quantity of environmental resources. They are designed to serve as a spatial framework for the research, assessment, management, and monitoring of ecosystems and ecosystem components. By recognizing the spatial differences in the capacities and potentials of ecosystems, ecoregions stratify the environment by its probable response to disturbance (Bryce and others, 1999). These general purpose regions are critical for structuring and implementing ecosystem management strategies across Federal agencies, State agencies, and nongovernment organizations that are responsible for different types of resources in the same geographical areas (Omernik and others, 2000).The approach used to compile this map is based on the premise that ecological regions are hierarchical and can be identified through the analysis of the spatial patterns and the composition of biotic and abiotic phenomena that affect or reflect differences in ecosystem quality and integrity (Wiken, 1986; Omernik, 1987, 1995). These phenomena include geology, physiography, vegetation, climate, soils, land use, wildlife, and hydrology. The relative importance of each characteristic varies from one ecological region to another regardless of the hierarchical level. A Roman numeral hierarchical scheme has been adopted for different levels of ecological regions. Level I is the coarsest level, dividing North America into 15 ecological regions. Level II divides the continent into 50 regions (Commission for Environmental Cooperation Working Group, 1997, map revised 2006). At level III, the continental United States contains 105 ecoregions and the conterminous United States has 85 ecoregions (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 2013). Level IV, depicted here for California, is a further refinement of level III ecoregions. Explanations of the methods used to define these ecoregions are given in Omernik (1995), Omernik and others

  13. California community water systems inventory dataset, 2010

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Environmental Health Tracking Program — This data set contains information about all Community Water Systems in California. Data are derived from California Office of Drinking Water (ODW) Water Quality...

  14. International Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Kenn; Habermann, Ulla; Chowdhury, Omar Faruque; Guerra, Iraida Manzanilla

    1998-01-01

    Includes "Introduction to International Perspectives" (Allen); "Volunteerism in the Welfare State: The Case of Denmark" (Habermann); "Grassroots Organizing in Bangladesh" (Chowdhury); and "Volunteerism in Latin America" (Guerra). (SK)

  15. Radioactive deposits in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, George W.; Lovering, Tom G.

    1954-01-01

    Reconnaissance examination by Government geologists of many areas, mine properties, and prospects in California during the period between 1948 and 1953 has confirmed the presence of radioactive materials in place at more than 40 localities. Abnormal radioactivity at these localities is due to concentrations of primary and secondary uranium minerals, to radon gas, radium (?), and to thorium minerals. Of the known occurrences only three were thought to contain uranium oxide (uranitite or pitchblende), 4 contained uranium-bearing columbate, tantalate, or titanate minerals, 12 contained secondary uranium minerals, such as autunite, carnotite, and torbernite, one contained radon gas, 7 contained thorium minerals, and, at the remaining 16 localities, the source of the anomalous radiation was not positively determined. The occurrences in which uranium oxide has been tentatively identified include the Rathgeb mine (Calaveras County), the Yerih group of claims (San Bernardino County), and the Rainbow claim (Madera County). Occurrences of secondary uranium minerals are largely confined to the arid desert regions of south-eastern California including deposits in San Bernardino, Kern, Inyo, and Imperial Counties. Uranium-bearing columbate, tantalate, or titanate minerals have been reported from pegmatite and granitic rock in southeastern and eastern California. Thorium minerals have been found in vein deposits in eastern San Bernardino County and from pegmatites and granitic rocks in various parts of southeastern California; placer concentrations of thorium minerals are known from nearly all areas in the State that are underlain, in part, by plutonic crystalline rocks. The primary uranium minerals occur principally as minute accessory crystals in pegmatite or granitic rock, or with base-metal sulfide minerals in veins. Thorium minerals also occur as accessory crystals in pegmatite or granitic rock, in placer deposits derived from such rock, and, at Mountain Pass, in veins

  16. California Tiger Salamander Range - CWHR [ds588

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — Vector datasets of CWHR range maps are one component of California Wildlife Habitat Relationships (CWHR), a comprehensive information system and predictive model for...

  17. Herpetofauna Surveys, Northern California - 2010 [ds694

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — We recorded all incidental herpetofauna encountered during visual encounter and dipnet surveys in northern California. Surveys took place from April 2, 2010 to...

  18. California Fish Passage Assessment Database [ds69

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — The Passage Assessment Database shapefile contains locations of known and potential barriers to salmonid migration in California streams with additional information...

  19. Concentration-driven models revisited: towards a unified framework to model settling tanks in water resource recovery facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torfs, Elena; Martí, M Carmen; Locatelli, Florent; Balemans, Sophie; Bürger, Raimund; Diehl, Stefan; Laurent, Julien; Vanrolleghem, Peter A; François, Pierre; Nopens, Ingmar

    2017-02-01

    A new perspective on the modelling of settling behaviour in water resource recovery facilities is introduced. The ultimate goal is to describe in a unified way the processes taking place both in primary settling tanks (PSTs) and secondary settling tanks (SSTs) for a more detailed operation and control. First, experimental evidence is provided, pointing out distributed particle properties (such as size, shape, density, porosity, and flocculation state) as an important common source of distributed settling behaviour in different settling unit processes and throughout different settling regimes (discrete, hindered and compression settling). Subsequently, a unified model framework that considers several particle classes is proposed in order to describe distributions in settling behaviour as well as the effect of variations in particle properties on the settling process. The result is a set of partial differential equations (PDEs) that are valid from dilute concentrations, where they correspond to discrete settling, to concentrated suspensions, where they correspond to compression settling. Consequently, these PDEs model both PSTs and SSTs.

  20. Conservation issues: California chaparral

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halsey, Richard W.; Keeley, Jon E.

    2016-01-01

    California chaparral, a sclerophyllous shrub-dominated plant community shaped by a Mediterranean-type climate and infrequent, high-intensity fire, is one of the most biodiverse and threatened habitats on Earth. Distinct forms of chaparral, distinguished by differing species composition, geography, and edaphic characteristics, can cover thousands of hectares with dense vegetation or be restricted to smaller communities identified by the presence of endemic species. To maintain the biodiversity of chaparral, protective land management actions will be required to mitigate the loss due to the impacts of human population growth, development, climate change, and increased fire frequencies.

  1. California's Vulnerability to Volcanic Hazards: What's at Risk?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangan, M.; Wood, N. J.; Dinitz, L.

    2015-12-01

    California is a leader in comprehensive planning for devastating earthquakes, landslides, floods, and tsunamis. Far less attention, however, has focused on the potentially devastating impact of volcanic eruptions, despite the fact that they occur in the State about as frequently as the largest earthquakes on the San Andreas Fault Zone. At least 10 eruptions have occurred in the past 1,000 years—most recently in northern California (Lassen Peak 1914 to 1917)—and future volcanic eruptions are inevitable. The likelihood of renewed volcanism in California is about one in a few hundred to one in a few thousand annually. Eight young volcanoes, ranked as Moderate to Very High Threat [1] are dispersed throughout the State. Partially molten rock (magma) resides beneath at least seven of these—Medicine Lake Volcano, Mount Shasta, Lassen Volcanic Center, Clear Lake Volcanic Field, Long Valley Volcanic Region, Coso Volcanic Field, and Salton Buttes— causing earthquakes, toxic gas emissions, hydrothermal activity, and (or) ground deformation. Understanding the hazards and identifying what is at risk are the first steps in building community resilience to volcanic disasters. This study, prepared in collaboration with the State of California Governor's Office of Emergency Management and the California Geological Survey, provides a broad perspective on the State's exposure to volcano hazards by integrating mapped volcano hazard zones with geospatial data on at-risk populations, infrastructure, and resources. The study reveals that ~ 16 million acres fall within California's volcano hazard zones, along with ~ 190 thousand permanent and 22 million transitory populations. Additionally, far-field disruption to key water delivery systems, agriculture, utilities, and air traffic is likely. Further site- and sector-specific analyses will lead to improved hazard mitigation efforts and more effective disaster response and recovery. [1] "Volcanic Threat and Monitoring Capabilities

  2. Unified Science Information Model for SoilSCAPE using the Mercury Metadata Search System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devarakonda, Ranjeet; Lu, Kefa; Palanisamy, Giri; Cook, Robert; Santhana Vannan, Suresh; Moghaddam, Mahta Clewley, Dan; Silva, Agnelo; Akbar, Ruzbeh

    2013-12-01

    SoilSCAPE (Soil moisture Sensing Controller And oPtimal Estimator) introduces a new concept for a smart wireless sensor web technology for optimal measurements of surface-to-depth profiles of soil moisture using in-situ sensors. The objective is to enable a guided and adaptive sampling strategy for the in-situ sensor network to meet the measurement validation objectives of spaceborne soil moisture sensors such as the Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) mission. This work is being carried out at the University of Michigan, the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, University of Southern California, and Oak Ridge National Laboratory. At Oak Ridge National Laboratory we are using Mercury metadata search system [1] for building a Unified Information System for the SoilSCAPE project. This unified portal primarily comprises three key pieces: Distributed Search/Discovery; Data Collections and Integration; and Data Dissemination. Mercury, a Federally funded software for metadata harvesting, indexing, and searching would be used for this module. Soil moisture data sources identified as part of this activity such as SoilSCAPE and FLUXNET (in-situ sensors), AirMOSS (airborne retrieval), SMAP (spaceborne retrieval), and are being indexed and maintained by Mercury. Mercury would be the central repository of data sources for cal/val for soil moisture studies and would provide a mechanism to identify additional data sources. Relevant metadata from existing inventories such as ORNL DAAC, USGS Clearinghouse, ARM, NASA ECHO, GCMD etc. would be brought in to this soil-moisture data search/discovery module. The SoilSCAPE [2] metadata records will also be published in broader metadata repositories such as GCMD, data.gov. Mercury can be configured to provide a single portal to soil moisture information contained in disparate data management systems located anywhere on the Internet. Mercury is able to extract, metadata systematically from HTML pages or XML files using a variety of

  3. California's Future: K-12 Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Laura; Gao, Niu; Warren, Paul

    2015-01-01

    California educates more than six million children in its K-12 public schools. More than half of these children are economically disadvantaged, and almost a quarter are not native English speakers (compared to less than one in ten nationwide). California is working to address these challenges, in part by adopting a new, simplified school finance…

  4. Female Superintendent Longevity in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohlfing, Tracy

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate, through narrative inquiry (Clandinin & Connelly, 2000), the leadership evolution of five female superintendents in California with longevity of 5 or more years in their current school district positions. The research question addressed was, "How do California female superintendents evolve to…

  5. Energy efficiency as a unifying principle for human, environmental, and global health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontana, Luigi; Atella, Vincenzo; Kammen, Daniel M

    2013-01-01

    A strong analogy exists between over/under consumption of energy at the level of the human body and of the industrial metabolism of humanity. Both forms of energy consumption have profound implications for human, environmental, and global health. Globally, excessive fossil-fuel consumption, and individually, excessive food energy consumption are both responsible for a series of interrelated detrimental effects, including global warming, extreme weather conditions, damage to ecosystems, loss of biodiversity, widespread pollution, obesity, cancer, chronic respiratory disease, and other lethal chronic diseases. In contrast, data show that the efficient use of energy—in the form of food as well as fossil fuels and other resources—is vital for promoting human, environmental, and planetary health and sustainable economic development. While it is not new to highlight how efficient use of energy and food can address some of the key problems our world is facing, little research and no unifying framework exists to harmonize these concepts of sustainable system management across diverse scientific fields into a single theoretical body. Insights beyond reductionist views of efficiency are needed to encourage integrated changes in the use of the world’s natural resources, with the aim of achieving a wiser use of energy, better farming systems, and healthier dietary habits. This perspective highlights a range of scientific-based opportunities for cost-effective pro-growth and pro-health policies while using less energy and natural resources. PMID:24555053

  6. Energy efficiency as a unifying principle for human, environmental, and global health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontana, Luigi; Atella, Vincenzo; Kammen, Daniel M

    2013-01-01

    A strong analogy exists between over/under consumption of energy at the level of the human body and of the industrial metabolism of humanity. Both forms of energy consumption have profound implications for human, environmental, and global health. Globally, excessive fossil-fuel consumption, and individually, excessive food energy consumption are both responsible for a series of interrelated detrimental effects, including global warming, extreme weather conditions, damage to ecosystems, loss of biodiversity, widespread pollution, obesity, cancer, chronic respiratory disease, and other lethal chronic diseases. In contrast, data show that the efficient use of energy-in the form of food as well as fossil fuels and other resources-is vital for promoting human, environmental, and planetary health and sustainable economic development. While it is not new to highlight how efficient use of energy and food can address some of the key problems our world is facing, little research and no unifying framework exists to harmonize these concepts of sustainable system management across diverse scientific fields into a single theoretical body. Insights beyond reductionist views of efficiency are needed to encourage integrated changes in the use of the world's natural resources, with the aim of achieving a wiser use of energy, better farming systems, and healthier dietary habits. This perspective highlights a range of scientific-based opportunities for cost-effective pro-growth and pro-health policies while using less energy and natural resources.

  7. A unified method of detecting core-periphery structure and community structure in networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Bing-Bing; Bao, Zhong-Kui; Ma, Chuang; Zhang, Xingyi; Chen, Han-Shuang; Zhang, Hai-Feng

    2018-01-01

    The core-periphery structure and the community structure are two typical meso-scale structures in complex networks. Although community detection has been extensively investigated from different perspectives, the definition and the detection of the core-periphery structure have not received much attention. Furthermore, the detection problems of the core-periphery and community structure were separately investigated. In this paper, we develop a unified framework to simultaneously detect the core-periphery structure and community structure in complex networks. Moreover, there are several extra advantages of our algorithm: our method can detect not only single but also multiple pairs of core-periphery structures; the overlapping nodes belonging to different communities can be identified; different scales of core-periphery structures can be detected by adjusting the size of the core. The good performance of the method has been validated on synthetic and real complex networks. So, we provide a basic framework to detect the two typical meso-scale structures: the core-periphery structure and the community structure.

  8. A unifying neuro-fasciagenic model of somatic dysfunction - Underlying mechanisms and treatment - Part II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tozzi, Paolo

    2015-07-01

    This paper offers an extensive review of the main fascia-mediated mechanisms underlying various therapeutic processes of clinical relevance for manual therapy. The concept of somatic dysfunction is revisited in light of the several fascial influences that may come into play during and after manual treatment. A change in perspective is thus proposed: from a nociceptive model that for decades has viewed somatic dysfunction as a neurologically-mediated phenomenon, to a unifying neuro-fascial model that integrates neural influences into a multifactorial and multidimensional interpretation of manual therapeutic effects as being partially, if not entirely, mediated by the fascia. By taking into consideration a wide spectrum of fascia-related factors - from cell-based mechanisms to cognitive and behavioural influences - a model emerges suggesting, amongst other results, a multidisciplinary-approach to the intervention of somatic dysfunction. Finally, it is proposed that a sixth osteopathic 'meta-model' - the connective tissue-fascial model - be added to the existing five models in osteopathic philosophy as the main interface between all body systems, thus providing a structural and functional framework for the body's homoeostatic potential and its inherent abilities to heal. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Simple unified view of branching process statistics: Random walks in balanced logarithmic potentials

    Science.gov (United States)

    di Santo, Serena; Villegas, Pablo; Burioni, Raffaella; Muñoz, Miguel A.

    2017-03-01

    We revisit the problem of deriving the mean-field values of avalanche exponents in systems with absorbing states. These are well known to coincide with those of unbiased branching processes. Here we show that for at least four different universality classes (directed percolation, dynamical percolation, the voter model or compact directed percolation class, and the Manna class of stochastic sandpiles) this common result can be obtained by mapping the corresponding Langevin equations describing each of them into a random walker confined to the origin by a logarithmic potential. We report on the emergence of nonuniversal continuously varying exponent values stemming from the presence of small external driving - that might induce avalanche merging - that, to the best of our knowledge, has not been noticed in the past. Many of the other results derived here appear in the literature as independently derived for individual universality classes or for the branching process itself. Still, we believe that a simple and unified perspective as the one presented here can help (1) clarify the overall picture, (2) underline the superuniversality of the behavior as well as the dependence on external driving, and (3) avoid the common existing confusion between unbiased branching processes (equivalent to a random walker in a balanced logarithmic potential) and standard (unconfined) random walkers.

  10. Unified Approach towards the Dynamics of Optical and Electron Vortex Beams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandyopadhyay, Pratul; Basu, Banasri; Chowdhury, Debashree

    2016-04-08

    We have proposed a unified framework towards the dynamics of optical and electron vortex beams from the perspective of the geometric phase and the associated Hall effects. The unification is attributed to the notion that the spin degrees of freedom of a relativistic particle, either massive or massless, are associated with a vortex line. Based on a cylindrical coordinate formulation, which leads to a local vortex structure related to orbital angular momentum (OAM), it can be shown that, when electron vortex beams (EVBs) move in an external electric field, paraxial beams give rise to an OAM Hall effect, and nonparaxial beams with tilted vortices initiate a spin Hall effect in free space as well as in an external field. A similar analysis reveals that the paraxial optical vortex beams (OVBs) in an inhomogeneous medium induce an OAM Hall effect, whereas nonparaxial beams with tilted vortices drive the spin Hall effect. Moreover, both OVBs and EVBs with tilted vortices give rise to OAM states with an arbitrary fractional value.

  11. Access the Unified Health System actions and services from the perspective of judicialization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel de Souza Ramos

    Full Text Available Objective: the judicialization of health is incorporated into the daily work of health institutions in Brazil through the court orders for access. In this study, the objective was to describe the contents of the social representations of access, through judicialization, for the health professionals. Method: qualitative study based on Social Representations Theory, involving 40 professionals, at a teaching hospital and at the center for the regulation of beds and procedures in Rio de Janeiro. Forty semistructured interviews were held, to which the thematic-categorical content analysis technique was applied. Results: the health professionals' attitude towards the reality the judicialization imposes is negative, but they acknowledge this resource as necessary in view of the public health crisis. Judicialization is considered a strategy to exercise citizenship that superimposes individual on collective law, increases social inequalities in access and compromises the efficacy of health policies. Conclusion: considering social representation as a determinant of practices, the representations that emerged can contribute to the change of the professionals' practices. Improvements in user care should be promoted, characterized as one of the main challenges to advance in universal access to health.

  12. On the water lapping of felines and the water running of lizards: A unifying physical perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Aristoff, Jeffrey M; Stocker, Roman; Reis, Pedro M; Jung, Sunghwan

    2011-01-01

    We consider two biological phenomena taking place at the air-water interface: the water lapping of felines and the water running of lizards. Although seemingly disparate motions, we show that they are intimately linked by their underlying hydrodynamics and belong to a broader class of processes called Froude mechanisms. We describe how both felines and lizards exploit inertia to defeat gravity, and discuss water lapping and water running in the broader context of water exit and water entry, r...

  13. Towards a Unified Perspective on Human Service Delivery Systems: Application of the Teaching-Family Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernfeld, Gary A.; Blase, Karen A.; Fixsen, Dean L.

    2006-01-01

    The field of behavioral science has been marked by the development of a plethora of empirically derived client-specific technologies for treating a wide range of human problems. In contrast, there has been a relative paucity of conceptual models regarding the application of these techniques to the more complex arena of human services. Thus,…

  14. A unifying perspective of coherent and non-coherent change detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ash, Joshua N.

    2014-06-01

    In this paper we present a new generalized family of change detection algorithms for SAR imagery that includes traditional non-coherent and coherent processing as special cases. The parameterized family of algorithms, referred to as partially coherent change detection (PCCD), allows the user to select the level of coherence desired in the change detection algorithm. This and other settings of the algorithm enable one to specify the types of changes that are significant, thereby reducing the number of false alarms due to insignificant changes—such as foliage motion. Algorithm settings may also be applied spatially in order to support spatially varying levels of coherence based on scene content. Examples from synthetic and measured imagery demonstrate the efficacy of the new family of algorithms.

