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Sample records for california current moving

  1. Descriptive Case Study of Theories of Action, Strategic Objectives, and Strategic Initiatives Used by California Female County Superintendents to Move Their Organizations from Current State to Desired Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Valerie Darlene

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe the theories of action, strategic objectives, and strategic initiatives of school systems led by female county superintendents in California and examine their impact on improving system outcomes. Additionally, the factors influencing theory of action, strategic objective, and initiative development were…

  2. Dynamics of mesoscale anticyclones in the California Current System off the Northern Baja California Coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez-Valdes, J.; Torres, H. S.

    2015-12-01

    Subsurface eddies are ubiquitous features in eastern boundary current systems. They tend to modulate the across-shore transport of heat and tracers. In the California Current System they have been observed using different field techniques. Using shipboard measurements, an anticyclonic subsurface eddy was observed in October 2009 off the northern Baja California coast. The genesis, evolution, and turbulent heat transport of the anticyclonic eddy are addressed in this study using a realistic regional model. The oceanic response to the synoptic wind variations acts as finite amplitude perturbation. The hydrodynamic stability of the California Undercurrent is compromised, through baroclinic instability, this lead to the formation of subthermocline eddy that detach from the coast and move out toward the open ocean. The potential vorticity associated to the eddy is eroded by the irregularities of the bottom topography and it is dissipated in the northern Baja California offshore. Once the anticyclonic eddy is weakened, the eddy heat anomaly is reincorporated into the transitional zone by the mean flow. This study shows evidence of reinstatement of the thermal anomalies toward the transitional zone of the southern region of the California Current, helping to keep its water mass relatively warmer than the adjacent sea.

  3. California current system - Predators and the preyscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ainley, David G.; Adams, Peter B.; Jahncke, Jaime

    2015-06-01

    The preyscape of the California Current System (CCS), one of the most productive marine areas on Earth (Glantz and Thompson, 1981), is highly variable, as evidenced by the papers in this issue, and as such presents a challenge to Ecosystem-based fishery management (EBFM), which attempts to integrate ecosystem considerations as part of fishery management and conservation decisions. Approaches to EBFM for the waters off Washington, Oregon, and California, the CCS, have been initiated (PFMC, 2007, 2013), and are continually being developed. To inform this process, a workshop was held in September 2013 to: i) gather together the existing information on forage fish and predator dynamics in the CCS; ii) consider temporal (seasonal, annual, decadal) and spatial availability of prey complexes and why these patterns of availability occur and change; iii) summarize and present that information for discussion to a large range of experts in oceanography, fish and fisheries management, seabirds, marine mammals, and ecosystem management; and, iv) synthesize this information to be useable by fishery agencies. The papers in this special Journal of Marine Systems issue address these four points. While the full results and recommendations can be found here - "http://www.pointblue.org/uploads/assets/calcurrent/REPORT_Forage_Fish_Workshop_FINAL.pdf"

  4. Population vulnerability of marine birds within the California Current System

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Six metrics were used to determine Population Vulnerability: global population size, annual occurrence in the California Current System (CCS), percent of the...

  5. A Tailward Moving Current Sheet Normal Magnetic Field Front Followed by an Earthward Moving Dipolarization Front

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, K.-J.; Goldstein, M. L.; Moore, T. E.; Walsh, B. M.; Baishev, D. G.; Moiseyev, A. V.; Shevtsov, B. M.; Yumoto, K.

    2014-01-01

    A case study is presented using measurements from the Cluster spacecraft and ground-based magnetometers that show a substorm onset propagating from the inner to outer plasma sheet. On 3 October 2005, Cluster, traversing an ion-scale current sheet at the near-Earth plasma sheet, detected a sudden enhancement of Bz, which was immediately followed by a series of flux rope structures. Both the local Bz enhancement and flux ropes propagated tailward. Approximately 5 min later, another Bz enhancement, followed by a large density decrease, was observed to rapidly propagate earthward. Between the two Bz enhancements, a significant removal of magnetic flux occurred, possibly resulting from the tailward moving Bz enhancement and flux ropes. In our scenario, this flux removal caused the magnetotail to be globally stretched so that the thinnest sheet formed tailward of Cluster. The thinned current sheet facilitated magnetic reconnection that quickly evolved from plasma sheet to lobe and generated the later earthward moving dipolarization front (DF) followed by a reduction in density and entropy. Ground magnetograms located near the meridian of Cluster's magnetic foot points show two-step bay enhancements. The positive bay associated with the first Bz enhancement indicates that the substorm onset signatures propagated from the inner to the outer plasma sheet, consistent with the Cluster observation. The more intense bay features associated with the later DF are consistent with the earthward motion of the front. The event suggests that current disruption signatures that originated in the near-Earth current sheet propagated tailward, triggering or facilitating midtail reconnection, thereby preconditioning the magnetosphere for a later strong substorm enhancement.

  6. Ocean currents across the entrance to the Gulf of California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Curtis A.; Garfield, Newell; Mascarenhas, Affonso S.; Spearman, Monty G.; Rago, Thomas A.

    1997-09-01

    Observations of transport and currents in April, May, and December 1992 and January 1993 were made across the entrance to the Gulf of California with an acoustically tracked dropsonde. Flow was into the gulf along Sinaloa and out of the gulf along Baja California. The transports were 5-10 Sv and the currents were deep, with 10 cm s-1 flow extending to depths greater than 1000 m. The currents were intensified in the upper 300 m. Geostrophic flows compared well with observed currents when smoothed to 2-3 times the Rossby radius. Salinity in the upper 300 m was higher on the Baja California side of the gulf, indicating modification of Subtropical Subsurface waters within the Gulf as well as the presence of surface and near-surface gulf waters. The salinity minimum associated with California Current waters at 50 m had narrow cores that can be resolved only with closely spaced conductivity-temperature-depth casts. Mass and heat fluxes for the upper 300 m were estimated as 280 t s-1 and -0.1×1012 W in May and 170 t s-1 and 2.0×1012 W in December.

  7. Differential distributions of Synechococcus subgroups across the California Current System.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan William Paerl

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Synechococcus is an abundant marine cyanobacterial genus composed of different populations that vary physiologically. Synechococcus narB gene sequences (encoding for nitrate reductase in cyanobacteria obtained previously from isolates and the environment (e.g. North Pacific Gyre Station ALOHA, Hawaii or Monterey Bay, California were used to develop quantitative PCR (qPCR assays. These qPCR assays were used to quantify populations from specific narB phylogenetic clades across the California Current System (CCS, a region composed of dynamic zones between a coastal-upwelling zone and the oligotrophic Pacific Ocean. Targeted populations (narB subgroups had different biogeographic patterns across the CCS, which appear to be driven by environmental conditions. Subgroups C_C1, D_C1 and D_C2 were abundant in coastal-upwelling to coastal-transition zone waters with relatively high to intermediate ammonium, nitrate and chl. a concentrations. Subgroups A_C1 and F_C1 were most abundant in coastal-transition zone waters with intermediate nutrient concentrations. E_O1 and G_O1 were most abundant at different depths of oligotrophic open-ocean waters (either in the upper mixed layer or just below. E_O1, A_C1 and F_C1 distributions differed from other narB subgroups and likely possess unique ecologies enabling them to be most abundant in waters between coastal and open-ocean waters. Different CCS zones possessed distinct Synechococcus communities. Core California Current (CC water possessed low numbers of narB subgroups relative to counted Synechococcus cells, and coastal-transition waters contained high abundances of Synechococcus cells and total number of narB subgroups. The presented biogeographic data provides insight on the distributions and ecologies of Synechococcus present in an eastern boundary current system.

  8. Anion Exchange Membranes: Current Status and Moving Forward

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hickner, MA; Herring, AM; Coughlin, EB

    2013-10-29

    This short review is meant to provide the reader with highlights in anion exchange membrane research, describe current needs in the field, and point out promising directions for future work. Anion exchange membranes (AEMs) provide one possible route to low platinum or platinum-free fuel cells with the potential for facile oxidation of complex fuels beyond hydrogen and methanol. AEMs and related stable cationic polymers also have applications in energy storage and other electrochemical technologies such as water electrolyzers and redox flow batteries. While anion exchange membranes have been known for a long time in water treatment applications, materials for electrochemical technology with robust mechanical properties in thin film format have only recently become more widely available. High hydroxide and bicarbonate anion conductivity have been demonstrated in a range of AEM formats, but intrinsic stability of the polymers and demonstration of long device lifetime remain major roadblocks. Novel approaches to stable materials have focused on new types of cations that employ delocalization and steric shielding of the positive center to mitigate nucleophilic attack by hydroxide. A number of promising polymer backbones and membrane architectures have been identified, but limited device testing and a lack of understanding of the degradation mechanisms in operating devices is slowing progress on engineered systems with alkaline fuel cell technology. Our objective is to spur more research in this area to develop fuel cell systems that approach the costs of inexpensive batteries for large-scale applications. (c) 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J. Polym. Sci., Part B: Polym. Phys. 2013, 51, 1727-1735, 2013

  9. California's Adjudicated Groundwater Basins: History, Current Conditions, Potential Reforms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langridge, R.; Brown, A.; Rudestam, K.; Conrad, E.

    2015-12-01

    Groundwater adjudications are one approach to managing a groundwater basin in California. While the 2014 Sustainable Groundwater Management Act (SGMA) established new management requirements for 127 high and medium priority groundwater basins, it exempted all 26 of the state's adjudicated groundwater basins from the Act. The State Water Resources Control Board prioritized the evaluation of these adjudicated basins to assist in aligning the processes and outcomes of adjudication with SGMA's goals for the sustainable management of groundwater. Working with the Board, our research evaluated the history and current condition of all of California's adjudicated basins along with potential future improvements to the adjudication process. Our presentation will provide a summary of our findings and highlight some successful features of the adjudication process along with the challenges adjudicated basins face to achieve long-term sustainable groundwater management. Our discussion will include a review of: whether most adjudications result in groundwater extractions at or near a basins' designated safe yield; whether overdraft conditions are reduced or eliminated over the long term; and the degree of collaboration and inclusion of community stakeholders in the adjudication process. In addition to this overview, we will highlight 3-4 basins with particularly interesting management challenges and solutions. For each of these basins, we will describe the problem that precipitated the need for the adjudication and how adjudication outcomes were influenced by: how the judgment defined and distributed water rights; the management structure and strategies to manage the basin; how safe yield and overdraft are defined and determined; and, importantly, the effectiveness of the adjudication in halting or reversing groundwater overdraft.

  10. Material properties of zooplankton and nekton from the California current

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Kaylyn

    This study measured the material properties of zooplankton, Pacific hake (Merluccius productus), Humboldt squid (Dosidicus gigas), and two species of myctophids (Symbolophorus californiensis and Diaphus theta) collected from the California Current ecosystem. The density contrast (g) was measured for euphausiids, decapods (Sergestes similis), amphipods (Primno macropa, Phronima sp., and Hyperiid spp.), siphonophore bracts, chaetognaths, larval fish, crab megalopae, larval squid, and medusae. Morphometric data (length, width, and height) were collected for these taxa. Density contrasts varied within and between zooplankton taxa. The mean and standard deviation for euphausiid density contrast were 1.059 +/- 0.009. Relationships between zooplankton density contrast and morphometric measurements, geographic location, and environmental conditions were investigated. Site had a significant effect on euphausiid density contrast. Density contrasts of euphausiids collected in the same geographic area approximately 4-10 days apart were significantly higher (p nekton density contrast were investigated. The sound speed contrast (h) was measured for Pacific hake flesh, myctophid flesh, Humboldt squid mantle, and Humboldt squid braincase. Sound speed varied within and between nekton taxa. The material properties reported in this study can be used to improve target strength estimates from acoustic scattering models which would increase the accuracy of biomass estimates from acoustic surveys for these zooplankton and nekton.

  11. Pleistocene water cycle and eastern boundary current processes along the California continental margin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyle, Mitchell; Heusser, Linda; Ravelo, Christina; Andreasen, Dyke; Olivarez Lyle, Annette; Diffenbaugh, Noah

    2010-11-01

    Coastal marine sediments contain mixtures of terrestrial and marine paleoclimate proxies that record how the coastal water cycle has behaved over long time frames. We explore a 600 kyr marine record from ODP Site 1018, located due west of Santa Cruz, California, to identify coastal wet and dry periods and to associate them with oceanographic processes. Wet periods in central California, identified by increased tree pollen relative to pollen from grasslands and scrublands, are found on every major deglaciation in the last 600 kyr. Sea surface temperature (SST) data were collected for the last two deglaciations. Wet periods are associated with a rapid rise in SST off central California. SST gradients along the California margin and changes in biogenic deposition show that wet periods in central California are associated with a weakening of the California Current and weakened coastal upwelling. High carbonate production suggests that there was significant curl-of-wind stress upwelling offshore. We propose that wet periods in central California are associated with a meteorological connection to the tropical Pacific and weakened southward flow in the California Current that shunted temperate Pacific water northward into the Alaska gyre. We do not observe evidence for a south-shifted westerly storm track at the last glacial maximum but find that wet periods are diachronous along the California margin. The wettest period around the Santa Barbara Basin peaked at 16 ka, preceding the wet peak in central and northern California by 4 kyr.

  12. Gasification of solid waste — potential and application of co-current moving bed gasifiers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groeneveld, M.J.; van Swaaij, Willibrordus Petrus Maria

    1979-01-01

    A review is given of gasification processes for solid fuels with special emphasis on waste gasification. Although the co-current moving bed gasifier has not been under consideration for a long time, it offers interesting possibilities for waste gasification. Some operational data are given. Two

  13. GLOBEC NEP Northern California Current Bird Data NH0005, 2000-2000, 0007

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — GLOBEC (GLOBal Ocean ECosystems Dynamics) NEP (Northeast Pacific) Northern California Current Bird Data from R/V New Horizon cruises NH0005 and 0007. As a part of...

  14. GLOBEC NEP Northern California Current Cetacean Survey Data, NH0005, 0007

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — GLOBEC (GLOBal Ocean ECosystems Dynamics) NEP (Northeast Pacific) Northern California Current Cetacean Survey Data from R/V New Horizon cruises NH0005 and 0007....

  15. Atlantis model outputs - Developing end-to-end models of the California Current Large Marine Ecosystem

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The purpose of this project is to develop spatially discrete end-to-end models of the California Current LME, linking oceanography, biogeochemistry, food web...

  16. Exploring local adaptation and the ocean acidification seascape -- studies in the California Current Large Marine Ecosystem

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hofmann, G. E; Evans, T. G; Kelly, M. W; Padilla-Gamiño, J. L; Blanchette, C. A; Washburn, L; Chan, F; McManus, M. A; Menge, B. A; Gaylord, B; Hill, T. M; Sanford, E; LaVigne, M; Rose, J. M; Kapsenberg, L; Dutton, J. M

    2014-01-01

    The California Current Large Marine Ecosystem (CCLME), a temperate marine region dominated by episodic upwelling, is predicted to experience rapid environmental change in the future due to ocean acidification...

  17. Physical oceanography - Developing end-to-end models of the California Current Large Marine Ecosystem

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The purpose of this project is to develop spatially discrete end-to-end models of the California Current LME, linking oceanography, biogeochemistry, food web...

  18. Modeling Studies of Wind and Thermohaline Forcing on the California Current System

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Vance, Phillip

    1997-01-01

    A high-resolution, multi-level, primitive equation model is initialized with climatological data to study the combined effects of wind and thermohaline forcing on the ocean circulation of the California Current System (CCS...

  19. Relationships between Climate and Biodiversity of Fish Assemblages in the Southern California Current Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMonagle, H.; Koslow, J. A.; Watson, W.

    2016-02-01

    Climate has been shown to play a major role in the dynamics of fisheries and marine ecosystems. Previous studies of relationships between physical oceanography and fish population dynamics have focused primarily on commercially important species. However, as we move towards more comprehensive, ecosystem-based management of fisheries, it is important to understand how entire assemblages of fish, including ecologically important but noncommercial taxa, are influenced by climate. We used the ichthyoplankton time series maintained by the California Cooperative Oceanic Fisheries Investigations (CalCOFI) to examine changes in over 200 fish taxa from 1969 to 2011 in the Southern California Current region. We used several indices of species richness and evenness, as well as graphical approaches, to examine potential changes in the diversity of regional fish assemblages in relation to interannual and decadal-scale climate variability. These include El Niño-La Niña events, changes in deepwater oxygen concentration and long-term ocean warming. Richness was positively correlated with deepwater oxygen concentration, consistent with the strong correlation between midwater fish abundance and oxygen. Diversity (a measurement of both richness and evenness) was positively correlated with sea surface temperature. Diversity decreased as the abundance of a diverse midwater fish assemblage declined, and it increased as a dominant assemblage of common, coldwater fish declined. This latter pattern may be due to the strong dominance of species with cold water affinities when conditions were favorable, which reduced evenness in the community. Trends in deoxygenation and warming are predicted to continue due to climate change. A better understanding of the relationships between the diversity of fish communities and climate could lead to improved indicators of ecosystem status and the ability to predict trends in fish communities related to climate change.

  20. Measuring discharge with acoustic Doppler current profilers from a moving boat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, David S.; Wagner, Chad R.; Rehmel, Michael S.; Oberg, Kevin A.; Rainville, Francois

    2013-01-01

    The use of acoustic Doppler current profilers (ADCPs) from a moving boat is now a commonly used method for measuring streamflow. The technology and methods for making ADCP-based discharge measurements are different from the technology and methods used to make traditional discharge measurements with mechanical meters. Although the ADCP is a valuable tool for measuring streamflow, it is only accurate when used with appropriate techniques. This report presents guidance on the use of ADCPs for measuring streamflow; this guidance is based on the experience of U.S. Geological Survey employees and published reports, papers, and memorandums of the U.S. Geological Survey. The guidance is presented in a logical progression, from predeployment planning, to field data collection, and finally to post processing of the collected data. Acoustic Doppler technology and the instruments currently (2013) available also are discussed to highlight the advantages and limitations of the technology. More in-depth, technical explanations of how an ADCP measures streamflow and what to do when measuring in moving-bed conditions are presented in the appendixes. ADCP users need to know the proper procedures for measuring discharge from a moving boat and why those procedures are required, so that when the user encounters unusual field conditions, the procedures can be adapted without sacrificing the accuracy of the streamflow-measurement data.

  1. Diets of and trophic relationships among dominant marine nekton within the northern California Current ecosystem

    OpenAIRE

    Miller, Todd W.; Richard D Brodeur

    2007-01-01

    In this study we analyzed the diets of 26 nekton species collected from two years (2000 and 2002) off Oregon and northern California to describe dominant nekton trophic groups of the northern California Current (NCC) pelagic ecosystem. We also examined interannual variation in the diets of three nekton species. Cluster analysis of predator diets resulted in nekton trophic groups based on the consumption of copepods, euphausiids, brachyuran larvae, larval juvenile fishes, and adult ne...

  2. Columbia is moved from the OPF to the SLF for a ferry trip to California

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    The orbiter Columbia (foreground) moves under the Mate-Demate Device at KSC's Shuttle Landing Facility (SLF). The crane seen above it will lift the orbiter so that the Boeing 747 Shuttle Carrier Aircraft (SCA) in the background can move underneath Columbia, which will then be attached to the back of the SCA for a ferry flight to Palmdale, Calif. On the rear of the orbiter is the tail cone, a fairing that is installed over the aft fuselage of the orbiter to decrease aerodynamic drag and buffet when the Shuttle Carrier Aircraft is transporting the orbiter cross- country. It is 36 feet long, 25 feet wide, and 22 feet high. Columbia, the oldest of four orbiters in NASA's fleet, will undergo extensive inspections and modifications in Boeing's Orbiter Assembly Facility during a nine-month orbiter maintenance down period (OMDP), the second in its history. Orbiters are periodically removed from flight operations for an OMDP. Columbia's first was in 1994. Along with more than 100 modifications on the vehicle, Columbia will be the second orbiter to be outfitted with the multifunctional electronic display system, or 'glass cockpit.' Columbia is expected to return to KSC in July 2000.

  3. New Lives for Poor Families? Mothers and Young Children Move through Welfare Reform. The Growing Up in Poverty Wave 2 Findings: California, Connecticut, and Florida. Technical Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, Bruce; Kagan, Sharon Lynn; Loeb, Susanna

    This report examines how state welfare-to-work programs have affected young children since the 1996 welfare reform act, which moved millions of women into low-wage jobs. Researchers followed a sample of 948 mothers and young children for 2-4 years after the women entered new welfare programs in California, Connecticut, and Florida. After…

  4. The Moving Target of Climate Mitigation: Examples from the Energy Sector in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarroja, B.; AghaKouchak, A.; Forrest, K.; Chiang, F.; Samuelsen, S.

    2016-12-01

    In response to the concerns of climate change-induced impacts on human health, environmental integrity, and the secure operation of resource supply infrastructures, strategies to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of major societal sectors have been in development. In the energy sector, these strategies are based in low carbon primary energy deployment, increased energy efficiency, and implementing complementary technologies for operational resilience. While these strategies are aimed at climate mitigation, a degree of climate change-induced impacts will occur by the time of their deployment, and many of these impacts can compromise the effectiveness of these climate mitigation strategies. In order to develop climate mitigation strategies that will achieve their GHG reduction and other goals, the impact that climate change-induced conditions can have on different components of climate mitigation strategies must be understood. This presentation will highlight three examples of how climate change-induced conditions affect components of climate mitigation strategies in California: through impacts on 1) hydropower generation, 2) renewable potential for geothermal and solar thermal resources to form part of the renewable resource portfolio, and 3) the magnitudes and shapes of the electric load demand that must be met sustainably. These studies are part of a larger, overarching project to understand how climate change impacts the energy system and how to develop a sustainable energy infrastructure that is resilient against these impacts.

  5. Population structure of three species of Anisakis nematodes recovered from Pacific sardines (Sardinops sagax) distributed throughout the California Current system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldwin, Rebecca E; Rew, Mary Beth; Johansson, Mattias L; Banks, Michael A; Jacobson, Kym C

    2011-08-01

    Members of the Anisakidae are known to infect over 200 pelagic fish species and have been frequently used as biological tags to identify fish populations. Despite information on the global distribution of Anisakis species, there is little information on the genetic diversity and population structure of this genus, which could be useful in assessing the stock structure of their fish hosts. From 2005 through 2008, 148 larval anisakids were recovered from Pacific sardine (Sardinops sagax) in the California Current upwelling zone and were genetically sequenced. Sardines were captured off Vancouver Island, British Columbia in the north to San Diego, California in the south. Three species, Anisakis pegreffii, Anisakis simplex 'C', and Anisakis simplex s.s., were identified with the use of sequences from the internal transcribed spacers (ITS1 and ITS2) and the 5.8s subunit of the nuclear ribosomal DNA. The degree of nematode population structure was assessed with the use of the cytochrome c oxidase 2 (cox2) mitochondrial DNA gene. All 3 Anisakis species were distributed throughout the study region from 32°N to 50°N latitude. There was no association between sardine length and either nematode infection intensity or Anisakis species recovered. Larval Anisakis species and mitochondrial haplotype distributions from both parsimony networks and analyses of molecular variance revealed a panmictic distribution of these parasites, which infect sardines throughout the California Current ecosystem. Panmictic distribution of the larval Anisakis spp. populations may be a result of the presumed migratory pathways of the intermediate host (the Pacific sardine), moving into the northern portion of the California Current in summer and returning to the southern portion to overwinter and spawn in spring. However, the wider geographic range of paratenic (large piscine predators), and final hosts (cetaceans) can also explain the observed distribution pattern. As a result, the recovery of 3

  6. Spatiotemporal variability and long-term trends of ocean acidification in the California Current System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Hauri

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to seasonal upwelling, the upper ocean waters of the California Current System (CCS have a naturally low pH and aragonite saturation state (Ωarag, making this region particularly prone to the effects of ocean acidification. Here, we use the Regional Oceanic Modeling System (ROMS to conduct preindustrial and transient (1995–2050 simulations of ocean biogeochemistry in the CCS. The transient simulations were forced with increasing atmospheric pCO2 and increasing oceanic dissolved inorganic carbon concentrations at the lateral boundaries, as projected by the NCAR CSM 1.4 model for the IPCC SRES A2 scenario. Our results show a large seasonal variability in pH (range of ~ 0.14 and Ωarag (~ 0.2 for the nearshore areas (50 km from shore. This variability is created by the interplay of physical and biogeochemical processes. Despite this large variability, we find that present-day pH and Ωarag have already moved outside of their simulated preindustrial variability envelopes (defined by ±1 temporal standard deviation due to the rapidly increasing concentrations of atmospheric CO2. The nearshore surface pH of the northern and central CCS are simulated to move outside of their present-day variability envelopes by the mid-2040s and late 2030s, respectively. This transition may occur even earlier for nearshore surface Ωarag, which is projected to depart from its present-day variability envelope by the early- to mid-2030s. The aragonite saturation horizon of the central CCS is projected to shoal into the upper 75 m within the next 25 yr, causing near-permanent undersaturation in subsurface waters. Due to the model's overestimation of Ωarag, this transition may occur even earlier than simulated by the model. Overall, our study shows that the CCS joins the Arctic and Southern oceans as one of only a few known ocean regions presently approaching the dual threshold of

  7. Multiple resonances of a moving, oscillating surface disturbance on a shear current

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Yan

    2016-01-01

    We consider waves radiated by a disturbance of oscillating strength moving at constant velocity along the free surface of a shear flow which, when undisturbed, has uniform horizontal vorticity of magnitude $S$. When no current is present the problem is a classical one and much studied, and in deep water a resonance is known to occur when $\\tau=|\\boldsymbol{V}|\\omega_0/g$ equals the critical value $1/4$ ($\\boldsymbol{V}$: velocity of disturbance, $\\omega_0$: oscillation frequency, $g$: gravitational acceleration). We show that the presence of the sub-surface shear current can change this picture radically. Not only does the resonant value of $\\tau$ depend strongly on the angle between $\\boldsymbol{V}$ and the current's direction and the "shear-Froude number" $\\mathrm{Frs}=|\\boldsymbol{V}|S/g$; when $\\mathrm{Frs}>1/3$, multiple resonant values --- as many as $4$ --- can occur for some directions of motion. At sufficiently large values of $\\mathrm{Frs}$, the smallest resonance frequency tends to zero, representi...

  8. Strongly-sheared wind-forced currents in the nearshore regions of the central Southern California Bight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noble, Marlene A.; Rosenberger, Kurt; Robertson, George L.

    2015-01-01

    Contrary to many previous reports, winds do drive currents along the shelf in the central portion of the Southern California Bight (SCB). Winds off Huntington Beach CA are the dominant forcing for currents over the nearshore region of the shelf (water depths less than 20 m). Winds control about 50–70% of the energy in nearshore alongshelf surface currents. The wind-driven current amplitudes are also anomalously high. For a relatively weak 1 dyne/cm2 wind stress, the alongshelf surface current amplitudes in this region can reach 80 cm/s or more. Mid-depth current amplitudes for the same wind stress are around 30–40 cm/s. These wind-driven surface current amplitudes are much larger than previously measured over other nearshore shelf regions, perhaps because this program is one of the few that measured currents within a meter of the surface. The near-bed cross-shelf currents over the nearshore region of the Huntington Beach shelf have an Ekman response to winds in that they upwell (downwell) for down (up) coast winds. This response disappears further offshore. Hence, there is upwelling in the SCB, but it does not occur across the entire shelf. Subthermocline water in the nearshore region that may contain nutrients and plankton move onshore when winds are southeastward, but subthermocline water over the shelf break is not transported to the beach. The currents over the outer shelf are not predominately controlled by winds, consistent with previous reports. Instead, they are mainly driven by cross-shelf pressure gradients that are independent of local wind stress.

  9. Identifying krill eggs in the central California current using novel multiplex PCR primers: Applications and limitations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrion, C. N.; Slesinger, E.; Marinovic, B.

    2016-02-01

    Euphausiids, otherwise known as krill, are an important link between primary producers and higher trophic levels within the central California current upwelling system. Euphausia pacifica and Thysanoessa spinifera, two of the most common euphausiid species along the central California coast, are both broadcast spawners and have some overlap in habitat, e.g. near marine life hotspots like the Monterey Bay and Gulf of Farallones. Species composition of euphausiid egg population within these regions is currently unknown. Distinct morphological differences between their eggs are lost once the egg dies or is preserved via formalin, alcohol, or freezing. In this project we designed genus specific DNA primers (mtCOI) for use in a multiplex PCR to distinguish among spawned euphausiid eggs of Euphausia spp. and Thysanoessa spp. in central California current surface waters. Effective and ineffective application of primers in a multiplex versus single-plex PCR is discussed, with an emphasis on primer design limitations in reference to the available barcoded regions of mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit I (mtCOI) for each species in GenBank. This new protocol expands current monitoring efforts into sampling a non-swimming portion of the population which has the potential to improve euphausiid biomass estimates.

  10. A climatology of the California Current System from a network of underwater gliders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudnick, Daniel L.; Zaba, Katherine D.; Todd, Robert E.; Davis, Russ E.

    2017-05-01

    Autonomous underwater gliders offer the possibility of sustained observation of the coastal ocean. Since 2006 Spray underwater gliders in the California Underwater Glider Network (CUGN) have surveyed along California Cooperative Oceanic Fisheries Investigations (CalCOFI) lines 66.7, 80.0, and 90.0, constituting the world's longest sustained glider network, to our knowledge. In this network, gliders dive between the surface and 500 m, completing a cycle in 3 h and covering 3 km in that time. Sections extend 350-500 km offshore and take 2-3 weeks to occupy. Measured variables include pressure, temperature, salinity, and depth-average velocity. The CUGN has amassed over 10,000 glider-days, covering over 210,000 km with over 95,000 dives. These data are used to produce a climatology whose products are for each variable a mean field, an annual cycle, and the anomaly from the annual cycle. The analysis includes a weighted least-squares fit to derive the mean and annual cycle, and an objective map to produce the anomaly. The final results are variables on rectangular grids in depth, distance offshore, and time. The mean fields are finely resolved sections across the main flows in the California Current System, including the poleward California Undercurrent and the equatorward California Current. The annual cycle shows a phase change from the surface to the thermocline, reflecting the effects of air/sea fluxes at the surface and upwelling in the thermocline. The interannual anomalies are examined with an emphasis on climate events of the last ten years including the 2009-2010 El Niño, the 2010-2011 La Niña, the warm anomaly of 2014-2015, and the 2015-2016 El Niño.

  11. Reliability of Sensors Based on Nanowire Networks When the Electrical Current is Allowed to Move in All Directions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nader Ebrahimi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Nanowire networks have great potential in many industrial applications, including batteries, electrical circuits, solar cells, and sensors. In this paper we focus on a specific hydrogen gas nanosensor whose sensing element is a network of palladium nanowires. The nanosensor is modeled using a square, equilateral triangle, and hexagonal lattice. We provide the reliability behavior of this nanosensor when the electrical current is allowed to move in all directions. Our findings reveal an improvement in reliability compared to the scenario where the electrical current could not move from right to left. We show this improvement both analytically and through simulation.

  12. Injection of carbon from the shelf to offshore beneath the euphotic zone in the California Current

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barth, John A.; Cowles, Timothy J.; Kosro, P. Michael; Shearman, R. Kipp; Huyer, Adriana; Smith, Robert L.

    2002-06-01

    High concentrations of chlorophyll are found in the California Current System over 300 km offshore, far from the productive coastal upwelling region, and between 150 and 250 m, well below the depth to which photosynthetically active solar radiation penetrates. This exceptionally deep chlorophyll feature is formed near the coast and transported offshore in the meandering California Current jet. Chlorophyll is forced downward along sloping density surfaces through conservation of potential vorticity along the meandering jet path. Thus mesoscale physical dynamics serve to inject large amounts of carbon, e.g., 2400 t as reported here, per event from regions of active coastal upwelling into the adjacent deep ocean, a process that must be considered when computing oceanic carbon budgets.

  13. Predicting Trophic Interactions and Habitat Utilization in the California Current Ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-30

    Figure 4. Sea surface temperature (°C; top), phytoplankton concentration (mmolN m-3; middle) and zooplankton concentration (mmolN m-3; bottom...which the integrated ecosystem model reproduces environmental variability in the California Current (e.g., temperature , phytoplankton ). The 4D-Var 6...considering patterns of covariability between environmental variables (e.g., temperature , primary production) and foraging patterns and success of

  14. Where the wild things are: Predicting hotspots of seabird aggregations in the California Current System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nur, N.; Jahncke, J.; Herzog, M.P.; Howar, J.; Hyrenbach, K.D.; Zamon, J.E.; Ainley, D.G.; Wiens, J.A.; Morgan, K.; Balance, L.T.; Stralberg, D.

    2011-01-01

    Marine Protected Areas (MPAs) provide an important tool for conservation of marine ecosystems. To be most effective, these areas should be strategically located in a manner that supports ecosystem function. To inform marine spatial planning and support strategic establishment of MPAs within the California Current System, we identified areas predicted to support multispecies aggregations of seabirds ("hotspot????). We developed habitat-association models for 16 species using information from at-sea observations collected over an 11-year period (1997-2008), bathymetric data, and remotely sensed oceanographic data for an area from north of Vancouver Island, Canada, to the USA/Mexico border and seaward 600 km from the coast. This approach enabled us to predict distribution and abundance of seabirds even in areas of few or no surveys. We developed single-species predictive models using a machine-learning algorithm: bagged decision trees. Single-species predictions were then combined to identify potential hotspots of seabird aggregation, using three criteria: (1) overall abundance among species, (2) importance of specific areas ("core area????) to individual species, and (3) predicted persistence of hotspots across years. Model predictions were applied to the entire California Current for four seasons (represented by February, May, July, and October) in each of 11 years. Overall, bathymetric variables were often important predictive variables, whereas oceanographic variables derived from remotely sensed data were generally less important. Predicted hotspots often aligned with currently protected areas (e.g., National Marine Sanctuaries), but we also identified potential hotspots in Northern California/Southern Oregon (from Cape Mendocino to Heceta Bank), Southern California (adjacent to the Channel Islands), and adjacent to Vancouver Island, British Columbia, that are not currently included in protected areas. Prioritization and identification of multispecies hotspots

  15. Modeling the yield potential of dryland canola under current and future climates in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, N.; Kaffka, S.; Beeck, C.; Bucaram, S.; Zhang, J.

    2012-12-01

    -adapted canola varieties can be justified, and the potential value of a California canola industry both now and in the future. Winter annual crops like canola use rainfall in a Mediterranean climate like California more efficiently than spring or summer crops. Our results suggest that under current production costs and seed prices, dry farmed canola will have good potential in certain areas of the California. Canola yields decline with annual winter precipitation, however economically viable yields are still achieved at relatively precipitation levels (200 mm). Results from simulation, combined with related economic modeling (reported elsewhere) suggest that canola will be viable in a variety of production systems in the northern Sacramento Valley and some coastal locations, even under drier future climate scenarios. The in-field evaluation of Australian canola varieties should contribute to maintain or improving resource use efficiency and farm profitability.

  16. Characterization of the Deep Water Surface Wave Variability in the California Current Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villas Bôas, Ana B.; Gille, Sarah T.; Mazloff, Matthew R.; Cornuelle, Bruce D.

    2017-11-01

    Surface waves are crucial for the dynamics of the upper ocean not only because they mediate exchanges of momentum, heat, energy, and gases between the ocean and the atmosphere, but also because they determine the sea state. The surface wave field in a given region is set by the combination of local and remote forcing. The present work characterizes the seasonal variability of the deep water surface wave field in the California Current region, as retrieved from over two decades of satellite altimetry data combined with wave buoys and wave model hindcast (WaveWatch III). In particular, the extent to which the local wind modulates the variability of the significant wave height, peak period, and peak direction is assessed. During spring/summer, regional-scale wind events of up to 10 m/s are the dominant forcing for waves off the California coast, leading to relatively short-period waves (8-10 s) that come predominantly from the north-northwest. The wave climatology throughout the California Current region shows average significant wave heights exceeding 2 m during most of the year, which may have implications for the planning and retrieval methods of the Surface Water and Ocean Topography (SWOT) satellite mission.

  17. Environmental fate of fungicides and other current-use pesticides in a central California estuary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smalling, Kelly L.; Kuivila, Kathryn; Orlando, James L.; Phillips, Bryn M.; Anderson, Brian S.; Siegler, Katie; Hunt, John W.; Hamilton, Mary

    2013-01-01

    The current study documents the fate of current-use pesticides in an agriculturally-dominated central California coastal estuary by focusing on the occurrence in water, sediment and tissue of resident aquatic organisms. Three fungicides (azoxystrobin, boscalid, and pyraclostrobin), one herbicide (propyzamide) and two organophosphate insecticides (chlorpyrifos and diazinon) were detected frequently. Dissolved pesticide concentrations in the estuary corresponded to the timing of application while bed sediment pesticide concentrations correlated with the distance from potential sources. Fungicides and insecticides were detected frequently in fish and invertebrates collected near the mouth of the estuary and the contaminant profiles differed from the sediment and water collected. This is the first study to document the occurrence of many current-use pesticides, including fungicides, in tissue. Limited information is available on the uptake, accumulation and effects of current-use pesticides on non-target organisms. Additional data are needed to understand the impacts of pesticides, especially in small agriculturally-dominated estuaries.

  18. The California Current System: A Multiscale Overview and the Development of a Feature-Oriented Regional Modeling System (FORMS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    region. Brink et al. (1991) defined a coastal transition zone ( CTZ ) along the California coast as the demarcation between the faster, more energetic...Current. The inshore region of the CTZ is complicated by the poleward flow being interrupted by the summer upwelling jets flowing equatorward near the... CTZ around the coastal region of Monterey Bay and the California Current System. The filaments, coastal eddies, anomalous pools, jets along the

  19. Effects of Climate Change on Sardine Productivity in the California Current System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumgartner, T. R.; Auad, G.; Miller, A. J.

    2007-05-01

    The Pacific sardine (Sardinops sagax caeruleus) is one of several coastal pelagic, planktivorous species of fish that provide important trophic links within the ecosystems of the major eastern and western boundary currents. Significant and persistent change in sardine productivity has occurred in the California Current over interdecadal periods in response to reorganization of basin-wide, ocean-atmosphere circulation. Less extreme, but still significant changes in sardine productivity are associated with interannual to decadal-scale climate variability. A precipitous decline of the sardine population began in the mid-1940s with a shift in climate leading to cooling of the California Current system. While the decline, and ultimately the collapse of the population, was exacerbated by intensive fishing, the sardine also suffered a severe reduction in productivity with the southward contraction of favorable thermal habitat that led to restriction of the population to the waters off Southern California and Baja California. This southward displacement resulted in geographic separation of the population from the region off central and northern California that is characterized by significantly higher concentrations of zooplankton that supported the previous levels of success in spawning and larval development. The climate shift in 1976-77 led to the recovery of the population and extension of its range of distribution northwards into the waters off British Columbia. The relation of reproductive success of the sardine population to interannual and decadal climate change was examined for the period 1982-2005 using a suite of seasonal indices representing climate processes and habitat conditions (including zooplankton food levels) occurring through the different stages in the sardine life cycle. We used both stepwise regression and EOF analyses to determine the association between levels of recruitment success and seasonal indices of the Pacific Decadal Oscillation, Ekman

  20. Improving Efficiency of a Counter-Current Flow Moving Bed Granular Filter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colver, G.M.; Brown, R.C.; Shi, H.; Soo, D.S-C.

    2002-09-18

    The goal of this research is to improve the performance of moving bed granular filters for gas cleaning at high temperatures and pressures. A second goal of the research is to optimize the performances of both solids and gas filtering processes through appropriate use of granular bed materials, particle sizes, feed rates etc. in a factorial study. These goals are directed toward applications of advanced coal-fired power cycles under development by the U.S. Department of Energy including pressurized fluidized bed combustion and integrated gasification/combined cycles based on gas turbines and fuel cells. Only results for particulate gas cleaning are reported here.

  1. Exploring local adaptation and the ocean acidification seascape - studies in the California Current Large Marine Ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmann, G. E.; Evans, T. G.; Kelly, M. W.; Padilla-Gamiño, J. L.; Blanchette, C. A.; Washburn, L.; Chan, F.; McManus, M. A.; Menge, B. A.; Gaylord, B.; Hill, T. M.; Sanford, E.; LaVigne, M.; Rose, J. M.; Kapsenberg, L.; Dutton, J. M.

    2014-02-01

    The California Current Large Marine Ecosystem (CCLME), a temperate marine region dominated by episodic upwelling, is predicted to experience rapid environmental change in the future due to ocean acidification. The aragonite saturation state within the California Current System is predicted to decrease in the future with near-permanent undersaturation conditions expected by the year 2050. Thus, the CCLME is a critical region to study due to the rapid rate of environmental change that resident organisms will experience and because of the economic and societal value of this coastal region. Recent efforts by a research consortium - the Ocean Margin Ecosystems Group for Acidification Studies (OMEGAS) - has begun to characterize a portion of the CCLME; both describing the spatial mosaic of pH in coastal waters and examining the responses of key calcification-dependent benthic marine organisms to natural variation in pH and to changes in carbonate chemistry that are expected in the coming decades. In this review, we present the OMEGAS strategy of co-locating sensors and oceanographic observations with biological studies on benthic marine invertebrates, specifically measurements of functional traits such as calcification-related processes and genetic variation in populations that are locally adapted to conditions in a particular region of the coast. Highlighted in this contribution are (1) the OMEGAS sensor network that spans the west coast of the US from central Oregon to southern California, (2) initial findings of the carbonate chemistry amongst the OMEGAS study sites, and (3) an overview of the biological data that describes the acclimatization and the adaptation capacity of key benthic marine invertebrates within the CCLME.

  2. The current state of quality of care measurement in the California Department of Corrections and Rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teleki, Stephanie S; Damberg, Cheryl L; Shaw, Rebecca; Hiatt, Liisa; Williams, Brie; Hill, Terry E; Asch, Steven M

    2011-04-01

    The quality of health care in prisons is lacking in many states. In particular, the California Department of Corrections and Rehabilitation (CDCR) is in the midst of an extreme legal remedy to address problems related to access to and quality of care; it now operates under the direction of a federally appointed receiver for medical care. To understand the current state of access and quality measurement and to assess strengths and weaknesses of current activities, the RAND Corporation conducted a series of interviews and site visits in the CDCR and related offices as well as document reviews (December 2008 to February 2009). Findings supported RAND's larger project goals to identify measures for use in a sustainable quality measurement system.

  3. Sea Surface Temperature Influence on Terrestrial Gross Primary Production along the Southern California Current.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reimer, Janet J; Vargas, Rodrigo; Rivas, David; Gaxiola-Castro, Gilberto; Hernandez-Ayon, J Martin; Lara-Lara, Ruben

    2015-01-01

    Some land and ocean processes are related through connections (and synoptic-scale teleconnections) to the atmosphere. Synoptic-scale atmospheric (El Niño/Southern Oscillation [ENSO], Pacific Decadal Oscillation [PDO], and North Atlantic Oscillation [NAO]) decadal cycles are known to influence the global terrestrial carbon cycle. Potentially, smaller scale land-ocean connections influenced by coastal upwelling (changes in sea surface temperature) may be important for local-to-regional water-limited ecosystems where plants may benefit from air moisture transported from the ocean to terrestrial ecosystems. Here we use satellite-derived observations to test potential connections between changes in sea surface temperature (SST) in regions with strong coastal upwelling and terrestrial gross primary production (GPP) across the Baja California Peninsula. This region is characterized by an arid/semiarid climate along the southern California Current. We found that SST was correlated with the fraction of photosynthetic active radiation (fPAR; as a proxy for GPP) with lags ranging from 0 to 5 months. In contrast ENSO was not as strongly related with fPAR as SST in these coastal ecosystems. Our results show the importance of local-scale changes in SST during upwelling events, to explain the variability in GPP in coastal, water-limited ecosystems. The response of GPP to SST was spatially-dependent: colder SST in the northern areas increased GPP (likely by influencing fog formation), while warmer SST at the southern areas was associated to higher GPP (as SST is in phase with precipitation patterns). Interannual trends in fPAR are also spatially variable along the Baja California Peninsula with increasing secular trends in subtropical regions, decreasing trends in the most arid region, and no trend in the semi-arid regions. These findings suggest that studies and ecosystem process based models should consider the lateral influence of local-scale ocean processes that could

  4. Sea Surface Temperature Influence on Terrestrial Gross Primary Production along the Southern California Current.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janet J Reimer

    Full Text Available Some land and ocean processes are related through connections (and synoptic-scale teleconnections to the atmosphere. Synoptic-scale atmospheric (El Niño/Southern Oscillation [ENSO], Pacific Decadal Oscillation [PDO], and North Atlantic Oscillation [NAO] decadal cycles are known to influence the global terrestrial carbon cycle. Potentially, smaller scale land-ocean connections influenced by coastal upwelling (changes in sea surface temperature may be important for local-to-regional water-limited ecosystems where plants may benefit from air moisture transported from the ocean to terrestrial ecosystems. Here we use satellite-derived observations to test potential connections between changes in sea surface temperature (SST in regions with strong coastal upwelling and terrestrial gross primary production (GPP across the Baja California Peninsula. This region is characterized by an arid/semiarid climate along the southern California Current. We found that SST was correlated with the fraction of photosynthetic active radiation (fPAR; as a proxy for GPP with lags ranging from 0 to 5 months. In contrast ENSO was not as strongly related with fPAR as SST in these coastal ecosystems. Our results show the importance of local-scale changes in SST during upwelling events, to explain the variability in GPP in coastal, water-limited ecosystems. The response of GPP to SST was spatially-dependent: colder SST in the northern areas increased GPP (likely by influencing fog formation, while warmer SST at the southern areas was associated to higher GPP (as SST is in phase with precipitation patterns. Interannual trends in fPAR are also spatially variable along the Baja California Peninsula with increasing secular trends in subtropical regions, decreasing trends in the most arid region, and no trend in the semi-arid regions. These findings suggest that studies and ecosystem process based models should consider the lateral influence of local-scale ocean processes that

  5. Changing patterns in water toxicity associated with current use pesticides in three California agriculture regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Brian S; Phillips, Bryn M; Voorhees, Jennifer P; Deng, Xin; Geraci, Jeff; Worcester, Karen; Tjeerdema, Ron S

    2017-11-15

    Regulation of agriculture irrigation water discharges in California, USA, is assessed and controlled by its 9 Regional Water Quality Control Boards under the jurisdiction of the California State Water Resources Control Board. Each Regional Water Board has developed programs to control pesticides in runoff as part of the waste discharge requirements implemented through each region's Irrigated Lands Regulatory Program. The present study assessed how pesticide use patterns differ in the Imperial (Imperial County) and the Salinas and Santa Maria (Monterey County) valleys, which host 3 of California's prime agriculture areas. Surface-water toxicity associated with current use pesticides was monitored at several sites in these areas in 2014 and 2015, and results were linked to changes in pesticide use patterns in these areas. Pesticide use patterns appeared to coincide with differences in the way agriculture programs were implemented by the 2 respective Regional Water Quality Control Boards, and these programs differed in the 2 Water Board Regions. Different pesticide use patterns affected the occurrence of pesticides in agriculture runoff, and this influenced toxicity test results. Greater detection frequency and higher concentrations of the organophosphate pesticide chlorpyrifos were detected in agriculture runoff in Imperial County compared to Monterey County, likely due to more rigorous monitoring requirements for growers using this pesticide in Monterey County. Monterey County agriculture runoff contained toxic concentrations of pyrethroid and neonicotinoid pesticides, which impacted amphipods (Hyalella azteca) and midge larvae (Chironomus dilutus) in toxicity tests. Study results illustrate how monitoring strategies need to evolve as regulatory actions affect change in pesticide use and demonstrate the importance of using toxicity test indicator species appropriate for the suite of contaminants in runoff in order to accurately assess environmental risk. Integr

  6. Current controversies in colorectal surgery: the way to resolve uncertainty and move forward

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenberg, J; Fischer, A; Haglind, E

    2012-01-01

    The are currently a number of unsolved clinical questions in colorectal surgery with new surgical principles being introduced without proper scientific high-level evidence. These include complete mesocolic excision with central ligation for colonic cancer, extralevator abdominoperineal excision f...

