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Sample records for california current moving

  1. Taxonomic distinctness of demersal fishes of the California current: moving beyond simple measures of diversity for marine ecosystem-based management.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nick Tolimieri

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Large-scale patterns or trends in species diversity have long interested ecologists. The classic pattern is for diversity (e.g., species richness to decrease with increasing latitude. Taxonomic distinctness is a diversity measure based on the relatedness of the species within a sample. Here we examined patterns of taxonomic distinctness in relation to latitude (ca. 32-48 degrees N and depth (ca. 50-1220 m for demersal fishes on the continental shelf and slope of the US Pacific coast. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Both average taxonomic distinctness (AvTD and variation in taxonomic distinctness (VarTD changed with latitude and depth. AvTD was highest at approximately 500 m and lowest at around 200 m bottom depth. Latitudinal trends in AvTD were somewhat weaker and were depth-specific. AvTD increased with latitude on the shelf (50-150 m but tended to decrease with latitude at deeper depths. Variation in taxonomic distinctness (VarTD was highest around 300 m. As with AvTD, latitudinal trends in VarTD were depth-specific. On the shelf (50-150 m, VarTD increased with latitude, while in deeper areas the patterns were more complex. Closer inspection of the data showed that the number and distribution of species within the class Chondrichthyes were the primary drivers of the overall patterns seen in AvTD and VarTD, while the relatedness and distribution of species in the order Scorpaeniformes appeared to cause the relatively low observed values of AvTD at around 200 m. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These trends contrast to some extent the patterns seen in earlier studies for species richness and evenness in demersal fishes along this coast and add to our understanding of diversity of the demersal fishes of the California Current.

  2. Behavior of Flotsam in the California Current System Utilizing Surface Drift of RAFOS Floats

    OpenAIRE

    Gates, Dallas Cody

    2012-01-01

    The patterns of surface drift of eighty-nine undrogued RAFOS floats in the California Current System have been studied. The floats were launched in the California Undercurrent during 19922010 and were tracked by the ARGOS system when they surfaced at the end of their subsurface mission. The surface drift of these floats was typically equatorward in the California Current. However, some floats moved poleward into the Subpolar Gyre, and others drifted westward into the North Equatorial Current....

  3. Cancer immunotherapy: moving beyond current vaccines

    OpenAIRE

    Rosenberg, Steven A.; Yang, James C.; Restifo, Nicholas P

    2004-01-01

    Great progress has been made in the field of tumor immunology in the past decade, but optimism about the clinical application of currently available cancer vaccine approaches is based more on surrogate endpoints than on clinical tumor regression. In our cancer vaccine trials of 440 patients, the objective response rate was low (2.6%), and comparable to the results obtained by others. We consider here results in cancer vaccine trials and highlight alternate strategies that mediate cancer regre...

  4. California current system - Predators and the preyscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ainley, David G.; Adams, Peter B.; Jahncke, Jaime

    2015-06-01

    The preyscape of the California Current System (CCS), one of the most productive marine areas on Earth (Glantz and Thompson, 1981), is highly variable, as evidenced by the papers in this issue, and as such presents a challenge to Ecosystem-based fishery management (EBFM), which attempts to integrate ecosystem considerations as part of fishery management and conservation decisions. Approaches to EBFM for the waters off Washington, Oregon, and California, the CCS, have been initiated (PFMC, 2007, 2013), and are continually being developed. To inform this process, a workshop was held in September 2013 to: i) gather together the existing information on forage fish and predator dynamics in the CCS; ii) consider temporal (seasonal, annual, decadal) and spatial availability of prey complexes and why these patterns of availability occur and change; iii) summarize and present that information for discussion to a large range of experts in oceanography, fish and fisheries management, seabirds, marine mammals, and ecosystem management; and, iv) synthesize this information to be useable by fishery agencies. The papers in this special Journal of Marine Systems issue address these four points. While the full results and recommendations can be found here - "http://www.pointblue.org/uploads/assets/calcurrent/REPORT_Forage_Fish_Workshop_FINAL.pdf"

  5. Accessing Current Information on California Indians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Trina

    As California Indians confront contemporary issues, their need for timely information is vital. The library at California State University (CSU), Fresno, serves students enrolled in Native American studies courses as well as members of the San Joaquin valley community. Information sources include both recorded information and the "invisible…

  6. Planning to Move: Effects on Representing the Currently Inhabited Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wofsey, Elizabeth; And Others

    1979-01-01

    Individuals with articulated plans for moving to a new environment and individuals lacking such plans produced written descriptions and drawings of their currently inhabited environment. Results indicated that individuals with highly articulated plans represented their present environment as reflecting significantly greater self-world distancing…

  7. CCIEA data and model output - California Current Integrated Ecosystem Assessment

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The California Current Integrated Ecosystem Assessment (CCIEA) is a joint project between staff at the NWFSC, SWFSC, NMML, ONMS, and WCRO to provide managers and...

  8. GLOBEC NEP Northern California Current Bird Data NH0005, 0007

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — GLOBEC (GLOBal Ocean ECosystems Dynamics) NEP (Northeast Pacific) Northern California Current Bird Data from R/V New Horizon cruises NH0005 and 0007. As a part of...

  9. Coherent Structures and Larval Transport in the California Current System

    OpenAIRE

    Harrison, Cheryl S.

    2012-01-01

    In the California Current system (CCS), coherent structures such as jets and eddies strongly control the biological response to coastal upwelling. One of the outstanding problems in marine ecology is to understand the mechanisms of larval transport. Details of transport dynamics from nearshore to offshore, and subsequent delivery of coastally spawned propagules back to favorable settlement areas, strongly control marine population dynamics. Recent developments in applied dynamical systems all...

  10. Seasonality of the transitional region of the California Current System off Baja California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durazo, Reginaldo

    2015-02-01

    Hydrographic data collected over the period 1997-2013 are analyzed to investigate the seasonality of hydrographic features and associated geostrophic flows off the Baja California peninsula. The upper ocean in the region was found to be homogeneous in winter and spring but subdivided into two regions in the summer and autumn. In the first case, the system typically shows relatively low-temperature and salinity waters, which give it a subarctic character. In the second, only the region north of Punta Eugenia (28°N) maintains subarctic characteristics, while the southern region receives an inflow of tropical and subtropical waters that results from the weakening of northwesterly winds, which allows the poleward advection of surface waters. Also during this period, a positive wind stress curl promotes the zonal advection of North Pacific's eastern edge waters into the coast and to the north as a surface coastal flow. Average seasonal patterns of geostrophic flow at 200 dbar revealed that the differentiation into provinces is also evident at that depth, with two clearly defined cyclonic structures in summer and autumn, both separated at the latitude of Punta Eugenia. The analyses conducted also showed a clear continuity of the California undercurrent along the shelf break, with more diffuse currents in the winter. Poleward flows were observed throughout the water column, especially in summer and autumn, although the origin of the surface flow does not necessarily involve a surfacing of the California Undercurrent.

  11. Interannual forcing mechanisms of California Current transports II: Mesoscale eddies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Andrew; Di Lorenzo, Emanuele

    2015-02-01

    Mesoscale eddies exert dominant control of cross-shelf exchanges, yet the forcing dynamics underlying their interannual and decadal variability remain uncertain. Using an ensemble of high-resolution ocean model hindcasts of the central and eastern North Pacific from 1950 to 2010 we diagnose the forcing mechanisms of low-frequency eddy variability in the California Current System (CCS). We quantify eddy activity by developing eddy counts based on closed contours of the Okubo-Weiss parameter and find that the spatial and temporal features of model-derived counts largely reproduce the short AVISO observational record. Comparison of model ensemble members allows us to separate the intrinsic and deterministic fractions of eddy variability in the northern CCS (34.5-50°N) and in the southern CCS (28.5-34.5°N). In the North, a large fraction of low-frequency eddy variability (30% anticyclones, 20% cyclones) is deterministic and shared with satellite observations. We develop a diagnostic model based on indices of the large-scale barotropic and baroclinic states of the CCS which recovers this deterministic variance. This model also strongly correlates with local atmospheric forcing. In contrast to the North, Southern CCS eddy counts exhibit very little deterministic variance, and eddy formation closely resembles a red-noise process. This new understanding of the external forcings of eddy variability allows us to better estimate how climate variability and change impact mesoscale transports in the California Current. The skill of our diagnostic model and its close association with local wind stress curl indicate that local atmospheric forcing is the dominant driver of eddy activity on interannual and decadal time scales north of pt. conception (~33°N).

  12. California's Adjudicated Groundwater Basins: History, Current Conditions, Potential Reforms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langridge, R.; Brown, A.; Rudestam, K.; Conrad, E.

    2015-12-01

    Groundwater adjudications are one approach to managing a groundwater basin in California. While the 2014 Sustainable Groundwater Management Act (SGMA) established new management requirements for 127 high and medium priority groundwater basins, it exempted all 26 of the state's adjudicated groundwater basins from the Act. The State Water Resources Control Board prioritized the evaluation of these adjudicated basins to assist in aligning the processes and outcomes of adjudication with SGMA's goals for the sustainable management of groundwater. Working with the Board, our research evaluated the history and current condition of all of California's adjudicated basins along with potential future improvements to the adjudication process. Our presentation will provide a summary of our findings and highlight some successful features of the adjudication process along with the challenges adjudicated basins face to achieve long-term sustainable groundwater management. Our discussion will include a review of: whether most adjudications result in groundwater extractions at or near a basins' designated safe yield; whether overdraft conditions are reduced or eliminated over the long term; and the degree of collaboration and inclusion of community stakeholders in the adjudication process. In addition to this overview, we will highlight 3-4 basins with particularly interesting management challenges and solutions. For each of these basins, we will describe the problem that precipitated the need for the adjudication and how adjudication outcomes were influenced by: how the judgment defined and distributed water rights; the management structure and strategies to manage the basin; how safe yield and overdraft are defined and determined; and, importantly, the effectiveness of the adjudication in halting or reversing groundwater overdraft.

  13. Gasification of solid waste — potential and application of co-current moving bed gasifiers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groeneveld, M.J.; Swaaij, van W.P.M.

    1979-01-01

    A review is given of gasification processes for solid fuels with special emphasis on waste gasification. Although the co-current moving bed gasifier has not been under consideration for a long time, it offers interesting possibilities for waste gasification. Some operational data are given. Two pote

  14. Material properties of zooplankton and nekton from the California current

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Kaylyn

    This study measured the material properties of zooplankton, Pacific hake (Merluccius productus), Humboldt squid (Dosidicus gigas), and two species of myctophids (Symbolophorus californiensis and Diaphus theta) collected from the California Current ecosystem. The density contrast (g) was measured for euphausiids, decapods (Sergestes similis), amphipods (Primno macropa, Phronima sp., and Hyperiid spp.), siphonophore bracts, chaetognaths, larval fish, crab megalopae, larval squid, and medusae. Morphometric data (length, width, and height) were collected for these taxa. Density contrasts varied within and between zooplankton taxa. The mean and standard deviation for euphausiid density contrast were 1.059 +/- 0.009. Relationships between zooplankton density contrast and morphometric measurements, geographic location, and environmental conditions were investigated. Site had a significant effect on euphausiid density contrast. Density contrasts of euphausiids collected in the same geographic area approximately 4-10 days apart were significantly higher (p < 0.001). Sound speed contrast (h) was measured for euphausiids and pelagic decapods (S. similis) and it varied between taxa. The mean and standard deviation for euphausiid sound speed were 1.019 +/- 0.009. Euphausiid mass was calculated from density measurements and volume, and a relationship between euphausiid mass and length was produced. We determined that euphausiid from volumes could be accurately estimated two dimensional measurements of animal body shape, and that biomass (or biovolume) could be accurately calculated from digital photographs of animals. Density contrast (g) was measured for zooplankton, pieces of hake flesh, myctophid flesh, and of the following Humboldt squid body parts: mantle, arms, tentacle, braincase, eyes, pen, and beak. The density contrasts varied within and between fish taxa, as well as among squid body parts. Effects of animal length and environmental conditions on nekton density

  15. Laboratory experiments on current flow between stationary and moving electrodes in magnetoplasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stenzel, Reiner L.; Urrutia, J. M.

    1990-01-01

    Laboratory experiments were performed in order to investigate the basic physics of current flow between tethered electrodes in magnetoplasmas. The major findings are summarized. The experiments are performed in an effectively very large laboratory plasma in which not only the nonlinear current collection is addressed but also the propagation and spread of currents, the formation of current wings by moving electrodes, the current closure, and radiation from transmission lines. The laboratory plasma consists of a pulsed dc discharge whose Maxwellian afterglow provides a quiescent, current-free uniform background plasma. Electrodes consisting of collectors and electron emitters are inserted into the plasma and a pulsed voltage is applied between two floating electrodes via insulated transmission lines. Besides the applied current in the wire, the total current density in the plasma is obtained from space and time resolved magnetic probe measurements via Maxwell's law. Langmuir probes yield the plasma parameters.

  16. Physical oceanography - Developing end-to-end models of the California Current Large Marine Ecosystem

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The purpose of this project is to develop spatially discrete end-to-end models of the California Current LME, linking oceanography, biogeochemistry, food web...

  17. Atlantis model outputs - Developing end-to-end models of the California Current Large Marine Ecosystem

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The purpose of this project is to develop spatially discrete end-to-end models of the California Current LME, linking oceanography, biogeochemistry, food web...

  18. GLOBEC NEP Northern California Current Cetacean Survey Data, NH0005, 0007

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — GLOBEC (GLOBal Ocean ECosystems Dynamics) NEP (Northeast Pacific) Northern California Current Cetacean Survey Data from R/V New Horizon cruises NH0005 and 0007....

  19. Moving away from methyl bromide: political economy of pesticide transition for California strawberries since 2004.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayfield, Erin N; Norman, Catherine Shelley

    2012-09-15

    We examine the progress of the phaseout of the use of the pesticide methyl bromide in the production of California field strawberries. This phaseout is required under the Montreal Protocol and has been contentious in this sector, which receives exemptions from the schedule initially agreed under the treaty, and in international negotiations over the future of the Protocol. We examine the various ex-ante predictions of the impacts on growers, consumers and trade patterns in light of several years of declining allocations under the Critical Use provisions of the Protocol and the 2010 approval of iodomethane for use in California and subsequent 2012 withdrawal of this alternative from the US market. We find that, contrary to ex-ante industry claims, the years of declining methyl bromide use have been years of rising yields, acreage, exports, revenues and market share for California growers, even when faced with a global recession and increased imports from Mexican growers who retain the right to use the chemical under the Protocol. This has implications for the Protocol as a whole and for the remainder of the US phaseout of this chemical in particular. PMID:22575205

  20. Variance of discharge estimates sampled using acoustic Doppler current profilers from moving boats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Carlos M.; Tarrab, Leticia; Oberg, Kevin; Szupiany, Ricardo; Cantero, Mariano I.

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a model for quantifying the random errors (i.e., variance) of acoustic Doppler current profiler (ADCP) discharge measurements from moving boats for different sampling times. The model focuses on the random processes in the sampled flow field and has been developed using statistical methods currently available for uncertainty analysis of velocity time series. Analysis of field data collected using ADCP from moving boats from three natural rivers of varying sizes and flow conditions shows that, even though the estimate of the integral time scale of the actual turbulent flow field is larger than the sampling interval, the integral time scale of the sampled flow field is on the order of the sampling interval. Thus, an equation for computing the variance error in discharge measurements associated with different sampling times, assuming uncorrelated flow fields is appropriate. The approach is used to help define optimal sampling strategies by choosing the exposure time required for ADCPs to accurately measure flow discharge.

  1. Plankton dynamics in a cyclonic eddy in the Southern California Current System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chenillat, Fanny; Franks, Peter J. S.; Rivière, Pascal; Capet, Xavier; Grima, Nicolas; Blanke, Bruno

    2015-08-01

    The California Current System is an eastern boundary upwelling system (EBUS) with high biological production along the coast. Oligotrophic offshore waters create cross-shore gradients of biological and physical properties, which are affected by intense mesoscale eddy activity. The influence of eddies on ecosystem dynamics in EBUS is still in debate. To elucidate the mechanisms that influence the dynamics of ecosystems trapped in eddies, and the relative contribution of horizontal and vertical advection in determining local production, we analyze a particular cyclonic eddy using Lagrangian particle-tracking analyses of numerical Eulerian. The eddy formed in a coastal upwelling system; coastal waters trapped in the eddy enabled it to leave the upwelling region with high concentrations of plankton and nutrients. The ecosystem was initially driven mainly by recycling of biological material. As the eddy moved offshore, production in its core was enhanced compared to eddy exterior waters through Ekman pumping of nitrate from below the euphotic zone; this Ekman pumping was particularly effective due to the shallow nitracline in the eddy compared to eddy exterior waters. Both eddy trapping and Ekman pumping helped to isolate and maintain the ecosystem productivity in the eddy core. This study shows the importance of cyclonic eddies for biological production in EBUS: they contribute both to the redistribution of the coastal upwelling ecosystem and are local regions of enhanced new production. Together, these processes impact cross-shore gradients of important biological properties.

  2. Ecology and Trophic Interactions of Jumbo Squid (Dosidicus gigas) in the California Current Ecosystem

    OpenAIRE

    Gilly, William; Field, John

    2012-01-01

    Humboldt squid have recently demonstrated a range expansion into the waters off California from the previous northern extent of their range in Mexico. In this new environment, we expected the vertical and horizontal migratory behavior and the diet to be generally similar those previously documented in Mexico. However, we also expected significant differences in diet and reproductive activity, with potentially great impacts on ecosystems in the California Current System. In particular, consump...

  3. Investigations of Tracking Phenomena in Silicone Rubber Using Moving Average Current Technique

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    R. Sarathi; S. Chandrasekar

    2004-01-01

    In the present work, tracking phenomenon in Silicone rubber material has been studied under AC and DC voltage, with ammonium chloride as a contaminant. It is observed that the tracking is more severe under the DC voltages. The tracking time is less under negative DC compared to the positive DC voltage. The tracking mechanism is explained in detail. The leakage current during the tracking studies was as measured and the moving average technique was adopted to understand the trend in current flow. The leakage current magnitude is high with thermally aged specimens compared to the virgin specimen, irrespective of the type of applied voltage. It is realized that the tracking time and the leakage current magnitude shows an inverse relationship.

  4. [Plankton dynamics in the South of California Current].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández Trujillo, S; Gómez Ochoa, F; Verdugo Díaz, G

    2001-03-01

    We analyzed zooplankton biomass, micro- and nannophytoplankton abundance, Calanus pacificus Brodsky 1948 abundance, and sea surface temperature along the west coast of Baja California between February 1983 and September 1991. The zooplankton biovolume abundance decreased from spring to autumn. The average abundance of nannophytoplankton ( 20 microns). Both increased 3.5 times in abundance after 1986. Seasonally, both fractions (NP and MP) were least abundant in winter and most abundant in summer and autumn. Calanus pacificus abundance was variable, but especially high in May of some years. Abundance was lowest in winter and highest in spring, dropping in summer and autumn. Sea surface temperatures averaged 21.5 degrees C, with highest in autumn (24.2 degrees C) and the lowest in spring (17.9 degrees C). C. pacificus abundance and sea surface temperature were inversely related by cruise, season, and latitude. The phytoplankton abundance and zooplankton biomass and C. pacificus abundance showed low and high abundance patterns coincident with warming and cooling events (El Niño-La Niña). PMID:11795144

  5. Spatiotemporal variability and long-term trends of ocean acidification in the California Current System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Hauri

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Due to seasonal upwelling, the upper ocean waters of the California Current System (CCS have a naturally low pH and aragonite saturation state (Ωarag, making this region particularly prone to the effects of ocean acidification. Here, we use the Regional Oceanic Modeling System (ROMS to conduct preindustrial and transient (1995–2050 simulations of ocean biogeochemistry in the CCS. The transient simulations were forced with increasing atmospheric pCO2 as projected by the NCAR CSM 1.4 model run under either the IPCC SRES A2 or B1 scenarios. Using ROMS, we investigate the timing of transition decades during which pH and Ωarag depart from their modeled preindustrial (1750 and present-day (2011 variability envelopes. We report these transition decades by noting the midpoint of the ten-year transition periods. In addition, we also analyze the timing of near permanent aragonite undersaturation in the upper 100 m of the water column. Our results show that an interplay of physical and biogeochemical processes create large seasonal variability in pH (∼ 0.14 and Ωarag (∼ 0.2. Despite this large variability, we find that present-day pH and Ωarag have already moved out of their preindustrial variability envelopes due to the rapidly increasing concentrations of atmospheric CO2. The simulations following the A2 emissions scenario suggest that nearshore surface pH of the northern and central CCS will move out of their present-day variability envelopes by 2045 and 2037, respectively. However, surface Ωarag of the northern and central CCS subregions are projected to depart from their present-day variability envelopes sooner, by 2030 and 2035, respectively. By 2025, the aragonite saturation horizon of the central CCS is projected to shoal into the upper 75 m for the duration of the annual cycle, causing near permanent undersaturation in subsurface waters. Overall, our

  6. Spatiotemporal variability and long-term trends of ocean acidification in the California Current System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Hauri

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to seasonal upwelling, the upper ocean waters of the California Current System (CCS have a naturally low pH and aragonite saturation state (Ωarag, making this region particularly prone to the effects of ocean acidification. Here, we use the Regional Oceanic Modeling System (ROMS to conduct preindustrial and transient (1995–2050 simulations of ocean biogeochemistry in the CCS. The transient simulations were forced with increasing atmospheric pCO2 and increasing oceanic dissolved inorganic carbon concentrations at the lateral boundaries, as projected by the NCAR CSM 1.4 model for the IPCC SRES A2 scenario. Our results show a large seasonal variability in pH (range of ~ 0.14 and Ωarag (~ 0.2 for the nearshore areas (50 km from shore. This variability is created by the interplay of physical and biogeochemical processes. Despite this large variability, we find that present-day pH and Ωarag have already moved outside of their simulated preindustrial variability envelopes (defined by ±1 temporal standard deviation due to the rapidly increasing concentrations of atmospheric CO2. The nearshore surface pH of the northern and central CCS are simulated to move outside of their present-day variability envelopes by the mid-2040s and late 2030s, respectively. This transition may occur even earlier for nearshore surface Ωarag, which is projected to depart from its present-day variability envelope by the early- to mid-2030s. The aragonite saturation horizon of the central CCS is projected to shoal into the upper 75 m within the next 25 yr, causing near-permanent undersaturation in subsurface waters. Due to the model's overestimation of Ωarag, this transition may occur even earlier than simulated by the model. Overall, our study shows that the CCS joins the Arctic and Southern oceans as one of only a few known ocean regions presently approaching the dual threshold of

  7. Spatiotemporal variability and long-term trends of ocean acidification in the California Current System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauri, C.; Gruber, N.; Vogt, M.; Doney, S. C.; Feely, R. A.; Lachkar, Z.; Leinweber, A.; McDonnell, A. M. P.; Munnich, M.; Plattner, G.-K.