  15. MBAT: A scalable informatics system for unifying digital atlasing workflows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sane Nikhil

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Digital atlases provide a common semantic and spatial coordinate system that can be leveraged to compare, contrast, and correlate data from disparate sources. As the quality and amount of biological data continues to advance and grow, searching, referencing, and comparing this data with a researcher's own data is essential. However, the integration process is cumbersome and time-consuming due to misaligned data, implicitly defined associations, and incompatible data sources. This work addressing these challenges by providing a unified and adaptable environment to accelerate the workflow to gather, align, and analyze the data. Results The MouseBIRN Atlasing Toolkit (MBAT project was developed as a cross-platform, free open-source application that unifies and accelerates the digital atlas workflow. A tiered, plug-in architecture was designed for the neuroinformatics and genomics goals of the project to provide a modular and extensible design. MBAT provides the ability to use a single query to search and retrieve data from multiple data sources, align image data using the user's preferred registration method, composite data from multiple sources in a common space, and link relevant informatics information to the current view of the data or atlas. The workspaces leverage tool plug-ins to extend and allow future extensions of the basic workspace functionality. A wide variety of tool plug-ins were developed that integrate pre-existing as well as newly created technology into each workspace. Novel atlasing features were also developed, such as supporting multiple label sets, dynamic selection and grouping of labels, and synchronized, context-driven display of ontological data. Conclusions MBAT empowers researchers to discover correlations among disparate data by providing a unified environment for bringing together distributed reference resources, a user's image data, and biological atlases into the same spatial or semantic context

  16. Unifying Prepositions and Prefixes in Russian: Conceptual structure versus syntax

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inna Tolskaya

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper is an attempt to unify the polysemous verbal prefixes and prepositions in Russian. At first glance, the variety of possible denotations of a given prefix might appear a chaotic set of idiomatic meanings, e.g., the prefix za- may refer to beginning of an action, movement to a position behind an object, a brief deviation from a path, completion of an action, while the corresponding preposition za can mean ‘behind,’ ‘after,’ ‘for,’ ‘in’ (like in ‘in an hour’, ‘at’ (like in ‘at the table’. I will propose a unified analysis, where the differences in meaning are claimed to arise from different syntactic positions, while the lexical entry of a prefix remains the same. The main focus is on the verbs of motion due to the consistent duality displayed by the prefix meanings when added to directional and non-directional motion verbs. It will turn out that many prefixes appear to modify path when added onto a directional motion verb and to refer to movement in time with non-directional motion verbs. This semantic distinction corresponds to distinct sets of syntactic properties, specific for each set of prefixes. These two classes of prefixes correspond to the lexical versus superlexical distinction. However, a tripartite division will emerge in each set, corresponding to source, path, and goal of motion (FROM, VIA and TO for lexical prefixes and to initiation, process and result for superlexical prefixes. This leads to the suggestion that the syntactic representation of a VP contains at least six distinct nodes for the Russian verbal prefixes, each characterized by predictable semantic and syntactic properties. The same prefix with a consistent meaning, shared with the corresponding preposition, will receive part of its denotation from the syntactic head it attaches to, thus allowing the polysemy to arise from position, rather than from arbitrary homophony. Thus, conceptual structure will be unified with syntax.

  17. Unified universe history through phantom extended Chaplygin gas

    CERN Document Server

    Pourhassan, B

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the universe evolution from inflation to late-time acceleration in a unified way, using a two-component fluid constituted from extended Chaplygin gas alongside a phantom scalar field. We extract solutions for the various cosmological eras, focusing on the behavior of the scale factor, the various density parameters and the equation-of-state parameter. Furthermore, we extract and discuss bouncing solutions. Finally, we examine the perturbations of the model, ensuring about their stability and extracting the predictions for the tensor-to-scalar ratio.

  18. Unified radiation formulae for classical and quantum electrodynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erber, Thomas [Department of Physics, Illinois Institute of Technology, Chicago, IL (United States); Latal, Heimo G [Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Universitaet Graz (Austria)

    2003-01-01

    There are deep conceptual differences between the classical and quantum mechanical treatment of electromagnetic radiation processes. Nevertheless, it is possible to give a formally unified description of the spectral and angular distribution of radiation in both cases in terms of four-dimensional Fourier transforms of currents. We present parallel derivations of the basic radiation formulae utilizing classical electrodynamics as well as spinor quantum electrodynamics. In addition both derivations allow for the presence of a medium with an index of refraction. The practical application of these methods is illustrated by calculations of some specific radiation problems.

  19. Unified Monitoring Architecture for IT and Grid Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aimar, A.; Aguado Corman, A.; Andrade, P.; Belov, S.; Delgado Fernandez, J.; Garrido Bear, B.; Georgiou, M.; Karavakis, E.; Magnoni, L.; Rama Ballesteros, R.; Riahi, H.; Rodriguez Martinez, J.; Saiz, P.; Zolnai, D.

    2017-10-01

    This paper provides a detailed overview of the Unified Monitoring Architecture (UMA) that aims at merging the monitoring of the CERN IT data centres and the WLCG monitoring using common and widely-adopted open source technologies such as Flume, Elasticsearch, Hadoop, Spark, Kibana, Grafana and Zeppelin. It provides insights and details on the lessons learned, explaining the work performed in order to monitor the CERN IT data centres and the WLCG computing activities such as the job processing, data access and transfers, and the status of sites and services.

  20. Towards a Unified Framework for Declarative Structured Communications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo A. López

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available We present a unified framework for the declarative analysis of structured communications. By relying on a (timed concurrent constraint programming language, we show that in addition to the usual operational techniques from process calculi, the analysis of structured communications can elegantly exploit logic-based reasoning techniques. We introduce a declarative interpretation of the language for structured communications proposed by Honda, Vasconcelos, and Kubo. Distinguishing features of our approach are: the possibility of including partial information (constraints in the session model; the use of explicit time for reasoning about session duration and expiration; a tight correspondence with logic, which formally relates session execution and linear-time temporal logic formulas.

  1. Unified communications forensics anatomy of common UC attacks

    CERN Document Server

    Grant, Nicholas Mr

    2013-01-01

    Unified Communications Forensics: Anatomy of Common UC Attacks is the first book to explain the issues and vulnerabilities and demonstrate the attacks, forensic artifacts, and countermeasures required to establish a secure (UC) environment. This book is written by leading UC experts Nicholas Grant and Joseph W. Shaw II and provides material never before found on the market, including: analysis of forensic artifacts in common UC attacks an in-depth look at established UC technologies and attack exploits hands-on understanding of UC attack vectors and associated countermeasures

  2. A unifying experimental design for dissecting tree genomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Lidan; Zhu, Xuli; Zhang, Qixiang; Wu, Rongling

    2015-08-01

    Linkage mapping and association mapping are adopted as an approach of choice for dissecting complex traits, but each shows a limitation when used alone. We propose an open-pollinated (OP) family design to integrate these two approaches into an organizing framework. The design unifies the strengths of population and quantitative genetic studies for evolutionary inference and high-resolution gene mapping. It particularly suits genome dissection of forest trees given their extant populations that are mostly undomesticated. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Unified model of nuclear mass and level density formulas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakamura, Hisashi

    2001-03-01

    The objective of present work is to obtain a unified description of nuclear shell, pairing and deformation effects for both ground state masses and level densities, and to find a new set of parameter systematics for both the mass and the level density formulas on the basis of a model for new single-particle state densities. In this model, an analytical expression is adopted for the anisotropic harmonic oscillator spectra, but the shell-pairing correlation are introduced in a new way. (author)

  4. Development of the unified version of COBRA/RELAP5

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, J. J.; Ha, K. S.; Chung, B. D.; Lee, W. J.; Sim, S. K. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-12-31

    The COBRA/RELAP5 code, an integrated version of the COBRA-TF and RELAP5/MOD3 codes, has been developed for the realistic simulations of complicated, multi-dimensional, two-phase, thermal-hydraulic system transients in light water reactors. Recently, KAERI developed an unified version of the COBRA/RELAP5 code, which can run in serial mode on both workstations and personal computers. This paper provides the brief overview of the code integration scheme, the recent code modifications, the developmental assessments, and the future development plan. 13 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs. (Author)

  5. Skinner Rusk unified formalism for optimal control systems and applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbero-Liñán, María; Echeverría-Enríquez, Arturo; Martín de Diego, David; Muñoz-Lecanda, Miguel C.; Román-Roy, Narciso

    2007-10-01

    A geometric approach to time-dependent optimal control problems is proposed. This formulation is based on the Skinner and Rusk formalism for Lagrangian and Hamiltonian systems. The corresponding unified formalism developed for optimal control systems allows us to formulate geometrically the necessary conditions given by a weak form of Pontryagin's maximum principle, provided that the differentiability with respect to controls is assumed and the space of controls is open. Furthermore, our method is also valid for implicit optimal control systems and, in particular, for the so-called descriptor systems (optimal control problems including both differential and algebraic equations).

  6. Unified gas-kinetic simulation of slider air bearing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruijie Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The unified gas-kinetic scheme (UGKS is presented and used in this letter to study the slider air bearing problem. The UGKS solutions are first validated by comparison with direct simulation Monte Carlo results. After validation, the UGKS is used to study the air-bearing problem under different non-equilibrium conditions. On the surface of the slider, the dependency of the gas pressure and normal force on the Mach and Knudsen numbers are fully evaluated. The non-equilibrium effect on the force loading in the whole transition regime up to the free molecular limit is also studied.

  7. Modified unified kinetic scheme for all flow regimes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Sha; Zhong, Chengwen

    2012-06-01

    A modified unified kinetic scheme for the prediction of fluid flow behaviors in all flow regimes is described. The time evolution of macrovariables at the cell interface is calculated with the idea that both free transport and collision mechanisms should be considered. The time evolution of macrovariables is obtained through the conservation constraints. The time evolution of local Maxwellian distribution is obtained directly through the one-to-one mapping from the evolution of macrovariables. These improvements provide more physical realities in flow behaviors and more accurate numerical results in all flow regimes especially in the complex transition flow regime. In addition, the improvement steps introduce no extra computational complexity.

  8. A new pressure-parametrization unified dark fluid model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Deng [Nankai University, Theoretical Physics Division, Chern Institute of Mathematics, Tianjin (China); Yan, Yang-Jie; Meng, Xin-He [Nankai University, Department of Physics, Tianjin (China)

    2017-04-15

    We propose a new pressure-parametrization model to explain the accelerated expansion of the late-time Universe by considering the baryon matter and dark contents (dark matter and dark energy) as a unified dark fluid. To realize this model more physically, we reconstruct it with the quintessence and phantom scalar fields, respectively. We use the recent cosmological data to constrain this model, distinguish it from the standard cosmological model and find that the value of the Hubble constant H{sub 0} = 68.34{sup +0.53}{sub -0.92} supports the global measurement by the Planck satellite at the 1σ confidence level. (orig.)

  9. A method for unified optimization of systems and controllers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abildgaard, Ole

    1990-01-01

    A unified method for solving control system optimization problems is suggested. All system matrices are allowed to be functions of the design variables. The method makes use of an implementation of a sequential quadratic programming algorithm (NLPQL) for solution of general constrained nonlinear...... programming problems. It is shown how to compute the gradients of the objective function and the constraint functions imposing eigenvalue constraints. In an example it is demonstrated how the method can solve a high-dimensional problem, where the initial condition covariance assumption is used to ensure...

  10. IMPETUS - Interactive MultiPhysics Environment for Unified Simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Vi Q; Lykotrafitis, George

    2016-12-08

    We introduce IMPETUS - Interactive MultiPhysics Environment for Unified Simulations, an object oriented, easy-to-use, high performance, C++ program for three-dimensional simulations of complex physical systems that can benefit a large variety of research areas, especially in cell mechanics. The program implements cross-communication between locally interacting particles and continuum models residing in the same physical space while a network facilitates long-range particle interactions. Message Passing Interface is used for inter-processor communication for all simulations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Copulation by California condors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilbur, S.R.; Borneman, J.C.

    1972-01-01

    Koford (Res. Rept. No. 3, Natl. Audubon Soc., 1953) observed sexual display among California Condors (Gymnogyps californianus) on more than 30 occasions, yet only once did he see what he thought was copulation. Some of the displays he watched were quite intricate, with considerable posturing and "male" aggression, but no such activity preceded this copulation. The birds sat several feet apart for over 1 hour, then one climbed onto the other's back, staying there 1/2 minute and flapping gently at the apparent moment of coition. Afterward they sat quietly 1/2 hour before flying away. This led Koford to state (p. 79) that "possibly in Gymnogyps copulation is not immediately preceded by display." We have records of 8 California Condor copulations, 5 of which are similar to that described above. The three other occasions began similarly, with the birds sitting quietly, but then the "male" displayed briefly before the "female" with wings half spread and head drooping forward. This elicited no apparent response, but the male immediately walked behind and mounted the female. The apparent moment of coition was accompanied by gentle wing flapping in all instances.

  12. Unified Electronic Currency Based on the Fourth Party Platform Integrated Payment Service

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yong, Xu; Qiqi, Hu

    This paper presents a solution of unified e-currency based on the fourth party platform integrated payment service. The purpose of the paper is to solve the problem of distribution and resource-wasting caused by the lack of unified electronic currency, and to solve regulatory difficulties due to regulation size caused by a wide variety of e-currency. Methods: This article first analyzes the problems in the development of electronic money, and then proposes the concept of a unified electronic currency based on the fourth party platform integrated payment service. Besides, it proposes a unified mechanism and transaction procedures for unified e-currency, and analyzes the liquidation process, security and regulatory requirements, which are involved in using unified electronic currency.

  13. The Challenges in Communication A Perspective from the North-East

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Table of contents. The Challenges in Communication A Perspective from the North-East · Issues · Basic Services · Security Concerns · Reliance Cell Operator · Reliance (contd) · Reliance (contd) · CellOne Current Status · Unified Services · VSAT Services · PowerPoint Presentation · VSATs (contd) · Land Lines · Slide 14.

  14. Researching strategy practices: a genealogical social theory perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Rasche, Andreas; Chia, Robert C. H.

    2009-01-01

    This paper explores the meaning and significance of the term `social practice' and its relation to strategy-as-practice research from the perspective of social theory. Although our remarks are also applicable to other practice-based discussions in management, we discuss strategy practices as a case in point and thus contribute to the strategy-as-practice literature in three ways. First, instead of simply accepting the existence of a unified `practice theory', we outline a genealogical analysi...

  15. GUDM: Automatic Generation of Unified Datasets for Learning and Reasoning in Healthcare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahman Ali

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available A wide array of biomedical data are generated and made available to healthcare experts. However, due to the diverse nature of data, it is difficult to predict outcomes from it. It is therefore necessary to combine these diverse data sources into a single unified dataset. This paper proposes a global unified data model (GUDM to provide a global unified data structure for all data sources and generate a unified dataset by a “data modeler” tool. The proposed tool implements user-centric priority based approach which can easily resolve the problems of unified data modeling and overlapping attributes across multiple datasets. The tool is illustrated using sample diabetes mellitus data. The diverse data sources to generate the unified dataset for diabetes mellitus include clinical trial information, a social media interaction dataset and physical activity data collected using different sensors. To realize the significance of the unified dataset, we adopted a well-known rough set theory based rules creation process to create rules from the unified dataset. The evaluation of the tool on six different sets of locally created diverse datasets shows that the tool, on average, reduces 94.1% time efforts of the experts and knowledge engineer while creating unified datasets.

  16. A Generic Bilevel Formalism for Unifying and Extending Model Reduction Methods

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Flippen, L

    2000-01-01

    An abstract, algebraic bilevel version of conventional multigrid methods has been developed that formally unifies and extends the reduced basis, substructuring, smoothing/homogenization, and frequency...

  17. The Goddard multi-scale modeling system with unified physics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W.-K. Tao

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Recently, a multi-scale modeling system with unified physics was developed at NASA Goddard. It consists of (1 a cloud-resolving model (CRM, (2 a regional-scale model, the NASA unified Weather Research and Forecasting Model (WRF, and (3 a coupled CRM-GCM (general circulation model, known as the Goddard Multi-scale Modeling Framework or MMF. The same cloud-microphysical processes, long- and short-wave radiative transfer and land-surface processes are applied in all of the models to study explicit cloud-radiation and cloud-surface interactive processes in this multi-scale modeling system. This modeling system has been coupled with a multi-satellite simulator for comparison and validation with NASA high-resolution satellite data.

    This paper reviews the development and presents some applications of the multi-scale modeling system, including results from using the multi-scale modeling system to study the interactions between clouds, precipitation, and aerosols. In addition, use of the multi-satellite simulator to identify the strengths and weaknesses of the model-simulated precipitation processes will be discussed as well as future model developments and applications.

  18. The Goddard multi-scale modeling system with unified physics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W.-K. Tao

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Recently, a multi-scale modeling system with unified physics was developed at NASA Goddard. It consists of (1 a cloud-resolving model (CRM, (2 a regional-scale model, the NASA unified Weather Research and Forecasting Model (WRF, and (3 a coupled CRM-GCM (general circulation model, known as the Goddard Multi-scale Modeling Framework or MMF. The same cloud-microphysical processes, long- and short-wave radiative transfer and land-surface processes are applied in all of the models to study explicit cloud-radiation and cloud-surface interactive processes in this multi-scale modeling system. This modeling system has been coupled with a multi-satellite simulator for comparison and validation with NASA high-resolution satellite data. This paper reviews the development and presents some applications of the multi-scale modeling system, including results from using the multi-scale modeling system to study the interactions between clouds, precipitation, and aerosols. In addition, use of the multi-satellite simulator to identify the strengths and weaknesses of the model-simulated precipitation processes will be discussed as well as future model developments and applications.

  19. Microphysics in Multi-scale Modeling System with Unified Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Wei-Kuo

    2012-01-01

    Recently, a multi-scale modeling system with unified physics was developed at NASA Goddard. It consists of (1) a cloud-resolving model (Goddard Cumulus Ensemble model, GCE model), (2) a regional scale model (a NASA unified weather research and forecast, WRF), (3) a coupled CRM and global model (Goddard Multi-scale Modeling Framework, MMF), and (4) a land modeling system. The same microphysical processes, long and short wave radiative transfer and land processes and the explicit cloud-radiation, and cloud-land surface interactive processes are applied in this multi-scale modeling system. This modeling system has been coupled with a multi-satellite simulator to use NASA high-resolution satellite data to identify the strengths and weaknesses of cloud and precipitation processes simulated by the model. In this talk, a review of developments and applications of the multi-scale modeling system will be presented. In particular, the microphysics development and its performance for the multi-scale modeling system will be presented.

  20. Finite element analysis of structures through unified formulation

    CERN Document Server

    Carrera, Erasmo; Petrolo, Marco; Zappino, Enrico

    2014-01-01

    The finite element method (FEM) is a computational tool widely used to design and analyse  complex structures. Currently, there are a number of different approaches to analysis using the FEM that vary according to the type of structure being analysed: beams and plates may use 1D or 2D approaches, shells and solids 2D or 3D approaches, and methods that work for one structure are typically not optimized to work for another. Finite Element Analysis of Structures Through Unified Formulation deals with the FEM used for the analysis of the mechanics of structures in the case of linear elasticity. The novelty of this book is that the finite elements (FEs) are formulated on the basis of a class of theories of structures known as the Carrera Unified Formulation (CUF). It formulates 1D, 2D and 3D FEs on the basis of the same ''fundamental nucleus'' that comes from geometrical relations and Hooke''s law, and presents both 1D and 2D refined FEs that only have displacement variables as in 3D elements. It also covers 1D...

  1. SCUBA: The Self-Contained Unified Bass Augmenter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cceres, Juan Pablo; Mysore, Gautham J.; Trevio, Jeffrey

    2005-04-01

    The Self-Contained Unified Bass Augmenter (SCUBA) is a new augmentative OSC (Open Sound Control) controller for the tuba. SCUBA allows new expressive possibilities by adding onboard continuous and discrete sensors to provide user-controlled parametric data for the processing of the instruments natural sound in Pd. SCUBA endows acoustic instruments with parametric control of virtual instruments and provides a means of integrating the output of a virtual instrument with the natural sound of the tuba. The user sends controller data from the augmented tuba interface to the virtual instrument via FSRs (Force-Sensitive Resistors) and buttons mounted on the existing instrument interface. An AVRMini microcontroller converts raw sensor data to OSC (Open Sound Control) messages, which are mapped in Pd to control virtual instrument parameters. Virtual instrument output is integrated into the solo instrument interface via satellite speakers mounted in the bell; this allows for mixing of the instruments natural sound with that of the virtual instrument to create the impression of a single instrument. This integration is the goal of the SCUBA project: by providing a flexible but unified control interface and acoustic output, traditional acoustic instrument interfaces can be augmented and paired with virtual musical instruments. [We would like to thank Michael Gurevich, Max Matthews, Bill Verplank, Pascal Stang, and classmates from Music 250 (Fall 04) for assistance in the realization of this project.