  7. A nowcast model for tides and tidal currents in San Francisco Bay, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Ralph T.; Smith, Richard E.

    1998-01-01

    National Oceanographic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) installed Physical Oceanographic Real-Time System (PORTS) in San Francisco Bay, California to provide observations of tides, tidal currents, and meteorological conditions. PORTS data are used for optimizing vessel operations, increasing margin of safety for navigation, and guiding hazardous material spill prevention and response. Because tides and tidal currents in San Francisco Bay are extremely complex, limited real-time observations are insufficient to provide spatial resolution for variations of tides and tidal currents. To fill the information gaps, a highresolution, robust, semi-implicit, finite-difference nowcast numerical model has been implemented for San Francisco Bay. The model grid and water depths are defined on coordinates based on Mercator projection so the model outputs can be directly superimposed on navigation charts. A data assimilation algorithm has been established to derive the boundary conditions for model simulations. The nowcast model is executed every hour continuously for tides and tidal currents starting from 24 hours before the present time (now) covering a total of 48 hours simulation. Forty-eight hours of nowcast model results are available to the public at all times through the World Wide Web (WWW). Users can view and download the nowcast model results for tides and tidal current distributions in San Francisco Bay for their specific applications and for further analysis.

  8. Accumulation of current-use and organochlorine pesticides in crab embryos from Northern California, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smalling, Kelly L.; Morgan, Steven; Kuivila, Kathryn K.

    2010-01-01

    Invertebrates have long been used as resident sentinels for assessing ecosystem health and productivity. The shore crabs, Hemigrapsus oregonensis and Pachygrapsus crassipes, are abundant in estuaries and beaches throughout northern California, USA and have been used as indicators of habitat conditions in several salt marshes. The overall objectives of the present study were to conduct a lab-based study to test the accumulation of current-use pesticides, validate the analytical method and to analyze field-collected crabs for a suite of 74 current-use and legacy pesticides. A simple laboratory uptake study was designed to determine if embryos could bioconcentrate the herbicide molinate over a 7-d period. At the end of the experiment, embryos were removed from the crabs and analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Although relatively hydrophilic (log KOW of 2.9), molinate did accumulate with an estimated bioconcentration factor (log BCF) of approximately 2.5. Following method validation, embryos were collected from two different Northern California salt marshes and analyzed. In field-collected embryos 18 current-use and eight organochlorine pesticides were detected including synthetic pyrethroids and organophosphate insecticides, as well as DDT and its degradates. Lipid-normalized concentrations of the pesticides detected in the field-collected crab embryos ranged from 0.1 to 4 ppm. Pesticide concentrations and profiles in crab embryos were site specific and could be correlated to differences in land-use practices. These preliminary results indicate that embryos are an effective sink for organic contaminants in the environment and have the potential to be good indicators of ecosystem health, especially when contaminant body burden analyses are paired with reproductive impairment assays.

  9. Alternating current electrothermal modulated moving contact line dynamics of immiscible binary fluids over patterned surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunti, Golak; Bhattacharya, Anandaroop; Chakraborty, Suman

    2017-09-27

    In this paper, we report the results of our numerical study on incompressible flow of a binary system of two immiscible fluids in a parallel plate capillary using alternating current electrothermal kinetics as the actuation mechanism for flow. The surfaces of the capillary are wetted with two different alternating wettability patches. The dynamic motion of the interface of the two fluids is tracked using a phase-field order parameter-based approach. The results exhibit a stick-slip behavior involving acceleration and deceleration of the interface due to the interplay of electrothermal (Coulomb and dielectric) and surface tension forces. Controlling the interface motion through effective tuning of the chemical characteristics of the surfaces and forcing parameters was explored in detail. Finally, we were able to find a critical value of the dimensionless strength of the alternating current electrothermal force above which the interface "breaks", resulting in the formation of isolated droplets. These results have the potential to improve fundamental understanding and design optimization of various biomedical and physiological systems that involve flow of two or more immiscible fluids over chemically wetted surfaces.

  10. Current clinical practices in Aphasia Therapy in Finland: challenges in moving towards national best practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klippi, A; Sellman, J; Heikkinen, P; Laine, M

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this article is to discover and document the state of clinical practices for aphasia therapy in Finland and to gather information for developing national best practice. Two surveys were administered in Finland that explored current clinical practices in aphasia rehabilitation and the resources available to speech and language therapists (SLTs). We integrated and compared the results of these surveys. The results are based on the responses of the 88 (45 + 43) returned questionnaires from SLTs. Four principle themes were identified: planning the aphasia therapy, measures and assessment methods, current therapy service provision, and development suggestions and barriers to change. The results of this study showed considerable consistency in clinical practices among the respondents to the surveys. However, we noticed that there are some discrepancies between the recent research findings and present clinical practices. The findings from this study indicate that there are many challenges in clinical decision-making at the moment in Finland. The article helps clinicians to evaluate the practices they use and to execute justified modifications in order to implement more effective models of practice. It is evident that national best practice guidelines for aphasia therapy would support SLTs in clinical decision-making. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  11. Estimating the impacts of fishing on dependent predators: a case study in the California Current.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field, J C; MacCall, A D; Bradley, R W; Sydeman, W J

    2010-12-01

    Juvenile rockfish (Sebastes spp.) are important prey to seabirds in the California Current System, particularly during the breeding season. Both seabird breeding success and the abundance of pelagic juvenile rockfish show high interannual variability. This covariation is largely a response to variable ocean conditions; however, fishing on adult rockfish may have had consequences for seabird productivity (e.g., the number of chicks fledged per breeding pair) by reducing the availability of juvenile rockfish to provisioning seabird parents. We tested the hypothesis that fishing has decreased juvenile rockfish availability and thereby limited seabird productivity over the past 30 years. We quantified relationships between observed juvenile rockfish relative abundance and seabird productivity, used fisheries stock assessment approaches to estimate the relative abundance of juvenile rockfish in the absence of fishing, and compared the differences in seabird productivity that would have resulted without rockfish fisheries. We examined the abundance of juvenile rockfish and the corresponding productivity of three seabird species breeding on Southeast Farallon Island (near San Francisco, California, USA) from the early 1980s to the present. Results show that while the relative abundance of juvenile rockfish has declined to approximately 50% of the estimated unfished biomass, seabirds achieved 75-95% of the estimated un-impacted levels of productivity, depending upon the species of bird and various model assumptions. These results primarily reflect seabirds with "conservative" life histories (one egg laid per year) and may be different for species with more flexible life history strategies (greater reproductive effort). Our results are consistent with the premise that the impacts of local rockfish fisheries on seabird productivity are less than impacts that have occurred to the prey resources themselves due to ocean climate and the ability of seabirds to buffer against

  12. Moving towards a reliable HIV incidence test - current status, resources available, future directions and challenges ahead.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, G; Pilcher, C D; Keating, S M; Kassanjee, R; Facente, S N; Welte, A; Grebe, E; Marson, K; Busch, M P; Dailey, P; Parkin, N; Osborn, J; Ongarello, S; Marsh, K; Garcia-Calleja, J M

    2017-04-01

    In 2011 the Incidence Assay Critical Path Working Group reviewed the current state of HIV incidence assays and helped to determine a critical path to the introduction of an HIV incidence assay. At that time the Consortium for Evaluation and Performance of HIV Incidence Assays (CEPHIA) was formed to spur progress and raise standards among assay developers, scientists and laboratories involved in HIV incidence measurement and to structure and conduct a direct independent comparative evaluation of the performance of 10 existing HIV incidence assays, to be considered singly and in combinations as recent infection test algorithms. In this paper we report on a new framework for HIV incidence assay evaluation that has emerged from this effort over the past 5 years, which includes a preliminary target product profile for an incidence assay, a consensus around key performance metrics along with analytical tools and deployment of a standardized approach for incidence assay evaluation. The specimen panels for this evaluation have been collected in large volumes, characterized using a novel approach for infection dating rules and assembled into panels designed to assess the impact of important sources of measurement error with incidence assays such as viral subtype, elite host control of viraemia and antiretroviral treatment. We present the specific rationale for several of these innovations, and discuss important resources for assay developers and researchers that have recently become available. Finally, we summarize the key remaining steps on the path to development and implementation of reliable assays for monitoring HIV incidence at a population level.

  13. Moving Beyond the Brain: Transcutaneous Spinal Direct Current Stimulation in Post-Stroke Aphasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Marangolo

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Over the last 20 years, major advances in cognitive neuroscience have clearly shown that the language function is not restricted into the classical language areas but it involves brain regions, which had never previously considered. Indeed, recent lines of evidence have suggested that the processing of words associated to motor schemata, such as action verbs, modulates the activity of the sensorimotor cortex, which, in turn, facilitates its retrieval. To date, no studies have investigated whether the spinal cord, which is functionally connected to the sensorimotor system, might also work as an auxiliary support for language processing. We explored the combined effect of transcutaneous spinal direct current stimulation (tsDCS and language treatment in a randomized double-blind design for the recovery of verbs and nouns in 14 chronic aphasics. During each treatment, each subject received tsDCS (20 min, 2 mA over the thoracic vertebrae (10th vertebra in three different conditions: (1 anodic, (2 cathodic and (3 sham, while performing a verb and noun naming tasks. Each experimental condition was run in five consecutive daily sessions over 3 weeks. Overall, a significant greater improvement in verb naming was found during the anodic condition with respect to the other two conditions, which persisted at 1 week after the end of the treatment. No significant differences were present for noun naming among the three conditions. The hypothesis is advanced that anodic tsDCS might have influenced activity along the ascending somatosensory pathways, ultimately eliciting neurophysiological changes into the sensorimotor areas which, in turn, supported the retrieval of verbs. These results further support the evidence that action words, due to their sensorimotor semantic properties, are partly represented into the sensorimotor cortex. Moreover, they also document, for the first time, that tsDCS enhances verb recovery in chronic aphasia and it may

  14. Using integrated, ecosystem-level management to address intensifying ocean acidification and hypoxia in the California Current large marine ecosystem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terrie Klinger

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Ocean acidification is intensifying and hypoxia is projected to expand in the California Current large marine ecosystem as a result of processes associated with the global emission of CO2. Observed changes in the California Current outpace those in many other areas of the ocean, underscoring the pressing need to adopt management approaches that can accommodate uncertainty and the complicated dynamics forced by accelerating change. We argue that changes occurring in the California Current large marine ecosystem provide opportunities and incentives to adopt an integrated, systems-level approach to resource management to preserve existing ecosystem services and forestall abrupt change. Practical options already exist to maximize the benefits of management actions and ameliorate impending change in the California Current, for instance, adding ocean acidification and hypoxia to design criteria for marine protected areas, including consideration of ocean acidification and hypoxia in fisheries management decisions, and fully enforcing existing laws and regulations that govern water quality and land use and development.

  15. Effects of Hall current, radiation and rotation on natural convection heat and mass transfer flow past a moving vertical plate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.S. Seth

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available An investigation of the effects of Hall current and rotation on unsteady hydromagnetic natural convection flow with heat and mass transfer of an electrically conducting, viscous, incompressible and optically thick radiating fluid past an impulsively moving vertical plate embedded in a fluid saturated porous medium, when temperature of the plate has a temporarily ramped profile, is carried out. Exact solution of the governing equations is obtained in closed form by Laplace transform technique. Exact solution is also obtained in case of unit Schmidt number. Expressions for skin friction due to primary and secondary flows and Nusselt number are derived for both ramped temperature and isothermal plates. Expression for Sherwood number is also derived. The numerical values of primary and secondary fluid velocities, fluid temperature and species concentration are displayed graphically whereas those of skin friction are presented in tabular form for various values of pertinent flow parameters.

  16. Revealing sources and chemical identity of iron ligands across the California Current System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boiteau, R.; Repeta, D.; Fitzsimmons, J. N.; Parker, C.; Twining, B. S.; Baines, S.

    2016-02-01

    The California Current System is one of the most productive regions of the ocean, fueled by the upwelling of nutrient rich water. Differences in the supply of micronutrient iron to surface waters along the coast lead to a mosaic of iron-replete and iron-limited conditions across the region, affecting primary production and community composition. Most of the iron in this region is supplied by upwelling of iron from the benthic boundary layer that is complexed by strong organic ligands. However, the source, identity, and bioavailability of these ligands are unknown. Here, we used novel hyphenated chromatography mass spectrometry approaches to structurally characterize organic ligands across the region. With these methods, iron ligands are detected with liquid chromatography coupled to inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LC-ICPMS), and then their mass and fragmentation spectra are determined by high resolution electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (LC-ESIMS). Iron isotopic exchange was used to compare the relative binding strengths of different ligands. Our survey revealed a broad range of ligands from multiple sources. Benthic boundary layers and anoxic sediments were sources of structurally amorphous weak ligands, likely organic degradation products, as well as siderophores, strong iron binding molecules that facilitate iron acquisition. In the euphotic zone, marine microbes and zooplankton grazing produced a wide distribution of other compounds that included known and novel siderophores. This work demonstrates that the chemical nature of ligands from different sources varies substantially and has important implications for iron biogeochemical cycling and availability to members of the microbial community.

  17. Material properties of Pacific hake, Humboldt squid, and two species of myctophids in the California Current.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Kaylyn N; Warren, Joseph D

    2015-05-01

    Material properties of the flesh from three fish species (Merluccius productus, Symbolophorus californiensis, and Diaphus theta), and several body parts of the Humboldt squid (Dosidicus gigas) collected from the California Current ecosystem were measured. The density contrast relative to seawater varied within and among taxa for fish flesh (0.9919-1.036), squid soft body parts (mantle, arms, tentacle, braincase, eyes; 1.009-1.057), and squid hard body parts (beak and pen; 1.085-1.459). Effects of animal length and environmental conditions on nekton density contrast were investigated. The sound speed contrast relative to seawater varied within and among taxa for fish flesh (0.986-1.027) and Humboldt squid mantle and braincase (0.937-1.028). Material properties in this study are similar to values from previous studies on species with similar life histories. In general, the sound speed and density of soft body parts of fish and squid were 1%-3% and 1%-6%, respectively, greater than the surrounding seawater. Hard parts of the squid were significantly more dense (6%-46%) than seawater. The material properties reported here can be used to improve target strength estimates from acoustic scattering models, which could increase the accuracy of biomass estimates from acoustic surveys for these nekton.

  18. Distribution, growth, and condition of salmonids in the central California Current Ecosystem.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Fisheries Ecology Division of NOAA’s SWFSC conducts annual surveys of salmon and their ocean habitat in the coastal waters of northern California and southern...

  19. Quantifying acoustic doppler current profiler discharge uncertainty: A Monte Carlo based tool for moving-boat measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, David S.

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents a method using Monte Carlo simulations for assessing uncertainty of moving-boat acoustic Doppler current profiler (ADCP) discharge measurements using a software tool known as QUant, which was developed for this purpose. Analysis was performed on 10 data sets from four Water Survey of Canada gauging stations in order to evaluate the relative contribution of a range of error sources to the total estimated uncertainty. The factors that differed among data sets included the fraction of unmeasured discharge relative to the total discharge, flow nonuniformity, and operator decisions about instrument programming and measurement cross section. As anticipated, it was found that the estimated uncertainty is dominated by uncertainty of the discharge in the unmeasured areas, highlighting the importance of appropriate selection of the site, the instrument, and the user inputs required to estimate the unmeasured discharge. The main contributor to uncertainty was invalid data, but spatial inhomogeneity in water velocity and bottom-track velocity also contributed, as did variation in the edge velocity, uncertainty in the edge distances, edge coefficients, and the top and bottom extrapolation methods. To a lesser extent, spatial inhomogeneity in the bottom depth also contributed to the total uncertainty, as did uncertainty in the ADCP draft at shallow sites. The estimated uncertainties from QUant can be used to assess the adequacy of standard operating procedures. They also provide quantitative feedback to the ADCP operators about the quality of their measurements, indicating which parameters are contributing most to uncertainty, and perhaps even highlighting ways in which uncertainty can be reduced. Additionally, QUant can be used to account for self-dependent error sources such as heading errors, which are a function of heading. The results demonstrate the importance of a Monte Carlo method tool such as QUant for quantifying random and bias errors when

  20. Occurrence of Plastic Micro-Debris in the California Current System

    OpenAIRE

    Gilfillan, Lisa

    2009-01-01

    We analyzed the spatial distribution, concentration, and characteristics of plastic micro-debris in neuston samples from the CalCOFI region off the Southern California Coast from winter cruises in 1984, 1994, and 2007. By sorting archived CalCOFI zooplankton samples, we were able to separate micro-debris particles and characterize particle size, circularity, and surface area using digital image analysis by ZooScan. Our results suggest that plastic micro-debris is widespread in the California ...

  1. Risks of ocean acidification in the California Current food web and fisheries: ecosystem model projections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Kristin N; Kaplan, Isaac C; Hodgson, Emma E; Hermann, Albert; Busch, D Shallin; McElhany, Paul; Essington, Timothy E; Harvey, Chris J; Fulton, Elizabeth A

    2017-04-01

    The benefits and ecosystem services that humans derive from the oceans are threatened by numerous global change stressors, one of which is ocean acidification. Here, we describe the effects of ocean acidification on an upwelling system that already experiences inherently low pH conditions, the California Current. We used an end-to-end ecosystem model (Atlantis), forced by downscaled global climate models and informed by a meta-analysis of the pH sensitivities of local taxa, to investigate the direct and indirect effects of future pH on biomass and fisheries revenues. Our model projects a 0.2-unit drop in pH during the summer upwelling season from 2013 to 2063, which results in wide-ranging magnitudes of effects across guilds and functional groups. The most dramatic direct effects of future pH may be expected on epibenthic invertebrates (crabs, shrimps, benthic grazers, benthic detritivores, bivalves), and strong indirect effects expected on some demersal fish, sharks, and epibenthic invertebrates (Dungeness crab) because they consume species known to be sensitive to changing pH. The model's pelagic community, including marine mammals and seabirds, was much less influenced by future pH. Some functional groups were less affected to changing pH in the model than might be expected from experimental studies in the empirical literature due to high population productivity (e.g., copepods, pteropods). Model results suggest strong effects of reduced pH on nearshore state-managed invertebrate fisheries, but modest effects on the groundfish fishery because individual groundfish species exhibited diverse responses to changing pH. Our results provide a set of projections that generally support and build upon previous findings and set the stage for hypotheses to guide future modeling and experimental analysis on the effects of OA on marine ecosystems and fisheries. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Iron-binding ligands in the southern California Current System: mechanistic studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Randelle M Bundy

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The distributions of dissolved iron and organic iron-binding ligands were examined in water column profiles and deckboard incubation experiments in the southern California Current System (sCCS along a transition from coastal to semi-oligotrophic waters. Analysis of the iron-binding ligand pool by competitive ligand exchange-adsorptive cathodic stripping voltammetry (CLE-ACSV using multiple analytical windows (MAWs revealed three classes of iron-binding ligands present throughout the water column (L1-L3, whose distributions closely matched those of dissolved iron and nitrate. Despite significant biogeochemical gradients, ligand profiles were similar between stations, with surface minima in strong ligands (L1 and L2, and relatively constant concentrations of weaker ligands (L3 down to 500 m. A phytoplankton grow-out incubation, initiated from an iron-limited water mass, showed dynamic temporal cycling of iron-binding ligands. A biological iron model was able to capture the patterns of the strong ligands in the grow-out incubation relatively well with only the microbial community as a biological source. An experiment focused on remineralization of particulate organic matter showed production of both strong and weak iron-binding ligands by the heterotrophic community, supporting a mechanism for in-situ production of both strong and weak iron-binding ligands in the subsurface water column. Photochemical experiments showed a variable influence of sunlight on the degradation of natural iron-binding ligands, providing some evidence to explain differences in surface ligand concentrations between stations. Patterns in ligand distributions between profiles and in the incubation experiments were primarily related to macronutrient concentrations, suggesting microbial remineralization processes might dominate on longer time-scales over short-term changes associated with photochemistry or phytoplankton growth.

  3. Temporal variation in the biochemical ecology of lower trophic levels in the Northern California Current

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, J. A.; Peterson, W. T.; Copeman, L. A.; Du, X.; Morgan, C. A.; Litz, M. N. C.

    2017-06-01

    There is strong correlative evidence that variation in the growth and survival of secondary consumers is related to the copepod species composition within the Northern California Current. Potential mechanisms driving these correlations include: (1) enhanced growth and survival of secondary consumers when lipid-rich, boreal copepod species are abundant, with cascading effects on higher trophic levels; (2) the regulation of growth and condition of primary and secondary consumers by the relative proportion of certain essential fatty acids (FAs) in primary producers; or (3) a combination of these factors. Disentangling the relative importance of taxonomic composition, lipid quantity, and FA composition on the nutritional quality of copepods requires detailed information on both the consumer and primary producers. Therefore, we collected phytoplankton and copepods at an oceanographic station for 19 months and completed species community analyses and generated detailed lipid profiles, including lipid classes and FAs, for both groups. There was strong covariation between species and biochemistry within and across trophic levels and distinct seasonal differences. The amount of total lipid within both the phytoplankton and copepod communities was twice as high in spring and summer than in fall and winter, and certain FAs, such as diatom indicators 20:5ω3 and 16:1ω7, comprised a greater proportion of the FA pool in spring and summer. Indicators of bacterial production within the copepod community were proportionally twice as high during fall and winter than spring and summer. Seasonal transitions in copepod FA composition were consistently offset from transitions in copepod species composition by approximately two weeks. The timing of the seasonal transition in copepod FAs reflected seasonal shifts in the species composition and/or biochemistry of primary producers more than seasonal shifts in the copepod species composition. These results emphasize the importance of

  4. Influence of a multiyear event of low salinity on the zooplankton from Mexican eco-regions of the California Current

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavaniegos, Bertha E.

    2009-12-01

    Data are presented from the southern part of the California Current System (CCS) for the period 1997-2007, derived from the IMECOCAL monitoring program. Apart from El Niño 1997 to 1998, and La Niña 1998-1999 the strongest perturbation occurred in 2002 due to an intrusion of subarctic water affecting all the CCS. The response of zooplankton biomass to the strong cooling and freshening of the upper layer was an immediate drop followed by a progressive recovery between 2003 and 2007. Though the low salinity influence ended in 2006, the increased zooplankton trend continued, reinforced by increased upwelling activity beginning 2005 off north Baja California region (30-32°N) and beginning 2006 off central Baja California (24-30°N). Multiple regression analysis was done between regional variables and Upwelling Index (UI) and two basin-scale proxies: the North Pacific Gyre Oscillation (NPGO), and Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO). The significant influence of the NPGO on surface salinity, salinity stratification, zooplankton volume and secondary consumers (zooplankton carnivores) suggests a basin scale control on these variables more than local mechanisms. The signature of the NPGO was also evident in the base of the trophic web, but more related to the group of crustacean herbivores in the north eco-region, and the tunicates in central Baja California. In this last region, the effect from NPGO on the zooplankton volume and tunicates was antagonist with UI indicative of similar importance of basin and local processes. However, when the time interval is limited to the post-subarctic intrusion (2003-2007) the significance of multiple regression models and physical variables was lost. Therefore, though data and bio-physical coupling analysis off Baja California suggest a better relation with NPGO compared to PDO, it is still not sufficient to explain the magnitude of the perturbation observed in 2002.

  5. Relationships between the Tropical Pacific and the Southern California Current productivity at different timescales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abella-Gutiérrez, J. L.; Herguera, J. C.

    2016-02-01

    The influence of Tropical Pacific in climate during the Common Era has been largely debated due to the lack of agreement between proxies. Some records suggest a La Niña-like conditions during the Medieval Climate Anomaly (MCA) and El Niño-like conditions during the Little Ice Age (LIA) (i.e. Graham et al., 2007), but other records suggest the contrary (i.e. Conroy et al., 2008). Here we present a 2.3Ky biogenic based record from San Lázaro Basin that, in its different modes of variability, contains both visions. Furthermore, these proxies share a centennial mode of variability that dominates the last millennium and connects the Indo-Pacific Warm Pool (IPWP) with the Western North America Drought Area Index (WNA-DAI) through variations in the thermocline.San Lázaro Basin (SLB) is a suboxic basin located in the southern dynamic boundary of the California Current System (CCS). During La Niña-like conditions, the intensification of the trade winds increase the Ekman transport and the invasion of subartic waters, with the result of a shoaled thermocline and enhanced ecosystem productivity. When the winds relax, El Niño-like conditions became, and the intrusion of warm stratified water from the tropical and subtropical regions plummeted the productivity and a coccolitophorid based ecosystem dominates. The opposite relation between Carbonates and Total Organic Carbon (TOC) in SLB sediments confirms this observations. A significant positive correlation between XRF measurements of Br/Si with TOC and Ca counts with Carbonates, allows us to study SCC variability from interannual to centennial resolution.The Spectral Analysis of Br/Si and Carbonates show a common 110y cycle that is also present in the IPWP and WNA-DAI with a ENSO-like pattern. This centennial mode is excited by warm Equatorial Pacific conditions as its variance is correlated with Galapagos precipitation record. Although Galapagos precipitation record has been related with ENSO intensity, the Br

  6. Anomalous pelagic nekton abundance, distribution, and apparent recruitment in the northern California Current in 2004 and 2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brodeur, Richard D.; Ralston, Stephen; Emmett, Robert L.; Trudel, Marc; Auth, Toby D.; Phillips, A. Jason

    2006-09-01

    Although the California Current has undergone substantial environmental shifts in the past few decades, the summer of 2005 exhibited highly anomalous conditions relative to all previous recorded summers in terms of late initiation of upwelling and the resulting elevated surface temperatures and depressed productivity through July. The response of pelagic nekton to these anomalous conditions was widespread and included onshore and poleward displacement of taxa to new geographic areas, population changes within the normal range, and reduced productivity of early life stages based on larval and juvenile surveys. Some nekton exhibited anomalous distributions in 2004. Many ecologically important species were affected. The response of the nektonic community off California was greater than during El Niño conditions.

  7. Moving Hands, Moving Entities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setti, Annalisa; Borghi, Anna M.; Tessari, Alessia

    2009-01-01

    In this study we investigated with a priming paradigm whether uni and bimanual actions presented as primes differently affected language processing. Animals' (self-moving entities) and plants' (not self-moving entities) names were used as targets. As prime we used grasping hands, presented both as static images and videos. The results showed an…

  8. Moored current meter and wind recorder measurement near Point Conception, California: The 1983 OPUS Observations, from 1983-04-01 to 1983-07-29 (NODC Accession 8600041)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The OPUS (Organization of Persistent Upwelling Structures) program deployed two current meter (VMCM) moorings near Point Conception, California, during April - July...

  9. Current meter components and other data from FIXED PLATFORMS from Coastal Waters of California from 27 April 1988 to 01 June 1989 (NODC Accession 9000294)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Current meter components data were collected from FIXED PLATFORMS in the Coastal Waters of California from 27 April 1988 to 01 June 1989. Data were collected by the...

  10. West Coast fish, mammal, bird life history and abunance parameters - Developing end-to-end models of the California Current Large Marine Ecosystem

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The purpose of this project is to develop spatially discrete end-to-end models of the California Current LME, linking oceanography, biogeochemistry, food web...

  11. West Coast fish, mammal, and bird species diets - Developing end-to-end models of the California Current Large Marine Ecosystem

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The purpose of this project is to develop spatially discrete end-to-end models of the California Current LME, linking oceanography, biogeochemistry, food web...

  12. Predicting Trophic Interactions and Habitat Utilization in the California Current Ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-30

    pelagic species (sardines and anchovies), with growth based on bioenergetics, temperature and prey generated from the ROMS and NEMURO models. The IBM for...on field data on male CSL from central California). For simplicity, any changes in body mass are ultimately due to changes in the fat and protein...mass only, while at-sea, field metabolic rate is modeled as a function of the total distance traveled by the individual sea lion in one day. The

  13. Moving Up to the Top of the Landfill: A Field-Validated, Science-Based Methane Emissions Inventory Model for California Landfills

    Science.gov (United States)

    California is typically at the forefront of innovative planning & regulatory strategies for environmental protection in the U.S. Two years ago, a research project was initiated by the California Energy Commission to develop an improved method for landfill methane emissions for the state greenhouse ...

  14. The impact of the ocean observing system on estimates of the California current circulation spanning three decades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Andrew M.; Jacox, Michael G.; Crawford, William J.; Laughlin, Bruce; Edwards, Christopher A.; Fiechter, Jérôme

    2017-08-01

    Data assimilation is now used routinely in oceanography on both regional and global scales for computing ocean circulation estimates and for making ocean forecasts. Regional ocean observing systems are also expanding rapidly, and observations from a wide array of different platforms and sensor types are now available. Evaluation of the impact of the observing system on ocean circulation estimates (and forecasts) is therefore of considerable interest to the oceanographic community. In this paper, we quantify the impact of different observing platforms on estimates of the California Current System (CCS) spanning a three decade period (1980-2010). Specifically, we focus attention on several dynamically related aspects of the circulation (coastal upwelling, the transport of the California Current and the California Undercurrent, thermocline depth and eddy kinetic energy) which in many ways describe defining characteristics of the CCS. The circulation estimates were computed using a 4-dimensional variational (4D-Var) data assimilation system, and our analyses also focus on the impact of the different elements of the control vector (i.e. the initial conditions, surface forcing, and open boundary conditions) on the circulation. While the influence of each component of the control vector varies between different metrics of the circulation, the impact of each observing system across metrics is very robust. In addition, the mean amplitude of the circulation increments (i.e. the difference between the analysis and background) remains relatively stable throughout the three decade period despite the addition of new observing platforms whose impact is redistributed according to the relative uncertainty of observations from each platform. We also consider the impact of each observing platform on CCS circulation variability associated with low-frequency climate variability. The low-frequency nature of the dominant climate modes in this region allows us to track through time the

  15. Apparent habitat extensions of dolphinfish (Coryphaena hippurus in response to climate transients in the California Current

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerrold G. Norton

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available Dolphinfish, Coryphaena hippurus, a globally distributed, fast growing, predatory species has extended its habitat poleward off the west coast of North America in response to atmosphere-ocean climate transients that can be measured throughout the Pacific Ocean basin. Poleward habitat extension is measured by the availability of dolphinfish to southern California Commercial Passenger Fishing Vessel (CPFV anglers. Before 1972 the annual CPFV dolphinfish catch during the July-October fishing season seldom exceeded a few hundred fish. Thereafter, more than 103 dolphinfish were taken in 23 of the next 25 seasons. The next shift was in 1990 when catch exceeded 3.0 x 104 fish. More than 2.0 x 104 fish were reported in three of the next seven seasons. The apparent habitat extension coincides with increased ocean temperatures, forced by increases in North Pacific cyclogenesis and increases in downwelling coastal-trapped long wave transmission from the equatorial ocean. Interannual analysis shows that habitat expansion is associated with a decrease in upwelling off northern Mexico, which may be locally or remotely forced. Dolphinfish habitat shifts poleward in response to Pacific climate transients, reflecting global environmental trends. If subtropical ocean surface layers continue to warm throughout the world, as observed off southern California and northern Mexico, a global increase in the dolphinfish habitat is expected.

  16. Decadal Changes in Ozone and Emissions in Central California and Current Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanrikulu, S.; Beaver, S.; Soong, S.; Tran, C.; Cordova, J.; Palazoglu, A.

    2011-12-01

    The relationships among ozone, emissions, and meteorology are very complex in central California, and must be well studied and understood in order to facilitate better air quality planning. Factors significantly impacting changes in emissions such as economic and population growth, and adopted emission controls make the matter even more complex. Here we review the history of ozone pollution in central California since the 1970s to plan for the future. Since the 1970s, changes in emissions have been accompanied by likewise dramatic changes in region-to-region differences in air quality. We focus on the coastal San Francisco Bay Area (SFBA) and the inland San Joaquin Valley (SJV). In the 1970s, the SFBA population was approaching 5 million people while the considerably larger and more rural SJV population remained below 2 million. The SFBA population was mostly confined to coastal locations. Peak ozone levels occurred mostly around the population centers and especially over the Bay itself. Hourly average ozone levels routinely approached 160 ppb. These high ozone levels promoted regulations under which SFBA emissions were continuously reduced through the present. By the 1990s, SFBA emissions had been reduced considerably despite the region's population growing to around 6 million. Relative to the 1970s, in 1990s the SFBA had lower peak ozone levels that were shifted to inland locations where much of the population growth was occurring. The SFBA still exceeded the federal 1-hour standard. A rapidly changing economic landscape in the 1970s promoted vast changes in the central California population distribution. In the SJV, the OPEC oil crisis promoted significant development of petroleum resources. Meanwhile, family farms were quickly being replaced with commercial-scale farming operations. The SJV population rapidly expanded to around 3 million people by the early 1990s. During this time, SJV emissions increased considerably, largely from increases in mobile source

  17. Biological Implications of Internal Waves and Internal Tidal Bores in the Southern Part of the California Current System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladah, L. B.; Leichter, J. J.; Tapia, F. J.

    2007-05-01

    Internal waves and internal tidal bores have been shown to cause rapid changes in temperature associated with vertical and horizontal displacements of water masses in many settings. Their role in the cross-shore transport of matter and energy implies that internal motions have important biological ramifications, particularly in biogeographic transition zones, such as the Southern California Current. Benthic invertebrates and macroalgae depend greatly on the nearshore pelagic environment for the transport of larvae and nutrients. We present 2 examples of how internal motions may modulate benthic populations in this transition zone by enhancing the transport of larvae or the provision of nutrients from offshore sites to the coast. At two sites along the Baja California peninsula, high-frequency variability in thermal structure and horizontal flows were observed. Physical observations show episodes (lasting about 1 h) of rapid variations (every 1 to 5 min) in horizontal flows and temperature in the nearshore water column. We show that the timing and intensity of larval settlement, as well as the residence of cold nutrient - rich water on the shelf, is related with internal motions just offshore. Variability in the direction from which these perturbations propagate may determine small-scale spatial patterns in demography of benthic populations. We discuss the importance of these events in modulating benthic invertebrate and macroalgal populations and how climate change in this transition zone may have important biological consequences via changes in thermocline depth and its subsequent impact on the occurrence of internal motions.

  18. On the skill of seasonal sea surface temperature forecasts in the California Current System and its connection to ENSO variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacox, Michael G.; Alexander, Michael A.; Stock, Charles A.; Hervieux, Gaëlle

    2017-03-01

    The California Current System (CCS) is a biologically productive Eastern Boundary Upwelling System that experiences considerable environmental variability on seasonal and interannual timescales. Given that this variability drives changes in ecologically and economically important living marine resources, predictive skill for regional oceanographic conditions is highly desirable. Here, we assess the skill of seasonal sea surface temperature (SST) forecasts in the CCS using output from Global Climate Forecast Systems in the North American Multi-Model Ensemble (NMME), and describe mechanisms that underlie SST predictability. A simple persistence forecast provides considerable skill for lead times up to 4 months, while skill above persistence is mostly confined to forecasts of late winter/spring and derives primarily from predictable evolution of ENSO-related variability. Specifically, anomalously weak (strong) equatorward winds are skillfully forecast during El Niño (La Niña) events, and drive negative (positive) upwelling anomalies and consequently warm (cold) temperature anomalies. This mechanism prevails during moderate to strong ENSO events, while years of ENSO-neutral conditions are not associated with significant forecast skill in the wind or significant skill above persistence in SST. We find also a strong latitudinal gradient in predictability within the CCS; SST forecast skill is highest off the Washington/Oregon coast and lowest off southern California, consistent with variable wind forcing being the dominant driver of SST predictability. These findings have direct implications for regional downscaling of seasonal forecasts and for short-term management of living marine resources.

  19. Kaiser Permanente Northern California: current experiences with internet, mobile, and video technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearl, Robert

    2014-02-01

    The US health care system has been slow to adopt Internet, mobile, and video technologies, which have the capability to engage patients in their own care, increase patients' access to providers, and possibly improve the quality of care while reducing costs. Nevertheless, there are some pockets of progress, including Kaiser Permanente Northern California (KPNC). In 2008 KPNC implemented an inpatient and ambulatory care electronic health record system for its 3.4 million members and developed a suite of patient-friendly Internet, mobile, and video tools. KPNC has achieved many successes. For example, the number of virtual "visits" grew from 4.1 million in 2008 to an estimated 10.5 million in 2013. This article describes KPNC's experience with Internet, mobile, and video technologies and the obstacles faced by other health care providers interested in embracing them. The obstacles include the predominant fee-for-service payment model, which does not reimburse for virtual visits; the considerable investment needed to deploy these technologies; and physician buy-in.

  20. Monitoring biodiversity using ecosystem assessment surveys and regional ocean models within the California Current

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeder, I. D.; Santora, J. A.; Field, J. C.; Hazen, E. L.; Bograd, S. J.

    2016-02-01

    The National Marine Fisheries Service has conducted an annual midwater trawl survey for juvenile rockfish and other pelagic micronekton every May and June from 1983 to the present. Although both the spatial and temporal coverage have varied over time, a "core" region has been sampled continuously for the region that extends from Monterey Bay to just north of San Francisco Bay, California. Stations are located from nearshore waters to the offshore environment, but generally within 60 km from land. The mid-water trawl targets a diverse micronekton community spanning a range of juvenile stages of fishes, adult forage fishes and various invertebrates. Here we use the historical catch data to investigate biodiversity across space and time, specifically through developing indices of richness, diversity and evenness. The interannual variability of these indices is coherent over three unique ecological regions located along the shelf, Monterey Bay submarine canyon, and offshore habitats. Spatiotemporal changes in diversity reflect different taxa such as juvenile groundfish, rockfish and forage fish, and influx of oceanic species to nearshore habitat during anomalous years. Finally, data from CTD casts and from a data-assimilative ROMS model links changes in biodiversity with changing environmental conditions. The results of this project will be used to help inform researchers in the creation of a Marine Biodiversity Observation Network (MBON) in the Monterey Bay National Marine Sanctuary.

  1. On Lagrangian Residual Currents With Applications in South San Francisco Bay, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Ralph T.; Casulli, Vincenzo

    1982-12-01

    The Lagrangian residual circulation has often been introduced as the sum of the Eulerian residual circulation and the Stokes' drift. Unfortunately, this definition of the Lagrangian residual circulation is conceptually incorrect because both the Eulerian residual circulation and the Stokes' drift are Eulerian variables. In this paper a classification of various residual variables are reviewed and properly defined. The Lagrangian residual circulation is then studied by means of a two-stage formulation of a computer model. The tidal circulation is first computed in a conventional Eulerian way, and then the Lagrangian residual circulation is determined by a method patterned after the method of markers and cells. To demonstrate properties of the Lagrangian residual circulation, application of this approach in South San Francisco Bay, California, is considered. With the aid of the model results, properties of the Eulerian and Lagrangian residual circulation are examined. It can be concluded that estimation of the Lagrangian residual circulation from Eulerian data may lead to unacceptable error, particularly in a tidal estuary where the tidal excursion is of the same order of magnitude as the length scale of the basin. A direction calculation of the Lagrangian residual circulation must be made and has been shown to be feasible.

  2. Marine organism concentrations, carbonate chemistry variables, and nutrient concentrations from Atlantis ecosystem model simulation output in the California Current from 2013-01-01 to 2053-12-31 to understand vulnerability of California current food webs and economics to ocean acidification (NCEI Accession 0131198)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This archival package contains the model output of a study to evaluate likely economic and ecological outcomes of ocean acidification in the California Current....

  3. Temperature profile, current, pressure, physical, and other data from XBT casts, current meters, pressure gauges, and CTD casts from the VEGA I and other platforms from the Coastal Waters of California and other locations as part of the Central California Circulation Study from 1984-01-31 to 1985-07-01 (NODC Accession 8700197)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profile, current, pressure, physical, and other data from the VEGA I and other platforms from the Coastal Waters of California and other locations from...

  4. Ocean warming and seabird communities of the southern California Current System (1987-98): response at multiple temporal scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyrenbach, K. David; Veit, Richard R.

    2003-08-01

    Declines in ocean productivity and shifts in species assemblages along the West Coast of North America during the second half of the XXth century have been attributed to the concurrent warming of the California Current. This paper addresses changes in the avifauna off southern California between May 1987 and September 1998, in response to shifting water mass distributions over short (seabird abundance decreased; the relative importance of cold-water seabirds that dive in pursuit of prey declined; and warm-water species that feed at the surface and plunge to capture prey became more numerous. These community-level changes are consistent with the northward shifts in species ranges and the declining ocean productivity anticipated as a result of global warming. However, the response of individual taxa with an affinity for warm-water and cold-water conditions has been more difficult to predict, due to differences in species-specific responses to ocean warming. The three cold-water species investigated (Sooty Shearwater Puffinus griseus, Cassin's Auklet Ptychoramphus aleuticus, and Rhinoceros Auklet Cerorhinca monocerata) decreased in abundance during this study. On the other hand, only one of the six warm-water species considered (Pink-footed Shearwater, Puffinus creatopus) increased significantly over the long term. Yet, the warm-water Leach's Storm-petrel ( Oceanodroma leucorhoa) increased between 1987 and 1993, and then declined between 1994 and 1998. Moreover, cross-correlations between seasonally adjusted anomalies of bird abundance and ocean temperature revealed that seabirds responded differently to ocean warming over intermediate (1-8 years), and long (8-12 years) time scales. We hypothesize that this nonlinear behavior of seabird populations in response to ocean warming is caused by the juxtaposition of distinct behavioral and demographic responses operating at different temporal scales.

  5. Upper mixed layer temperature and salinity variability in the tropical boundary of the California Current, 1997-2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez-Valdes, Jose; Jeronimo, Gilberto

    2009-03-01

    Spatial and temporal interannual variability of mixed layer (ML) temperature and ML salinity off Baja California are examined using empirical orthogonal functions analysis. Conductivity-temperature-depth data collected from October 1997 through January 2007 over a grid based on Mexican Research of the California Current quarterly survey cruises are analyzed. Net heat flux (NHF) and sea surface height anomaly (SSH) from satellite products are also analyzed. The first leading mode of both ML temperature and ML salinity show a single-signed loading pattern, in which the variability increases southward. Those patterns have been reported before, but they are lacking a quantitative explanation. ML temperature variability is mainly associated with NHF variability, while ML salinity variability is mainly associated with large-scale SSH variability. The principal component (PC) of ML salinity is correlated with North Pacific Gyre Oscillation and Warm Water Volume climate indices, while the PC of ML temperature is only correlated with the latter index. Those results indicate that the principal mode of ML salinity variability is a diagnostic variable of basin-scale process. An abrupt freshening (˜-0.7) and cooling (˜-4°C) event from January 1998 to January 1999 and an abrupt freshening (˜-0.5) event from January 2002 to January 2003 are conspicuous features in the mixed layer. The 1998-1999 events are associated with the major El Niño-La Niña cycle in the 10-year period. The 2002-2003 freshening is related to an enhancement of subarctic water into the equatorward flow that started during the summer of 2002 off Oregon (49°N).

  6. QRev—Software for computation and quality assurance of acoustic doppler current profiler moving-boat streamflow measurements—User’s manual for version 2.8

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, David S.

    2016-05-12

    The software program, QRev computes the discharge from moving-boat acoustic Doppler current profiler measurements using data collected with any of the Teledyne RD Instrument or SonTek bottom tracking acoustic Doppler current profilers. The computation of discharge is independent of the manufacturer of the acoustic Doppler current profiler because QRev applies consistent algorithms independent of the data source. In addition, QRev automates filtering and quality checking of the collected data and provides feedback to the user of potential quality issues with the measurement. Various statistics and characteristics of the measurement, in addition to a simple uncertainty assessment are provided to the user to assist them in properly rating the measurement. QRev saves an extensible markup language file that can be imported into databases or electronic field notes software. The user interacts with QRev through a tablet-friendly graphical user interface. This report is the manual for version 2.8 of QRev.

  7. Behavior of Flotsam in the California Current System Utilizing Surface Drift of RAFOS Floats

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-01

    trajectories modeled by OSCURS with different model parameters (Wind Angle Deflection (WAD) and Geostrophic Current Factor ( GSF )) and initial positions...a) default OSCURS parameters WAD=0.0, GSF =1.0, and initial position collocated with RAFOS surfacing location; (b) WAD=5.0, GSF =0.0, initial position...collocated with RAFOS surfacing location; (c) WAD and GSF varied as shown in the legend, trajectory was initialized on May 31, 2010 at position

  8. The Development of Automated Detection Techniques for Passive Acoustic Monitoring as a Tool for Studying Beaked Whale Distribution and Habitat Preferences in the California Current Ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yack, Tina M.

    The objectives of this research were to test available automated detection methods for passive acoustic monitoring and integrate the best available method into standard marine mammal monitoring protocols for ship based surveys. The goal of the first chapter was to evaluate the performance and utility of PAMGUARD 1.0 Core software for use in automated detection of marine mammal acoustic signals during towed array surveys. Three different detector configurations of PAMGUARD were compared. These automated detection algorithms were evaluated by comparing them to the results of manual detections made by an experienced bio-acoustician (author TMY). This study provides the first detailed comparisons of PAMGUARD automated detection algorithms to manual detection methods. The results of these comparisons clearly illustrate the utility of automated detection methods for odontocete species. Results of this work showed that the majority of whistles and click events can be reliably detected using PAMGUARD software. The second chapter moves beyond automated detection to examine and test automated classification algorithms for beaked whale species. Beaked whales are notoriously elusive and difficult to study, especially using visual survey methods. The purpose of the second chapter was to test, validate, and compare algorithms for detection of beaked whales in acoustic line-transect survey data. Using data collected at sea from the PAMGUARD classifier developed in Chapter 2 it was possible to measure the clicks from visually verified Baird's beaked whale encounters and use this data to develop classifiers that could discriminate Baird's beaked whales from other beaked whale species in future work. Echolocation clicks from Baird's beaked whales, Berardius bairdii, were recorded during combined visual and acoustic shipboard surveys of cetacean populations in the California Current Ecosystem (CCE) and with autonomous, long-term recorders at four different sites in the Southern

  9. Resuspension and Shelf-Deep Ocean Exchange in the Northern California Current: New Insights From Underwater Gliders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erofeev, A.; Barth, J. A.; Shearman, R. K.; Pierce, S. D.