    2013-01-01

    Due to seasonal upwelling, the upper ocean waters of the California Current System (CCS) have a naturally low pH and aragonite saturation state (Ωarag), making this region particularly prone to the effects of ocean acidification. Here, we use the Regional Oceanic Modeling System (ROMS) to conduct preindustrial and transient (1995-2050) simulations of ocean biogeochemistry in the CCS. The transient simulations were forced with increasing atmospheric pCO2 and increasing oceanic dissolved inorganic carbon concentrations at the lateral boundaries, as projected by the NCAR CSM 1.4 model for the IPCC SRES A2 scenario. Our results show a large seasonal variability in pH (range of ~ 0.14) and Ωarag (~ 0.2) for the nearshore areas (50 km from shore). This variability is created by the interplay of physical and biogeochemical processes. Despite this large variability, we find that present-day pH and Ωarag have already moved outside of their simulated preindustrial variability envelopes (defined by ±1 temporal standard deviation) due to the rapidly increasing concentrations of atmospheric CO2. The nearshore surface pH of the northern and central CCS are simulated to move outside of their present-day variability envelopes by the mid-2040s and late 2030s, respectively. This transition may occur even earlier for nearshore surface Ωarag, which is projected to depart from its present-day variability envelope by the early- to mid-2030s. The aragonite saturation horizon of the central CCS is projected to shoal into the upper 75 m within the next 25 yr, causing near-permanent undersaturation in subsurface waters. Due to the model's overestimation of Ωarag, this transition may occur even earlier than simulated by the model. Overall, our study shows that the CCS joins the Arctic and Southern oceans as one of only a few known ocean regions presently approaching the dual threshold of widespread and near-permanent undersaturation with respect to aragonite and a departure from its

  8. California's county hospitals and the University of California graduate medical education system. Current issues and future directions.

    OpenAIRE

    Jameson, W J; Pierce, K; Martin, D K

    1998-01-01

    California's county hospitals train 45% of the state's graduate medical residents, including 33% of residents in the University of California system. This paper describes the interrelationships of California's county hospitals and the University of California (UC) graduate medical education (GME) programs, highlighting key challenges facing both systems. The mission of California's county health care systems is to serve all who need health care services regardless of ability to pay. Locating ...

  9. Current meter data from moored current meter casts in the Coastal Waters of California from 12 April 1981 - 01 April 1983 (NODC Accession 8400159)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Current meter data were collected using moored current meter casts in the Coastal Waters of California from April 12, 1981 to April 1, 1983. Data were submitted by...

  10. Multiple resonances of a moving, oscillating surface disturbance on a shear current

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Yan

    2016-01-01

    We consider waves radiated by a disturbance of oscillating strength moving at constant velocity along the free surface of a shear flow which, when undisturbed, has uniform horizontal vorticity of magnitude $S$. When no current is present the problem is a classical one and much studied, and in deep water a resonance is known to occur when $\\tau=|\\boldsymbol{V}|\\omega_0/g$ equals the critical value $1/4$ ($\\boldsymbol{V}$: velocity of disturbance, $\\omega_0$: oscillation frequency, $g$: gravitational acceleration). We show that the presence of the sub-surface shear current can change this picture radically. Not only does the resonant value of $\\tau$ depend strongly on the angle between $\\boldsymbol{V}$ and the current's direction and the "shear-Froude number" $\\mathrm{Frs}=|\\boldsymbol{V}|S/g$; when $\\mathrm{Frs}>1/3$, multiple resonant values --- as many as $4$ --- can occur for some directions of motion. At sufficiently large values of $\\mathrm{Frs}$, the smallest resonance frequency tends to zero, representi...

  11. Strongly-sheared wind-forced currents in the nearshore regions of the central Southern California Bight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noble, Marlene A.; Rosenberger, Kurt; Robertson, George L.

    2015-01-01

    Contrary to many previous reports, winds do drive currents along the shelf in the central portion of the Southern California Bight (SCB). Winds off Huntington Beach CA are the dominant forcing for currents over the nearshore region of the shelf (water depths less than 20 m). Winds control about 50–70% of the energy in nearshore alongshelf surface currents. The wind-driven current amplitudes are also anomalously high. For a relatively weak 1 dyne/cm2 wind stress, the alongshelf surface current amplitudes in this region can reach 80 cm/s or more. Mid-depth current amplitudes for the same wind stress are around 30–40 cm/s. These wind-driven surface current amplitudes are much larger than previously measured over other nearshore shelf regions, perhaps because this program is one of the few that measured currents within a meter of the surface. The near-bed cross-shelf currents over the nearshore region of the Huntington Beach shelf have an Ekman response to winds in that they upwell (downwell) for down (up) coast winds. This response disappears further offshore. Hence, there is upwelling in the SCB, but it does not occur across the entire shelf. Subthermocline water in the nearshore region that may contain nutrients and plankton move onshore when winds are southeastward, but subthermocline water over the shelf break is not transported to the beach. The currents over the outer shelf are not predominately controlled by winds, consistent with previous reports. Instead, they are mainly driven by cross-shelf pressure gradients that are independent of local wind stress.

  12. Habitat use of calling baleen whales in the southern California Current Ecosystem

    OpenAIRE

    Vu, Elizabeth Tram Anh

    2015-01-01

    The extent to which temporal, spatial, environmental, and physiological factors influence baleen whale acoustic occurrence was investigated in the southern California Current Ecosystem, a highly productive, upwelling-driven ecosystem that hosts a large abundance of top predators. By combining data sets from ten years of passive acoustic monitoring and concurrent environmental sampling, thisdissertation presents detailed intra-annual and mesoscale spatial patterns previously unknown. Analyses ...

  13. Reliability of Sensors Based on Nanowire Networks When the Electrical Current is Allowed to Move in All Directions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nader Ebrahimi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Nanowire networks have great potential in many industrial applications, including batteries, electrical circuits, solar cells, and sensors. In this paper we focus on a specific hydrogen gas nanosensor whose sensing element is a network of palladium nanowires. The nanosensor is modeled using a square, equilateral triangle, and hexagonal lattice. We provide the reliability behavior of this nanosensor when the electrical current is allowed to move in all directions. Our findings reveal an improvement in reliability compared to the scenario where the electrical current could not move from right to left. We show this improvement both analytically and through simulation.

  14. The Current Status of the Sea Otter Population in California (December 1986

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ames J.

    1987-03-01

    Full Text Available The Current Status of the Sea Otter Population in California (December 1986Pages 21 - 25 (ReportJack AmesAbstract:It has proved difficult to devise a population census method that is reliable, and the efforts to do so are reviewed. Whether the population has remained stable or declined slightly, the fact remains that a population that had been growing at a rate of approximately five percent per year has not grown for more than a decade. This lack of population growth remains a significant point of concern. However, new net fishing restrictions and the fact that the geographic range of the sea otter in California has continued to increase, lead us to conclude that future increases in population size in California are likely. In the worst of all scenarios, were the Californian population of sea otters to be exterminated, a new population could be started from Alaskan sea otters. Such transplanted populations currently thrive in British Columbia, Canada and the state of Washington.

  15. THE DYNAMIC INTERACTION OF THE MOVING CONTACTING SURFACES AT THE EXAMPLE OF THE ELECTRIC ROLLING STOCK CURRENT COLLECTOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. O. Babiak

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The process of mutual moving and contacting of surfaces of current collecting pantograph elements and contact network is considered taking into account the particularities of inf1uence of speed and acceleration parameters, determination of which will allow to forecast mathematically the wear-out degree of contacting elements.

  16. Effects of Climate Change on Sardine Productivity in the California Current System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumgartner, T. R.; Auad, G.; Miller, A. J.

    2007-05-01

    The Pacific sardine (Sardinops sagax caeruleus) is one of several coastal pelagic, planktivorous species of fish that provide important trophic links within the ecosystems of the major eastern and western boundary currents. Significant and persistent change in sardine productivity has occurred in the California Current over interdecadal periods in response to reorganization of basin-wide, ocean-atmosphere circulation. Less extreme, but still significant changes in sardine productivity are associated with interannual to decadal-scale climate variability. A precipitous decline of the sardine population began in the mid-1940s with a shift in climate leading to cooling of the California Current system. While the decline, and ultimately the collapse of the population, was exacerbated by intensive fishing, the sardine also suffered a severe reduction in productivity with the southward contraction of favorable thermal habitat that led to restriction of the population to the waters off Southern California and Baja California. This southward displacement resulted in geographic separation of the population from the region off central and northern California that is characterized by significantly higher concentrations of zooplankton that supported the previous levels of success in spawning and larval development. The climate shift in 1976-77 led to the recovery of the population and extension of its range of distribution northwards into the waters off British Columbia. The relation of reproductive success of the sardine population to interannual and decadal climate change was examined for the period 1982-2005 using a suite of seasonal indices representing climate processes and habitat conditions (including zooplankton food levels) occurring through the different stages in the sardine life cycle. We used both stepwise regression and EOF analyses to determine the association between levels of recruitment success and seasonal indices of the Pacific Decadal Oscillation, Ekman

  17. Multi-decadal variations in stable N isotopes of California Current zooplankton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohman, Mark D.; Rau, Greg H.; Hull, Pincelli M.

    2012-01-01

    We analyzed variations in naturally occurring δ15N in four species of zooplankton as an index of climate influences on pelagic food web structure in a major eastern boundary current ecosystem. Our analyses focused on two species of particle-grazing copepods ( Calanus pacificus and Eucalanus californicus) and two species of carnivorous chaetognaths ( Sagitta bierii and Sagitta euneritica), drawing on the CalCOFI zooplankton time series from both the southern and central sectors of the California Current System. We detected a significant difference between regions in average stable N isotope content of the two species of copepods, with δ15N elevated by 0.5-1.1 per mil in the southern region, but no regional differences in the isotopic content of the chaetognaths. We address climate influences over a 54-year time period, on three different time scales: interannual (dominated by ENSO), decadal, and multi-decadal. Three of four species showed evidence of an ENSO-related isotopic shift toward increased 15N during El Niño conditions. In addition, in Southern California waters, C. pacificus and S. euneritica showed elevated δ15N in the warm phase of the NE Pacific between 1978 and 1998 relative to the preceding and following time periods. When considered over the entire 5½ decades treated here, for most species there was remarkable long-term stability in stable isotope content in both southern and central California waters, despite interannual and decadal perturbations. Only E. californicus in the southern sector showed a significant downward secular trend in δ15N. Variability of δ15N in 3 species covaried with the average nitrate concentration in the mixed layer, suggesting altered nitrate utilization at the base of the food web as a primary mechanism underlying interannual changes in zooplankton isotopic content.

  18. Moving Images Against The Current: The Aesthetics and Geopolitics of (Im)mobility in Contemporary Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Bayraktar, Nilgun

    2011-01-01

    This dissertation investigates the historical and contemporary tensions around mobility and identity in Europe since WWII, with particular emphasis on their contemporary configurations. Drawing on recent theories of migrant and diasporic cinema, moving image art, and mobility studies, I provide close and historically situated readings of films, videos, and installations within a larger geographic and historical scope of European migration that encompasses the Middle East and Africa. The films...

  19. Sea Surface Temperature Influence on Terrestrial Gross Primary Production along the Southern California Current.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janet J Reimer

    Full Text Available Some land and ocean processes are related through connections (and synoptic-scale teleconnections to the atmosphere. Synoptic-scale atmospheric (El Niño/Southern Oscillation [ENSO], Pacific Decadal Oscillation [PDO], and North Atlantic Oscillation [NAO] decadal cycles are known to influence the global terrestrial carbon cycle. Potentially, smaller scale land-ocean connections influenced by coastal upwelling (changes in sea surface temperature may be important for local-to-regional water-limited ecosystems where plants may benefit from air moisture transported from the ocean to terrestrial ecosystems. Here we use satellite-derived observations to test potential connections between changes in sea surface temperature (SST in regions with strong coastal upwelling and terrestrial gross primary production (GPP across the Baja California Peninsula. This region is characterized by an arid/semiarid climate along the southern California Current. We found that SST was correlated with the fraction of photosynthetic active radiation (fPAR; as a proxy for GPP with lags ranging from 0 to 5 months. In contrast ENSO was not as strongly related with fPAR as SST in these coastal ecosystems. Our results show the importance of local-scale changes in SST during upwelling events, to explain the variability in GPP in coastal, water-limited ecosystems. The response of GPP to SST was spatially-dependent: colder SST in the northern areas increased GPP (likely by influencing fog formation, while warmer SST at the southern areas was associated to higher GPP (as SST is in phase with precipitation patterns. Interannual trends in fPAR are also spatially variable along the Baja California Peninsula with increasing secular trends in subtropical regions, decreasing trends in the most arid region, and no trend in the semi-arid regions. These findings suggest that studies and ecosystem process based models should consider the lateral influence of local-scale ocean processes that

  20. Sea Surface Temperature Influence on Terrestrial Gross Primary Production along the Southern California Current

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reimer, Janet J.; Vargas, Rodrigo; Rivas, David; Gaxiola-Castro, Gilberto; Hernandez-Ayon, J. Martin; Lara-Lara, Ruben

    2015-01-01

    Some land and ocean processes are related through connections (and synoptic-scale teleconnections) to the atmosphere. Synoptic-scale atmospheric (El Niño/Southern Oscillation [ENSO], Pacific Decadal Oscillation [PDO], and North Atlantic Oscillation [NAO]) decadal cycles are known to influence the global terrestrial carbon cycle. Potentially, smaller scale land-ocean connections influenced by coastal upwelling (changes in sea surface temperature) may be important for local-to-regional water-limited ecosystems where plants may benefit from air moisture transported from the ocean to terrestrial ecosystems. Here we use satellite-derived observations to test potential connections between changes in sea surface temperature (SST) in regions with strong coastal upwelling and terrestrial gross primary production (GPP) across the Baja California Peninsula. This region is characterized by an arid/semiarid climate along the southern California Current. We found that SST was correlated with the fraction of photosynthetic active radiation (fPAR; as a proxy for GPP) with lags ranging from 0 to 5 months. In contrast ENSO was not as strongly related with fPAR as SST in these coastal ecosystems. Our results show the importance of local-scale changes in SST during upwelling events, to explain the variability in GPP in coastal, water-limited ecosystems. The response of GPP to SST was spatially-dependent: colder SST in the northern areas increased GPP (likely by influencing fog formation), while warmer SST at the southern areas was associated to higher GPP (as SST is in phase with precipitation patterns). Interannual trends in fPAR are also spatially variable along the Baja California Peninsula with increasing secular trends in subtropical regions, decreasing trends in the most arid region, and no trend in the semi-arid regions. These findings suggest that studies and ecosystem process based models should consider the lateral influence of local-scale ocean processes that could

  1. Remote versus local influence of ENSO on the California Current System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frischknecht, M.; Münnich, M.; Gruber, N.

    2015-02-01

    Much of the observed interannual variability in the physical and biogeochemical state of the California Current System (CalCS) is associated with El Niño Southern Oscillation. Yet it is unclear whether this is primarily a result of atmospheric teleconnections forcing the ocean locally through changes in wind and fluxes of heat and freshwater, or whether this is a consequence of oceanic interior processes that transport tropical variability through, e.g., coastally trapped waves to the region. Here we investigate the relative contribution of these two mechanisms in the CalCS using a novel setup of the Regional Oceanic Modeling System coupled to a biogeochemical/ecological model. We conducted a hindcast simulation over the period 1979-2013 and contrast the results with those from sensitivity simulations with climatological atmospheric boundary conditions either for the U.S. West Coast or the rest of the Pacific. We find that remote forcing dominates the variability of the physical state in the nearshore region of the CalCS, explaining up to 80% of monthly mean sea-surface height and temperature variability. In contrast, local processes tend to drive variations in the biogeochemical/ecological state, particularly along central and northern California, explaining up to 50% of the observed surface variability. Most of the remote forcing is a consequence of coastally trapped waves that travel northward at speeds of approximately 230 km d-1, and thereby alter sea-level height, thermocline structure, and upwelling along California. Biogeochemically active tracers respond to this remote forcing as well, especially at depth, but are more strongly modulated by local atmospheric forcing, especially variations in upwelling-favorable winds.

  2. Climatic modulation of recent trends in ocean acidification in the California Current System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turi, G.; Lachkar, Z.; Gruber, N.; Münnich, M.

    2016-01-01

    We reconstruct the evolution of ocean acidification in the California Current System (CalCS) from 1979 through 2012 using hindcast simulations with an eddy-resolving ocean biogeochemical model forced with observation-based variations of wind and fluxes of heat and freshwater. We find that domain-wide pH and {{{Ω }}}{arag} in the top 60 m of the water column decreased significantly over these three decades by about -0.02 decade-1 and -0.12 decade-1, respectively. In the nearshore areas of northern California and Oregon, ocean acidification is reconstructed to have progressed much more rapidly, with rates up to 30% higher than the domain-wide trends. Furthermore, ocean acidification penetrated substantially into the thermocline, causing a significant domain-wide shoaling of the aragonite saturation depth of on average -33 m decade-1 and up to -50 m decade-1 in the nearshore area of northern California. This resulted in a coast-wide increase in nearly undersaturated waters and the appearance of waters with {{{Ω }}}{arag}\\lt 1, leading to a substantial reduction of habitat suitability. Averaged over the whole domain, the main driver of these trends is the oceanic uptake of anthropogenic CO2 from the atmosphere. However, recent changes in the climatic forcing have substantially modulated these trends regionally. This is particularly evident in the nearshore regions, where the total trends in pH are up to 50% larger and trends in {{{Ω }}}{arag} and in the aragonite saturation depth are even twice to three times larger than the purely atmospheric CO2-driven trends. This modulation in the nearshore regions is a result of the recent marked increase in alongshore wind stress, which brought elevated levels of dissolved inorganic carbon to the surface via upwelling. Our results demonstrate that changes in the climatic forcing need to be taken into consideration in future projections of the progression of ocean acidification in coastal upwelling regions.

  3. Improving Efficiency of a Counter-Current Flow Moving Bed Granular Filter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colver, G.M.; Brown, R.C.; Shi, H.; Soo, D.S-C.

    2002-09-18

    The goal of this research is to improve the performance of moving bed granular filters for gas cleaning at high temperatures and pressures. A second goal of the research is to optimize the performances of both solids and gas filtering processes through appropriate use of granular bed materials, particle sizes, feed rates etc. in a factorial study. These goals are directed toward applications of advanced coal-fired power cycles under development by the U.S. Department of Energy including pressurized fluidized bed combustion and integrated gasification/combined cycles based on gas turbines and fuel cells. Only results for particulate gas cleaning are reported here.

  4. Accumulation of current-use and organochlorine pesticides in crab embryos from Northern California, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smalling, Kelly L.; Morgan, Steven; Kuivila, Kathryn K.

    2010-01-01

    Invertebrates have long been used as resident sentinels for assessing ecosystem health and productivity. The shore crabs, Hemigrapsus oregonensis and Pachygrapsus crassipes, are abundant in estuaries and beaches throughout northern California, USA and have been used as indicators of habitat conditions in several salt marshes. The overall objectives of the present study were to conduct a lab-based study to test the accumulation of current-use pesticides, validate the analytical method and to analyze field-collected crabs for a suite of 74 current-use and legacy pesticides. A simple laboratory uptake study was designed to determine if embryos could bioconcentrate the herbicide molinate over a 7-d period. At the end of the experiment, embryos were removed from the crabs and analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Although relatively hydrophilic (log KOW of 2.9), molinate did accumulate with an estimated bioconcentration factor (log BCF) of approximately 2.5. Following method validation, embryos were collected from two different Northern California salt marshes and analyzed. In field-collected embryos 18 current-use and eight organochlorine pesticides were detected including synthetic pyrethroids and organophosphate insecticides, as well as DDT and its degradates. Lipid-normalized concentrations of the pesticides detected in the field-collected crab embryos ranged from 0.1 to 4 ppm. Pesticide concentrations and profiles in crab embryos were site specific and could be correlated to differences in land-use practices. These preliminary results indicate that embryos are an effective sink for organic contaminants in the environment and have the potential to be good indicators of ecosystem health, especially when contaminant body burden analyses are paired with reproductive impairment assays.

  5. Multi-decadal variations in calcareous holozooplankton in the California Current System: Thecosome pteropods, heteropods, and foraminifera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohman, Mark D.; Lavaniegos, Bertha E.; Townsend, Annie W.