  2. Allopathic and Osteopathic Medicine Unify GME Accreditation: A Historic Convergence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Abdul-Kareem H; Schnatz, Peter F; Adashi, Eli Y

    2017-05-01

    In 1968, the American Medical Association resolved to accept qualified graduates of osteopathic medical schools into its accredited Graduate Medical Education (GME) programs. An equally momentous decision was arrived at in 2014 when the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME), the American Osteopathic Association (AOA), and the American Association of Colleges of Osteopathic Medicine (AACOM) resolved to institute a single unified GME accreditation system by July 1, 2020. As envisioned, the unified accreditation system will all but assure system-wide consistency of purpose and practice in anticipation of the Next Accreditation System (NAS) of the ACGME. Governance integration replete with AOA and AACOM and osteopathic representation on the ACGME Board of Directors is now well underway. What is more, osteopathic representation on current Review Committees (RCs) and in a newly established one with an osteopathic focus has been instituted. Viewed broadly, the unification of the GME accreditation system goes a long way toward recognizing the overlapping characteristics in the training and practice of allopathic and osteopathic medicine. As such, this momentous development represents the latest, indeed boldest leap toward convergence between the two historic branches of American medicine. In this Health Policy Analysis we seek to place the impending unification of the GME accreditation process in its historical context, delineate its near-term impact, and discuss the potential long-term implications thereof.

  3. A unified model explains commonness and rarity on coral reefs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connolly, Sean R; Hughes, Terry P; Bellwood, David R

    2017-04-01

    Abundance patterns in ecological communities have important implications for biodiversity maintenance and ecosystem functioning. However, ecological theory has been largely unsuccessful at capturing multiple macroecological abundance patterns simultaneously. Here, we propose a parsimonious model that unifies widespread ecological relationships involving local aggregation, species-abundance distributions, and species associations, and we test this model against the metacommunity structure of reef-building corals and coral reef fishes across the western and central Pacific. For both corals and fishes, the unified model simultaneously captures extremely well local species-abundance distributions, interspecific variation in the strength of spatial aggregation, patterns of community similarity, species accumulation, and regional species richness, performing far better than alternative models also examined here and in previous work on coral reefs. Our approach contributes to the development of synthetic theory for large-scale patterns of community structure in nature, and to addressing ongoing challenges in biodiversity conservation at macroecological scales. © 2017 The Authors. Ecology Letters published by CNRS and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Unified double- and single-sided homogeneous Green's function representations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wapenaar, Kees; van der Neut, Joost; Slob, Evert

    2016-06-01

    In wave theory, the homogeneous Green's function consists of the impulse response to a point source, minus its time-reversal. It can be represented by a closed boundary integral. In many practical situations, the closed boundary integral needs to be approximated by an open boundary integral because the medium of interest is often accessible from one side only. The inherent approximations are acceptable as long as the effects of multiple scattering are negligible. However, in case of strongly inhomogeneous media, the effects of multiple scattering can be severe. We derive double- and single-sided homogeneous Green's function representations. The single-sided representation applies to situations where the medium can be accessed from one side only. It correctly handles multiple scattering. It employs a focusing function instead of the backward propagating Green's function in the classical (double-sided) representation. When reflection measurements are available at the accessible boundary of the medium, the focusing function can be retrieved from these measurements. Throughout the paper, we use a unified notation which applies to acoustic, quantum-mechanical, electromagnetic and elastodynamic waves. We foresee many interesting applications of the unified single-sided homogeneous Green's function representation in holographic imaging and inverse scattering, time-reversed wave field propagation and interferometric Green's function retrieval.

  5. Testing the unified model of AGN with broadband polarimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marin, F.

    2015-09-01

    The keystone of the unified model of AGN is the detection of optical broad line signatures in the polarized spectra of Seyfert-2s. Perpendicular scattering of BLR photons in the polar regions towards our line-of-sight naturally explains the anisotropic nature of AGN, likely to be due to equatorial obscuration. Hence, the observed AGN properties differ according to the orientation of the nuclear structure. However, the inclination of the system is not easily derived directly from observations, resulting in loose constraints, especially if estimated only from spectroscopic measurements. In this presentation, I will highlight the importance of polarimetric simulations in determining the true orientation of AGN by showing different realizations of the unified model. Predictions will be compared to a substantial catalog of optical-UV observations and extended towards the X-ray regime. The pre-selection by the ESA of a X-ray polarimeter for the study phase of the next M4 mission is a step forward in a better, broadband, understanding of AGN.

  6. A unified framework for addiction: Vulnerabilities in the decision process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redish, A. David; Jensen, Steve; Johnson, Adam

    2013-01-01

    The understanding of decision-making systems has come together in recent years to form a unified theory of decision-making in the mammalian brain as arising from multiple, interacting systems (a planning system, a habit system, and a situation-recognition system). This unified decision-making system has multiple potential access points through which it can be driven to make maladaptive choices, particularly choices that entail seeking of certain drugs or behaviors. We identify 10 key vulnerabilities in the system: (1) moving away from homeostasis, (2) changing allostatic set points, (3) euphorigenic “reward-like” signals, (4) overvaluation in the planning system, (5) incorrect search of situation-action-outcome relationships, (6) misclassification of situations, (7) overvaluation in the habit system, (8) a mismatch in the balance of the two decision systems, (9) over-fast discounting processes, and (10) changed learning rates. These vulnerabilities provide a taxonomy of potential problems with decision-making systems. Although each vulnerability can drive an agent to return to the addictive choice, each vulnerability also implies a characteristic symptomology. Different drugs, different behaviors, and different individuals are likely to access different vulnerabilities. This has implications for an individual’s susceptibility to addiction and the transition to addiction, for the potential for relapse, and for the potential for treatment. PMID:18662461

  7. A word from the DG: A unified Laboratory

    CERN Document Server

    2008-01-01

    I complete my five years at the helm of CERN at the end of December and would like to take this opportunity to remind you of the route we have travelled during that time and to express my best wishes to you for the future. In addition to the vital priority of completing the LHC, I set myself two essential goals at the beginning of my term of office: to define a clear long-term strategy for CERN and to unify the Laboratory. These aims were essential in order to regain the confidence of the Member States, partly lost as a result of the crisis that occurred before I took up office, and to transform CERN into the key player in the European strategy for particle physics. We have succeeded in completing the LHC. Despite the incident in the machine, we were able to show very rapidly that the accelerator and its injection chain were well poised to deliver efficient operation and use. Our efforts to unify the Laboratory, to define the strateg...

  8. New unified fracture toughness estimation scheme for structural integrity assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wallin, K.; Nevasmaa, P. [VTT, Espoo (Finland); Bannister, A. [Research and Development, British Steel plc., Swinden Technology Centre Rotherham (United Kingdom)

    1998-12-31

    At present, treatment of fracture toughness data varies depending on the type of data (K{sub IC}, J, CTOD) that are available for fracture mechanics analysis. This complicates structural integrity assessment and makes it difficult to apply any single, unified procedure. Within the Brite-Euram project `SINTAP` a fracture toughness estimation scheme has been developed for the unified treatment of data for use in structural integrity assessment. As a procedure, it can be applied to Charpy data, as well as to fracture toughness data, and is suitable for the treatment of data at both single and different temperatures. The data sets may contain results from both homogeneous and inhomogeneous material, making the procedure applicable also to welded joints. The procedure allows fracture toughness assessment with quantified probability and confidence levels. Irrespective of the type of the original data, one material-specific K{sub mat} value representing a conservative estimate of the mean fracture toughness is obtained (with its probability distribution). This information can then be applied to structural integrity assessment. (orig.) 4 refs.

  9. Hmong Food Helps Us Remember Who We Are: Perspectives of Food Culture and Health among Hmong Women with Young Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vue, Wa; Wolff, Cindy; Goto, Keiko

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To examine perspectives on food habits, acculturation, and health among Hmong women with young children in northern California. Methods: Qualitative interviews were conducted with 15 Hmong mothers with young children in a low-income community of northern California. The interviews were transcribed and coded based on the principles of…

  10. California Tribal Nations Technical Water Research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ben, C; Coty, J

    2005-08-15

    , it was necessary to confine the analysis to a smaller geographic area, yet still represent the diversity of tribes and context within which tribal water issues arise. The state of California provides this opportunity. California has 106 federally recognized tribes. California is diverse in its geography, environment, demographics, and economic bases; California tribes demonstrate similar diversity. Additionally, no central repository of national or state tribal water issues exists and information must be aggregated, in general, tribe by tribe. This presents research challenges and, for this report, these were overcome by developing a method to essentially ''sub-sample'' the 106 federally recognized tribes in the state, while making every effort to maintain a sub-sample that broadly represents all of the 106 tribes. n an effort to develop an equitable and appropriate method with which to identify this set of representative tribes, multiple entities were contacted for guidance. Consultation with the Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA), Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), Indian Health Services (IHS), U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA), Bureau of Reclamation (BOR) and Tribal Environmental Directors, provided key information and recommendations to guide the research process. It is hoped that an appropriate representation of the diversity of tribes across the state has been achieved; this includes an adequate representation of similarities and differences between Californian tribes on key water research issues (and the same between regions). This research occurred over a limited time period (i.e., three months) and given a general concern that this may not be sufficient, any information and conclusions in this report should be viewed with this in mind. Finally, it is hoped that this research allows for an (enhanced) informed capacity to better propose further dialog between tribes and LLNL to continue to exchange water research perspectives and define

  11. Factored coset models: A unifying approach to different bosonization schemes

    OpenAIRE

    Theron, A. N.; Scholtz, F. G.; Geyer, H. B.

    1997-01-01

    We discuss various bosonization schemes from a path integral perspective. Our analysis shows that the existence of different bosonization schemes, such as abelian bosonization of non-abelian models and non-abelian bosonization of fermions with colour and flavour indices, can be understood as different ways of factoring out a dynamically trivial coset which contains the fermions. From this perspective follows the importance of the coset model in ensuring the correct superselection rules on the...

  12. Public Schools, California, 2009, California Department of Education

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This set of data represents the most current public schools in the State of California as of June, 2009. Information about each public school includes: school name,...

  13. Unified Science - Premises and Prospects. Proceedings of the Annual Conference of the Federation for Unified Science Education (FUSE) (8th, Columbus, Ohio, May 2-5, 1974).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Showalter, Victor, Ed.; And Others

    Included in this record of the proceedings of the eighth annual conference of the Federation for Unified Science Education (FUSE) are texts of major presentations, panel discussions, and contributed papers. Other activities of the conference are also reported. (CP)

  14. NEXRAD Rainfall Data: Eureka, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Next-Generation Radar (NEXRAD) Weather Surveillance Radar 1988 (WSR-88D) measurements were used to support AMSR-E rainfall validation efforts in Eureka, California,...

  15. California from drought to deluge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, S.-Y. Simon; Yoon, Jin-Ho; Becker, Emily; Gillies, Robert

    2017-07-01

    The dramatic switch from extreme drought to severe flooding in California, and the accompanying flip from atmospheric ridge to trough in the northeastern Pacific, exemplifies the pathways to an intensified water cycle under a warming climate.

  16. Flight tracks, Northern California TRACON

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This dataset contains the records of all the flights in the Northern California TRACON. The data was provided by the aircraft noise abatement office...

  17. Chukar Range - California [ds570

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — This layer was created from regional biologist input on paper maps. All paper maps were collected and sent to a single Research Analyst to digitize. Some liberties...

  18. Ecological zones of California deserts

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The dataset delineates ecological zones within California deserts. We derived ecological zones by reclassifying LANDFIRE vegetation biophysical setting types, plus...

  19. DS796 California Groundwater Units

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The California Groundwater Units dataset classifies and delineates the State into one of three groundwater based polygon units: (1) those areas defined as alluvial...

  20. Contours--Offshore Aptos, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents data for the bathymetric contours for several seafloor maps of the Offshore of Aptos map area, California. The vector data file is...

  1. Contours--Offshore Monterey, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents bathymetric contours for several seafloor maps of the Monterey Canyon and Vicinity map area, California. The raster data file is...

  2. USGS Northern California Shoreline Change

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — The Coastal and Marine Geology Program of the U.S. Geological Survey has generated a comprehensive data clearinghouse of digital vector shorelines and shoreline...

  3. Invertebrate diversity in southern California

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This shapefile displays mean invertebrate diversity within 5 minute grid cells. The Shannon Index of diversity was calculated from Southern California Coastal Water...

  4. Habitat--Offshore Monterey, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents data for the habitat map of the seafloor of the Offshore of Monterey map area, California. The vector data file is included in...

  5. A Unified Field Theory of Gravity, Electromagnetism, and theA Unified Field Theory of Gravity, Electromagnetism, and the Yang-Mills Gauge Field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suhendro I.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work, we attempt at constructing a comprehensive four-dimensional unified field theory of gravity, electromagnetism, and the non-Abelian Yang-Mills gauge field in which the gravitational, electromagnetic, and material spin fields are unified as intrinsic geometric objects of the space-time manifold $S_4$ via the connection, with the generalized non-Abelian Yang-Mills gauge field appearing in particular as a sub-field of the geometrized electromagnetic interaction.

  6. California Gnatcatcher Observations - 2004-2009 [ds457

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — In southern California, the coastal California gnatcatcher (CAGN) has become both the flagship species and an umbrella species identified with conservation, where...

  7. lEinstein's Last Dream: The Space - Time Unifi- cation of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    From the earliest times, man's dream has been to comprehend the complexity of nature in terms of as few unifying concepts as possible. In this context, in the history of physics, three names stand together; those of Newton, Maxwell and Einstein, as among the greatest synthesisers and unifiers of all times. Newton, some ...

  8. Climate Justice: A Constitutional Approach to Unify the Lex Specialis Principles of International Climate Law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thorp, Teresa

    2012-01-01

    Legal principles legitimise ubiquitous social values. They make certain social norms lawful and legitimate. Legal principles may act as governing vectors. They may give effect to a unified and legitimate constitutional framework insofar as a constitution unifies the fundamental principles on which a

  9. 23 CFR 450.308 - Funding for transportation planning and unified planning work programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Funding for transportation planning and unified planning... TRANSPORTATION PLANNING AND RESEARCH PLANNING ASSISTANCE AND STANDARDS Metropolitan Transportation Planning and Programming § 450.308 Funding for transportation planning and unified planning work programs. (a) Funds...

  10. Special Operations: Achieving Unified Direction in the Global War on Terrorism

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-05-01

    and included assisting French and Yugoslav resistance fighters against the Nazis , training and leading Kachin tribesmen in Burma, and fighting along...17 28 Ibid., V-9. 29 Ibid., V-10. 30 Ibid., V-1 – V2 . 31 Ibid. Subordinate unified commands (also called sub-unified commands) are standing

  11. Introduction to The Regulatory Plan and the Unified Agenda of Federal...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-20

    ...] [Introduction to The Regulatory Plan and the Unified Agenda of Federal Regulatory and Deregulatory Actions] #7... INFORMATION SERVICE CENTER Introduction to The Regulatory Plan and the Unified Agenda of Federal Regulatory and Deregulatory Actions AGENCY: Regulatory Information Service Center. ACTION: Introduction to The...

  12. Modeling the Object-Oriented Software Process: OPEN and the Unified Process

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Berg, Klaas; Aksit, Mehmet; van den Broek, P.M.

    A short introduction to software process modeling is presented, particularly object-oriented modeling. Two major industrial process models are discussed: the OPEN model and the Unified Process model. In more detail, the quality assurance in the Unified Process tool (formally called Objectory) is

  13. An Investigation of Unified Memory Access Performance in CUDA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landaverde, Raphael; Zhang, Tiansheng; Coskun, Ayse K; Herbordt, Martin

    2014-09-01

    Managing memory between the CPU and GPU is a major challenge in GPU computing. A programming model, Unified Memory Access (UMA), has been recently introduced by Nvidia to simplify the complexities of memory management while claiming good overall performance. In this paper, we investigate this programming model and evaluate its performance and programming model simplifications based on our experimental results. We find that beyond on-demand data transfers to the CPU, the GPU is also able to request subsets of data it requires on demand. This feature allows UMA to outperform full data transfer methods for certain parallel applications and small data sizes. We also find, however, that for the majority of applications and memory access patterns, the performance overheads associated with UMA are significant, while the simplifications to the programming model restrict flexibility for adding future optimizations.

  14. Unifying Research on Social-Ecological Resilience and Collapse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cumming, Graeme S; Peterson, Garry D

    2017-09-01

    Ecosystems influence human societies, leading people to manage ecosystems for human benefit. Poor environmental management can lead to reduced ecological resilience and social-ecological collapse. We review research on resilience and collapse across different systems and propose a unifying social-ecological framework based on (i) a clear definition of system identity; (ii) the use of quantitative thresholds to define collapse; (iii) relating collapse processes to system structure; and (iv) explicit comparison of alternative hypotheses and models of collapse. Analysis of 17 representative cases identified 14 mechanisms, in five classes, that explain social-ecological collapse. System structure influences the kind of collapse a system may experience. Mechanistic theories of collapse that unite structure and process can make fundamental contributions to solving global environmental problems. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  15. Cloud Computing - A Unified Approach for Surveillance Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rachana, C. R.; Banu, Reshma, Dr.; Ahammed, G. F. Ali, Dr.; Parameshachari, B. D., Dr.

    2017-08-01

    Cloud computing describes highly scalable resources provided as an external service via the Internet on a basis of pay-per-use. From the economic point of view, the main attractiveness of cloud computing is that users only use what they need, and only pay for what they actually use. Resources are available for access from the cloud at any time, and from any location through networks. Cloud computing is gradually replacing the traditional Information Technology Infrastructure. Securing data is one of the leading concerns and biggest issue for cloud computing. Privacy of information is always a crucial pointespecially when an individual’s personalinformation or sensitive information is beingstored in the organization. It is indeed true that today; cloud authorization systems are notrobust enough. This paper presents a unified approach for analyzing the various security issues and techniques to overcome the challenges in the cloud environment.

  16. Towards a unified fatigue life prediction method for marine structures

    CERN Document Server

    Cui, Weicheng; Wang, Fang

    2014-01-01

    In order to apply the damage tolerance design philosophy to design marine structures, accurate prediction of fatigue crack growth under service conditions is required. Now, more and more people have realized that only a fatigue life prediction method based on fatigue crack propagation (FCP) theory has the potential to explain various fatigue phenomena observed. In this book, the issues leading towards the development of a unified fatigue life prediction (UFLP) method based on FCP theory are addressed. Based on the philosophy of the UFLP method, the current inconsistency between fatigue design and inspection of marine structures could be resolved. This book presents the state-of-the-art and recent advances, including those by the authors, in fatigue studies. It is designed to lead the future directions and to provide a useful tool in many practical applications. It is intended to address to engineers, naval architects, research staff, professionals and graduates engaged in fatigue prevention design and survey ...

  17. Rhythmic Degradation Explains and Unifies Circadian Transcriptome and Proteome Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Lück

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The rich mammalian cellular circadian output affects thousands of genes in many cell types and has been the subject of genome-wide transcriptome and proteome studies. The results have been enigmatic because transcript peak abundances do not always follow the peaks of gene-expression activity in time. We posited that circadian degradation of mRNAs and proteins plays a pivotal role in setting their peak times. To establish guiding principles, we derived a theoretical framework that fully describes the amplitudes and phases of biomolecules with circadian half-lives. We were able to explain the circadian transcriptome and proteome studies with the same unifying theory, including cases in which transcripts or proteins appeared before the onset of increased production rates. Furthermore, we estimate that 30% of the circadian transcripts in mouse liver and Drosophila heads are affected by rhythmic posttranscriptional regulation.

  18. Unifying Visual Space Across the Left and Right Hemifields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhimin; Kosovicheva, Anna; Wolfe, Benjamin; Cavanagh, Patrick; Gorea, Andrei; Whitney, David

    2018-01-01

    Visual space is perceived as continuous and stable even though visual inputs from the left and right visual fields are initially processed separately within the two cortical hemispheres. In the research reported here, we examined whether the visual system utilizes a dynamic recalibration mechanism to integrate these representations and to maintain alignment across the visual fields. Subjects adapted to randomly oriented moving lines that straddled the vertical meridian; these lines were vertically offset between the left and right hemifields. Subsequent vernier alignment judgments revealed a negative aftereffect: An offset in the same direction as the adaptation was required to correct the perceived misalignment. This aftereffect was specific to adaptation to vertical, but not horizontal, misalignments and also occurred following adaptation to movie clips and patterns without coherent motion. Our results demonstrate that the visual system unifies the left and right halves of visual space by continuously recalibrating the alignment of elements across the visual fields.