    2016-02-01

    Shelf-deep ocean exchange is dominated by wind-driven upwelling and downwelling in the northern California Current. The interaction of strong, along-shelf jets with coastline and bottom topographic features can also create significant cross-margin exchange. We are using data from over 60,000 kilometers of autonomous underwater glider tracks to understand the temporal and spatial distribution of shelf-deep ocean exchange off central Oregon. Year-round glider observations of temperature, salinity, depth-averaged currents, chlorophyll fluorescence, light backscatter, and colored dissolved organic matter fluorescence from a single cross-margin transect are used to examine shelf-deep ocean exchange mechanisms. During summer, cross-margin exchange is dominated by wind-driven upwelling and the relaxation or reversal of the dominant southward winds. This process has been fairly well observed and studied due to the relatively low sea states and winds during summer. There is far less data from fall and winter off Oregon, a time of strong winds and large waves. We use autonomous underwater gliders to sample during the winter, including through the fall and spring transitions. Glider observations of suspended material detected via light backscatter, show time-space variations in resuspension in the bottom boundary layer due to winds, waves and currents. Examples of shelf-deep ocean exchange are shown by layers with high light backscatter separating from the bottom near the shelf break and extending into the interior along isopycnals. We describe these features and events in relationship to wind-forcing, along-shelf flows, and other forcing mechanisms.

  10. Patterns of phytoplankton diversity and mortality due to grazing across trophic gradients in the Southern California Current

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freibott, A.; Moustafa, A.; Rabines, A.; Allen, A. E.; Landry, M. R.

    2016-02-01

    The dilution method is a widely used technique to determine rates of community phytoplankton growth and mortality due to grazing in pelagic communities. Here, we present results of microscopy and metagenomic analysis of 16S and 18S rRNA genes from dilution experiments conducted as part of the California Current Ecosystem Long Term Ecological Research (CCE LTER) program. Samples from experiments conducted in the mixed layer and deep chlorophyll maxima were analyzed from coastal vs. offshore sites, an ephemeral frontal site, and during the anomalously warm conditions of summer 2014. Distinct patterns of community biomass (µg C L-1) and diversity (Shannon index) with respect to sampling depth (surface versus chlorophyll max) and distance to shore (coastal versus offshore) emerged. Eukaryotic diversity was negatively correlated with chlorophyll a concentration, likely due to the dominance of a few diatom species, and was highest in spring 2007 during declining diatom bloom conditions. Relative phytoplankton growth and mortality rates estimated from metagenomic data indicate unique patterns of growth and mortality among diatoms, dinoflagellates, prymnesiophytes, and prasinophytes, which diverge from overall community rates determined through pigment analysis. Trends in the diversity, biomass, and mortality rates of plankton taxa across trophic gradients highlight the complex trophic interactions that would otherwise be hidden in overall mean rates of community growth and grazing.

  11. Enhanced silica ballasting from iron stress sustains carbon export in a frontal zone within the California Current

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brzezinski, Mark A.; Krause, Jeffrey W.; Bundy, Randelle M.; Barbeau, Katherine A.; Franks, Peter; Goericke, Ralf; Landry, Michael R.; Stukel, Michael R.

    2015-07-01

    Nutrient dynamics, phytoplankton rate processes, and export were examined in a frontal region between an anticyclone and a pair of cyclones 120 km off the coast in the southern California Current System (sCCS). Low silicic acid: nitrate ratios (Si:N) and high nitrate to iron ratios (N:Fe) characteristic of Fe-limiting conditions in the sCCS were associated with the northern cyclone and with the transition zone between the cyclones and the anticyclone. Phytoplankton growth in low-Si:N, high-N:Fe waters responded strongly to added Fe, confirming growth limitation by Fe of the diatom-dominated phytoplankton community. Low Si:N waters had low biogenic silica content, intermediate productivity, but high export compared to intermediate Si:N waters indicating increased export efficiency under Fe stress. Biogenic silica and particulate organic carbon (POC) export were both high beneath low Si:N waters with biogenic silica export being especially enhanced. This suggests that relatively high POC export from low Si:N waters was supported by silica ballasting from Fe-limited diatoms. Higher POC export efficiency in low Si:N waters may have been further enhanced by lower rates of organic carbon remineralization due to reduced grazing of more heavily armored diatoms growing under Fe stress. The results imply that Fe stress can enhance carbon export, despite lowering productivity, by driving higher export efficiency.

  12. Interannual variability of biological production and carbon export in the California Current System from 1979 to 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frischknecht, Martin; Münnich, Matthias; Gruber, Nicolas

    2017-04-01

    As an eastern boundary upwelling system, the California Current System (CalCS) belongs to those highly productive oceanic environments that sustain a complex ecosystem structure and food supply chains of high economic values. The intense coastal biogeochemical cycling of carbon and nutrients inherent in the CalCS experiences substantial year-to-year variability, most of which is associated with El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO). Here, we assess the response of the coastal cycling of carbon and nutrients to ENSO within the CalCS between 1979 and 2016 based on a high-resolution modeling study. We use the Regional Oceanic Modeling System coupled to a biogeochemical/ecological model with three plankton functional types. Our basin-scale model setup with substantial grid refinement toward coastal regions facilitates an investigation of the complex coastal dynamics while still permitting large-scale connectivity to the tropical Pacific, where ENSO is originating. Our findings underpin the substantial changes in nutrient supply, biological production and carbon export associated with ENSO. Composite means based on all El Niño events falling into the analysis period reveal strong reductions in the upwelling of inorganic nutrients to the coastal euphotic zone (-30%) and a subsequent drop in coastal production (-35%) along central California, consistent with in situ observations for the major events. These changes in nutrient supply and production translate into changes in the redistribution of organic and inorganic matter. In response to the lower production during El Niño events, vertical export (-30%) and offshore transport of organic carbon from coastal to open ocean regions are strongly reduced (-40%) as well. This is essentially a result of the strong decrease in production that is mainly confined to the coastal ocean, but effectively communicates ENSO induced changes along the coast to regions beyond the upwelling front. Reflecting the coastal El Niño response

  13. Carbon and nitrogen isotopes from top predator amino acids reveal rapidly shifting ocean biochemistry in the outer California Current.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rocio I Ruiz-Cooley

    Full Text Available Climatic variation alters biochemical and ecological processes, but it is difficult both to quantify the magnitude of such changes, and to differentiate long-term shifts from inter-annual variability. Here, we simultaneously quantify decade-scale isotopic variability at the lowest and highest trophic positions in the offshore California Current System (CCS by measuring δ15N and δ13C values of amino acids in a top predator, the sperm whale (Physeter macrocephalus. Using a time series of skin tissue samples as a biological archive, isotopic records from individual amino acids (AAs can reveal the proximate factors driving a temporal decline we observed in bulk isotope values (a decline of ≥1 ‰ by decoupling changes in primary producer isotope values from those linked to the trophic position of this toothed whale. A continuous decline in baseline (i.e., primary producer δ15N and δ13C values was observed from 1993 to 2005 (a decrease of ∼4‰ for δ15N source-AAs and 3‰ for δ13C essential-AAs, while the trophic position of whales was variable over time and it did not exhibit directional trends. The baseline δ15N and δ13C shifts suggest rapid ongoing changes in the carbon and nitrogen biogeochemical cycling in the offshore CCS, potentially occurring at faster rates than long-term shifts observed elsewhere in the Pacific. While the mechanisms forcing these biogeochemical shifts remain to be determined, our data suggest possible links to natural climate variability, and also corresponding shifts in surface nutrient availability. Our study demonstrates that isotopic analysis of individual amino acids from a top marine mammal predator can be a powerful new approach to reconstructing temporal variation in both biochemical cycling and trophic structure.

  14. Hypoxia over the Continental Margin in the Northern California Current: The Role of Shelf-Deep Ocean Exchange

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barth, J. A.; Chan, F.; Pierce, S. D.; Adams, K.; Shearman, R. K.; Erofeev, A.

    2016-02-01

    Near-bottom waters over the continental shelf off Oregon in the northern California Current have become increasingly hypoxic over the last decade, including the appearance of anoxia in summer 2006. Observed ecosystem impacts include the absence of fish and invertebrate die-offs. Near-bottom, inner-shelf hypoxia is driven by upwelling of low-oxygen, nutrient-rich source water onto the continental shelf, followed by the decay of organic matter from surface phytoplankton blooms. We are using data from moorings, ship surveys, and from over 60,000 kilometers of autonomous underwater glider tracks to understand the temporal and spatial distribution of dissolved oxygen over the continental margin off Oregon. The inshore side of Heceta Bank, a submarine bank that deflects the coastal upwelling jet seaward creating a region of weaker velocities inshore, is particularly vulnerable to hypoxia. Near-bottom dissolved oxygen variability is driven by changes in both the dissolved oxygen concentrations in offshore upwelling source water and local wind forcing. "Source water" is defined as being seaward of the continental shelf break on density surfaces that upwell onto the continental shelf. The strength and depth of the onshore source water flux due to wind-driven upwelling can vary through the upwelling season, influencing near-bottom shelf hypoxia. Late in the upwelling season, upwelled source waters can become lower in oxygen due to off-shelf flux of continental shelf water that has undergone respiration and is, therefore, lower in oxygen than unmodified upwelling source water. For present day source water dissolved oxygen concentrations ( 2.3 ml/l), hypoxia over the inner shelf on the inshore side of Heceta Bank during the summer upwelling season is observed about 50% of the time. Given the recent declining trend in source water dissolved oxygen concentration, in 50 years the frequency of the hypoxia over the inner shelf on the inshore side of Heceta Bank is predicted to be

  15. Collision and displacement vulnerability among marine birds of the California Current System associated with offshore wind energy infrastructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Josh; Kelsey, Emily C.; Felis, Jonathan J.; Pereksta, David M.

    2016-10-27

    With growing climate change concerns and energy constraints, there is an increasing need for renewable energy sources within the United States and globally. Looking forward, offshore wind-energy infrastructure (OWEI) has the potential to produce a significant proportion of the power needed to reach our Nation’s renewable energy goal. Offshore wind-energy sites can capitalize open areas within Federal waters that have persistent, high winds with large energy production potential. Although there are few locations in the California Current System (CCS) where it would be acceptable to build pile-mounted wind turbines in waters less than 50 m deep, the development of technology able to support deep-water OWEI (>200 m depth) could enable wind-energy production in the CCS. As with all human-use of the marine environment, understanding the potential impacts of wind-energy infrastructure on the marine ecosystem is an integral part of offshore wind-energy research and planning. Herein, we present a comprehensive database to quantify marine bird vulnerability to potential OWEI in the CCS (see https://doi.org/10.5066/F79C6VJ0). These data were used to quantify marine bird vulnerabilities at the population level. For 81 marine bird species present in the CCS, we created three vulnerability indices: Population Vulnerability, Collision Vulnerability, and Displacement Vulnerability. Population Vulnerability was used as a scaling factor to generate two comprehensive indicies: Population Collision Vulnerability (PCV) and Population Displacement Vulnerability (PDV). Within the CCS, pelicans, terns (Forster’s [Sterna forsteri], Caspian [Hydroprogne caspia], Elegant [Thalasseus elegans], and Least Tern [Sternula antillarum]), gulls (Western [Larus occidentalis] and Bonaparte’s Gull [Chroicocephalus philadelphia]), South Polar Skua (Stercorarius maccormicki), and Brandt’s Cormorant (Phalacrocorax penicillatus) had the greatest PCV scores. Brown Pelican (Pelicanus occidentalis

  16. Spatial analysis of plague in California: niche modeling predictions of the current distribution and potential response to climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holt, Ashley C; Salkeld, Daniel J; Fritz, Curtis L; Tucker, James R; Gong, Peng

    2009-01-01

    Background Plague, caused by the bacterium Yersinia pestis, is a public and wildlife health concern in California and the western United States. This study explores the spatial characteristics of positive plague samples in California and tests Maxent, a machine-learning method that can be used to develop niche-based models from presence-only data, for mapping the potential distribution of plague foci. Maxent models were constructed using geocoded seroprevalence data from surveillance of California ground squirrels (Spermophilus beecheyi) as case points and Worldclim bioclimatic data as predictor variables, and compared and validated using area under the receiver operating curve (AUC) statistics. Additionally, model results were compared to locations of positive and negative coyote (Canis latrans) samples, in order to determine the correlation between Maxent model predictions and areas of plague risk as determined via wild carnivore surveillance. Results Models of plague activity in California ground squirrels, based on recent climate conditions, accurately identified case locations (AUC of 0.913 to 0.948) and were significantly correlated with coyote samples. The final models were used to identify potential plague risk areas based on an ensemble of six future climate scenarios. These models suggest that by 2050, climate conditions may reduce plague risk in the southern parts of California and increase risk along the northern coast and Sierras. Conclusion Because different modeling approaches can yield substantially different results, care should be taken when interpreting future model predictions. Nonetheless, niche modeling can be a useful tool for exploring and mapping the potential response of plague activity to climate change. The final models in this study were used to identify potential plague risk areas based on an ensemble of six future climate scenarios, which can help public managers decide where to allocate surveillance resources. In addition, Maxent

  17. Spatial analysis of plague in California: niche modeling predictions of the current distribution and potential response to climate change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tucker James R

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Plague, caused by the bacterium Yersinia pestis, is a public and wildlife health concern in California and the western United States. This study explores the spatial characteristics of positive plague samples in California and tests Maxent, a machine-learning method that can be used to develop niche-based models from presence-only data, for mapping the potential distribution of plague foci. Maxent models were constructed using geocoded seroprevalence data from surveillance of California ground squirrels (Spermophilus beecheyi as case points and Worldclim bioclimatic data as predictor variables, and compared and validated using area under the receiver operating curve (AUC statistics. Additionally, model results were compared to locations of positive and negative coyote (Canis latrans samples, in order to determine the correlation between Maxent model predictions and areas of plague risk as determined via wild carnivore surveillance. Results Models of plague activity in California ground squirrels, based on recent climate conditions, accurately identified case locations (AUC of 0.913 to 0.948 and were significantly correlated with coyote samples. The final models were used to identify potential plague risk areas based on an ensemble of six future climate scenarios. These models suggest that by 2050, climate conditions may reduce plague risk in the southern parts of California and increase risk along the northern coast and Sierras. Conclusion Because different modeling approaches can yield substantially different results, care should be taken when interpreting future model predictions. Nonetheless, niche modeling can be a useful tool for exploring and mapping the potential response of plague activity to climate change. The final models in this study were used to identify potential plague risk areas based on an ensemble of six future climate scenarios, which can help public managers decide where to allocate surveillance resources

  18. Seawater temperature and salinity observed from the CORC1 and CORC2 moorings in the southern California Current (NE Pacific) from 2008-09-20 to 2012-11-14 (NCEI Accession 0137858)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature and salinity observations from instruments on the CORC1 and CORC2 moorings in the southern California Current, part of the CORC project (Consortium on...

  19. CTD, current meter, pressure gauge, and wave spectra data from fixed platforms and other platforms from the Coastal Waters of California as part of the Santa Barbara Channel project from 27 April 1983 to 04 January 1985 (NODC Accession 8500177)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — CTD, current meter, pressure gauge, and wave spectra data were collected from fixed platforms and other platforms from the Coastal Waters of California from 27 April...

  20. Macroalgal blooms in coastal lagoons of the Gulf of California eco-region: a summary of current knowledge

    OpenAIRE

    Piñón-Gimate, Alejandra; Páez-Osuna, Federico; Serviere-Zaragoza, Elisa; Casas Valdéz, Margarita

    2012-01-01

    The Gulf of California is an important eco-region with 52 coastal lagoons that are affected by the different anthropogenic activities in their surrounding areas. Several studies in the region have reported seasonal changes in macroalgal biomass, and some have suggested that these changes may be associated with nutrient enrichment. However, research on macroalgal biomass increase has been done in only 27% of these coastal lagoons. In some species, biomass is related to high concentrations of n...

  1. Foraminiferal area density as a proxy for ocean acidification over the last 200 years in the California Current System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osborne, E.; Thunell, R.

    2013-12-01

    Anthropogenic activities have resulted in an increase in atmospheric CO2 from 280 ppm to 400 ppm over the last 250 years. It is estimated that approximately one-third of this anthropogenically produced CO2 is sequestered in the global ocean, increasing the inventory of bicarbonate (HCO3-) and hydrogen ions (H+) and consuming carbonate (CO32-) as a result of carbonate buffering reactions. This increase in [H+] lowers seawater pH, the phenomenon known as ocean acidification (OA). Estimates indicate that mean seawater pH has already decreased by 0.1 pH units since 1750 and IPCC reports indicate it is likely that CO2 concentrations will reach 790 ppm by 2100 further reducing pH by 0.3 units. Marine calcifiers, such as foraminifera, utilize CO32- dissolved in seawater during calcification, a process that is highly sensitive to changes in pH due to the chemical reactions described above. The reduction in surface ocean carbonate ion concentration ([CO32-]) caused by OA has impaired calcification of planktonic foraminifera and other marine calcifiers. It has been proposed that planktonic foraminiferal shell weight or shell thickness is positively correlated with ambient [CO32-] and has been used as proxy to reconstruct past changes in the surface ocean carbonate system. An ideal location for the application of this proxy is the California Current System (CSS), an Eastern Boundary Upwelling System (EBUS), which is characterized as having naturally lower pH. Upwelling introduces CO2-enriched bottom waters to the surface ocean, intensifying the effects of increasing dissolved CO2 as a result of anthropogenic activities. Upwelling produces a wide range of surface water [CO32-] making the Santa Barbara Basin (SBB) an ideal site to carry out a foraminiferal shell weight calibration study. Area density (ρA) is a new method for collecting size-normalized shell weights that will be used in this study. Species-specific calibrations have been derived for two symbiont

  2. Smart Moves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannaford, Carla

    1996-01-01

    Students learn more when they are up, moving, and actively participating. The article discusses what teachers can do to incorporate movement into the classroom every day and describes several exercises from "Brain Gym." A sidebar illustrates the connections between muscular activity, the neural network, and the brain. (SM)

  3. Data for calculating population, collision and displacement vulnerability among marine birds of the California Current System associated with offshore wind energy infrastructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Josh; Kelsey, Emily; Felis, Jonathan J.; Pereksta, David M.

    2016-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, Western Ecological Research Center (USGS-WERC) was requested by the Bureau of Ocean Energy Management (BOEM) to create a database for marine birds of the California Current System (CCS) that would allow quantification and species ranking regarding vulnerability to offshore wind energy infrastructure (OWEI). This was needed so that resource managers could evaluate potential impacts associated with siting and construction of OWEI within the California Current System section of the Pacific Offshore Continental Shelf, including California, Oregon, and Washington. Along with its accompanying Open File Report (OFR), this comprehensive database can be used (and modified or updated) to quantify marine bird vulnerability to OWEIs in the CCS at the population level. For 81 marine bird species present in the CCS, we generated numeric scores to represent three vulnerability indices associated with potential OWEI: population vulnerability, collision vulnerability, and displacement vulnerability. The metrics used to produce these scores includes global population size, proportion of the population in the CCS, threat status, adult survival, breeding score, annual occurrence in the CCS, nocturnal and diurnal flight activity, macro-avoidance behavior, flight height, and habitat flexibility; values for these metrics can be updated and adjusted as new data become available. The scoring methodology was peer-reviewed to evaluate if the metrics identified and the values generated were appropriate for each species considered. The numeric vulnerability scores in this database can readily be applied to areas in the CCS with known species distributions and where offshore renewable energy development is being considered. We hope that this information can be used to assist meaningful planning decisions that will impact seabird conservation. These data support the following publication: Adams, J., Kelsey, E.C., Felis J.J., and Pereksta, D.M., 2016

  4. El Niño and similar perturbation effects on the benthos of the Humboldt, California, and Benguela Current upwelling ecosystems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. E. Arntz

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available To a certain degree, Eastern Boundary Current (EBC ecosystems are similar: Cold bottom water from moderate depths, rich in nutrients, is transported to the euphotic zone by a combination of trade winds, Coriolis force and Ekman transport. The resultant high primary production fuels a rich secondary production in the upper pelagic and nearshore zones, but where O2 exchange is restricted, it creates oxygen minimum zones (OMZs at shelf and upper slope (Humboldt and Benguela Current or slope depths (California Current. These hypoxic zones host a specifically adapted, small macro- and meiofauna together with giant sulphur bacteria that use nitrate to oxydise H2S. In all EBC, small polychaetes, large nematodes and other opportunistic benthic species have adapted to the hypoxic conditions and co-exist with sulphur bacteria, which seem to be particularly dominant off Peru and Chile. However, a massive reduction of macrobenthos occurs in the core of the OMZ. In the Humboldt Current area the OMZ ranges between <100 and about 600 m, with decreasing thickness in a poleward direction. The OMZ merges into better oxygenated zones towards the deep sea, where large cold-water mega- and macrofauna occupy a dominant role as in the nearshore strip. The Benguela Current OMZ has a similar upper limit but remains shallower. It also hosts giant sulphur bacteria but little is known about the benthic fauna. However, sulphur eruptions and intense hypoxia might preclude the coexistence of significant mega- und macrobenthos. Conversely, off North America the upper limit of the OMZ is considerably deeper (e.g., 500–600 m off California and Oregon, and the lower boundary may exceed 1000m. The properties described are valid for very cold and cold (La Niña and "normal" ENSO conditions with effective upwelling of nutrient-rich bottom water. During warm (El Niño episodes, warm water masses of low oxygen concentration from oceanic and equatorial regions enter the upwelling

  5. Current progress in using multiple electromagnetic indicators to determine location, time, and magnitude of earthquakes in California and Peru (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bleier, T. E.; Dunson, C.; Roth, S.; Heraud, J.; Freund, F. T.; Dahlgren, R.; Bryant, N.; Bambery, R.; Lira, A.

    2010-12-01

    Since ultra-low frequency (ULF) magnetic anomalies were discovered prior to the 1989 Loma Prieta, Ca. M7.0 earthquake, QuakeFinder, a small R&D group based in Palo Alto California has systematically monitored ULF magnetic signals with a network of 3-axis induction magnetometers since 2000 in California. This raw magnetometer data was collected at 20-50 samples per sec., with no preprocessing, in an attempt to collect an accurate time history of electromagnetic waveforms prior to, during, and after large earthquakes within 30 km. of these sensors. Finally in October 2007, the QuakeFinder team observed a series of strange magnetic pulsations at the Alum Rock, California site, 14 days prior to M5.4 earthquake. These magnetic signals observed were relatively short, random pulsations, not continuous waveform signals like Pc1 or Pc3 micropulsations. The magnetic pulses have a characteristic uni-polar shapes and 0.5 sec. to 30 sec. durations, much longer than lightning signals. In May of 2010, very similar pulses were observed at Tacna, Peru, 13 days prior to a M6.2 earthquake, using a QuakeFinder station jointly operated under collaboration with the Catholic University in Lima Peru (PUCP). More examples of these pulsations were sought, and a historical review of older California magnetic data discovered fewer but similar pulsations occurred at the Hollister, Ca. site operated by UC Berkeley (e.g. San Juan Bautista M5.1 earthquake on August 12, 1998). Further analysis of the direction of arrival of the magnetic pulses showed an interesting “azimuth clustering” observed in both Alum Rock, Ca. and Tacna, Peru data. The complete time series of the Alum Rock data allowed the team to analyze subsequent changes observed in magnetometer “filter banks” (0.001 Hz to 10 Hz filter bands, similar to those used by Fraser-Smith in 1989), but this time using time-adjusted limits based on time of day, time of year, Kp, and site background noise. These site-customized limits

  6. Water use in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandt, Justin; Sneed, Michelle; Rogers, Laurel Lynn; Metzger, Loren F.; Rewis, Diane; House, Sally F.

    2014-01-01

    As part of the USGS National Water Use Compilation, the California Water Science Center works in cooperation with local, State, and Federal agencies as well as academic and private organizations to collect and report total water withdrawals for California. The 2010 California water use data are aggregated here, in this website, for the first time. The California Water Science Center released these data ahead of the online USGS National Water Use Compilation circular report, in response to increased interest associated with current drought conditions. The national report is expected to be released late in 2014. The data on this website represents the most current California water use data available in the USGS National Water Use Compilation. It contains a section on water use in California for 2010. Water-use estimates are compiled by withdrawal source type, use category, and county. Withdrawal source types include groundwater, both fresh and saline,

  7. Abundance patterns of early stages of the Pacific sardine (Sardinops sagax during a cooling period in a coastal lagoon south of the California Current

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    René Funes-Rodríguez

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abundance patterns of eggs and larvae of the Pacific sardine, Sardinops sagax (Jenyns, 1842, in Bahía Magdalena, Baja California Sur, were analysed during a cooling period south of the California Current from 2005 to 2009. The thermohaline characteristics and zooplankton abundance were good descriptors of the potential spawning habitat. Individual quotient analyses showed a predominance of eggs and larvae within a SST range of 16 to 18°C, at low salinities (33.9-34.1 and at low density gradient variability (0.009-0.029, associated with deeper waters (25-40 m near the main entrance, where the transparency was intermediate (6-8 m and zooplankton abundance was relatively high ( > 316 ml/1000 m3. Increments within different class intervals meant that neither dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN, phosphates nor chlorophyll a predominated. The large interannual fluctuations in sardine spawning activity and preferential temperatures observed in historical and recent data suggest that two sardine stocks spawn in Bahia Magdalena: one stock spawned in the period 1981-1989 and one stock spawned in the period 1997-2009. The influence of cooling and warming periods as additional components of the regional environmental framework is analysed and discussed.

  8. Chemical Speciation of Sulfur in Marine Cloud Droplets and Particles: Analysis of Individual Particles from Marine Boundary Layer over the California Current

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    William R. Wiley Environmental Sciences Laboratory, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory; Gilles, Mary K; Hopkins, Rebecca J.; Desyaterik, Yury; Tivanski, Alexei V.; Zaveri, Rahul A.; Berkowitz, Carl M.; Tyliszczak, Tolek; Gilles, Mary K.; Laskin, Alexander

    2008-03-12

    Detailed chemical speciation of the dry residue particles from individual cloud droplets and interstitial aerosol collected during the Marine Stratus Experiment (MASE) was performed using a combination of complementary microanalysis techniques. Techniques include computer controlled scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersed analysis of X-rays (CCSEM/EDX), time-of-flight secondary ionization mass spectrometry (TOF-SIMS), and scanning transmission X-ray microscopy with near edge X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy (STXM/NEXAFS). Samples were collected at the ground site located in Point Reyes National Seashore, approximately 1 km from the coast. This manuscript focuses on the analysis of individual particles sampled from air masses that originated over the open ocean and then passed through the area of the California current located along the northern California coast. Based on composition, morphology, and chemical bonding information, two externally mixed, distinct classes of sulfur containing particles were identified: chemically modified (aged) sea salt particles and secondary formed sulfate particles. The results indicate substantial heterogeneous replacement of chloride by methanesulfonate (CH3SO3-) and non-sea salt sulfate (nss-SO42-) in sea-salt particles with characteristic ratios of nss-S/Na>0.10 and CH3SO3-/nss-SO42->0.6.

  9. Women of California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Harry

    This publication points out the achievements of women who contributed to the development and history of California from the 16th century, when the Spanish Conquistadores moved westward into the San Francisco Bay area, to the gold rush of 1848, and during the following period when women helped stabilize society on the rugged frontier. Women not…

  10. Using the urtA Gene to Profile Nitrogen Stress Adaptation and Spatio-Temporal Abundance of Synechococcus Clades in the California Current System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, T.; Shilova, I. N.; Zehr, J. P.

    2015-12-01

    Among the planet's most abundant photosynthetic groups, the picocyanobacteria Synechococcus contributes nearly a quarter of our global oxygen supply. Urea, from both natural and anthropogenic sources, is an important alternative to the preferred yet limited sources of reduced nitrogen for cyanobacteria in the marine environment. While urea uptake activity has been observed during nitrogen (N) limitation, this stress adaptation is not well-studied in natural habitats. We propose the urtAgene, which encodes the substrate-binding subunit of the urea-uptake ABC transporter, as a molecular marker to profile cell abundance and stress response in relation to N fluctuation. Strains prevalent in temperate waters of the California Current System - Synechococcus CC9311 (clade I), CC9605 (clade II) and CC9902/BL107 (clade IV) - were targeted by clade-specific qPCR assays to measure urtA gene copy abundance in samples from different geographical stations and a time-series. Spatial and seasonal patterns in clade abundance resembled those previously reported by studies using other Synechococcus marker genes, thus validating urtA as a strong marker. Synechococcus clades I and IV were most abundant in coastal and transitional stations, while the more oligotrophic clade II was detected near open waters. Synechococcus abundances were highest before and after the annual upwelling season, as supported by a non clade-specific rbcL-qPCR assay. A lack of correlation between abundance and nitrate availability indicated utilization of alternative nitrogen sources like urea, which was further evidenced by the detection of clade IV urtA transcripts at the station closest to shore. Urea concentrations tend to be highest in coastal environments due to fertilizer runoff, which can stimulate phytoplankton blooms including harmful algal blooms. This study adds to insight on how such environmental factors are related to N-cycling and patterns of urea-assimilating microbial populations like

  11. El Niño and similar perturbation effects on the benthos of the Humboldt, California, and Benguela Current upwelling ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arntz, W. E.; Gallardo, V. A.; Gutiérrez, D.; Isla, E.; Levin, L. A.; Mendo, J.; Neira, C.; Rowe, G. T.; Tarazona, J.; Wolff, M.

    2006-03-01

    To a certain degree, Eastern Boundary Current (EBC) ecosystems are similar: Cold bottom water from moderate depths, rich in nutrients, is transported to the euphotic zone by a combination of trade winds, Coriolis force and Ekman transport. The resultant high primary production fuels a rich secondary production in the upper pelagic and nearshore zones, but where O2 exchange is restricted, it creates oxygen minimum zones (OMZs) at shelf and upper slope (Humboldt and Benguela Current) or slope depths (California Current). These hypoxic zones host a specifically adapted, small macro- and meiofauna together with giant sulphur bacteria that use nitrate to oxydise H2S. In all EBC, small polychaetes, large nematodes and other opportunistic benthic species have adapted to the hypoxic conditions and co-exist with sulphur bacteria, which seem to be particularly dominant off Peru and Chile. However, a massive reduction of macrobenthos occurs in the core of the OMZ. In the Humboldt Current area the OMZ ranges between nutrient-rich bottom water. During warm (El Niño) episodes, warm water masses of low oxygen concentration from oceanic and equatorial regions enter the upwelling zones, bringing a variety of (sub)tropical immigrants. The autochthonous benthic fauna emigrates to deeper water or poleward, or suffers mortality. However, some local macrofaunal species experience important population proliferations, presumably due to improved oxygenation (in the southern hemisphere), higher temperature tolerance, reduced competition or the capability to use different food. Both these negative and positive effects of El Niño influence local artisanal fisheries and the livelihood of coastal populations. In the Humboldt Current system the hypoxic seafloor at outer shelf depths receives important flushing from the equatorial zone, causing havoc on the sulphur bacteria mats and immediate recolonisation of the sediments by mega- and macrofauna. Conversely, off California, the intruding

  12. California Bioregions

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — California regions developed by the Inter-agency Natural Areas Coordinating Committee (INACC) were digitized from a 1:1,200,000 California Department of Fish and...

  13. Field Surveys of Rare Plants on Santa Cruz Island, California, 2003-2006: Historical Records and Current Distributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    McEachern, A. Kathryn; Chess, Katherine A.; Niessen, Ken

    2010-01-01

    Santa Cruz Island is the largest of the northern Channel Islands located off the coast of California. It is owned and managed as a conservation reserve by The Nature Conservancy and the Channel Islands National Park. The island is home to nine plant taxa listed in 1997 as threatened or endangered under the federal Endangered Species Act, because of declines related to nearly 150 years of ranching on the island. Feral livestock were removed from the island as a major conservation step, which was part of a program completed in early 2007 with the eradication of pigs and turkeys. For the first time in more than a century, the rare plants of Santa Cruz Island have a chance to recover in the wild. This study provides survey information and living plant materials needed for recovery management of the listed taxa. We developed a database containing information about historical collections of the nine taxa and used it to plan a survey strategy. Our objectives were to relocate as many of the previously known populations as possible, with emphasis on documenting sites not visited in several decades, sites that were poorly documented in the historical record, and sites spanning the range of environmental conditions inhabited by the taxa. From 2003 through 2006, we searched for and found 39 populations of the taxa, indicating that nearly 80 percent of the populations known earlier in the 1900s still existed. Most populations are small and isolated, occupying native-dominated habitat patches in a highly fragmented and invaded landscape; they are still at risk of declining through population losses. Most are not expanding beyond the edges of their habitat patches. However, most taxa appeared to have good seed production and a range of size classes in populations, indicating a good capacity for plant recruitment and population growth in these restricted sites. For these taxa, seed collection and outplanting might be a good strategy to increase numbers of populations for species

  14. Proceedings of a workshop on bark beetle genetics: current status of research. May 17-18, 1992, Berkeley, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jane L. Hayes; Jacqueline L. Robertson

    1992-01-01

    The Proceedings reports the results of a workshop focusing on the topic of bark beetle genetics. The workshop evolved because of the growing interest in this relatively unexplored area of bark beetle research. Workshop participants submitted brief descriptions of their views of the current status of bark beetle genetic research and needs for the future. Contributions...

  15. Moving Archives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Anne Mette

    argues that personal and collective memory practices enter dynamic and complex relations, and that emotions are crucial in these processes. Over time, emotional memory practices may have the capacity to transform even ‘soft’ agency in personal memories into strong, potentially political agency for change.......This thesis deals with personal and collective memories of industrialization in the Disko Bay area in Greenland, focusing on how people remember their local agency during these seminal transitional years. After the introduction of Self-Government in 2009, the young, postcolonial nation is currently...... narratives that often contain the emotion of pride and a sense of strong personal agency. These personal memories have not been inscribed in history books or museum exhibitions, they have not entered the archives, and their absence remains a problem for historical self-knowledge.Further, the dissertation...

  16. Annual Report to the Bonneville Power Administration, Reporting Period: April 2008 - February 2009 [re: "Survival and Growth in the Columbia River Plume and north California Current"].

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Northwest Fisheries Science Center, NOAA Fisheries; Cooperative Institute for Marine Resources Studies, Oregon State University; OGI School of Science & Engineering, Oregon Health Sciences University.

    2009-07-17

    We have made substantial progress toward our objectives outlined in our BPA supported proposal entitled 'Columbia River Basin Juvenile Salmonids: Survival and Growth in the Columbia River Plume and northern California Current' which we report on herein. During 2008, we were able to successfully conduct 3 mesoscale cruises. We also were able to conduct 7 biweekly predator cruises, along with substantial shore-based visual observations of seabirds. Detailed results of the mesoscale cruises are available in the Cruise Reports and summarized in the next section. We have taken a proactive approach to getting the results of our research to fisheries managers and the general public. We have begun to make annual predictions based on ocean conditions of the relative survival of juvenile coho and Chinook salmon well before they return as adults. This is based on both biological and physical indicators that we measure during our surveys or collect from outside data sources. Examples of our predictions for 2009 and 2010 are available on the following web site: http://www.nwfsc.noaa.gov/research/divisions/fed/oeip/a-ecinhome.cfm.

  17. Theoretical and experimental study of superradiance pulse generation by heavy-current subnanosecond electron bunches moving in periodic slowing down system

    CERN Document Server

    Ginzburg, N S; Novozhilova, Y V; Sergeev, A S; Shpak, V G; Shunailov, S A; Ul'maskulov, M R; Yalandin, M I

    2002-01-01

    One studied both theoretically and experimentally the Cherenkov superradiance at liner motion of an electron bunch through the periodic slowing down system. Simulations in terms of the KARAT code show that peak intensity of microwave pulses is proportional to the square of total number of particles in a bunch. This finding os conformed experimentally. As a results, at 39 GHz frequency one obtained ultrashort pulses of up to 140 MW high intensity and with 30 ps duration. The RADAN 303 high-current subnanosecond accelerator injected electron bunches with up to 2 A current, 0.5-1.5 ns duration and 200-300 keV particle energy was used as a source of electrons. Simulation shows possibility of further intensification of electromagnetic pulses up to 300-400 MW due to optimization of parameters of accelerating voltage pulse

  18. Shifting Climate Modes and a Warm Little Ice Age: Paleo Productivity and Temperature Determinations from the Southern California Current Over the Last Millennium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, C. S.; Herbert, T.; O'Mara, N. A.; Abella-Gutiérrez, J. L.; Herguera, J. C.

    2016-12-01

    The ocean dynamical thermostat hypothesis predicts that stronger [weaker] equatorial radiation forces warmer [cooler] western Pacific sea surface temperatures (SSTs) and a cooler [warmer] Eastern Equatorial Pacific (EEP) through air-sea coupling of the Walker circulation. Although proxy data offers some support for this prediction, recent SST reconstructions from the EEP suggest complex relationships between Northern Hemisphere (NH) and EEP temperature during the last millennium (Rustic et al. 2015), with EEP SSTs positively covarying with NH temperature during the Medieval Warm Period but negatively covarying during the Little Ice Age (LIA). Whereas most proxy reconstructions have focused on the EEP upwelling zone, few high-resolution studies exist from the California Current (CC)—a region whose oceanography displays exceptional fidelity to the El Niño Southern Oscillation and the Pacific Decadal Oscillation. In particular, southern CC oceanography reflects a balance between tropically-sourced and more northerly, temperate waters. Teasing these signals apart across past centuries can provide insight as to how a more complex dynamical thermostat affects the subtropics. Does the subtropical eastern Pacific track EEP SST across multiple centuries and climatic transitions? We present a record from the San Lazaro Basin (25N, 112.5W) in the subtropical eastern Pacific off Baja, Mexico of SST and marine paleoproductivity based upon alkenone saturation and concentrations (C37tot) over the last millennium. By combining these analyses on laminated sediment cores with newly published productivity records from the same site, we provide the first sub decadal paleoceanographic record from the southern California upwelling zone. We observe quasi-periodic short-lived cold excursions, centennial modulation of multidecadal periodicities, and an inverse relationship between C37tot and SST at lower frequencies. Our SST record displays a warm Little Ice Age, similar to but 100

  19. Are the Current Guidelines on Caffeine Use in Sport Optimal for Everyone? Inter-individual Variation in Caffeine Ergogenicity, and a Move Towards Personalised Sports Nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickering, Craig; Kiely, John

    2018-01-01

    Caffeine use is widespread in sport, with a strong evidence base demonstrating its ergogenic effect. Based on existing research, current guidelines recommend ingestion of 3-9 mg/kg approximately 60 min prior to exercise. However, the magnitude of performance enhancement following caffeine ingestion differs substantially between individuals, with the spectrum of responses ranging between highly ergogenic to ergolytic. These extensive inter-individual response distinctions are mediated by variation in individual genotype, environmental factors, and the legacy of prior experiences partially mediated via epigenetic mechanisms. Here, we briefly review the drivers of this inter-individual variation in caffeine response, focusing on the impact of common polymorphisms within two genes, CYP1A2 and ADORA2A. Contemporary evidence suggests current standardised guidelines are optimal for only a sub-set of the athlete population. Clearer understanding of the factors underpinning inter-individual variation potentially facilitates a more nuanced, and individually and context-specific customisation of caffeine ingestion guidelines, specific to an individual's biology, history, and competitive situation. Finally, we identify current knowledge deficits in this area, along with future associated research questions.

  20. Moving toward a Coherent School Finance System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Heather

    2013-01-01

    California's current school finance system is a tangled web of funding programs, restrictions, inequities and confusion. Building a stronger finance system to benefit from resources is an important step in strengthening California's K-12 education system and better meeting the needs of its students. Gov. Brown has recently proposed the Local…

  1. The Regional Ocean Modeling System (ROMS) 4-dimensional variational data assimilation systems . Part II - Performance and application to the California Current System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Andrew M.; Arango, Hernan G.; Broquet, Gregoire; Edwards, Chris; Veneziani, Milena; Powell, Brian; Foley, Dave; Doyle, James D.; Costa, Dan; Robinson, Patrick

    2011-10-01

    The Regional Ocean Modeling System (ROMS) 4-dimensional variational (4D-Var) data assimilation systems have been systematically applied to the mesoscale circulation environment of the California Current to demonstrate the performance and practical utility of the various components of ROMS 4D-Var. In particular, we present a comparison of three approaches to 4D-Var, namely: the primal formulation of the incremental strong constraint approach; the dual formulation “physical-space statistical analysis system”; and the dual formulation indirect representer approach. In agreement with theoretical considerations all three approaches converge to the same ocean circulation estimate when using the same observations and prior information. However, the rate of convergence of the dual formulation was found to be inferior to that of the primal formulation. Other aspects of the 4D-Var performance that relate to the use of multiple outer-loops, preconditioning, and the weak constraint are also explored. A systematic evaluation of the impact of the various components of the 4D-Var control vector (i.e. the initial conditions, surface forcing and open boundary conditions) is also presented. It is shown that correcting for uncertainties in the model initial conditions exerts the largest influence on the ability of the model to fit the available observations. Various important diagnostics of 4D-Var are also examined, including estimates of the posterior error, the information content of the observation array, and innovation-based consistency checks on the prior error assumptions. Using these diagnostic tools, we find that more than 90% of the observations assimilated into the model provide redundant information. This is a symptom of the large percentage of satellite data that are used and to some extent the nature of the data processing employed. This is the second in a series of three papers describing the ROMS 4D-Var systems.

  2. Interannual variability in the Northern California Current food web structure: Changes in energy flow pathways and the role of forage fish, euphausiids, and jellyfish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruzicka, James J.; Brodeur, Richard D.; Emmett, Robert L.; Steele, John H.; Zamon, Jeannette E.; Morgan, Cheryl A.; Thomas, Andrew C.; Wainwright, Thomas C.

    2012-09-01

    The Northern California Current (NCC) is a seasonally productive and open ecosystem. It is home to both a diverse endemic community and to seasonally transient species. Productivity and food web structure vary seasonally, interannually, and decadally due to variability in coastal upwelling, climate-scale physical processes, and the migratory species entering the system. The composition of the pelagic community varies between years, including changes to mid-trophic level groups that represent alternate energy-transfer pathways between lower and upper trophic levels (forage fishes, euphausiids, jellyfish). Multiple data sets, including annual spring and summer mesoscale surveys of the zooplankton, pelagic fish, and seabird communities, were used to infer NCC trophic network arrangements and develop end-to-end models for each of the 2003-2007 upwelling seasons. Each model was used to quantify the interannual variability in energy-transfer efficiency from bottom to top trophic levels. When each model was driven under an identical nutrient input rate, substantial differences in the energy available to each functional group were evident. Scenario analyses were used to examine the roles of forage fishes, euphausiids, and jellyfish (small gelatinous zooplankton and large carnivorous jellyfish) as alternate energy transfer pathways. Euphausiids were the more important energy transfer pathway; a large proportion of the lower trophic production consumed was transferred to higher trophic levels. In contrast, jellyfish acted as a production loss pathway; little of the production consumed was passed upwards. Analysis of the range of ecosystem states observed interannually and understanding system sensitivity to variability among key trophic groups improves our ability to predict NCC ecosystem response to short- and long-term environmental change.

  3. In situ, navigational, physical and profile data collected by University of California - San Diego; Scripps Institution of Oceanography at OceanSITES site MOVE3 from 2000-02-04 to 2016-02-09 (NCEI Accession 0130043)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In situ, navigational, physical and profile oceanographic data were collected, including CONDUCTIVITY, CURRENT DIRECTION, CURRENT SPEED, DEPTH - OBSERVATION,...

  4. In situ, navigational, physical and profile data collected by University of California - San Diego; Scripps Institution of Oceanography at OceanSITES site MOVE1 from 2000-01-28 to 2016-02-03 (NCEI Accession 0130041)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In situ, navigational, physical and profile oceanographic data were collected, including CONDUCTIVITY, CURRENT DIRECTION, CURRENT SPEED, DEPTH - OBSERVATION,...

  5. In situ, navigational, physical and profile data collected by University of California - San Diego; Scripps Institution of Oceanography at OceanSITES site MOVE2 from 2000-02-02 to 2011-10-29 (NCEI Accession 0130042)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In situ, navigational, physical and profile oceanographic data were collected, including CONDUCTIVITY, CURRENT DIRECTION, CURRENT SPEED, DEPTH - OBSERVATION,...

  6. Response of O2 and pH to ENSO in the California Current System in a high-resolution global climate model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Turi

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Coastal upwelling systems, such as the California Current System (CalCS, naturally experience a wide range of O2 concentrations and pH values due to the seasonality of upwelling. Nonetheless, changes in the El Niño–Southern Oscillation (ENSO have been shown to measurably affect the biogeochemical and physical properties of coastal upwelling regions. In this study, we use a novel, high-resolution global climate model (GFDL-ESM2.6 to investigate the influence of warm and cold ENSO events on variations in the O2 concentration and the pH of the CalCS coastal waters. An assessment of the CalCS response to six El Niño and seven La Niña events in ESM2.6 reveals significant variations in the response between events. However, these variations overlay a consistent physical and biogeochemical (O2 and pH response in the composite mean. Focusing on the mean response, our results demonstrate that O2 and pH are affected rather differently in the euphotic zone above  ∼  100 m. The strongest O2 response reaches up to several hundreds of kilometers offshore, whereas the pH signal occurs only within a  ∼  100 km wide band along the coast. By splitting the changes in O2 and pH into individual physical and biogeochemical components that are affected by ENSO variability, we found that O2 variability in the surface ocean is primarily driven by changes in surface temperature that affect the O2 solubility. In contrast, surface pH changes are predominantly driven by changes in dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC, which in turn is affected by upwelling, explaining the confined nature of the pH signal close to the coast. Below  ∼  100 m, we find conditions with anomalously low O2 and pH, and by extension also anomalously low aragonite saturation, during La Niña. This result is consistent with findings from previous studies and highlights the stress that the CalCS ecosystem could periodically undergo in addition to impacts due to climate

  7. Observation of Mesoscale Instabilities of the Northern Current in the North Western Mediterranean Sea : a Combined Study Using Gliders, Surface Drifters, Moving Vessel Profiler and Vessel Data in the Ligurian Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pairaud, I. L.; Garreau, P.; Le Berre, D.; Fernandez Bruyère, D.; Bellomo, L.; Garnier, V.