    2009-09-01

    We examine long-term (1951-2008) variability of three major taxa of calcareous holozooplankton (aragonite-secreting thecosome pteropods and heteropods, and calcite-secreting large planktonic foraminifera) in light of recent interest in the impingement of waters undersaturated with respect to aragonite onto continental shelf depths in the California Current System. We assess interannual variability in springtime abundances of zooplankton sampled in the epipelagic layer, using CalCOFI (California Cooperative Oceanic Fisheries Investigations) zooplankton samples from two regions: Southern California (SC) and Central California (CC). Thecosome pteropods show no evidence of recent declines in abundance in SC or CC waters. In SC, sampling was sufficient to conclude that heteropods and large foraminifera also show no evidence of declines in abundance in recent years. These results do not preclude as-yet undetected changes in vertical distributions or shell morphology, and underscore the importance of sustained in situ measurement programs in order to detect and understand changes to pelagic ecosystems.

  6. Declining abundance of beaked whales (family Ziphiidae in the California Current large marine ecosystem.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey E Moore

    Full Text Available Beaked whales are among the most diverse yet least understood groups of marine mammals. A diverse set of mostly anthropogenic threats necessitates improvement in our ability to assess population status for this cryptic group. The Southwest Fisheries Science Center (NOAA conducted six ship line-transect cetacean abundance surveys in the California Current off the contiguous western United States between 1991 and 2008. We used a Bayesian hidden-process modeling approach to estimate abundance and population trends of beaked whales using sightings data from these surveys. We also compiled records of beaked whale stranding events (3 genera, at least 8 species on adjacent beaches from 1900 to 2012, to help assess population status of beaked whales in the northern part of the California Current. Bayesian posterior summaries for trend parameters provide strong evidence of declining beaked whale abundance in the study area. The probability of negative trend for Cuvier's beaked whale (Ziphius cavirostris during 1991-2008 was 0.84, with 1991 and 2008 estimates of 10771 (CV = 0.51 and ≈7550 (CV = 0.55, respectively. The probability of decline for Mesoplodon spp. (pooled across species was 0.96, with 1991 and 2008 estimates of 2206 (CV = 0.46 and 811 (CV = 0.65. The mean posterior estimates for average rate of decline were 2.9% and 7.0% per year. There was no evidence of abundance trend for Baird's beaked whale (Berardius bairdii, for which annual abundance estimates in the survey area ranged from ≈900 to 1300 (CV≈1.3. Stranding data were consistent with the survey results. Causes of apparent declines are unknown. Direct impacts of fisheries (bycatch can be ruled out, but impacts of anthropogenic sound (e.g., naval active sonar and ecosystem change are plausible hypotheses that merit investigation.

  7. Declining abundance of beaked whales (family Ziphiidae) in the California Current large marine ecosystem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Jeffrey E; Barlow, Jay P

    2013-01-01

    Beaked whales are among the most diverse yet least understood groups of marine mammals. A diverse set of mostly anthropogenic threats necessitates improvement in our ability to assess population status for this cryptic group. The Southwest Fisheries Science Center (NOAA) conducted six ship line-transect cetacean abundance surveys in the California Current off the contiguous western United States between 1991 and 2008. We used a Bayesian hidden-process modeling approach to estimate abundance and population trends of beaked whales using sightings data from these surveys. We also compiled records of beaked whale stranding events (3 genera, at least 8 species) on adjacent beaches from 1900 to 2012, to help assess population status of beaked whales in the northern part of the California Current. Bayesian posterior summaries for trend parameters provide strong evidence of declining beaked whale abundance in the study area. The probability of negative trend for Cuvier's beaked whale (Ziphius cavirostris) during 1991-2008 was 0.84, with 1991 and 2008 estimates of 10771 (CV = 0.51) and ≈7550 (CV = 0.55), respectively. The probability of decline for Mesoplodon spp. (pooled across species) was 0.96, with 1991 and 2008 estimates of 2206 (CV = 0.46) and 811 (CV = 0.65). The mean posterior estimates for average rate of decline were 2.9% and 7.0% per year. There was no evidence of abundance trend for Baird's beaked whale (Berardius bairdii), for which annual abundance estimates in the survey area ranged from ≈900 to 1300 (CV≈1.3). Stranding data were consistent with the survey results. Causes of apparent declines are unknown. Direct impacts of fisheries (bycatch) can be ruled out, but impacts of anthropogenic sound (e.g., naval active sonar) and ecosystem change are plausible hypotheses that merit investigation.

  8. Wave function and the probability current distribution for a bound electron moving in a uniform magnetic field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodionov, V. N.; Kravtsova, G. A.; Mandel', A. M.

    2010-07-01

    We study the effects of electromagnetic fields on nonrelativistic charged spinning particles bound by a short-range potential. We analyze the exact solution of the Pauli equation for an electron moving in the potential field determined by the three-dimensional δ-well in the presence of a strong magnetic field. We obtain asymptotic expressions for this solution for different values of the problem parameters. In addition, we consider electron probability currents and their dependence on the magnetic field. We show that including the spin in the framework of the nonrelativistic approach allows correctly taking the effect of the magnetic field on the electric current into account. The obtained dependences of the current distribution, which is an experimentally observable quantity, can be manifested directly in scattering processes, for example.

  9. Partial decoupling of primary productivity from upwelling in the California Current system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renault, Lionel; Deutsch, Curtis; McWilliams, James C.; Frenzel, Hartmut; Liang, Jun-Hong; Colas, François

    2016-07-01

    Coastal winds and upwelling of deep nutrient-rich water along subtropical eastern boundaries yield some of the ocean's most productive ecosystems. Simple indices of coastal wind strength have been extensively used to estimate the timing and magnitude of biological productivity on seasonal and interannual timescales and underlie the prediction that anthropogenic climate warming will increase the productivity by making coastal winds stronger. The effect of wind patterns on regional net primary productivity is not captured by such indices and is poorly understood. Here we present evidence, using a realistic model of the California Current system and satellite measurements, that the observed slackening of the winds near the coast has little effect on near-shore phytoplankton productivity despite a large reduction in upwelling velocity. On the regional scale the wind drop-off leads to substantially higher production even when the total upwelling rate remains the same. This partial decoupling of productivity from upwelling results from the impact of wind patterns on alongshore currents and the eddies they generate. Our results imply that productivity in eastern boundary upwelling systems will be better predicted from indices of the coastal wind that account for its offshore structure.

  10. Humpback whale diets respond to variance in ocean climate and ecosystem conditions in the California Current.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, Alyson H; Clark, Casey T; Calambokidis, John; Barlow, Jay

    2016-03-01

    Large, migratory predators are often cited as sentinel species for ecosystem processes and climate-related changes, but their utility as indicators is dependent upon an understanding of their response to environmental variability. Documentation of the links between climate variability, ecosystem change and predator dynamics is absent for most top predators. Identifying species that may be useful indicators and elucidating these mechanistic links provides insight into current ecological dynamics and may inform predictions of future ecosystem responses to climatic change. We examine humpback whale response to environmental variability through stable isotope analysis of diet over a dynamic 20-year period (1993-2012) in the California Current System (CCS). Humpback whale diets captured two major shifts in oceanographic and ecological conditions in the CCS. Isotopic signatures reflect a diet dominated by krill during periods characterized by positive phases of the North Pacific Gyre Oscillation (NPGO), cool sea surface temperature (SST), strong upwelling and high krill biomass. In contrast, humpback whale diets are dominated by schooling fish when the NPGO is negative, SST is warmer, seasonal upwelling is delayed and anchovy and sardine populations display increased biomass and range expansion. These findings demonstrate that humpback whales trophically respond to ecosystem shifts, and as a result, their foraging behavior is a synoptic indicator of oceanographic and ecological conditions across the CCS. Multi-decadal examination of these sentinel species thus provides insight into biological consequences of interannual climate fluctuations, fundamental to advancing ecosystem predictions related to global climate change. PMID:26599719

  11. Moving Forward by Stimulating the Brain: Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation in Post-Stroke Hemiparesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Heather T; Edwards, Dylan J; Wortman-Jutt, Susan; Page, Stephen J

    2016-01-01

    Stroke remains a leading cause of disability worldwide, with a majority of survivors experiencing long term decrements in motor function that severely undermine quality of life. While many treatment approaches and adjunctive strategies exist to remediate motor impairment, many are only efficacious or feasible for survivors with active hand and wrist function, a population who constitute only a minority of stroke survivors. Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS), a type of non-invasive brain stimulation, has been increasingly utilized to increase motor function following stroke as it is able to be used with stroke survivors of varying impairment levels, is portable, is relatively inexpensive and has few side effects and contraindications. Accordingly, in recent years the number of studies investigating its efficacy when utilized as an adjunct to motor rehabilitation regimens has drastically increased. While many of these trials have reported positive and promising efficacy, methodologies vary greatly between studies, including differences in stimulation parameters, outcome measures and the nature of physical practice. As such, an urgent need remains, centering on the need to investigate these methodological differences and synthesize the most current evidence surrounding the application of tDCS for post-stroke motor rehabilitation. Accordingly, the purpose of this paper is to provide a detailed overview of the most recent tDCS literature (published 2014-2015), while highlighting these variations in methodological approach, as well to elucidate the mechanisms associated with tDCS and post-stroke motor re-learning and neuroplasticity. PMID:27555811

  12. Moving Forward by Stimulating the Brain: Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation in Post-Stroke Hemiparesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Heather T.; Edwards, Dylan J.; Wortman-Jutt, Susan; Page, Stephen J.

    2016-01-01

    Stroke remains a leading cause of disability worldwide, with a majority of survivors experiencing long term decrements in motor function that severely undermine quality of life. While many treatment approaches and adjunctive strategies exist to remediate motor impairment, many are only efficacious or feasible for survivors with active hand and wrist function, a population who constitute only a minority of stroke survivors. Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS), a type of non-invasive brain stimulation, has been increasingly utilized to increase motor function following stroke as it is able to be used with stroke survivors of varying impairment levels, is portable, is relatively inexpensive and has few side effects and contraindications. Accordingly, in recent years the number of studies investigating its efficacy when utilized as an adjunct to motor rehabilitation regimens has drastically increased. While many of these trials have reported positive and promising efficacy, methodologies vary greatly between studies, including differences in stimulation parameters, outcome measures and the nature of physical practice. As such, an urgent need remains, centering on the need to investigate these methodological differences and synthesize the most current evidence surrounding the application of tDCS for post-stroke motor rehabilitation. Accordingly, the purpose of this paper is to provide a detailed overview of the most recent tDCS literature (published 2014-2015), while highlighting these variations in methodological approach, as well to elucidate the mechanisms associated with tDCS and post-stroke motor re-learning and neuroplasticity. PMID:27555811

  13. Increasing the Reliability of Circulation Model Validation: Quantifying Drifter Slip to See how Currents are Actually Moving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, T.

    2015-12-01

    Ocean circulation forecasts can help answer questions regarding larval dispersal, passive movement of injured sea animals, oil spill mitigation, and search and rescue efforts. Circulation forecasts are often validated with GPS-tracked drifter paths, but how accurately do these drifters actually move with ocean currents? Drifters are not only moved by water, but are also forced by wind and waves acting on the exposed buoy and transmitter; this imperfect movement is referred to as drifter slip. The quantification and further understanding of drifter slip will allow scientists to differentiate between drifter imperfections and actual computer model error when comparing trajectory forecasts with actual drifter tracks. This will avoid falsely accrediting all discrepancies between a trajectory forecast and an actual drifter track to computer model error. During multiple deployments of drifters in Nantucket Sound and using observed wind and wave data, we attempt to quantify the slip of drifters developed by the Northeast Fisheries Science Center's (NEFSC) Student Drifters Program. While similar studies have been conducted previously, very few have directly attached current meters to drifters to quantify drifter slip. Furthermore, none have quantified slip of NEFSC drifters relative to the oceanographic-standard "CODE" drifter. The NEFSC drifter archive has over 1000 drifter tracks primarily off the New England coast. With a better understanding of NEFSC drifter slip, modelers can reliably use these tracks for model validation.

  14. Temporal and sex-specific variability in Rhinoceros Auklet diet in the central California Current system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carle, Ryan D.; Beck, Jessie N.; Calleri, David M.; Hester, Michelle M.

    2015-06-01

    We used stable isotopes (δ15N and δ13C) and compared prey provided to chicks by each sex to evaluate seasonal and sex-specific diets in Rhinoceros Auklets (Cerorhinca monocerata) in the central California Current system during 2012-2013. Mixing models indicated northern anchovy (Engraulis mordax) were important prey for adults during fall/winter and juvenile rockfishes (Sebastes spp.) were important prey during incubation both years. Adult trophic level increased between incubation and chick-rearing periods in both years. During 2012, δ15N and δ13C of chick-rearing males and females differed significantly; mixing models indicated that females ate more Pacific saury (Cololabis saira) and less market squid (Doryteuthis opalescens) than males. Likewise, females delivered significantly more Pacific saury and less market squid to chicks than males during 2012. Chick growth (g d- 1) and chick survival to fledging were significantly lower during 2012 than 2013, likely because chicks were fed lesser quality prey or fed less frequently in 2012. Lesser body mass of females during incubation in 2012 indicated sex-specific diet differences may have been related to female energetic constraints. The observed variability in Rhinoceros Auklet diet underscores the importance of managing multiple prey populations in this system so that generalist predators have sufficient resources through changing conditions.

  15. Material properties of Pacific hake, Humboldt squid, and two species of myctophids in the California Current.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Kaylyn N; Warren, Joseph D

    2015-05-01

    Material properties of the flesh from three fish species (Merluccius productus, Symbolophorus californiensis, and Diaphus theta), and several body parts of the Humboldt squid (Dosidicus gigas) collected from the California Current ecosystem were measured. The density contrast relative to seawater varied within and among taxa for fish flesh (0.9919-1.036), squid soft body parts (mantle, arms, tentacle, braincase, eyes; 1.009-1.057), and squid hard body parts (beak and pen; 1.085-1.459). Effects of animal length and environmental conditions on nekton density contrast were investigated. The sound speed contrast relative to seawater varied within and among taxa for fish flesh (0.986-1.027) and Humboldt squid mantle and braincase (0.937-1.028). Material properties in this study are similar to values from previous studies on species with similar life histories. In general, the sound speed and density of soft body parts of fish and squid were 1%-3% and 1%-6%, respectively, greater than the surrounding seawater. Hard parts of the squid were significantly more dense (6%-46%) than seawater. The material properties reported here can be used to improve target strength estimates from acoustic scattering models, which could increase the accuracy of biomass estimates from acoustic surveys for these nekton. PMID:25994685

  16. An individual-based model of the krill Euphausia pacifica in the California Current

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorman, Jeffrey G.; Sydeman, William J.; Bograd, Steven J.; Powell, Thomas M.

    2015-11-01

    Euphausia pacifica is an abundant and important prey resource for numerous predators of the California Current and elsewhere in the North Pacific. We developed an individual-based model (IBM) for E. pacifica to study its bioenergetics (growth, stage development, reproduction, and mortality) under constant/ideal conditions as well as under varying ocean conditions and food resources. To model E. pacifica under varying conditions, we coupled the IBM to an oceanographic-ecosystem model over the period 2000-2008 (9 years). Model results under constant/ideal food conditions compare favorably with experimental studies conducted under food unlimited conditions. Under more realistic variable oceanographic conditions, mean growth rates over the continental shelf were positive only when individuals migrated diurnally to the depth of maximum phytoplankton layer during nighttime feeding. Our model only used phytoplankton as prey and coastal growth rates were lower than expected (0.01 mm d-1), suggesting that a diverse prey base (zooplankton, protists, marine snow) may be required to facilitate growth and survival of modeled E. pacifica in the coastal environment. This coupled IBM-ROMS modeling framework and its parameters provides a tool for understanding the biology and ecology of E. pacifica and could be developed to further the understanding of climatic effects on this key prey species and enhance an ecosystem approach to fisheries and wildlife management in this region.

  17. Climate change and decadal shifts in the phenology of larval fishes in the California Current ecosystem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asch, Rebecca G

    2015-07-28

    Climate change has prompted an earlier arrival of spring in numerous ecosystems. It is uncertain whether such changes are occurring in Eastern Boundary Current Upwelling ecosystems, because these regions are subject to natural decadal climate variability, and regional climate models predict seasonal delays in upwelling. To answer this question, the phenology of 43 species of larval fishes was investigated between 1951 and 2008 off southern California. Ordination of the fish community showed earlier phenological progression in more recent years. Thirty-nine percent of seasonal peaks in larval abundance occurred earlier in the year, whereas 18% were delayed. The species whose phenology became earlier were characterized by an offshore, pelagic distribution, whereas species with delayed phenology were more likely to reside in coastal, demersal habitats. Phenological changes were more closely associated with a trend toward earlier warming of surface waters rather than decadal climate cycles, such as the Pacific Decadal Oscillation and North Pacific Gyre Oscillation. Species with long-term advances and delays in phenology reacted similarly to warming at the interannual time scale as demonstrated by responses to the El Niño Southern Oscillation. The trend toward earlier spawning was correlated with changes in sea surface temperature (SST) and mesozooplankton displacement volume, but not coastal upwelling. SST and upwelling were correlated with delays in fish phenology. For species with 20th century advances in phenology, future projections indicate that current trends will continue unabated. The fate of species with delayed phenology is less clear due to differences between Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change models in projected upwelling trends.

  18. 1997-98 El Niño effects on the pelagic ecosystem of the California current off Baja California, Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Bertha E Lavaniegos; Gilberto Gaxiola Castro; Luis C. Jiménez Pérez; María R. González Esparza; Timothy Baumgartner; Joaquín García Cordova

    2003-01-01

    We analyze the plankton response to 1997-98 El Niño in the southern region (26-32°N) of the California Current, from four IMECOCAL cruises. Integrated chlorophyll a showed a moderate increase at the end of the ENSO, but chlorophyll in Vizcaino Bay remained fairly constant. The medians were higher than 40 mg m-2 through 1998. Zooplankton biomass showed a local decrease from Punta Baja (30°N) to Vizcaino Bay, but not in other areas. The zooplankton decrease was mainly due to the lower abundance...

  19. Distribution, growth, and condition of salmonids in the central California Current Ecosystem.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Fisheries Ecology Division of NOAA’s SWFSC conducts annual surveys of salmon and their ocean habitat in the coastal waters of northern California and southern...

  20. Field Scale Groundwater Nitrate Loading Model for the Central Valley, California, 1945-Current

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harter, T.; Dzurella, K.; Bell, A.; Kourakos, G.

    2015-12-01

    Anthropogenic groundwater nitrate contamination in the Central Valley aquifer system, California, is widespread, with over 40% of domestic wells in some counties exceeding drinking water standards. Sources of groundwater nitrate include leaky municipal wastewater systems, municipal wastewater recharge, onsite wastewater treatment (septic) systems, atmospheric nitrogen deposition, animal farming, application of organic waste materials (sludge, biosolids, animal manure) to agricultural lands, and synthetic fertilizer. At the site or field scale, nitrogen inputs to the landscape are balanced by plant nitrogen uptake and harvest, atmospheric nitrogen losses, surface runoff of nitrogen, soil nitrogen storage changes, and leaching to groundwater. Irrigated agriculture is a dominant player in the Central Valley nitrogen cycle: The largest nitrogen fluxes are synthetic fertilizer and animal manure applications to cropland, crop nitrogen uptake, and groundwater nitrogen losses. We construct a historic field/parcel scale groundwater nitrogen loading model distinguishing urban and residential areas, individual animal farming areas, leaky wastewater lagoons, and approximately 50 different categories of agricultural crops. For non-agricultural landuses, groundwater nitrate loading is based on reported leaching values, animal population, and human population. For cropland, groundwater nitrate loading is computed from mass balance, taking into account diverse and historically changing management practices between different crops. Groundwater nitrate loading is estimated for 1945 to current. Significant increases in groundwater nitrate loading are associated with the expansion of synthetic fertilizer use in the 1950s to 1970s. Nitrate loading from synthetic fertilizer use has stagnated over the past 20 years due to improvements in nutrient use efficiency. However, an unbroken 60 year exponential increase in dairy production until the late 2000s has significantly impacted the

  1. Field Scale Groundwater Nitrate Loading Model for the Central Valley, California, 1945-Current

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harter, T.; Dzurella, K.; Bell, A.; Kourakos, G.

    2015-12-01

    Anthropogenic groundwater nitrate contamination in the Central Valley aquifer system, California, is widespread, with over 40% of domestic wells in some counties exceeding drinking water standards. Sources of groundwater nitrate include leaky municipal wastewater systems, municipal wastewater recharge, onsite wastewater treatment (septic) systems, atmospheric nitrogen deposition, animal farming, application of organic waste materials (sludge, biosolids, animal manure) to agricultural lands, and synthetic fertilizer. At the site or field scale, nitrogen inputs to the landscape are balanced by plant nitrogen uptake and harvest, atmospheric nitrogen losses, surface runoff of nitrogen, soil nitrogen storage changes, and leaching to groundwater. Irrigated agriculture is a dominant player in the Central Valley nitrogen cycle: The largest nitrogen fluxes are synthetic fertilizer and animal manure applications to cropland, crop nitrogen uptake, and groundwater nitrogen losses. We construct a historic field/parcel scale groundwater nitrogen loading model distinguishing urban and residential areas, individual animal farming areas, leaky wastewater lagoons, and approximately 50 different categories of agricultural crops. For non-agricultural landuses, groundwater nitrate loading is based on reported leaching values, animal population, and human population. For cropland, groundwater nitrate loading is computed from mass balance, taking into account diverse and historically changing management practices between different crops. Groundwater nitrate loading is estimated for 1945 to current. Significant increases in groundwater nitrate loading are associated with the expansion of synthetic fertilizer use in the 1950s to 1970s. Nitrate loading from synthetic fertilizer use has stagnated over the past 20 years due to improvements in nutrient use efficiency. However, an unbroken 60 year exponential increase in dairy production until the late 2000s has significantly impacted the

  2. Foraging ecology and movement patterns of jumbo squid (Dosidicus gigas) in the California Current System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field, John C.; Elliger, Carl; Baltz, Ken; Gillespie, Graham E.; Gilly, William F.; Ruiz-Cooley, R. I.; Pearse, Devon; Stewart, Julia S.; Matsubu, William; Walker, William A.