  19. A Unified Model of High-Energy Astrophysical phenomena

    CERN Document Server

    De Rújula, Alvaro

    2005-01-01

    I outline a unified model of high-energy astrophysics, in which the gamma background radiation, cluster "cooling flows", gamma-ray bursts, X-ray flashes and cosmic-ray electrons and nuclei of all energies -share a common origin. The mechanism underlying these phenomena is the emission of relativistic "cannonballs" by ordinary supernovae, analogous to the observed ejection of plasmoids by quasars and microquasars. I concentrate on Cosmic Rays: the longest-lasting conundrum in astrophysics. The distribution of Cosmic Rays in the Galaxy, their total "luminosity", the broken power-law spectra with their observed slopes, the position of the knee(s) and ankle(s), and the alleged variations of composition with energy are all explained in terms of simple and "standard" physics. The model is only lacking a satisfactory theoretical understanding of the "cannon" that emits the cannonballs in catastrophic episodes of accretion onto a compact object.

  20. Modeling stroke rehabilitation processes using the Unified Modeling Language (UML).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrante, Simona; Bonacina, Stefano; Pinciroli, Francesco

    2013-10-01

    In organising and providing rehabilitation procedures for stroke patients, the usual need for many refinements makes it inappropriate to attempt rigid standardisation, but greater detail is required concerning workflow. The aim of this study was to build a model of the post-stroke rehabilitation process. The model, implemented in the Unified Modeling Language, was grounded on international guidelines and refined following the clinical pathway adopted at local level by a specialized rehabilitation centre. The model describes the organisation of the rehabilitation delivery and it facilitates the monitoring of recovery during the process. Indeed, a system software was developed and tested to support clinicians in the digital administration of clinical scales. The model flexibility assures easy updating after process evolution. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Towards a unified lattice kinetic scheme for relativistic hydrodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabbana, A.; Mendoza, M.; Succi, S.; Tripiccione, R.

    2017-05-01

    We present a systematic derivation of relativistic lattice kinetic equations for finite-mass particles, reaching close to the zero-mass ultrarelativistic regime treated in the previous literature. Starting from an expansion of the Maxwell-Jüttner distribution on orthogonal polynomials, we perform a Gauss-type quadrature procedure and discretize the relativistic Boltzmann equation on space-filling Cartesian lattices. The model is validated through numerical comparison with standard tests and solvers in relativistic fluid dynamics such as Boltzmann approach multiparton scattering and previous relativistic lattice Boltzmann models. This work provides a significant step towards the formulation of a unified relativistic lattice kinetic scheme, covering both massive and near-massless particles regimes.

  2. Unified regression model of binding equilibria in crowded environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Byoungkoo; LeDuc, Philip R.; Schwartz, Russell

    2011-01-01

    Molecular crowding is a critical feature distinguishing intracellular environments from idealized solution-based environments and is essential to understanding numerous biochemical reactions, from protein folding to signal transduction. Many biochemical reactions are dramatically altered by crowding, yet it is extremely difficult to predict how crowding will quantitatively affect any particular reaction systems. We previously developed a novel stochastic off-lattice model to efficiently simulate binding reactions across wide parameter ranges in various crowded conditions. We now show that a polynomial regression model can incorporate several interrelated parameters influencing chemistry under crowded conditions. The unified model of binding equilibria accurately reproduces the results of particle simulations over a broad range of variation of six physical parameters that collectively yield a complicated, non-linear crowding effect. The work represents an important step toward the long-term goal of computationally tractable predictive models of reaction chemistry in the cellular environment. PMID:22355615

  3. Towards a unified theory of health-disease: II. Holopathogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida-Filho, Naomar

    2014-01-01

    This article presents a systematic framework for modeling several classes of illness-sickness-disease named as Holopathogenesis. Holopathogenesis is defined as processes of over-determination of diseases and related conditions taken as a whole, comprising selected facets of the complex object Health. First, a conceptual background of Holopathogenesis is presented as a series of significant interfaces (biomolecular-immunological, physiopathological-clinical, epidemiological-ecosocial). Second, propositions derived from Holopathogenesis are introduced in order to allow drawing the disease-illness-sickness complex as a hierarchical network of networks. Third, a formalization of intra- and inter-level correspondences, over-determination processes, effects and links of Holopathogenesis models is proposed. Finally, the Holopathogenesis frame is evaluated as a comprehensive theoretical pathology taken as a preliminary step towards a unified theory of health-disease. PMID:24897040

  4. Higher-Dimensional Unified Theories with Fuzzy Extra Dimensions

    CERN Document Server

    Chatzistavrakidis, Athanasios; 10.3842/SIGMA.2010.063

    2010-01-01

    Theories defined in higher than four dimensions have been used in various frameworks and have a long and interesting history. Here we review certain attempts, developed over the last years, towards the construction of unified particle physics models in the context of higher-dimensional gauge theories with non-commutative extra dimensions. These ideas have been developed in two complementary ways, namely (i) starting with a higher-dimensional gauge theory and dimensionally reducing it to four dimensions over fuzzy internal spaces and (ii) starting with a four-dimensional, renormalizable gauge theory and dynamically generating fuzzy extra dimensions. We describe the above approaches and moreover we discuss the inclusion of fermions and the construction of realistic chiral theories in this context.

  5. Recognition of nonsense mRNA: towards a unified model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mühlemann, Oliver

    2008-06-01

    Among the different cellular surveillance mechanisms that ensure accurate gene expression, nonsense-mediated mRNA decay rapidly degrades mRNAs harbouring PTCs (premature translation-termination codons) and thereby prevents the accumulation of potentially deleterious proteins with C-terminal truncations. In the present article, I review recent data from yeast, fluitflies, nematode worms and human cells and endeavour to merge these results into a unified model for recognition of nonsense mRNA. According to this model, the distinction between translation termination at PTCs and at 'normal' termination codons relies on the physical distance between the terminating ribosome and PABP [poly(A)-binding protein]. Correct translation termination is promoted by a PABP-mediated signal to the terminating ribosome, whereas the absence of this signal leads to the assembly of an mRNA decay-promoting protein complex including the conserved NMD factors UPF (up-frameshift) 1-3.

  6. A Unified Approach to High-Gain Adaptive Controllers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian A. Gravagne

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available It has been known for some time that proportional output feedback will stabilize MIMO, minimum-phase, linear time-invariant systems if the feedback gain is sufficiently large. High-gain adaptive controllers achieve stability by automatically driving up the feedback gain monotonically. More recently, it was demonstrated that sample-and-hold implementations of the high-gain adaptive controller also require adaptation of the sampling rate. In this paper, we use recent advances in the mathematical field of dynamic equations on time scales to unify and generalize the discrete and continuous versions of the high-gain adaptive controller. We prove the stability of high-gain adaptive controllers on a wide class of time scales.

  7. Foundations to the unified psycho-cognitive engine.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernard, Michael Lewis; Bier, Asmeret Brooke; Backus, George A.; Verzi, Stephen J.; Glickman, Matthew R.

    2010-10-01

    This document outlines the key features of the SNL psychological engine. The engine is designed to be a generic presentation of cognitive entities interacting among themselves and with the external world. The engine combines the most accepted theories of behavioral psychology with those of behavioral economics to produce a unified simulation of human response from stimuli through executed behavior. The engine explicitly recognizes emotive and reasoned contributions to behavior and simulates the dynamics associated with cue processing, learning, and choice selection. Most importantly, the model parameterization can come from available media or survey information, as well subject-matter-expert information. The framework design allows the use of uncertainty quantification and sensitivity analysis to manage confidence in using the analysis results for intervention decisions.

  8. Computing an operating parameter of a unified power flow controller

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, David G.; Robinett, III, Rush D.

    2017-12-26

    A Unified Power Flow Controller described herein comprises a sensor that outputs at least one sensed condition, a processor that receives the at least one sensed condition, a memory that comprises control logic that is executable by the processor; and power electronics that comprise power storage, wherein the processor causes the power electronics to selectively cause the power storage to act as one of a power generator or a load based at least in part upon the at least one sensed condition output by the sensor and the control logic, and wherein at least one operating parameter of the power electronics is designed to facilitate maximal transmittal of electrical power generated at a variable power generation system to a grid system while meeting power constraints set forth by the electrical power grid.

  9. A Unified View of Adaptive Variable-Metric Projection Algorithms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masahiro Yukawa

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a unified analytic tool named variable-metric adaptive projected subgradient method (V-APSM that encompasses the important family of adaptive variable-metric projection algorithms. The family includes the transform-domain adaptive filter, the Newton-method-based adaptive filters such as quasi-Newton, the proportionate adaptive filter, and the Krylov-proportionate adaptive filter. We provide a rigorous analysis of V-APSM regarding several invaluable properties including monotone approximation, which indicates stable tracking capability, and convergence to an asymptotically optimal point. Small metric-fluctuations are the key assumption for the analysis. Numerical examples show (i the robustness of V-APSM against violation of the assumption and (ii the remarkable advantages over its constant-metric counterpart for colored and nonstationary inputs under noisy situations.

  10. A Unified View of Adaptive Variable-Metric Projection Algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yukawa, Masahiro; Yamada, Isao

    2009-12-01

    We present a unified analytic tool named variable-metric adaptive projected subgradient method (V-APSM) that encompasses the important family of adaptive variable-metric projection algorithms. The family includes the transform-domain adaptive filter, the Newton-method-based adaptive filters such as quasi-Newton, the proportionate adaptive filter, and the Krylov-proportionate adaptive filter. We provide a rigorous analysis of V-APSM regarding several invaluable properties including monotone approximation, which indicates stable tracking capability, and convergence to an asymptotically optimal point. Small metric-fluctuations are the key assumption for the analysis. Numerical examples show (i) the robustness of V-APSM against violation of the assumption and (ii) the remarkable advantages over its constant-metric counterpart for colored and nonstationary inputs under noisy situations.

  11. Unified dark energy thermodynamics: varying w and the -1-crossing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saridakis, Emmanuel N [Department of Physics, University of Athens, GR-15771 Athens (Greece); Gonzalez-Diaz, Pedro F [Colina de los Chopos, Instituto de Fisica Fundamental, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas, Serrano 121, 28006 Madrid (Spain); Sigueenza, Carmen L [Estacion Ecologica de BiocosmologIa, Pedro de Alvarado 14, 06411 Medellin (Spain)

    2009-08-21

    We investigate, in a unified and general way, the thermodynamic properties of dark energy with an arbitrary, varying equation-of-state parameter w(a). We find that all quantities are well defined and regular for every w(a), including the -1-crossing, with the temperature being negative in the phantom regime (w(a) < -1) and positive in the quintessence one (w(a) > -1). The density and entropy are always positive while the chemical potential can be arbitrary. At the -1-crossing, both temperature and chemical potential are zero. The temperature negativity can only be interpreted in the quantum framework. The regular behavior of all quantities at the -1-crossing leads to the conclusion that such a crossing does not correspond to a phase transition, but rather to a smooth crossover.

  12. A Unified Theory of Matter Genesis: Asymmetric Freeze-In

    CERN Document Server

    Hall, Lawrence J; West, Stephen M

    2010-01-01

    We propose a unified theory of dark matter (DM) genesis and baryogenesis. It explains the observed link between the DM density and the baryon density, and is fully testable by a combination of collider experiments and precision tests. Our theory utilises the "thermal freeze-in" mechanism of DM production, generating particle anti-particle asymmetries in decays from visible to hidden sectors. Calculable, linked, asymmetries in baryon number and DM number are produced by the feeble interaction mediating between the two sectors, while the out-of-equilibrium condition necessary for baryogenesis is provided by the different temperatures of the visible and hidden sectors. An illustrative model is presented where the visible sector is the MSSM, with the relevant CP violation arising from phases in the gaugino and Higgsino masses, and both asymmetries are generated at temperatures of order 100 GeV. Experimental signals of this mechanism can be spectacular, including: long-lived metastable states late decaying at the ...

  13. A New Finslerian Unified Field Theory of Physical Interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suhendro I.

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available In this work, we shall present the foundational structure of a new unified field theory of physical interactions in a geometric world-space endowed with a new kind of Finslerian metric. The intrinsic non-metricity in the structure of our world-geometry may have direct, genuine connection with quantum mechanics, which is yet to be fully explored at present. Building upon some of the previous works of the Author, our ultimate aim here is yet another quantum theory of gravity (in just four space-time dimensions. Our resulting new theory appears to present us with a novel Eulerian (intrinsically motion-dependent world-geometry in which the physical fields originate.

  14. Hardware and software fault tolerance - A unified architectural approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lala, Jaynarayan H.; Alger, Linda S.

    1988-01-01

    The loss of hardware fault tolerance which often arises when design diversity is used to improve the fault tolerance of computer software is considered analytically, and a unified design approach is proposed to avoid the problem. The fundamental theory of fault-tolerant (FT) architectures is reviewed; the current status of design-diversity software development is surveyed; and the FT-processor/attached-processor (FTP/AP) architecture developed by Lala et al. (1986) is described in detail and illustrated with diagrams. FTP/AP is shown to permit efficient implementation of N-version FT software while still tolerating random hardware failures with very high coverage; the reliability is found to be significantly higher than that of conventional majority-vote N-version software.

  15. Unified Dispatch of Energy and Reserves in Electricity Markets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Gutiérrez–Alcaraz

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Ancillary services costs were included within the energy price in the first electricity market models. In a decentralized electricity market, it is conceive to have a separate market for energy and each one of the Ancillary Services. However, when the problem is solved jointly it seems to be a better alternative to optimize resources. This paper presents a unified formulation for solving the economic dispatch and reserve scheduling problems in electricity markets, in order to investigate the global efficiency of energy and reserve markets. The formulation allows generation and distribution companies to offer in the market reserve services. Concluding remarks are offered about the results obtained, which proves in a detailed way that these operated–simultaneously–markets provides more economical benefits for generation or distribution companies.

  16. A unifying framework for measuring weighted rich clubs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alstott, Jeff; Panzarasa, Pietro; Rubinov, Mikail; Bullmore, Edward T; Vértes, Petra E

    2014-12-01

    Network analysis can help uncover meaningful regularities in the organization of complex systems. Among these, rich clubs are a functionally important property of a variety of social, technological and biological networks. Rich clubs emerge when nodes that are somehow prominent or 'rich' (e.g., highly connected) interact preferentially with one another. The identification of rich clubs is non-trivial, especially in weighted networks, and to this end multiple distinct metrics have been proposed. Here we describe a unifying framework for detecting rich clubs which intuitively generalizes various metrics into a single integrated method. This generalization rests upon the explicit incorporation of randomized control networks into the measurement process. We apply this framework to real-life examples, and show that, depending on the selection of randomized controls, different kinds of rich-club structures can be detected, such as topological and weighted rich clubs.

  17. KEAMANAN JARINGAN MENGGUNAKAN UNIFIED THREAT MANAGEMENT PADA SERVER BERBASISKAN LINUX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bambang Heru

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available UTM is an application which integrated many security features become a single hardware platform. The reasonbehind this research is to build a system that protects the network in St. Bellarminus school. Research method that hasbeen used in this research is spiral method, whereas the development of the application is continues and can be modifiedeasily if there is new version of the security tools implemented in the application, or if there is a better security tools to beused. The outcome of the system is very good, because it can protects the network: cross-platform firewall, IntrusionDetection System, Proxy Server, email protection against virus and spam. In conclusion, the application can producehigh effectiveness with low cost and this application is very useful in monitoring and configuring the network in St.Bellarminus school.Keywords: security network, unified threat management, anti virus, server, proxy, firewall

  18. Engineering system dynamics a unified graph-centered approach

    CERN Document Server

    Brown, Forbes T

    2006-01-01

    For today's students, learning to model the dynamics of complex systems is increasingly important across nearly all engineering disciplines. First published in 2001, Forbes T. Brown's Engineering System Dynamics: A Unified Graph-Centered Approach introduced students to a unique and highly successful approach to modeling system dynamics using bond graphs. Updated with nearly one-third new material, this second edition expands this approach to an even broader range of topics. What's New in the Second Edition? In addition to new material, this edition was restructured to build students' competence in traditional linear mathematical methods before they have gone too far into the modeling that still plays a pivotal role. New topics include magnetic circuits and motors including simulation with magnetic hysteresis; extensive new material on the modeling, analysis, and simulation of distributed-parameter systems; kinetic energy in thermodynamic systems; and Lagrangian and Hamiltonian methods. MATLAB(R) figures promi...

  19. UPDM - Unified Profile for DoDAF/MODAF

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-01

    Expected target DoDAF 2.03 – MODAF MODEM – DNDAF 1.7 may also be required by the Canadians – UML for  BPMN  profile • Allows the seamless integration of... BPMN  artefacts into a DoDAF  Architecture along with an exchange environment – Others? – Priorities will be based on demand and participation • UPDM 2...19         ,  ,  ,  . • Provides flow‐down, traceability, integration across sectors • BPMN  integration is under development UPDM – Unified Profile

  20. A unifying property for distribution-sensitive priority queues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elmasry, Amr Ahmed Abd Elmoneim; Farzan, Arash; Iacono, John

    2011-01-01

    We present a priority queue that supports the operations: insert in worst-case constant time, and delete, delete-min, find-min and decrease-key on an element x in worst-case O(lg(min{wx, qx} + 2)) time, where wx (respectively, qx) is the number of elements that were accessed after (respectively......, before) the last access of x and are still in the priority queue at the time when the corresponding operation is performed. Our priority queue then has both the working-set and the queueish properties; and, more strongly, it satisfies these properties in the worst-case sense. We also argue...... that these bounds are the best possible with respect to the considered measures. Moreover, we modify our priority queue to satisfy a new unifying property - the time-finger property - which encapsulates both the working-set and the queueish properties. In addition, we prove that the working-set bound...

  1. A Unified Monitoring Framework for Energy Consumption and Network Traffic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florentin Clouet

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Providing experimenters with deep insight about the effects of their experiments is a central feature of testbeds. In this paper, we describe Kwapi, a framework designed in the context of the Grid'5000 testbed, that unifies measurements for both energy consumption and network traffic. Because all measurements are taken at the infrastructure level (using sensors in power and network equipment, using this framework has no dependencies on the experiments themselves. Initially designed for OpenStack infrastructures, the Kwapi framework allows monitoring and reporting of energy consumption of distributed platforms. In this article, we present the extension of Kwapi to network monitoring, and outline how we overcame several challenges: scaling to a testbed the size of Grid'5000 while still providing high-frequency measurements; providing long-term loss-less storage of measurements; handling operational issues when deploying such a tool on a real infrastructure.

  2. A New Unified Dark Fluid Model and Its Cosmic Constraint

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Lixin

    2014-11-01

    In this paper, we propose a new unified dark fluid (UDF) model with equation of state (EoS) w( a)=- α/( β a - n +1), which includes the generalized Chaplygin gas model (gGg) as its special case, where α, β and n are three positive numbers. It is clear that this model reduces to the gCg model with EoS w( a)=- B s /( B s +(1- B s ) a -3(1+ α)), when α=1, β=(1- B s )/ B s and n=3(1+ α). By combination the cold dark matter and the cosmological constant, one can coin a EoS of unified dark fluid in the form of w( a)=-1/(1+(1-ΩΛ) a -3/ΩΛ). With this observations, our proposed EoS provides a possible deviation from ΛCDM model when the model parameters α and n deviate from 1 and 3 respectively. By using the currently available cosmic observations from type Ia supernovae (SN Ia) Union2.1, baryon acoustic oscillation (BAO) and cosmic microwave background radiation (CMB), we test the viability of this model and detect the possible devotion from the ΛCDM model. The results show that the new UDF model fits the cosmic observation as well as that of the ΛCDM model and no deviation is found from the ΛCDM model in 3 σ confidence level. However, our new UDF model can give a non-zero sound speed, as a contrast, which is zero for the ΛCDM model. We expect the large structure formation information can distinct the new UDF model from the ΛCDM model.