    2014-12-01

    The Northern Current (NC) is a branch of the general North-Western Mediterranean cyclonic circulation extending from the Ligurian to the Catalan Sea (Millot, Dynamics of Atmospheres and Oceans, vol. 15, 1991). In winter and early spring, instabilities of this slope current are intense and can generate eddies, meanders and filaments. The study of mesoscale structures is crucial in the coastal area because of their physical and biogeochemical impact on ecosystems. They play a role in water, chemicals and nutrients transport, vertical mixing and possible trapping of biological materials. Results from a combined observational effort put forth in March 2012 during the IMEDIA cruise dedicated to eddy tracking are presented. This work aims at providing experimental evidence of the effects that mesoscale exerts on the NC dynamics via an innovative and complementary data set. A Slocum Glider equipped with a CTD was deployed along the French coast from Nice to Toulon for one month and performed cross-current sections down to 600m depth. Drifters were deployed before the cruise in the Corsica Channel and close to Italy. Concurrent observations were obtained along the vessel track by a thermosalinograph and a fluorometer (subsurface measurements), and using a CTD and a Vessel-Mounted ADCP during the 11-day oceanographic cruise on board of the Research Vessel Tethys II. Additional water profiling was performed using a Moving Vessel Profiler (MVP) equipped with a CTD and capable of profiling down to 400m depth at a speed of 4 knots. The combined use of data from the MVP and the ship-based ADCP measurements reveals the presence of an instability of the NC north of the Corsica Island. The main branch of the current is moved westward and forms a meander. It is characterized by a density decrease down to 350m of the water column, associated with a salinity decrease of 0.4-0.6 psu (see Figure). Its location is confirmed by high-resolution satellite images as the associated water

  8. Female Superintendent Longevity in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohlfing, Tracy

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate, through narrative inquiry (Clandinin & Connelly, 2000), the leadership evolution of five female superintendents in California with longevity of 5 or more years in their current school district positions. The research question addressed was, "How do California female superintendents evolve to…

  9. California Air Basins

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — Air ResourcesCalifornia Air Resources BoardThe following datasets are from the California Air Resources Board: * arb_california_airbasins - California Air BasinsThe...

  10. Review of current Southern California edison load management programs and proposal for a new market-driven, mass-market, demand-response program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weller, G.H.

    2002-01-01

    Utility load management programs, including direct load control and interruptible load programs, constitute a large installed base of controllable loads that are employed by utilities as system reliability resources. In response to energy supply shortfalls expected during the summer of 2001, the California Public Utilities Commission in spring 2001 authorized new utility load management programs as well as revisions to existing programs. This report provides an independent review of the designs of these new programs for a large utility (Southern California Edison) and suggests possible improvements to enhance the price responsiveness of the customer actions influenced by these programs. The report also proposes a new program to elicit a mass-market demand response to utility price signals.

  11. MOVES sensitivity study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: : To determine ranking of important parameters and the overall sensitivity to values of variables in MOVES : To allow a greater understanding of the MOVES modeling process for users : Continued support by FHWA to transportation modeling comm...

  12. Demonstration of a fully-coupled end-to-end model for small pelagic fish using sardine and anchovy in the California Current

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Kenneth A.; Fiechter, Jerome; Curchitser, Enrique N.; Hedstrom, Kate; Bernal, Miguel; Creekmore, Sean; Haynie, Alan; Ito, Shin-ichi; Lluch-Cota, Salvador; Megrey, Bernard A.; Edwards, Chris A.; Checkley, Dave; Koslow, Tony; McClatchie, Sam; Werner, Francisco; MacCall, Alec; Agostini, Vera

    2015-11-01

    We describe and document an end-to-end model of anchovy and sardine population dynamics in the California Current as a proof of principle that such coupled models can be developed and implemented. The end-to-end model is 3-dimensional, time-varying, and multispecies, and consists of four coupled submodels: hydrodynamics, Eulerian nutrient-phytoplankton-zooplankton (NPZ), an individual-based full life cycle anchovy and sardine submodel, and an agent-based fishing fleet submodel. A predator roughly mimicking albacore was included as individuals that consumed anchovy and sardine. All submodels were coded within the ROMS open-source community model, and used the same resolution spatial grid and were all solved simultaneously to allow for possible feedbacks among the submodels. We used a super-individual approach and solved the coupled models on a distributed memory parallel computer, both of which created challenging but resolvable bookkeeping challenges. The anchovy and sardine growth, mortality, reproduction, and movement, and the fishing fleet submodel, were each calibrated using simplified grids before being inserted into the full end-to-end model. An historical simulation of 1959-2008 was performed, and the latter 45 years analyzed. Sea surface height (SSH) and sea surface temperature (SST) for the historical simulation showed strong horizontal gradients and multi-year scale temporal oscillations related to various climate indices (PDO, NPGO), and both showed responses to ENSO variability. Simulated total phytoplankton was lower during strong El Nino events and higher for the strong 1999 La Nina event. The three zooplankton groups generally corresponded to the spatial and temporal variation in simulated total phytoplankton. Simulated biomasses of anchovy and sardine were within the historical range of observed biomasses but predicted biomasses showed much less inter-annual variation. Anomalies of annual biomasses of anchovy and sardine showed a switch in the mid

  13. Public Schools, California, 2009, California Department of Education

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This set of data represents the most current public schools in the State of California as of June, 2009. Information about each public school includes: school name,...

  14. SEEDS Moving Group Status Update

    Science.gov (United States)

    McElwain, Michael

    2011-01-01

    I will summarize the current status of the SEEDS Moving Group category and describe the importance of this sub-sample for the entire SEEDS survey. This presentation will include analysis of the sensitivity for the Moving Groups with general a comparison to other the other sub-categories. I will discuss the future impact of the Subaru SCExAO system for these targets and the advantage of using a specialized integral field spectrograph. Finally, I will present the impact of a pupil grid mask in order to produce fiducial spots in the focal plane that can be used for both photometry and astrometry.

  15. California's Future: Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Hans

    2015-01-01

    California's higher education system is not keeping up with the changing economy. Projections suggest that the state's economy will continue to need more highly educated workers. In 2025, if current trends persist, 41 percent of jobs will require at least a bachelor's degree and 36 percent will require some college education short of a bachelor's…

  16. Observations of Currents, Temperature, Pressure, and Sea Level in the Gulf of California 1982-1986. A Data Report (Observationes de Corrientes, Temperatura, Presion y Nivel Mar en el Golfo de California 1982-1986. Informe de Datos,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-04-01

    s--. - f.-- - 1 111e1.g DI FIL COPY , :46 7 Observations of Currents, Observaclones de Corrientes ,Temperature, Pressure, Temperatura, Presi6nand Sea...Grificas de las Series Temporales Currents Corrientes 39 Temperature Temperatura 79 Pressure Presi6n 115 Sea Level Nivel del Mar 139 .1-. Ab$ract Resumen...parte de las mediciones de cor- were made with Vector Measuring Current Meters rientes que se presentan aquf fueron obtenidas (VMCM’s), a cartesian

  17. Theses "Discussion" Sections: A Structural Move Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nodoushan, Mohammad Ali Salmani; Khakbaz, Nafiseh

    2011-01-01

    The current study aimed at finding the probable differences between the move structure of Iranian MA graduates' thesis discussion subgenres and those of their non-Iranian counterparts, on the one hand, and those of journal paper authors, on the other. It also aimed at identifying the moves that are considered obligatory, conventional, or optional…

  18. Modeling and Querying Moving Objects with Social Relationships

    OpenAIRE

    Hengcai Zhang; Feng Lu; Jianqiu Xu

    2016-01-01

    Current moving-object database (MOD) systems focus on management of movement data, but pay less attention to modelling social relationships between moving objects and spatial-temporal trajectories in an integrated manner. This paper combines moving-object database and social network systems and presents a novel data model called Geo-Social-Moving (GSM) that enables the unified management of trajectories, underlying geographical space and social relationships for mass moving objects. A bulk of...

  19. Moving? A Relocation Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rackliffe, Gary; Pearson, Nancy

    This guide answers questions for high school graduates moving away from home for the first time. The question and answer format begins with reasons for moving and offers ways of finding information about a new town before leaving, meeting people, and fighting homesickness and indecision. Practical advice is presented on money management and…

  20. Moving Field Guides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassie Meador; Mark Twery; Meagan. Leatherbury

    2011-01-01

    The Moving Field Guides (MFG) project is a creative take on site interpretation. Moving Field Guides provide an example of how scientific and artistic endeavors work in parallel. Both begin with keen observations that produce information that must be analyzed, understood, and interpreted. That interpretation then needs to be communicated to others to complete the...

  1. Moving a House by Moved Participants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Axel, Erik

    The author performed an investigation of how a house was designed. He participated mainly in meetings, in which the house was engineered. The meetings proceeded in an agreeable atmosphere. While the architect was mostly concerned with integrating the functionality of the house, the engineer engaged...... had the drawing for an upcoming discussion, he was also helpful, e.g. when somebody had to compute something he produced a calculator and assisted in the computation. Once at a meeting the participants had to deal with a request from the city: could the house be moved one meter towards the curb...... of moving the house with respect to its servicing pipes. It was immediately underlined that this task was a surplus task and would therefore trigger an extra payment. When I interviewed the participants and asked them how they understood the function of the engineer, they revealed some irritation, since...

  2. Embodied affectivity: on moving and being moved.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuchs, Thomas; Koch, Sabine C

    2014-01-01

    There is a growing body of research indicating that bodily sensation and behavior strongly influences one's emotional reaction toward certain situations or objects. On this background, a framework model of embodied affectivity is suggested: we regard emotions as resulting from the circular interaction between affective qualities or affordances in the environment and the subject's bodily resonance, be it in the form of sensations, postures, expressive movements or movement tendencies. Motion and emotion are thus intrinsically connected: one is moved by movement (perception; impression; affection) and moved to move (action; expression; e-motion). Through its resonance, the body functions as a medium of emotional perception: it colors or charges self-experience and the environment with affective valences while it remains itself in the background of one's own awareness. This model is then applied to emotional social understanding or interaffectivity which is regarded as an intertwinement of two cycles of embodied affectivity, thus continuously modifying each partner's affective affordances and bodily resonance. We conclude with considerations of how embodied affectivity is altered in psychopathology and can be addressed in psychotherapy of the embodied self.

  3. Embodied affectivity: On moving and being moved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas eFuchs

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available There is a growing body of research indicating that bodily sensation and behaviour strongly influences one’s emotional reaction towards certain situations or objects. On this background, a framework model of embodied affectivity is suggested: we regard emotions as resulting from the circular interaction between affective qualities or affordances in the environment and the subject’s bodily resonance, be it in the form of sensations, postures, expressive movements or movement tendencies. Motion and emotion are thus intrinsically connected: one is moved by movement (perception; impression; affection and moved to move (action; expression; e-motion. Through its resonance, the body functions as a medium of emotional perception: it colours or charges self-experience and the environment with affective valences while it remains itself in the background of one’s own awareness. This model is then applied to emotional social understanding or interaffectivity which is regarded as an intertwinement of two cycles of embodied affectivity, thus continuously modifying each partner’s affective affordances and bodily resonance. We conclude with considerations of how embodied affectivity is altered in psychopathology and can be addressed in psychotherapy of the embodied self.

  4. California Red-Legged Frogs in coastal dune drainages (2015)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — California Red-legged Frogs (Rana draytonii) are typically regarded as inhabitants of permanent ponds, marshes, and slow-moving streams, but their ecology in other...

  5. PARALLEL MOVING MECHANICAL SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florian Ion Tiberius Petrescu

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 Moving mechanical systems parallel structures are solid, fast, and accurate. Between parallel systems it is to be noticed Stewart platforms, as the oldest systems, fast, solid and precise. The work outlines a few main elements of Stewart platforms. Begin with the geometry platform, kinematic elements of it, and presented then and a few items of dynamics. Dynamic primary element on it means the determination mechanism kinetic energy of the entire Stewart platforms. It is then in a record tail cinematic mobile by a method dot matrix of rotation. If a structural mottoelement consists of two moving elements which translates relative, drive train and especially dynamic it is more convenient to represent the mottoelement as a single moving components. We have thus seven moving parts (the six motoelements or feet to which is added mobile platform 7 and one fixed.

  6. The Moving image

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Lennard Højbjerg

    2014-01-01

    Every day we are presented with bodily expressions in audiovisual media – by anchors, journalists and characters in films for instance. This article explores how body language in the moving image has been and can be approached in a scholarly manner.......Every day we are presented with bodily expressions in audiovisual media – by anchors, journalists and characters in films for instance. This article explores how body language in the moving image has been and can be approached in a scholarly manner....

  7. Moving Manifolds in Electromagnetic Fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David V. Svintradze

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available We propose dynamic non-linear equations for moving surfaces in an electromagnetic field. The field is induced by a material body with a boundary of the surface. Correspondingly the potential energy, set by the field at the boundary can be written as an addition of four-potential times four-current to a contraction of the electromagnetic tensor. Proper application of the minimal action principle to the system Lagrangian yields dynamic non-linear equations for moving three dimensional manifolds in electromagnetic fields. The equations in different conditions simplify to Maxwell equations for massless three surfaces, to Euler equations for a dynamic fluid, to magneto-hydrodynamic equations and to the Poisson-Boltzmann equation.

  8. CoSMoS (Coastal Storm Modeling System) Southern California v3.0 Phase 2 ocean-currents projections: 100-year storm in Orange County

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Model-derived ocean current velocities (in meters per second) for the given storm condition and sea-level rise (SLR) scenario. The Coastal Storm Modeling System...

  9. CoSMoS (Coastal Storm Modeling System) Southern California v3.0 Phase 2 ocean-currents projections: average conditions in Los Angeles County

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Projected Hazard: Model-derived ocean current velocities (in meters per second) for the given storm condition and sea-level rise (SLR) scenario. Model Summary: The...

  10. CoSMoS (Coastal Storm Modeling System) Southern California v3.0 Phase 2 ocean-currents projections: 1-year storm in Los Angeles County

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Projected Hazard: Model-derived ocean current velocities (in meters per second) for the given storm condition and sea-level rise (SLR) scenario. Model Summary: The...

  11. CoSMoS (Coastal Storm Modeling System) Southern California v3.0 Phase 2 ocean-currents projections: 20-year storm in Ventura County

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Model-derived ocean current velocities (in meters per second) for the given storm condition and sea-level rise (SLR) scenario. The Coastal Storm Modeling System...

  12. CoSMoS (Coastal Storm Modeling System) Southern California v3.0 Phase 2 ocean-currents projections: 20-year storm in Los Angeles County

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Projected Hazard: Model-derived ocean current velocities (in meters per second) for the given storm condition and sea-level rise (SLR) scenario. Model Summary: The...

  13. CoSMoS (Coastal Storm Modeling System) Southern California v3.0 Phase 2 ocean-currents projections: 1-year storm in San Diego County

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Projected Hazard: Model-derived ocean current velocities (in meters per second) for the given storm condition and sea-level rise (SLR) scenario. Model Summary: The...

  14. CoSMoS (Coastal Storm Modeling System) Southern California v3.0 Phase 2 ocean-currents projections: 100-year storm in Ventura County

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Model-derived ocean current velocities (in meters per second) for the given storm condition and sea-level rise (SLR) scenario. The Coastal Storm Modeling System...

  15. CoSMoS (Coastal Storm Modeling System) Southern California v3.0 Phase 2 ocean-currents projections: 1-year storm in Orange County

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Model-derived ocean current velocities (in meters per second) for the given storm condition and sea-level rise (SLR) scenario. The Coastal Storm Modeling System...

  16. CoSMoS (Coastal Storm Modeling System) Southern California v3.0 Phase 2 ocean-currents projections: average conditions in Ventura County

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Model-derived ocean current velocities (in meters per second) for the given storm condition and sea-level rise (SLR) scenario. The Coastal Storm Modeling System...

  17. CoSMoS (Coastal Storm Modeling System) Southern California v3.0 Phase 2 ocean-currents projections: average conditions in Orange County

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Model-derived ocean current velocities (in meters per second) for the given storm condition and sea-level rise (SLR) scenario. The Coastal Storm Modeling System...

  18. CoSMoS (Coastal Storm Modeling System) Southern California v3.0 Phase 2 ocean-currents projections: 20-year storm in Santa Barbara County

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Model-derived ocean current velocities (in meters per second) for the given storm condition and sea-level rise (SLR) scenario. The Coastal Storm Modeling System...

  19. CoSMoS (Coastal Storm Modeling System) Southern California v3.0 Phase 2 ocean-currents projections: 100-year storm in Santa Barbara County

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Model-derived ocean current velocities (in meters per second) for the given storm condition and sea-level rise (SLR) scenario. The Coastal Storm Modeling System...

  20. CoSMoS (Coastal Storm Modeling System) Southern California v3.0 Phase 2 ocean-currents projections: 20-year storm in Orange County

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Model-derived ocean current velocities (in meters per second) for the given storm condition and sea-level rise (SLR) scenario. The Coastal Storm Modeling System...

  1. CoSMoS (Coastal Storm Modeling System) Southern California v3.0 Phase 2 ocean-currents projections: 1-year storm in Ventura County

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Model-derived ocean current velocities (in meters per second) for the given storm condition and sea-level rise (SLR) scenario. The Coastal Storm Modeling System...

  2. CoSMoS (Coastal Storm Modeling System) Southern California v3.0 Phase 2 ocean-currents projections: average conditions in San Diego County

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Projected Hazard: Model-derived ocean current velocities (in meters per second) for the given storm condition and sea-level rise (SLR) scenario. Model Summary: The...

  3. CoSMoS (Coastal Storm Modeling System) Southern California v3.0 Phase 2 ocean-currents projections: 100-year storm in San Diego County

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Projected Hazard: Model-derived ocean current velocities (in meters per second) for the given storm condition and sea-level rise (SLR) scenario. Model Summary: The...

  4. CoSMoS (Coastal Storm Modeling System) Southern California v3.0 Phase 2 ocean-currents projections: 20-year storm in San Diego County

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Projected Hazard: Model-derived ocean current velocities (in meters per second) for the given storm condition and sea-level rise (SLR) scenario. Model Summary: The...

  5. CoSMoS (Coastal Storm Modeling System) Southern California v3.0 Phase 2 ocean-currents projections: 100-year storm in Los Angeles County

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Projected Hazard: Model-derived ocean current velocities (in meters per second) for the given storm condition and sea-level rise (SLR) scenario. Model Summary: The...

  6. El Niño and similar perturbation effects on the benthos of the Humboldt, California, and Benguela Current upwelling ecosystems

    OpenAIRE

    Arntz, W. E.; Gallardo, V.A; Gutiérrez, D.; Isla, E.; Levin, L.A.; Mendo, J.; C. Neira; Rowe, G. T.; J. Tarazona; Wolff, M.

    2006-01-01

    To a certain degree, Eastern Boundary Current (EBC) ecosystems are similar: Cold bottom water from moderate depths, rich in nutrients, is transported to the euphotic zone by a combination of trade winds, Coriolis force and Ekman transport. The resultant high primary production fuels a rich secondary production in the upper pelagic and nearshore zones, but where O2 exchange is restricted, it creates oxygen minimum zones (OMZs) at shelf and upper slope (Humboldt and Benguela Current) or slope d...

  7. AFSC/NMML/CCEP: Natality rates of California sea lions at San Miguel Island, California during 1987-2008

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Marine Mammal Laboratories' California Current Ecosystem Program (AFSC/NOAA) initiated a long-term marking program of California sea lions (Zalophus...

  8. Re-establishing marshes can return carbon sink functions to a current carbon source in the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta of California, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Robin L.; Fujii, Roger; Schmidt, Paul E.

    2011-01-01

    The Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta in California was an historic, vast inland freshwater wetland, where organic soils almost 20 meters deep formed over the last several millennia as the land surface elevation of marshes kept pace with sea level rise. A system of levees and pumps were installed in the late 1800s and early 1900s to drain the land for agricultural use. Since then, land surface has subsided more than 7 meters below sea level in some areas as organic soils have been lost to aerobic decomposition. As land surface elevations decrease, costs for levee maintenance and repair increase, as do the risks of flooding. Wetland restoration can be a way to mitigate subsidence by re-creating the environment in which the organic soils developed. A preliminary study of the effect of hydrologic regime on carbon cycling conducted on Twitchell Island during the mid-1990s showed that continuous, shallow flooding allowing for the growth of emergent marsh vegetation re-created a wetland environment where carbon preservation occurred. Under these conditions annual plant biomass carbon inputs were high, and microbial decomposition was reduced. Based on this preliminary study, the U.S. Geological Survey re-established permanently flooded wetlands in fall 1997, with shallow water depths of 25 and 55 centimeters, to investigate the potential to reverse subsidence of delta islands by preserving and accumulating organic substrates over time. Ten years after flooding, elevation gains from organic matter accumulation in areas of emergent marsh vegetation ranged from almost 30 to 60 centimeters, with average annual carbon storage rates approximating 1 kg/m2, while areas without emergent vegetation cover showed no significant change in elevation. Differences in accretion rates within areas of emergent marsh vegetation appeared to result from temporal and spatial variability in hydrologic factors and decomposition rates in the wetlands rather than variability in primary production

  9. Wave fronts may move upstream in semiconductor superlattices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpio; Bonilla; Wacker; Scholl

    2000-05-01

    In weakly coupled, current biased, doped semiconductor superlattices, domain walls may move upstream against the flow of electrons. For appropriate doping values, a domain wall separating two electric-field domains moves downstream below a first critical current, it remains stationary between this value and a second critical current, and then moves upstream above. These conclusions are reached by using a comparison principle to analyze a discrete drift-diffusion model, and validated by numerical simulations. Possible experimental realizations are suggested.

  10. Upgrading Technology Infrastructure in California's Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Niu; Murphy, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    As California schools move into online testing and online learning, an adequate technology infrastructure is no longer an option, but a necessity. To fully benefit from digital learning, schools will require a comprehensive technology infrastructure that can support a range of administrative and instructional tools. An earlier PPIC report found…

  11. MOVES regional level sensitivity analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    The MOVES Regional Level Sensitivity Analysis was conducted to increase understanding of the operations of the MOVES Model in regional emissions analysis and to highlight the following: : the relative sensitivity of selected MOVES Model input paramet...

  12. Dissolved inorganic carbon, total alkalinity, nutrients, and other variables collected from profile and discrete observations using CTD, Niskin bottle, and other instruments from R/V New Horizon and R/V Robert Gordon Sproul in the U.S. West Coast for calibration and validation of California Current Ecosystem (CCE) Moorings from 2009-12-15 to 2015-04-29 (NCEI Accession 0146024)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This archive accession contains inorganic carbon, total alkalinity, nutrients, and other data collected from ships during servicing cruises to the California Current...

  13. California Political Districts

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — This is a series of district layers pertaining to California'spolitical districts, that are derived from the California State Senateand State Assembly information....

  14. And Yet It Moves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverman, Mark P.

    1993-06-01

    Preface. The fire within; 1. The unimaginably strange behaviour of free electrons; 2. Quantum beats and giant atoms; 3. And yet it moves: exotic atoms and the invariance of charge; 4. Reflections on light; 5. Two worlds, large and small: Earth and atom; 6. The Wirbelrohr's roar (...or rather whistle); 7. Science and wonder; Selected papers by the author; Index.

  15. And Still They Moved

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 3; Issue 10. And Still they Moved - An Important Statement about some Rock Masses. Ramesh Chander. General Article Volume 3 Issue 10 October 1998 pp 41-48. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:

  16. Let's Keep Moving!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obama, Michelle

    2012-01-01

    First Lady Michelle Obama lauds educators for following the lead of her Let's Move! program and taking action to curtail childhood obesity. The battle to make children healthier is being waged on a number of fronts by food companies, restaurants and schools. Progress has been made, she says, but more is needed.

  17. Moving beyond Disability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geertzen, Jan H. B.

    2008-01-01

    Moving beyond Disability was the theme of the 12th World Congress of the International Society for Prosthetics and Orthotics. This paper is a reflection of one of the keynote lectures discussing the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF). Multicultural aspects in

  18. Moving Spatial Keyword Queries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Dingming; Yiu, Man Lung; Jensen, Christian S.

    2013-01-01

    Web users and content are increasingly being geo-positioned. This development gives prominence to spatial keyword queries, which involve both the locations and textual descriptions of content. We study the efficient processing of continuously moving top-k spatial keyword (MkSK) queries over spatial...

  19. Moving into an interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Kristian; Hazel, Spencer

    2014-01-01

    Opening an interaction is a crucial step in establishing and maintaining social relationships. In this paper we describe how participants in an institutional setting, a help desk counter for exchange students at an international university, literally move into interaction. This is accomplished...

  20. Multicultural Graduation Requirements among California's Community Colleges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, Shelly L.; Uerling, Donald F.; Piland, William E.

    2012-01-01

    This examination of the current status of multicultural education among California community colleges emerged from a perspective that the inclusion of multicultural education has become a major goal of California's leaders within the past five years. The literature revealed minority students tend to have lower retention rates because they become…

  1. Brown v. Plata: prison overcrowding in California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, William J; Scott, Charles L

    2012-01-01

    California's prisons are currently designed to house approximately 85,000 inmates. At the time of the U.S. Supreme Court's 2011 decision in Brown v. Plata, the California prison system housed nearly twice that many (approximately 156,000 inmates). The Supreme Court held that California's prison system violated inmates' Eighth Amendment rights. The Court upheld a three-judge panel's order to decrease the population of California's prisons by an estimated 46,000 inmates. They determined that overcrowding was the primary cause of the inmates' inadequate medical and mental health care. As a result, the California Department of Corrections and Rehabilitation (CDCR) has been working to redistribute inmates and parolees safely and decrease the overall population to the mandated levels. These large-scale adjustments to California's penal system create potential opportunities to study the long-term effects on affected inmates.

  2. Pathways for School Finance in California. Technical Appendix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Heather; Sonstelie, Jon; Weston, Margaret

    2010-01-01

    This is a technical appendix for the report, "Pathways for School Finance in California" (ED515651). "Pathways for School Finance in California" simulates alternatives to California's current school finance system. This appendix provides more information about the revenues used in those simulations. The first section describes…

  3. Current direction, bathythermograph (xbt), CTD, and other data from moored current meter casts and other instruments in the Coastal Waters of California as part of the North California Coastal Circulation Study (NCCCS) project, 1987-03-09 to 1989-11-01 (NCEI Accession 9000209)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Current direction, bathythermograph (xbt), CTD, and other data were collected using moored current meter casts and other instruments in the Coastal Waters of...

  4. CERN Pension Fund move

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2007-01-01

    The CERN Pension Fund has moved to new offices on the 5th floor of Building 5. The Benefits Service of the Fund is now located in Offices 5-5-017 - 5-5-021 - 5-5-023. We remind you that the office hours are: Tuesday/Wednesday/Thursday from 10 am to 12 am and from 3 pm to 5 pm. The Fund would like to take this opportunity to warmly thank all the persons involved in the relocation.

  5. Lecture - "Move! Eat better"

    CERN Multimedia

    2012-01-01

    As part of the "Move! Eat better" campaign, Novae’s nutrition adviser, Irène Rolfo, will give a talk on the subject of everyday good nutrition. This will be held in the main building auditorium at 12:30 on Thursday, 20 September 2012. Don’t miss this informative event. For more information, go to http://cern.ch/bpmm            

  6. Time to Move On?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valentino, A.; Nell, Phillip Christopher; Hotho, Jasper J.

    Building on prior research, we examine theoretically the institutional factors that push top managers to relocate HQ units overseas. To this end, we first discuss how coercive, isomorphic, and normative pressures may differentially affect HQ relocation decisions. Subsequently, we consider how......, we expect economic crises to decrease the overall institutional quality in a given country context, pushing firms to move out. Our theoretical framework contributes to an improved understanding of how institutional factors influence firm behaviour under varying environmental conditions. Furthermore...

  7. Time to Move On?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valentino, Alfredo; Nell, Phillip; Hotho, Jasper

    2013-01-01

    Building on prior research, we examine theoretically the institutional factors that push top managers to relocate HQ units overseas. To this end, we first discuss how coercive, isomorphic, and normative pressures may differentially affect HQ relocation decisions. Subsequently, we consider how......, we expect economic crises to decrease the overall institutional quality in a given country context, pushing firms to move out. Our theoretical framework contributes to an improved understanding of how institutional factors influence firm behaviour under varying environmental conditions. Furthermore...

  8. A moving experience !

    CERN Multimedia

    2005-01-01

    The Transport Service pulled out all the stops and, more specifically, its fleet of moving and lifting equipment for the Discovery Monday on 6 June - a truly moving experience for all the visitors who took part ! Visitors could play at being machine operator, twiddling the controls of a lift truck fitted with a jib to lift a dummy magnet into a wooden mock-up of a beam-line.They had to show even greater dexterity for this game of lucky dip...CERN-style.Those with a head for heights took to the skies 20 m above ground in a telescopic boom lift.Children were allowed to climb up into the operator's cabin - this is one of the cranes used to move the LHC magnets around. Warm thanks to all members of the Transport Service for their participation, especially B. Goicoechea, T. Ilkei, R. Bihery, S. Prodon, S. Pelletier, Y. Bernard, A.  Sallot, B. Pigeard, S. Guinchard, B. Bulot, J. Berrez, Y. Grandjean, A. Bouakkaz, M. Bois, F. Stach, T. Mazzarino and S. Fumey.

  9. Current titles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-07-01

    This booklet is published for those interested in current research being conducted at the National Center for Electron Microscopy. The NCEM is a DOE-designated national user facility and is available at no charge to qualified researchers. Access is controlled by an external steering committee. Interested researchers may contact Gretchen Hermes at (510) 486-5006 or address below for a User`s Guide. Copies of available papers can be ordered from: Theda Crawford National Center for Electron Microscopy, Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, One Cyclotron Rd., MS72, Berkeley, California, USA 94720.

  10. California Endangered Species Resource Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    California State Dept. of Education, Los Angeles.

    This document was developed in response to California Senate Bill No. 885, "The Endangered Species Education Project," that called for a statewide program in which schools adopt a local endangered species, research past and current efforts to preserve the species' habitat, develop and implement an action plan to educate the community…

  11. Autonomous Landing on Moving Platforms

    KAUST Repository

    Mendoza Chavez, Gilberto

    2016-08-01

    This thesis investigates autonomous landing of a micro air vehicle (MAV) on a nonstationary ground platform. Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) and micro air vehicles (MAVs) are becoming every day more ubiquitous. Nonetheless, many applications still require specialized human pilots or supervisors. Current research is focusing on augmenting the scope of tasks that these vehicles are able to accomplish autonomously. Precise autonomous landing on moving platforms is essential for self-deployment and recovery of MAVs, but it remains a challenging task for both autonomous and piloted vehicles. Model Predictive Control (MPC) is a widely used and effective scheme to control constrained systems. One of its variants, output-feedback tube-based MPC, ensures robust stability for systems with bounded disturbances under system state reconstruction. This thesis proposes a MAV control strategy based on this variant of MPC to perform rapid and precise autonomous landing on moving targets whose nominal (uncommitted) trajectory and velocity are slowly varying. The proposed approach is demonstrated on an experimental setup.

  12. $\\mathit {SH}(3)$-move and other local moves on knots

    OpenAIRE

    Kanenobu, Taizo

    2014-01-01

    An $\\SH(3)$-move is an unknotting operation on oriented knots introduced by Hoste, Nakanishi and Taniyama. We consider some relationships to other local moves such as a band surgery, $\\Gamma_{0}$-move, and $\\Delta$-move, and give some criteria for estimating the $\\SH(3)$-unknotting number using the Jones, HOMFLYPT, Q polynomials. We also show a table of $\\SH(3)$-unknotting numbers for knots with up to 9 crossings.

  13. SH(3)-MOVE AND OTHER LOCAL MOVES ON KNOTS

    OpenAIRE

    Kanenobu, Taizo

    2014-01-01

    An SH(3)-move is an unknotting operation on oriented knots introduced by Hoste, Nakanishi and Taniyama. We consider some relationships to other local moves such as a band surgery, Γ_0-move, and Δ-move, and give some criteria for estimating the SH(3)-unknotting number using the Jones, HOMFLYPT, Q polynomials. We also show a table of SH(3)-unknotting numbers for knots with up to 9 crossings.

  14. CERN Pension Fund move

    CERN Document Server

    HR Department

    2007-01-01

    The CERN Pension Fund has moved to new offices at the 5th floor of Building 5. The Benefits Service of the Fund will henceforth receive you in the offices: 5-5-017 - 5-5-021 - 5-5-023. We remind you that the office hours are: Tuesday/Wednesday/Thursday from 10 am to 12 am and from 3 pm to 5 pm. The Fund would like to take this opportunity to warmly thank all the persons involved in the Removal.

  15. Sense of moving

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2017-01-01

    In this chapter, we assume the existence of a sense of “movement activity” that arises when a person actively moves a body part. This sense is usually supposed to be part of sense of agency (SoA). The purpose of the chapter is to determine whether the already existing experimental paradigms can...... be used to study the sense of movement activity, i.e., the part of SoA related to actual movement. The bulk of the chapter is an argument to the effect that standard paradigms are ill equipped to study the sense of movement activity....

  16. Moving in Circles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Gunvor

    2008-01-01

    The article examines the development of African diaspora history during the last fifty years. It outlines the move from a focus on African survivals to a focus on deep rooted cultural principles and back again to a revived interest in concrete cultural transfers from Africa to the Americas....... This circular movement can be explained by a combination of elements characterizing African Atlantic and black Atlantic history. Among them is a lack of attention to questions of periodisation and change. Likewise, it has proven difficult to conceptualize Africa and America at one and the same time...

  17. Towards a Psychological Construct of Being Moved

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menninghaus, Winfried; Wagner, Valentin; Hanich, Julian; Wassiliwizky, Eugen; Kuehnast, Milena; Jacobsen, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    The emotional state of being moved, though frequently referred to in both classical rhetoric and current language use, is far from established as a well-defined psychological construct. In a series of three studies, we investigated eliciting scenarios, emotional ingredients, appraisal patterns, feeling qualities, and the affective signature of being moved and related emotional states. The great majority of the eliciting scenarios can be assigned to significant relationship and critical life events (especially death, birth, marriage, separation, and reunion). Sadness and joy turned out to be the two preeminent emotions involved in episodes of being moved. Both the sad and the joyful variants of being moved showed a coactivation of positive and negative affect and can thus be ranked among the mixed emotions. Moreover, being moved, while featuring only low-to-mid arousal levels, was experienced as an emotional state of high intensity; this applied to responses to fictional artworks no less than to own-life and other real, but media-represented, events. The most distinctive findings regarding cognitive appraisal dimensions were very low ratings for causation of the event by oneself and for having the power to change its outcome, along with very high ratings for appraisals of compatibility with social norms and self-ideals. Putting together the characteristics identified and discussed throughout the three studies, the paper ends with a sketch of a psychological construct of being moved. PMID:26042816

  18. Towards a psychological construct of being moved.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Winfried Menninghaus

    Full Text Available The emotional state of being moved, though frequently referred to in both classical rhetoric and current language use, is far from established as a well-defined psychological construct. In a series of three studies, we investigated eliciting scenarios, emotional ingredients, appraisal patterns, feeling qualities, and the affective signature of being moved and related emotional states. The great majority of the eliciting scenarios can be assigned to significant relationship and critical life events (especially death, birth, marriage, separation, and reunion. Sadness and joy turned out to be the two preeminent emotions involved in episodes of being moved. Both the sad and the joyful variants of being moved showed a coactivation of positive and negative affect and can thus be ranked among the mixed emotions. Moreover, being moved, while featuring only low-to-mid arousal levels, was experienced as an emotional state of high intensity; this applied to responses to fictional artworks no less than to own-life and other real, but media-represented, events. The most distinctive findings regarding cognitive appraisal dimensions were very low ratings for causation of the event by oneself and for having the power to change its outcome, along with very high ratings for appraisals of compatibility with social norms and self-ideals. Putting together the characteristics identified and discussed throughout the three studies, the paper ends with a sketch of a psychological construct of being moved.

  19. We Shouldn't Have to Move Out to Move Up

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Hester

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available One of the assumptions of the New Urbanism is that cities need to encourage increased density near the core. That means that infill becomes a planning goal to increase density. But that also means that current residents have to move out so others can move in. As a community activist, Hester argues that such planning practices are racist, part of the next racial agenda. (A video file is included.

  20. We Shouldn't Have to Move Out to Move Up

    OpenAIRE

    Denise Hester

    2006-01-01

    One of the assumptions of the New Urbanism is that cities need to encourage increased density near the core. That means that infill becomes a planning goal to increase density. But that also means that current residents have to move out so others can move in. As a community activist, Hester argues that such planning practices are racist, part of the next racial agenda. (A video file is included).

  1. Electromagnetic Force on a Moving Dipole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kholmetskii, Alexander L.; Missevitch, Oleg V.; Yarman, T.

    2011-01-01

    We analyse the force acting on a moving dipole due to an external electromagnetic field and show that the expression derived in Vekstein (1997 "Eur. J. Phys." 18 113) is erroneous and suggest the correct equation for the description of this force. We also discuss the physical meaning of the relativistic transformation of current for a closed…

  2. Towards a Psychological Construct of Being Moved

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Menninghaus, Winfried; Wagner, Valentin; Hanich, Julian; Wassiliwizky, Eugen; Kuehnast, Milena; Jacobsen, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    The emotional state of being moved, though frequently referred to in both classical rhetoric and current language use, is far from established as a well-defined psychological construct. In a series of three studies, we investigated eliciting scenarios, emotional ingredients, appraisal patterns,

  3. Ready, set, move!

    CERN Multimedia

    Anaïs Schaeffer

    2012-01-01

    This year, the CERN Medical Service is launching a new public health campaign. Advertised by the catchphrase “Move! & Eat Better”, the particular aim of the campaign is to encourage people at CERN to take more regular exercise, of whatever kind.   The CERN annual relay race is scheduled on 24 May this year. The CERN Medical Service will officially launch its “Move! & Eat Better” campaign at this popular sporting event. “We shall be on hand on the day of the race to strongly advocate regular physical activity,” explains Rachid Belkheir, one of the Medical Service doctors. "We really want to pitch our campaign and answer any questions people may have. Above all we want to set an example. So we are going to walk the same circuit as the runners to underline to people that they can easily incorporate movement into their daily routine.” An underlying concern has prompted this campaign: during their first few year...

  4. Indexing Moving Points

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agarwal, Pankaj K.; Arge, Lars Allan; Erickson, Jeff

    2003-01-01

    We propose three indexing schemes for storing a set S of N points in the plane, each moving along a linear trajectory, so that any query of the following form can be answered quickly: Given a rectangle R and a real value t, report all K points of S that lie inside R at time t. We first present...... an indexing structure that, for any given constant >0, uses O(N/B) disk blocks and answers a query in O((N/B)1/2+ +K/B) I/Os, where B is the block size. It can also report all the points of S that lie inside R during a given time interval. A point can be inserted or deleted, or the trajectory of a point can...... be changed, in O(logB2 N) I/Os. Next, we present a general approach that improves the query time if the queries arrive in chronological order, by allowing the index to evolve over time. We obtain a tradeoff between the query time and the number of times the index needs to be updated as the points move. We...

  5. Alternatives to the Moving Average

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul C. van Deusen

    2001-01-01

    There are many possible estimators that could be used with annual inventory data. The 5-year moving average has been selected as a default estimator to provide initial results for states having available annual inventory data. User objectives for these estimates are discussed. The characteristics of a moving average are outlined. It is shown that moving average...

  6. Firmly Planted, Always Moving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raikhel, Natasha V

    2017-04-28

    I was a budding pianist immersed in music in Leningrad, in the Soviet Union (now Saint Petersburg, Russia), when I started over, giving up sheet music for the study of ciliates. In a second starting-over story, I emigrated to the United States, where I switched to studying carbohydrate-binding plant lectin proteins, dissecting plant vesicular trafficking, and isolating novel glycosyltransferases responsible for making cell wall polysaccharides. I track my journey as a plant biologist from student to principal investigator to founding director of the Center for Plant Cell Biology and then director of the Institute for Integrative Genome Biology at the University of California, Riverside. I discuss implementing a new vision as the first and (so far) only female editor in chief of Plant Physiology, as well as how my laboratory helped develop chemical genomics tools to study the functions of essential plant proteins. Always wanting to give back what I received, I discuss my present efforts to develop female scientist leadership in Chinese universities and a constant theme throughout my life: a love of art and travel.

  7. What moves us?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2015-01-01

    Katalog til udstillingen på Museum Jorn - What moves us? Le Corbusier & Asger Jorn - 12. sept. - 13. dec. 2015. Kataloget undersøger Le Corbusiers skifte fra en rationelt funderet tilgang til arkitekturen til en poetisk, materialistisk tilgang i efterkrigstiden. Den viser hans indflydelse på den...... yngre Asger Jorn og beskriver danskerens første beundring, som sidenhen forvandledes til skarp kritik. Kataloget, som er rigt illustreret med billeder af Le Corbusiers og Asger Jorns kunst og arkitektur, indeholder også genoptryk af originale tekster, samt bidrag i ord og billeder fra fremtrædende...... eksperter. Kataloget indeholder en række artikler af internationale skribenter under flg. overskrifter: Le Corbusier - kunstnerarkitekten i efterkrigstidens Europa Le Corbusier og Asger Jorn - David mod Goliat Gensyn med Le Corbusier - spor i dansk arkitektur og byrum...

  8. Move! Eat better: news

    CERN Multimedia

    2013-01-01

    Are you curious to know whether you’re doing enough daily exercise…? Test yourself with a pedometer!   Through the Move! Eat better campaign, launched in May 2012, the CERN medical service is aiming to improve the health of members of the personnel by encouraging them to prioritise physical activity in conjunction with a balanced diet. Various successful activities have already taken place: relay race/Nordic walk, Bike2work, Zumba and fitness workshops, two conferences (“Physical activity for health” and “Good nutrition every day”), events in the restaurants, as well as posters and a website. Although everyone has got the message from our various communications that physical activity is good for your health, there is still a relevant question being asked: “What is the minimum amount of exercise recommended?” 10,000 steps per day is the ideal figure, which has been demonstrated as beneficial by scientific studies ...

  9. Moving Beyond Outsourcing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rai, Sudhanshu

    In this article I discuss the Indian outsourcing phenomena and ask the question now what? Using data from the Euro-India project I demonstrate that a small but significant part of the Indian IT entities are moving beyond outsourcing, to co-creation where Innovation and the desire to create new...... markets is the key driver. This does not imply that outsourcing will disappear but it does mean that firms will engage in globalization using innovative mix of business models and technical platforms. We discuss the implication of this slow transformation to co-creation of innovation for the global...... outsourcing industry. The key thesis of this paper is to discuss co-creation as a form of innovation and how such a form of innovation is likely to bring Indian companies rich dividends....

  10. Mechanics of moving materials

    CERN Document Server

    Banichuk, Nikolay; Neittaanmäki, Pekka; Saksa, Tytti; Tuovinen, Tero

    2014-01-01

    This book deals with theoretical aspects of modelling the mechanical behaviour of manufacturing, processing, transportation or other systems in which the processed or supporting material is travelling through the system. Examples of such applications include paper making, transmission cables, band saws, printing presses, manufacturing of plastic films and sheets, and extrusion of aluminium foil, textiles and other materials.   The work focuses on out-of-plane dynamics and stability analysis for isotropic and orthotropic travelling elastic and viscoelastic materials, with and without fluid-structure interaction, using analytical and semi-analytical approaches.  Also topics such as fracturing and fatigue are discussed in the context of moving materials. The last part of the book deals with optimization problems involving physical constraints arising from the stability and fatigue analyses, including uncertainties in the parameters.   The book is intended for researchers and specialists in the field, providin...

  11. Plans, Patterns, and Move Categories Guiding a Highly Selective Search

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trippen, Gerhard

    In this paper we present our ideas for an Arimaa-playing program (also called a bot) that uses plans and pattern matching to guide a highly selective search. We restrict move generation to moves in certain move categories to reduce the number of moves considered by the bot significantly. Arimaa is a modern board game that can be played with a standard Chess set. However, the rules of the game are not at all like those of Chess. Furthermore, Arimaa was designed to be as simple and intuitive as possible for humans, yet challenging for computers. While all established Arimaa bots use alpha-beta search with a variety of pruning techniques and other heuristics ending in an extensive positional leaf node evaluation, our new bot, Rat, starts with a positional evaluation of the current position. Based on features found in the current position - supported by pattern matching using a directed position graph - our bot Rat decides which of a given set of plans to follow. The plan then dictates what types of moves can be chosen. This is another major difference from bots that generate "all" possible moves for a particular position. Rat is only allowed to generate moves that belong to certain categories. Leaf nodes are evaluated only by a straightforward material evaluation to help avoid moves that lose material. This highly selective search looks, on average, at only 5 moves out of 5,000 to over 40,000 possible moves in a middle game position.

  12. Role of moving planes and moving spheres following Dupin cyclides

    KAUST Repository

    Jia, Xiaohong

    2014-03-01

    We provide explicit representations of three moving planes that form a μ-basis for a standard Dupin cyclide. We also show how to compute μ-bases for Dupin cyclides in general position and orientation from their implicit equations. In addition, we describe the role of moving planes and moving spheres in bridging between the implicit and rational parametric representations of these cyclides. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.

  13. Teale California shoreline

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — California Spatial Information System (CaSIL) is a project designed to improve access to geo-spatial and geo-spatial related data information throughout the state of...

  14. Mediterranean California, Chapter 13

    Science.gov (United States)

    M.E. Fenn; E.B. Allen; L.H. Geiser

    2011-01-01

    The Mediterranean California ecoregion (CEC 1997; Fig 2.2) encompasses the greater Central Valley, Sierra foothills, and central coast ranges of California south to Mexico and is bounded by the Pacific Ocean, Sierra Nevada Mountains and Mojave Desert.

  15. California Condor Critical Habitat

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — These Data identify (in general) the areas where critical habitat for the California Condor occur. Critical habitat for the species consists of the following 10...

  16. Move and eat better

    CERN Multimedia

    2012-01-01

    CERN has many traditions, but in a week that’s seen the launch of the Medical Service’s  ‘Move & eat better’ campaign, it’s refreshing to note that among the oldest is a sporting one.  The CERN relay race dates back to 15 October 1971 when 21 pioneering teams set off to pound the pavements of CERN. Back then, the Focus users group came in first with a time of 12 minutes and 42 seconds. Today’s route is slightly different, and the number of teams has risen to over 100, with a new category of Nordic Walking introduced, as part of the campaign, for the first time.   The relay has provided some memorable events, and perhaps one of the longest-standing records in the history of sport, with the UA1 strollers’ 10 minutes and 13 seconds unbeaten for thirty years. In the women’s category, the UN Gazelles set the fastest time of 13 minutes and 16 seconds in 1996, while in the veterans category, you wi...