    2013-10-01

    From 2002 to 2010, the jumbo squid (Dosidicus gigas) has been regularly encountered in large numbers throughout the California Current System (CCS). This species, usually found in subtropical waters, could affect coastal pelagic ecosystems and fisheries as both predator and prey. Neither the abundance of jumbo squid nor the optimal ocean conditions in which they flourish are well known. To understand better the potential impacts of this species on both commercial fisheries and on food-web structure we collected nearly 900 specimens from waters of the CCS, covering over 20° of latitude, over a range of depths and seasons. We used demographic information (size, sex, and maturity state) and analyzed stomach contents using morphological and molecular methods to best understand the foraging ecology of this species in different habitats of the CCS. Squid were found to consume a broad array of prey. Prey in offshore waters generally reflected the forage base reported in previous studies (mainly mesopelagic fishes and squids), whereas in more coastal waters (shelf, shelf break and slope habitats) squid foraged on a much broader mix that included substantial numbers of coastal pelagic fishes (Pacific herring and northern anchovy, as well as osmerids and salmonids in northern waters) and groundfish (Pacific hake, several species of rockfish and flatfish). We propose a seasonal movement pattern, based on size and maturity distributions along with qualitative patterns of presence or absence, and discuss the relevance of both the movement and distribution of jumbo squid over space and time. We find that jumbo squid are a generalist predator, which feeds primarily on small, pelagic or mesopelagic micronekton but also on larger fishes when they are available. We also conclude that interactions with and potential impacts on ecosystems likely vary over space and time, in response to both seasonal movement patterns and highly variable year-to-year abundance of the squid themselves.

  3. West Coast fish, mammal, and bird species diets - Developing end-to-end models of the California Current Large Marine Ecosystem

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The purpose of this project is to develop spatially discrete end-to-end models of the California Current LME, linking oceanography, biogeochemistry, food web...

  4. West Coast fish, mammal, bird life history and abunance parameters - Developing end-to-end models of the California Current Large Marine Ecosystem

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The purpose of this project is to develop spatially discrete end-to-end models of the California Current LME, linking oceanography, biogeochemistry, food web...

  5. Moored current meter and wind recorder measurement near Point Conception, California: The 1983 OPUS Observations, from 01 April 1983 to 29 July 1983 (NODC Accession 8600041)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The OPUS (Organization of Persistent Upwelling Structures) program deployed two current meter (VMCM) moorings near Point Conception, California, during April - July...

  6. The influence of Pacific Equatorial Water on fish diversity in the southern California Current System

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClatchie, Sam; Thompson, Andrew R.; Alin, Simone R.; Siedlecki, Samantha; Watson, William; Bograd, Steven J.

    2016-08-01

    The California Undercurrent transports Pacific Equatorial Water (PEW) into the Southern California Bight from the eastern tropical Pacific Ocean. PEW is characterized by higher temperatures and salinities, with lower pH, representing a source of potentially corrosive (aragonite,Ωfish diversity. We use hydrographic data to characterize the interannual and seasonal variability of estimated pH and aragonite saturation with depth. Although there is substantial variability in PEW presence as measured by spice on the 26.25-26.75 isopycnal layer, as well as in pH and aragonite saturation, we found fish diversity to be stable over the decades 1985-1996 and 1999-2011. We detected significant difference in species structure during the 1998 La Niña period, due to reduced species evenness. Species richness due to rare species was higher during the 1997/1998 El Niño compared to the La Niña but the effect on species structure was undetectable. Lack of difference in the species abundance structure in the decade before and after the 1997/1999 ENSO event showed that the assemblage reverted to its former structure following the ENSO perturbation, indicating resilience. While the interdecadal species structure remained stable, the long tail of the distributions shows that species richness increased between the decades consistent with intrusion of warm water with more diverse assemblages into the southern California region.

  7. Moving Hands, Moving Entities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setti, Annalisa; Borghi, Anna M.; Tessari, Alessia

    2009-01-01

    In this study we investigated with a priming paradigm whether uni and bimanual actions presented as primes differently affected language processing. Animals' (self-moving entities) and plants' (not self-moving entities) names were used as targets. As prime we used grasping hands, presented both as static images and videos. The results showed an…

  8. Moving California Ahead: An Executive Summary Concerning Two Commission Higher Education Long-Range Planning Reports, Providing for Progress and Policy for Progress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    California State Postsecondary Education Commission, Sacramento.

    This is an executive summary of two long-range higher education planning reports completed at the outset of the 21st century by the California Postsecondary Education Commission. They are "Providing for Progress: California Higher Education Enrollment Demand and Resources into the 21st Century" and the companion "Policy for Progress: Reaffirming…

  9. Mesoscale structure and oceanographic determinants of krill hotspots in the California Current: Implications for trophic transfer and conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santora, Jarrod A.; Sydeman, William J.; Schroeder, Isaac D.; Wells, Brian K.; Field, John C.

    2011-12-01

    Krill (crustaceans of the family Euphausiacea) comprise an important prey field for vast array of fish, birds, and marine mammals in the California Current and other large marine ecosystems globally. In this study, we test the hypothesis that mesoscale spatial organization of krill is related to oceanographic conditions associated with coastal upwelling. To test this, we compiled a climatology of krill distributions based on hydroacoustic surveys off California in May-June each year between 2000 and 2009 (missing 2007). Approximately 53,000 km of ocean habitat was sampled, resulting in a comprehensive geo-spatial data set from the Southern California Bight to Cape Mendocino. We determined the location and characteristics of eight definite and two probable krill “hotspots” of abundance. Directional-dependence analysis revealed that krill hotspots were oriented in a northwest-southeast (135°) direction, corresponding to the anisotropy of the 200-2000 m isobath. Krill hotspots were disassociated (inversely correlated) with three upwelling centers, Point Arena, Point Sur, and Point Conception, suggesting that krill may avoid locations of strong offshore transport or aggregate downstream from these locations. While current fisheries management considers the entire coast out to the 2000 m isobath critical habitat for krill in this ecosystem, we establish here smaller scale structuring of this critical mid-trophic level prey resource. Identifying mesoscale krill hotspots and their oceanographic determinants is significant as these smaller ecosystem divisions may warrant protection to ensure key ecosystem functions (i.e., trophic transfer) and resilience. Furthermore, delineating and quantifying krill hotspots may be important for conservation of krill-predators in this system.

  10. Decadal Changes in Ozone and Emissions in Central California and Current Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanrikulu, S.; Beaver, S.; Soong, S.; Tran, C.; Cordova, J.; Palazoglu, A.

    2011-12-01

    The relationships among ozone, emissions, and meteorology are very complex in central California, and must be well studied and understood in order to facilitate better air quality planning. Factors significantly impacting changes in emissions such as economic and population growth, and adopted emission controls make the matter even more complex. Here we review the history of ozone pollution in central California since the 1970s to plan for the future. Since the 1970s, changes in emissions have been accompanied by likewise dramatic changes in region-to-region differences in air quality. We focus on the coastal San Francisco Bay Area (SFBA) and the inland San Joaquin Valley (SJV). In the 1970s, the SFBA population was approaching 5 million people while the considerably larger and more rural SJV population remained below 2 million. The SFBA population was mostly confined to coastal locations. Peak ozone levels occurred mostly around the population centers and especially over the Bay itself. Hourly average ozone levels routinely approached 160 ppb. These high ozone levels promoted regulations under which SFBA emissions were continuously reduced through the present. By the 1990s, SFBA emissions had been reduced considerably despite the region's population growing to around 6 million. Relative to the 1970s, in 1990s the SFBA had lower peak ozone levels that were shifted to inland locations where much of the population growth was occurring. The SFBA still exceeded the federal 1-hour standard. A rapidly changing economic landscape in the 1970s promoted vast changes in the central California population distribution. In the SJV, the OPEC oil crisis promoted significant development of petroleum resources. Meanwhile, family farms were quickly being replaced with commercial-scale farming operations. The SJV population rapidly expanded to around 3 million people by the early 1990s. During this time, SJV emissions increased considerably, largely from increases in mobile source

  11. Spatial ecology of krill, micronekton and top predators in the central California Current: Implications for defining ecologically important areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santora, Jarrod A.; Field, John C.; Schroeder, Isaac D.; Sakuma, Keith M.; Wells, Brian K.; Sydeman, William J.

    2012-11-01

    Marine spatial planning and ecosystem models that aim to predict and protect fisheries and wildlife benefit greatly from syntheses of empirical information on physical and biological partitioning of marine ecosystems. Here, we develop spatially-explicit oceanographic and ecological descriptions of the central California Current region. To partition this region, we integrate data from 20 years of shipboard surveys with satellite remote-sensing to characterize local seascapes of ecological significance, focusing on krill, other micronekton taxa, and top predators (seabirds and marine mammals). Specifically, we investigate if micronekton and predator assemblages co-vary spatially with mesoscale oceanographic conditions. The first principal component of environmental and micronekton seascapes indicates significant coupling between physics, primary productivity, and secondary and tertiary marine consumers. Subsequent principal components indicate latitudinal variability in niche-community space due to varying habitat characteristics between Monterey Bay (deep submarine canyon system) and the Gulf of the Farallones (extensive continental shelf), even though both of these sub-regions are located downstream from upwelling centers. Overall, we identified five ecologically important areas based on spatial integration of environmental and biotic features. These areas, characterized by proximity to upwelling centers, shallow pycnoclines, and high chlorophyll-a and krill concentrations, are potential areas of elevated trophic focusing for specific epipelagic and mesopelagic communities. This synthesis will benefit ecosystem-based management approaches for the central California Current, a region long-impacted by anthropogenic factors.

  12. Impact of boundary regions on the interior circulation of the California Current System in a regional modeling framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veneziani, M.; Edwards, C.; Moore, A.

    2008-12-01

    We use the Regional Ocean Modeling System (ROMS) to model the circulation of the California Current System (CCS) using ECCO-GODAE products to force the model at the open boundaries of the domain. We investigate the impact that lateral boundary forcing (and the boundary region in general) has on particular metrics of the interior circulation by adopting both an adjoint model and a traditional sensitivity approach. Adjoint methods are naturally suited to sensitivity studies as they provide the direct dependencies of circulation metrics on uncertainties of the model initial conditions, surface and lateral external forcing, and model parameters, but their results are only valid within the time scale during which the linearity assumption underlying adjoint models can be considered to hold. More traditional sensitivity studies must be conducted to investigate longer time scales. We describe the adjoint model results for two metrics that represent the upwelling processes of the Central California region and the mean sea level field of the coastal circulation, respectively. The spatial distribution of the adjoint sensitivity fields allows us to quantify the contribution of the boundary regions over a biweekly time scale. We investigate longer time scales by adopting two methods: 1) apply different ECCO products at the open boundaries and evaluate mean stratification changes in the CalCOFI coastal region; 2) release passive tracers at the boundaries and calculate ventilation time scales and pathways from the boundary areas to the CCS interior.

  13. Temperature profile, current, pressure, physical, and other data from XBT casts, current meters, pressure gauges, and CTD casts from the VEGA I and other platforms from the Coastal Waters of California and other locations as part of the Central California Circulation Study from 1984-01-31 to 1985-07-01 (NCEI Accession 8700197)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profile, current, pressure, physical, and other data from the VEGA I and other platforms from the Coastal Waters of California and other locations from...

  14. Marine organism concentrations, carbonate chemistry variables, and nutrient concentrations from Atlantis ecosystem model simulation output in the California Current from 2013-01-01 to 2053-12-31 to understand vulnerability of California current food webs and economics to ocean acidification (NCEI Accession 0131198)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This archival package contains the model output of a study to evaluate likely economic and ecological outcomes of ocean acidification in the California Current....

  15. Dynamically downscaling predictions for deciduous tree leaf emergence in California under current and future climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medvigy, David; Kim, Seung Hee; Kim, Jinwon; Kafatos, Menas C.

    2016-07-01

    Models that predict the timing of deciduous tree leaf emergence are typically very sensitive to temperature. However, many temperature data products, including those from climate models, have been developed at a very coarse spatial resolution. Such coarse-resolution temperature products can lead to highly biased predictions of leaf emergence. This study investigates how dynamical downscaling of climate models impacts simulations of deciduous tree leaf emergence in California. Models for leaf emergence are forced with temperatures simulated by a general circulation model (GCM) at ~200-km resolution for 1981-2000 and 2031-2050 conditions. GCM simulations are then dynamically downscaled to 32- and 8-km resolution, and leaf emergence is again simulated. For 1981-2000, the regional average leaf emergence date is 30.8 days earlier in 32-km simulations than in ~200-km simulations. Differences between the 32 and 8 km simulations are small and mostly local. The impact of downscaling from 200 to 8 km is ~15 % smaller in 2031-2050 than in 1981-2000, indicating that the impacts of downscaling are unlikely to be stationary.

  16. Observed and Modeled Currents from the Tohoku-oki, Japan and other Recent Tsunamis in Northern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Admire, Amanda R.; Dengler, Lori A.; Crawford, Gregory B.; Uslu, Burak U.; Borrero, Jose C.; Greer, S. Dougal; Wilson, Rick I.

    2014-12-01

    We investigate the currents produced by recent tsunamis in Humboldt Bay and Crescent City, California. The region is susceptible to both near-field and far-field tsunamis and has a historic record of damaging events. Crescent City Harbor, located approximately 100 kms north of Humboldt Bay, suffered US 28 million in damages from strong currents produced by the 2006 Kuril Islands tsunami and an additional US 26 million from the 2011 Japan tsunami. In order to better evaluate these currents in northern California, we deployed a Nortek Aquadopp 600 kHz 2D acoustic Doppler current profiler (ADCP) with a 1-min sampling interval in Humboldt Bay, near the existing National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) National Ocean Service (NOS) tide gauge station. The instrument recorded the tsunamis produced by the Mw 8.8 Chile earthquake on February 27, 2010 and the Mw 9.0 Japan earthquake on March 11, 2011. One other tsunami was recorded on the Humboldt Bay tide gauge during the period of ADCP operation, but was not visible on the ADCP, suggesting a threshold water level value of about 0.2 m to produce an observable ADCP record. The 2010 tsunami currents persisted in Humboldt Bay for approximately 30 h with peak amplitudes of about 0.35 m/s. The 2011 tsunami signal lasted for over 40 h with peak amplitude of 0.84 m/s. The strongest currents corresponded to the maximum change in water level approximately 67 min after the initial wave arrival. No damage was observed in Humboldt Bay for either event. In Crescent City, currents for the first three and one-half hours of the 2011 Japan tsunami were estimated using security camera video footage from the Harbor Master, approximately 70 m away from the NOAA-NOS tide gauge station. The largest amplitude tide gauge water-level oscillations and most of the damage occurred within this time window. The currents reached a velocity of approximately 4.5 m/s and six cycles exceeded 3 m/s during this period. Measured current velocities

  17. Effect of coastal-trapped waves and wind on currents and transport in the Gulf of California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez, Manuel O.; López, Manuel; Candela, Julio; Castro, Rubén.; Mascarenhas, Affonso; Collins, Curtis A.

    2014-08-01

    Subsurface pressure (SsP) observations from stations inside and outside of the Gulf of California (GC) are used to analyze the relationship between low-frequency currents, temperature, and transport inside the GC and intraseasonal coastal-trapped waves (CTWs), which propagate poleward along the coast toward the GC. Correlation functions and coherences of SsP stations were consistent with intraseasonal CTWs splitting in two at the mouth of the gulf: one part enters the gulf, propagates around the gulf, and eventually, toward the mouth, and another part that appears to "jump" the mouth of the gulf and travels poleward along the west coast of the peninsula. The correlation and coherence estimates of SsP at Manzanillo with currents showed that downwelling CTWs generated along-gulf current anomalies toward the head of the gulf at the mainland shelf of the mouth, whereas at Ballenas Channel sill (San Lorenzo sill) these waves generated current anomalies toward the mouth near the surface (bottom). At the San Lorenzo (SL) sill, downwelling CTWs increased the near-bottom (˜400 m) temperature and reduced the bottom transport of deep, fresher, and colder water that flows toward the head of the gulf. Cross-Calibrated Multiplatform winds were used to investigate their relationship with currents. The first empirical orthogonal function of the along-gulf wind stress showed that wind blowing toward the head of the gulf generated a reduction of bottom transport toward the head of the gulf through the SL sill, and intensified surface geostrophic current fluctuations toward the head of the gulf. There was also significant correlation between inflow bottom transport and outflow surface geostrophic velocities averaged across the gulf, consistent with the exchange pattern for the Northern Gulf.

  18. Analysis of current-use pesticides in aquatic and terrestrial organisms collected throughout California, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smalling, Kelly L.; Kuivila, Kathyrn M.

    2010-01-01

    A wide variety of pesticides are applied concurrently in agricultural and urban areas and transported off site dissolved in water and bound to sediments. But the exposure of aquatic and terrestrial organisms to current-use pesticides and the resulting effects are not well understood. One approach is to directly analyze tissue concentrations of contaminants. The overall objective of this study was to develop a sensitive method to analyze current-use pesticides with a wide range of Kow's in tissue to better understand the accumulation of these contaminants in different aquatic and terrestrial organisms. This method was then used to analyze current-use pesticides in tissues from a variety of organisms from sites with different land-use practices.

  19. Correcting acoustic Doppler current profiler discharge measurement bias from moving-bed conditions without global positioning during the 2004 Glen Canyon Dam controlled flood on the Colorado River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gartner, J.W.; Ganju, N.K.

    2007-01-01

    Discharge measurements were made by acoustic Doppler current profiler at two locations on the Colorado River during the 2004 controlled flood from Glen Canyon Dam, Arizona. Measurement hardware and software have constantly improved from the 1980s such that discharge measurements by acoustic profiling instruments are now routinely made over a wide range of hydrologic conditions. However, measurements made with instruments deployed from moving boats require reliable boat velocity data for accurate measurements of discharge. This is normally accomplished by using special acoustic bottom track pings that sense instrument motion over bottom. While this method is suitable for most conditions, high current flows that produce downstream bed sediment movement create a condition known as moving bed that will bias velocities and discharge to lower than actual values. When this situation exists, one solution is to determine boat velocity with satellite positioning information. Another solution is to use a lower frequency instrument. Discharge measurements made during the 2004 Glen Canyon controlled flood were subject to moving-bed conditions and frequent loss of bottom track. Due to site conditions and equipment availability, the measurements were conducted without benefit of external positioning information or lower frequency instruments. This paper documents and evaluates several techniques used to correct the resulting underestimated discharge measurements. One technique produces discharge values in good agreement with estimates from numerical model and measured hydrographs during the flood. ?? 2007, by the American Society of Limnology and Oceanography, Inc.

  20. Optimal Environmental Conditions and Anomalous Ecosystem Responses: Constraining Bottom-up Controls of Phytoplankton Biomass in the California Current System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacox, Michael G.; Hazen, Elliott L.; Bograd, Steven J.

    2016-06-01

    In Eastern Boundary Current systems, wind-driven upwelling drives nutrient-rich water to the ocean surface, making these regions among the most productive on Earth. Regulation of productivity by changing wind and/or nutrient conditions can dramatically impact ecosystem functioning, though the mechanisms are not well understood beyond broad-scale relationships. Here, we explore bottom-up controls during the California Current System (CCS) upwelling season by quantifying the dependence of phytoplankton biomass (as indicated by satellite chlorophyll estimates) on two key environmental parameters: subsurface nitrate concentration and surface wind stress. In general, moderate winds and high nitrate concentrations yield maximal biomass near shore, while offshore biomass is positively correlated with subsurface nitrate concentration. However, due to nonlinear interactions between the influences of wind and nitrate, bottom-up control of phytoplankton cannot be described by either one alone, nor by a combined metric such as nitrate flux. We quantify optimal environmental conditions for phytoplankton, defined as the wind/nitrate space that maximizes chlorophyll concentration, and present a framework for evaluating ecosystem change relative to environmental drivers. The utility of this framework is demonstrated by (i) elucidating anomalous CCS responses in 1998–1999, 2002, and 2005, and (ii) providing a basis for assessing potential biological impacts of projected climate change.

  1. The Development of Automated Detection Techniques for Passive Acoustic Monitoring as a Tool for Studying Beaked Whale Distribution and Habitat Preferences in the California Current Ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yack, Tina M.

    The objectives of this research were to test available automated detection methods for passive acoustic monitoring and integrate the best available method into standard marine mammal monitoring protocols for ship based surveys. The goal of the first chapter was to evaluate the performance and utility of PAMGUARD 1.0 Core software for use in automated detection of marine mammal acoustic signals during towed array surveys. Three different detector configurations of PAMGUARD were compared. These automated detection algorithms were evaluated by comparing them to the results of manual detections made by an experienced bio-acoustician (author TMY). This study provides the first detailed comparisons of PAMGUARD automated detection algorithms to manual detection methods. The results of these comparisons clearly illustrate the utility of automated detection methods for odontocete species. Results of this work showed that the majority of whistles and click events can be reliably detected using PAMGUARD software. The second chapter moves beyond automated detection to examine and test automated classification algorithms for beaked whale species. Beaked whales are notoriously elusive and difficult to study, especially using visual survey methods. The purpose of the second chapter was to test, validate, and compare algorithms for detection of beaked whales in acoustic line-transect survey data. Using data collected at sea from the PAMGUARD classifier developed in Chapter 2 it was possible to measure the clicks from visually verified Baird's beaked whale encounters and use this data to develop classifiers that could discriminate Baird's beaked whales from other beaked whale species in future work. Echolocation clicks from Baird's beaked whales, Berardius bairdii, were recorded during combined visual and acoustic shipboard surveys of cetacean populations in the California Current Ecosystem (CCE) and with autonomous, long-term recorders at four different sites in the Southern

  2. Numerical Simulation of Recent Turbidity Currents in the Monterey Canyon System, Offshore California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heimsund, S.; Xu, J.; Nemec, W.