  3. A unified gene catalog for the laboratory mouse reference genome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Y; Richardson, J E; Hale, P; Baldarelli, R M; Reed, D J; Recla, J M; Sinclair, R; Reddy, T B K; Bult, C J

    2015-08-01

    We report here a semi-automated process by which mouse genome feature predictions and curated annotations (i.e., genes, pseudogenes, functional RNAs, etc.) from Ensembl, NCBI and Vertebrate Genome Annotation database (Vega) are reconciled with the genome features in the Mouse Genome Informatics (MGI) database (http://www.informatics.jax.org) into a comprehensive and non-redundant catalog. Our gene unification method employs an algorithm (fjoin--feature join) for efficient detection of genome coordinate overlaps among features represented in two annotation data sets. Following the analysis with fjoin, genome features are binned into six possible categories (1:1, 1:0, 0:1, 1:n, n:1, n:m) based on coordinate overlaps. These categories are subsequently prioritized for assessment of annotation equivalencies and differences. The version of the unified catalog reported here contains more than 59,000 entries, including 22,599 protein-coding coding genes, 12,455 pseudogenes, and 24,007 other feature types (e.g., microRNAs, lincRNAs, etc.). More than 23,000 of the entries in the MGI gene catalog have equivalent gene models in the annotation files obtained from NCBI, Vega, and Ensembl. 12,719 of the features are unique to NCBI relative to Ensembl/Vega; 11,957 are unique to Ensembl/Vega relative to NCBI, and 3095 are unique to MGI. More than 4000 genome features fall into categories that require manual inspection to resolve structural differences in the gene models from different annotation sources. Using the MGI unified gene catalog, researchers can easily generate a comprehensive report of mouse genome features from a single source and compare the details of gene and transcript structure using MGI's mouse genome browser.

  4. Unified studies of structure and reactions in light unstable nuclei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ito Makoto

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The generalized two-center cluster model (GTCM, which can treat covalent, ionic and atomic configurations in general systems with two inert cores plus valence nucleons, is formulated in the basis of the microscopic cluster model. In this model, the covalent configurations constructed by the molecular orbital (MO method and the atomic (or ionic configuration obtained by the valence bonding (VB method can be described in a consistent manner. GTCM is applied to the light neutron-rich system, 10,12Be = α + α + XN (X = 2,4, and the unified studies of the structural changes and the reaction problem are performed. In the structure study, the calculated energy levels are characterized in terms of the chemical bonding like structures, such as the covalent MO or ionic VB structures. The chemical bonding structures changes from level to level within a small energy interval. In the unbound region, the structure problem with the total system of α + α + XN and the reaction problem, induced by the collision of an asymptotic VB state of α+6,8He, are combined by GTCM. The properties of unbound resonant states are discussed in a close connection to the reaction mechanism, and some enhancement factors originated from the properties of the intrinsic states are predicted in the reaction observables. The unified calculation of the structures and the reactions is applied to the Coulomb shift problem in the mirror system, such the 10Be and 10C nuclei. The Coulomb displacement energy of the mirror systems are discussed.

  5. Towards a Grand Unified Theory of sports performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glazier, Paul S

    2015-12-22

    Sports performance is generally considered to be governed by a range of interacting physiological, biomechanical, and psychological variables, amongst others. Despite sports performance being multi-factorial, however, the majority of performance-oriented sports science research has predominantly been monodisciplinary in nature, presumably due, at least in part, to the lack of a unifying theoretical framework required to integrate the various subdisciplines of sports science. In this target article, I propose a Grand Unified Theory (GUT) of sports performance-and, by elaboration, sports science-based around the constraints framework introduced originally by Newell (1986). A central tenet of this GUT is that, at both the intra- and inter-individual levels of analysis, patterns of coordination and control, which directly determine the performance outcome, emerge from the confluence of interacting organismic, environmental, and task constraints via the formation and self-organisation of coordinative structures. It is suggested that this GUT could be used to: foster interdisciplinary research collaborations; break down the silos that have developed in sports science and restore greater disciplinary balance to the field; promote a more holistic understanding of sports performance across all levels of analysis; increase explanatory power of applied research work; provide stronger rationale for data collection and variable selection; and direct the development of integrated performance monitoring technologies. This GUT could also provide a scientifically rigorous basis for integrating the subdisciplines of sports science in applied sports science support programmes adopted by high-performance agencies and national governing bodies for various individual and team sports. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  6. Towards a Global Unified Model of Europa's Tenuous Atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plainaki, Christina; Cassidy, Tim A.; Shematovich, Valery I.; Milillo, Anna; Wurz, Peter; Vorburger, Audrey; Roth, Lorenz; Galli, André; Rubin, Martin; Blöcker, Aljona; Brandt, Pontus C.; Crary, Frank; Dandouras, Iannis; Jia, Xianzhe; Grassi, Davide; Hartogh, Paul; Lucchetti, Alice; McGrath, Melissa; Mangano, Valeria; Mura, Alessandro; Orsini, Stefano; Paranicas, Chris; Radioti, Aikaterini; Retherford, Kurt D.; Saur, Joachim; Teolis, Ben

    2018-02-01

    Despite the numerous modeling efforts of the past, our knowledge on the radiation-induced physical and chemical processes in Europa's tenuous atmosphere and on the exchange of material between the moon's surface and Jupiter's magnetosphere remains limited. In lack of an adequate number of in situ observations, the existence of a wide variety of models based on different scenarios and considerations has resulted in a fragmentary understanding of the interactions of the magnetospheric ion population with both the moon's icy surface and neutral gas envelope. Models show large discrepancy in the source and loss rates of the different constituents as well as in the determination of the spatial distribution of the atmosphere and its variation with time. The existence of several models based on very different approaches highlights the need of a detailed comparison among them with the final goal of developing a unified model of Europa's tenuous atmosphere. The availability to the science community of such a model could be of particular interest in view of the planning of the future mission observations (e.g., ESA's JUpiter ICy moons Explorer (JUICE) mission, and NASA's Europa Clipper mission). We review the existing models of Europa's tenuous atmosphere and discuss each of their derived characteristics of the neutral environment. We also discuss discrepancies among different models and the assumptions of the plasma environment in the vicinity of Europa. A summary of the existing observations of both the neutral and the plasma environments at Europa is also presented. The characteristics of a global unified model of the tenuous atmosphere are, then, discussed. Finally, we identify needed future experimental work in laboratories and propose some suitable observation strategies for upcoming missions.

  7. Reliability and validity of the Wolfram Unified Rating Scale (WURS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nguyen Chau

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Wolfram syndrome (WFS is a rare, neurodegenerative disease that typically presents with childhood onset insulin dependent diabetes mellitus, followed by optic atrophy, diabetes insipidus, deafness, and neurological and psychiatric dysfunction. There is no cure for the disease, but recent advances in research have improved understanding of the disease course. Measuring disease severity and progression with reliable and validated tools is a prerequisite for clinical trials of any new intervention for neurodegenerative conditions. To this end, we developed the Wolfram Unified Rating Scale (WURS to measure the severity and individual variability of WFS symptoms. The aim of this study is to develop and test the reliability and validity of the Wolfram Unified Rating Scale (WURS. Methods A rating scale of disease severity in WFS was developed by modifying a standardized assessment for another neurodegenerative condition (Batten disease. WFS experts scored the representativeness of WURS items for the disease. The WURS was administered to 13 individuals with WFS (6-25 years of age. Motor, balance, mood and quality of life were also evaluated with standard instruments. Inter-rater reliability, internal consistency reliability, concurrent, predictive and content validity of the WURS were calculated. Results The WURS had high inter-rater reliability (ICCs>.93, moderate to high internal consistency reliability (Cronbach’s α = 0.78-0.91 and demonstrated good concurrent and predictive validity. There were significant correlations between the WURS Physical Assessment and motor and balance tests (rs>.67, ps>.76, ps=-.86, p=.001. The WURS demonstrated acceptable content validity (Scale-Content Validity Index=0.83. Conclusions These preliminary findings demonstrate that the WURS has acceptable reliability and validity and captures individual differences in disease severity in children and young adults with WFS.

  8. A unified view on weakly correlated recurrent networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmytro eGrytskyy

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The diversity of neuron models used in contemporary theoretical neuroscience to investigate specific properties of covariances in the spiking activity raises the question how these models relate to each other. In particular it is hard to distinguish between generic properties of covariances and peculiarities due to the abstracted model. Here we present a unified view on pairwise covariances in recurrent networks in the irregular regime. We consider the binary neuron model, the leaky integrate-and-fire model, and the Hawkes process. We show that linear approximation maps each of these models to either of two classes of linear rate models, including the Ornstein-Uhlenbeck process as a special case. The distinction between both classes is the location of additive noise in the rate dynamics, which is located on the output side for spiking models and on the input side for the binary model. Both classes allow closed form solutions for the covariance. For output noise it separates into an echo term and a term due to correlated input. The unified framework enables us to transfer results between models. For example, we generalize the binary model and the Hawkes process to the situation with synaptic conduction delays and simplify derivations for established results. Our approach is applicable to general network structures and suitable for the calculation of population averages. The derived averages are exact for fixed out-degree network architectures and approximate for fixed in-degree. We demonstrate how taking into account fluctuations in the linearization procedure increases the accuracy of the effective theory and we explain the class dependent differences between covariances in the time and the frequency domain. Finally we show that the oscillatory instability emerging in networks of integrate-and-fire models with delayed inhibitory feedback is a model-invariant feature: the same structure of poles in the complex frequency plane determines the

  9. A unified view on weakly correlated recurrent networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grytskyy, Dmytro; Tetzlaff, Tom; Diesmann, Markus; Helias, Moritz

    2013-01-01

    The diversity of neuron models used in contemporary theoretical neuroscience to investigate specific properties of covariances in the spiking activity raises the question how these models relate to each other. In particular it is hard to distinguish between generic properties of covariances and peculiarities due to the abstracted model. Here we present a unified view on pairwise covariances in recurrent networks in the irregular regime. We consider the binary neuron model, the leaky integrate-and-fire (LIF) model, and the Hawkes process. We show that linear approximation maps each of these models to either of two classes of linear rate models (LRM), including the Ornstein–Uhlenbeck process (OUP) as a special case. The distinction between both classes is the location of additive noise in the rate dynamics, which is located on the output side for spiking models and on the input side for the binary model. Both classes allow closed form solutions for the covariance. For output noise it separates into an echo term and a term due to correlated input. The unified framework enables us to transfer results between models. For example, we generalize the binary model and the Hawkes process to the situation with synaptic conduction delays and simplify derivations for established results. Our approach is applicable to general network structures and suitable for the calculation of population averages. The derived averages are exact for fixed out-degree network architectures and approximate for fixed in-degree. We demonstrate how taking into account fluctuations in the linearization procedure increases the accuracy of the effective theory and we explain the class dependent differences between covariances in the time and the frequency domain. Finally we show that the oscillatory instability emerging in networks of LIF models with delayed inhibitory feedback is a model-invariant feature: the same structure of poles in the complex frequency plane determines the population power

  10. en Baja California

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elmyra Ybañez Zepeda

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In the future, the population of 60 years old or older will increase in absolute and relative numbers at a very rapid pace in Mexico. Using data from Censo general de población y vivienda 2000, Encuesta sobre migración en la frontera norte de México and Consejo Nacional de Población (Conapo, the purpose of this article is twofold: first of all, to analyze the aging process in the municipalities of Tijuana and Mexicali, located in the state of Baja California, which has a very low proportion of the eldest; and second of all, to examine the role of migration in this process. Tijuana has a younger population which is aging slowly due to a very intense immigration of young workers and potential parents. Mexicali, on the other hand, has a high percentage of a native population that is aging unrelentingly, and it also has a lower flow of immigrants who are older, and includes a high concentration of persons who had previously resided in the United States.

  11. SUMMIT (Serially Unified Multicenter Multiple Sclerosis Investigation): creating a repository of deeply phenotyped contemporary multiple sclerosis cohorts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bove, Riley; Chitnis, Tanuja; Cree, Bruce Ac; Tintoré, Mar; Naegelin, Yvonne; Uitdehaag, Bernard Mj; Kappos, Ludwig; Khoury, Samia J; Montalban, Xavier; Hauser, Stephen L; Weiner, Howard L

    2017-08-01

    There is a pressing need for robust longitudinal cohort studies in the modern treatment era of multiple sclerosis. Build a multiple sclerosis (MS) cohort repository to capture the variability of disability accumulation, as well as provide the depth of characterization (clinical, radiologic, genetic, biospecimens) required to adequately model and ultimately predict a patient's course. Serially Unified Multicenter Multiple Sclerosis Investigation (SUMMIT) is an international multi-center, prospectively enrolled cohort with over a decade of comprehensive follow-up on more than 1000 patients from two large North American academic MS Centers (Brigham and Women's Hospital (Comprehensive Longitudinal Investigation of Multiple Sclerosis at the Brigham and Women's Hospital (CLIMB; BWH)) and University of California, San Francisco (Expression/genomics, Proteomics, Imaging, and Clinical (EPIC))). It is bringing online more than 2500 patients from additional international MS Centers (Basel (Universitätsspital Basel (UHB)), VU University Medical Center MS Center Amsterdam (MSCA), Multiple Sclerosis Center of Catalonia-Vall d'Hebron Hospital (Barcelona clinically isolated syndrome (CIS) cohort), and American University of Beirut Medical Center (AUBMC-Multiple Sclerosis Interdisciplinary Research (AMIR)). We provide evidence for harmonization of two of the initial cohorts in terms of the characterization of demographics, disease, and treatment-related variables; demonstrate several proof-of-principle analyses examining genetic and radiologic predictors of disease progression; and discuss the steps involved in expanding SUMMIT into a repository accessible to the broader scientific community.

  12. The HARNESS Workbench: Unified and Adaptive Access to Diverse HPC Platforms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sunderam, Vaidy S.

    2012-03-20

    The primary goal of the Harness WorkBench (HWB) project is to investigate innovative software environments that will help enhance the overall productivity of applications science on diverse HPC platforms. Two complementary frameworks were designed: one, a virtualized command toolkit for application building, deployment, and execution, that provides a common view across diverse HPC systems, in particular the DOE leadership computing platforms (Cray, IBM, SGI, and clusters); and two, a unified runtime environment that consolidates access to runtime services via an adaptive framework for execution-time and post processing activities. A prototype of the first was developed based on the concept of a 'system-call virtual machine' (SCVM), to enhance portability of the HPC application deployment process across heterogeneous high-end machines. The SCVM approach to portable builds is based on the insertion of toolkit-interpretable directives into original application build scripts. Modifications resulting from these directives preserve the semantics of the original build instruction flow. The execution of the build script is controlled by our toolkit that intercepts build script commands in a manner transparent to the end-user. We have applied this approach to a scientific production code (Gamess-US) on the Cray-XT5 machine. The second facet, termed Unibus, aims to facilitate provisioning and aggregation of multifaceted resources from resource providers and end-users perspectives. To achieve that, Unibus proposes a Capability Model and mediators (resource drivers) to virtualize access to diverse resources, and soft and successive conditioning to enable automatic and user-transparent resource provisioning. A proof of concept implementation has demonstrated the viability of this approach on high end machines, grid systems and computing clouds.

  13. SAFAS: Unifying Form and Structure through Interactive 3D Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polys, Nicholas F.; Bacim, Felipe; Setareh, Mehdi; Jones, Brett D.

    2015-01-01

    There has been a significant gap between the tools used for the design of a building's architectural form and those that evaluate the structural physics of that form. Seeking to bring the perspectives of visual design and structural engineering closer together, we developed and evaluated a design tool for students and practitioners to explore the…

  14. A unified model of non-profit sport organizations performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Manu Claessens; Erik Thibaut; Mathieu Winand; Jeroen Scheerder; Steven Vos

    2014-01-01

    Little consensus has emerged about how organizational performance should be defined and measured. Most studies have used traditional approaches to give their own perspective about organizational performance and effectiveness, but none have recently tried to encompass these different views into one

  15. A Unified Graphical Representation of Chemical Thermodynamics and Equilibrium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, Robert M.

    2012-01-01

    During the years 1873-1879, J. Willard Gibbs published his now-famous set of articles that form the basis of the current perspective on chemical thermodynamics. The second article of this series, "A Method of Geometrical Representation of the Thermodynamic Properties of Substances by Means of Surfaces," published in 1873, is particularly notable…

  16. Unified Access Architecture for Large-Scale Scientific Datasets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karna, Risav

    2014-05-01

    Data-intensive sciences have to deploy diverse large scale database technologies for data analytics as scientists have now been dealing with much larger volume than ever before. While array databases have bridged many gaps between the needs of data-intensive research fields and DBMS technologies (Zhang 2011), invocation of other big data tools accompanying these databases is still manual and separate the database management's interface. We identify this as an architectural challenge that will increasingly complicate the user's work flow owing to the growing number of useful but isolated and niche database tools. Such use of data analysis tools in effect leaves the burden on the user's end to synchronize the results from other data manipulation analysis tools with the database management system. To this end, we propose a unified access interface for using big data tools within large scale scientific array database using the database queries themselves to embed foreign routines belonging to the big data tools. Such an invocation of foreign data manipulation routines inside a query into a database can be made possible through a user-defined function (UDF). UDFs that allow such levels of freedom as to call modules from another language and interface back and forth between the query body and the side-loaded functions would be needed for this purpose. For the purpose of this research we attempt coupling of four widely used tools Hadoop (hadoop1), Matlab (matlab1), R (r1) and ScaLAPACK (scalapack1) with UDF feature of rasdaman (Baumann 98), an array-based data manager, for investigating this concept. The native array data model used by an array-based data manager provides compact data storage and high performance operations on ordered data such as spatial data, temporal data, and matrix-based data for linear algebra operations (scidbusr1). Performances issues arising due to coupling of tools with different paradigms, niche functionalities, separate processes and output

  17. California State Waters Map Series: offshore of Tomales Point, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Samuel Y.; Dartnell, Peter; Golden, Nadine E.; Hartwell, Stephen R.; Greene, H. Gary; Erdey, Mercedes D.; Cochrane, Guy R.; Watt, Janet Tilden; Kvitek, Rikk G.; Manson, Michael W.; Endris, Charles A.; Dieter, Bryan E.; Krigsman, Lisa M.; Sliter, Ray W.; Lowe, Erik N.; Chinn, John L.; Johnson, Samuel Y.; Cochran, Susan A.

    2015-01-01

    In 2007, the California Ocean Protection Council initiated the California Seafloor Mapping Program (CSMP), designed to create a comprehensive seafloor map of high-resolution bathymetry, marine benthic habitats, and geology within the 3-nautical-mile limit of California’s State Waters. The CSMP approach is to create highly detailed seafloor maps through collection, integration, interpretation, and visualization of swath sonar data, acoustic backscatter, seafloor video, seafloor photography, high-resolution seismic-reflection profiles, and bottom-sediment sampling data. The map products display seafloor morphology and character, identify potential marine benthic habitats, and illustrate both the surficial seafloor geology and shallow (to about 200 m) subsurface geology.

  18. California State Waters Map Series: offshore of Salt Point, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Samuel Y.; Dartnell, Peter; Golden, Nadine E.; Hartwell, Stephen R.; Erdey, Mercedes D.; Greene, H. Gary; Cochrane, Guy R.; Kvitek, Rikk G.; Manson, Michael W.; Endris, Charles A.; Dieter, Bryan E.; Watt, Janet T.; Krigsman, Lisa M.; Sliter, Ray W.; Lowe, Erik N.; Chinn, John L.; Johnson, Samuel Y.; Cochran, Susan A.

    2015-01-01

    In 2007, the California Ocean Protection Council initiated the California Seafloor Mapping Program (CSMP), designed to create a comprehensive seafloor map of high-resolution bathymetry, marine benthic habitats, and geology within the 3-nautical-mile limit of California’s State Waters. The CSMP approach is to create highly detailed seafloor maps through collection, integration, interpretation, and visualization of swath sonar data, acoustic backscatter, seafloor video, seafloor photography, high-resolution seismic-reflection profiles, and bottom-sediment sampling data. The map products display seafloor morphology and character, identify potential marine benthic habitats, and illustrate both the surficial seafloor geology and shallow (to about 100 m) subsurface geology.

  19. California State Waters Map Series: offshore of Pacifica, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Brian D.; Phillips, Eleyne L.; Dartnell, Peter; Greene, H. Gary; Bretz, Carrie K.; Kvitek, Rikk G.; Hartwell, Stephen R.; Johnson, Samuel Y.; Cochrane, Guy R.; Dieter, Bryan E.; Sliter, Ray W.; Ross, Stephanie L.; Golden, Nadine E.; Watt, Janet Tilden; Chinn, John L.; Erdey, Mercedes D.; Krigsman, Lisa M.; Manson, Michael W.; Endris, Charles A.; Cochran, Susan A.; Edwards, Brian D.