  17. ATLAS starts moving in

    CERN Multimedia

    Della Mussia, S

    2004-01-01

    The first large active detector component was lowered into the ATLAS cavern on 1st March. It consisted of the 8 modules forming the lower part of the central barrel of the tile hadronic calorimeter. The work of assembling the barrel, which comprises 64 modules, started the following day. Two road trailers each with 64 wheels, positioned side by side. This was the solution chosen to transport the lower part of the central barrel of ATLAS' tile hadronic calorimeter from Building 185 to the PX16 shaft at Point 1 (see Figure 1). The transportation, and then the installation of the component in the experimental cavern, which took place over three days were, to say the least, rather spectacular. On 25 February, the component, consisting of eight 6-metre modules, was loaded on to the trailers. The segment of the barrel was transported on a steel support so that it wouldn't move an inch during the journey. On 26 February, once all the necessary safety checks had been carried out, the convoy was able to leave Buildi...

  18. Luxury consumption moves East

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khan, Omera

    2015-01-01

    Purpose – The literature contains relatively little prescriptive guidance for establishing supply chain strategies in the luxury fashion marketplace. The focus has been on fashion rather than luxury fashion and the purpose of this paper is to identify and explore the critical supply chain success...... novel insights to transformations in global supply chain strategy as luxury consumption is moving towards the east, which creates new challenges and demands for European manufacturers to respond, to sustaining a competitive advantage.......Purpose – The literature contains relatively little prescriptive guidance for establishing supply chain strategies in the luxury fashion marketplace. The focus has been on fashion rather than luxury fashion and the purpose of this paper is to identify and explore the critical supply chain success...... success factors to consider when developing a business strategy to enter the Chinese luxury fashion marketplace. Practical implications – The findings could guide managers that are developing a business case for entering the Chinese luxury fashion marketplace. Originality/value – This case study provides...

  19. Leaders for California's Schools. Policy Brief 09-4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loeb, Susanna; Valant, Jon

    2009-01-01

    In this policy brief the authors present an overview of the current state of school leadership in California. They examine the challenges that California must overcome to recruit, hire, train, and retain strong and talented principals, with a particular focus on the limitations of current state and district policies. They also propose a set of…

  20. My tablet is moving around, can I touch it?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Catala, Alejandro; Theune, Mariët; Heylen, Dirk

    2017-01-01

    Touch displays moving autonomously, i.e., being self-Actuated, are starting to be part of system prototypes reported in the literature. In the future, user interactions with such prototypes may take place while the display is moving. However, since current prototypes do not yet require this type of

  1. Effectively Indexing Uncertain Moving Objects for Predictive Queries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Meihui; Chen, Su; Jensen, Christian Søndergaard

    2009-01-01

    in more complex and stochastic ways. This paper investigates the possibility of a marriage between moving-object indexing and probabilistic object modelling. Given the distributions of the current locations and velocities of moving objects, we devise an efficient inference method for the prediction...

  2. Dynamics of Moving bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Pranoy

    2017-01-01

    ``A problem with defining force as rate of change of linear momentum'': Let us consider a body of mass m, moving with velocity u initially, in the next time interval it is acted by a force in the direction of motion, and at instant t + its mass is M and velocity v. F .t =Mv-mu or,v = m/M.u +F/M.t or,v =B.u +A.t where A =F/M,B =m/M. So other eqn of motion are: dS =vdt or dS =(B.u +A.t)dt or S =B.u.t +A/2.t2 Andv2 =B2 u2 +2A .B .u .t +A2 t2 or,v2 =B2 u2 +2A.S However, defining acceleration as rate of change of velocity, we have established an identity v =u +a.t which is independent of choice of v, u. M>>m, B is very small, product B.u or its higher power always tend to be negligible, even in cases when u is finitely large.In cases v ->c,F,M -> ∞ , thus A becomes indeterminate.There is inconvenience as A, B are not predetermined and are functions of u, v and thus the definition goes in circle. Hence we conclude, our hypothesis that force =rate of change of linear momentum is not sufficient; we would now find trial solutions to define force in most convenient way.

  3. On the Move.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, A. O.; And Others

    1969-01-01

    An English unit built on a theme of current interest to high school students--such as cars, motorcycles, and snowmobiles--may involve several classroom activities: (1) a general discussion prompted by relevant newspaper and magazine articles, films, popular songs, and poems; (2) individual and group projects--reports or panel discussions--derived…

  4. The recycling is moving

    CERN Multimedia

    GS Department

    2011-01-01

    The recycling site currently situated near building 133 has been transferred to the car park of building 156. The site is identified by the sign “RECYCLING” and the above logo. In this new, more accessible site, you will find recycling bins for the following waste: PET (recyclable plastic bottles); Aluminium cans; Nespresso coffee capsules.  

  5. Products and Services Available from the Southern California Earthquake Data Center (SCEDC) and the Southern California Seismic Network (SCSN)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, E.; Bhaskaran, A.; Chen, S. L.; Andrews, J. R.; Thomas, V. I.; Hauksson, E.; Clayton, R. W.

    2016-12-01

    The Southern California Earthquake Data Center (SCEDC) archives continuous and triggered data from nearly 9429 data channels from 513 Southern California Seismic Network recorded stations. The SCEDC provides public access to these earthquake parametric and waveform data through web services, its website http://scedc.caltech.edu and through client application such as STP. This poster will describe the most recent significant developments at the SCEDC. The SCEDC now provides web services to access its holdings. Event Parametric Data (FDSN Compliant): http://service.scedc.caltech.edu/fdsnws/event/1/ Station Metadata (FDSN Compliant): http://service.scedc.caltech.edu/fdsnws/station/1/ Waveforms (FDSN Compliant): http://service.scedc.caltech.edu/fdsnws/dataselect/1/ Event Windowed Waveforms, phases: http://service.scedc.caltech.edu/webstp/ In an effort to assist researchers accessing catalogs from multiple seismic networks, the SCEDC has entered its earthquake parametric catalog into the ANSS Common Catalog (ComCat). Origin, phase, and magnitude information have been loaded. The SCEDC data holdings now include a double difference catalog (Hauksson et. al 2011) spanning 1981 through 2015 available via STP, and a focal mechanism catalog (Yang et al. 2011). As part of a NASA/AIST project in collaboration with JPL and SIO, the SCEDC now archives and distributes real time 1 Hz streams of GPS displacement solutions from the California Real Time Network. The SCEDC has implemented the Continuous Wave Buffer (CWB) to manage its waveform archive and allow users to access continuous data available within seconds of real time. This software was developed and currently in use at NEIC. SCEDC has moved its website (http://scedc.caltech.edu) to the Cloud. The Recent Earthquake Map and static web pages are now hosted by Amazon Web Services. This enables the web site to serve large number of users without competing for resources needed by SCSN/SCEDC mission critical operations.

  6. AFSC/NMML/CCEP: Food habits of California sea lions in Washington, 1986 - 1999

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — From 1986 to 1999, The National Marine Mammal Laboratories' California Current Ecosystem Program (AFSC/NOAA) collected fecal samples and stomachs of male California...

  7. Magnetic levitation system for moving objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Post, Richard F.

    1998-01-01

    Repelling magnetic forces are produced by the interaction of a flux-concentrated magnetic field (produced by permanent magnets or electromagnets) with an inductively loaded closed electric circuit. When one such element moves with respect to the other, a current is induced in the circuit. This current then interacts back on the field to produce a repelling force. These repelling magnetic forces are applied to magnetically levitate a moving object such as a train car. The power required to levitate a train of such cars is drawn from the motional energy of the train itself, and typically represents only a percent or two of the several megawatts of power required to overcome aerodynamic drag at high speeds.

  8. Congestion and residential moving behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Morten Marott; Pilegaard, Ninette; Van Ommeren, Jos

    2008-01-01

    we study how congestion and residential moving behaviour are interrelated, using a two-region job search model. Workers choose between interregional commuting and residential moving, in order to live closer to their place of work. This choice affects the external costs of commuting, due to conges...

  9. Radiation by moving charges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geloni, Gianluca [European XFEL GmbH, Hamburg (Germany); Kocharyan, Vitali; Saldin, Evgeni [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany)

    2017-04-15

    It is generally accepted that in order to describe the dynamics of relativistic particles in the laboratory (lab) frame it is sufficient to take into account the relativistic dependence of the particle momenta on the velocity. This solution of the dynamics problem in the lab frame makes no reference to Lorentz transformations. For this reason they are not discussed in particle tracking calculations in accelerator and plasma physics. It is generally believed that the electrodynamics problem can be treated within the same ''single inertial frame'' description without reference to Lorentz transformations. In particular, in order to evaluate radiation fields arising from charged particles in motion we need to know their velocities and positions as a function of the lab frame time t. The relativistic motion of a particle in the lab frame is described by Newton's second law ''corrected'' for the relativistic dependence of momentum on velocity. It is assumed in all standard derivations that one can perform identification of the trajectories in the source part of the usual Maxwell's equations with the trajectories vector x(t) measured (or calculated by using the corrected Newton's second law) in the lab frame. This way of coupling fields and particles is considered since more than a century as the relativistically correct procedure.We argue that this procedure needs to be changed, and we demonstrate the following, completely counterintuitive statement: the results of conventional theory of radiation by relativistically moving charges are not consistent with the principle of relativity. In order to find the trajectory of a particle in the lab frame consistent with the usual Maxwell's equations, one needs to solve the dynamic equation inmanifestly covariant form by using the coordinate-independent proper time τ to parameterize the particle world-line in space-time. We show that there is a difference between &apos

  10. California State Waters Map Series: offshore of San Gregorio, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cochrane, Guy R.; Dartnell, Peter; Greene, H. Gary; Watt, Janet T.; Golden, Nadine E.; Endris, Charles A.; Phillips, Eleyne L.; Hartwell, Stephen R.; Johnson, Samuel Y.; Kvitek, Rikk G.; Erdey, Mercedes D.; Bretz, Carrie K.; Manson, Michael W.; Sliter, Ray W.; Ross, Stephanie L.; Dieter, Bryan E.; Chin, John L.; Cochran, Susan A.; Cochrane, Guy R.; Cochran, Susan A.

    2014-01-01

    the northern and southern parts of the map area are the result of right-lateral motion on strands of the San Gregorio Fault system. In the south, headlands near Pescadero Point have been uplifted by motion along the west strand of the San Gregorio Fault (also called the Frijoles Fault), which separates rocks of the Pigeon Point Formation south of the fault from rocks of the Purisima Formation north of the fault. The regional uplift in this map area has caused relatively shallow water depths within California's State Waters and, thus, little accommodation space for sediment accumulation. Sediment is observed offshore in the central part of the map area, in the shelter of the headlands north of the east strand of the San Gregorio Fault (also called the Coastways Fault) around Miramontes Point (about 5 km north of the map area) and also on the outer half of the California's State Waters shelf in the south where depths exceed 40 m. Sediment in the outer shelf of California's State Waters is rippled, indicating some mobility. The Offshore of San Gregorio map area lies within the cold-temperate biogeographic zone that is called either the "Oregonian province" or the "northern California ecoregion." This biogeographic province is maintained by the long-term stability of the southward-flowing California Current, an eastern limb of the North Pacific subtropical gyre that flows from Oregon to Baja California. At its midpoint off central California, the California Current transports subarctic surface (0–500 m deep) waters southward, about 150 to 1,300 km from shore. Seasonal northwesterly winds that are, in part, responsible for the California Current, generate coastal upwelling. The south end of the Oregonian province is at Point Conception (about 350 km south of the map area), although its associated phylogeographic group of marine fauna may extend beyond to the area offshore of Los Angeles in southern California. The ocean off of central California has experienced a warming

  11. Songbirds on the move

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lerche-Jørgensen, Mathilde

    Every year more than 2.1 billion birds migrate between their breeding grounds in Europe and their wintering ground in sub-Saharan Africa, tracking resources between seasons. However, over the recent decades the populations of these migrant species are generally declining throughout Europe. Although...... migratory patterns related to the timing of migration in order to understand possible effects of climate change on the annual cycle of migratory birds. My aim was further to increase knowledge about migration routes, staging sites and winter ecology in order to enable informed decision making about where...... Africa, in which more than 3000 km separated the most eastern and western birds, suggesting low connectivity. This high divergence in termination of migration seemed not to be related to timing, current or previous year’s vegetation conditions, nor biometrics, associated with flight performance...

  12. Migrants on the move.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karel, S

    1988-11-01

    International migration benefits both acceptor and sender countries. Skilled migrants bring economic vitality to many of the wealthy nations facing an extreme shortage of workers while their migration helps to ease their native land's overpopulation. There are currently between 20 and 22 million economically active migrants around the world; most are Asian or Latin American and migrate to the US, Canada, Australia, or new Zealand. The US takes in the largest number of legal immigrants yearly at 600,000, Australia admits 93,000, Canada 84,000, and New Zealand 35,000. Because of the rising unemployment rates, Canada allows 37,000 fewer entrants yearly today than in 1982, while New Zealand allows 11,000 fewer. 4 million legal immigrants entered the US between 1980 and 1986, and about 3.5 million illegal immigrants in 1987 alone. Asians account for about 45% of all US immigrants, while Europeans account for only 17%. 32% of all entrants claimed to be technicians or managers compared to about 2% in 1911. About 15% of Canada's population is foreign-born, while Australia's population is about 20% foreign-born. Some poor countries like Pakistan, South Korea, and Turkey send workers abroad so that they can collect remittances. Such an opening of global immigration policy can ease demographic imbalances, skills transfers, and economic development.

  13. Minimum Delay Moving Object Detection

    KAUST Repository

    Lao, Dong

    2017-01-08

    We present a general framework and method for detection of an object in a video based on apparent motion. The object moves relative to background motion at some unknown time in the video, and the goal is to detect and segment the object as soon it moves in an online manner. Due to unreliability of motion between frames, more than two frames are needed to reliably detect the object. Our method is designed to detect the object(s) with minimum delay, i.e., frames after the object moves, constraining the false alarms. Experiments on a new extensive dataset for moving object detection show that our method achieves less delay for all false alarm constraints than existing state-of-the-art.

  14. Transient heating of moving objects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.I. Baida

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available A mathematical model of transient and quasistatic heating of moving objects by various heat sources is considered. The mathematical formulation of the problem is described, examples of thermal calculation given.

  15. Minimum Delay Moving Object Detection

    KAUST Repository

    Lao, Dong

    2017-11-09

    We present a general framework and method for detection of an object in a video based on apparent motion. The object moves relative to background motion at some unknown time in the video, and the goal is to detect and segment the object as soon it moves in an online manner. Due to unreliability of motion between frames, more than two frames are needed to reliably detect the object. Our method is designed to detect the object(s) with minimum delay, i.e., frames after the object moves, constraining the false alarms. Experiments on a new extensive dataset for moving object detection show that our method achieves less delay for all false alarm constraints than existing state-of-the-art.

  16. Southern California Particle Center

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — At the Southern California Particle Center, center researchers will investigate the underlying mechanisms that produce the health effects associated with exposure to...

  17. Autowaves in moving excitable media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.A.Davydov

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Within the framework of kinematic theory of autowaves we suggest a method for analytic description of stationary autowave structures appearing at the boundary between the moving and fixed excitable media. The front breakdown phenomenon is predicted for such structures. Autowave refraction and, particulary, one-side "total reflection" at the boundary is considered. The obtained analytical results are confirmed by computer simulations. Prospects of the proposed method for further studies of autowave dynamics in the moving excitable media are discussed.

  18. Moving object detection based on shape prediction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiang; Yang, Jie

    2009-02-01

    Statistical analysis is widely used for moving object detection from video sequences, and generally it assumes that the recent segmentations are the desirable samples. However, we think the recent segmentations are not desirable for the detection of deformable objects, such as a pedestrian. We present an object detection framework that is designed to select the most desirable samples from all historical segmentations for statistical analysis. Central to this algorithm is that the shape evolution of the deformable object is learned from historical segmentations by an autoregressive model. Based on the learned model, the shape of the moving object in a current frame is predicted. Those historical segmentations that show similar shape to the predicted shape are selected for statistical analysis instead of the recent segmentations. Definitive experiments demonstrate the performance of the proposed method.

  19. Fertilization and irrigation of Eucalyptus in southern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul W. Moore

    1983-01-01

    An experiment to determine the interaction of three levels of irrigation, three levels of fertility and three densities of planting was started at the University of California Moreno Ranch in 1982. Differential irrigation and fertility treatments will begin in June of 1983. Some current practices of irrigation and fertilization by southern California growers are...

  20. Regional Planning in California: Objectives, Obstacles, and Alternatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deegan, William L.; Alford, Janis C.

    1976-01-01

    At the direction of the California State Legislature, the authors explored regional planning in other states as well as in California in an effort to determine the advantages and disadvantages of voluntary versus mandated interinstitutional cooperation. In this revised report the current state of regional planning and various alternatives for…

  1. Physical models for moving shadow and object detection in video.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadimi, Sohail; Bhanu, Bir

    2004-08-01

    Current moving object detection systems typically detect shadows cast by the moving object as part of the moving object. In this paper, the problem of separating moving cast shadows from the moving objects in an outdoor environment is addressed. Unlike previous work, we present an approach that does not rely on any geometrical assumptions such as camera location and ground surface/object geometry. The approach is based on a new spatio-temporal albedo test and dichromatic reflection model and accounts for both the sun and the sky illuminations. Results are presented for several video sequences representing a variety of ground materials when the shadows are cast on different surface types. These results show that our approach is robust to widely different background and foreground materials, and illuminations.

  2. Moving event and moving participant in aspectual conceptions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izutsu Katsunobu

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This study advances an analysis of the event conception of aspectual forms in four East Asian languages: Ainu, Japanese, Korean, and Ryukyuan. As earlier studies point out, event conceptions can be divided into two major types: the moving-event type and the moving-participant type, respectively. All aspectual forms in Ainu and Korean, and most forms in Japanese and Ryukyuan are based on that type of event conception. Moving-participant oriented Ainu and movingevent oriented Japanese occupy two extremes, between which Korean and Ryukyuan stand. Notwithstanding the geographical relationships among the four languages, Ryukyuan is closer to Ainu than to Korean, whereas Korean is closer to Ainu than to Japanese.

  3. Spain: Europe's California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilvert, Calvin

    1994-01-01

    Contends that, as Spain integrates into the European Economic Community, it is considered to be Europe's California. Asserts that making regional comparisons between California and Spain can be an effective teaching method. Provides comparisons in such areas as agriculture and tourism. (CFR)

  4. California-Baja California border master plan - plan maestro fronterizo California-Baja California : executive summary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-09-01

    Crossborder travel at the six land ports of entry (POEs) in the California-Baja California region has grown : significantly over the years. The San Diego County-Tijuana/Tecate region is home to the San Ysidro- : Puerta Mxico, the Otay Mesa-Mesa de ...

  5. California-Baja California border master plan - plan maestro fronterizo California-Baja California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-09-01

    Crossborder travel at the six land ports of entry (POEs) in the California-Baja California region has grown : significantly over the years. The San Diego County-Tijuana/Tecate region is home to the San Ysidro- : Puerta Mxico, the Otay Mesa-Mesa de ...

  6. California's Reference Crisis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Childers, Thomas A.

    1994-01-01

    Social and economic issues affecting the vitality of public libraries in California are discussed. A 1993 study by the California State Library identified diminishing reference skills and reference collections, reduced funding which impacted staffing, increased demand, technology change, and language/culture issues as contributing factors to…

  7. The California Integrated Seismic Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellweg, M.; Given, D.; Hauksson, E.; Neuhauser, D.; Oppenheimer, D.; Shakal, A.

    2007-05-01

    statewide earthquake processing systems at both real-time EMCs, the CISN is currently adopting and enhancing the database-centric, earthquake processing and analysis software originally developed for the Caltech/USGS Pasadena TriNet project. Earthquake data and waveforms are made available to researchers and to the public in near real-time through the CISN's Northern and Southern California Eathquake Data Centers (NCEDC and SCEDC) and through the USGS Earthquake Notification System (ENS). The CISN partners have developed procedures to automatically exchange strong motion data, both waveforms and peak parameters, for use in ShakeMap and in the rapid engineering reports which are available near real-time through the strong motion EDC.

  8. Sea otters are recolonizing southern California in fits and starts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafferty, Kevin D.; Tinker, M. Tim

    2014-01-01

    After near extinction as a result of the fur trade in the 1700s and 1800s, the southern sea otter slowly reoccupied the core of its range in central California. Range expansion beyond central California is seen as key to full recovery of otters, but the rate of expansion has been sporadic, raising concerns about habitat quality in southern California. To describe the range expansion of sea otters from central into southern California, we used skiff surveys, aerial surveys, and archival time-depth recorders from 2004 to 2013. These observations show that range expansion began when male otters swam southeast of Point Conception (Cojo Anchorage), perhaps to seek refuge from bad weather and to feed on unexploited resources. After several years of seasonal use by male groups, females began to use the area, leading to reproduction and a secondary increase in abundance. In contrast, a second male group that moved farther down the coast to Coal Oil Point stalled and retreated. Such range expansion and contraction can be explained by the social nature of sea otters, which acts to slow dispersal away from groups. Otter densities at Cojo Anchorage are now approaching equilibrium levels reported for central California. As in central California, otters rested in and near kelp forest habitat, but used deeper water for foraging. Together, these observations suggest habitat in the Santa Barbara Channel can still support sea otters, but range expansion of otters into southern California will be episodic due to social dynamics.

  9. Minimum Delay Moving Object Detection

    KAUST Repository

    Lao, Dong

    2017-05-14

    This thesis presents a general framework and method for detection of an object in a video based on apparent motion. The object moves, at some unknown time, differently than the “background” motion, which can be induced from camera motion. The goal of proposed method is to detect and segment the object as soon it moves in an online manner. Since motion estimation can be unreliable between frames, more than two frames are needed to reliably detect the object. Observing more frames before declaring a detection may lead to a more accurate detection and segmentation, since more motion may be observed leading to a stronger motion cue. However, this leads to greater delay. The proposed method is designed to detect the object(s) with minimum delay, i.e., frames after the object moves, constraining the false alarms, defined as declarations of detection before the object moves or incorrect or inaccurate segmentation at the detection time. Experiments on a new extensive dataset for moving object detection show that our method achieves less delay for all false alarm constraints than existing state-of-the-art.

  10. MOVES Degree Update: Curriculum Revision Proposal

    OpenAIRE

    Darken, Chris

    2012-01-01

    MOVES Research & Education Systems Seminar: Presentation; Session 1: Educational Initiatives and Status, Moderator: Chris Darken; MOVES Degree Update, Speaker Chris Darken Outline: Brief intro to MOVES Masters degree, Pressures driving the proposed curriculum revision, Salient features of the proposal

  11. Self-controlled moving robot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Song-Keun; Kim, Il-Ju

    2007-12-01

    We made a self controlled moving robot (SCMR) which tracks the object using the images obtained from two cameras which are installed on the front of the system. In order to reduce the effect of a color and a light we converted the true color images to the gray color images. We can estimate the object movements by utilizing four images which are obtained from two cameras of different times. The SCMR controls the motor to move by itself considering the result of the image processing. In the image processing we used the image zone partition method. The image zone partition method decides a direction that the object is moving. For fast calculation of the image processing and the motor control we installed the personal computer (PC) on the SCMR.

  12. Remote moving target indication assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Canavan, G.H.

    1996-10-01

    The objective of this project was to design and test key components of a sensor to be used on remotely piloted vehicles, aircraft, or satellites for the detection of moving vehicles in cluttered backgrounds. The proposed sensor uses modern large-array focal planes to provide multiple infrared observations of moving targets and capable on-board computers to integrate multiple observations to detect moving targets in background clutter. This combination reduces the size, weight, and cost of the sensor to levels that can be flown on many small unmanned platforms. This effort selected the actual components, integrated them into a test bed, tested the performance of the sensor against realistic generated scenes, and designed a proof-of-concept prototype.

  13. California sea lion and northern fur seal censuses conducted at Channel Islands, California by Alaska Fisheries Science Center from 1969-07-31 to 2015-08-08 (NCEI Accession 0145165)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Marine Mammal Laboratories' California Current Ecosystem Program (AFSC/NOAA) initiated and maintains census programs for California sea lions (Zalophus...

  14. California's population geography: lessons for a fourth grade class.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rushdoony, H A

    1978-11-01

    Purpose of this paper is to present a model for teaching fourth grade children some aspects of the population geography of California from a nontextual approach. The objective is to interest and instruct children in the mobility of the people, and on the reasons why so many families have moved to California from other states. Students should be alerted not only to internal migration problems, but to the excess of births over deaths. Materials necessary for the lessons are transparencies, overhead projector, marking pencils, chalk and chalkboard. After showing the students that California population has approximately doubled every 20 years, the students should be encouraged to find reasons explaining why people have moved to the state, should be able to categorize those reasons under the terms industrial/manufacturing, agricultural, urban or recreational, should learn how to plot population distribution on a California regional outline map, and should attempt to explain why certain parts of California are more popular than others. The teaching model described in this paper may be replicated with modfications for any grade level and area of study.

  15. Climate Change Floodplains and California Adaption Possibilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, M. L.

    2008-12-01

    California is currently revisiting its floodplain management practices. Part of this effort will include the development of adaptation strategies for incorporating climate change into floodplain protection levels. This presentation will review expected impacts of climate change on floodplains and will examine how those impacts could be incorporated into floodplain protection estimates and the planning process.

  16. Household income and vehicle fuel economy in California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-11-01

    This white paper presents the findings from an analysis of the fiscal implications for vehicle owners of changing from the current : statewide fuel tax to a road user charge (RUC) based on vehicle-miles traveled (VMT). Since 1923, California...

  17. Carlson Wagonlit Travel is moving

    CERN Multimedia

    2013-01-01

    The renovation of the Main Building continues!   Because of this, Carlson Wagonlit Travel will move from building 62 to building 510 on 4 October and the agency will be closed in the afternoon. An emergency service will be organised for official travels only. Phone: 022 799 75 73 & 022 799 75 78 / e-mail: cern@carlsonwagonlit.ch

  18. Rolling motion in moving droplets

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2015-02-19

    Feb 19, 2015 ... Drops moving on a substrate under the action of gravity display both rolling and sliding motions. The two limits of a thin sheet-like drop in sliding motion on a surface, and a spherical drop in roll, have been extensively studied. We are interested in intermediate shapes. We quantify the contribution of rolling ...

  19. Gaussian moving averages and semimartingales

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Basse-O'Connor, Andreas

    2008-01-01

    are constructive - meaning that they provide a simple method to obtain kernels for which the moving average is a semimartingale or a Wiener process. Several examples are considered. In the last part of the paper we study general Gaussian processes with stationary increments. We provide necessary and sufficient...

  20. California Immigrants Today

    OpenAIRE

    Cornelius, Wayne A.

    1990-01-01

    This paper will focus on the Mexico-origin component of the California immigrant population. Drawing on the results of field studies conducted throughout California and in west-central Mexico during the last ten years,the paper will describe how the profile of Mexican migration to California has changed since the 197Os, suggest explanations for these changes, and discuss their implications for public policy. Effects of the long-running economic crisis in Mexico and of the 1986 U.S. immigra-ti...

  1. Moving Object Localization Using Optical Flow for Pedestrian Detection from a Moving Vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoang, Van-Dung; Jo, Kang-Hyun

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a pedestrian detection method from a moving vehicle using optical flows and histogram of oriented gradients (HOG). A moving object is extracted from the relative motion by segmenting the region representing the same optical flows after compensating the egomotion of the camera. To obtain the optical flow, two consecutive images are divided into grid cells 14 × 14 pixels; then each cell is tracked in the current frame to find corresponding cell in the next frame. Using at least three corresponding cells, affine transformation is performed according to each corresponding cell in the consecutive images, so that conformed optical flows are extracted. The regions of moving object are detected as transformed objects, which are different from the previously registered background. Morphological process is applied to get the candidate human regions. In order to recognize the object, the HOG features are extracted on the candidate region and classified using linear support vector machine (SVM). The HOG feature vectors are used as input of linear SVM to classify the given input into pedestrian/nonpedestrian. The proposed method was tested in a moving vehicle and also confirmed through experiments using pedestrian dataset. It shows a significant improvement compared with original HOG using ETHZ pedestrian dataset. PMID:25114955

  2. California Cooperative Oceanic Fisheries Investigations: Reports. Volume 36, January 1 to December 31, 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olfe, J. [ed.

    1995-10-01

    California Cooperative Oceanic Fisheries Investigations (CalCOFI) performs research in the area of sampling physical, chemical, and biological variables in the California Current. The information received is stored in databases and gives a better understanding of the physics and chemistry of the California Current. Their effect on the food chain make it possible to view current oceanographic and biological conditions in the context of the long term. Measurements taken during 1994 and early 1995 on CalCOFI cruises have indicated a return to normal conditions after anomalous conditions that dominated the two preceding years. The data have permitted an increasingly prompt assessment of the state of the California Current system off southern California. This report also contains papers presented at the CalCOFI conference in 1994 regarding the 1991--92 El Nino and its impact on fisheries. In addition, individual scientific contributions are included which provide an additional understanding of the processes involved in the California Current.

  3. AIRS Storm Front Approaching California (animation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on the image for the AIRS Storm Front Approaching California Animation NASA's Atmospheric Infrared Sounder instrument is able to peel back cloud cover to reveal 3-D structure of a storm's water vapor content, information that can be used to improve weather forecast models. In this animation the initial visible cloud image series shows a front moving toward the West Coast of the United States as a low pressure area moves into the Pacific Northwest. The 'Pineapple Express,' a stream of moisture that originates in the tropics South of Hawaii and usually crosses Mexico to enter New Mexico and Texas, has shifted Westward and is also visible moving into Baja California. The area preceding the front appears to be relatively clear in the visible images. As the view shifts from the visible to the infrared wavelengths which highlight water vapor, we see both cloud areas contain heavy burdens of moisture. The area which appears clear in the visible images is seen to contain water vapor near the coastline as well. The viewpoint then rotates so that we can see the vertical cross section of the fronts. The variability of the vertical extent of water vapor and the amount is now clearly visible. The storm moving in from the Gulf of Alaska is more heavily laden with water vapor than that moving in from the Southwest. The moisture is concentrated in the lower atmosphere. The colors indicate the amount of water vapor present. Blue areas denote low water vapor content; green areas are medium water vapor content; red areas signify high water vapor content. The vertical grid for the final frame ranges from 250 millibar pressure at the top to 1000 millibar pressure at the bottom. The top is about 10 km (6.2 miles) above the surface of the Earth. The Atmospheric Infrared Sounder Experiment, with its visible, infrared, and microwave detectors, provides a three-dimensional look at Earth's weather. Working in tandem, the three instruments

  4. Translating Cuba: Diasporic writing between moving cultures and moving media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Gremels

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the interrelation between transculturality and transmediality with an emphasis on processes of translation. It focuses on two examples of transcultural and transmedial writing taken from contemporary Cuban literature in Paris: Miguel Sales's recontextualization of Cuban popular music in Paris and William Navarrete's ekphrastic reinscription of his island into the realm of French romantic painting. The case studies are significant in this context because they show how cultural borders are simultaneously set and transgressed at medial crossings—between music and poetry, text, and image. Thus, cultural translations go hand in hand with medial transpositions that include forms of rewriting, recomposition, and revisualization. The connection between moving cultures and moving media also points to the question of “travelling memory” in diaspora.

  5. Moving pointlike charges and electric and magnetic dipoles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribarič, Marijan; Šušteršič, Luka

    1992-06-01

    Expansions of the volume integrals of strongly localized, continuous, differentiable electric charge and current densities are introduced in terms of the total charge, and variable and moving electric and magnetic dipoles, and conditions under which such expansions are applicable are determined. To enhance an understanding of the effects of external electromagnetic fields acting on very localized densities of electric charges and currents, the resulting Lorentz force, torque, and power are computed by using such expansions. To show how versatile variable and moving dipoles are for building physical models, the following are considered: (a) energy conversions by electric motors, by dielectric and induction heating, and by the magnetic drag force, and (b) relativistic effects in translational movements of steady electric and magnetic dipoles; in particular, the torque on a magnetic dipole moving parallel to a line carrying a steady current and uniformly distributed electric charges.

  6. California Ocean Uses Atlas

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset is a result of the California Ocean Uses Atlas Project: a collaboration between NOAA's National Marine Protected Areas Center and Marine Conservation...

  7. University of Southern California

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The focus of the University of Southern California (USC) Children''s Environmental Health Center is to develop a better understanding of how host susceptibility and...

  8. California Data Exchange Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to make July &28;Water Smart Month.&29; &28;Conserving ... Remote sensors today indicate that statewide, snowpack water content is 54 percent of ... California ranked first, along with Texas, on ...

  9. Coastal California Digital Imagery

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This digital ortho-imagery dataset is a survey of coastal California. The project area consists of approximately 3774 square miles. The project design of the digital...

  10. Kelp distribution off California

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set delineates kelp beds (Nereocystis leutkeana and Macrocystis spp.) along the Pacific Coast of California. Multiple years of kelp mapping data for the...

  11. California Harpoon Fishery

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains vessel logbook and landings data from harpoon vessels that fish within 200 miles of the California coast, from 1974 to present. The harpoon...

  12. Earthquakes in Southern California

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — There have been many earthquake occurrences in Southern California. This set of slides shows earthquake damage from the following events: Imperial Valley, 1979,...

  13. California Watershed Hydrologic Units

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — This dataset is intended to be used as a tool for water-resource management and planning activities, particularly for site-specific and localized studies requiring a...

  14. A Framework for Representing Moving Objects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Becker, Ludger; Blunck, Henrik; Hinrichs, Klaus

    2004-01-01

    We present a framework for representing the trajectories of moving objects and the time-varying results of operations on moving objects. This framework supports the realization of discrete data models of moving objects databases, which incorporate representations of moving objects based on non...

  15. Modeling Gas Dynamics in California Sea Lions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-30

    observed blood PO2 levels during diving. A sensitivity analysis will be performed to assess the new and current parameter estimates and error of the model...1 DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A. Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. Modeling Gas Dynamics in California Sea Lions Andreas...to update a current gas dynamics model with recently acquired data for respiratory compliance (P-V), and body compartment size estimates in

  16. Advances in American forensic sciences. California's role.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckert, W G

    1981-06-01

    The forensic sciences in the United States, specifically forensic medicine, have benefited primarily from the advances made by the New York Medical Examiner Office pioneers and the philosophy developed in the Massachusetts medicolegal structure as begun in 1877. California's pioneering role is directly related to the development of criminalistics which in turn served as a stimulus for the improvement and development of forensic medicine in that state. Historically many private practitioners were involved in general criminalistics in California before the system of state criminalistic laboratories and criminal investigations was well established. Any report on the growth of the forensic sciences must include mention of the earlier pioneers including Heinrich, Kirk, Kytka, Crossman, Abernethy, Pinker, Helsel, and Noxley. A review of the current state of the art in the forensic sciences is presented, as is a review of the contributions of California to the development of American forensic sciences.

  17. Organochloride pesticides in California sea lions revisited

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanabe Shinsuke

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs are ubiquitous environmental contaminants that have been banned in most countries, but considerable amounts continue to cycle the ecosphere. Top trophic level predators, like sea birds and marine mammals, bioaccumulate these lipophilic compounds, reflecting their presence in the environment. Results We measured concentrations of tDDT (p,p' - DDT + p,p' - DDD + p,p' - DDE and PCBs in the blubber of dead California sea lions stranded along the California coast. tDDT and PCB concentrations were 150 ± 257 ug/g lipid weight (mean ± SD and 44 ± 78 ug/g lipid weight, respectively. There were no differences in tDDT or PCB concentrations between animal categories varying in sex or age. There was a trend towards a decrease in tDDT and PCB concentrations from northern to southern California. The lipid content of the blubber was negatively correlated with levels of tDDT and PCBs. tDDT concentrations were approximately 3 times higher than PCB concentrations. Conclusions tDDT levels in the blubber of California sea lions decreased by over one order of magnitude from 1970 to 2000. PCB level changes over time were unclear owing to a paucity of data and analytical differences over the years. Current levels of these pollutants in California sea lions are among the highest among marine mammals and exceed those reported to cause immunotoxicity or endocrine disruption.

  18. Learning to Segment Moving Objects in Videos

    OpenAIRE

    Fragkiadaki, Katerina; Arbelaez, Pablo; Felsen, Panna; Malik, Jitendra

    2014-01-01

    We segment moving objects in videos by ranking spatio-temporal segment proposals according to "moving objectness": how likely they are to contain a moving object. In each video frame, we compute segment proposals using multiple figure-ground segmentations on per frame motion boundaries. We rank them with a Moving Objectness Detector trained on image and motion fields to detect moving objects and discard over/under segmentations or background parts of the scene. We extend the top ranked segmen...

  19. Moved by a Rapid Transit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bueter, C.

    2013-04-01

    Enticing by virtue of its predictability, historical utility, and spectacle, the transit of Venus is a niche event among astronomical phenomena. Though the value of a transit for scientific purposes is now diminished, the brief appearance of Venus silhouetted against the background of the Sun in 2004 moved the artistic community to celebrate the rare alignment. Artists of all ages combined old traditions with fresh technology to create a 21st-century tapestry of music, sculpture, paintings, glasswork, quilts, sky shows, and digital imagery. A full catalog of transit-related art generated over the centuries would feature the sampling of entries presented here and at the Moved by a Rapid Transit website.

  20. Moving Tourism Social Entrepreneurship Forward

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sheldon, Pauline; Dredge, Dianne; Daniele, Roberto

    2017-01-01

    This chapter concludes the book by considering the role that research and education can play to move the TSE agenda forward. In addition to consolidating the chapter authors’ thoughts about the future of SE and tourism, it also lays out some directions for research tracks in the future. It consid......This chapter concludes the book by considering the role that research and education can play to move the TSE agenda forward. In addition to consolidating the chapter authors’ thoughts about the future of SE and tourism, it also lays out some directions for research tracks in the future....... It considers the changes needed in research approaches, in our universities, our curricula, our learners, and ourselves as academics. These changes we hope will stimulate the dialog on how TSE can mobilize the energy, vision and social spirit of those who seek to change the world for the better through tourism....

  1. IKAR moves to higher energies

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1979-01-01

    The measurements of hadron elastic scattering on protons at small angle (WA9 experiment) were extended at higher energies (NA8 experiment by the Clermont Ferrand-Leningrad-Lyon-Uppsala Collaboration). To this purpose the set-up was moved to the beam H8 in the EHN1 Hall of the SPS North Area. The photo shows the ionization chamber measuring the recoil energy (centre). Pierre Sahuc stands on the left.

  2. Magnetic Forces on Moving Charges

    OpenAIRE

    2003-01-01

    sim drag Simulation Drag-and-Drop Exercise Interactive Media Element This interactive tutorial provides the practice to reinforce the concept of magnetic force of moving charges. The key concepts covered include: The direction of the resultant magnetic force is always perpendicular to the plane defined by the velocity vector of the charge and the magnetic field vector., The direction of motion of the charge is also influenced by the sign/polarity of the charge., If the velocity...

  3. Saccadic adaptation to moving targets.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katharina Havermann

    Full Text Available Saccades are so called ballistic movements which are executed without online visual feedback. After each saccade the saccadic motor plan is modified in response to post-saccadic feedback with the mechanism of saccadic adaptation. The post-saccadic feedback is provided by the retinal position of the target after the saccade. If the target moves after the saccade, gaze may follow the moving target. In that case, the eyes are controlled by the pursuit system, a system that controls smooth eye movements. Although these two systems have in the past been considered as mostly independent, recent lines of research point towards many interactions between them. We were interested in the question if saccade amplitude adaptation is induced when the target moves smoothly after the saccade. Prior studies of saccadic adaptation have considered intra-saccadic target steps as learning signals. In the present study, the intra-saccadic target step of the McLaughlin paradigm of saccadic adaptation was replaced by target movement, and a post-saccadic pursuit of the target. We found that saccadic adaptation occurred in this situation, a further indication of an interaction of the saccadic system and the pursuit system with the aim of optimized eye movements.

  4. Saccadic adaptation to moving targets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havermann, Katharina; Volcic, Robert; Lappe, Markus

    2012-01-01

    Saccades are so called ballistic movements which are executed without online visual feedback. After each saccade the saccadic motor plan is modified in response to post-saccadic feedback with the mechanism of saccadic adaptation. The post-saccadic feedback is provided by the retinal position of the target after the saccade. If the target moves after the saccade, gaze may follow the moving target. In that case, the eyes are controlled by the pursuit system, a system that controls smooth eye movements. Although these two systems have in the past been considered as mostly independent, recent lines of research point towards many interactions between them. We were interested in the question if saccade amplitude adaptation is induced when the target moves smoothly after the saccade. Prior studies of saccadic adaptation have considered intra-saccadic target steps as learning signals. In the present study, the intra-saccadic target step of the McLaughlin paradigm of saccadic adaptation was replaced by target movement, and a post-saccadic pursuit of the target. We found that saccadic adaptation occurred in this situation, a further indication of an interaction of the saccadic system and the pursuit system with the aim of optimized eye movements.

  5. California State Waters Map Series: offshore of Carpinteria, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Samuel Y.; Dartnell, Peter; Cochrane, Guy R.; Golden, Nadine E.; Phillips, Eleyne L.; Ritchie, Andrew C.; Kvitek, Rikk G.; Greene, H. Gary; Endris, Charles A.; Seitz, Gordon G.; Sliter, Ray W.; Erdey, Mercedes D.; Wong, Florence L.; Gutierrez, Carlos I.; Krigsman, Lisa M.; Draut, Amy E.; Hart, Patrick E.; Johnson, Samuel Y.; Cochran, Susan A.

    2013-01-01

    In 2007, the California Ocean Protection Council initiated the California Seafloor Mapping Program (CSMP), designed to create a comprehensive seafloor map of high-resolution bathymetry, marine benthic habitats, and geology within the 3-nautical-mile limit of California’s State Waters. The CSMP approach is to create highly detailed seafloor maps through collection, integration, interpretation, and visualization of swath sonar data, acoustic backscatter, seafloor video, seafloor photography, high-resolution seismic-reflection profiles, and bottom-sediment sampling data. The map products display seafloor morphology and character, identify potential marine benthic habitats, and illustrate both the surficial seafloor geology and shallow (to about 100 m) subsurface geology. The Offshore of Carpinteria map area lies within the central Santa Barbara Channel region of the Southern California Bight. This geologically complex region forms a major biogeographic transition zone, separating the cold-temperate Oregonian province north of Point Conception from the warm-temperate California province to the south. The map area is in the southern part of the Western Transverse Ranges geologic province, which is north of the California Continental Borderland. Significant clockwise rotation—at least 90°—since the early Miocene has been proposed for the Western Transverse Ranges province, and the region is presently undergoing north-south shortening. The small city of Carpinteria is the most significant onshore cultural center in the map area; the smaller town of Summerland lies west of Carpinteria. These communities rest on a relatively flat coastal piedmont that is surrounded on the north, east, and west by hilly relief on the flanks of the Santa Ynez Mountains. El Estero, a salt marsh on the coast west of Carpinteria, is an ecologically important coastal estuary. Southeast of Carpinteria, the coastal zone is narrow strip containing highway and railway transportation corridors

  6. Different Paths to Some Fundamental Physical Laws: Relativistic Polarization of a Moving Magnetic Dipole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kholmetskii, Alexander L.; Yarman, T.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we consider the relativistic polarization of a moving magnetic dipole and show that this effect can be understood via the relativistic generalization of Kirchhoff's first law to a moving closed circuit with a steady current. This approach allows us to better understand the law of relativistic transformation of four-current density…

  7. Improved moving source photometry with TRIPPy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexandersen, Mike; Fraser, Wesley Cristopher

    2017-10-01

    Photometry of moving sources is more complicated than for stationary sources, because the sources trail their signal out over more pixels than a point source of the same magnitude. Using a circular aperture of same size as would be appropriate for point sources can cut out a large amount of flux if a moving source moves substantially relative to the size of the aperture during the exposure, resulting in underestimated fluxes. Using a large circular aperture can mitigate this issue at the cost of a significantly reduced signal to noise compared to a point source, as a result of the inclusion of a larger background region within the aperture.Trailed Image Photometry in Python (TRIPPy) solves this problem by using a pill-shaped aperture: the traditional circular aperture is sliced in half perpendicular to the direction of motion and separated by a rectangle as long as the total motion of the source during the exposure. TRIPPy can also calculate the appropriate aperture correction (which will depend both on the radius and trail length of the pill-shaped aperture), and has features for selecting good PSF stars, creating a PSF model (convolved moffat profile + lookup table) and selecting a custom sky-background area in order to ensure no other sources contribute to the background estimate.In this poster, we present an overview of the TRIPPy features and demonstrate the improvements resulting from using TRIPPy compared to photometry obtained by other methods with examples from real projects where TRIPPy has been implemented in order to obtain the best-possible photometric measurements of Solar System objects. While TRIPPy has currently mainly been used for Trans-Neptunian Objects, the improvement from using the pill-shaped aperture increases with source motion, making TRIPPy highly relevant for asteroid and centaur photometry as well.

  8. Environmental Assessment: 13th Street Bridge Emergency Repair and Retrofit Vandenberg Air Force Base California

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-06-23

    ursinus), nightshade (Solanum sp.), California figwort (Scrophularia cal{fiJrnica), and mugwort ( Artemisia douglasiana). Coyote brush...is readily available. Coastal sage scrub is a diverse vegetation type dominated by the shrub California sagebrush ( Artemisia cal{fiJrnica). In...row crops planted on the fertile valley bottoms. In 1933, the Marshall family moved to the Olivera adobe, and expanded and modernized the building. A

  9. Environmental Assessment for Landfill Drainage Improvements Vandenberg Air Force Base, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-04-07

    Stachys bullata), mugwort ( Artemisia douglasiana), gooseberry (Ribes divaricatum), California rose (Rosa califomica), wax myrtle (Myrica califomica...compete with the more profitable sugar beets and other row crops planted on the fertile valley bottoms. In 1933, the Marshall family moved to the...Drainage Improvements Vandenberg Air Force Base, California PageA-5 I I I I I I i I I I I ( Artemisia califomica). In disturbed or more

  10. Private Schools, California, 2009, California Department of Education

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — California law (California Education Code Section 33190) requires private schools offering or conducting a full-time elementary or secondary level day school for...

  11. Movements of radio-marked California Ridgway's rails during monitoring surveys: Implications for population monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bui, Thuy-Vy D.; Takekawa, John Y.; Overton, Cory T.; Schultz, Emily R.; Hull, Joshua M.; Casazza, Michael L.