    2007-12-01

    The method of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) has been used, in the form of a 3D numerical model (Flow- 3D®), to perform a full-scale simulation of turbidity currents measured in December 2002 by three moorings in the Soquel and Monterey canyons. The model was verified by simulation of laboratory flows, and was upscaled to the Monterey Canyon system on the basis of high-resolution bathymetric data and flow measurements. The measured velocity profiles were sufficient to assess the flow thickness, initial velocity and duration in the canyon head zone. A computational grid with a highest feasible resolution was used, and both bathymetry and hydrostatic pressure were accounted for. The volumetric sediment concentration and exact grain- size composition of the flows were unknown, and thus a range of values for the initial concentration and bed roughness were assumed and assessed on a trial-and-error basis. The simulations reveal the behavior of a turbidity current along its descent path, including its local hydraulic characteristics (the 3D field of velocity, sediment concentration, shear stress, strain rate, and dynamic viscosity, as well as the magnitude of velocity and turbulent shear). The results confirm that the velocity structure of turbidity current is highly sensitive to variation in seafloor topography. The December 17th flow in the Soquel Canyon appears to have lost capacity by dilution over a relatively short distance and shown significant velocity fluctuations, which is attributed to the rugged topography of the canyon floor. A major loss of momentum occurred when the flow plunged at high angle into the Monterey Canyon, crashing against its bend's southern wall. The December 20th flow in the Monterey Canyon, in contrast, developed a considerably longer body and strongly accelerated towards the canyon's sharp second bend before crashing against its western wall. The mooring data show a down-canyon decline of velocity and suggest gradual waning, but the

  3. QRev—Software for computation and quality assurance of acoustic doppler current profiler moving-boat streamflow measurements—User’s manual for version 2.8

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, David S.

    2016-05-12

    The software program, QRev computes the discharge from moving-boat acoustic Doppler current profiler measurements using data collected with any of the Teledyne RD Instrument or SonTek bottom tracking acoustic Doppler current profilers. The computation of discharge is independent of the manufacturer of the acoustic Doppler current profiler because QRev applies consistent algorithms independent of the data source. In addition, QRev automates filtering and quality checking of the collected data and provides feedback to the user of potential quality issues with the measurement. Various statistics and characteristics of the measurement, in addition to a simple uncertainty assessment are provided to the user to assist them in properly rating the measurement. QRev saves an extensible markup language file that can be imported into databases or electronic field notes software. The user interacts with QRev through a tablet-friendly graphical user interface. This report is the manual for version 2.8 of QRev.

  4. QRev—Software for computation and quality assurance of acoustic doppler current profiler moving-boat streamflow measurements—User’s manual for version 2.8

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, David S.

    2016-01-01

    The software program, QRev computes the discharge from moving-boat acoustic Doppler current profiler measurements using data collected with any of the Teledyne RD Instrument or SonTek bottom tracking acoustic Doppler current profilers. The computation of discharge is independent of the manufacturer of the acoustic Doppler current profiler because QRev applies consistent algorithms independent of the data source. In addition, QRev automates filtering and quality checking of the collected data and provides feedback to the user of potential quality issues with the measurement. Various statistics and characteristics of the measurement, in addition to a simple uncertainty assessment are provided to the user to assist them in properly rating the measurement. QRev saves an extensible markup language file that can be imported into databases or electronic field notes software. The user interacts with QRev through a tablet-friendly graphical user interface. This report is the manual for version 2.8 of QRev.

  5. Can slow-moving ions explain hysteresis in the current-voltage curves of perovskite solar cells?

    OpenAIRE

    Richardson, Giles; O'Kane, Simon; Niemann, Ralf; Peltola, Timo; Foster, Jamie; Petra, Cameron; Walker, Alison

    2016-01-01

    The hypothesis that ion motion is responsible for anomalous hysteresis in the current-voltage curves of perovskite solar cells is investigated through a combination of electrical transport modelling and experimental measurements. In a combined computational and experimental study, good agreement is obtained between experiment and the results of a charge transport model covering mixed ionic-electronic conduction. Our model couples electrons, holes and defect mediated ion motion suggesting that...

  6. Vorticity and mixing induced by the barotropic M 2 tidal current and zooplankton biomass distribution in the Gulf of California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salas-de-León, David Alberto; Carbajal, Noel; Monreal-Gómez, Maria Adela; Gil-Zurita, Antonio

    2011-08-01

    Vertical mixing and biological processes in the Gulf of California were analyzed using calculated relative vorticity fields induced by the barotropic M 2 tide and zooplankton biomass distribution. M 2 tidal currents contribute significantly to the general circulation observed in the upper gulf. The results revealed zones with high vertical and horizontal values of relative vorticity in regions where temperature anomalies and water exchange take place. The horizontal component of the vorticity vector is considerable in areas of the upper gulf, where high vertical shear of the velocity was estimated. Patterns of the horizontal component of the vorticity, the Simpson-Hunter criterion and the chlorophyll concentration showed similarities. The interaction of tidal flow with the complex bathymetry is the main source of vorticity and mixing in the gulf. The vertical component of the relative vorticity reaches positive values in regions where cyclonic circulation has been reported. A total of 35 groups of zooplankton were identified in the gulf; Copepoda, Chaetognatha, and Euphausiacea were the three major groups. High zooplankton biomasses in the archipelago region of the gulf were associated with topographic effect, which induces strong shear velocities, creating vertical mixing and increasing the supply of nutrients to the surface layers, which in turn induces high chlorophyll concentration or phytoplankton and thereby supports the zooplankton biomass. The zooplankton biomass was closely related to high values of the horizontal component of relative vorticity.

  7. Analysis of projected water availability with current basin management plan, Pajaro Valley, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, R. T.; Lockwood, B.; Schmid, Wolfgang

    2014-11-01

    The projection and analysis of the Pajaro Valley Hydrologic Model (PVHM) 34 years into the future using MODFLOW with the Farm Process (MF-FMP) facilitates assessment of potential future water availability. The projection is facilitated by the integrated hydrologic model, MF-FMP that fully couples the simulation of the use and movement of water from precipitation, streamflow, runoff, groundwater flow, and consumption by natural and agricultural vegetation throughout the hydrologic system at all times. MF-FMP allows for more complete analysis of conjunctive-use water-resource systems than previously possible with MODFLOW by combining relevant aspects of the landscape with the groundwater and surface-water components. This analysis is accomplished using distributed cell-by-cell supply-constrained and demand-driven components across the landscape within “water-balance subregions” (WBS) comprised of one or more model cells that can represent a single farm, a group of farms, watersheds, or other hydrologic or geopolitical entities. Analysis of conjunctive use would be difficult without embedding the fully coupled supply-and-demand into a fully coupled simulation, and are difficult to estimate a priori. The analysis of projected supply and demand for the Pajaro Valley indicate that the current water supply facilities constructed to provide alternative local sources of supplemental water to replace coastal groundwater pumpage, but may not completely eliminate additional overdraft. The simulation of the coastal distribution system (CDS) replicates: 20 miles of conveyance pipeline, managed aquifer recharge and recovery (MARR) system that captures local runoff, and recycled-water treatment facility (RWF) from urban wastewater, along with the use of other blend water supplies, provide partial relief and substitution for coastal pumpage (aka in-lieu recharge). The effects of these Basin Management Plan (BMP) projects were analyzed subject to historical climate variations

  8. Moving Forward By Stimulating the Brain: Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation in Post-Stroke Hemiparesis: A Mini Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heather T. Peters

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Stroke remains a leading cause of disability worldwide, with a majority of survivors experiencing long term decrements in motor function that severely undermine quality of life. While many treatment approaches and adjunctive strategies exist to remediate motor impairment, many are only efficacious or feasible for survivors with active hand and wrist function, a population who constitute only a minority of stroke survivors. Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS, a type of noninvasive brain stimulation, has been increasingly utilized to increase motor function following stroke as it is able to be used with stroke survivors of varying impairment levels, is portable, is relatively inexpensive and has few side effects and contraindications. Accordingly, in recent years the number of studies investigating its efficacy when utilized as an adjunct to motor rehabilitation regimens has drastically increased. While many of these trials have reported positive and promising efficacy, methodologies vary greatly between studies, including differences in stimulation parameters, outcome measures and the nature of physical practice. As such, an urgent need remains, centering on the need to investigate these methodological differences and synthesize the most current evidence surrounding the application of tDCS for post-stroke motor rehabilitation. Accordingly, the purpose of this paper is to provide a detailed overview of the most recent tDCS literature (published 2014-2015, while highlighting these variations in methodological approach, as well to elucidate the mechanisms associated with tDCS and post-stroke motor re-learning and neuroplasticity.

  9. Natural Convection Heat and Mass Transfer Flow with Hall Current, Rotation, Radiation and Heat Absorption Past an Accelerated Moving Vertical Plate with Ramped Temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gauri Shanker Seth

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available An investigation of unsteady hydromagnetic natural convection heat and mass trans fer flow with Hall current of a viscous, incompressible, electrically conducting, heat absorbing and optically thin radiating fluid past an accelerated moving vertical plate through fluid saturated porous medium in a rotating environment is carried out when temperature of the plate has a temporarily ramped profile. The exact solutions of momentum, energy and concentration equations are obtained in closed form by Laplace transform technique. The expressions of skin friction, Nusselt number and Sherwood number are also derived. For both ramped temperature and isothermal plates, Hall current tends to accelerate primary and secondary fluid velocities whereas heat absorption and radiation have reverse effect on it. Rotation tends to retard primary fluid velocity whereas it has a reverse effect on secondary fluid velocity. Heat absorption and radiation have tendency to enhance rate of heat transfer at the plate.

  10. Comparison of shelf currents off central California prior to and during the 1997-1998 El Nino

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, H.F.; Noble, M.A.

    2005-01-01

    Moored current, temperature, salinity, and pressure data were collected at three sites that transect the narrow continental shelf offshore of Davenport, CA, starting in August 1996 and continuing to the spring of 1998. This data set allowed a comparison of oceanographic conditions prior to (8/96-3/97) and during (8/97-3/98) the last major El Nin??o. During this El Nin??o, mean temperatures over the 8-month time period were about 3??C warmer than during the prior year at all of the sites. Correlations between near-surface and near-bottom temperatures, and between near-surface temperature and wind stress decreased during the El Nin??o compared to conditions the year before. The mean alongshore currents were more strongly poleward during El Nin??o at sites over the mid-shelf and near the shelf break. There was a general tendency for the energy in alongshore currents to move toward lower frequencies during the El Nin??o, particularly at the sites farther offshore. The processes that forced the shelf flows changed in relative importance throughout the study. The local alongshore wind stress was less important in driving shelf currents during the El Nin??o when much of the wind-induced upwelling was confined to less than 5 km of the coast. The observed strong poleward shelf currents on the mid- to outer-shelf were not clearly tied to local forcing, but were remotely driven, most likely by slope currents. The response of the Davenport shelf to an El Nin??o event may differ from other areas since the shelf is narrow, the wind forcing is weaker than areas to the north and south, and the shelf may be at times isolated by fronts that form at strong upwelling centers. In the winter, strong storm-related winds are important in driving currents at periods not only in the synoptic wind band, but also for periods on the order of 20 d and longer.

  11. Estimates of the Direct Effect of Seawater pH on the Survival Rate of Species Groups in the California Current Ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busch, D. Shallin; McElhany, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Ocean acidification (OA) has the potential to restructure ecosystems due to variation in species sensitivity to the projected changes in ocean carbon chemistry. Ecological models can be forced with scenarios of OA to help scientists, managers, and other stakeholders understand how ecosystems might change. We present a novel methodology for developing estimates of species sensitivity to OA that are regionally specific, and applied the method to the California Current ecosystem. To do so, we built a database of all published literature on the sensitivity of temperate species to decreased pH. This database contains 393 papers on 285 species and 89 multi-species groups from temperate waters around the world. Research on urchins and oysters and on adult life stages dominates the literature. Almost a third of the temperate species studied to date occur in the California Current. However, most laboratory experiments use control pH conditions that are too high to represent average current chemistry conditions in the portion of the California Current water column where the majority of the species live. We developed estimates of sensitivity to OA for functional groups in the ecosystem, which can represent single species or taxonomically diverse groups of hundreds of species. We based these estimates on the amount of available evidence derived from published studies on species sensitivity, how well this evidence could inform species sensitivity in the California Current ecosystem, and the agreement of the available evidence for a species/species group. This approach is similar to that taken by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change to characterize certainty when summarizing scientific findings. Most functional groups (26 of 34) responded negatively to OA conditions, but when uncertainty in sensitivity was considered, only 11 groups had relationships that were consistently negative. Thus, incorporating certainty about the sensitivity of species and functional groups to

  12. Estimates of the Direct Effect of Seawater pH on the Survival Rate of Species Groups in the California Current Ecosystem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busch, D Shallin; McElhany, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Ocean acidification (OA) has the potential to restructure ecosystems due to variation in species sensitivity to the projected changes in ocean carbon chemistry. Ecological models can be forced with scenarios of OA to help scientists, managers, and other stakeholders understand how ecosystems might change. We present a novel methodology for developing estimates of species sensitivity to OA that are regionally specific, and applied the method to the California Current ecosystem. To do so, we built a database of all published literature on the sensitivity of temperate species to decreased pH. This database contains 393 papers on 285 species and 89 multi-species groups from temperate waters around the world. Research on urchins and oysters and on adult life stages dominates the literature. Almost a third of the temperate species studied to date occur in the California Current. However, most laboratory experiments use control pH conditions that are too high to represent average current chemistry conditions in the portion of the California Current water column where the majority of the species live. We developed estimates of sensitivity to OA for functional groups in the ecosystem, which can represent single species or taxonomically diverse groups of hundreds of species. We based these estimates on the amount of available evidence derived from published studies on species sensitivity, how well this evidence could inform species sensitivity in the California Current ecosystem, and the agreement of the available evidence for a species/species group. This approach is similar to that taken by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change to characterize certainty when summarizing scientific findings. Most functional groups (26 of 34) responded negatively to OA conditions, but when uncertainty in sensitivity was considered, only 11 groups had relationships that were consistently negative. Thus, incorporating certainty about the sensitivity of species and functional groups to

  13. Observation of wind forced circulation on the continental shelf off Point Sur, California from a self-contained acoustic doppler current profiler.

    OpenAIRE

    Abbott, Christopher Lynn

    1991-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited To study the current structure of the California Current as it manifests itself on the continental shelf a subsurface mooring, P1, was anchored 5km west of Point Sur at 36(o), 17' N, 121(o), 59' W from 28 February through 11 May 1990. the P1 mooring, placed on the 84 m isobaths, consisted of a self-contained acoustic Doppler current profiler (SC-ADCP) housed in a syntactic foam sphere and secured to an anchor. The mooring geometry pl...

  14. Carbon and Nitrogen Isotopes from Top Predator Amino Acids Reveal Rapidly Shifting Ocean Biochemistry in the Outer California Current

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Cooley, Rocio I.; Koch, Paul L.; Fiedler, Paul C.; McCarthy, Matthew D.

    2014-01-01

    Climatic variation alters biochemical and ecological processes, but it is difficult both to quantify the magnitude of such changes, and to differentiate long-term shifts from inter-annual variability. Here, we simultaneously quantify decade-scale isotopic variability at the lowest and highest trophic positions in the offshore California Current System (CCS) by measuring δ15N and δ13C values of amino acids in a top predator, the sperm whale (Physeter macrocephalus). Using a time series of skin tissue samples as a biological archive, isotopic records from individual amino acids (AAs) can reveal the proximate factors driving a temporal decline we observed in bulk isotope values (a decline of ≥1 ‰) by decoupling changes in primary producer isotope values from those linked to the trophic position of this toothed whale. A continuous decline in baseline (i.e., primary producer) δ15N and δ13C values was observed from 1993 to 2005 (a decrease of ∼4‰ for δ15N source-AAs and 3‰ for δ13C essential-AAs), while the trophic position of whales was variable over time and it did not exhibit directional trends. The baseline δ15N and δ13C shifts suggest rapid ongoing changes in the carbon and nitrogen biogeochemical cycling in the offshore CCS, potentially occurring at faster rates than long-term shifts observed elsewhere in the Pacific. While the mechanisms forcing these biogeochemical shifts remain to be determined, our data suggest possible links to natural climate variability, and also corresponding shifts in surface nutrient availability. Our study demonstrates that isotopic analysis of individual amino acids from a top marine mammal predator can be a powerful new approach to reconstructing temporal variation in both biochemical cycling and trophic structure. PMID:25329915

  15. Variability and trends of ocean acidification in the Southern California Current System: A time series from Santa Monica Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leinweber, A.; Gruber, N.

    2013-07-01

    We investigate the temporal variability and trends of pH and of the aragonite saturation state, Ωarag, in the southern California Current System on the basis of a 6 year time series from Santa Monica Bay, using biweekly observations of dissolved inorganic carbon and combined calculated and measured alkalinity. Median values of pH and Ωarag in the upper 20 m are comparable to observations from the subtropical gyres, but the temporal variability is at least a factor of 5 larger, primarily driven by short-term upwelling events and mesoscale processes. Ωarag and pH decrease rapidly with depth, such that the saturation horizon is reached already at 130 m, on average, but it occasionally shoals to as low as 30 m. No statistically significant linear trends emerge in the upper 100 m, but Ωarag and pH decrease, on average, at rates of -0.009±0.006 yr-1 and -0.004±0.003 yr-1 in the 100-250 m depth range. These are somewhat larger, but not statistically different from the expected trends based on the recent increase in atmospheric CO2. About half of the variability in the deseasonalized data can be explained by the El Niño Southern Oscillation, with warm phases (El Niño) being associated with above normal pH and Ωarag. The observed variability and trend in Ωarag and pH is well captured by a multiple linear regression model on the basis of a small number of readily observable independent variables. This permits the estimation of these variables for related sites in the region.

  16. Novel Insights on the Dynamics and Consequence of Harmful Algal Blooms in the California Current System: From Parasites as Bloom Control Agents to Human Toxin Exposure

    OpenAIRE

    Mazzillo, Fernanda da Frota Mattos

    2011-01-01

    This dissertation provided novel insights on the dynamics and consequences of harmful algal blooms (HABs) in the California Current System (CCS). Parasitism is described as a biological control agent of harmful dinoflagellate blooms and referred to as a novel factor influencing HAB dynamics in coastal upwelling environments. Chapter 1 documented, for the first time, the presence of Amoebophrya, an endoparasitic dinoflagellate that infects and kills 7 bloom-forming dinoflagellate host species ...

  17. Verified Null-Move Pruning

    CERN Document Server

    David-Tabibi, Omid

    2008-01-01

    In this article we review standard null-move pruning and introduce our extended version of it, which we call verified null-move pruning. In verified null-move pruning, whenever the shallow null-move search indicates a fail-high, instead of cutting off the search from the current node, the search is continued with reduced depth. Our experiments with verified null-move pruning show that on average, it constructs a smaller search tree with greater tactical strength in comparison to standard null-move pruning. Moreover, unlike standard null-move pruning, which fails badly in zugzwang positions, verified null-move pruning manages to detect most zugzwangs and in such cases conducts a re-search to obtain the correct result. In addition, verified null-move pruning is very easy to implement, and any standard null-move pruning program can use verified null-move pruning by modifying only a few lines of code.

  18. Top-down and bottom-up factors affecting seabird population trends in the California current system (1985-2006)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ainley, David G.; David Hyrenbach, K.

    2010-03-01

    To characterize the environmental factors affecting seabird population trends in the central portion of the California current system (CCS), we analyzed standardized vessel-based surveys collected during the late spring (May-June) upwelling season over 22 yr (1985-2006). We tested the working hypothesis that population trends are related to species-specific foraging ecology, and predicted that temporal variation in population size should be most extreme in diving species with higher energy expenditure during foraging. We related variation in individual species abundance (number km -2) to seasonally lagged (late winter, early spring, late spring) and concurrent ocean conditions, and to long-term trends (using a proxy variable: year) during a multi-decadal period of major fluctuations in the El Niño-Southern oscillation (ENSO) and the Pacific decadal oscillation (PDO). We considered both remote (Multivariate ENSO Index, PDO) and local (coastal upwelling indices and sea-surface temperature) environmental variables as proxies for ocean productivity and prey availability. We also related seabird trends to those of potentially major trophic competitors, humpback ( Megaptera novaeangliae) and blue ( Balaenoptera musculus) whales, which increased in number 4-5-fold midway during our study. Cyclical oscillations in seabird abundance were apparent in the black-footed albatross ( Phoebastria nigripes), and decreasing trends were documented for ashy storm-petrel ( Oceanodroma homochroa), pigeon guillemot ( Cepphus columbus), rhinoceros auklet ( Cerorhinca monocerata), Cassin’s auklet ( Ptychoramphus aleuticus), and western gull ( Larus occidentalis); the sooty shearwater ( Puffinus griseus), exhibited a marked decline before signs of recovery at the end of the study period. The abundance of nine other focal species varied with ocean conditions, but without decadal or long-term trends. Six of these species have the largest global populations in the CCS, and four are highly

  19. Collision and displacement vulnerability among marine birds of the California Current System associated with offshore wind energy infrastructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Josh; Kelsey, Emily C.; Felis, Jonathan J.; Pereksta, David M.