    2015-01-01

    In 2007, the California Ocean Protection Council initiated the California Seafloor Mapping Program (CSMP), designed to create a comprehensive seafloor map of high-resolution bathymetry, marine benthic habitats, and geology within the 3-nautical-mile limit of California’s State Waters. The CSMP approach is to create highly detailed seafloor maps through collection, integration, interpretation, and visualization of swath sonar data, acoustic backscatter, seafloor video, seafloor photography, high-resolution seismic-reflection profiles, and bottom-sediment sampling data. The map products display seafloor morphology and character, identify potential marine benthic habitats, and illustrate both the surficial seafloor geology and shallow (to about 100 m) subsurface geology. 

  20. California State Waters Map Series: Drakes Bay and vicinity, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watt, Janet T.; Dartnell, Peter; Golden, Nadine E.; Greene, H. Gary; Erdey, Mercedes D.; Cochrane, Guy R.; Johnson, Samuel Y.; Hartwell, Stephen R.; Kvitek, Rikk G.; Manson, Michael W.; Endris, Charles A.; Dieter, Bryan E.; Sliter, Ray W.; Krigsman, Lisa M.; Lowe, Erik N.; Chinn, John L.; Watt, Janet T.; Cochran, Susan A.

    2015-01-01

    In 2007, the California Ocean Protection Council initiated the California Seafloor Mapping Program (CSMP), designed to create a comprehensive seafloor map of high-resolution bathymetry, marine benthic habitats, and geology within the 3-nautical-mile limit of California’s State Waters. The CSMP approach is to create highly detailed seafloor maps through collection, integration, interpretation, and visualization of swath sonar data, acoustic backscatter, seafloor video, seafloor photography, high-resolution seismic-reflection profiles, and bottom-sediment sampling data. The map products display seafloor morphology and character, identify potential marine benthic habitats, and illustrate both the surficial seafloor geology and shallow (to about 100 m) subsurface geology.

  1. California State Waters Map Series: offshore of Refugio Beach, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Samuel Y.; Dartnell, Peter; Cochrane, Guy R.; Golden, Nadine E.; Phillips, Eleyne L.; Ritchie, Andrew C.; Krigsman, Lisa M.; Dieter, Bryan E.; Conrad, James E.; Greene, H. Gary; Seitz, Gordon G.; Endris, Charles A.; Sliter, Ray W.; Wong, Florence L.; Erdey, Mercedes D.; Gutierrez, Carlos I.; Yoklavich, Mary M.; East, Amy E.; Hart, Patrick E.; Johnson, Samuel Y.; Cochran, Susan A.

    2015-01-01

    In 2007, the California Ocean Protection Council initiated the California Seafloor Mapping Program (CSMP), designed to create a comprehensive seafloor map of high-resolution bathymetry, marine benthic habitats, and geology within California’s State Waters. The CSMP approach is to create highly detailed seafloor maps through collection, integration, interpretation, and visualization of swath sonar data, acoustic backscatter, seafloor video, seafloor photography, high-resolution seismic-reflection profiles, and bottom-sediment sampling data. The map products display seafloor morphology and character, identify potential marine benthic habitats, and illustrate both the surficial seafloor geology and shallow (to about 100 m) subsurface geology.

  2. California State Waters Map Series: offshore of San Francisco, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cochrane, Guy R.; Johnson, Samuel Y.; Dartnell, Peter; Greene, H. Gary; Erdey, Mercedes D.; Golden, Nadine E.; Hartwell, Stephen R.; Endris, Charles A.; Manson, Michael W.; Sliter, Ray W.; Kvitek, Rikk G.; Watt, Janet Tilden; Ross, Stephanie L.; Bruns, Terry R.; Cochrane, Guy R.; Cochran, Susan A.

    2015-01-01

    In 2007, the California Ocean Protection Council initiated the California Seafloor Mapping Program (CSMP), designed to create a comprehensive seafloor map of high-resolution bathymetry, marine benthic habitats, and geology within California’s State Waters. The CSMP approach is to create highly detailed seafloor maps through collection, integration, interpretation, and visualization of swath sonar data, acoustic backscatter, seafloor video, seafloor photography, high-resolution seismic-reflection profiles, and bottom-sediment sampling data. The map products display seafloor morphology and character, identify potential marine benthic habitats, and illustrate both the surficial seafloor geology and shallow (to about 100 m) subsurface geology.

  3. Towards a unified Global Weather-Climate Prediction System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, S. J.

    2016-12-01

    The Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory has been developing a unified regional-global modeling system with variable resolution capabilities that can be used for severe weather predictions and kilometer scale regional climate simulations within a unified global modeling system. The foundation of this flexible modeling system is the nonhydrostatic Finite-Volume Dynamical Core on the Cubed-Sphere (FV3). A unique aspect of FV3 is that it is "vertically Lagrangian" (Lin 2004), essentially reducing the equation sets to two dimensions, and is the single most important reason why FV3 outperforms other non-hydrostatic cores. Owning to its accuracy, adaptability, and computational efficiency, the FV3 has been selected as the "engine" for NOAA's Next Generation Global Prediction System (NGGPS). We have built into the modeling system a stretched grid, a two-way regional-global nested grid, and an optimal combination of the stretched and two-way nests capability, making kilometer-scale regional simulations within a global modeling system feasible. Our main scientific goal is to enable simulations of high impact weather phenomena (such as tornadoes, thunderstorms, category-5 hurricanes) within an IPCC-class climate modeling system previously regarded as impossible. In this presentation I will demonstrate that, with the FV3, it is computationally feasible to simulate not only super-cell thunderstorms, but also the subsequent genesis of tornado-like vortices using a global model that was originally designed for climate simulations. The development and tuning strategy between traditional weather and climate models are fundamentally different due to different metrics. We were able to adapt and use traditional "climate" metrics or standards, such as angular momentum conservation, energy conservation, and flux balance at top of the atmosphere, and gain insight into problems of traditional weather prediction model for medium-range weather prediction, and vice versa. Therefore, the

  4. Exoplanet modelling with the Met Office Unified Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boutle, Ian; Lines, Stefan; Mayne, Nathan; Lee, Graham; Helling, Christiane; Drummond, Ben; Manners, James; Goyal, Jayesh; Lambert, Hugo; Acreman, David; Earnshaw, Paul; Amundsen, David; Baraffe, Isabelle

    2017-04-01

    This talk will present an overview of work being done to adapt the Unified Model, one of the most sophisticated weather and climate models of this planet, into a flexible planet simulator for use in the study of any exoplanet. We will focus on two current projects: Clouds in hot Jupiter atmospheres - recent HST observations have revealed a continuum in atmospheric composition from cloudy to clear skies. The presence of clouds is inferred from a grey opacity in the near-IR that mutes key absorption features in the transmission spectra. Unlike the L-T Brown Dwarf sequence, this transition does not correlate well with equilibrium temperature, suggesting that a cloud formation scheme more comprehensive than simply considering the condensation temperature needed for homogenous cloud growth, is required. In our work, we conduct 3D simulations of cloud nucleation, growth, advection, evaporation and gravitational settling in the atmospheres of HD209458b and HD189733 using the kinetic and mixed-grain cloud formation code DIHRT, coupled to the Unified Model. We explore cloud composition, vertical structure and particle sizes, as well as highlighting the importance of the strong atmospheric dynamics seen in tidally locked hot Jupiters on the evolution and distribution of the cloud. Climate of Proxima B - we present results of simulations of the climate of the newly discovered planet Proxima Centauri B, examining the responses of both an `Earth-like' atmosphere and simplified nitrogen and trace carbon dioxide atmosphere to the radiation likely received. Overall, our results are in agreement with previous studies in suggesting Proxima Centauri B may well have surface temperatures conducive to the presence of liquid water. Moreover, we have expanded the parameter regime over which the planet may support liquid water to higher values of eccentricity and lower incident fluxes, guided by observational constraints. This increased parameter space arises because of the low sensitivity

  5. Teale California Office of Emergency Services

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — California Spatial Information System (CaSIL) is a project designed to improve access to geo-spatial and geo-spatial related data information throughout the state of...

  6. California Least Tern Breeding Survey 1992 Season

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — In 1992, approximately 2,106 pairs of the endangered California Least Tern (Sterna antillarum browni) nested at 38 sites along the coast of California, from the San...

  7. California Geological Survey Geologic Map Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — All the individual maps from the Geologic Atlas of California and the Regional Geologic map series have been georeferenced for display in a GIS (and viewable online...

  8. Teale Urband and rural areas of California

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — California Spatial Information System (CaSIL) is a project designed to improve access to geo-spatial and geo-spatial related data information throughout the state of...

  9. Missing Linkages in California's Landscape [ds420

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — The critical need for conserving landscape linkages first came to the forefront of conservation thinking in California in November 2000, when a statewide interagency...

  10. Libraries in California: MedlinePlus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: https://medlineplus.gov/libraries/california.html Libraries in California To use the sharing features on ... page, please enable JavaScript. Alameda Alameda Hospital Medical Library 2070 Clinton Avenue Alameda, CA 94501 510-522- ...

  11. California Least Tern Breeding Survey 1996 Season

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — In 1996, 3330-3392 pairs of the endangered California least tern (Sterna antillarum browni) nested at 35 sites along the coast of California. This 29% increase in...

  12. California Least Tern Breeding Survey 1994 Season

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — In 1994, a minimum of approximately 2,792 pairs of the endangered California least tern (Sterna antillarum browni) nested at 36 sites along the coast of California....

  13. 78 FR 77447 - California Wind Energy Association, First Solar, Inc. v. California Independent System Operator...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-23

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission California Wind Energy Association, First Solar, Inc. v. California Independent System Operator Corporation, Southern California Edison Company; Notice of Complaint Take notice... Practice and Procedure, 18 CFR 385.206 (2013), California Wind Energy Association and First Solar, Inc...

  14. The California stream quality assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Metre, Peter C.; Egler, Amanda L.; May, Jason T.

    2017-03-06

    In 2017, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) project is assessing stream quality in coastal California, United States. The USGS California Stream Quality Assessment (CSQA) will sample streams over most of the Central California Foothills and Coastal Mountains ecoregion (modified from Griffith and others, 2016), where rapid urban growth and intensive agriculture in the larger river valleys are raising concerns that stream health is being degraded. Findings will provide the public and policy-makers with information regarding which human and natural factors are the most critical in affecting stream quality and, thus, provide insights about possible approaches to protect the health of streams in the region.

  15. Baja California: literatura y frontera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Trujillo Muñoz

    2014-06-01

    Baja California is a region that not only has migration problems and criminal violence because of the war of drugs or is a space of border conflicts in close neighborhood with the United States of America. Baja California is too a geographic space of culture and art, of creative writing and struggle to narrate the things and persons that here live, a plain sight, like their house, like their home, like a center of creation. This text give a cultural context of the border literature in the north of Mexico like a phenomenon in notice because his own merits, books and writers.

  16. Baja California: literatura y frontera

    OpenAIRE

    Gabriel Trujillo Muñoz

    2014-01-01

    Baja California es una región donde no sólo hay problemas migratorios y violencia criminal por la guerra contra las drogas o es un espacio de conflictos fronterizos por estar situada en vecindad con los Estados Unidos de América. Baja California es también un lugar de cultura y de arte, de escritura creativa y de lucha por narrar sobre las cosas y las personas que vive aquí, a plena vista, como su casa, como su hogar, como su centro de creación. Este texto da un contexto cultural a la literat...

  17. Incremental and unifying modelling formalism for biological interaction networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Képès François

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background An appropriate choice of the modeling formalism from the broad range of existing ones may be crucial for efficiently describing and analyzing biological systems. Results We propose a new unifying and incremental formalism for the representation and modeling of biological interaction networks. This formalism allows automated translations into other formalisms, thus enabling a thorough study of the dynamic properties of a biological system. As a first illustration, we propose a translation into the R. Thomas' multivalued logical formalism which provides a possible semantics; a methodology for constructing such models is presented on a classical benchmark: the λ phage genetic switch. We also show how to extract from our model a classical ODE description of the dynamics of a system. Conclusion This approach provides an additional level of description between the biological and mathematical ones. It yields, on the one hand, a knowledge expression in a form which is intuitive for biologists and, on the other hand, its representation in a formal and structured way.

  18. Towards A Unified HFE Process For The Nuclear Industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacques Hugo

    2012-07-01

    As nuclear power utilities embark on projects to upgrade and modernize power plants, they are likely to discover that traditional engineering methods do not typically make provision for the integration of human considerations. In addition, human factors professionals will find that traditional human performance methods such as function allocation, task analysis, human reliability analysis and human-machine interface design do not scale well to the complexity of a large-scale nuclear power upgrade project. Up-to-date human factors engineering processes, methods, techniques and tools are required to perform these kinds of analyses. This need is recognized widely in industry and an important part of the Department of Energy’s Light Water Reactor Sustainability Program deals with identifying potential impacts of emerging technologies on human performance and the technical bases needed to address them. However, so far no formal initiative has been launched to deal with the lack of integrated processes. Although human factors integration frameworks do exist in industries such as aviation or defense, no formal integrated human factors process exists in the nuclear industry. As a first step towards creating such a process, a “unified human factors engineering process” is proposed as a framework within which engineering organizations, human factors practitioners and regulatory bodies can ensure that human factors requirements are embedded in engineering activities throughout the upgrade project life cycle.

  19. A unified phylogeny-based nomenclature for histone variants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talbert, Paul B; Ahmad, Kami; Almouzni, Geneviève; Ausió, Juan; Berger, Frederic; Bhalla, Prem L; Bonner, William M; Cande, W Zacheus; Chadwick, Brian P; Chan, Simon W L; Cross, George A M; Cui, Liwang; Dimitrov, Stefan I; Doenecke, Detlef; Eirin-López, José M; Gorovsky, Martin A; Hake, Sandra B; Hamkalo, Barbara A; Holec, Sarah; Jacobsen, Steven E; Kamieniarz, Kinga; Khochbin, Saadi; Ladurner, Andreas G; Landsman, David; Latham, John A; Loppin, Benjamin; Malik, Harmit S; Marzluff, William F; Pehrson, John R; Postberg, Jan; Schneider, Robert; Singh, Mohan B; Smith, M Mitchell; Thompson, Eric; Torres-Padilla, Maria-Elena; Tremethick, David John; Turner, Bryan M; Waterborg, Jakob Harm; Wollmann, Heike; Yelagandula, Ramesh; Zhu, Bing; Henikoff, Steven

    2012-06-21

    Histone variants are non-allelic protein isoforms that play key roles in diversifying chromatin structure. The known number of such variants has greatly increased in recent years, but the lack of naming conventions for them has led to a variety of naming styles, multiple synonyms and misleading homographs that obscure variant relationships and complicate database searches. We propose here a unified nomenclature for variants of all five classes of histones that uses consistent but flexible naming conventions to produce names that are informative and readily searchable. The nomenclature builds on historical usage and incorporates phylogenetic relationships, which are strong predictors of structure and function. A key feature is the consistent use of punctuation to represent phylogenetic divergence, making explicit the relationships among variant subtypes that have previously been implicit or unclear. We recommend that by default new histone variants be named with organism-specific paralog-number suffixes that lack phylogenetic implication, while letter suffixes be reserved for structurally distinct clades of variants. For clarity and searchability, we encourage the use of descriptors that are separate from the phylogeny-based variant name to indicate developmental and other properties of variants that may be independent of structure.

  20. Unifying sources and sinks in ecology and Earth sciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loreau, Michel; Daufresne, Tanguy; Gonzalez, Andrew; Gravel, Dominique; Guichard, Frédéric; Leroux, Shawn J; Loeuille, Nicolas; Massol, François; Mouquet, Nicolas

    2013-05-01

    The paired source and sink concepts are used increasingly in ecology and Earth sciences, but they have evolved in divergent directions, hampering communication across disciplines. We propose a conceptual framework that unifies existing definitions, and review their most significant consequences for the various disciplines. A general definition of the source and sink concepts that transcends disciplines is based on net flows between the components of a system: a source is a subsystem that is a net exporter of some living or non-living entities of interest, and a sink is a net importer of these entities. Sources and sinks can further be classified as conditional and unconditional, depending on the intrinsic propensity of subsystems to either produce (source) or absorb (sink) a surplus of these entities under some (conditional) or all (unconditional) conditions. The distinction between conditional and unconditional sources and sinks, however, is strongly context dependent. Sources can turn into sinks, and vice versa, when the context is changed, when systems are subject to temporal fluctuations or evolution, or when they are considered at different spatial and temporal scales. The conservation of ecosystem services requires careful consideration of the source-sink dynamics of multiple ecosystem components. Our synthesis shows that source-sink dynamics has profound consequences for our ability to understand, predict, and manage species and ecosystems in heterogeneous landscapes. © 2012 The Authors. Biological Reviews © 2012 Cambridge Philosophical Society.

  1. Unifying darko-lepto-genesis with scalar triplet inflation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arina, Chiara, E-mail: chiara.arina@physik.rwth-aachen.de [Institut fuer Theoretische Teilchenphysik und Kosmologie, RWTH Aachen, 52056 Aachen (Germany); Gong, Jinn-Ouk, E-mail: jinn-ouk.gong@cern.ch [Theory Division, CERN, CH-1211 Geneve 23 (Switzerland); Sahu, Narendra, E-mail: nsahu@iith.ac.in [Department of Physics, IIT Hyderabad, Yeddumailaram 502 205, Andhra Pradesh (India)

    2012-12-21

    We present a scalar triplet extension of the standard model to unify the origin of inflation with neutrino mass, asymmetric dark matter and leptogenesis. In presence of non-minimal couplings to gravity the scalar triplet, mixed with the standard model Higgs, plays the role of inflaton in the early Universe, while its decay to SM Higgs, lepton and dark matter simultaneously generate an asymmetry in the visible and dark matter sectors. On the other hand, in the low energy effective theory the induced vacuum expectation value of the triplet gives sub-eV Majorana masses to active neutrinos. We investigate the model parameter space leading to successful inflation as well as the observed dark matter to baryon abundance. Assuming the standard model like Higgs mass to be at 125-126 GeV, we found that the mass scale of the scalar triplet to be Less-Than-Or-Equivalent-To O(10{sup 9}) GeV and its trilinear coupling to doublet Higgs is Less-Than-Or-Equivalent-To 0.09 so that it not only evades the possibility of having a metastable vacuum in the standard model, but also lead to a rich phenomenological consequences as stated above. Moreover, we found that the scalar triplet inflation strongly constrains the quartic couplings, while allowing for a wide range of Yukawa couplings which generate the CP asymmetries in the visible and dark matter sectors.

  2. HUDU: The Hanford Unified Dose Utility computer code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scherpelz, R.I.

    1991-02-01

    The Hanford Unified Dose Utility (HUDU) computer program was developed to provide rapid initial assessment of radiological emergency situations. The HUDU code uses a straight-line Gaussian atmospheric dispersion model to estimate the transport of radionuclides released from an accident site. For dose points on the plume centerline, it calculates internal doses due to inhalation and external doses due to exposure to the plume. The program incorporates a number of features unique to the Hanford Site (operated by the US Department of Energy), including a library of source terms derived from various facilities' safety analysis reports. The HUDU code was designed to run on an IBM-PC or compatible personal computer. The user interface was designed for fast and easy operation with minimal user training. The theoretical basis and mathematical models used in the HUDU computer code are described, as are the computer code itself and the data libraries used. Detailed instructions for operating the code are also included. Appendices to the report contain descriptions of the program modules, listings of HUDU's data library, and descriptions of the verification tests that were run as part of the code development. 14 refs., 19 figs., 2 tabs.

  3. A unified model of the standard genetic code.

    Science.gov (United States)

    José, Marco V; Zamudio, Gabriel S; Morgado, Eberto R

    2017-03-01

    The Rodin-Ohno (RO) and the Delarue models divide the table of the genetic code into two classes of aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases (aaRSs I and II) with recognition from the minor or major groove sides of the tRNA acceptor stem, respectively. These models are asymmetric but they are biologically meaningful. On the other hand, the standard genetic code (SGC) can be derived from the primeval RNY code (R stands for purines, Y for pyrimidines and N any of them). In this work, the RO-model is derived by means of group actions, namely, symmetries represented by automorphisms, assuming that the SGC originated from a primeval RNY code. It turns out that the RO-model is symmetric in a six-dimensional (6D) hypercube. Conversely, using the same automorphisms, we show that the RO-model can lead to the SGC. In addition, the asymmetric Delarue model becomes symmetric by means of quotient group operations. We formulate isometric functions that convert the class aaRS I into the class aaRS II and vice versa. We show that the four polar requirement categories display a symmetrical arrangement in our 6D hypercube. Altogether these results cannot be attained, neither in two nor in three dimensions. We discuss the present unified 6D algebraic model, which is compatible with both the SGC (based upon the primeval RNY code) and the RO-model.