    2015-01-01

    The California Ridgway's rail Rallus obsoletus obsoletus (hereafter California rail) is a secretive marsh bird endemic to tidal marshes in the San Francisco Bay (hereafter bay) of California. The California rail has undergone significant range contraction and population declines due to a variety of factors, including predation and the degradation and loss of habitat. Call-count surveys, which include call playbacks, based on the standardized North American marsh bird monitoring protocol have been conducted throughout the bay since 2005 to monitor population size and distribution of the California rail. However, call-count surveys are difficult to evaluate for efficacy or accuracy. To measure the accuracy of call-count surveys and investigate whether radio-marked California rails moved in response to call-count surveys, we compared locations of radio-marked California rails collected at frequent intervals (15 min) to California rail detections recorded during call-count surveys conducted over the same time periods. Overall, 60% of radio-marked California rails within 200 m of observers were not detected during call-count surveys. Movements of radio-marked California rails showed no directional bias (P = 0.92) irrespective of whether or not playbacks of five marsh bird species (including the California rail) were broadcast from listening stations. Our findings suggest that playbacks of rail vocalizations do not consistently influence California rail movements during surveys. However, call-count surveys may underestimate California rail presence; therefore, caution should be used when relating raw numbers of call-count detections to population abundance.

  12. Transhumant Ranchers in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulak, A.; Forero, L.; Huntsinger, L.

    2009-04-01

    There is a strong link between some of the richest, most productive lands of the western United States, including California's oak woodlands, and the traditional "transhumance" of ranchers using public ranges. Oak woodland ranchers with government grazing leases report that about half of their income stems from using government -owned montane ranges. For many, loss of these leases reduces their ranch productive capacity to a level insufficient for sustainability, augmenting the sale of ranch lands for development. Many thousands of hectares of oak woodlands are linked to the fate of government leases in this way, and this linkage limits the opportunities for conservation of oak woodlands as "working landscapes" via conservation easements. This type of conservation is the fastest growing type in California today. The first case study shows that over the past 100 years there has been a reduction in access to the natural resources needed for transhumance from three sources: competition from use of the pastures for recreation and nature preservation, management practices that have brought about change in the character of the natural resources themselves, and urban sprawl. Ranchers are leasing other properties, purchasing feed, and transporting animals to other regions to compensate. Most had increased their privately leased land over the previous five years. Though they desire to stay on their ranches, transhumant ranching is becoming increasingly difficult because of land use changes on both public and private lands and a third of ranchers believe that they may need to sell the property for development if they lose their summer permits. There are many "line camps" on Forest Service range—cabins that families or workers would stay in during the summer to tend the cattle. However, the need to support the ranch with work in town limits the ability of the household to participate in transhumance or even travel into the mountains to check on the animals. For ranching to

  13. Dark matter. A light move

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Redondo, Javier [Muenchen Univ. (Germany). Arnold Sommerfeld Center; Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik, Muenchen (Germany); Doebrich, Babette [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany)

    2013-11-15

    This proceedings contribution reports from the workshop Dark Matter - a light move, held at DESY in Hamburg in June 2013. Dark Matter particle candidates span a huge parameter range. In particular, well motivated candidates exist also in the sub-eV mass region, for example the axion. Whilst a plethora of searches for rather heavy Dark Matter particles exists, there are only very few experiments aimed at direct detection of sub-eV Dark Matter to this date. The aim of our workshop was to discuss if and how this could be changed in the near future.

  14. Sheltering patterns and utilization following the 2007 southern California wildfires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirsch, Thomas D; Jenkins, J Lee; Sauer, Lauren M; Hsieh, Yu-Hsiang; Calvello, Emilie; Hsu, Edbert

    2009-01-01

    The 2007 southern California wildfires resulted in over 500,000 residents being displaced. A team from Johns Hopkins University and the American Red Cross surveyed 163 families at shelters and local assistance centers during the disaster. The responses were used to evaluate the needs and movement patterns of a displaced population. The data were also used to determine the risk factors associated with needing sheltering. There is a lower than expected reliance on public shelters, and displaced persons move frequently.

  15. The Story of California = La Historia de California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartel, Nick

    "The Story of California" is a history and geography of the state of California, intended for classroom use by limited-English-proficient, native Spanish-speaking students in California's urban middle schools. The book is designed with the left page in English and the right page in Spanish to facilitate student transition into…

  16. Streamline simulation of Non Point Sources Pollution in unconfined aquifers based on iterative moving mesh and domain decomposition methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kourakos, G.; Harter, T.

    2012-12-01

    Groundwater contamination in semi-arid agricultural regions is increasing around the globe. Communities in such areas typically rely on groundwater resources for domestic and irrigation uses. Intensive farming practices are a significant source of groundwater contamination, which affects communities via well pumping and ecosystems via groundwater return flow to streams. Agricultural contamination or diffuse pollution is generally difficult to simulate due to large amount of sources and the large number of distributed wells, requiring high resolution flow and transport simulations. Individual contributing sources are on the order of few hectare to a few tens of hectare, while many of the larger agricultural groundwater basins encompass hundreds to thousands of square kilometers. Classical 3D transport modeling approaches are intractable across such scales with the current computing power. In this study we develop an efficient, highly parallelizable transport method known as streamline transport simulation. The approach decomposes a multi-dimensional problem into multiple one-dimensional subproblems which are trivial to solve. The streamline modeling requires a highly detailed 3D velocity field. The simulation of highly detailed groundwater flow in large agricultural basin is achieved by developing a substructuring iterative domain decomposition method or Complement Schur method for obtaining the velocity field. For unconfined aquifers, we illustrate that it is critical to use a moving mesh such that finite element adapts according to the head field. We therefore combined an iterative moving mesh approach with the Complement Schur domain decomposition method. The importance of using the moving mesh approach is illustrated with a hypothetical example and with an application to a real case study in the southern Central Valley, California.

  17. CoSMoS (Coastal Storm Modeling System) Southern California v3.0 Phase 1 (100-year storm) sea-level rise 2.0 m: ocean currents projections

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Projected Hazard: Model-derived ocean current velocities (in meters per second) for the given storm condition and sea-level rise (SLR) scenario. Model Summary: The...

  18. CoSMoS (Coastal Storm Modeling System) Southern California v3.0 Phase 1 (100-year storm) sea-level rise 0.0 m: ocean currents projections

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Projected Hazard: Model-derived ocean current velocities (in meters per second) for the given storm condition and sea-level rise (SLR) scenario. Model Summary: The...

  19. CoSMoS (Coastal Storm Modeling System) Southern California v3.0 Phase 1 (100-year storm) sea-level rise 0.5 m: ocean currents projections

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Projected Hazard: Model-derived ocean current velocities (in meters per second) for the given storm condition and sea-level rise (SLR) scenario. Model Summary: The...

  20. CoSMoS (Coastal Storm Modeling System) Southern California v3.0 Phase 1 (100-year storm) sea-level rise 1.0 m: ocean currents projections

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Projected Hazard: Model-derived ocean current velocities (in meters per second) for the given storm condition and sea-level rise (SLR) scenario. Model Summary: The...

  1. CoSMoS (Coastal Storm Modeling System) Southern California v3.0 Phase 1 (100-year storm) sea-level rise 1.5 m: ocean currents projections

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Projected Hazard: Model-derived ocean current velocities (in meters per second) for the given storm condition and sea-level rise (SLR) scenario. Model Summary: The...

  2. Report on visit to University of California, Chemistry Division, Berkeley, California and attendance at American Chemical Society symposium on atmosphere contamination and purification, San Francisco, California, March 28--April 1, 1949

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singlevich, W.

    1949-05-09

    This paper is a trip report dated May 9, l949 about a trip by W. Singlevich of Hanford Reservation to the University of California at Berkeley. Among the topics covered are: the Garden glove box; atmospheric contamination; measuring air pollution; insecticidal and fertilizer fluorides; measuring sulfur in the atmosphere; and deposition of aerosol particles from moving gas streams. 2 figs. (FSD)

  3. Structure of Moves in Research Article Abstracts in Applied Linguistics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seden Can

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available An abstract summarizes the accompanying article in order to promote it. While many move-analysis studies of abstracts in applied linguistics (AL have used similar coding frameworks and demonstrated similar rhetorical organizations, their findings have not yet been aggregated to show the overall picture. The present study aimed to both examine move structures in AL abstracts and compare the results with previous studies both synchronically and diachronically. Fifty abstracts were collected from articles published in the journal English for Specific Purposes (ESP between 2011 and 2013. Sentences were coded using a five-move scheme adapted from previous studies. Combining the results from previous research and the present study showed that most AL abstracts give information on the purpose, methodology, and findings of the associated article, while about half of the articles omit introduction of the topic and discussion of the findings. It was also found that authors frequently violate the move sequence expected by current schemes. These findings consistent with previous research suggest that future researchers informed by move analyses should explore the connection between the findings of move analyses and teaching materials for academic writing.

  4. Ecoregion sections of California deserts

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The dataset delineates ecological sections within California deserts. These deserts occupy the southeastern portion of California and include two ecoregional...

  5. From California dreaming to California data: Challenging historic models for landfill CH4 emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Improved quantification of diverse CH4 sources at the urban scale is needed to guide local greenhouse gas (GHG) mitigation strategies in the Anthropocene. Herein, we focus on landfill CH4 emissions in California, challenging the current IPCC methodology which focuses on a climate dependency for land...

  6. The microscopic investigation of structures of moving flux lines by ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. We have used a variety of microscopic techniques to reveal the structure and motion of flux line arrangements, when the flux lines in low Tc type II superconductors are caused to move by a transport current. Using small-angle neutron scattering by the flux line lattice (FLL), we are able to demonstrate directly the ...

  7. Solar: California, not dreaming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, J.

    2006-03-15

    The California Solar Initiative (CSI) was approved by the California Public Utilities Commission (PUC) in January 2006. The CSI is the largest solar programme of this kind ever in the USA and provides for $3.2 billion in incentives for solar projects between 2007 and 2017. The PUC will oversee a $2.5 billion programme to provide funding for solar installations on commercial and existing residential buildings, while the California Energy Commission (CEC) will manage a separate $350 million fund targeted at new residential building. Existing solar programmes operated by the PUC and CEC will be consolidated into the CSI. The CEC programme will use already allocated funding, but the PUC programme will be funded through revenues collected from customers of the main gas and electric utilities in California. Funds will be distributed via rebates to householders or companies that install solar. As well as solar photovoltaics (PV), rebates will also go to solar thermal power (concentrating solar power) and solar heating and cooling. CSI funding can be used in combination with existing federal tax credits. The aim is a gradual increase from installation of 40 MW of PV in 2005 to 100 MW by 2009. The CSI is also expected to create favourable market conditions for PV manufacturers in California and to encourage investment in production of solar-grade silicon in or near California. Objections from the International Brotherhood of Electrical Workers (IBEW) appear to have been overcome but a number of other potential snags remain. CSI is expected to be replicated in other US states.

  8. California's minimum-nurse-staffing legislation and nurses' wages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark, Barbara; Harless, David W; Spetz, Joanne

    2009-01-01

    In 2004, California became the first state to implement minimum-nurse-staffing ratios in acute care hospitals. We examined the wages of registered nurses (RNs) before and after the legislation was enacted. Using four data sets-the National Sample Survey of Registered Nurses, the Current Population Survey, the National Compensation Survey, and the Occupational Employment Statistics Survey-we found that from 2000 through 2006, RNs in California metropolitan areas experienced real wage growth as much as twelve percentage points higher than the growth in the wages of nurses employed in metropolitan areas outside of California.

  9. Coast of California Storm and Tidal Waves Study. Southern California Coastal Processes Data Summary,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-02-01

    3.1.2-5). As soon as longshore motions develop, sea level -74- WIND V -CURRENT V AT CARNATION ~-40 5 10 15 20 25 30 1 5 10 Is 20 25 JULY AUGUST 1973... Orange County, California," 26 pp. Houston, J. R., 1978, ’Tsunami run-up predictions for the west coast," p. 2885-2896 in Coastal Zone 󈨒, v. IV, ASCE...B, C and D, Laguna Niguel., Orange County, California," unpublished consulting report with Larry Seeman Associates, Newport Beach. CA, p. 64-84

  10. Assessing the Cartographic Visualization of Moving Objects ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nowadays, there is a lot of interest in studying dynamic spatial phenomena. There are various dynamic phenomena in the world among which moving objects are worth exemplifying. Recently, moving objects are getting attention in database applications and in visualization. Moving objects are of two categories: individual ...

  11. 20 CFR 617.47 - Moving allowance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Moving allowance. 617.47 Section 617.47... FOR WORKERS UNDER THE TRADE ACT OF 1974 Relocation Allowances § 617.47 Moving allowance. (a) Computation. The amount of a moving allowance payable under § 617.45(a)(2) shall be 90 percent of the total of...

  12. Anthropogenic warming has increased drought risk in California

    OpenAIRE

    Diffenbaugh, Noah S.; Swain, Daniel L.; Touma, Danielle

    2015-01-01

    California ranks first in the United States in population, economic activity, and agricultural value. The state is currently experiencing a record-setting drought, which has led to acute water shortages, groundwater overdraft, critically low streamflow, and enhanced wildfire risk. Our analyses show that California has historically been more likely to experience drought if precipitation deficits co-occur with warm conditions and that such confluences have increased in recent decades, leading t...

  13. Moving Horizon Estimation and Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, John Bagterp

    as the corresponding sensitivity equations are discussed. Chapter 6 summarizes the main contribution of this thesis. It briefly discusses the pros and cons of using the extended linear quadratic control framework for solution of deterministic optimal control problems. Appendices. Appendix A demonstrates how quadratic...... successful and applied methodology beyond PID-control for control of industrial processes. The main contribution of this thesis is introduction and definition of the extended linear quadratic optimal control problem for solution of numerical problems arising in moving horizon estimation and control....... An efficient structure-employing methodology for solution of the extended linear quadratic optimal control problem is provided and it is discussed how this solution is employed in solution of constrained model predictive control problems as well as in the solution of nonlinear optimal control and estimation...

  14. AHP 21: Review: Moving Mountains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William B. Noseworthy

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Moving Mountains stands out among recent discussions of the Southeast Asian Highlands, drawing from twelve contributors with extensive field experience living and working in locales closed to nonCommunist academics between 1945 and 1990 (3. The authors' methodologies focus on the anthropological approach of participant observation combined with oral history. Previously, substantial research had been confined to the experience of "hill tribes" in Northern Thailand (11, unless one gained access to the massive collections of French language research under the École Française d'Extrême Orient (EFEO or the Société Asiatique (SA, both in Paris. As such, this volume's contributors are able to ring out the voices of Southeast Asian Massif populations in a way that demonstrates a mindful assembly of research, while carefully narrating a more complex view of the region than that presented by Scott's (2009:22 "zones of refuge." ...

  15. Exoplanet Caught on the Move

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-01

    For the first time, astronomers have been able to directly follow the motion of an exoplanet as it moves from one side of its host star to the other. The planet has the smallest orbit so far of all directly imaged exoplanets, lying almost as close to its parent star as Saturn is to the Sun. Scientists believe that it may have formed in a similar way to the giant planets in the Solar System. Because the star is so young, this discovery proves that gas giant planets can form within discs in only a few million years, a short time in cosmic terms. Only 12 million years old, or less than three-thousandths of the age of the Sun, Beta Pictoris is 75% more massive than our parent star. It is located about 60 light-years away towards the constellation of Pictor (the Painter) and is one of the best-known examples of a star surrounded by a dusty debris disc [1]. Earlier observations showed a warp of the disc, a secondary inclined disc and comets falling onto the star. "Those were indirect, but tell-tale signs that strongly suggested the presence of a massive planet, and our new observations now definitively prove this," says team leader Anne-Marie Lagrange. "Because the star is so young, our results prove that giant planets can form in discs in time-spans as short as a few million years." Recent observations have shown that discs around young stars disperse within a few million years, and that giant planet formation must occur faster than previously thought. Beta Pictoris is now clear proof that this is indeed possible. The team used the NAOS-CONICA instrument (or NACO [2]), mounted on one of the 8.2-metre Unit Telescopes of ESO's Very Large Telescope (VLT), to study the immediate surroundings of Beta Pictoris in 2003, 2008 and 2009. In 2003 a faint source inside the disc was seen (eso0842), but it was not possible to exclude the remote possibility that it was a background star. In new images taken in 2008 and spring 2009 the source had disappeared! The most recent

  16. California's Perfect Storm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacon, David

    2010-01-01

    The United States today faces an economic crisis worse than any since the Great Depression of the 1930s. Nowhere is it sharper than in the nation's schools. Last year, California saw a perfect storm of protest in virtually every part of its education system. K-12 teachers built coalitions with parents and students to fight for their jobs and their…

  17. Peyotism in California

    OpenAIRE

    Stewart, Omer C

    1986-01-01

    The future of Peyotism in California is very uncertain even for the Indian peyotists east of Sierra Nevada. Cause for worry for the future of the Native American Church is the possibility that the supply of peyote may disappear from the "peyote gardens" in Texas.

  18. Higher Education in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Public Policy Institute of California, 2016

    2016-01-01

    Higher education enhances Californians' lives and contributes to the state's economic growth. But population and education trends suggest that California is facing a large shortfall of college graduates. Addressing this short­fall will require strong gains for groups that have been historically under­represented in higher education. Substantial…

  19. NREL + Southern California Gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berdahl, Sonja E [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-10-09

    NREL and Southern California Gas Company are evaluating a new 'power-to-gas' approach - one that produces methane through a biological pathway and uses the expansive natural gas infrastructure to store it. This approach has the potential to change how the power industry approaches renewable generation and energy storage.

  20. FELLOWS ADDRESS California Dreaming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kooten, van Kees

    2017-01-01

    California was the first jurisdiction to mandate a reduction in greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions by 80% below 1990 levels by 2050. This target was subsequently endorsed by the G8 in 2009 and the European Commission in 2014, and is the guiding principle of the 2015 Paris Agreement. To achieve these

  1. California State Waters Map Series--Offshore of Ventura, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Samuel Y.; Dartnell, Peter; Cochrane, Guy R.; Golden, Nadine E.; Phillips, Eleyne L.; Ritchie, Andrew C.; Kvitek, Rikk G.; Greene, H. Gary; Krigsman, Lisa M.; Endris, Charles A.; Seitz, Gordon G.; Gutierrez, Carlos I.; Sliter, Ray W.; Erdey, Mercedes D.; Wong, Florence L.; Yoklavich, Mary M.; Draut, Amy E.; Hart, Patrick E.; Johnson, Samuel Y.; Cochran, Susan A.

    2013-01-01

    , and the region is characterized by urban and agricultural development. Ventura Harbor sits just north of the mouth of the Santa Clara River, in an area formerly occupied by lagoons and marshes. The Offshore of Ventura map area lies in the eastern part of the Santa Barbara littoral cell, whose littoral drift is to the east-southeast. Drift rates of about 700,000 to 1,150,000 tons/yr have been reported at Ventura Harbor. At the east end of the littoral cell, eastward-moving sediment is trapped by Hueneme and Mugu Canyons and then transported into the deep-water Santa Monica Basin. The largest sediment source to this littoral cell (and the largest in all of southern California) is the Santa Clara River, which has an estimated annual sediment flux of 3.1 million tons. In addition, the Ventura River yields about 270,000 tons of sediment annually. Despite the large local sediment supply, coastal erosion problems are ongoing in the map area. Riprap, revetments, and seawalls variably protect the coast within and north of Ventura. The offshore part of the map area mainly consists of relatively flat, shallow continental shelf, which dips so gently (about 0.2° to 0.4°) that water depths at the 3-nautical-mile limit of California’s State Waters are just 20 to 40 m. This part of the Santa Barbara Channel is relatively well protected from large Pacific swells from the north and west by Point Conception and the Channel Islands; long-period swells affecting the area are mainly from the south-southwest. Fair-weather wave base is typically shallower than 20-m water depth, but winter storms are capable of resuspending fine-grained sediments in 30 m of water, and so shelf sediments in the map area probably are remobilized on an annual basis. The shelf is underlain by tens of meters of interbedded upper Quaternary shelf, estuarine, and fluvial sediments deposited as sea level fluctuated up and down in the last several hundred thousand years. Seafloor habitats in the broad Santa

  2. Food habits of California sea lions in Washington state, 1986-02-26 to 1999-10-18 (NCEI Accession 0145637)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — From 1986 to 1999, The National Marine Mammal Laboratories' California Current Ecosystem Program (AFSC/NOAA) collected fecal samples and stomachs of male California...

  3. Untapped Potential: Latinos and California Community Colleges

    OpenAIRE

    Chavez, Lisa

    2008-01-01

    Latinos are now the largest group of students who begin their postsecondary studies at a California community college after graduating from a public high school. This represents an opportunity to improve bachelor degree attainment among Latinos via the community college transfer function. This research brief describes current transfer rates among Latinos, reviews the literature on the barriers to transfer, and concludes with a cohort analysis of Latino community college students that descri...

  4. California's restless giant: the Long Valley Caldera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, David P.; Bailey, Roy A.; Hendley, James W.; Stauffer, Peter H.; Marcaida, Mae

    2014-01-01

    Scientists have monitored geologic unrest in the Long Valley, California, area since 1980. In that year, following a swarm of strong earthquakes, they discovered that the central part of the Long Valley Caldera had begun actively rising. Unrest in the area persists today. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) continues to provide the public and civil authorities with current information on the volcanic hazard at Long Valley and is prepared to give timely warnings of any impending eruption.

  5. California Natural Gas Pipelines: A Brief Guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neuscamman, Stephanie [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Price, Don [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Pezzola, Genny [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Glascoe, Lee [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2013-01-22

    The purpose of this document is to familiarize the reader with the general configuration and operation of the natural gas pipelines in California and to discuss potential LLNL contributions that would support the Partnership for the 21st Century collaboration. First, pipeline infrastructure will be reviewed. Then, recent pipeline events will be examined. Selected current pipeline industry research will be summarized. Finally, industry acronyms are listed for reference.

  6. Geothermal energy in California: Status report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Citron, O.; Davis, C.; Fredrickson, C.; Granit, R.; Kerrisk, D.; Leibowitz, L.; Schulkin, B.; Wornack, J.

    1976-06-30

    The potential for electric energy from geothermal resources in California is currently estimated to be equivalent to the output from 14 to 21 large (1000 MW) central station power plants. In addition, since over 30 California cities are located near potential geothermal resources, the non-electric applications of geothermal heat (industrial, agriculture, space heating, etc.) could be enormous. Therefore, the full-scale utilization of geothermal resources would have a major impact upon the energy picture of the state. This report presents a summary of the existing status of geothermal energy development in the state of California as of the early part of 1976. The report provides data on the extent of the resource base of the state and the present outlook for its utilization. It identifies the existing local, state, and federal laws, rules and regulations governing geothermal energy development and the responsibilities of each of the regulatory agencies involved. It also presents the differences in the development requirements among several counties and between California and its neighboring states. Finally, it describes on-going and planned activities in resource assessment and exploration, utilization, and research and development. Separate abstracts are prepared for ERDA Energy Research Abstracts (ERA) for Sections II--VI and the three Appendixes.

  7. Detecting and tracking moving humans from a moving vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodt, Barry A.; Camden, Richard

    2008-04-01

    In September 2007 the Army Research Laboratory (ARL) Robotics Collaborative Technology Alliance (CTA) conducted an assessment of multiple pedestrian detection algorithms based upon LADAR or video sensor data. Eight detection algorithms developed by the Robotics CTA member organizations, including ARL, were assessed in an experiment conducted by the National Institute of Science & Technology (NIST) and ARL to determine the probability of detection/misclassification and false alarm rate as a function of vehicle speed, degree of environmental clutter, and pedestrian speeds. The study is part of an ongoing investigation of safe operations for unmanned ground vehicles. This assessment marked the first time in this program that human movers acted as targets for detection from a moving vehicle. A focus of the study was to choreograph repeatable human movement scenarios relative to the movement of the vehicle. The resulting data is intended to support comparative analysis across treatment conditions and to allow developers to examine performance with respect to specific detection and tracking events. Events include humans advancing and retreating from the vehicle at different angles, humans crossing paths in close proximity and occlusion situations where sight to the mover from the sensor system is momentarily lost. A detailed operational procedure ensured repeatable human movement with independent ground truth supplied by a NIST ultra wideband wireless tracking system. Post processing and statistical analysis reconciled the tracking algorithm results with the NIST ground truth. We will discuss operational considerations and results.

  8. Mixing Waters and Moving Ships off the North Carolina Coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    The estuarine and marine environments of the United States' eastern seaboard provide the setting for a variety of natural and human activities associated with the flow of water. This set of Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer images from October 11, 2000 (Terra orbit 4344) captures the intricate system of barrier islands, wetlands, and estuaries comprising the coastal environments of North Carolina and southern Virginia. On the right-hand side of the images, a thin line of land provides a tenuous separation between the Albemarle and Pamlico Sounds and the Atlantic Ocean. The wetland communities of this area are vital to productive fisheries and water quality.The top image covers an area of about 350 kilometers x 260 kilometers and is a true-color view from MISR's 46-degree backward-looking camera. Looking away from the Sun suppresses glint from the reflective water surface and enables mapping the color of suspended sediments and plant life near the coast. Out in the open sea, the dark blue waters indicate the Gulf Stream. As it flows toward the northeast, this ocean current presses close to Cape Hatteras (the pointed cape in the lower portion of the images), and brings warm, nutrient-poor waters northward from equatorial latitudes. North Carolina's Outer Banks are often subjected to powerful currents and storms which cause erosion along the east-facing shorelines. In an effort to save the historic Cape Hatteras lighthouse from the encroaching sea, it was jacked out of the ground and moved about 350 meters in 1999.The bottom image was created with red band data from the 46-degree backward, 70-degree forward, and 26-degree forward cameras displayed as red, green, and blue, respectively. The color variations in this multi-angle composite indicate different angular (rather than spectral) signatures. Here, the increased reflection of land vegetation at the angle viewing away from the Sun causes a reddish tint. Water, on the other hand, appears predominantly in shades

  9. 75 FR 8056 - California State Nonroad Engine Pollution Control Standards; California New Nonroad Compression...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-23

    ... AGENCY California State Nonroad Engine Pollution Control Standards; California New Nonroad Compression... conditions justifying California's need for its own nonroad vehicle and engine emissions control program... 3030, 3033 (January 16, 2009); ``California State Nonroad Engine and Vehicle Pollution Control...

  10. The Telecom Lab is moving

    CERN Multimedia

    IT Department

    2009-01-01

    As of 2nd March 2009, the Telecom Lab will move to Building 58 R-017. The Telecom Lab is the central point for all support questions regarding CERN mobile phone services (provision of SIM cards, requests for modifications of subscriptions, diagnostics for mobile phone problems, etc.). The opening hours as well as the contact details for the Telecom Lab remain unchanged: New location: Building 58 R-017 Opening hours: Every week day, from 11 a.m. to 12 a.m. Phone number: 72480 Email address: labo.telecom@cern.ch This change has no impact on support requests for mobile services. Users can still submit their requests concerning mobile phone subscriptions using the usual EDH form (https://edh.cern.ch/Document/GSM). The automatic message sent to inform users of their SIM card availability will be updated to indicate the new Telecom Lab location. You can find all information related to CERN mobile phone services at the following link: http://cern.ch/gsm CS Section - IT/CS group

  11. Moving forward with safety culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Michael

    2012-04-01

    Radiation safety and protection of people are shared goals of the Health Physics Society (HPS) and the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). A positive safety culture contributes to achieving radiation safety and protection of people, which are important to both the HPS and the NRC. Through unprecedented collaboration and engagement with diverse stakeholders, the NRC and the stakeholders developed a Safety Culture Policy Statement. The policy statement defines safety culture and describes the traits of a positive safety culture. Consideration of both safety and security issues and the interface of safety and security are underlying principles that support the policy. Examination of significant events, both within the nuclear industry and in society at large, illustrates how weaknesses in these traits can contribute to the occurrence and consequences of safety incidents, including serious injury and loss of life. With the policy statement in place, the NRC is moving forward with outreach and education about safety culture. Health physicists and other radiation safety specialists play an essential role in enhancing safety culture.

  12. Euphotic Zone Study moves forward

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denman, Kenneth

    The Global Ocean Euphotic Zone Study (GOEZS), a potential core program of the International Geosphere-Biosphere Programme (IGBP) being planned jointly with the Scientific Committee on Oceanic Research (SCOR), was recently given the go-ahead by IGBP's Scientific Committee to move on to the next level of developing its scientific program.The GOEZS program will focus on the coupled physical, biological, and chemical processes operating in the euphotic zone, which is the ocean surface layer where sufficient light penetrates for photosynthesis by phytoplankton to exceed their metabolic energy losses. The upper ocean is extremely important to understanding the atmosphereocean system because it mediates exchanges of heat, momentum, carbon dioxide, sulphur, and nitrogen between the atmosphere and the ocean interior. For the major greenhouse gas carbon dioxide for example, there is more carbon in the upper ocean than in the whole atmosphere. Essentially all carbon dioxide from the atmosphere that passes from the upper ocean to the ocean interior has been transformed chemically or biologically in the upper ocean. Moreover, the upper ocean is the site of all marine shipping and most recreation and industrial activity and contains the planktonic food chain and most fish stocks.

  13. Leadership in Moving Human Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boos, Margarete; Pritz, Johannes; Lange, Simon; Belz, Michael

    2014-01-01

    How is movement of individuals coordinated as a group? This is a fundamental question of social behaviour, encompassing phenomena such as bird flocking, fish schooling, and the innumerable activities in human groups that require people to synchronise their actions. We have developed an experimental paradigm, the HoneyComb computer-based multi-client game, to empirically investigate human movement coordination and leadership. Using economic games as a model, we set monetary incentives to motivate players on a virtual playfield to reach goals via players' movements. We asked whether (I) humans coordinate their movements when information is limited to an individual group member's observation of adjacent group member motion, (II) whether an informed group minority can lead an uninformed group majority to the minority's goal, and if so, (III) how this minority exerts its influence. We showed that in a human group – on the basis of movement alone – a minority can successfully lead a majority. Minorities lead successfully when (a) their members choose similar initial steps towards their goal field and (b) they are among the first in the whole group to make a move. Using our approach, we empirically demonstrate that the rules of swarming behaviour apply to humans. Even complex human behaviour, such as leadership and directed group movement, follow simple rules that are based on visual perception of local movement. PMID:24699264

  14. Setting a minimum age for juvenile justice jurisdiction in California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    S Barnert, Elizabeth; S Abrams, Laura; Maxson, Cheryl; Gase, Lauren; Soung, Patricia; Carroll, Paul; Bath, Eraka

    2017-03-13

    Purpose Despite the existence of minimum age laws for juvenile justice jurisdiction in 18 US states, California has no explicit law that protects children (i.e. youth less than 12 years old) from being processed in the juvenile justice system. In the absence of a minimum age law, California lags behind other states and international practice and standards. The paper aims to discuss these issues. Design/methodology/approach In this policy brief, academics across the University of California campuses examine current evidence, theory, and policy related to the minimum age of juvenile justice jurisdiction. Findings Existing evidence suggests that children lack the cognitive maturity to comprehend or benefit from formal juvenile justice processing, and diverting children from the system altogether is likely to be more beneficial for the child and for public safety. Research limitations/implications Based on current evidence and theory, the authors argue that minimum age legislation that protects children from contact with the juvenile justice system and treats them as children in need of services and support, rather than as delinquents or criminals, is an important policy goal for California and for other national and international jurisdictions lacking a minimum age law. Originality/value California has no law specifying a minimum age for juvenile justice jurisdiction, meaning that young children of any age can be processed in the juvenile justice system. This policy brief provides a rationale for a minimum age law in California and other states and jurisdictions without one.

  15. Development of a California commercial building benchmarking database

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kinney, Satkartar; Piette, Mary Ann

    2002-05-17

    Building energy benchmarking is a useful starting point for commercial building owners and operators to target energy savings opportunities. There are a number of tools and methods for benchmarking energy use. Benchmarking based on regional data can provides more relevant information for California buildings than national tools such as Energy Star. This paper discusses issues related to benchmarking commercial building energy use and the development of Cal-Arch, a building energy benchmarking database for California. Currently Cal-Arch uses existing survey data from California's Commercial End Use Survey (CEUS), a largely underutilized wealth of information collected by California's major utilities. Doe's Commercial Building Energy Consumption Survey (CBECS) is used by a similar tool, Arch, and by a number of other benchmarking tools. Future versions of Arch/Cal-Arch will utilize additional data sources including modeled data and individual buildings to expand the database.

  16. California State Waters Map Series: offshore of Santa Barbara, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Samuel Y.; Dartnell, Peter; Cochrane, Guy R.; Golden, Nadine E.; Phillips, Eleyne L.; Ritchie, Andrew C.; Greene, H. Gary; Krigsman, Lisa M.; Kvitek, Rikk G.; Dieter, Bryan E.; Endris, Charles A.; Seitz, Gordon G.; Sliter, Ray W.; Erdey, Mercedes D.; Gutierrez, Carlos I.; Wong, Florence L.; Yoklavich, Mary M.; Draut, Amy E.; Hart, Patrick E.; Conrad, James E.; Cochran, Susan A.; Johnson, Samuel Y.; Cochran, Susan A.

    2013-01-01

    In 2007, the California Ocean Protection Council initiated the California Seafloor Mapping Program (CSMP), designed to create a comprehensive seafloor map of high-resolution bathymetry, marine benthic habitats, and geology within the 3-nautical-mile limit of California’s State Waters. The CSMP approach is to create highly detailed seafloor maps through collection, integration, interpretation, and visualization of swath sonar data, acoustic backscatter, seafloor video, seafloor photography, high-resolution seismic-reflection profiles, and bottom-sediment sampling data. The map products display seafloor morphology and character, identify potential marine benthic habitats, and illustrate both the surficial seafloor geology and shallow (to about 100 m) subsurface geology. The Offshore of Santa Barbara map area lies within the central Santa Barbara Channel region of the Southern California Bight. This geologically complex region forms a major biogeographic transition zone, separating the cold-temperate Oregonian province north of Point Conception from the warm-temperate California province to the south. The map area is in the southern part of the Western Transverse Ranges geologic province, which is north of the California Continental Borderland. Significant clockwise rotation—at least 90°—since the early Miocene has been proposed for the Western Transverse Ranges province, and geodetic studies indicate that the region is presently undergoing north-south shortening. Uplift rates (as much as 2.2 mm/yr) that are based on studies of onland marine terraces provide further evidence of significant shortening. The city of Santa Barbara, the main coastal population center in the map area, is part of a contiguous urban area that extends from Carpinteria to Goleta. This urban area was developed on the coalescing alluvial surfaces, uplifted marine terraces, and low hills that lie south of the east-west-trending Santa Ynez Mountains. Several beaches line the actively

  17. Biomonitoring in California Firefighters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Israel, Leslie; McNeel, Sandra; Voss, Robert; Wang, Miaomiao; Gajek, Ryszard; Park, June-Soo; Harwani, Suhash; Barley, Frank; She, Jianwen; Das, Rupali

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To assess California firefighters' blood concentrations of selected chemicals and compare with a representative US population. Methods: We report laboratory methods and analytic results for cadmium, lead, mercury, and manganese in whole blood and 12 serum perfluorinated chemicals in a sample of 101 Southern California firefighters. Results: Firefighters' blood metal concentrations were all similar to or lower than the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) values, except for six participants whose mercury concentrations (range: 9.79 to 13.42 μg/L) were close to or higher than the NHANES reporting threshold of 10 μg/L. Perfluorodecanoic acid concentrations were elevated compared with NHANES and other firefighter studies. Conclusions: Perfluorodecanoic acid concentrations were three times higher in this firefighter group than in NHANES adult males. Firefighters may have unidentified sources of occupational exposure to perfluorinated chemicals. PMID:25563545

  18. SUGARLOAF ROADLESS AREA, CALIFORNIA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Robert E.; Campbell, Harry W.

    1984-01-01

    On the basis of geologic, geochemical, and geophysical investigations and a survey of mines, quarries, and prospects the Sugarloaf Roadless Area, California, has little promise for the occurrence of metallic mineral or energy resources. Units of carbonate rock and graphitic schist have demonstrated resources of magnesian marble and graphite. Sand, gravel, and construction stone other than carbonate rock are present in the roadless area, but similar or better quality materials are abundant and more accessible outside the area.

  19. Moving stormwater P management upstream (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, L. A.; Hobbie, S. E.; Finlay, J. C.; Kalinosky, P.; Janke, B.

    2013-12-01

    Reducing stormwater phosphorus loading using current approaches, which focus on treatment at the end of the pipe, is unlikely to reduce P loads enough to restore nutrient-impaired urban lakes. An indication of this is that of the nearly 150 nutrient impaired lakes in the Twin Cities region, only one has been restored. We hypothesize that substantial reduction of eutrophication will require reductions of P inputs upstream from storm drains. Developing source reduction strategies will required a shift in thinking about system boundaries, moving upstream from the storm drain to the curb, and from the curb to the watershed. Our Prior Lake Street Sweeping Project, a 2-year study of enhanced street sweeping, will be used to illustrate the idea of moving the system boundary to the curb. This study showed that P load recovery from sweeping increases with both sweeping frequency and overhead tree canopy cover. For high canopy streets, coarse organic material (tree leaves; seed pods, etc.) comprised 42% of swept material. We estimate that P inputs from trees may be half of measured storm P yields in 8 urban catchments in St. Paul, MN. Moreover, the cost of removing P during autumn was often 1000/lb P for stormwater ponds. We can also move further upstream, to the watershed boundary. P inputs to urban watersheds that enter lawns include lawn fertilizer, polyphosphates added to water supplies (and hence to lawns via irrigation), and pet food (transformed to pet waste). Minnesota enacted a lawn P fertilizer restriction in 2003, but early reductions in stormwater P loads were modest, probably reflecting reduction in direct wash-off of applied fertilizer. Because urban soils are enriched in P, growing turf has continued to extract available soil P. When turf is mowed, cut grass decomposes, generating P in runoff. As soil P becomes depleted, P concentrations in lawn runoff will gradually decline. Preliminary modeling suggests that substantial reductions in P export from lawns may

  20. Moving toward Biobehavioral Prevention Strategie

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJRH Managing Editor

    Brown University School of Public Health, 121 South Main St, Providence RI 02912 USA. *For Correspondence: E-mail: abigail_harrison@brown.edu; Phone: 014018636183. Abstract. This paper addresses current and emerging HIV prevention strategies for women in Sub-Saharan Africa, in light of recent trial results and ...

  1. Ecoregions of California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffith, Glenn E.; Omernik, James M.; Smith, David W.; Cook, Terry D.; Tallyn, Ed; Moseley, Kendra; Johnson, Colleen B.

    2016-02-23

    Ecoregions denote areas of general similarity in ecosystems and in the type, quality, and quantity of environmental resources. They are designed to serve as a spatial framework for the research, assessment, management, and monitoring of ecosystems and ecosystem components. By recognizing the spatial differences in the capacities and potentials of ecosystems, ecoregions stratify the environment by its probable response to disturbance (Bryce and others, 1999). These general purpose regions are critical for structuring and implementing ecosystem management strategies across Federal agencies, State agencies, and nongovernment organizations that are responsible for different types of resources in the same geographical areas (Omernik and others, 2000).The approach used to compile this map is based on the premise that ecological regions are hierarchical and can be identified through the analysis of the spatial patterns and the composition of biotic and abiotic phenomena that affect or reflect differences in ecosystem quality and integrity (Wiken, 1986; Omernik, 1987, 1995). These phenomena include geology, physiography, vegetation, climate, soils, land use, wildlife, and hydrology. The relative importance of each characteristic varies from one ecological region to another regardless of the hierarchical level. A Roman numeral hierarchical scheme has been adopted for different levels of ecological regions. Level I is the coarsest level, dividing North America into 15 ecological regions. Level II divides the continent into 50 regions (Commission for Environmental Cooperation Working Group, 1997, map revised 2006). At level III, the continental United States contains 105 ecoregions and the conterminous United States has 85 ecoregions (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 2013). Level IV, depicted here for California, is a further refinement of level III ecoregions. Explanations of the methods used to define these ecoregions are given in Omernik (1995), Omernik and others

  2. The combined effects of acidification and hypoxia on pH and aragonite saturation in the coastal waters of the California current ecosystem and the northern Gulf of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feely, Richard A.; Okazaki, Remy R.; Cai, Wei-Jun; Bednaršek, Nina; Alin, Simone R.; Byrne, Robert H.; Fassbender, Andrea

    2018-01-01

    horizon is currently above the hypoxic zone in the West Coast. With increasing atmospheric CO2, it is expected to shoal up close to surface waters under the IPCC Representative Concentration Pathway (RCP) 8.5 in West Coast waters, while aragonite saturation state will exhibit steeper gradients in the Gulf of Mexico. This study demonstrates how different biological thresholds (e.g., hypoxia, CaCO3 undersaturation, hypercapnia) will vary asymmetrically because of local initial conditions that are affected differently with increasing atmospheric CO2. The direction of change in amplitude of hypercapnia will be similar in both ecosystems, exposing both biological communities from the West Coast and Gulf of Mexico to intensification of stressful conditions. However, the region of lower Revelle factors (i.e., the Gulf of Mexico), currently provides an adequate refuge habitat that might no longer be the case under the most severe RCP scenarios.

  3. Against the odds: human values arising in unfavourable circumstances elicit the feeling of being moved.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strick, Madelijn; van Soolingen, Jantine

    2017-10-30

    People sometimes say they are "moved" or "touched" by something. Although the experience is familiar to most, systematic research on being moved has just begun. The current research aims to advance our understanding of the prototypical elicitors of being moved. We tested the hypothesis that being moved is elicited by core values (i.e. values that are particularly central to being human) that manifest themselves in circumstances that are unfavourable to their emergence. In three experiments, two with text stimuli and one with pictorial stimuli, we found compelling evidence that the same core value (e.g. love, willpower, beauty) is perceived as more moving when it emerges in unfavourable than in favourable circumstances. The effect was found in both males and females, although stronger in the latter group, and across all investigated core values, although love was generally more moving than other core values. The theoretical and practical significance of these findings is discussed.

  4. The California HIV/AIDS Research Program: History, Impact, and HIV Cure Initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loeb Stanga, Lisa; Mujeeb, Anwer; Packel, Laura; Martz, Tyler; Lemp, George

    2017-08-29

    This Special Issue of AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses features results from the HIV Cure Initiative, funded by the California HIV/AIDS Research Program (CHRP). As a publicly-funded grant maker, CHRP has served for more than three decades as a unique resource for innovative researchers in California whose work seeks to address all aspects of the HIV epidemic and the communities affected by it. Early initiatives at CHRP pioneered what would become enduring cornerstones of HIV science: isolation of the virus; efficacy and toxicities of the first HIV treatments; the emergence of drug resistance; the first biospecimen banks for HIV-related research; the first community-based laboratory service for HIV diagnostic serology; and the first population-based longitudinal cohort study of persons living with HIV - The Gay Men's Health Study. More recently, CHRP-funded conceptual studies of zinc finger nuclease-mediated disruption of CCR5 genomic sequences and the safety of solid organ transplantation for HIV-positive patients have progressed from brilliant ideas to clinical realities, and CHRP is currently funding the first multisite trial of HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis for transgender persons in the U.S. The present article outlines the founding of CHRP, our current grantmaking process, and our impact on HIV research over time. In 2013, CHRP launched a new initiative aimed at moving the then nascent area of HIV cure science forward: the CHRP HIV Cure Initiative provided over $1.4 million to multiple basic biomedical research projects, and their results are presented in this Special Issue.

  5. California community water systems inventory dataset, 2010

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Environmental Health Tracking Program — This data set contains information about all Community Water Systems in California. Data are derived from California Office of Drinking Water (ODW) Water Quality...

  6. The Canary Current system off the Iberian Peninsula and North ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    spamer

    The Canary Current system off the Iberian Peninsula and North-West Africa, the Humboldt Current system off western South America, the California Current system off the western United States, and the. Benguela Current system off the west coast of southern. Africa are the four major eastern boundary current regions.

  7. Cropland management plan Modoc National Wildlife Refuge Alturas California

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This plan will provide the guidance to move the current Modoc NWR farming program into a new program which is more in line with biological farming techniques. This...

  8. Learning cultures on the move: where are we heading?

    OpenAIRE

    Kukulska-Hulme, Agnes

    2010-01-01

    The paper analyzes the globally recognized cultural move towards a more learner-centred education and discusses the implications for the adoption of mobile technologies and design for learning. Current expectations vis-à-vis learner attributes, skills and competences are explored. The pervasiveness of mobile technologies is precipitating these developments, whilst also generating a distinct mobile culture where learners take mobility and context-awareness as starting points and become more vi...

  9. SEEDS Moving Groups and CHARIS Status Updates

    Science.gov (United States)

    McElwain, Michael

    2012-01-01

    We present the status update for the SEEDS Moving Groups category. To date, we have observed 59 targets and currently have more than 20 candidates. We also present the expected scientific capabilities of CHARIS, the Coronagraphic High Angular Resolution Imaging Spectrograph, which is being built for the Subaru 8.2 m telescope of the National Astronomical Observatory of Japan. CHARIS will be implemented behind the new extreme adaptive optics system at Subaru, SCExAO, and the existing 188-actuator system AO188. CHARIS will offer three observing modes over nearinfrared wavelengths from 0.9 to 2.4 microns (the y-, J-, H-, and K-bands), including a low-spectral-resolution mode covering this entire wavelength range and a high-resolution mode within a single band. With these capabilities, CHARIS will offer exceptional sensitivity for discovering giant exoplanets, and will enable detailed characterization of their atmospheres, CHARIS, the only planned high-contrast integral field spectrograph on an 8m-class telescope in the Northern Hemisphere, will complement the similar instruments such as Project 1640 at Palomar, and GPI and SPHERE in Chile.

  10. Foreground extraction for moving RGBD cameras

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junejo, Imran N.; Ahmed, Naveed

    2017-02-01

    In this paper, we propose a simple method to perform foreground extraction for a moving RGBD camera. These cameras have now been available for quite some time. Their popularity is primarily due to their low cost and ease of availability. Although the field of foreground extraction or background subtraction has been explored by the computer vision researchers since a long time, the depth-based subtraction is relatively new and has not been extensively addressed as of yet. Most of the current methods make heavy use of geometric reconstruction, making the solutions quite restrictive. In this paper, we make a novel use RGB and RGBD data: from the RGB frame, we extract corner features (FAST) and then represent these features with the histogram of oriented gradients (HoG) descriptor. We train a non-linear SVM on these descriptors. During the test phase, we make used of the fact that the foreground object has distinct depth ordering with respect to the rest of the scene. That is, we use the positively classified FAST features on the test frame to initiate a region growing to obtain the accurate segmentation of the foreground object from just the RGBD data. We demonstrate the proposed method of a synthetic datasets, and demonstrate encouraging quantitative and qualitative results.

  11. 78 FR 889 - Finding of Substantial Inadequacy of Implementation Plan; Call for California State...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-07

    ... at EPA Region IX, 75 Hawthorne Street, San Francisco, California, 94105-3901. While all documents in... Hawthorne Street, San Francisco, California 94105-3901, 415-947-4192, [email protected] . SUPPLEMENTARY... and asserts that methane affects the ozone layer. The citizen reports that current studies suggest...