    2016-10-27

    With growing climate change concerns and energy constraints, there is an increasing need for renewable energy sources within the United States and globally. Looking forward, offshore wind-energy infrastructure (OWEI) has the potential to produce a significant proportion of the power needed to reach our Nation’s renewable energy goal. Offshore wind-energy sites can capitalize open areas within Federal waters that have persistent, high winds with large energy production potential. Although there are few locations in the California Current System (CCS) where it would be acceptable to build pilemounted wind turbines in waters less than 50 m deep, the development of technology able to support deep-water OWEI (>200 m depth) could enable wind-energy production in the CCS. As with all humanuse of the marine environment, understanding the potential impacts of wind-energy infrastructure on the marine ecosystem is an integral part of offshore wind-energy research and planning. Herein, we present a comprehensive database to quantify marine bird vulnerability to potential OWEI in the CCS (see http://dx.doi.org/10.5066/F79C6VJ0). These data were used to quantify marine bird vulnerabilities at the population level. For 81 marine bird species present in the CCS, we created three vulnerability indices: Population Vulnerability, Collision Vulnerability, and Displacement Vulnerability. Population Vulnerability was used as a scaling factor to generate two comprehensive indicies: Population Collision Vulnerability (PCV) and Population Displacement Vulnerability (PDV). Within the CCS, pelicans, terns (Forster’s [Sterna forsteri], Caspian [Hydroprogne caspia], Elegant [Thalasseus elegans], and Least Tern [Sternula antillarum]), gulls (Western [Larus occidentalis] and Bonaparte’s Gull [Chroicocephalus philadelphia]), South Polar Skua (Stercorarius maccormicki), and Brandt’s Cormorant (Phalacrocorax penicillatus) had the greatest PCV scores. Brown Pelican (Pelicanus occidentalis

  20. Spatial analysis of plague in California: niche modeling predictions of the current distribution and potential response to climate change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tucker James R

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Plague, caused by the bacterium Yersinia pestis, is a public and wildlife health concern in California and the western United States. This study explores the spatial characteristics of positive plague samples in California and tests Maxent, a machine-learning method that can be used to develop niche-based models from presence-only data, for mapping the potential distribution of plague foci. Maxent models were constructed using geocoded seroprevalence data from surveillance of California ground squirrels (Spermophilus beecheyi as case points and Worldclim bioclimatic data as predictor variables, and compared and validated using area under the receiver operating curve (AUC statistics. Additionally, model results were compared to locations of positive and negative coyote (Canis latrans samples, in order to determine the correlation between Maxent model predictions and areas of plague risk as determined via wild carnivore surveillance. Results Models of plague activity in California ground squirrels, based on recent climate conditions, accurately identified case locations (AUC of 0.913 to 0.948 and were significantly correlated with coyote samples. The final models were used to identify potential plague risk areas based on an ensemble of six future climate scenarios. These models suggest that by 2050, climate conditions may reduce plague risk in the southern parts of California and increase risk along the northern coast and Sierras. Conclusion Because different modeling approaches can yield substantially different results, care should be taken when interpreting future model predictions. Nonetheless, niche modeling can be a useful tool for exploring and mapping the potential response of plague activity to climate change. The final models in this study were used to identify potential plague risk areas based on an ensemble of six future climate scenarios, which can help public managers decide where to allocate surveillance resources

  1. CTD, current meter, pressure gauge, and wave spectra data from fixed platforms and other platforms from the Coastal Waters of California as part of the Santa Barbara Channel project from 27 April 1983 to 04 January 1985 (NODC Accession 8500177)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — CTD, current meter, pressure gauge, and wave spectra data were collected from fixed platforms and other platforms from the Coastal Waters of California from 27...

  2. Move up,Move out

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guo Yan

    2007-01-01

    @@ China has already become the world's largest manufacturer of cement,copper and steel.Chinese producers have moved onto the world stage and dominated the global consumer market from textiles to electronics with amazing speed and efficiency.

  3. El Niño and similar perturbation effects on the benthos of the Humboldt, California, and Benguela Current upwelling ecosystems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. E. Arntz

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available To a certain degree, Eastern Boundary Current (EBC ecosystems are similar: Cold bottom water from moderate depths, rich in nutrients, is transported to the euphotic zone by a combination of trade winds, Coriolis force and Ekman transport. The resultant high primary production fuels a rich secondary production in the upper pelagic and nearshore zones, but where O2 exchange is restricted, it creates oxygen minimum zones (OMZs at shelf and upper slope (Humboldt and Benguela Current or slope depths (California Current. These hypoxic zones host a specifically adapted, small macro- and meiofauna together with giant sulphur bacteria that use nitrate to oxydise H2S. In all EBC, small polychaetes, large nematodes and other opportunistic benthic species have adapted to the hypoxic conditions and co-exist with sulphur bacteria, which seem to be particularly dominant off Peru and Chile. However, a massive reduction of macrobenthos occurs in the core of the OMZ. In the Humboldt Current area the OMZ ranges between <100 and about 600 m, with decreasing thickness in a poleward direction. The OMZ merges into better oxygenated zones towards the deep sea, where large cold-water mega- and macrofauna occupy a dominant role as in the nearshore strip. The Benguela Current OMZ has a similar upper limit but remains shallower. It also hosts giant sulphur bacteria but little is known about the benthic fauna. However, sulphur eruptions and intense hypoxia might preclude the coexistence of significant mega- und macrobenthos. Conversely, off North America the upper limit of the OMZ is considerably deeper (e.g., 500–600 m off California and Oregon, and the lower boundary may exceed 1000m. The properties described are valid for very cold and cold (La Niña and "normal" ENSO conditions with effective upwelling of nutrient-rich bottom water. During warm (El Niño episodes, warm water masses of low oxygen concentration from oceanic and equatorial regions enter the upwelling

  4. Current status of the greenhouse whitefly, Trialeurodes vaporariorum, susceptibility to neonicotinoid and conventional insecticides on strawberries in southern California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bi, Jian L; Toscano, Nick C

    2007-08-01

    Since 1998, the greenhouse whitefly, Trialeurodes vaporariorum Westwood (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae), has emerged as a major insect pest of many horticultural crops in coastal California. Control of this pest has been heavily dependent upon chemical insecticides. Objectives of this study were to determine the status of the greenhouse whitefly susceptibility to neonicotinoid and conventional insecticides on strawberries in Oxnard/Ventura, a year-round intensive horticultural production area of southern California. For bioassay tests, adult whiteflies were collected from commercial strawberry crops, and immatures were directly developed from eggs laid by these adults. LD(50) values of soil-applied imidacloprid, thiamethoxam and dinotefuran were respectively 8.7, 3.2 and 4.9 times higher for the adults, 1.8, 1.2 and 1.5 times higher for the first-instar nymphs and 89.4, 390 and 10.4 times higher for the third-instar nymphs than their top label rates. LC(50) values of foliar-applied imidacloprid, thiamethoxam and acetamiprid were respectively 6.1, 6.0 and 1.7 times higher for the adults and 3.8, 8.7 and 4.4 times higher for the second-instar nymphs than their top label rates. For the adults, LC(90) values of endosulfan, malathion, methomyl, bifenthrin and fenpropathrin were 2.2, 1.2, 1.9, 2.3 and 4.9 times lower than their respective top label rates. Chlorpyrifos was not very effective against the adults, as indicated by its LC(90) being 120% higher than its top label rate. The present results strongly emphasize the need to develop resistance management strategies in the region.

  5. El Niño and similar perturbation effects on the benthos of the Humboldt, California, and Benguela Current upwelling ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arntz, W. E.; Gallardo, V. A.; Gutiérrez, D.; Isla, E.; Levin, L. A.; Mendo, J.; Neira, C.; Rowe, G. T.; Tarazona, J.; Wolff, M.

    2006-03-01

    To a certain degree, Eastern Boundary Current (EBC) ecosystems are similar: Cold bottom water from moderate depths, rich in nutrients, is transported to the euphotic zone by a combination of trade winds, Coriolis force and Ekman transport. The resultant high primary production fuels a rich secondary production in the upper pelagic and nearshore zones, but where O2 exchange is restricted, it creates oxygen minimum zones (OMZs) at shelf and upper slope (Humboldt and Benguela Current) or slope depths (California Current). These hypoxic zones host a specifically adapted, small macro- and meiofauna together with giant sulphur bacteria that use nitrate to oxydise H2S. In all EBC, small polychaetes, large nematodes and other opportunistic benthic species have adapted to the hypoxic conditions and co-exist with sulphur bacteria, which seem to be particularly dominant off Peru and Chile. However, a massive reduction of macrobenthos occurs in the core of the OMZ. In the Humboldt Current area the OMZ ranges between fauna. However, sulphur eruptions and intense hypoxia might preclude the coexistence of significant mega- und macrobenthos. Conversely, off North America the upper limit of the OMZ is considerably deeper (e.g., 500-600 m off California and Oregon), and the lower boundary may exceed 1000m. The properties described are valid for very cold and cold (La Niña and "normal") ENSO conditions with effective upwelling of nutrient-rich bottom water. During warm (El Niño) episodes, warm water masses of low oxygen concentration from oceanic and equatorial regions enter the upwelling zones, bringing a variety of (sub)tropical immigrants. The autochthonous benthic fauna emigrates to deeper water or poleward, or suffers mortality. However, some local macrofaunal species experience important population proliferations, presumably due to improved oxygenation (in the southern hemisphere), higher temperature tolerance, reduced competition or the capability to use different food. Both

  6. Moving Objects Updating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jidong; Meng, Xiaofeng

    In moving objects applications, large numbers of locations can be sampled by sensors or GPS periodically, then sent from moving clients to the server and stored in a database. Therefore, continuously maintaining in a database the current locations of moving objects by using a tracking technique becomes very important. The key issue is minimizing the number of updates, while providing precise locations for query results. In this chapter, we will introduce some underlying location update methods. Then, we describe two location update strategies in detail, which can improve the performance. One is the proactive location update strategy, which predicts the movement of moving objects to lower the update frequency; the other is the group location update strategy, which groups the objects to minimize the total number of objects reporting their locations.

  7. The role of environmental controls in determining sardine and anchovy population cycles in the California Current: Analysis of an end-to-end model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiechter, Jerome; Rose, Kenneth A.; Curchitser, Enrique N.; Hedstrom, Katherine S.

    2015-11-01

    Sardine and anchovy are two forage species of particular interest because of their low-frequency cycles in adult abundance in boundary current regions, combined with a commercially relevant contribution to the global marine food catch. While several hypotheses have been put forth to explain decadal shifts in sardine and anchovy populations, a mechanistic basis for how the physics, biogeochemistry, and biology combine to produce patterns of synchronous variability across widely separated systems has remained elusive. The present study uses a 50-year (1959-2008) simulation of a fully coupled end-to-end ecosystem model configured for sardine and anchovy in the California Current System to investigate how environmental processes control their population dynamics. The results illustrate that slightly different temperature and diet preferences can lead to significantly different responses to environmental variability. Simulated adult population fluctuations are associated with age-1 growth (via age-2 egg production) and prey availability for anchovy, while they depend primarily on age-0 survival and temperature for sardine. The analysis also hints at potential linkages to known modes of climate variability, whereby changes in adult abundance are related to ENSO for anchovy and to the PDO for sardine. The connection to the PDO and ENSO is consistent with modes of interannual and decadal variability that would alternatively favor anchovy during years of cooler temperatures and higher prey availability, and sardine during years of warmer temperatures and lower prey availability. While the end-to-end ecosystem model provides valuable insight on potential relationships between environmental conditions and sardine and anchovy population dynamics, understanding the complex interplay, and potential lags, between the full array of processes controlling their abundances in the California Current System remains an on-going challenge.

  8. Long-term change and stability in the California Current System: lessons from CalCOFI and other long-term data sets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebstock, Ginger A.

    2003-08-01

    The California Current System (CCS) is a highly variable system, both spatially and temporally, that is strongly affected by low-frequency climatic fluctuations. This paper reviews evidence for long-term (decadal-scale) change in the physics and biology of the CCS over the last 50-100 years, as well as evidence for stability in planktonic community structure and long-term persistence of populations. Increases in water temperature, thermocline depth and stratification in the CCS have been accompanied by changes in populations of kelp, diatoms, foraminifera, radiolarians, intertidal invertebrates, zooplankton, fish and seabirds. However, there is also evidence for stability in assemblages of larval fish, calanoid copepods and radiolarians. Statistical averaging (the portfolio effect) may explain some aspects of stability in assemblages. Advection of planktonic populations may account for rapid recovery of biomass and dominance structure following perturbations such as strong El Niño events. Planktonic populations in the CCS may be adapted to large-scale biotic and abiotic variability, through a combination of advection of populations and life history traits. Several lessons may be learned from the California Cooperative Oceanic Fisheries Investigations and other long-term data sets: (1) long time series are needed to understand the dynamics of the ecosystem; (2) life histories are important determinants of species responses to environmental forcing, even in the plankton; and (3) the CCS is simultaneously variable and stable, and these properties are not necessarily in conflict.

  9. Chemical Speciation of Sulfur in Marine Cloud Droplets and Particles: Analysis of Individual Particles from Marine Boundary Layer over the California Current

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    William R. Wiley Environmental Sciences Laboratory, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory; Gilles, Mary K; Hopkins, Rebecca J.; Desyaterik, Yury; Tivanski, Alexei V.; Zaveri, Rahul A.; Berkowitz, Carl M.; Tyliszczak, Tolek; Gilles, Mary K.; Laskin, Alexander

    2008-03-12

    Detailed chemical speciation of the dry residue particles from individual cloud droplets and interstitial aerosol collected during the Marine Stratus Experiment (MASE) was performed using a combination of complementary microanalysis techniques. Techniques include computer controlled scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersed analysis of X-rays (CCSEM/EDX), time-of-flight secondary ionization mass spectrometry (TOF-SIMS), and scanning transmission X-ray microscopy with near edge X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy (STXM/NEXAFS). Samples were collected at the ground site located in Point Reyes National Seashore, approximately 1 km from the coast. This manuscript focuses on the analysis of individual particles sampled from air masses that originated over the open ocean and then passed through the area of the California current located along the northern California coast. Based on composition, morphology, and chemical bonding information, two externally mixed, distinct classes of sulfur containing particles were identified: chemically modified (aged) sea salt particles and secondary formed sulfate particles. The results indicate substantial heterogeneous replacement of chloride by methanesulfonate (CH3SO3-) and non-sea salt sulfate (nss-SO42-) in sea-salt particles with characteristic ratios of nss-S/Na>0.10 and CH3SO3-/nss-SO42->0.6.

  10. California Bioregions

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — California regions developed by the Inter-agency Natural Areas Coordinating Committee (INACC) were digitized from a 1:1,200,000 California Department of Fish and...

  11. Field Surveys of Rare Plants on Santa Cruz Island, California, 2003-2006: Historical Records and Current Distributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    McEachern, A. Kathryn; Chess, Katherine A.; Niessen, Ken

    2010-01-01

    Santa Cruz Island is the largest of the northern Channel Islands located off the coast of California. It is owned and managed as a conservation reserve by The Nature Conservancy and the Channel Islands National Park. The island is home to nine plant taxa listed in 1997 as threatened or endangered under the federal Endangered Species Act, because of declines related to nearly 150 years of ranching on the island. Feral livestock were removed from the island as a major conservation step, which was part of a program completed in early 2007 with the eradication of pigs and turkeys. For the first time in more than a century, the rare plants of Santa Cruz Island have a chance to recover in the wild. This study provides survey information and living plant materials needed for recovery management of the listed taxa. We developed a database containing information about historical collections of the nine taxa and used it to plan a survey strategy. Our objectives were to relocate as many of the previously known populations as possible, with emphasis on documenting sites not visited in several decades, sites that were poorly documented in the historical record, and sites spanning the range of environmental conditions inhabited by the taxa. From 2003 through 2006, we searched for and found 39 populations of the taxa, indicating that nearly 80 percent of the populations known earlier in the 1900s still existed. Most populations are small and isolated, occupying native-dominated habitat patches in a highly fragmented and invaded landscape; they are still at risk of declining through population losses. Most are not expanding beyond the edges of their habitat patches. However, most taxa appeared to have good seed production and a range of size classes in populations, indicating a good capacity for plant recruitment and population growth in these restricted sites. For these taxa, seed collection and outplanting might be a good strategy to increase numbers of populations for species

  12. Transportation Periodicals And Newsletters Currently Received At The Institute Of Transportation Studies Library, University Of California At Berkeley

    OpenAIRE

    Hernandez, Paul A.

    2000-01-01

    This publication is intended to serve as a convenient reference to selected transportation periodicals and newsletters currently (2000) received by UC Berkeley's Harmer E. Davis Transportation Li-brary. This latest version of Transportation Periodicals and Newsletters represents a thourough revision of earlier editions (1989, 1993, and 1995) published under the same (or similar) title. The subject content of this listing reflects the subject strengths of the H.E. Davis Transportation Library:...

  13. AEJ Headquarters Move Is Major Topic at Houston.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roepke, William J.

    1979-01-01

    Provides highlights of the 1979 convention of the Association for Education in Journalism, where AEJ members discussed moving their headquarters to California, raising membership dues, multi-careers for journalism students, reporting on the energy crisis, and journalism ethics. (RL)

  14. Annual Report to the Bonneville Power Administration, Reporting Period: April 2008 - February 2009 [re: "Survival and Growth in the Columbia River Plume and north California Current"].

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Northwest Fisheries Science Center, NOAA Fisheries; Cooperative Institute for Marine Resources Studies, Oregon State University; OGI School of Science & Engineering, Oregon Health Sciences University.

    2009-07-17

    We have made substantial progress toward our objectives outlined in our BPA supported proposal entitled 'Columbia River Basin Juvenile Salmonids: Survival and Growth in the Columbia River Plume and northern California Current' which we report on herein. During 2008, we were able to successfully conduct 3 mesoscale cruises. We also were able to conduct 7 biweekly predator cruises, along with substantial shore-based visual observations of seabirds. Detailed results of the mesoscale cruises are available in the Cruise Reports and summarized in the next section. We have taken a proactive approach to getting the results of our research to fisheries managers and the general public. We have begun to make annual predictions based on ocean conditions of the relative survival of juvenile coho and Chinook salmon well before they return as adults. This is based on both biological and physical indicators that we measure during our surveys or collect from outside data sources. Examples of our predictions for 2009 and 2010 are available on the following web site: http://www.nwfsc.noaa.gov/research/divisions/fed/oeip/a-ecinhome.cfm.

  15. Moving toward a Coherent School Finance System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Heather

    2013-01-01

    California's current school finance system is a tangled web of funding programs, restrictions, inequities and confusion. Building a stronger finance system to benefit from resources is an important step in strengthening California's K-12 education system and better meeting the needs of its students. Gov. Brown has recently proposed the Local…

  16. Theoretical and experimental study of superradiance pulse generation by heavy-current subnanosecond electron bunches moving in periodic slowing down system

    CERN Document Server

    Ginzburg, N S; Novozhilova, Y V; Sergeev, A S; Shpak, V G; Shunailov, S A; Ul'maskulov, M R; Yalandin, M I

    2002-01-01

    One studied both theoretically and experimentally the Cherenkov superradiance at liner motion of an electron bunch through the periodic slowing down system. Simulations in terms of the KARAT code show that peak intensity of microwave pulses is proportional to the square of total number of particles in a bunch. This finding os conformed experimentally. As a results, at 39 GHz frequency one obtained ultrashort pulses of up to 140 MW high intensity and with 30 ps duration. The RADAN 303 high-current subnanosecond accelerator injected electron bunches with up to 2 A current, 0.5-1.5 ns duration and 200-300 keV particle energy was used as a source of electrons. Simulation shows possibility of further intensification of electromagnetic pulses up to 300-400 MW due to optimization of parameters of accelerating voltage pulse

  17. In situ, navigational, physical and profile data collected by University of California - San Diego; Scripps Institution of Oceanography at OceanSITES site MOVE4 from 2000-02-04 to 2016-02-09 (NCEI Accession 0130044)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In situ, navigational, physical and profile oceanographic data were collected, including CURRENT DIRECTION, CURRENT SPEED, DEPTH - OBSERVATION, HYDROSTATIC...

  18. In situ, navigational, physical and profile data collected by University of California - San Diego; Scripps Institution of Oceanography at OceanSITES site MOVE1 from 2000-01-28 to 2016-02-03 (NCEI Accession 0130041)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In situ, navigational, physical and profile oceanographic data were collected, including CONDUCTIVITY, CURRENT DIRECTION, CURRENT SPEED, DEPTH - OBSERVATION,...

  19. In situ, navigational, physical and profile data collected by University of California - San Diego; Scripps Institution of Oceanography at OceanSITES site MOVE3 from 2000-02-04 to 2016-02-09 (NCEI Accession 0130043)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In situ, navigational, physical and profile oceanographic data were collected, including CONDUCTIVITY, CURRENT DIRECTION, CURRENT SPEED, DEPTH - OBSERVATION,...

  20. In situ, navigational, physical and profile data collected by University of California - San Diego; Scripps Institution of Oceanography at OceanSITES site MOVE2 from 2000-02-02 to 2011-10-29 (NCEI Accession 0130042)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In situ, navigational, physical and profile oceanographic data were collected, including CONDUCTIVITY, CURRENT DIRECTION, CURRENT SPEED, DEPTH - OBSERVATION,...