  4. Special functions of mathematical physics a unified introduction with applications

    CERN Document Server

    Nikiforov, Arnold F

    1988-01-01

    With students of Physics chiefly in mind, we have collected the material on special functions that is most important in mathematical physics and quan­ tum mechanics. We have not attempted to provide the most extensive collec­ tion possible of information about special functions, but have set ourselves the task of finding an exposition which, based on a unified approach, ensures the possibility of applying the theory in other natural sciences, since it pro­ vides a simple and effective method for the independent solution of problems that arise in practice in physics, engineering and mathematics. For the American edition we have been able to improve a number of proofs; in particular, we have given a new proof of the basic theorem (§3). This is the fundamental theorem of the book; it has now been extended to cover difference equations of hypergeometric type (§§12, 13). Several sections have been simplified and contain new material. We believe that this is the first time that the theory of classical or­ th...

  5. Many regression algorithms, one unified model: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stulp, Freek; Sigaud, Olivier

    2015-09-01

    Regression is the process of learning relationships between inputs and continuous outputs from example data, which enables predictions for novel inputs. The history of regression is closely related to the history of artificial neural networks since the seminal work of Rosenblatt (1958). The aims of this paper are to provide an overview of many regression algorithms, and to demonstrate how the function representation whose parameters they regress fall into two classes: a weighted sum of basis functions, or a mixture of linear models. Furthermore, we show that the former is a special case of the latter. Our ambition is thus to provide a deep understanding of the relationship between these algorithms, that, despite being derived from very different principles, use a function representation that can be captured within one unified model. Finally, step-by-step derivations of the algorithms from first principles and visualizations of their inner workings allow this article to be used as a tutorial for those new to regression. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Paint and Click: Unified Interactions for Image Boundaries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Summa, B. [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States). Scientific Computing and Imaging (SCI) Inst.; Gooch, A. A. [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States). Scientific Computing and Imaging (SCI) Inst.; Scorzelli, G. [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States). Scientific Computing and Imaging (SCI) Inst.; Pascucci, V. [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States). Scientific Computing and Imaging (SCI) Inst.

    2015-06-22

    Image boundaries are a fundamental component of many interactive digital photography techniques, enabling applications such as segmentation, panoramas, and seamless image composition. Interactions for image boundaries often rely on two complementary but separate approaches: editing via painting or clicking constraints. In this work, we provide a novel, unified approach for interactive editing of pairwise image boundaries that combines the ease of painting with the direct control of constraints. Rather than a sequential coupling, this new formulation allows full use of both interactions simultaneously, giving users unprecedented flexibility for fast boundary editing. To enable this new approach, we provide technical advancements. In particular, we detail a reformulation of image boundaries as a problem of finding cycles, expanding and correcting limitations of the previous work. Our new formulation provides boundary solutions for painted regions with performance on par with state-of-the-art specialized, paint-only techniques. In addition, we provide instantaneous exploration of the boundary solution space with user constraints. Finally, we provide examples of common graphics applications impacted by our new approach.

  7. A unified approach for the spatial enhancement of sound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Joung-Woo; Jang, Ji-Ho; Kim, Yang-Hann

    2005-09-01

    This paper aims to control the sound field spatially, so that the desired or target acoustic variable is enhanced within a zone where a listener is located. This is somewhat analogous to having manipulators that can draw sounds in any place. This also means that one can somehow see the controlled shape of sound in frequency or in real time. The former assures its practical applicability, for example, listening zone control for music. The latter provides a mean of analyzing sound field. With all these regards, a unified approach is proposed that can enhance selected acoustic variables using multiple sources. Three kinds of acoustic variables that have to do with magnitude and direction of sound field are formulated and enhanced. The first one, which has to do with the spatial control of acoustic potential energy, enables one to make a zone of loud sound over an area. Otherwise, one can control directional characteristic of sound field by controlling directional energy density, or one can enhance the magnitude and direction of sound at the same time by controlling acoustic intensity. Throughout various examples, it is shown that these acoustic variables can be controlled successfully by the proposed approach.

  8. Mapping the gene ontology into the unified medical language system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lomax, Jane; McCray, Alexa T

    2004-01-01

    We have recently mapped the Gene Ontology (GO), developed by the Gene Ontology Consortium, into the National Library of Medicine's Unified Medical Language System (UMLS). GO has been developed for the purpose of annotating gene products in genome databases, and the UMLS has been developed as a framework for integrating large numbers of disparate terminologies, primarily for the purpose of providing better access to biomedical information sources. The mapping of GO to UMLS highlighted issues in both terminology systems. After some initial explorations and discussions between the UMLS and GO teams, the GO was integrated with the UMLS. Overall, a total of 23% of the GO terms either matched directly (3%) or linked (20%) to existing UMLS concepts. All GO terms now have a corresponding, official UMLS concept, and the entire vocabulary is available through the web-based UMLS Knowledge Source Server. The mapping of the Gene Ontology, with its focus on structures, processes and functions at the molecular level, to the existing broad coverage UMLS should contribute to linking the language and practices of clinical medicine to the language and practices of genomics.

  9. The Unified Medical Language System (UMLS): integrating biomedical terminology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodenreider, Olivier

    2004-01-01

    The Unified Medical Language System (http://umlsks.nlm.nih.gov) is a repository of biomedical vocabularies developed by the US National Library of Medicine. The UMLS integrates over 2 million names for some 900,000 concepts from more than 60 families of biomedical vocabularies, as well as 12 million relations among these concepts. Vocabularies integrated in the UMLS Metathesaurus include the NCBI taxonomy, Gene Ontology, the Medical Subject Headings (MeSH), OMIM and the Digital Anatomist Symbolic Knowledge Base. UMLS concepts are not only inter-related, but may also be linked to external resources such as GenBank. In addition to data, the UMLS includes tools for customizing the Metathesaurus (MetamorphoSys), for generating lexical variants of concept names (lvg) and for extracting UMLS concepts from text (MetaMap). The UMLS knowledge sources are updated quarterly. All vocabularies are available at no fee for research purposes within an institution, but UMLS users are required to sign a license agreement. The UMLS knowledge sources are distributed on CD-ROM and by FTP.

  10. The Unified Medical Language System: an informatics research collaboration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphreys, B L; Lindberg, D A; Schoolman, H M; Barnett, G O

    1998-01-01

    In 1986, the National Library of Medicine (NLM) assembled a large multidisciplinary, multisite team to work on the Unified Medical Language System (UMLS), a collaborative research project aimed at reducing fundamental barriers to the application of computers to medicine. Beyond its tangible products, the UMLS Knowledge Sources, and its influence on the field of informatics, the UMLS project is an interesting case study in collaborative research and development. It illustrates the strengths and challenges of substantive collaboration among widely distributed research groups. Over the past decade, advances in computing and communications have minimized the technical difficulties associated with UMLS collaboration and also facilitated the development, dissemination, and use of the UMLS Knowledge Sources. The spread of the World Wide Web has increased the visibility of the information access problems caused by multiple vocabularies and many information sources which are the focus of UMLS work. The time is propitious for building on UMLS accomplishments and making more progress on the informatics research issues first highlighted by the UMLS project more than 10 years ago.

  11. A Goddard Multi-Scale Modeling System with Unified Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Wei-Kuo

    2010-01-01

    A multi-scale modeling system with unified physics has been developed at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC). The system consists of an MMF, the coupled NASA Goddard finite-volume GCM (fvGCM) and Goddard Cumulus Ensemble model (GCE, a CRM); the state-of-the-art Weather Research and Forecasting model (WRF) and the stand alone GCE. These models can share the same microphysical schemes, radiation (including explicitly calculated cloud optical properties), and surface models that have been developed, improved and tested for different environments. In this talk, I will present: (1) A brief review on GCE model and its applications on the impact of the aerosol on deep precipitation processes, (2) The Goddard MMF and the major difference between two existing MMFs (CSU MMF and Goddard MMF), and preliminary results (the comparison with traditional GCMs), and (3) A discussion on the Goddard WRF version (its developments and applications). We are also performing the inline tracer calculation to comprehend the physical processes (i.e., boundary layer and each quadrant in the boundary layer) related to the development and structure of hurricanes and mesoscale convective systems. In addition, high - resolution (spatial. 2km, and temporal, I minute) visualization showing the model results will be presented.

  12. A unified anatomy ontology of the vertebrate skeletal system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahdul, Wasila M; Balhoff, James P; Blackburn, David C; Diehl, Alexander D; Haendel, Melissa A; Hall, Brian K; Lapp, Hilmar; Lundberg, John G; Mungall, Christopher J; Ringwald, Martin; Segerdell, Erik; Van Slyke, Ceri E; Vickaryous, Matthew K; Westerfield, Monte; Mabee, Paula M

    2012-01-01

    The skeleton is of fundamental importance in research in comparative vertebrate morphology, paleontology, biomechanics, developmental biology, and systematics. Motivated by research questions that require computational access to and comparative reasoning across the diverse skeletal phenotypes of vertebrates, we developed a module of anatomical concepts for the skeletal system, the Vertebrate Skeletal Anatomy Ontology (VSAO), to accommodate and unify the existing skeletal terminologies for the species-specific (mouse, the frog Xenopus, zebrafish) and multispecies (teleost, amphibian) vertebrate anatomy ontologies. Previous differences between these terminologies prevented even simple queries across databases pertaining to vertebrate morphology. This module of upper-level and specific skeletal terms currently includes 223 defined terms and 179 synonyms that integrate skeletal cells, tissues, biological processes, organs (skeletal elements such as bones and cartilages), and subdivisions of the skeletal system. The VSAO is designed to integrate with other ontologies, including the Common Anatomy Reference Ontology (CARO), Gene Ontology (GO), Uberon, and Cell Ontology (CL), and it is freely available to the community to be updated with additional terms required for research. Its structure accommodates anatomical variation among vertebrate species in development, structure, and composition. Annotation of diverse vertebrate phenotypes with this ontology will enable novel inquiries across the full spectrum of phenotypic diversity.

  13. A unified proxy for ENSO and PDO variability since 1650

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. McGregor

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In this manuscript we have attempted to consolidate the common signal in previously defined proxy reconstructions of the El Niño-Southern Oscillation into one individual proxy titled the Unified ENSO Proxy (UEP. While correlating well with the majority of input reconstructions, the UEP provides better representation of observed indices of ENSO, discrete ENSO events and documented historical chronologies of ENSO than any of these input ENSO reconstructions. Further to this, the UEP also provides a means to reconstruct the PDO/IPO multi-decadal variability of the Pacific Ocean as the low-pass filtered UEP displays multi-decadal variability that is consistent with the 20th century variability of the PDO and IPO. The UEP is then used to describe changes in ENSO variability which have occurred since 1650 focusing on changes in ENSOs variance, multi-year ENSO events, PDO-like multi-decadal variability and the effects of volcanic and solar forcing on ENSO. We find that multi-year El Niño events similar to the 1990–1995 event have occurred several times over the last 3 1/2 centuries. Consistent with earlier studies we find that volcanic forcing can induce a statistically significant change in the mean state of ENSO in the year of the eruption and a doubling of the probability of an El Niño (La Niña event occurring in the year of (three years after the eruption.

  14. A unified anatomy ontology of the vertebrate skeletal system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wasila M Dahdul

    Full Text Available The skeleton is of fundamental importance in research in comparative vertebrate morphology, paleontology, biomechanics, developmental biology, and systematics. Motivated by research questions that require computational access to and comparative reasoning across the diverse skeletal phenotypes of vertebrates, we developed a module of anatomical concepts for the skeletal system, the Vertebrate Skeletal Anatomy Ontology (VSAO, to accommodate and unify the existing skeletal terminologies for the species-specific (mouse, the frog Xenopus, zebrafish and multispecies (teleost, amphibian vertebrate anatomy ontologies. Previous differences between these terminologies prevented even simple queries across databases pertaining to vertebrate morphology. This module of upper-level and specific skeletal terms currently includes 223 defined terms and 179 synonyms that integrate skeletal cells, tissues, biological processes, organs (skeletal elements such as bones and cartilages, and subdivisions of the skeletal system. The VSAO is designed to integrate with other ontologies, including the Common Anatomy Reference Ontology (CARO, Gene Ontology (GO, Uberon, and Cell Ontology (CL, and it is freely available to the community to be updated with additional terms required for research. Its structure accommodates anatomical variation among vertebrate species in development, structure, and composition. Annotation of diverse vertebrate phenotypes with this ontology will enable novel inquiries across the full spectrum of phenotypic diversity.

  15. Unifying Rigid and Soft Bodies Representation: The Sulfur Physics Engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dario Maggiorini

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Video games are (also real-time interactive graphic simulations: hence, providing a convincing physics simulation for each specific game environment is of paramount importance in the process of achieving a satisfying player experience. While the existing game engines appropriately address many aspects of physics simulation, some others are still in need of improvements. In particular, several specific physics properties of bodies not usually involved in the main game mechanics (e.g., properties useful to represent systems composed by soft bodies, are often poorly rendered by general-purpose engines. This issue may limit game designers when imagining innovative and compelling video games and game mechanics. For this reason, we dug into the problem of appropriately representing soft bodies. Subsequently, we have extended the approach developed for soft bodies to rigid ones, proposing and developing a unified approach in a game engine: Sulfur. To test the engine, we have also designed and developed “Escape from Quaoar,” a prototypal video game whose main game mechanic exploits an elastic rope, and a level editor for the game.

  16. Unified limiting form of graviton radiation at extreme energies

    CERN Document Server

    Ciafaloni, Marcello; Coradeschi, Francesco; Veneziano, Gabriele

    2016-01-01

    We derive the limiting form of graviton radiation in gravitational scattering at transplanckian energies ($E\\gg M_P$) and small deflection angles. We show that --- owing to the graviton's spin 2 --- such limiting form unifies the soft- and Regge- regimes of emission, by covering a broad angular range, from forward fragmentation to deeply central region. The single-exchange emission amplitudes have a nice expression in terms of the transformation phases of helicity amplitudes under rotations. As a result, the multiple-exchange emission amplitudes can be resummed via an impact parameter $b$-space factorization theorem that takes into account all coherence effects. We then see the emergence of an energy spectrum of the emitted radiation which, being tuned on $\\hbar/R \\sim M_P^2/E \\ll M_P$, is reminiscent of Hawking's radiation. Such a spectrum is much softer than the one na\\"ively expected for increasing input energies and neatly solves a potential energy crisis. Furthermore, by including rescattering correction...

  17. Rosen's (M,R) system in Unified Modelling Language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ling; Williams, Richard A; Gatherer, Derek

    2016-01-01

    Robert Rosen's (M,R) system is an abstract biological network architecture that is allegedly non-computable on a Turing machine. If (M,R) is truly non-computable, there are serious implications for the modelling of large biological networks in computer software. A body of work has now accumulated addressing Rosen's claim concerning (M,R) by attempting to instantiate it in various software systems. However, a conclusive refutation has remained elusive, principally since none of the attempts to date have unambiguously avoided the critique that they have altered the properties of (M,R) in the coding process, producing merely approximate simulations of (M,R) rather than true computational models. In this paper, we use the Unified Modelling Language (UML), a diagrammatic notation standard, to express (M,R) as a system of objects having attributes, functions and relations. We believe that this instantiates (M,R) in such a way than none of the original properties of the system are corrupted in the process. Crucially, we demonstrate that (M,R) as classically represented in the relational biology literature is implicitly a UML communication diagram. Furthermore, since UML is formally compatible with object-oriented computing languages, instantiation of (M,R) in UML strongly implies its computability in object-oriented coding languages. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Toward a unified theory of efficient, predictive, and sparse coding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalk, Matthew; Marre, Olivier; Tkačik, Gašper

    2018-01-02

    A central goal in theoretical neuroscience is to predict the response properties of sensory neurons from first principles. To this end, "efficient coding" posits that sensory neurons encode maximal information about their inputs given internal constraints. There exist, however, many variants of efficient coding (e.g., redundancy reduction, different formulations of predictive coding, robust coding, sparse coding, etc.), differing in their regimes of applicability, in the relevance of signals to be encoded, and in the choice of constraints. It is unclear how these types of efficient coding relate or what is expected when different coding objectives are combined. Here we present a unified framework that encompasses previously proposed efficient coding models and extends to unique regimes. We show that optimizing neural responses to encode predictive information can lead them to either correlate or decorrelate their inputs, depending on the stimulus statistics; in contrast, at low noise, efficiently encoding the past always predicts decorrelation. Later, we investigate coding of naturalistic movies and show that qualitatively different types of visual motion tuning and levels of response sparsity are predicted, depending on whether the objective is to recover the past or predict the future. Our approach promises a way to explain the observed diversity of sensory neural responses, as due to multiple functional goals and constraints fulfilled by different cell types and/or circuits.

  19. A unifying fractional wave equation for compressional and shear waves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holm, Sverre; Sinkus, Ralph

    2010-01-01

    This study has been motivated by the observed difference in the range of the power-law attenuation exponent for compressional and shear waves. Usually compressional attenuation increases with frequency to a power between 1 and 2, while shear wave attenuation often is described with powers less than 1. Another motivation is the apparent lack of partial differential equations with desirable properties such as causality that describe such wave propagation. Starting with a constitutive equation which is a generalized Hooke's law with a loss term containing a fractional derivative, one can derive a causal fractional wave equation previously given by Caputo [Geophys J. R. Astron. Soc. 13, 529-539 (1967)] and Wismer [J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 120, 3493-3502 (2006)]. In the low omegatau (low-frequency) case, this equation has an attenuation with a power-law in the range from 1 to 2. This is consistent with, e.g., attenuation in tissue. In the often neglected high omegatau (high-frequency) case, it describes attenuation with a power-law between 0 and 1, consistent with what is observed in, e.g., dynamic elastography. Thus a unifying wave equation derived properly from constitutive equations can describe both cases.

  20. Medical Imaging Lesion Detection Based on Unified Gravitational Fuzzy Clustering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Marie Vianney Kinani

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We develop a swift, robust, and practical tool for detecting brain lesions with minimal user intervention to assist clinicians and researchers in the diagnosis process, radiosurgery planning, and assessment of the patient’s response to the therapy. We propose a unified gravitational fuzzy clustering-based segmentation algorithm, which integrates the Newtonian concept of gravity into fuzzy clustering. We first perform fuzzy rule-based image enhancement on our database which is comprised of T1/T2 weighted magnetic resonance (MR and fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR images to facilitate a smoother segmentation. The scalar output obtained is fed into a gravitational fuzzy clustering algorithm, which separates healthy structures from the unhealthy. Finally, the lesion contour is automatically outlined through the initialization-free level set evolution method. An advantage of this lesion detection algorithm is its precision and its simultaneous use of features computed from the intensity properties of the MR scan in a cascading pattern, which makes the computation fast, robust, and self-contained. Furthermore, we validate our algorithm with large-scale experiments using clinical and synthetic brain lesion datasets. As a result, an 84%–93% overlap performance is obtained, with an emphasis on robustness with respect to different and heterogeneous types of lesion and a swift computation time.

  1. A unified phylogeny-based nomenclature for histone variants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Talbert Paul B

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Histone variants are non-allelic protein isoforms that play key roles in diversifying chromatin structure. The known number of such variants has greatly increased in recent years, but the lack of naming conventions for them has led to a variety of naming styles, multiple synonyms and misleading homographs that obscure variant relationships and complicate database searches. We propose here a unified nomenclature for variants of all five classes of histones that uses consistent but flexible naming conventions to produce names that are informative and readily searchable. The nomenclature builds on historical usage and incorporates phylogenetic relationships, which are strong predictors of structure and function. A key feature is the consistent use of punctuation to represent phylogenetic divergence, making explicit the relationships among variant subtypes that have previously been implicit or unclear. We recommend that by default new histone variants be named with organism-specific paralog-number suffixes that lack phylogenetic implication, while letter suffixes be reserved for structurally distinct clades of variants. For clarity and searchability, we encourage the use of descriptors that are separate from the phylogeny-based variant name to indicate developmental and other properties of variants that may be independent of structure.

  2. A movement ecology paradigm for unifying organismal movement research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nathan, Ran; Getz, Wayne M.; Revilla, Eloy; Holyoak, Marcel; Kadmon, Ronen; Saltz, David; Smouse, Peter E.