  12. Improved electrical load match in California by combining solar thermal power plants with wind farms

    Science.gov (United States)

    The ability of wind and solar electrical energy generation to match the current utility electrical load in California was analyzed. We compared the renewable electrical generation and the utility load in California using actual hourly wind farm data at two different locations and predicted hourly p...

  13. Protocol for introducing new and licensed citrus varieties into California. A Florida case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    In the light of the current Huanglongbing (HLB) threat to the California (CA) citrus industry, and preliminary data indicating that some citrus varieties in Florida (FL) may possess some degree of tolerance to HLB, the California citrus growers indicated a strong interest in proactively introducing ...

  14. 77 FR 10598 - BIOTECH Holdings Ltd., California Oil & Gas Corp., Central Minera Corp., Chemokine Therapeutics...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-22

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION BIOTECH Holdings Ltd., California Oil & Gas Corp., Central Minera Corp., Chemokine Therapeutics... current and accurate information concerning the securities of California Oil & Gas Corp. because it has...

  15. Novel Simulated moving bed technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Purdue University

    2003-12-30

    Cellulose and hemicellulose from plants and other biomass can be hydrolyzed to produce sugars (i.e. glucose and xylose). Once these sugars are separated from other impurities, they can serve as feedstock in fermentation to produce ethanol (as fuels), lactic acid, or other valuable chemicals. The need for producing fuels and chemicals from renewable biomass has become abundantly clear over the last decade. However, the cost of producing fermentable sugars from biomass hydrolyzate using existing technology is relatively high and has been a major obstacle. The objective of this project is to develop an efficient and economical simulated moving bed (SMB) process to recover fermentable sugars from biomass hydrolyzate. Sulfuric acid can hydrolyze the cellulose and hemicellulose in biomass to sugars, but this process can generate byproducts such as acetic acid, and can lead to further degradation of the xylose to furfural and glucose to hydroxymethyl furfural (HMF). Also, lignin and other compounds in the biomass will degrade to various phenolic compounds. If the concentrations of these compounds exceed certain threshold levels, they will be toxic to the downstream fermentation, and will severely limit the usefulness of the derived sugars. Standard post-hydrolysis processing involves neutralization of sulfuric acid, usually with lime (calcium hydroxide). A study by Wooley et al.showed that the limed hydrolyzate gave a low ethanol yield in fermentation test (20% of theoretical yield compared to 77% of theoretical yield from fermentation of pure sugars). They showed that instead of adding lime, an ion exclusion chromatography process could be used to remove acids, as well as to isolate the sugars from the biomass hydrolyzate. In this project, we investigated the feasibility of developing an economical SMB process based on (1) a polymeric adsorbent, Dowex99, which was used by Wooley et al., (2) a second polymeric adsorbent, poly-4-vinyl pyridine (or PVP in short, Reilly

  16. New Tsunami Response, Mitigation, and Recovery Planning "Playbooks" for California (USA) Maritime Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, R. I.; Lynett, P. J.; Miller, K.; Eskijian, M.; Dengler, L. A.; Ayca, A.; Keen, A.; Admire, A. R.; Siegel, J.; Johnson, L. A.; Curtis, E.; Hornick, M.

    2015-12-01

    The 2010 Chile and 2011 Japan tsunamis both struck the California coast offering valuable experience and raised a number of significant issues for harbor masters, port captains, and other maritime entities. There was a general call for more planning products to help guide maritime communities in their tsunami response, mitigation, and recovery activities. The State of California is working with the U.S. Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA), the U.S. National Tsunami Hazard Mitigation Program (NTHMP), and other tsunami experts to provide communities with new tsunami planning tools to address these issues: Response Playbooks and plans have been developed for ports and harbors identifying potential tsunami current hazards and related damage for various size events. Maps have been generated showing minor, moderate, and severe damage levels that have been linked to current velocity thresholds of 3, 6, and 9 knots, respectively. Knowing this information allows harbor personnel to move ships or strengthen infrastructure prior to the arrival of distant source tsunamis. Damage probability tools and mitigation plans have been created to help reduce tsunami damage by evaluating the survivability of small and large vessels in harbors and ports. These results were compared to the actual damage assessments performed in California and Japan following the 2011 Japanese tsunami. Fragility curves were developed based on current velocity and direction to help harbor and port officials upgrade docks, piles, and related structures. Guidance documents are being generated to help in the development of both local and statewide recovery plans. Additional tools, like post-tsunami sediment and debris movement models, will allow harbors and ports to better understand if and where recovery issues are most likely to occur. Streamlining the regulatory and environmental review process is also a goal of the guidance. These maritime products and procedures are being integrated into guidance

  17. Improvisation: Another Way to Move and Dance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Rachel

    2004-01-01

    Using improvisation in movement and dance classes is an ideal way to help students relate to how their bodies move. Students can learn confidence from the way they move by experimenting with unconventional and different methods. Improvisation, as such, is responding spontaneously to stimuli (music) in order to create a composition that allows for…

  18. Moving core beam energy absorber and converter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degtiarenko, Pavel V.

    2012-12-18

    A method and apparatus for the prevention of overheating of laser or particle beam impact zones through the use of a moving-in-the-coolant-flow arrangement for the energy absorbing core of the device. Moving of the core spreads the energy deposition in it in 1, 2, or 3 dimensions, thus increasing the effective cooling area of the device.

  19. Multivariate Exponential Autoregressive and Autoregressive Moving ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Autoregressive (AR) and autoregressive moving average (ARMA) processes with multivariate exponential (ME) distribution are presented and discussed. The theory of positive dependence is used to show that in many cases, multivariate exponential autoregressive (MEAR) and multivariate autoregressive moving average ...

  20. Student-Centered Coaching: The Moves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweeney, Diane; Harris, Leanna S.

    2017-01-01

    Student-centered coaching is a highly-effective, evidence-based coaching model that shifts the focus from "fixing" teachers to collaborating with them to design instruction that targets student outcomes. But what does this look like in practice? "Student-Centered Coaching: The Moves" shows you the day-to-day coaching moves that…

  1. Natural convection flow between moving boundaries | Chepkwony ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The laminar steady natural convection flow of viscous, incompressible fluid between two moving vertical plates is considered. It is assumed that the plates are moving in opposite direction with equal velocity. The two-point boundary value problem governing the flow is characterized by a non-dimensional parameter K. It is ...

  2. 25 CFR 700.157 - Actual reasonable moving and related expenses-nonresidential moves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... services, including architect's, attorney's and engineer's fees, and consultant's charges, necessary for (i) planning the move of the personal property, (ii) moving the personal property, or (iii) installing the...

  3. Radioactive deposits in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, George W.; Lovering, Tom G.

    1954-01-01

    Reconnaissance examination by Government geologists of many areas, mine properties, and prospects in California during the period between 1948 and 1953 has confirmed the presence of radioactive materials in place at more than 40 localities. Abnormal radioactivity at these localities is due to concentrations of primary and secondary uranium minerals, to radon gas, radium (?), and to thorium minerals. Of the known occurrences only three were thought to contain uranium oxide (uranitite or pitchblende), 4 contained uranium-bearing columbate, tantalate, or titanate minerals, 12 contained secondary uranium minerals, such as autunite, carnotite, and torbernite, one contained radon gas, 7 contained thorium minerals, and, at the remaining 16 localities, the source of the anomalous radiation was not positively determined. The occurrences in which uranium oxide has been tentatively identified include the Rathgeb mine (Calaveras County), the Yerih group of claims (San Bernardino County), and the Rainbow claim (Madera County). Occurrences of secondary uranium minerals are largely confined to the arid desert regions of south-eastern California including deposits in San Bernardino, Kern, Inyo, and Imperial Counties. Uranium-bearing columbate, tantalate, or titanate minerals have been reported from pegmatite and granitic rock in southeastern and eastern California. Thorium minerals have been found in vein deposits in eastern San Bernardino County and from pegmatites and granitic rocks in various parts of southeastern California; placer concentrations of thorium minerals are known from nearly all areas in the State that are underlain, in part, by plutonic crystalline rocks. The primary uranium minerals occur principally as minute accessory crystals in pegmatite or granitic rock, or with base-metal sulfide minerals in veins. Thorium minerals also occur as accessory crystals in pegmatite or granitic rock, in placer deposits derived from such rock, and, at Mountain Pass, in veins

  4. California Tiger Salamander Range - CWHR [ds588

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — Vector datasets of CWHR range maps are one component of California Wildlife Habitat Relationships (CWHR), a comprehensive information system and predictive model for...

  5. Herpetofauna Surveys, Northern California - 2010 [ds694

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — We recorded all incidental herpetofauna encountered during visual encounter and dipnet surveys in northern California. Surveys took place from April 2, 2010 to...

  6. California Fish Passage Assessment Database [ds69

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — The Passage Assessment Database shapefile contains locations of known and potential barriers to salmonid migration in California streams with additional information...

  7. Moving Observer Support for Databases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bukauskas, Linas

    . The thesis discusses the VR-tree, an extension of the R-tree that enables observer relative data extraction. To support incremental observer position relative data extraction the thesis proposes the Volatile Access Structure (VAST). VAST is a main memory structure that caches nodes of the VR-tree. VAST......Interactive visual data explorations impose rigid requirements on database and visualization systems. Systems that visualize huge amounts of data tend to request large amounts of memory resources and heavily use the CPU to process and visualize data. Current systems employ a loosely coupled...

  8. Satellite Remote Sensing Detection of Wastewater Plumes in Southern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trinh, R. C.; Holt, B.; Pan, B. J.; Rains, C.; Gierach, M. M.

    2014-12-01

    Wastewater discharged through ocean outfalls can surface near coastlines and beaches, posing a threat to the marine environment and human health. Coastal waters of the Southern California Bight (SCB) are an ecologically important marine habitat and a valuable resource in terms of commercial fishing and recreation. Two of the largest wastewater treatment plants along the U.S. West Coast discharge into the SCB, including the Hyperion Wastewater Treatment Plant (HWTP) and the Orange County Sanitation District (OCSD). In 2006, HWTP conducted an internal inspection of its primary 8 km outfall pipe (60 m depth), diverting treated effluent to a shorter 1.2 km pipe (18 m depth) from Nov. 28 to Nov. 30. From Sep. 11 - Oct. 4, 2012, OCSD conducted a similar diversion, diverting effluent from their 7 km outfall pipe to a shallower 2.2 km pipe, both with similar depths to HWTP. Prevailing oceanographic conditions in the SCB, such as temporally reduced stratification and surface circulation patterns, increased the risk of effluent being discharged from these shorter and shallower pipes surfacing and moving onshore. The aim of this study was to evaluate the capabilities of satellite remote sensing data (i.e., sea surface roughness from SAR, sea surface temperature from MODIS-Aqua and ASTER-Terra, chlorophyll-a and water leaving radiance from MODIS-Aqua) in the identification and tracking of wastewater plumes during the 2006 HWTP and 2012 OCSD diversion events. Satellite observations were combined with in situ, wind, and current data taken during the diversion events, to validate remote sensing techniques and gain surface to subsurface context of the nearshore diversion events. Overall, it was found that satellite remote sensing data were able to detect surfaced wastewater plumes along the coast, providing key spatial information that could inform in situ field sampling during future diversion events, such as the planned 2015 HWTP diversion, and thereby constrain costs.

  9. California State Waters Map Series—Offshore of Monterey, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Samuel Y.; Dartnell, Peter; Hartwell, Stephen R.; Cochrane, Guy R.; Golden, Nadine E.; Watt, Janet T.; Davenport, Clifton W.; Kvitek, Rikk G.; Erdey, Mercedes D.; Krigsman, Lisa M.; Sliter, Ray W.; Maier, Katherine L.; Johnson, Samuel Y.; Cochran, Susan A.

    2016-08-18

    swells from the northwest throughout the year. Wave heights range from 2 to 10 m, the larger swells occurring from October to May. During El Niño–Southern Oscillation (ENSO) events, winter storms track farther south than they do in normal (non-ENSO) years, thereby impacting the map area more frequently and with waves of larger heights.Benthic species observed in the map area are natives of the cold-temperate biogeographic zone that is called either the “Oregonian province” or the “northern California ecoregion.” This biogeographic province is maintained by the long-term stability of the southward-flowing California Current, the eastern limb of the North Pacific subtropical gyre that flows from southern British Columbia to Baja California.Biological productivity resulting from coastal upwelling supports populations of Sooty Shearwater, Western Gull, Common Murre, Cassin’s Auklet, and many other less populous bird species. An observable recovery of Humpback and Blue Whales has occurred in the area; both species are dependent on coastal upwelling to provide nutrients. The large extent of exposed inner shelf bedrock supports large forests of “bull kelp,” which is well adapted for high-wave-energy environments. The kelp beds are well-known habitat for the population of southern sea otters. Common fish species found in the kelp beds and rocky reefs include lingcod and various species of rockfish and greenling.

  10. Staggering successes amid controversy in California water management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lund, J. R.

    2012-12-01

    Water in California has always been important and controversial, and it probably always will be. California has a large, growing economy and population in a semi-arid climate. But California's aridity, hydrologic variability, and water controversies have not precluded considerable economic successes. The successes of California's water system have stemmed from the decentralization of water management with historically punctuated periods of more centralized strategic decision-making. Decentralized management has allowed California's water users to efficiently explore incremental solutions to water problems, ranging from early local development of water systems (such as Hetch Hetchy, Owens Valley, and numerous local irrigation projects) to more contemporary efforts at water conservation, water markets, wastewater reuse, and conjunctive use of surface and groundwater. In the cacophony of local and stakeholder interests, strategic decisions have been more difficult, and consequently occur less frequently. California state water projects and Sacramento Valley flood control are examples where decades of effort, crises, floods and droughts were needed to mobilize local interests to agree to major strategic decisions. Currently, the state is faced with making strategic environmental and water management decisions regarding its deteriorating Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta. Not surprisingly, human uncertainties and physical and fiscal non-stationarities dominate this process.

  11. Conservation issues: California chaparral

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halsey, Richard W.; Keeley, Jon E.

    2016-01-01

    California chaparral, a sclerophyllous shrub-dominated plant community shaped by a Mediterranean-type climate and infrequent, high-intensity fire, is one of the most biodiverse and threatened habitats on Earth. Distinct forms of chaparral, distinguished by differing species composition, geography, and edaphic characteristics, can cover thousands of hectares with dense vegetation or be restricted to smaller communities identified by the presence of endemic species. To maintain the biodiversity of chaparral, protective land management actions will be required to mitigate the loss due to the impacts of human population growth, development, climate change, and increased fire frequencies.

  12. The role of technology transfer and emerging technologies in California`s economic recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Ayat, R.A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Moody, J. [California Univ., Berkeley, CA (United States). Graduate School of Public Policy

    1994-02-01

    This report was prepared as part of a study supported by the California Trade and Commerce Agency (TCA), Defense Conversion/Base Closure Planning Program. It is one of several reports supporting the TCA`s efforts to develop a State Plan to address the economic impact of defense downsizing and base closures in California. The report focuses on: Examining existing federal technology transfer efforts -- the organizations involved, the funding mechanisms that are available, the processes by which technology transfer takes place -- and how they can help the state deal with the economic impact of base closures and defense downsizing. Evaluating the role of technology transfer in helping California develop a strong, technology-based economy capable of competing in an increasingly competitive world marketplace. Identifying ``critical technologies,`` and determining which of these technologies are likely to have the most impact on the economic future of the state and the nation. Reviewing current and proposed California technology transfer programs/initiatives and examining the role the state should play in supporting these efforts.

  13. 29 CFR 779.249 - Goods which move or have moved across State lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... sells the goods. Thus, if goods have moved across State lines at some stage in the flow of trade before... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Goods which move or have moved across State lines. 779.249... STANDARDS ACT AS APPLIED TO RETAILERS OF GOODS OR SERVICES Employment to Which the Act May Apply; Enterprise...

  14. Moving Matters: The Causal Effect of Moving Schools on Student Performance. Working Paper #01-15

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Amy Ellen; Stiefel, Leanna; Cordes, Sarah A.

    2015-01-01

    The majority of existing research on mobility indicates that students do worse in the year of a school move. This research, however, has been unsuccessful in isolating the causal effects of mobility and often fails to distinguish the heterogeneous impacts of moves, conflating structural moves (mandated by a school's terminal grade) and…

  15. California's Future: K-12 Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Laura; Gao, Niu; Warren, Paul

    2015-01-01

    California educates more than six million children in its K-12 public schools. More than half of these children are economically disadvantaged, and almost a quarter are not native English speakers (compared to less than one in ten nationwide). California is working to address these challenges, in part by adopting a new, simplified school finance…

  16. New constraints on relative motion between the Pacific Plate and Baja California microplate (Mexico) from GPS measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plattner, C.; Malservisi, R.; Dixon, T. H.; LaFemina, P.; Sella, G. F.; Fletcher, J.; Suarez-Vidal, F.

    2007-09-01

    We present a new surface velocity field for Baja California using GPS data to test the rigidity of this microplate, calculate its motion in a global reference frame, determine its relative motion with respect to the North American and the Pacific plates, and compare those results to our estimate for Pacific-North America motion. Determination of Pacific Plate motion is improved by the inclusion of four sites from the South Pacific Sea Level and Climate Monitoring Project. These analyses reveal that Baja California moves as a quasi-rigid block but at a slower rate in the same direction, as the Pacific Plate relative to North America. This is consistent with seismic activity along the western edge of Baja California (the Baja California shear zone), and may reflect resistance to motion of the eastern edge of the Pacific Plate caused by the `big bend' of the San Andreas fault and the Transverse Ranges in southern California.

  17. Examining accident reports involving autonomous vehicles in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nader, Nazanin; Eurich, Sky O.; Tripp, Michelle; Varadaraju, Naresh

    2017-01-01

    Autonomous Vehicle technology is quickly expanding its market and has found in Silicon Valley, California, a strong foothold for preliminary testing on public roads. In an effort to promote safety and transparency to consumers, the California Department of Motor Vehicles has mandated that reports of accidents involving autonomous vehicles be drafted and made available to the public. The present work shows an in-depth analysis of the accident reports filed by different manufacturers that are testing autonomous vehicles in California (testing data from September 2014 to March 2017). The data provides important information on autonomous vehicles accidents’ dynamics, related to the most frequent types of collisions and impacts, accident frequencies, and other contributing factors. The study also explores important implications related to future testing and validation of semi-autonomous vehicles, tracing the investigation back to current literature as well as to the current regulatory panorama. PMID:28931022

  18. Examining accident reports involving autonomous vehicles in California.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca M Favarò

    Full Text Available Autonomous Vehicle technology is quickly expanding its market and has found in Silicon Valley, California, a strong foothold for preliminary testing on public roads. In an effort to promote safety and transparency to consumers, the California Department of Motor Vehicles has mandated that reports of accidents involving autonomous vehicles be drafted and made available to the public. The present work shows an in-depth analysis of the accident reports filed by different manufacturers that are testing autonomous vehicles in California (testing data from September 2014 to March 2017. The data provides important information on autonomous vehicles accidents' dynamics, related to the most frequent types of collisions and impacts, accident frequencies, and other contributing factors. The study also explores important implications related to future testing and validation of semi-autonomous vehicles, tracing the investigation back to current literature as well as to the current regulatory panorama.

  19. Examining accident reports involving autonomous vehicles in California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Favarò, Francesca M; Nader, Nazanin; Eurich, Sky O; Tripp, Michelle; Varadaraju, Naresh

    2017-01-01

    Autonomous Vehicle technology is quickly expanding its market and has found in Silicon Valley, California, a strong foothold for preliminary testing on public roads. In an effort to promote safety and transparency to consumers, the California Department of Motor Vehicles has mandated that reports of accidents involving autonomous vehicles be drafted and made available to the public. The present work shows an in-depth analysis of the accident reports filed by different manufacturers that are testing autonomous vehicles in California (testing data from September 2014 to March 2017). The data provides important information on autonomous vehicles accidents' dynamics, related to the most frequent types of collisions and impacts, accident frequencies, and other contributing factors. The study also explores important implications related to future testing and validation of semi-autonomous vehicles, tracing the investigation back to current literature as well as to the current regulatory panorama.

  20. Crustal thickness estimates for Baja California, Sonora, and Sinaloa, Mexico, using disperse surface waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Pineda, Leobardo; Rebollar, Cecilio J.; Quintanar, Luis

    2007-04-01

    Dispersed surface waves of regional events recorded at Network of Autonomously Recording Seismographs (NARS)-Baja and Red Sísmica de Banda Ancha (RESBAN) networks located over the Baja California Peninsula, Sonora, and Sinaloa, Mexico, were used to estimate shear wave elastic models and crustal thickness. We analyzed fundamental modes of surface waves with period between 10 and 40 s. Multiple filter analysis and the inversion method described by Herrmann and Ammon (2003) was used. Crustal thickness estimates for the Peninsular Ranges of Northern Baja California agree with those obtained by previous studies in the Peninsular Ranges of Northern Baja California. We analyzed dispersion of surface waves with northwest-southeast travel paths along the east and west sides of the Baja California Peninsula as well as a northwest-southeast travel path along the western sides of the Mexican states of Sonora and Sinaloa. It was found that the crustal structure east of the Baja California Peninsula is similar to the structure of Sonora and Sinaloa. The correlation between those two structures suggests dextral offset of the order of 275 ± 25 km if we consider Baja California Peninsula as a rigid body moving toward the northwest relative to the North America plate. This displacement between the structures is in agreement with the displacement determined by the dating of Miocene deposits located in San Felipe on the Baja California Peninsula (Pacific plate), and Isle Tiburon located west of Sonora (North America plate).

  1. Move two: establishing a niche

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wasima Shehzad

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available The significant purpose of the author in the Introduction of a research article is to convince the reader about the importance of the work to be presented. To achieve this end, a convincing “niche” needs to be built by evaluating, rejecting or indicating gaps in previous related work. The purpose of “establishing a niche” is to emphasize the current research project presented by the author. The present paper investigates how Computer scientists use this obligatory step of “Create a Research Space” (CARS model (Swales & Feak, 1994 & 2004 to highlight their own research work. This paper not only compares the results with other similar studies but also presents an in-depth analysis of various types of gap statements used in Computer Science research article Introductions. The issue of cyclicity of this step and the linguistic indicators used for the establishment of “niche” (the gap statements are both discussed.

  2. Copulation by California condors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilbur, S.R.; Borneman, J.C.

    1972-01-01

    Koford (Res. Rept. No. 3, Natl. Audubon Soc., 1953) observed sexual display among California Condors (Gymnogyps californianus) on more than 30 occasions, yet only once did he see what he thought was copulation. Some of the displays he watched were quite intricate, with considerable posturing and "male" aggression, but no such activity preceded this copulation. The birds sat several feet apart for over 1 hour, then one climbed onto the other's back, staying there 1/2 minute and flapping gently at the apparent moment of coition. Afterward they sat quietly 1/2 hour before flying away. This led Koford to state (p. 79) that "possibly in Gymnogyps copulation is not immediately preceded by display." We have records of 8 California Condor copulations, 5 of which are similar to that described above. The three other occasions began similarly, with the birds sitting quietly, but then the "male" displayed briefly before the "female" with wings half spread and head drooping forward. This elicited no apparent response, but the male immediately walked behind and mounted the female. The apparent moment of coition was accompanied by gentle wing flapping in all instances.

  3. Rearrangement moves on rooted phylogenetic networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippe Gambette

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Phylogenetic tree reconstruction is usually done by local search heuristics that explore the space of the possible tree topologies via simple rearrangements of their structure. Tree rearrangement heuristics have been used in combination with practically all optimization criteria in use, from maximum likelihood and parsimony to distance-based principles, and in a Bayesian context. Their basic components are rearrangement moves that specify all possible ways of generating alternative phylogenies from a given one, and whose fundamental property is to be able to transform, by repeated application, any phylogeny into any other phylogeny. Despite their long tradition in tree-based phylogenetics, very little research has gone into studying similar rearrangement operations for phylogenetic network-that is, phylogenies explicitly representing scenarios that include reticulate events such as hybridization, horizontal gene transfer, population admixture, and recombination. To fill this gap, we propose "horizontal" moves that ensure that every network of a certain complexity can be reached from any other network of the same complexity, and "vertical" moves that ensure reachability between networks of different complexities. When applied to phylogenetic trees, our horizontal moves-named rNNI and rSPR-reduce to the best-known moves on rooted phylogenetic trees, nearest-neighbor interchange and rooted subtree pruning and regrafting. Besides a number of reachability results-separating the contributions of horizontal and vertical moves-we prove that rNNI moves are local versions of rSPR moves, and provide bounds on the sizes of the rNNI neighborhoods. The paper focuses on the most biologically meaningful versions of phylogenetic networks, where edges are oriented and reticulation events clearly identified. Moreover, our rearrangement moves are robust to the fact that networks with higher complexity usually allow a better fit with the data. Our goal is to provide

  4. Rearrangement moves on rooted phylogenetic networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gambette, Philippe; van Iersel, Leo; Jones, Mark; Lafond, Manuel; Pardi, Fabio; Scornavacca, Celine

    2017-08-01

    Phylogenetic tree reconstruction is usually done by local search heuristics that explore the space of the possible tree topologies via simple rearrangements of their structure. Tree rearrangement heuristics have been used in combination with practically all optimization criteria in use, from maximum likelihood and parsimony to distance-based principles, and in a Bayesian context. Their basic components are rearrangement moves that specify all possible ways of generating alternative phylogenies from a given one, and whose fundamental property is to be able to transform, by repeated application, any phylogeny into any other phylogeny. Despite their long tradition in tree-based phylogenetics, very little research has gone into studying similar rearrangement operations for phylogenetic network-that is, phylogenies explicitly representing scenarios that include reticulate events such as hybridization, horizontal gene transfer, population admixture, and recombination. To fill this gap, we propose "horizontal" moves that ensure that every network of a certain complexity can be reached from any other network of the same complexity, and "vertical" moves that ensure reachability between networks of different complexities. When applied to phylogenetic trees, our horizontal moves-named rNNI and rSPR-reduce to the best-known moves on rooted phylogenetic trees, nearest-neighbor interchange and rooted subtree pruning and regrafting. Besides a number of reachability results-separating the contributions of horizontal and vertical moves-we prove that rNNI moves are local versions of rSPR moves, and provide bounds on the sizes of the rNNI neighborhoods. The paper focuses on the most biologically meaningful versions of phylogenetic networks, where edges are oriented and reticulation events clearly identified. Moreover, our rearrangement moves are robust to the fact that networks with higher complexity usually allow a better fit with the data. Our goal is to provide a solid basis for

  5. Performance Simulations of Moving Target Search Algorithms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter K. K. Loh

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The design of appropriate moving target search (MTS algorithms for computer-generated bots poses serious challenges as they have to satisfy stringent requirements that include computation and execution efficiency. In this paper, we investigate the performance and behaviour of existing moving target search algorithms when applied to search-and-capture gaming scenarios. As part of the investigation, we also introduce a novel algorithm known as abstraction MTS. We conduct performance simulations with a game bot and moving target within randomly generated mazes of increasing sizes and reveal that abstraction MTS exhibits competitive performance even with large problem spaces.

  6. Missions on the Move: University Systems in England, New York State and California

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jager, Gerrit

    2011-01-01

    Universities' fundamental missions generally differ. For example, institutions can either focus on research or on teaching. Over time, these missions tend to change, and in some cases this is referred to as "mission creep". This negative epithet is reserved for universities with limited research capacities that try to emulate…

  7. Collision vulnerability of marine birds within the California Current System

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Four metrics were used to determine Collision Vulnerability: Diurnal and nocturnal flight activity, flight-height (defined as time spent in rotor sweep zone), and...

  8. Displacement vulnerability of marine birds within the California Current System

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Two metrics were used to determine Collision Vulnerability: Macro-avoidance and habitat flexibility. Macro-avoidance (MA)—The macro-avoidance values for species...

  9. Analysis of Eddy Resolving Model of the California Current System

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cipriano, Nicholas

    1998-01-01

    A high-resolution, multi-level, primitive equation ocean model is used to investigate the combined role of seasonal wind forcing, thermohaline gradients, and coastline irregularities on the formation...

  10. Developing a comprehensive measure of mobility: mobility over varied environments scale (MOVES).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirsch, Jana A; Winters, Meghan; Sims-Gould, Joanie; Clarke, Philippa J; Ste-Marie, Nathalie; Ashe, Maureen; McKay, Heather A

    2017-05-25

    While recent work emphasizes the multi-dimensionality of mobility, no current measure incorporates multiple domains of mobility. Using existing conceptual frameworks we identified four domains of mobility (physical, cognitive, social, transportation) to create a "Mobility Over Varied Environments Scale" (MOVES). We then assessed expected patterns of MOVES in the Canadian population. An expert panel identified survey items within each MOVES domain from the Canadian Community Health Survey- Healthy Aging Cycle (2008-2009) for 28,555 (weighted population n = 12,805,067) adults (≥45 years). We refined MOVES using principal components analysis and Cronbach's alpha and weighted items so each domain was 10 points. Expected mobility trends, as assessed by average MOVES, were examined by sociodemographic and health factors, and by province, using Analysis of Variance (ANOVA). MOVES ranged from 0 to 40, where 0 represents individuals who are immobile and 40 those who are fully mobile. Mean MOVES was 29.58 (95% confidence interval (CI) 29.49, 29.67) (10th percentile: 24.17 (95% CI 23.96, 24.38), 90th percentile: 34.70 (CI 34.55, 34.85)). MOVES scores were lower for older, female, and non-white Canadians with worse health and lower socioeconomic status. MOVES was also lower for those who live in less urban areas. MOVES is a holistic measure of mobility for characterizing older adult mobility across populations. Future work should examine individual or neighborhood predictors of MOVES and its relationship to broader health outcomes. MOVES holds utility for research, surveillance, evaluation, and interventions around the broad factors influencing mobility in older adults.

  11. FDTD Seismic Simulation of Moving Tracked Vehicle

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ketcham, Stephen

    2000-01-01

    This paper describes the utility of a large finite-difference time domain (FDTD) simulation of seismic wave propagation from a spatially and time varying source that generically represents a moving tracked vehicle...

  12. Moving Women Up the District Ladder

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Merri Rosenberg

    2017-01-01

    ..., was clearly moving on a fast track. [...]when her husband, who works in educational technology in another Ohio district, spotted a promotional notice on the AASA website about the association's upcoming Women's Leadership Consortium...

  13. Being Moved: Linguistic Representation and Conceptual Structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milena eKuehnast

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This study explored the organisation of the semantic field and the conceptual structure of moving experiences by investigating German-language expressions referring to the emotional state of being moved. We used present and past participles of eight psychological verbs as primes in a free word-association task, as these grammatical forms place their conceptual focus on the eliciting situation and on the felt emotional state, respectively. By applying a taxonomy of basic knowledge types and computing the Cognitive Salience Index, we identified joy and sadness as key emotional ingredients of being moved, and significant life events and art experiences as main elicitors of this emotional state. Metric multidimensional scaling analyses of the semantic field revealed that the core terms designate a cluster of emotional states characterised by low degrees of arousal and slightly positive valence, the latter due to a nearly balanced representation of positive and negative elements in the conceptual structure of being moved.

  14. MOVES2010a regional level sensitivity analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-10

    This document discusses the sensitivity of various input parameter effects on emission rates using the US Environmental Protection Agencys (EPAs) MOVES2010a model at the regional level. Pollutants included in the study are carbon monoxide (CO),...

  15. Moving objects management models, techniques and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Meng, Xiaofeng; Xu, Jiajie

    2014-01-01

    This book describes the topics of moving objects modeling and location tracking, indexing and querying, clustering, location uncertainty, traffic aware navigation and privacy issues as well as the application to intelligent transportation systems.

  16. Moving the Force: Desert Storm and Beyond

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-12-01

    Desert Shield~ Desert Storm, we could have met our airlift deployment requirements 20 to 35 percent faster. ~° Similar analyses of the Somalian Restore...DATE DEC 1994 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED - 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Moving The Force: Desert Storm and Beyond 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b...MOVING THE FORCE: Desert Storm and Beyond SCOTT W. CONRAD McNair Paper 32 December 1994 INSTITUTE FOR NATIONAL STRATEGIC STUDIES NATIONAL DEFENSE

  17. Moving Wallpaper-Digital Interactive Projections.

    OpenAIRE

    Richardson, Andrew

    2009-01-01

    Moving Wallpaper is an computational generative and reactive piece of work which comes from a desire to apply the ethos and design sensibilities of the Arts and Crafts movement within the context of contemporary design. Inspired by the elegant patterns, forms and structure of the Willow and Jasmine wallpaper designs of William Morris, the Moving Wallpaper project seeks to create digital ‘wallpaper’ which introduces the elegance, beauty and humanity of Arts and Crafts design into digital progr...

  18. EPA to approve Californias newest list of impaired waterways

    Science.gov (United States)

    SAN FRANCISCO - More than 40,000 miles of California's rivers and streams are currently threatened by pollution, according to a list of impaired waterways submitted by the state to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Monitoring of rivers, lakes and

  19. The histories and destinies of Chile and California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooke Penaluna

    2016-01-01

    In Strangers on Familiar Soil, Edward Dallam Melillo shows how Californians and Chileans each have one foot on their land and the other connecting them through the Pacific Ocean. Melillo reframes our understanding of US history in the west and links the histories and destinies of Chile and California from 1786 to the current day. Contrary to popular belief, Melillo...

  20. Aboveground tree biomass for Pinus ponderosa in northeastern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin W. Ritchie; Jianwei Zhang; Todd A. Hamilton

    2013-01-01

    Forest managers need accurate biomass equations to plan thinning for fuel reduction or energy production. Estimates of carbon sequestration also rely upon such equations. The current allometric equations for ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) commonly employed for California forests were developed elsewhere, and are often applied without consideration potential for...

  1. Closing the School Discipline Gap in California: Signs of Progress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Losen, Daniel J.; Keith, Michael A., II; Hodson, Cheri L.; Martinez, Tia E.; Belway, Shakti

    2015-01-01

    This report describes the most current state and district suspension rates, and covers both trends and racial disparities in the use of suspension in California. A spreadsheet accompanying this report enables any reader to find their own district's most recent disaggregated data, as well as three-year trends for out-of-school suspensions, all of…

  2. A Benchmark for Evaluating Moving Object Indexes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Su; Jensen, Christian Søndergaard; Lin, Dan

    2008-01-01

    Progress in science and engineering relies on the ability to measure, reliably and in detail, pertinent properties of artifacts under design. Progress in the area of database-index design thus relies on empirical studies based on prototype implementations of indexes. This paper proposes a benchmark...... that targets techniques for the indexing of the current and near-future positions of moving objects. This benchmark enables the comparison of existing and future indexing techniques. It covers important aspects of such indexes that have not previously been covered by any benchmark. Notable aspects covered...... include update efficiency, query efficiency, concurrency control, and storage requirements. Next, the paper applies the benchmark to half a dozen notable moving-object indexes, thus demonstrating the viability of the benchmark and offering new insight into the performance properties of the indexes....

  3. Current Trends in Language Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Revue des Langues Vivantes, 1975

    1975-01-01

    Examines the effects of Chomsky's theories of linguistics and language acquisition on language teaching methodology, specifically on the use of the audio-lingual method. Current trends in methodology move in two basic directions: 1) towards relaxation of the tighter restrictions of the audio-lingual method, and 2) towards development of techniques…

  4. AFSC/NMML/CCEP: Northern fur seal demography at San Miguel Island, California, 1974 - 2014

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Marine Mammal Laboratories' California Current Ecosystem Program (AFSC/NOAA) initiated a long-term marking program of northern fur seals (Callorhinus...

  5. AFSC/NMML/CCEP: Food Habits of Pinnipeds at San Miguel Island, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Marine Mammal Laboratories' California Current Ecosystem Program (AFSC/NOAA) collects fecal samples to examine the diet of pinnipeds, including...

  6. Erosion of a California Undercurrent eddy by bottom topography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Hector S.; Gomez-Valdes, Jose

    2017-05-01

    Subsurface eddies are ubiquitous features in eastern boundary current systems. These phenomena tend to modulate the across-shore distribution of heat and biogeochemical tracers. A California Undercurrent eddy was detected by shipboard observations in October 2009 off the northern Baja California continental slope. The spatiotemporal variation in the California Undercurrent eddy is investigated by using a mesoscale-resolving hindcast ocean simulation. A poleward coastal current that is driven by an upwelling-wind relaxation event and the coastline geometry instigated the separation of the California Undercurrent from the slope, forming a meander-like structure, which evolved as a mesoscale eddy-like structure. The latter structure evolved as a subsurface eddy with a warm anomaly core, a distinctive feature of eddies that form from the California Undercurrent. During the initial stage, the subsurface eddy presented a cone-shape form, with the maximum amplitude of the relative vorticity in the upper section. The inviscid effect of the irregular bottom topography altered both the initial direction of propagation and the initial eddy shape: the propagation direction of the eddy changed from north-south to southwest, and the shape changed from a cone shape to a subsurface lens shape. The strong eddy-topography interactions triggered a sign change in the heat flux direction from the environment toward the eddy and vice versa through the horizontally divergent component of the velocity field, which accelerated the eddy's decay. This study shows the relevance of the synoptic wind stress events and the irregularity of the bottom topography on the mesoscale eddy activity in the southern portion of the California Current.

  7. Adiantum shastense, a new species of maidenhair fern from California

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Layne Huiet

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available A new species of Adiantum is described from California. This species is endemic to northern California and is currently known only from Shasta County. We describe its discovery after first being collected over a century ago and distinguish it from A. jordanii and A. capillus-veneris. It is evergreen and is sometimes, but not always, associated with limestone. The range of Adiantum shastense Huiet & A.R.Sm., sp. nov., is similar to several other Shasta County endemics that occur in the mesic forests of the Eastern Klamath Range, close to Shasta Lake, on limestone and metasedimentary substrates.

  8. Spin current

    CERN Document Server

    Valenzuela, Sergio O; Saitoh, Eiji; Kimura, Takashi

    2012-01-01

    In a new branch of physics and technology called spin-electronics or spintronics, the flow of electrical charge (usual current) as well as the flow of electron spin, the so-called 'spin current', are manipulated and controlled together. This book provides an introduction and guide to the new physics and application of spin current.

  9. From California dreaming to California data: Challenging historic models for landfill CH4 emissions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kurt Spokas

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Improved quantification of diverse CH4 sources at the urban scale is needed to guide local GHG mitigation strategies in the Anthropocene. Herein, we focus on landfill CH4 emissions in California, challenging the current IPCC methodology which focuses on a climate dependency for landfill CH4 generation (methanogenesis, but does not explicitly consider climate or soil dependencies for emissions. Relying on a comprehensive California landfill database, a field-validated process-based model for landfill CH4 emissions (CALMIM, and select field measurements at 10 California sites with a variety of methods, we support the contrary position: Limited climate dependency for methanogenesis, but strong climate dependency for landfill CH4 emissions. Contrary to the historic IPCC empirical model for methanogenesis with kinetic constants related to climate, we demonstrate a simpler and more robust linear empirical relationship (r2 = 0.85; n=128 between waste mass and landfill biogas recovery [126 × 10-6 Nm3 CH4 hr-1 Mgwaste-1]. More interestingly, there are no statistically significant relationships with climate, site age, or status (open/closed for landfill biogas recovery. The current IPCC methodology does not consider soil or climate drivers for gaseous transport or seasonal methanotrophy in different cover soils. On the other hand, we illustrate strong climate and soil dependencies for landfill emissions—e.g., average intermediate cover emissions below 20 g CH4 m-2 d-1 when the site’s mean annual precipitation is >500 mm y-1. Thereby, for the California landfill CH4 inventory, the highest-emitting sites shift from landfills containing the largest mass of waste to sites dominated by intermediate cover types having a reduced rate of soil CH4 oxidation during the annual cycle. These differences have profound implications for developing more realistic, science-based urban and regional scale GHG inventories for landfill CH4 while reducing

  10. Tectonic comparisons of Caucasus and California cordillera

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mulhern, M.E.

    1986-05-01

    Many parallels exist between the Caucasus region, shaped as the Eurasian and Arabian-African plates converged during the Cenozoic Alpine orogeny, and California, where the North American and Pacific plates interact. The Forecaucasian platform hosts many large oil and gas fields in molasse-filled foredeeps of high heat flow. Production is from Permian to Pliocene tight anticlines on reverse faults, diapiric structures, shoe-string sands of the prolific Maikop series, and Tertiary fanglomerates and sand lenses. Although not an exact parallel, this production suggests potential in Paleozoic and Mesozoic marine and Tertiary fanglomeratic, tuffaceous, and fluvial sediments in basins of the sparsely drilled Basin and Range. The Greater Caucasus, like the Sierra Nevada, show Paleozoic-Mesozoic geosynclinal sedimentation, subduction, and granitic magmatism. The former have undergone much folding, thrusting, and Quaternary volcanism. Jurassic bituminous limestone is exposed, a source for the petroliferous Transcaucasian Intermontane depression. The latter is filled with thick Mesozoic-Cenozoic flysch and molasse and, like California's Great Valley forearc basin, orogenic terrane and permeable soils favor enology. Sources also include Eocene and Miocene diatomaceous and bituminous clays. Reservoirs include prolific Pliocene sands, Eocene olistostromes, fractured tuffaceous rocks, and Cretaceous-Miocene sandstones in anticlines and stratigraphic traps. Migration to basin flanks was aided by compression. The Lesser Caucasus, a continuation of the main ophiolite foldbelt of Turkey, shares a subduction and accretionary history with the Franciscan melange. This microplate was obducted to Eurasia as the prong-shaped Arabian plate moved it and other microplates of the east Mediterranean in several directions (the Turkish microplate dextrally along the North Anatolian transform fault) and deformed wide areas.

  11. NEXRAD Rainfall Data: Eureka, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Next-Generation Radar (NEXRAD) Weather Surveillance Radar 1988 (WSR-88D) measurements were used to support AMSR-E rainfall validation efforts in Eureka, California,...

  12. California from drought to deluge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, S.-Y. Simon; Yoon, Jin-Ho; Becker, Emily; Gillies, Robert

    2017-07-01

    The dramatic switch from extreme drought to severe flooding in California, and the accompanying flip from atmospheric ridge to trough in the northeastern Pacific, exemplifies the pathways to an intensified water cycle under a warming climate.

  13. Flight tracks, Northern California TRACON

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This dataset contains the records of all the flights in the Northern California TRACON. The data was provided by the aircraft noise abatement office...

  14. Chukar Range - California [ds570

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — This layer was created from regional biologist input on paper maps. All paper maps were collected and sent to a single Research Analyst to digitize. Some liberties...

  15. Ecological zones of California deserts

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The dataset delineates ecological zones within California deserts. We derived ecological zones by reclassifying LANDFIRE vegetation biophysical setting types, plus...

  16. DS796 California Groundwater Units

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The California Groundwater Units dataset classifies and delineates the State into one of three groundwater based polygon units: (1) those areas defined as alluvial...

  17. Contours--Offshore Aptos, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents data for the bathymetric contours for several seafloor maps of the Offshore of Aptos map area, California. The vector data file is...

  18. Contours--Offshore Monterey, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents bathymetric contours for several seafloor maps of the Monterey Canyon and Vicinity map area, California. The raster data file is...

  19. USGS Northern California Shoreline Change

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — The Coastal and Marine Geology Program of the U.S. Geological Survey has generated a comprehensive data clearinghouse of digital vector shorelines and shoreline...

  20. Invertebrate diversity in southern California

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This shapefile displays mean invertebrate diversity within 5 minute grid cells. The Shannon Index of diversity was calculated from Southern California Coastal Water...

  1. Habitat--Offshore Monterey, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents data for the habitat map of the seafloor of the Offshore of Monterey map area, California. The vector data file is included in...

  2. California Gnatcatcher Observations - 2004-2009 [ds457

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — In southern California, the coastal California gnatcatcher (CAGN) has become both the flagship species and an umbrella species identified with conservation, where...

  3. The Economics of Bulk Water Transport in Southern California

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Hodges

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Municipalities often face increasing demand for limited water supplies with few available alternative sources. Under some circumstances, bulk water transport may offer a viable alternative. This case study documents a hypothetical transfer between a water utility district in northern California and urban communities located on the coast of central and southern California. We compare bulk water transport costs to those of constructing a new desalination facility, which is the current plan of many communities for increasing supplies. We find that using water bags to transport fresh water between northern and southern California is in some instances a low-cost alternative to desalination. The choice is constrained, however, by concerns about reliability and, thus, risk. Case-study results demonstrate the challenges of water supply augmentation in water-constrained regions.

  4. Moving KML geometry elements within Google Earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Liang-feng; Wang, Xi-feng; Pan, Xin

    2014-11-01

    During the process of modeling and visualizing geospatial information on the Google Earth virtual globe, there is an increasing demand to carry out such operations as moving geospatial objects defined by KML geometry elements horizontally or vertically. Due to the absence of the functionality and user interface for performing the moving transformation, it is either hard or impossible to interactively move multiple geospatial objects only using the existing Google Earth desktop application, especially when the data sets are in large volume. In this paper, we present a general framework and associated implementation methods for moving multiple KML geometry elements within Google Earth. In our proposed framework, we first load KML objects into the Google Earth plug-in, and then extract KML geometry elements from the imported KML objects. Subsequently, we interactively control the movement distance along a specified orientation by employing a custom user interface, calculate the transformed geographic location for each KML geometry element, and adjust geographic coordinates of the points in each KML objects. And finally, transformed KML geometry elements can be displayed in Google Earth for 3D visualization and spatial analysis. A key advantage of the proposed framework is that it provides a simple, uniform and efficient user interface for moving multiple KML geometry elements within Google Earth. More importantly, the proposed framework and associated implementations can be conveniently integrated into other customizable Google Earth applications to support interactively visualizing and analyzing geospatial objects defined by KML geometry elements.

  5. Monitoring moving queries inside a safe region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Khalidi, Haidar; Taniar, David; Betts, John; Alamri, Sultan

    2014-01-01

    With mobile moving range queries, there is a need to recalculate the relevant surrounding objects of interest whenever the query moves. Therefore, monitoring the moving query is very costly. The safe region is one method that has been proposed to minimise the communication and computation cost of continuously monitoring a moving range query. Inside the safe region the set of objects of interest to the query do not change; thus there is no need to update the query while it is inside its safe region. However, when the query leaves its safe region the mobile device has to reevaluate the query, necessitating communication with the server. Knowing when and where the mobile device will leave a safe region is widely known as a difficult problem. To solve this problem, we propose a novel method to monitor the position of the query over time using a linear function based on the direction of the query obtained by periodic monitoring of its position. Periodic monitoring ensures that the query is aware of its location all the time. This method reduces the costs associated with communications in client-server architecture. Computational results show that our method is successful in handling moving query patterns.