  1. Female Superintendent Longevity in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohlfing, Tracy

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate, through narrative inquiry (Clandinin & Connelly, 2000), the leadership evolution of five female superintendents in California with longevity of 5 or more years in their current school district positions. The research question addressed was, "How do California female superintendents evolve to…

  2. Measurements of nitrite production and nitrite-producing organisms in and around the primary nitrite maximum in the central California Current

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. E. Santoro

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Nitrite (NO2– is a substrate for both oxidative and reductive microbial metabolism. NO2– accumulates at the base of the euphotic zone in oxygenated, stratified open ocean water columns, forming a feature known as the primary nitrite maximum (PNM. Potential pathways of NO2– production include the oxidation of ammonia (NH3 by ammonia-oxidizing bacteria or archaea and assimilatory nitrate (NO3– reduction by phytoplankton or heterotrophic bacteria. Measurements of NH3 oxidation and NO3– reduction to NO2– were conducted at two stations in the central California Current in the eastern North Pacific to determine the relative contributions of these processes to NO2– production in the PNM. Sensitive (−1, high-resolution measurements of [NH4+] and [NO2–] indicated a persistent NH4+ maximum overlying the PNM at every station, with concentrations as high as 1.5 μmol L−1. Within and just below the PNM, NH3 oxidation was the dominant NO2– producing process with rates of NH3 oxidation of up to 50 nmol L−1 d−1, coinciding with high abundances of ammonia-oxidizing archaea. Though little NO2– production from NO3– was detected, potentially nitrate-reducing phytoplankton (photosynthetic picoeukaryotes, Synechococcus, and Prochlorococcus were present at the depth of the PNM. Rates of NO2– production from NO3– were highest within the upper mixed layer (4.6 nmol L−1 d−1 but were either below detection limits or 10 times lower than NH3 oxidation rates around the PNM. One-dimensional modeling of water column NO2– profiles supported direct rate measurements of a net biological sink for NO2– just below the PNM. Residence time estimates of NO2– within the PNM were similar at the mesotrophic and oligotrophic stations and ranged from 150–205 d. Our results suggest the PNM is a dynamic, rather than relict, feature with a source term dominated by ammonia oxidation.

  3. The current California drought through EDDI's eyes: early warning and monitoring of agricultural and hydrologic drought with the new Evaporative Demand Drought Index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobbins, M.; McEvoy, D.; Huntington, J. L.; Wood, A. W.; Morton, C.; Verdin, J. P.

    2015-12-01

    We have developed a physically based, multi-scalar drought index—the Evaporative Demand Drought Index (EDDI)—to improve treatment of evaporative dynamics in drought monitoring. Existing popular drought indices—such as the Palmer Drought Severity Index that informs much of the US Drought Monitor (USDM)—have primarily relyied on precipitation and temperature (T) to represent hydroclimatic anomalies, leaving evaporative demand (E0) most often derived from poorly performing T-based parameterizations then used to derive actual evapotranspiration (ET) from LSMs. Instead, EDDI leverages the inter-relations of E0 and ET, measuring E0's physical response to surface drying anomalies due to two distinct land surface/atmosphere interactions: (i) in sustained drought, limited moisture availability forces E0 and ET into a complementary relation, whereby ET declines as E0 increases; and (ii) in "flash" droughts, E0 increases due to increasing advection or radiation. E0's rise in response to both drought types suggests EDDI's robustness as a monitor and leading indicator of drought. To drive EDDI, we use for E0 daily reference ET from the ASCE Standardized Reference ET equation forced by North American Land Data Assimilation System drivers. EDDI is derived by aggregating E0 anomalies from its long-term mean across a period of interest and normalizing them to a Z-score. Positive EDDI indicates drier than normal conditions (and so drought). We use the current historic California drought as a test-case in which to examine EDDI's performance in monitoring agricultural and hydrologic drought. We observe drought development and decompose the behavior of drought's evaporative drivers during in-drought intensification periods and wetting events. EDDI's performance as a drought leading indicator with respect to the USDM is tested in important agricultural regions. Comparing streamflow from several USGS gauges in the Sierra Nevada to EDDI, we find that EDDI tracks most major

  4. Spatiotemporal variability and drivers of pCO2 and air-sea CO2 fluxes in the California Current System: an eddy-resolving modeling study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turi, G.; Lachkar, Z.; Gruber, N.

    2014-02-01

    We quantify the CO2 source/sink nature of the California Current System (CalCS) and determine the drivers and processes behind the mean and spatiotemporal variability of the partial pressure of CO2 (pCO2) in the surface ocean. To this end, we analyze eddy-resolving, climatological simulations of a coupled physical-biogeochemical oceanic model on the basis of the Regional Oceanic Modeling System (ROMS). In the annual mean, the entire CalCS within 800 km of the coast and from ∼33° N to 46° N is essentially neutral with regard to atmospheric CO2: the model simulates an integrated uptake flux of -0.9 ± 3.6 Tg C yr-1, corresponding to an average flux density of -0.05 ± 0.20 mol C m-2 yr-1. This near zero flux is a consequence of an almost complete regional compensation between (i) strong outgassing in the nearshore region (first 100 km) that brings waters with high concentrations of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) to the surface and (ii) and a weaker, but more widespread uptake flux in the offshore region due to an intense biological reduction of this DIC, driven by the nutrients that are upwelled together with the DIC. The air-sea CO2 fluxes vary substantially in time, both on seasonal and sub-seasonal timescales, largely driven by variations in surface ocean pCO2. Most of the variability in pCO2 is associated with the seasonal cycle, with the exception of the nearshore region, where sub-seasonal variations driven by mesoscale processes dominate. In the regions offshore of 100 km, changes in surface temperature are the main driver, while in the nearshore region, changes in surface temperature, as well as anomalies in DIC and alkalinity (Alk) owing to changes in circulation, biological productivity and air-sea CO2 fluxes dominate. The prevalence of eddy-driven variability in the nearshore 100 km leads to a complex spatiotemporal mosaic of surface ocean pCO2 and air-sea CO2 fluxes that require a substantial observational effort to determine the source/sink nature

  5. California Air Basins

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — Air ResourcesCalifornia Air Resources BoardThe following datasets are from the California Air Resources Board: * arb_california_airbasins - California Air BasinsThe...

  6. Review of current Southern California edison load management programs and proposal for a new market-driven, mass-market, demand-response program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weller, G.H.

    2002-01-01

    Utility load management programs, including direct load control and interruptible load programs, constitute a large installed base of controllable loads that are employed by utilities as system reliability resources. In response to energy supply shortfalls expected during the summer of 2001, the California Public Utilities Commission in spring 2001 authorized new utility load management programs as well as revisions to existing programs. This report provides an independent review of the designs of these new programs for a large utility (Southern California Edison) and suggests possible improvements to enhance the price responsiveness of the customer actions influenced by these programs. The report also proposes a new program to elicit a mass-market demand response to utility price signals.

  7. Real-time detection of moving objects in a dynamic scene from moving robotic vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansar, A.; Talukder, S.; Goldberg, L.; Matthies, A.

    2003-01-01

    Dynamic scene perception is currently limited to detection of moving objects from a static platform or scenes with flat backgrounds. We discuss novel methods to segment moving objects in the motion field formed by a moving camera/robotic platform in real time.

  8. Spatiotemporal variability and drivers of pCO2 and air–sea CO2 fluxes in the California Current System: an eddy-resolving modeling study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Turi

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available We quantify the CO2 source/sink nature of the California Current System (CalCS and determine the drivers and processes behind the mean and spatiotemporal variability of the partial pressure of CO2 (pCO2 in the surface ocean. To this end, we analyze eddy-resolving, climatological simulations of a coupled physical-ecosystem-biogeochemical ocean model on the basis of the Regional Oceanic Modeling System (ROMS. The model-simulated pCO2 agrees very well with in situ observations over the entire domain with virtually no bias, but the model overestimates pCO2 in the nearshore 100 km, and underestimates the observed temporal variability. In the annual mean, the entire CalCS within 800 km of the coast and from ~ 33° N to 46° N is essentially neutral with regard to atmospheric CO2. The model simulates an integrated uptake flux of −0.9 Tg C yr–1, corresponding to a very small average flux density of −0.05 mol C m–2 yr–1, with an uncertainty of the order of ±0.20 mol C m–2 yr–1. This near zero flux is a consequence of an almost complete regional compensation between the strong outgassing in the nearshore region (first 100 km, with flux densities of more than 3 mol C m–2 yr–1 and a weaker, but more widespread uptake flux in the offshore region with an average flux density of −0.17 mol C m–2 yr–1. This pattern is primarily a result of the interaction between upwelling in the nearshore that brings waters with high concentrations of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC to the surface, and an intense biological drawdown of this DIC, driven by the nutrients that are upwelled together with the DIC. The biological drawdown occurs too slowly to prevent the escape of a substantial amount of CO2 into the atmosphere, but this is compensated by the biological generation of undersaturated conditions offshore of 100 km, permitting the CalCS to take up most of the escaped CO2. Thus, the biological pump over the entire CalCS is essentially 100

  9. Demonstration of a fully-coupled end-to-end model for small pelagic fish using sardine and anchovy in the California Current

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Kenneth A.; Fiechter, Jerome; Curchitser, Enrique N.; Hedstrom, Kate; Bernal, Miguel; Creekmore, Sean; Haynie, Alan; Ito, Shin-ichi; Lluch-Cota, Salvador; Megrey, Bernard A.; Edwards, Chris A.; Checkley, Dave; Koslow, Tony; McClatchie, Sam; Werner, Francisco; MacCall, Alec; Agostini, Vera

    2015-11-01

    We describe and document an end-to-end model of anchovy and sardine population dynamics in the California Current as a proof of principle that such coupled models can be developed and implemented. The end-to-end model is 3-dimensional, time-varying, and multispecies, and consists of four coupled submodels: hydrodynamics, Eulerian nutrient-phytoplankton-zooplankton (NPZ), an individual-based full life cycle anchovy and sardine submodel, and an agent-based fishing fleet submodel. A predator roughly mimicking albacore was included as individuals that consumed anchovy and sardine. All submodels were coded within the ROMS open-source community model, and used the same resolution spatial grid and were all solved simultaneously to allow for possible feedbacks among the submodels. We used a super-individual approach and solved the coupled models on a distributed memory parallel computer, both of which created challenging but resolvable bookkeeping challenges. The anchovy and sardine growth, mortality, reproduction, and movement, and the fishing fleet submodel, were each calibrated using simplified grids before being inserted into the full end-to-end model. An historical simulation of 1959-2008 was performed, and the latter 45 years analyzed. Sea surface height (SSH) and sea surface temperature (SST) for the historical simulation showed strong horizontal gradients and multi-year scale temporal oscillations related to various climate indices (PDO, NPGO), and both showed responses to ENSO variability. Simulated total phytoplankton was lower during strong El Nino events and higher for the strong 1999 La Nina event. The three zooplankton groups generally corresponded to the spatial and temporal variation in simulated total phytoplankton. Simulated biomasses of anchovy and sardine were within the historical range of observed biomasses but predicted biomasses showed much less inter-annual variation. Anomalies of annual biomasses of anchovy and sardine showed a switch in the mid

  10. Spatiotemporal variability and drivers of pCO2 and air–sea CO2 fluxes in the California Current System: an eddy-resolving modeling study

    OpenAIRE

    G. Turi; Z. Lachkar; Gruber, N.

    2013-01-01

    We quantify the CO2 source/sink nature of the California Current System (CalCS) and determine the drivers and processes behind the mean and spatiotemporal variability of the partial pressure of CO2 (pCO2) in the surface ocean. To this end, we analyze eddy-resolving, climatological simulations of a coupled physical-ecosystem-biogeochemical ocean model on the basis of the Regional Oceanic Modeling System (ROMS). The model-simulated pCO2 agrees very well with in situ observations over the entire...

  11. Spatiotemporal variability and drivers of pCO2 and air–sea CO2 fluxes in the California Current System: an eddy-resolving modeling study

    OpenAIRE

    G. Turi; Z. Lachkar; Gruber, N.

    2014-01-01

    We quantify the CO2 source/sink nature of the California Current System (CalCS) and determine the drivers and processes behind the mean and spatiotemporal variability of the partial pressure of CO2 (pCO2) in the surface ocean. To this end, we analyze eddy-resolving, climatological simulations of a coupled physical–biogeochemical oceanic model on the basis of the Regional Oceanic Modeling System (ROMS). In the annual mean, the entire CalCS within 800 km of the coast and f...

  12. California's Accountability System and the API. Expert Report. Submitted for: Eliezer Williams vs. State of California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Michael

    This paper was presented as expert testimony in the Williams vs. State of California class action lawsuit. That case, filed on behalf of California public schoolchildren, charged the State with denying thousands of students the basic tools for a sound education. This paper addresses whether California's current output-based accountability system…

  13. Theses "Discussion" Sections: A Structural Move Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nodoushan, Mohammad Ali Salmani; Khakbaz, Nafiseh

    2011-01-01

    The current study aimed at finding the probable differences between the move structure of Iranian MA graduates' thesis discussion subgenres and those of their non-Iranian counterparts, on the one hand, and those of journal paper authors, on the other. It also aimed at identifying the moves that are considered obligatory, conventional, or optional…

  14. Moving Target Defense

    CERN Document Server

    Jajodia, Sushil; Swarup, Vipin; Wang, Cliff; Wang, X Sean

    2011-01-01

    Moving Target Defense: Creating Asymmetric Uncertainty for Cyber Threats was developed by a group of leading researchers. It describes the fundamental challenges facing the research community and identifies new promising solution paths. Moving Target Defense which is motivated by the asymmetric costs borne by cyber defenders takes an advantage afforded to attackers and reverses it to advantage defenders. Moving Target Defense is enabled by technical trends in recent years, including virtualization and workload migration on commodity systems, widespread and redundant network connectivity, instr

  15. AFSC/NMML/CCEP: Natality rates of California sea lions at San Miguel Island, California during 1987-2008

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Marine Mammal Laboratories' California Current Ecosystem Program (AFSC/NOAA) initiated a long-term marking program of California sea lions (Zalophus...

  16. Moving a House by Moved Participants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Axel, Erik

    The author performed an investigation of how a house was designed. He participated mainly in meetings, in which the house was engineered. The meetings proceeded in an agreeable atmosphere. While the architect was mostly concerned with integrating the functionality of the house, the engineer engaged......? The participant observer believed it was a matter of changing coordinates, but the engineers immediately saw it was an issue of pipes in the ground, could they be moved and still function as planned? To decide the possibility of this suggestion the engineer was given the task of investigating the consequences...... of moving the house with respect to its servicing pipes. It was immediately underlined that this task was a surplus task and would therefore trigger an extra payment. When I interviewed the participants and asked them how they understood the function of the engineer, they revealed some irritation, since...

  17. Embodied affectivity: On moving and being moved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas eFuchs

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available There is a growing body of research indicating that bodily sensation and behaviour strongly influences one’s emotional reaction towards certain situations or objects. On this background, a framework model of embodied affectivity is suggested: we regard emotions as resulting from the circular interaction between affective qualities or affordances in the environment and the subject’s bodily resonance, be it in the form of sensations, postures, expressive movements or movement tendencies. Motion and emotion are thus intrinsically connected: one is moved by movement (perception; impression; affection and moved to move (action; expression; e-motion. Through its resonance, the body functions as a medium of emotional perception: it colours or charges self-experience and the environment with affective valences while it remains itself in the background of one’s own awareness. This model is then applied to emotional social understanding or interaffectivity which is regarded as an intertwinement of two cycles of embodied affectivity, thus continuously modifying each partner’s affective affordances and bodily resonance. We conclude with considerations of how embodied affectivity is altered in psychopathology and can be addressed in psychotherapy of the embodied self.

  18. Embodied affectivity: on moving and being moved.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuchs, Thomas; Koch, Sabine C

    2014-01-01

    There is a growing body of research indicating that bodily sensation and behavior strongly influences one's emotional reaction toward certain situations or objects. On this background, a framework model of embodied affectivity is suggested: we regard emotions as resulting from the circular interaction between affective qualities or affordances in the environment and the subject's bodily resonance, be it in the form of sensations, postures, expressive movements or movement tendencies. Motion and emotion are thus intrinsically connected: one is moved by movement (perception; impression; affection) and moved to move (action; expression; e-motion). Through its resonance, the body functions as a medium of emotional perception: it colors or charges self-experience and the environment with affective valences while it remains itself in the background of one's own awareness. This model is then applied to emotional social understanding or interaffectivity which is regarded as an intertwinement of two cycles of embodied affectivity, thus continuously modifying each partner's affective affordances and bodily resonance. We conclude with considerations of how embodied affectivity is altered in psychopathology and can be addressed in psychotherapy of the embodied self. PMID:24936191

  19. El Niño and similar perturbation effects on the benthos of the Humboldt, California, and Benguela Current upwelling ecosystems

    OpenAIRE

    Arntz, W. E.; Gallardo, V. A.; Gutiérrez, D.; Isla, E.; Levin, L.A.; Mendo, J.; Neira, C.; Rowe, G.T.; J. Tarazona; Wolff, M.

    2006-01-01

    To a certain degree, Eastern Boundary Current (EBC) ecosystems are similar: Cold bottom water from moderate depths, rich in nutrients, is transported to the euphotic zone by a combination of trade winds, Coriolis force and Ekman transport. The resultant high primary production fuels a rich secondary production in the upper pelagic and nearshore zones, but where O2 exchange is restricted, it creates oxygen minimum zones (OMZs) at shelf and upper slope (Humboldt and Benguela Current) or slope d...

  20. PARALLEL MOVING MECHANICAL SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florian Ion Tiberius Petrescu

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 Moving mechanical systems parallel structures are solid, fast, and accurate. Between parallel systems it is to be noticed Stewart platforms, as the oldest systems, fast, solid and precise. The work outlines a few main elements of Stewart platforms. Begin with the geometry platform, kinematic elements of it, and presented then and a few items of dynamics. Dynamic primary element on it means the determination mechanism kinetic energy of the entire Stewart platforms. It is then in a record tail cinematic mobile by a method dot matrix of rotation. If a structural mottoelement consists of two moving elements which translates relative, drive train and especially dynamic it is more convenient to represent the mottoelement as a single moving components. We have thus seven moving parts (the six motoelements or feet to which is added mobile platform 7 and one fixed.

  1. Eruptive History and Chemical Evolution of the Precaldera and Postcaldera Basalt-Dacite Sequences, Long Valley, California: Implications for Magma Sources, Current Seismic Unrest, and Future Volcanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Roy A.

    2004-01-01

    The Long Valley Volcanic Field in east-central California straddles the East Sierran frontal fault zone, overlapping the Sierra Nevada and western Basin and Range Provinces. The volcanic field overlies a mature mid-Tertiary erosional surface that truncates a basement composed mainly of Mesozoic plutons and associated roof pendants of Mesozoic metavolcanic and Paleozoic metasedimentary rocks. Long Valley volcanism began about 4 Ma during Pliocene time and has continued intermittently through the Holocene. The volcanism is separable into two basalt-rhyolite episodes: (1) an earlier, precaldera episode related to Long Valley Caldera that climaxed with eruption of the Bishop Tuff and collapse of the caldera; and (2) a later, postcaldera episode structurally related to the north-south-trending Mono-Inyo Craters fissure system, which extends from the vicinity of Mammoth Mountain northward through the west moat of the caldera to Mono Lake. Eruption of the basalt-dacite sequence of the precaldera basalt-rhyolite episode peaked volumetrically between 3.8 and 2.5 Ma; few basalts were erupted during the following 1.8 m.y. (2.5?0.7 Ma). Volcanism during this interval was dominated by eruption of the voluminous rhyolites of Glass Mountain (2.2?0.8 Ma) and formation of the Bishop Tuff magma chamber. Catastrophic rupture of the roof of this magma chamber caused eruption of the Bishop Tuff and collapse of Long Valley Caldera (760 ka), after which rhyolite eruptions resumed on the subsided caldera floor. The earliest postcaldera rhyolite flows (700?500 ka) contain quenched globular basalt enclaves (mafic magmatic inclusions), indicating that basaltic magma had reentered shallow parts of the magmatic system after a 1.8-m.y. hiatus. Later, at about 400 ka, copious basalts, as well as dacites, began erupting from vents mainly in the west moat of the caldera. These later eruptions initiated the postcaldera basalt-rhyolite episode related to the Mono-Inyo Craters fissure system, which

  2. The Moving image

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Lennard Højbjerg

    2014-01-01

    Every day we are presented with bodily expressions in audiovisual media – by anchors, journalists and characters in films for instance. This article explores how body language in the moving image has been and can be approached in a scholarly manner.......Every day we are presented with bodily expressions in audiovisual media – by anchors, journalists and characters in films for instance. This article explores how body language in the moving image has been and can be approached in a scholarly manner....

  3. Developing New Management Techniques for Sharks in the Drift Gillnet Fishery of the Southern California Bight

    OpenAIRE

    Graham, Jeffrey B.; Cartamil, Daniel P.

    2009-01-01

    The Southern California Bight (SCB) is a contiguous geographical region that extends from Point Conception, California to northern Baja California and west into the California Current. This region’s productive ecosystem supports various recreational and commercial fisheries, some of which target pelagic sharks. For example, the common thresher shark (Alopias vulpinus) comprises the largest commercial shark fishery in California waters (the California drift gillnet fishery, or CA-DGF. Mako sha...

  4. California Political Districts

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — This is a series of district layers pertaining to California'spolitical districts, that are derived from the California State Senateand State Assembly information....

  5. New Interpretations about the California Indians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapin, June R.

    1982-01-01

    Describes new perspectives that should be used to teach fourth-grade topics in the 1981 California History/Social Science Framework, California Indians and the major historical periods, and the diverse people who made that history. Lists of materials and organizations that have current Indian publications are included. (AM)

  6. Dissolved inorganic carbon, total alkalinity, nutrients, and other variables collected from time series profile and discrete observations using CTD, Niskin bottle, and other instruments from R/V New Horizon and R/V Robert Gordon Sproul in the U.S. West Coast for calibration and validation of California Current Ecosystem (CCE) Moorings from 2009-12-15 to 2015-04-29 (NCEI Accession 0146024)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — California Current Ecosystem moorings (CCE1 and CCE2) are surface buoys equipped with interdisciplinary scientific sensors including NOAA PMEL pCO2 system,...