    2008-01-01

    Movement of individual organisms is fundamental to life, quilting our planet in a rich tapestry of phenomena with diverse implications for ecosystems and humans. Movement research is both plentiful and insightful, and recent methodological advances facilitate obtaining a detailed view of individual movement. Yet, we lack a general unifying paradigm, derived from first principles, which can place movement studies within a common context and advance the development of a mature scientific discipline. This introductory article to the Movement Ecology Special Feature proposes a paradigm that integrates conceptual, theoretical, methodological, and empirical frameworks for studying movement of all organisms, from microbes to trees to elephants. We introduce a conceptual framework depicting the interplay among four basic mechanistic components of organismal movement: the internal state (why move?), motion (how to move?), and navigation (when and where to move?) capacities of the individual and the external factors affecting movement. We demonstrate how the proposed framework aids the study of various taxa and movement types; promotes the formulation of hypotheses about movement; and complements existing biomechanical, cognitive, random, and optimality paradigms of movement. The proposed framework integrates eclectic research on movement into a structured paradigm and aims at providing a basis for hypothesis generation and a vehicle facilitating the understanding of the causes, mechanisms, and spatiotemporal patterns of movement and their role in various ecological and evolutionary processes. ”Now we must consider in general the common reason for moving with any movement whatever.“ (Aristotle, De Motu Animalium, 4th century B.C.) PMID:19060196

  3. Unifying darko-lepto-genesis with scalar triplet inflation

    CERN Document Server

    Arina, Chiara; Sahu, Narendra

    2012-01-01

    We present a scalar triplet extension of the standard model to unify the origin of inflation with neutrino mass, asymmetric dark matter and leptogenesis. In presence of non-minimal couplings to gravity the scalar triplet, mixed with the standard model Higgs, plays the role of inflaton in the early Universe, while its decay to SM Higgs, lepton and dark matter simultaneously generate an asymmetry in the visible and dark matter sectors. On the other hand, in the low energy effective theory the induced vacuum expectation value of the triplet gives sub-eV Majorana masses to active neutrinos. We investigate the model parameter space leading to successful inflation as well as the observed dark matter to baryon abundance. Assuming the standard model like Higgs mass to be at 125-126 GeV, we found that the mass scale of the scalar triplet to be ~ O(10^9) GeV and its trilinear coupling to doublet Higgs is ~ 0.09 so that it not only evades the possibility of having a metastable vacuum in the standard model, but also lead...

  4. Unified Deep Learning Architecture for Modeling Biology Sequence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Hongjie; Cao, Chengyuan; Xia, Xiaoyan; Lu, Qiang

    2017-10-09

    Prediction of the spatial structure or function of biological macromolecules based on their sequence remains an important challenge in bioinformatics. When modeling biological sequences using traditional sequencing models, characteristics, such as long-range interactions between basic units, the complicated and variable output of labeled structures, and the variable length of biological sequences, usually lead to different solutions on a case-by-case basis. This study proposed the use of bidirectional recurrent neural networks based on long short-term memory or a gated recurrent unit to capture long-range interactions by designing the optional reshape operator to adapt to the diversity of the output labels and implementing a training algorithm to support the training of sequence models capable of processing variable-length sequences. Additionally, the merge and pooling operators enhanced the ability to capture short-range interactions between basic units of biological sequences. The proposed deep-learning model and its training algorithm might be capable of solving currently known biological sequence-modeling problems through the use of a unified framework. We validated our model on one of the most difficult biological sequence-modeling problems currently known, with our results indicating the ability of the model to obtain predictions of protein residue interactions that exceeded the accuracy of current popular approaches by 10% based on multiple benchmarks.

  5. Design Of Computer Based Test Using The Unified Modeling Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tedyyana, Agus; Danuri; Lidyawati

    2017-12-01

    The Admission selection of Politeknik Negeri Bengkalis through interest and talent search (PMDK), Joint Selection of admission test for state Polytechnics (SB-UMPN) and Independent (UM-Polbeng) were conducted by using paper-based Test (PBT). Paper Based Test model has some weaknesses. They are wasting too much paper, the leaking of the questios to the public, and data manipulation of the test result. This reasearch was Aimed to create a Computer-based Test (CBT) models by using Unified Modeling Language (UML) the which consists of Use Case diagrams, Activity diagram and sequence diagrams. During the designing process of the application, it is important to pay attention on the process of giving the password for the test questions before they were shown through encryption and description process. RSA cryptography algorithm was used in this process. Then, the questions shown in the questions banks were randomized by using the Fisher-Yates Shuffle method. The network architecture used in Computer Based test application was a client-server network models and Local Area Network (LAN). The result of the design was the Computer Based Test application for admission to the selection of Politeknik Negeri Bengkalis.

  6. Proposal for a unified selection to medical residency programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toffoli, Sônia Ferreira Lopes; Ferreira Filho, Olavo Franco; Andrade, Dalton Francisco de

    2013-01-01

    This paper proposes the unification of entrance exams to medical residency programs (MRP) in Brazil. Problems related to MRP and its interface with public health problems in Brazil are highlighted and how this proposal are able to help solving these problems. The proposal is to create a database to be applied in MRP unified exams. Some advantages of using the Item Response Theory (IRT) in this database are highlighted. The MRP entrance exams are developed and applied decentralized where each school is responsible for its examination. These exams quality are questionable. Reviews about items quality, validity and reliability of appliances are not common disclosed. Evaluation is important in every education system bringing on required changes and control of teaching and learning. The proposal of MRP entrance exams unification, besides offering high quality exams to institutions participants, could be as an extra source to rate medical school and cause improvements, provide studies with a database and allow a regional mobility. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  7. The diversity of quasars unified by accretion and orientation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Yue; Ho, Luis C.

    2014-09-01

    Quasars are rapidly accreting supermassive black holes at the centres of massive galaxies. They display a broad range of properties across all wavelengths, reflecting the diversity in the physical conditions of the regions close to the central engine. These properties, however, are not random, but form well-defined trends. The dominant trend is known as `Eigenvector 1', in which many properties correlate with the strength of optical iron and [O III] emission. The main physical driver of Eigenvector 1 has long been suspected to be the quasar luminosity normalized by the mass of the hole (the `Eddington ratio'), which is an important parameter of the black hole accretion process. But a definitive proof has been missing. Here we report an analysis of archival data that reveals that the Eddington ratio indeed drives Eigenvector 1. We also find that orientation plays a significant role in determining the observed kinematics of the gas in the broad-line region, implying a flattened, disk-like geometry for the fast-moving clouds close to the black hole. Our results show that most of the diversity of quasar phenomenology can be unified using two simple quantities: Eddington ratio and orientation.

  8. Biodiversity patterns along ecological gradients: unifying β-diversity indices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szava-Kovats, Robert C; Pärtel, Meelis

    2014-01-01

    Ecologists have developed an abundance of conceptions and mathematical expressions to define β-diversity, the link between local (α) and regional-scale (γ) richness, in order to characterize patterns of biodiversity along ecological (i.e., spatial and environmental) gradients. These patterns are often realized by regression of β-diversity indices against one or more ecological gradients. This practice, however, is subject to two shortcomings that can undermine the validity of the biodiversity patterns. First, many β-diversity indices are constrained to range between fixed lower and upper limits. As such, regression analysis of β-diversity indices against ecological gradients can result in regression curves that extend beyond these mathematical constraints, thus creating an interpretational dilemma. Second, despite being a function of the same measured α- and γ-diversity, the resultant biodiversity pattern depends on the choice of β-diversity index. We propose a simple logistic transformation that rids beta-diversity indices of their mathematical constraints, thus eliminating the possibility of an uninterpretable regression curve. Moreover, this transformation results in identical biodiversity patterns for three commonly used classical beta-diversity indices. As a result, this transformation eliminates the difficulties of both shortcomings, while allowing the researcher to use whichever beta-diversity index deemed most appropriate. We believe this method can help unify the study of biodiversity patterns along ecological gradients.

  9. Optimal pulse design in quantum control: a unified computational method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jr-Shin; Ruths, Justin; Yu, Tsyr-Yan; Arthanari, Haribabu; Wagner, Gerhard

    2011-02-01

    Many key aspects of control of quantum systems involve manipulating a large quantum ensemble exhibiting variation in the value of parameters characterizing the system dynamics. Developing electromagnetic pulses to produce a desired evolution in the presence of such variation is a fundamental and challenging problem in this research area. We present such robust pulse designs as an optimal control problem of a continuum of bilinear systems with a common control function. We map this control problem of infinite dimension to a problem of polynomial approximation employing tools from geometric control theory. We then adopt this new notion and develop a unified computational method for optimal pulse design using ideas from pseudospectral approximations, by which a continuous-time optimal control problem of pulse design can be discretized to a constrained optimization problem with spectral accuracy. Furthermore, this is a highly flexible and efficient numerical method that requires low order of discretization and yields inherently smooth solutions. We demonstrate this method by designing effective broadband π/2 and π pulses with reduced rf energy and pulse duration, which show significant sensitivity enhancement at the edge of the spectrum over conventional pulses in 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopy experiments.

  10. Unified Creep Plasticity Damage (UCPD) Model for Rigid Polyurethane Foams.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neilsen, Michael K. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Lu, Wei-Yang [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Scherzinger, William M. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Hinnerichs, Terry D. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Lo, Chi S. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-06-01

    Numerous experiments were performed to characterize the mechanical response of several different rigid polyurethane foams (FR3712, PMDI10, PMDI20, and TufFoam35) to large deformation. In these experiments, the effects of load path, loading rate, and temperature were investigated. Results from these experiments indicated that rigid polyurethane foams exhibit significant volumetric and deviatoric plasticity when they are compressed. Rigid polyurethane foams were also found to be very strain-rate and temperature dependent. These foams are also rather brittle and crack when loaded to small strains in tension or to larger strains in compression. Thus, a new Unified Creep Plasticity Damage (UCPD) model was developed and implemented into SIERRA with the name Foam Damage to describe the mechanical response of these foams to large deformation at a variety of temperatures and strain rates. This report includes a description of recent experiments and experimental findings. Next, development of a UCPD model for rigid, polyurethane foams is described. Selection of material parameters for a variety of rigid polyurethane foams is then discussed and finite element simulations with the new UCPD model are compared with experimental results to show behavior that can be captured with this model.

  11. Entropy, a Unifying Concept: from Physics to Cognitive Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsallis, Constantino; Tsallis, Alexandra C.

    Together with classical, relativistic and quantum mechanics, as well as Maxwell electromagnetism, Boltzmann-Gibbs (BG) statistical mechanics constitutes one of the main theories of contemporary physics. This theory primarily concerns inanimate matter, and at its generic foundation we find nonlinear dynamical systems satisfying the ergodic hypothesis. This hypothesis is typically guaranteed for systems whose maximal Lyapunov exponent is positive. What happens when this crucial quantity is zero instead? We suggest here that, in what concerns thermostatistical properties, we typically enter what in some sense may be considered as a new world — the world of living systems — . The need emerges, at least for many systems, for generalizing the basis of BG statistical mechanics, namely the Boltzmann-Gibbs-von Neumann-Shannon en-tropic functional form, which connects the oscopic, thermodynamic quantity, with the occurrence probabilities of microscopic configurations. This unifying approach is briefly reviewed here, and its widespread applications — from physics to cognitive psychology — are overviewed. Special attention is dedicated to the learning/memorizing process in humans and computers. The present observations might be related to the gestalt theory of visual perceptions and the actor-network theory.

  12. Unified Model Studies of N = 84 and N = 80 Nuclei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corrigan, Thomas Michael [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    1977-12-31

    The unified model which couples two valence nucleons to collective quadrupole surface vibrations is applied to the N= 84.and N = 80 nuclei which have respectively two neutrons and two neutron holes outside the closed N = 82 core. Two different interactions between these valence nucleons are considered. The first is a simple pairing interaction, and the second used matrix elements determined in a bare G matrix calculation. The simple pairing force gives much better results. A two step diagonlization is employed to treat the core and -valence nucleons consistently. Up to four phonons are retained in the collective basis and the diagonalized (coupled) valence nucleon space is truncated at approximately the same energy. The experimental spectra and electromagnetic properties are well-reproduced for both types of nuclei, and in the N 84.nuclei the four phonon contribution was found to be non-negligible. In addition, a closed form, multiplicity resolved expression for matrix elements of (αthe collective surface coordinate) is presented, and a table of these values for N < 6 is given.

  13. Sensory Motor Mechanisms Unify Psychology: The Embodiment of Culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamer eSoliman

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Sensorimotor mechanisms can unify explanations at cognitive, social, and cultural levels. As an example, we review how anticipated motor effort is used by individuals and groups to judge distance: the greater the anticipated effort the greater the perceived distance. Anticipated motor effort can also be used to understand cultural differences. People with interdependent self-construals interact almost exclusively with in-group members, and hence there is little opportunity to tune their sensorimotor systems for interaction with out-group members. The result is that interactions with out-group members are expected to be difficult and out-group members are perceived as literally more distant. In two experiments we show a interdependent Americans, compared to independent Americans, see American confederates (in-group as closer; b interdependent Arabs, compared to independent Arabs, perceive Arab confederates (in-group as closer, whereas interdependent Americans perceive Arab confederates (out-group as farther. These results demonstrate how the same embodied mechanism can seamlessly contribute to explanations at the cognitive, social, and cultural levels.

  14. Improving Software Performance in the Compute Unified Device Architecture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandru PIRJAN

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes several aspects regarding the improvement of software performance for applications written in the Compute Unified Device Architecture CUDA. We address an issue of great importance when programming a CUDA application: the Graphics Processing Unit’s (GPU’s memory management through ranspose ernels. We also benchmark and evaluate the performance for progressively optimizing a transposing matrix application in CUDA. One particular interest was to research how well the optimization techniques, applied to software application written in CUDA, scale to the latest generation of general-purpose graphic processors units (GPGPU, like the Fermi architecture implemented in the GTX480 and the previous architecture implemented in GTX280. Lately, there has been a lot of interest in the literature for this type of optimization analysis, but none of the works so far (to our best knowledge tried to validate if the optimizations can apply to a GPU from the latest Fermi architecture and how well does the Fermi architecture scale to these software performance improving techniques.

  15. A Unified Flash Flood Database across the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gourley, Jonathan J.; Hong, Yang; Flamig, Zachary L.; Arthur, Ami; Clark, Robert; Calianno, Martin; Ruin, Isabelle; Ortel, Terry W.; Wieczorek, Michael; Kirstetter, Pierre-Emmanuel; Clark, Edward; Krajewski, Witold F.

    2013-01-01

    Despite flash flooding being one of the most deadly and costly weather-related natural hazards worldwide, individual datasets to characterize them in the United States are hampered by limited documentation and can be difficult to access. This study is the first of its kind to assemble, reprocess, describe, and disseminate a georeferenced U.S. database providing a long-term, detailed characterization of flash flooding in terms of spatiotemporal behavior and specificity of impacts. The database is composed of three primary sources: 1) the entire archive of automated discharge observations from the U.S. Geological Survey that has been reprocessed to describe individual flooding events, 2) flash-flooding reports collected by the National Weather Service from 2006 to the present, and 3) witness reports obtained directly from the public in the Severe Hazards Analysis and Verification Experiment during the summers 2008–10. Each observational data source has limitations; a major asset of the unified flash flood database is its collation of relevant information from a variety of sources that is now readily available to the community in common formats. It is anticipated that this database will be used for many diverse purposes, such as evaluating tools to predict flash flooding, characterizing seasonal and regional trends, and improving understanding of dominant flood-producing processes. We envision the initiation of this community database effort will attract and encompass future datasets.

  16. New limit on logotropic unified dark energy models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.M.C. Ferreira

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available A unification of dark matter and dark energy in terms of a logotropic perfect dark fluid has recently been proposed, where deviations with respect to the standard ΛCDM model are dependent on a single parameter B. In this paper we show that the requirement that the linear growth of cosmic structures on comoving scales larger than 8h−1Mpc is not significantly affected with respect to the standard ΛCDM result provides the strongest limit to date on the model (B<6×10−7, an improvement of more than three orders of magnitude over previous upper limits on the value of B. We further show that this limit rules out the logotropic Unified Dark Energy model as a possible solution to the small scale problems of the ΛCDM model, including the cusp problem of Dark Matter halos or the missing satellite problem, as well as the original version of the model where the Planck energy density was taken as one of the two parameters characterizing the logotropic dark fluid.

  17. Evaluating Multicore Algorithms on the Unified Memory Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John E. Savage

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the challenges to achieving good performance on multicore architectures is the effective utilization of the underlying memory hierarchy. While this is an issue for single-core architectures, it is a critical problem for multicore chips. In this paper, we formulate the unified multicore model (UMM to help understand the fundamental limits on cache performance on these architectures. The UMM seamlessly handles different types of multiple-core processors with varying degrees of cache sharing at different levels. We demonstrate that our model can be used to study a variety of multicore architectures on a variety of applications. In particular, we use it to analyze an option pricing problem using the trinomial model and develop an algorithm for it that has near-optimal memory traffic between cache levels. We have implemented the algorithm on a two Quad-Core Intel Xeon 5310 1.6 GHz processors (8 cores. It achieves a peak performance of 19.5 GFLOPs, which is 38% of the theoretical peak of the multicore system. We demonstrate that our algorithm outperforms compiler-optimized and auto-parallelized code by a factor of up to 7.5.

  18. Unifying Inference of Meso-Scale Structures in Networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birkan Tunç

    Full Text Available Networks are among the most prevalent formal representations in scientific studies, employed to depict interactions between objects such as molecules, neuronal clusters, or social groups. Studies performed at meso-scale that involve grouping of objects based on their distinctive interaction patterns form one of the main lines of investigation in network science. In a social network, for instance, meso-scale structures can correspond to isolated social groupings or groups of individuals that serve as a communication core. Currently, the research on different meso-scale structures such as community and core-periphery structures has been conducted via independent approaches, which precludes the possibility of an algorithmic design that can handle multiple meso-scale structures and deciding which structure explains the observed data better. In this study, we propose a unified formulation for the algorithmic detection and analysis of different meso-scale structures. This facilitates the investigation of hybrid structures that capture the interplay between multiple meso-scale structures and statistical comparison of competing structures, all of which have been hitherto unavailable. We demonstrate the applicability of the methodology in analyzing the human brain network, by determining the dominant organizational structure (communities of the brain, as well as its auxiliary characteristics (core-periphery.

  19. Unifying Inference of Meso-Scale Structures in Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tunç, Birkan; Verma, Ragini

    2015-01-01

    Networks are among the most prevalent formal representations in scientific studies, employed to depict interactions between objects such as molecules, neuronal clusters, or social groups. Studies performed at meso-scale that involve grouping of objects based on their distinctive interaction patterns form one of the main lines of investigation in network science. In a social network, for instance, meso-scale structures can correspond to isolated social groupings or groups of individuals that serve as a communication core. Currently, the research on different meso-scale structures such as community and core-periphery structures has been conducted via independent approaches, which precludes the possibility of an algorithmic design that can handle multiple meso-scale structures and deciding which structure explains the observed data better. In this study, we propose a unified formulation for the algorithmic detection and analysis of different meso-scale structures. This facilitates the investigation of hybrid structures that capture the interplay between multiple meso-scale structures and statistical comparison of competing structures, all of which have been hitherto unavailable. We demonstrate the applicability of the methodology in analyzing the human brain network, by determining the dominant organizational structure (communities) of the brain, as well as its auxiliary characteristics (core-periphery).

  20. Witch Wildland Fire, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    The October wildfires that plagued southern California were some of the worst on record. One of these, the Witch Wildland fire, burned 198,000 acres north of San Diego, destroying 1125 homes, commercial structures, and outbuildings. Over 3,000 firefighters finally contained the fire two weeks after it started on October 21. Now begins the huge task of planning and implementing mitigation measures to replant and reseed the burned areas. This ASTER image depicts the area after the fire, on November 6; vegetation is green, burned areas are dark red, and urban areas are blue. On the burn severity index image, calculated using infrared and visible bands, red areas are the most severely burned, followed by green and blue. This information can help the US Forest Service to plan post-fire activities. With its 14 spectral bands from the visible to the thermal infrared wavelength region, and its high spatial resolution of 15 to 90 meters (about 50 to 300 feet), ASTER images Earth to map and monitor the changing surface of our planet. ASTER is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra spacecraft. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products. The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER provides scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping, and monitoring of dynamic conditions and temporal change. Example applications are: monitoring glacial advances and retreats; monitoring potentially active volcanoes; identifying crop stress; determining cloud morphology and physical properties; wetlands evaluation; thermal pollution monitoring; coral reef degradation; surface temperature mapping of soils and geology; and measuring surface heat balance. The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The