  6. Maxwell Equations for Slow-Moving Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozov, Andrey

    2015-12-01

    In the present work, the Minkowski equations obtained on the basis of theory of relativity are used to describe electromagnetic fields in moving media. But important electromagnetic processes run under non-relativistic conditions of slow-moving media. Therefore, one should carry out its description in terms of classical mechanics. Hertz derived electrodynamic equations for moving media within the frame of classical mechanics on the basis of the Maxwell theory. His equations disagree with the experimental data concerned with the moving dielectrics. In the paper, a way of description of electromagnetic fields in slow-moving media on the basis of the Maxwell theory within the frame of classical mechanics is offered by combining the Hertz approach and the experimental data concerned with the movement of dielectrics in electromagnetic fields. Received Maxwell equations lack asymmetry in the description of the reciprocal electrodynamic action of a magnet and a conductor and conform to known experimental data. Comparative analysis of the Minkowski and Maxwell models is carried out.

  7. ELECTROMAGNETIC APPARATUS FOR MOVING A ROD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, J.N.

    1957-08-20

    An electromagnetic device for moving an object in a linear path by increments is described. The device is specifically adapted for moving a neutron absorbing control rod into and out of the core of a reactor and consists essentially of an extension member made of magnetic material connected to one end of the control rod and mechanically flexible to grip the walls of a sleeve member when flexed, a magnetic sleeve member coaxial with and slidable between limit stops along the flexible extension, electromagnetic coils substantially centrally located with respect to the flexible extension to flex the extension member into gripping engagement with the sleeve member when ener gized, moving electromagnets at each end of the sleeve to attract the sleeve when energized, and a second gripping electromagnet positioned along the flexible extension at a distance from the previously mentioned electromagnets for gripping the extension member when energized. In use, the second gripping electromagnet is deenergized, the first gripping electromagnet is energized to fix the extension member in the sleeve, and one of the moving electromagnets is energized to attract the sleeve member toward it, thereby moving the control rod.

  8. Contributions to the Transient Study of an Electric Motor with Shorted Moving Coil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgescu Daniel

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In this article is studied the transient regime of an electric motor with a shorted moving coil, into alternating current supplied. The authors present their contributions related to the conceiving, achieving and testing of experimental stands of an electric motor with a shorted moving coil and to the identification of the mathematical model, indexical function parameters and the coefficients of the mathematical equation of this engine. Finally, the authors' conclusions are presented on the results of experimental studies and moving coil motor behavior in transient regime.

  9. Estimation of methane emission from California natural gas industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Jeff; Hicks, Travis C; Drake, Brian; Chan, Tat Fu

    2015-07-01

    Energy generation and consumption are the main contributors to greenhouse gases emissions in California. Natural gas is one of the primary sources of energy in California. A study was recently conducted to develop current, reliable, and California-specific source emission factors (EFs) that could be used to establish a more accurate methane emission inventory for the California natural gas industry. Twenty-five natural gas facilities were surveyed; the surveyed equipment included wellheads (172), separators (131), dehydrators (17), piping segments (145), compressors (66), pneumatic devices (374), metering and regulating (M&R) stations (19), hatches (34), pumps (2), and customer meters (12). In total, 92,157 components were screened, including flanges (10,101), manual valves (10,765), open-ended lines (384), pressure relief valves (358), regulators (930), seals (146), threaded connections (57,061), and welded connections (12,274). Screening values (SVs) were measured using portable monitoring instruments, and Hi-Flow samplers were then used to quantify fugitive emission rates. For a given SV range, the measured leak rates might span several orders of magnitude. The correlation equations between the leak rates and SVs were derived. All the component leakage rate histograms appeared to have the same trend, with the majority of leakage ratesGas Research Institute (EPA/GRI) study. Twenty-five natural gas facilities in California were surveyed to develop current, reliable, and California-specific source emission factors (EFs) for the natural gas industry. Screening values were measured by using portable monitoring instruments, and Hi-Flow samplers were then used to quantify fugitive emission rates. The component-level average EFs derived in this study are often smaller than the corresponding ones in the 1996 EPA/GRI study. The smaller EF values from this study might be partially attributable to the employment of the leak detection and repair program by most, if not all

  10. Learning random networks for compression of still and moving images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelenbe, Erol; Sungur, Mert; Cramer, Christopher

    1994-01-01

    Image compression for both still and moving images is an extremely important area of investigation, with numerous applications to videoconferencing, interactive education, home entertainment, and potential applications to earth observations, medical imaging, digital libraries, and many other areas. We describe work on a neural network methodology to compress/decompress still and moving images. We use the 'point-process' type neural network model which is closer to biophysical reality than standard models, and yet is mathematically much more tractable. We currently achieve compression ratios of the order of 120:1 for moving grey-level images, based on a combination of motion detection and compression. The observed signal-to-noise ratio varies from values above 25 to more than 35. The method is computationally fast so that compression and decompression can be carried out in real-time. It uses the adaptive capabilities of a set of neural networks so as to select varying compression ratios in real-time as a function of quality achieved. It also uses a motion detector which will avoid retransmitting portions of the image which have varied little from the previous frame. Further improvements can be achieved by using on-line learning during compression, and by appropriate compensation of nonlinearities in the compression/decompression scheme. We expect to go well beyond the 250:1 compression level for color images with good quality levels.

  11. A ground moving target emergency tracking method for catastrophe rescue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, X.; Li, D.; Li, G.

    2014-11-01

    ground moving target through the communication number of the handheld devices. The handheld devices receive and identify the activation short message, and send the current location information to the server. Therefore, the emergency tracking mode is triggered. The real time location of the filtered target can be shown on the organizer's screen, and the organizer can assign the rescue tasks to the rescuer teams and volunteers based on their real time location. The ground moving target emergency tracking prototype system is implemented using Oracle 11g, Visual Studio 2010 C#, Android, SMS Modem, and Google Maps API.

  12. Online Risk Prediction for Indoor Moving Objects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahmed, Tanvir; Pedersen, Torben Bach; Calders, Toon

    2016-01-01

    or inaccuracy at any step can make the bag risky, i.e., the bag may be delayed at the airport or sent to a wrong airport. In this paper, we propose a novel probabilistic approach for predicting the risk of an indoor moving object in real-time. We propose a probabilistic flow graph (PFG) and an aggregated......Technologies such as RFID and Bluetooth have received considerable attention for tracking indoor moving objects. In a time-critical indoor tracking scenario such as airport baggage handling, a bag has to move through a sequence of locations until it is loaded into the aircraft. Inefficiency...... probabilistic flow graph (APFG) that capture the historical object transitions and the durations of the transitions. In the graphs, the probabilistic information is stored in a set of histograms. Then we use the flow graphs for obtaining a risk score of an online object and use it for predicting its riskiness...

  13. Factors Involved in the Intent to Move from One Team to Another among Handball Players

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fruchart, Eric; Mullet, Etienne

    2012-01-01

    The study was about a non normative within-career transition in sport: Handball players' move from their current to an alternative team. Eighty male handball players were presented with scenarios that contained five pieces of information about current satisfaction with the present team, attractiveness of the alternative team (better springboard…

  14. INFLUENCE OF MOVING LOADS ON CURVED BRIDGES

    OpenAIRE

    Thamer A. Z*, Jabbbar S. A

    2016-01-01

    The behavior of a curved slab bridge decks with uniform thickness under moving load is investigated in this study. Three radii of curvature "R" are used (25, 50 and 75m) along with the straight bridge, R = ∞. The decks are simply supported or clamped along the radial edges and free at the circular edges. The AASHTO[1] standard axle load of the truck H20-44 is used and assumed to move in three track positions on the bridge. The finite element method is employed for the analysis and the ANSYS 5...

  15. DIFFUSION BACKGROUND MODEL FOR MOVING OBJECTS DETECTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. V. Vishnyakov

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we propose a new approach for moving objects detection in video surveillance systems. It is based on construction of the regression diffusion maps for the image sequence. This approach is completely different from the state of the art approaches. We show that the motion analysis method, based on diffusion maps, allows objects that move with different speed or even stop for a short while to be uniformly detected. We show that proposed model is comparable to the most popular modern background models. We also show several ways of speeding up diffusion maps algorithm itself.

  16. Moving Shadow Detection in Video Using Cepstrum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fuat Cogun

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Moving shadows constitute problems in various applications such as image segmentation and object tracking. The main cause of these problems is the misclassification of the shadow pixels as target pixels. Therefore, the use of an accurate and reliable shadow detection method is essential to realize intelligent video processing applications. In this paper, a cepstrum-based method for moving shadow detection is presented. The proposed method is tested on outdoor and indoor video sequences using well-known benchmark test sets. To show the improvements over previous approaches, quantitative metrics are introduced and comparisons based on these metrics are made.

  17. On the atmosphere of a moving body

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Johan Rønby; Aref, Hassan

    2010-01-01

    demonstrate numerically that, indeed, regions of fluid follow the body in its motion. We see this as an example of the stability of Kolmogorov-Arnold-Moser tori. These observations of an atmosphere around a moving body with no circulation around it appear to be new. (C) 2010 American Institute of Physics......We explore whether a rigid body moving freely with no circulation around it in a two-dimensional ideal fluid can carry a fluid "atmosphere" with it in its motion. Somewhat surprisingly, the answer appears to be "yes." When the body is elongated and the motion is dominated by rotation, we...

  18. Memory for moving and static images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, W J; Benjamin, Clare; Osborne, Claire

    2007-10-01

    Despite the substantial interest in memory for complex pictorial stimuli, there has been virtually no research comparing memory for static scenes with that for their moving counterparts. We report that both monochrome and color moving images are better remembered than static versions of the same stimuli at retention intervals up to one month. When participants studied a sequence of still images, recognition performance was the same as that for single static images. These results are discussed within a theoretical framework which draws upon previous studies of scene memory, face recognition, and representational momentum.

  19. Querying moving objects detected by sensor networks

    CERN Document Server

    Bestehorn, Markus

    2012-01-01

    Declarative query interfaces to Sensor Networks (SN) have become a commodity. These interfaces allow access to SN deployed for collecting data using relational queries. However, SN are not confined to data collection, but may track object movement, e.g., wildlife observation or traffic monitoring. While rational approaches are well suited for data collection, research on ""Moving Object Databases"" (MOD) has shown that relational operators are unsuitable to express information needs on object movement, i.e., spatio-temporal queries. ""Querying Moving Objects Detected by Sensor Networks"" studi

  20. en Baja California

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elmyra Ybañez Zepeda

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In the future, the population of 60 years old or older will increase in absolute and relative numbers at a very rapid pace in Mexico. Using data from Censo general de población y vivienda 2000, Encuesta sobre migración en la frontera norte de México and Consejo Nacional de Población (Conapo, the purpose of this article is twofold: first of all, to analyze the aging process in the municipalities of Tijuana and Mexicali, located in the state of Baja California, which has a very low proportion of the eldest; and second of all, to examine the role of migration in this process. Tijuana has a younger population which is aging slowly due to a very intense immigration of young workers and potential parents. Mexicali, on the other hand, has a high percentage of a native population that is aging unrelentingly, and it also has a lower flow of immigrants who are older, and includes a high concentration of persons who had previously resided in the United States.

  1. Partner (Dis)agreement on Moving Desires and the Subsequent Moving Behaviour of Couples (discussion paper)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coulter, R.; Van Ham, M.; Feijten, P.

    2011-01-01

    Residential mobility decisions are known to be made at the household level. However, most empirical analyses of residential mobility relate moving behaviour to the housing and neighbourhood satisfaction and pre-move thoughts of individuals. If partners in a couple do not share evaluations of

  2. 77 FR 16566 - Submission for OMB Review, Comment Request, Proposed Collection: Let's Move Museums, Let's Move...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-21

    ... Move Museums, Let's Move Gardens AGENCY: Institute of Museum and Library Services, The National... Institute of Museum and Library Services announces that the following information collection has been..., Institute of Museum and Library Services, 1800 M Street NW., 9th Floor, Washington, DC 20036. Telephone: 202...

  3. Move-by-move dynamics of the advantage in chess matches reveals population-level learning of the game.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haroldo V Ribeiro

    Full Text Available The complexity of chess matches has attracted broad interest since its invention. This complexity and the availability of large number of recorded matches make chess an ideal model systems for the study of population-level learning of a complex system. We systematically investigate the move-by-move dynamics of the white player's advantage from over seventy thousand high level chess matches spanning over 150 years. We find that the average advantage of the white player is positive and that it has been increasing over time. Currently, the average advantage of the white player is 0.17 pawns but it is exponentially approaching a value of 0.23 pawns with a characteristic time scale of 67 years. We also study the diffusion of the move dependence of the white player's advantage and find that it is non-Gaussian, has long-ranged anti-correlations and that after an initial period with no diffusion it becomes super-diffusive. We find that the duration of the non-diffusive period, corresponding to the opening stage of a match, is increasing in length and exponentially approaching a value of 15.6 moves with a characteristic time scale of 130 years. We interpret these two trends as a resulting from learning of the features of the game. Additionally, we find that the exponent [Formula: see text] characterizing the super-diffusive regime is increasing toward a value of 1.9, close to the ballistic regime. We suggest that this trend is due to the increased broadening of the range of abilities of chess players participating in major tournaments.

  4. Moving On: Young People and Substance Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daley, Kathryn; Chamberlain, Chris

    2009-01-01

    To help explain why some young people move from recreational drug use to substance abuse, twelve in-depth interviews were conducted with young people who had experienced problematic substance use. The data were supplemented by statistical data on 111 young people. The researchers found a variety of "structural" factors that help explain…

  5. Quantum correlation with moving beamsplitters in relativistic ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Pramana – Journal of Physics; Volume 59; Issue 2. Quantum correlation with moving beamsplitters in ... Zbinden1 Nicolas Gisin1 Antoine Suarez1 2. Group of Applied Physics, University of Geneva, 1211 Geneva 4, Switzerland; Center for Quantum Philosophy, P.O. Box 304, CH-8044 Zurich, Switzerland ...

  6. Strategic Game Moves Mediate Implicit Science Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowe, Elizabeth; Baker, Ryan S.; Asbell-Clarke, Jodi

    2015-01-01

    Educational games have the potential to be innovative forms of learning assessment, by allowing us to not just study their knowledge but the process that takes students to that knowledge. This paper examines the mediating role of players' moves in digital games on changes in their pre-post classroom measures of implicit science learning. We…

  7. Information Literacy Assessment: Moving beyond Computer Literacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hignite, Michael; Margavio, Thomas M.; Margavio, Geanie W.

    2009-01-01

    Information literacy is a concept that has evolved as a result of recent efforts to move technology-based instruction and research to a level above the long-held concepts previously associated with "computer literacy"; the focus of information literacy education being the development of students' abilities to construct/collect and…

  8. Electromagnetic Sources in a Moving Conducting Medium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johannsen, Günther

    1971-01-01

    The problem of an arbitrary source distribution in a uniformly moving, homogeneous, isotropic, nondispersive, conducting medium is solved. The technique used is to solve the problem in the rest system of the medium and then write the result in an appropriate four-dimensional, covariant form which...

  9. 39 CFR 777.23 - Moving expenses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... ACQUISITION POLICIES Uniform Relocation Assistance § 777.23 Moving expenses. (a) Eligibility. (1) Residential... and marketing studies. (ix) Advertisement of replacement location, not to exceed $1,500 (x..., machinery, or trade fixtures. (ii) Purchase of manufacturing materials, production supplies, product...

  10. Supportive Discourse Moves in Persian Requests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nodoushan, Mohammad Ali Salmani; Allami, Hamid

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports the findings of a study designed to investigate the types of supportive discourse moves employed by Persian speakers in their Requestive Speech Acts. 372 respondents took a Discourse Completion Test (DCT) with six scenarios ranging from formal to informal degrees of Perceived Situational Seriousness, and returned 2232 Requestive…

  11. Developing Reading Comprehension with Moving Image Narratives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maine, Fiona; Shields, Robin

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports the findings from a small-scale exploratory study that investigated how moving-image narratives might enable children to develop transferable reading comprehension strategies. Using short, animated, narrative films, 28 primary-aged children engaged in a 10-week programme that included the explicit instruction of comprehension…

  12. Moving Divertor Plates in a Tokamak

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S.J. Zweben, H. Zhang

    2009-02-12

    Moving divertor plates could help solve some of the problems of the tokamak divertor through mechanical ingenuity rather than plasma physics. These plates would be passively heated on each pass through the tokamak and cooled and reprocessed outside the tokamak. There are many design options using varying plate shapes, orientations, motions, coatings, and compositions.

  13. Moving dislocations studied by nuclear magnetic resonance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hut, Gezinus

    1976-01-01

    In this thesis a new approach to the study of moving dislocations in crystalline solids during plastic deformation will be presented. Since the process of dislocation motion is made up of atomic movements nuclear magnetic resonance techniques should offer a possibility to determine the manner in

  14. Residual Analysis of Generalized Autoregressive Integrated Moving ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study, analysis of residuals of generalized autoregressive integrated moving average bilinear time series model was considered. The adequacy of this model was based on testing the estimated residuals for whiteness. Jarque-Bera statistic and squared-residual autocorrelations were used to test the estimated ...

  15. Electromagnetic Sources in Moving Simple Medium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johannsen, Günther

    1970-01-01

    A retarded potential tensor (4-vector) is derived in an arbitrary system of inertia for an arbitrary electromagnetic source in a moving homogeneous, isotropic, nondispersive, lossless dielectric. The velocity is uniform, and the result is relativistic correct. ©1970 The American Institute...

  16. Wave propagation in axially moving periodic strings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sorokin, Vladislav S.; Thomsen, Jon Juel

    2017-01-01

    The paper deals with analytically studying transverse waves propagation in an axially moving string with periodically modulated cross section. The structure effectively models various relevant technological systems, e.g. belts, thread lines, band saws, etc., and, in particular, roller chain drive...

  17. Moving frames for heart fiber geometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Piuze, Emmanuel; Sporring, Jon; Siddiqi, Kaleem

    2013-01-01

    fibers is central to our understanding of normal heart function. Motivated by a recent abstraction by Savadjiev et al. of heart wall fibers into generalized helicoid minimal surfaces, this paper develops an extension based on differential forms. The key idea is to use Maurer-Cartan’s method of moving...

  18. EPI moved in beam S3

    CERN Document Server

    1977-01-01

    The housing of the External Particle Identifier (EPI) is being moved to S3 beam. Test measurements with EPI were performed in the S3 beam between 20 and 110 GeV/c, before installing it behind BEBC. 110 GeV/c before

  19. Vibrations in a moving flexible robot arm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, P. K. C.; Wei, Jin-Duo

    1987-01-01

    The vibration in a flexible robot arm modeled by a moving slender prismatic beam is considered. It is found that the extending and contracting motions have destabilizing and stabilizing effects on the vibratory motions, respectively. The vibration analysis is based on a Galerkin approximation with time-dependent basis functions. Typical numerical results are presented to illustrate the qualitative features of vibrations.

  20. Clutter Moves in Old Age Homecare

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lutz, Peter

    2010-01-01

    cites general household clutter as a hazard in the domestic environment. In such reports moving around with cluttered things tends to threaten a dangerous outcome for older people. But what other feasible vistas emerge when the analytical attention is focused explicitly on relational movements between...

  1. Effective Density Queries of Continuously Moving Objects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Christian Søndergaard; Lin, D.; Ooi, B.C.

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, we study a newly emerging type of queries on moving objects - the density query. Basically, this query locates regions in the data space where the density of the objects is high. This type of queries is especially useful in Location Based Services (LBS). For example, in a traffic...

  2. housing tenure, residential moves and children's educational

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    ing of parents and whether residential moves experienced ... health and behavioural development of children. (Stiffman ... and whether the performance will see him/her to the next ... (herein called Children, Teachers, and Parents) .... Housing tenure has influence on families .... nificant from a policy stand point if it is to help.

  3. Holistic Processing of Static and Moving Faces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Mintao; Bülthoff, Isabelle

    2017-01-01

    Humans' face ability develops and matures with extensive experience in perceiving, recognizing, and interacting with faces that move most of the time. However, how facial movements affect 1 core aspect of face ability--holistic face processing--remains unclear. Here we investigated the influence of rigid facial motion on holistic and part-based…

  4. A dynamic analysis of moving average rules

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chiarella, C.; He, X.Z.; Hommes, C.H.

    2006-01-01

    The use of various moving average (MA) rules remains popular with financial market practitioners. These rules have recently become the focus of a number empirical studies, but there have been very few studies of financial market models where some agents employ technical trading rules of the type

  5. Moving Readers from Struggling to Proficient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolter, Deborah

    2017-01-01

    If we want to move children from struggling to read to being proficient readers, we must address the disparate ways that teachers respond to readers with varying abilities. Restorative practices, akin to restorative justice, build relationships, make connections, and foster a reader's sense of ownership and empowerment. What would happen if…

  6. Current limiters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loescher, D.H. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Systems Surety Assessment Dept.; Noren, K. [Univ. of Idaho, Moscow, ID (United States). Dept. of Electrical Engineering

    1996-09-01

    The current that flows between the electrical test equipment and the nuclear explosive must be limited to safe levels during electrical tests conducted on nuclear explosives at the DOE Pantex facility. The safest way to limit the current is to use batteries that can provide only acceptably low current into a short circuit; unfortunately this is not always possible. When it is not possible, current limiters, along with other design features, are used to limit the current. Three types of current limiters, the fuse blower, the resistor limiter, and the MOSFET-pass-transistor limiters, are used extensively in Pantex test equipment. Detailed failure mode and effects analyses were conducted on these limiters. Two other types of limiters were also analyzed. It was found that there is no best type of limiter that should be used in all applications. The fuse blower has advantages when many circuits must be monitored, a low insertion voltage drop is important, and size and weight must be kept low. However, this limiter has many failure modes that can lead to the loss of over current protection. The resistor limiter is simple and inexpensive, but is normally usable only on circuits for which the nominal current is less than a few tens of milliamperes. The MOSFET limiter can be used on high current circuits, but it has a number of single point failure modes that can lead to a loss of protective action. Because bad component placement or poor wire routing can defeat any limiter, placement and routing must be designed carefully and documented thoroughly.

  7. California State Waters Map Series: offshore of Tomales Point, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Samuel Y.; Dartnell, Peter; Golden, Nadine E.; Hartwell, Stephen R.; Greene, H. Gary; Erdey, Mercedes D.; Cochrane, Guy R.; Watt, Janet Tilden; Kvitek, Rikk G.; Manson, Michael W.; Endris, Charles A.; Dieter, Bryan E.; Krigsman, Lisa M.; Sliter, Ray W.; Lowe, Erik N.; Chinn, John L.; Johnson, Samuel Y.; Cochran, Susan A.

    2015-01-01

    In 2007, the California Ocean Protection Council initiated the California Seafloor Mapping Program (CSMP), designed to create a comprehensive seafloor map of high-resolution bathymetry, marine benthic habitats, and geology within the 3-nautical-mile limit of California’s State Waters. The CSMP approach is to create highly detailed seafloor maps through collection, integration, interpretation, and visualization of swath sonar data, acoustic backscatter, seafloor video, seafloor photography, high-resolution seismic-reflection profiles, and bottom-sediment sampling data. The map products display seafloor morphology and character, identify potential marine benthic habitats, and illustrate both the surficial seafloor geology and shallow (to about 200 m) subsurface geology.

  8. California State Waters Map Series: offshore of Salt Point, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Samuel Y.; Dartnell, Peter; Golden, Nadine E.; Hartwell, Stephen R.; Erdey, Mercedes D.; Greene, H. Gary; Cochrane, Guy R.; Kvitek, Rikk G.; Manson, Michael W.; Endris, Charles A.; Dieter, Bryan E.; Watt, Janet T.; Krigsman, Lisa M.; Sliter, Ray W.; Lowe, Erik N.; Chinn, John L.; Johnson, Samuel Y.; Cochran, Susan A.

    2015-01-01

    In 2007, the California Ocean Protection Council initiated the California Seafloor Mapping Program (CSMP), designed to create a comprehensive seafloor map of high-resolution bathymetry, marine benthic habitats, and geology within the 3-nautical-mile limit of California’s State Waters. The CSMP approach is to create highly detailed seafloor maps through collection, integration, interpretation, and visualization of swath sonar data, acoustic backscatter, seafloor video, seafloor photography, high-resolution seismic-reflection profiles, and bottom-sediment sampling data. The map products display seafloor morphology and character, identify potential marine benthic habitats, and illustrate both the surficial seafloor geology and shallow (to about 100 m) subsurface geology.

  9. California State Waters Map Series: offshore of Pacifica, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Brian D.; Phillips, Eleyne L.; Dartnell, Peter; Greene, H. Gary; Bretz, Carrie K.; Kvitek, Rikk G.; Hartwell, Stephen R.; Johnson, Samuel Y.; Cochrane, Guy R.; Dieter, Bryan E.; Sliter, Ray W.; Ross, Stephanie L.; Golden, Nadine E.; Watt, Janet Tilden; Chinn, John L.; Erdey, Mercedes D.; Krigsman, Lisa M.; Manson, Michael W.; Endris, Charles A.; Cochran, Susan A.; Edwards, Brian D.

    2015-01-01

    In 2007, the California Ocean Protection Council initiated the California Seafloor Mapping Program (CSMP), designed to create a comprehensive seafloor map of high-resolution bathymetry, marine benthic habitats, and geology within the 3-nautical-mile limit of California’s State Waters. The CSMP approach is to create highly detailed seafloor maps through collection, integration, interpretation, and visualization of swath sonar data, acoustic backscatter, seafloor video, seafloor photography, high-resolution seismic-reflection profiles, and bottom-sediment sampling data. The map products display seafloor morphology and character, identify potential marine benthic habitats, and illustrate both the surficial seafloor geology and shallow (to about 100 m) subsurface geology. 

  10. California State Waters Map Series: Drakes Bay and vicinity, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watt, Janet T.; Dartnell, Peter; Golden, Nadine E.; Greene, H. Gary; Erdey, Mercedes D.; Cochrane, Guy R.; Johnson, Samuel Y.; Hartwell, Stephen R.; Kvitek, Rikk G.; Manson, Michael W.; Endris, Charles A.; Dieter, Bryan E.; Sliter, Ray W.; Krigsman, Lisa M.; Lowe, Erik N.; Chinn, John L.; Watt, Janet T.; Cochran, Susan A.

    2015-01-01

    In 2007, the California Ocean Protection Council initiated the California Seafloor Mapping Program (CSMP), designed to create a comprehensive seafloor map of high-resolution bathymetry, marine benthic habitats, and geology within the 3-nautical-mile limit of California’s State Waters. The CSMP approach is to create highly detailed seafloor maps through collection, integration, interpretation, and visualization of swath sonar data, acoustic backscatter, seafloor video, seafloor photography, high-resolution seismic-reflection profiles, and bottom-sediment sampling data. The map products display seafloor morphology and character, identify potential marine benthic habitats, and illustrate both the surficial seafloor geology and shallow (to about 100 m) subsurface geology.

  11. California State Waters Map Series: offshore of Refugio Beach, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Samuel Y.; Dartnell, Peter; Cochrane, Guy R.; Golden, Nadine E.; Phillips, Eleyne L.; Ritchie, Andrew C.; Krigsman, Lisa M.; Dieter, Bryan E.; Conrad, James E.; Greene, H. Gary; Seitz, Gordon G.; Endris, Charles A.; Sliter, Ray W.; Wong, Florence L.; Erdey, Mercedes D.; Gutierrez, Carlos I.; Yoklavich, Mary M.; East, Amy E.; Hart, Patrick E.; Johnson, Samuel Y.; Cochran, Susan A.

    2015-01-01

    In 2007, the California Ocean Protection Council initiated the California Seafloor Mapping Program (CSMP), designed to create a comprehensive seafloor map of high-resolution bathymetry, marine benthic habitats, and geology within California’s State Waters. The CSMP approach is to create highly detailed seafloor maps through collection, integration, interpretation, and visualization of swath sonar data, acoustic backscatter, seafloor video, seafloor photography, high-resolution seismic-reflection profiles, and bottom-sediment sampling data. The map products display seafloor morphology and character, identify potential marine benthic habitats, and illustrate both the surficial seafloor geology and shallow (to about 100 m) subsurface geology.

  12. California State Waters Map Series: offshore of San Francisco, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cochrane, Guy R.; Johnson, Samuel Y.; Dartnell, Peter; Greene, H. Gary; Erdey, Mercedes D.; Golden, Nadine E.; Hartwell, Stephen R.; Endris, Charles A.; Manson, Michael W.; Sliter, Ray W.; Kvitek, Rikk G.; Watt, Janet Tilden; Ross, Stephanie L.; Bruns, Terry R.; Cochrane, Guy R.; Cochran, Susan A.

    2015-01-01

    In 2007, the California Ocean Protection Council initiated the California Seafloor Mapping Program (CSMP), designed to create a comprehensive seafloor map of high-resolution bathymetry, marine benthic habitats, and geology within California’s State Waters. The CSMP approach is to create highly detailed seafloor maps through collection, integration, interpretation, and visualization of swath sonar data, acoustic backscatter, seafloor video, seafloor photography, high-resolution seismic-reflection profiles, and bottom-sediment sampling data. The map products display seafloor morphology and character, identify potential marine benthic habitats, and illustrate both the surficial seafloor geology and shallow (to about 100 m) subsurface geology.

  13. California highway barrier aesthetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-06-01

    This report will familiarize designers with current barrier design options, and encourage appropriate aesthetic considerations to develop visually pleasing context sensitive solutions for highway projects. Technical guidelines allow integral color, p...

  14. Diamagnetic currents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macris, N.; Martin, Ph. A.; Pulé, J. V.

    1988-06-01

    We study the diamagnetic surface currents of particles in thermal equilibrium submitted to a constant magnetic field. The current density of independent electrons with Boltzmann (respectively Fermi) statistics has a gaussian (respectively exponential) bound for its fall off into the bulk. For a system of interacting particles at low activity with Boltzmann statistics, the current density is localized near to the boundary and integrable when the two-body potential decays as |x|-α, α >4, α>4, in three dimensions. In all cases, the integral of the current density is independent of the nature of the confining wall and correctly related to the bulk magnetisation. The results hold for hard and soft walls and all field strength. The analysis relies on the Feynman-Kac-Ito representation of the Gibbs state and on specific properties of the Brownian bridge process.

  15. Spin current

    CERN Document Server

    Valenzuela, Sergio O; Saitoh, Eiji; Kimura, Takashi

    2017-01-01

    Since the discovery of the giant magnetoresistance effect in magnetic multilayers in 1988, a new branch of physics and technology, called spin-electronics or spintronics, has emerged, where the flow of electrical charge as well as the flow of electron spin, the so-called “spin current,” are manipulated and controlled together. The physics of magnetism and the application of spin current have progressed in tandem with the nanofabrication technology of magnets and the engineering of interfaces and thin films. This book aims to provide an introduction and guide to the new physics and applications of spin current, with an emphasis on the interaction between spin and charge currents in magnetic nanostructures.

  16. Teale California Office of Emergency Services

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — California Spatial Information System (CaSIL) is a project designed to improve access to geo-spatial and geo-spatial related data information throughout the state of...

  17. California Least Tern Breeding Survey 1992 Season

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — In 1992, approximately 2,106 pairs of the endangered California Least Tern (Sterna antillarum browni) nested at 38 sites along the coast of California, from the San...

  18. California Geological Survey Geologic Map Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — All the individual maps from the Geologic Atlas of California and the Regional Geologic map series have been georeferenced for display in a GIS (and viewable online...

  19. Teale Urband and rural areas of California

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — California Spatial Information System (CaSIL) is a project designed to improve access to geo-spatial and geo-spatial related data information throughout the state of...

  20. Missing Linkages in California's Landscape [ds420

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — The critical need for conserving landscape linkages first came to the forefront of conservation thinking in California in November 2000, when a statewide interagency...

  1. Libraries in California: MedlinePlus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: https://medlineplus.gov/libraries/california.html Libraries in California To use the sharing features on ... page, please enable JavaScript. Alameda Alameda Hospital Medical Library 2070 Clinton Avenue Alameda, CA 94501 510-522- ...

  2. California Least Tern Breeding Survey 1996 Season

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — In 1996, 3330-3392 pairs of the endangered California least tern (Sterna antillarum browni) nested at 35 sites along the coast of California. This 29% increase in...

  3. California Least Tern Breeding Survey 1994 Season

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — In 1994, a minimum of approximately 2,792 pairs of the endangered California least tern (Sterna antillarum browni) nested at 36 sites along the coast of California....

  4. 78 FR 77447 - California Wind Energy Association, First Solar, Inc. v. California Independent System Operator...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-23

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission California Wind Energy Association, First Solar, Inc. v. California Independent System Operator Corporation, Southern California Edison Company; Notice of Complaint Take notice... Practice and Procedure, 18 CFR 385.206 (2013), California Wind Energy Association and First Solar, Inc...

  5. California cooperative oceanic fisheries investigations. Reports volume 37, January 1--December 31, 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olfe, J. [ed.

    1996-10-01

    Scientists from the California Department of Fish and Game (CDFG), the Southwest Fisheries Science Center of the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), and the Scripps Institution of Oceanography, University of California, San Diego (UCSD), have collaborated for 46 years in the longest-running large-scale study ever undertaken in the ocean. This study was begun in order to understand the causes of changes in population, over time, of commercially important fishes in California`s coastal waters. When the study began, the Pacific sardine was by far the most significant species of economic concern to the State of California. Because its population changes were thought to be caused by a diversity of atmospheric, oceanic, and biological variables, a wide array of measurements in the California Current region were begun and have been continued to this day. This long time series of data allows not only a better understanding of the flux of fish populations, but also lays the foundation for understanding interdecadal and secular change in the seas. This document contains papers from symposium of the 1995 CalCOFI Conference related to interdecadal changes in the ecology of the California current.

  6. The California stream quality assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Metre, Peter C.; Egler, Amanda L.; May, Jason T.

    2017-03-06

    In 2017, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) project is assessing stream quality in coastal California, United States. The USGS California Stream Quality Assessment (CSQA) will sample streams over most of the Central California Foothills and Coastal Mountains ecoregion (modified from Griffith and others, 2016), where rapid urban growth and intensive agriculture in the larger river valleys are raising concerns that stream health is being degraded. Findings will provide the public and policy-makers with information regarding which human and natural factors are the most critical in affecting stream quality and, thus, provide insights about possible approaches to protect the health of streams in the region.

  7. Moving grids for magnetic reconnection via Newton-Krylov methods

    KAUST Repository

    Yuan, Xuefei

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a set of computationally efficient, adaptive grids for magnetic reconnection phenomenon where the current density can develop large gradients in the reconnection region. Four-field extended MagnetoHydroDynamics (MHD) equations with hyperviscosity terms are transformed so that the curvilinear coordinates replace the Cartesian coordinates as the independent variables, and moving grids\\' velocities are also considered in this transformed system as a part of interpolating the physical solutions from the old grid to the new grid as time advances. The curvilinear coordinates derived from the current density through the Monge-Kantorovich (MK) optimization approach help to reduce the resolution requirements during the computation. © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Moving conceptualizations of language and literacy in SLA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Helle Pia

    a social viewpoint focusing attention on language, literacy and learning as social and semiotic practices. With this as a point of departure, we wish to bring together different theoretical and methodological approaches to promote dialogue and open up new unpredicted avenues in second language research.......Moving conceptualizations of language and literacy in SLA In this colloquium, we aim to problematize the concepts of language and literacy in the field that is termed “second language” research and seek ways to critically connect the terms. When considering current day language use for example...... in various technological environments, we see an increase in scholarship that highlights the mixing and chaining of spoken, written and visual modalities and how written and visual often precede or overrule spoken language. There seems to be a mismatch between current day language practices...

  9. Rational Expectations, psychology and inductive learning via moving thresholds

    CERN Document Server

    Lamba, H

    2007-01-01

    This work suggests modifications to a previously introduced class of heterogeneous agent models that allow for the inclusion of different types of agent motivations and behaviours in a unified way. The agents operate within a highly simplified environment where they are only able to be long or short one unit of the asset. The price of the asset is influenced by both an external information stream and the demand of the agents. The current strategy of each agent is defined by a pair of moving thresholds straddling the current price. When the price crosses either of the thresholds for a particular agent, that agent switches position and a new pair of thresholds is generated. Different kinds of threshold motion correspond to different sources of motivation, running the gamut from purely rational information-processing, through rational (but often undesirable) behaviour induced by perverse incentives and moral hazards, to purely psychological effects. As with the previous class of models, the fact that the simples...

  10. Moving to a New Town. A Relocation Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rackliffe, Gary, Ed.; Pearson, Nancy, Ed.

    Designed to help those who must consider relocating to secure employment, this relocation guide provides answers to a number of questions pertaining to moving, money management, and adjusting to a new community. Various aspects of deciding to move are covered, including reasons for moving, thinking of a move as permanent, feelings of homesickness,…

  11. Move Sequences in Graduate Research Paper Introductions and Conclusions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madrunio, Marilu Rañosa

    2012-01-01

    Graduate students submit academic papers at the end of the term as part of their coursework. Such papers contain introduction moves which may be troublesome and conclusion moves which may contain sub-moves not really required. This paper is aimed at assessing what particular moves are employed in the introduction and conclusion sections of 21…

  12. MOVES2014 for Experienced Users, September 2014 Webinar Slides

    Science.gov (United States)

    This webinar assumes a basic knowledge of past versions of the MOtor Vehicle Emission Simulator (MOVES) and includes a demonstration of the conversion of MOVES2010b input files to MOVES2014 format, changes to the MOVES GUI, and new input options.

  13. From continental to oceanic rifting in the Gulf of California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrari, Luca; Bonini, Marco; Martín, Arturo

    2017-11-01

    The continental margin of northwestern Mexico is the youngest example of the transition from a convergent plate boundary to an oblique divergent margin that formed the Gulf of California rift. Subduction of the Farallon oceanic plate during the Cenozoic progressively brought the East Pacific Rise (EPR) toward the North America trench. In this process increasingly younger and buoyant oceanic lithosphere entered the subduction zone until subduction ended just before most of the EPR could collide with the North America continental lithosphere. The EPR segments bounding the unsubducted parts of the Farallón plate remnants (Guadalupe and Magdalena microplates) also ceased spreading (Lonsdale, 1991) and a belt of the North American plate (California and Baja California Peninsula) became coupled with the Pacific Plate and started moving northwestward forming the modern Gulf of California oblique rift (Nicholson et al., 1994; Bohannon and Parsons, 1995). The timing of the change from plate convergence to oblique divergence off western Mexico has been constrained at the middle Miocene (15-12.5 Ma) by ocean floor morphology and magnetic anomalies as well as plate tectonic reconstructions (Atwater and Severinghaus, 1989; Stock and Hodges, 1989; Lonsdale, 1991), although the onset of transtensional deformation and the amount of right lateral displacement within the Gulf region are still being studied (Oskin et al., 2001; Fletcher et al., 2007; Bennett and Oskin, 2014). Other aspects of the formation of the Gulf of California remain not well understood. At present the Gulf of California straddles the transition from continental transtension in the north to oceanic spreading in the south. Seismic reflection-refraction data indicate asymmetric continent-ocean transition across conjugate margins of rift segments (González-Fernández et al., 2005; Lizarralde et al., 2007; Miller and Lizarralde, 2013; Martín-Barajas et al., 2013). The asymmetry may be related to crustal

  14. EDITORIAL: `Il sole - no si move'

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kibble, Bob

    1999-05-01

    The Sun may not have moved for Galileo but it is certain that this coming August the Sun will have moved millions of folk towards a thin strip of land about 100 km wide stretching from Cornwall to the Indian Ocean. If you have yet to book your place for the biggest live show of this millennium year there are still places in hotels and campsites. The April edition of the UK camping and caravaning club magazine included at least four sites in Cornwall alone with vacancies. I am told that the difference between seeing a 98% eclipse and totality is considerably greater than 2%. The message appears to be - try to get to the line. However, a popular misconception among lay folk seems to be that you will only be able to see the event in Cornwall. As you will read in this issue the partial event will be visible from virtually the whole of Europe. Anyone who has tried to holiday in Cornwall or Devon will tell you how congested the roads become in any ordinary August. The best advice for this year is either to travel to the south west by bicycle or attack the totality path as it crosses Europe. Access will be much easier. For my part I have booked a hotel in Trier, Germany, about 20 km north of the totality path. An early breakfast on the 11th should leave enough time to motorcycle down to see the shadow. Of course, the whole business is weather dependent. With the chance of a clear sky in Cornwall, Devon and most of western Europe being about 50% on the date in question, forward planning depends on whether you are a `half empty' or a `half full' person. It is worth keeping this fact in mind especially if you drag an expectant family hundreds of miles through traffic just to watch the clouds drift by. Take a colouring book and a board game just in case. Of course, the chance of a clear sky increases to about 90% across Turkey but there are reasons why such a trip might not be so wise in the current political climate. In this special issue readers will find plenty to interest

  15. California Tribal Nations Technical Water Research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ben, C; Coty, J

    2005-08-15

    This research focused on identifying the key technical water issues of federally recognized California Native American tribes, the context within which these water issues arise for the tribes, and an appropriate format for potentially opening further dialogue on water research issues between the tribes and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) scientists. At LLNL, a Water Quality and Resource Management Issues Workshop held in January of 2003 resulted in multiple recommendations, one proposing a LLNL dialogue with California tribes to further inform LLNL's prioritization of water issues based on identified needs across national sectors. The focus of this aforementioned Water Quality and Resource Management Issues Workshop was to identify national and international priority water research issues with which LLNL may align their research efforts and contribute to resolving these needs. LLNL staff researched various sectors to delineate the key water issues associated with each. This preliminary water issue research included diverse entities such as international water agencies, federal and state agencies, industry, non-governmental agencies, and private organizations. The key (identified) water issues across these sectors were presented to workshop attendees and used during workshop debates and sessions. However, the key water issues of federally recognized Native American tribes remained less understood, resulting in a workshop proposal for additional research and LLNL potentially hosting a dialog with representatives of these tribes. Federally recognized Native American tribes have a unique government-to-government relationship with the United States (U.S.) government, in contrast to other sectors researched for the workshop. Within the U.S., the number of federally recognized tribes currently stands at 562 and, in addition to this large number of tribes, much diversity across these tribes exists. For the purposes of this preliminary research and report

  16. Solar energy for California's residential sector: progress, problems, and prospects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hollon, J.K.

    1980-01-01

    Problems and prospects for meeting the objective of widespread residential implementation of solar resources in California are addressed. The problems addressed are classified as institutional, and attention here is directed to actions taken by California and not the Federal government. This paper includes a synopsis of California's current solar policies, goals, legislation, organizations, and projects, along with interviewees' impressions of current activities and barriers to implementation. Respondents provided a list of broadly supported recommendations for stimulating residential use of solar energy in California. Principal barriers identified are needed for consumer education, lack of reliability of system installations, and problems of financing. Other barriers discussed include professional inertia of design and building industries, local building codes and ordinances, lack of criteria for system performance, artifically low utility rates, inefficiencies of government, and problems of the economy. Findings are analyzed and conclusions are presented.

  17. Baja California: literatura y frontera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Trujillo Muñoz

    2014-06-01

    Baja California is a region that not only has migration problems and criminal violence because of the war of drugs or is a space of border conflicts in close neighborhood with the United States of America. Baja California is too a geographic space of culture and art, of creative writing and struggle to narrate the things and persons that here live, a plain sight, like their house, like their home, like a center of creation. This text give a cultural context of the border literature in the north of Mexico like a phenomenon in notice because his own merits, books and writers.

  18. Baja California: literatura y frontera

    OpenAIRE

    Gabriel Trujillo Muñoz

    2014-01-01

    Baja California es una región donde no sólo hay problemas migratorios y violencia criminal por la guerra contra las drogas o es un espacio de conflictos fronterizos por estar situada en vecindad con los Estados Unidos de América. Baja California es también un lugar de cultura y de arte, de escritura creativa y de lucha por narrar sobre las cosas y las personas que vive aquí, a plena vista, como su casa, como su hogar, como su centro de creación. Este texto da un contexto cultural a la literat...

  19. Witch Wildland Fire, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    The October wildfires that plagued southern California were some of the worst on record. One of these, the Witch Wildland fire, burned 198,000 acres north of San Diego, destroying 1125 homes, commercial structures, and outbuildings. Over 3,000 firefighters finally contained the fire two weeks after it started on October 21. Now begins the huge task of planning and implementing mitigation measures to replant and reseed the burned areas. This ASTER image depicts the area after the fire, on November 6; vegetation is green, burned areas are dark red, and urban areas are blue. On the burn severity index image, calculated using infrared and visible bands, red areas are the most severely burned, followed by green and blue. This information can help the US Forest Service to plan post-fire activities. With its 14 spectral bands from the visible to the thermal infrared wavelength region, and its high spatial resolution of 15 to 90 meters (about 50 to 300 feet), ASTER images Earth to map and monitor the changing surface of our planet. ASTER is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra spacecraft. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products. The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER provides scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping, and monitoring of dynamic conditions and temporal change. Example applications are: monitoring glacial advances and retreats; monitoring potentially active volcanoes; identifying crop stress; determining cloud morphology and physical properties; wetlands evaluation; thermal pollution monitoring; coral reef degradation; surface temperature mapping of soils and geology; and measuring surface heat balance. The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The

  20. California Hydrogen Infrastructure Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heydorn, Edward C

    2013-03-12

    Air Products and Chemicals, Inc. has completed a comprehensive, multiyear project to demonstrate a hydrogen infrastructure in California. The specific primary objective of the project was to demonstrate a model of a real-world retail hydrogen infrastructure and acquire sufficient data within the project to assess the feasibility of achieving the nation's hydrogen infrastructure goals. The project helped to advance hydrogen station technology, including the vehicle-to-station fueling interface, through consumer experiences and feedback. By encompassing a variety of fuel cell vehicles, customer profiles and fueling experiences, this project was able to obtain a complete portrait of real market needs. The project also opened its stations to other qualified vehicle providers at the appropriate time to promote widespread use and gain even broader public understanding of a hydrogen infrastructure. The project engaged major energy companies to provide a fueling experience similar to traditional gasoline station sites to foster public acceptance of hydrogen. Work over the course of the project was focused in multiple areas. With respect to the equipment needed, technical design specifications (including both safety and operational considerations) were written, reviewed, and finalized. After finalizing individual equipment designs, complete station designs were started including process flow diagrams and systems safety reviews. Material quotes were obtained, and in some cases, depending on the project status and the lead time, equipment was placed on order and fabrication began. Consideration was given for expected vehicle usage and station capacity, standard features needed, and the ability to upgrade the station at a later date. In parallel with work on the equipment, discussions were started with various vehicle manufacturers to identify vehicle demand (short- and long-term needs). Discussions included identifying potential areas most suited for hydrogen fueling