  7. Wavefronts may move upstream in doped semiconductor superlattices

    OpenAIRE

    Carpio, A.; Bonilla, L. L.; Wacker, A; Schoell, E.

    2000-01-01

    In weakly coupled, current biased, doped semiconductor superlattices, domain walls may move upstream against the flow of electrons. For appropriate doping values, a domain wall separating two electric field domains moves downstream below a first critical current, it remains stationary between this value and a second critical current, and it moves upstream above. These conclusions are reached by using a comparison principle to analyze a discrete drift-diffusion model, and validated by numerica...

  8. SPUR: Moving San Diego, California Schools toward Integrated Pest Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Sharon

    1991-01-01

    The preparation of a report, slide show, and brochure to promote awareness of the hazards of toxic pest control for school pest management personnel in the San Diego Unified School District is discussed. The future plans of the coalition are proposed. (CW)

  9. Pathways for School Finance in California. Technical Appendix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Heather; Sonstelie, Jon; Weston, Margaret

    2010-01-01

    This is a technical appendix for the report, "Pathways for School Finance in California" (ED515651). "Pathways for School Finance in California" simulates alternatives to California's current school finance system. This appendix provides more information about the revenues used in those simulations. The first section describes the districts and…

  10. Electric industry restructuring in California: For better or worse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Due to the sheer size of its economy, California economic policy often influences and shapes not only California's economy, but markets and public economic policy throughout the Western states and the nation as well. For better or worse, undoubtedly this effect is being seen in the current debate about restructuring electricity markets. This article examines what is happening in California, and what impact the evolving changes in California's electric system may have in neighboring states and elsewhere

  11. California Endangered Species Resource Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    California State Dept. of Education, Los Angeles.

    This document was developed in response to California Senate Bill No. 885, "The Endangered Species Education Project," that called for a statewide program in which schools adopt a local endangered species, research past and current efforts to preserve the species' habitat, develop and implement an action plan to educate the community about the…

  12. Current direction, bathythermograph (xbt), CTD, and other data from moored current meter casts and other instruments in the Coastal Waters of California as part of the North California Coastal Circulation Study (NCCCS) project, 1987-03-09 to 1989-11-01 (NCEI Accession 9000209)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Current direction, bathythermograph (xbt), CTD, and other data were collected using moored current meter casts and other instruments in the Coastal Waters of...

  13. Status of six endangered California Butterflies 1977

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — A survey was conducted from March-September 1977 to determine the current status of six federally endangered butterflies which reside in California. The butterflies...

  14. X-Ray Technologist Listing In California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This table represents a current listing of X-Ray Technologists who are licensed by Radiologic Health Branch (RHB) of the California Department of Public Health. RHB...

  15. Moving up in industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Covell, Charlotte

    2016-01-23

    Charlotte Covell is commercial business manager at Virbac UK, a role that gives her responsibility for the company's sales to corporate practices, some buying groups and internet pharmacies. She began her career as a veterinary nurse, but moved into industry and now has a role in senior business management. PMID:26795866

  16. Indexing Moving Points

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agarwal, Pankaj K.; Arge, Lars Allan; Erickson, Jeff

    2003-01-01

    We propose three indexing schemes for storing a set S of N points in the plane, each moving along a linear trajectory, so that any query of the following form can be answered quickly: Given a rectangle R and a real value t, report all K points of S that lie inside R at time t. We first present an...

  17. Moving beyond Disability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geertzen, Jan H. B.

    2008-01-01

    Moving beyond Disability was the theme of the 12th World Congress of the International Society for Prosthetics and Orthotics. This paper is a reflection of one of the keynote lectures discussing the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF). Multicultural aspects in di

  18. Moving into an interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Kristian; Hazel, Spencer

    2014-01-01

    Opening an interaction is a crucial step in establishing and maintaining social relationships. In this paper we describe how participants in an institutional setting, a help desk counter for exchange students at an international university, literally move into interaction. This is accomplished th...

  19. Moving and union dissolution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.J. Boyle; H. Kulu; T. Cooke; V. Gayle; C.H. Mulder

    2008-01-01

    This paper examines the effect of migration and residential mobility on union dissolution among married and cohabiting couples. Moving is a stressful life event, and a large, multidisciplinary literature has shown that family migration often benefits one partner (usually the man) more than the other

  20. Making Images That Move

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rennie, Richard

    2015-01-01

    The history of the moving image (the cinema) is well documented in books and on the Internet. This article offers a number of activities that can easily be carried out in a science class. They make use of the phenomenon of "Persistence of Vision." The activities presented herein demonstrate the functionality of the phenakistoscope, the…

  1. Aboard the "Moving School."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ainscow, Mel; Hopkins, David

    1992-01-01

    In many countries, education legislation embodies contradictory pressures for centralization and decentralization. In the United Kingdom, there is growing government control over policy and direction of schools; schools are also being given more responsibility for resource management. "Moving" schools within Improving the Quality of Education for…

  2. Through the stomach of a predator: Regional patterns of forage in the diet of albacore tuna in the California Current System and metrics needed for ecosystem-based management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glaser, Sarah M.; Waechter, Katrina E.; Bransome, Nicole C.

    2015-06-01

    Foraging habits of predators can reveal patterns in prey ecology and guide ecosystem-based management by informing species interactions. This study describes the diet habits of albacore tuna in three regions (north, central, south) of the California Current System (CCS) and estimates the total predation mortality imposed on twenty prey taxa. The northern CCS was defined by predation on decapods, euphausiids, anchovy and hake. The central CCS was defined by predation on squid, hake and Pacific saury. The southern CCS was defined by predation on anchovy. We estimate North Pacific albacore consumed each year, on average, 54,000 mt of decapods and euphausiids, 43,000 mt of cephalopods, 84,000 mt of juvenile hake, 1600 mt of myctophids, 21,000 mt of juvenile sardine, 10,000 mt of juvenile rockfishes, almost 43,000 mt of Pacific saury, and over 107,000 mt of juvenile anchovy. While variability in predation certainly exists, this and prior studies show that diet habits of albacore are fairly stable through time. The northern CCS appears to be a more significant source of energy for albacore. When designing ecosystem-based approaches to the management of CCS-based fisheries, we recommend that the forage contribution of saury, hake and anchovy to the albacore population be considered.

  3. Moving in Circles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Gunvor

    2008-01-01

    The article examines the development of African diaspora history during the last fifty years. It outlines the move from a focus on African survivals to a focus on deep rooted cultural principles and back again to a revived interest in concrete cultural transfers from Africa to the Americas. This...... circular movement can be explained by a combination of elements characterizing African Atlantic and black Atlantic history. Among them is a lack of attention to questions of periodisation and change. Likewise, it has proven difficult to conceptualize Africa and America at one and the same time as...... characterized by cultural diversity and variation. Moreover, the field has been haunted by a tendency of moving to easily from descriptive evidence to conclusions about African identity in the Americas. A promising way to overcome these problems, it is suggested, is to develop research that focuses on single...

  4. What moves us?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2015-01-01

    Le Corbusier (1887-1965) is arguably one the most influential architects of the 20th century. In the Scandinavian countries, his influence is most pronounced in the writings and art of the Danish experimentalist Asger Jorn (1914–1973). Their collaboration on Le Corbusier’s pavilion for the 1937...... Paris World Exhibition sparked Jorn’s lifelong fascination with the great architect and with architecture more broadly as an inherently public form of art. At the same time, Le Corbusier began revealing his work in visual art and started to move from a rational, technological towards a more poetic......, materialist approach to architecture. What Moves Us? focuses specifically on the reception of Le Corbusier in Scandinavia, with the relationship between Jorn and Le Corbusier as a thematic thread. The book first highlights the architect’s change of direction and subsequently takes readers through his...

  5. Luxury consumption moves East

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khan, Omera

    2015-01-01

    Purpose – The literature contains relatively little prescriptive guidance for establishing supply chain strategies in the luxury fashion marketplace. The focus has been on fashion rather than luxury fashion and the purpose of this paper is to identify and explore the critical supply chain success...... novel insights to transformations in global supply chain strategy as luxury consumption is moving towards the east, which creates new challenges and demands for European manufacturers to respond, to sustaining a competitive advantage....

  6. CERN Pension Fund move

    CERN Document Server

    HR Department

    2007-01-01

    The CERN Pension Fund has moved to new offices on the 5th floor of Building 5. The Benefits Service of the Fund is now located in Offices 5-5-017 - 5-5-021 - 5-5-023. We remind you that the office hours are: Tuesday/Wednesday/Thursday from 10 am to 12 am and from 3 pm to 5 pm. The Fund would like to take this opportunity to warmly thank all the persons involved in the relocation.

  7. Lecture - "Move! Eat better"

    CERN Multimedia

    2012-01-01

    As part of the "Move! Eat better" campaign, Novae’s nutrition adviser, Irène Rolfo, will give a talk on the subject of everyday good nutrition. This will be held in the main building auditorium at 12:30 on Thursday, 20 September 2012. Don’t miss this informative event. For more information, go to http://cern.ch/bpmm            

  8. A moving experience !

    CERN Multimedia

    2005-01-01

    The Transport Service pulled out all the stops and, more specifically, its fleet of moving and lifting equipment for the Discovery Monday on 6 June - a truly moving experience for all the visitors who took part ! Visitors could play at being machine operator, twiddling the controls of a lift truck fitted with a jib to lift a dummy magnet into a wooden mock-up of a beam-line.They had to show even greater dexterity for this game of lucky dip...CERN-style.Those with a head for heights took to the skies 20 m above ground in a telescopic boom lift.Children were allowed to climb up into the operator's cabin - this is one of the cranes used to move the LHC magnets around. Warm thanks to all members of the Transport Service for their participation, especially B. Goicoechea, T. Ilkei, R. Bihery, S. Prodon, S. Pelletier, Y. Bernard, A.  Sallot, B. Pigeard, S. Guinchard, B. Bulot, J. Berrez, Y. Grandjean, A. Bouakkaz, M. Bois, F. Stach, T. Mazzarino and S. Fumey.

  9. Current titles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-07-01

    This booklet is published for those interested in current research being conducted at the National Center for Electron Microscopy. The NCEM is a DOE-designated national user facility and is available at no charge to qualified researchers. Access is controlled by an external steering committee. Interested researchers may contact Gretchen Hermes at (510) 486-5006 or address below for a User`s Guide. Copies of available papers can be ordered from: Theda Crawford National Center for Electron Microscopy, Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, One Cyclotron Rd., MS72, Berkeley, California, USA 94720.

  10. To Move or Not to Move? The Relationship between Career Management and Preferred Career Moves

    OpenAIRE

    Vos, A; K. DEWETTINCK; D. BUYENS

    2006-01-01

    This paper explores professional employees’ career move preferences and the impact of both individual and organizational career management. Departing from theoretical work on the “new career”, different types of career moves employees can make on the internal labor market are discussed (i.e. vertical moves, lateral moves, job enrichment and temporary moves). Next, these are related to the literature on both organizational and individual career management. Hypotheses are formulated about profe...

  11. Autonomous Landing on Moving Platforms

    KAUST Repository

    Mendoza Chavez, Gilberto

    2016-08-01

    This thesis investigates autonomous landing of a micro air vehicle (MAV) on a nonstationary ground platform. Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) and micro air vehicles (MAVs) are becoming every day more ubiquitous. Nonetheless, many applications still require specialized human pilots or supervisors. Current research is focusing on augmenting the scope of tasks that these vehicles are able to accomplish autonomously. Precise autonomous landing on moving platforms is essential for self-deployment and recovery of MAVs, but it remains a challenging task for both autonomous and piloted vehicles. Model Predictive Control (MPC) is a widely used and effective scheme to control constrained systems. One of its variants, output-feedback tube-based MPC, ensures robust stability for systems with bounded disturbances under system state reconstruction. This thesis proposes a MAV control strategy based on this variant of MPC to perform rapid and precise autonomous landing on moving targets whose nominal (uncommitted) trajectory and velocity are slowly varying. The proposed approach is demonstrated on an experimental setup.

  12. Moving Spatial Keyword Queries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Dingming; Yiu, Man Lung; Jensen, Christian S.

    2013-01-01

    text data. State-of-the-art solutions for moving queries employ safe zones that guarantee the validity of reported results as long as the user remains within the safe zone associated with a result. However, existing safe-zone methods focus solely on spatial locations and ignore text relevancy. We...... zones, we study analytically the expected area of a safe zone, which indicates on average for how long a safe zone remains valid, and we study the expected number of influence objects needed to define a safe zone, which gives an estimate of the average communication cost. The analytical modeling...

  13. CERN Pension Fund move

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2007-01-01

    The CERN Pension Fund has moved to new offices at the 5th floor of Building 5. The Benefits Service of the Fund will henceforth receive you in the offices: 5-5-017 - 5-5-021 - 5-5-023. We remind you that the office hours are: Tuesday/Wednesday/Thursday from 10 am to 12 am and from 3 pm to 5 pm. The Fund would like to take this opportunity to warmly thank all the persons involved in the Removal.

  14. Time to Move On?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valentino, A.; Nell, Phillip Christopher; Hotho, Jasper J.

    economic crises influence the effects of the institutional factors in our model. We argue that economic crises have a dual effect on the international configuration of HQ activities. First, during times of crisis, we expect firms to react stronger to coercive, isomorphic, and normative pressures. Second......, we expect economic crises to decrease the overall institutional quality in a given country context, pushing firms to move out. Our theoretical framework contributes to an improved understanding of how institutional factors influence firm behaviour under varying environmental conditions. Furthermore...

  15. Moving Feedback Forward: Theory to Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orsmond, Paul; Maw, Stephen J.; Park, Julian R.; Gomez, Stephen; Crook, Anne C.

    2013-01-01

    There is substantial research interest in tutor feedback and students' perception and use of such feedback. This paper considers some of the major issues raised in relation to tutor feedback and student learning. We explore some of the current feedback drivers, most notably the need for feedback to move away from simply a monologue from a tutor to…

  16. We Shouldn't Have to Move Out to Move Up

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Hester

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available One of the assumptions of the New Urbanism is that cities need to encourage increased density near the core. That means that infill becomes a planning goal to increase density. But that also means that current residents have to move out so others can move in. As a community activist, Hester argues that such planning practices are racist, part of the next racial agenda. (A video file is included.

  17. Prototype moving-ring reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have completed a design of the Prototype Moving-Ring Reactor. The fusion fuel is confined in current-carrying rings of magnetically-field-reversed plasma (Compact Toroids). The plasma rings, formed by a coaxial plasma gun, undergo adiabatic magnetic compression to ignition temperature while they are being injected into the reactor's burner section. The cylindrical burner chamber is divided into three burn stations. Separator coils and a slight axial guide field gradient are used to shuttle the ignited toroids rapidly from one burn station to the next, pausing for 1/3 of the total burn time at each station. D-T-3He ice pellets refuel the rings at a rate which maintains constant radiated power

  18. Teale California shoreline

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — California Spatial Information System (CaSIL) is a project designed to improve access to geo-spatial and geo-spatial related data information throughout the state...

  19. California Condor Critical Habitat

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — These Data identify (in general) the areas where critical habitat for the California Condor occur. Critical habitat for the species consists of the following 10...

  20. Ready, set, move!

    CERN Multimedia

    Anaïs Schaeffer

    2012-01-01

    This year, the CERN Medical Service is launching a new public health campaign. Advertised by the catchphrase “Move! & Eat Better”, the particular aim of the campaign is to encourage people at CERN to take more regular exercise, of whatever kind.   The CERN annual relay race is scheduled on 24 May this year. The CERN Medical Service will officially launch its “Move! & Eat Better” campaign at this popular sporting event. “We shall be on hand on the day of the race to strongly advocate regular physical activity,” explains Rachid Belkheir, one of the Medical Service doctors. "We really want to pitch our campaign and answer any questions people may have. Above all we want to set an example. So we are going to walk the same circuit as the runners to underline to people that they can easily incorporate movement into their daily routine.” An underlying concern has prompted this campaign: during their first few year...

  1. Moving wheelchairs with your thoughts

    OpenAIRE

    Duca, Edward

    2012-01-01

    Brain to computer interface (BCI) devices can read a person’s thoughts and turn them into commands to move objects. They can give freedom to people suffering from movement impairments. Rosanne Zerafa (supervised by Tracey Camilleri) developed a system that detects a person’s brain patterns while they are thinking of moving a particular part of their body and translates them into commands to move a cursor. http://www.um.edu.mt/think/moving-wheelchairs-with-your-thoughts/

  2. What moves us?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2015-01-01

    Katalog til udstillingen på Museum Jorn - What moves us? Le Corbusier & Asger Jorn - 12. sept. - 13. dec. 2015. Kataloget undersøger Le Corbusiers skifte fra en rationelt funderet tilgang til arkitekturen til en poetisk, materialistisk tilgang i efterkrigstiden. Den viser hans indflydelse på den...... yngre Asger Jorn og beskriver danskerens første beundring, som sidenhen forvandledes til skarp kritik. Kataloget, som er rigt illustreret med billeder af Le Corbusiers og Asger Jorns kunst og arkitektur, indeholder også genoptryk af originale tekster, samt bidrag i ord og billeder fra fremtrædende...... eksperter. Kataloget indeholder en række artikler af internationale skribenter under flg. overskrifter: Le Corbusier - kunstnerarkitekten i efterkrigstidens Europa Le Corbusier og Asger Jorn - David mod Goliat Gensyn med Le Corbusier - spor i dansk arkitektur og byrum...

  3. Mechanics of moving materials

    CERN Document Server

    Banichuk, Nikolay; Neittaanmäki, Pekka; Saksa, Tytti; Tuovinen, Tero

    2014-01-01

    This book deals with theoretical aspects of modelling the mechanical behaviour of manufacturing, processing, transportation or other systems in which the processed or supporting material is travelling through the system. Examples of such applications include paper making, transmission cables, band saws, printing presses, manufacturing of plastic films and sheets, and extrusion of aluminium foil, textiles and other materials.   The work focuses on out-of-plane dynamics and stability analysis for isotropic and orthotropic travelling elastic and viscoelastic materials, with and without fluid-structure interaction, using analytical and semi-analytical approaches.  Also topics such as fracturing and fatigue are discussed in the context of moving materials. The last part of the book deals with optimization problems involving physical constraints arising from the stability and fatigue analyses, including uncertainties in the parameters.   The book is intended for researchers and specialists in the field, providin...

  4. Move! Eat better: news

    CERN Multimedia

    2013-01-01

    Are you curious to know whether you’re doing enough daily exercise…? Test yourself with a pedometer!   Through the Move! Eat better campaign, launched in May 2012, the CERN medical service is aiming to improve the health of members of the personnel by encouraging them to prioritise physical activity in conjunction with a balanced diet. Various successful activities have already taken place: relay race/Nordic walk, Bike2work, Zumba and fitness workshops, two conferences (“Physical activity for health” and “Good nutrition every day”), events in the restaurants, as well as posters and a website. Although everyone has got the message from our various communications that physical activity is good for your health, there is still a relevant question being asked: “What is the minimum amount of exercise recommended?” 10,000 steps per day is the ideal figure, which has been demonstrated as beneficial by scientific studies ...

  5. Moving Detectors in Cavities

    CERN Document Server

    Obadia, N

    2007-01-01

    We consider two-level detectors, coupled to a quantum scalar field, moving inside cavities. We highlight some pathological resonant effects due to abrupt boundaries, and decide to describe the cavity by switching smoothly the interaction by a time-dependent gate-like function. Considering uniformly accelerated trajectories, we show that some specific choices of non-adiabatic switching have led to hazardous interpretations about the enhancement of the Unruh effect in cavities. More specifically, we show that the emission/absorption ratio takes arbitrary high values according to the emitted quanta properties and to the transients undergone at the entrance and the exit of the cavity, {\\it independently of the acceleration}. An explicit example is provided where we show that inertial and uniformly accelerated world-lines can even lead to the same ``pseudo-temperature''.

  6. Moving Beyond Outsourcing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rai, Sudhanshu

    In this article I discuss the Indian outsourcing phenomena and ask the question now what? Using data from the Euro-India project I demonstrate that a small but significant part of the Indian IT entities are moving beyond outsourcing, to co-creation where Innovation and the desire to create new...... markets is the key driver. This does not imply that outsourcing will disappear but it does mean that firms will engage in globalization using innovative mix of business models and technical platforms. We discuss the implication of this slow transformation to co-creation of innovation for the global...... outsourcing industry. The key thesis of this paper is to discuss co-creation as a form of innovation and how such a form of innovation is likely to bring Indian companies rich dividends....

  7. Moving Single Atoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuart, Dustin

    2016-05-01

    Single neutral atoms are promising candidates for qubits, the fundamental unit of quantum information. We have built a set of optical tweezers for trapping and moving single Rubidium atoms. The tweezers are based on a far off-resonant dipole trapping laser focussed to a 1 μm spot with a single aspheric lens. We use a digital micromirror device (DMD) to generate dynamic holograms of the desired arrangement of traps. The DMD has a frame rate of 20 kHz which, when combined with fast algorithms, allows for rapid reconfiguration of the traps. We demonstrate trapping of up to 20 atoms in arbitrary arrangements, and the transport of a single-atom over a distance of 14 μm with continuous laser cooling, and 5 μm without. In the meantime, we are developing high-finesse fibre-tip cavities, which we plan to use to couple pairs of single atoms to form a quantum network.

  8. Moving the implementation line

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carugati, Andrea; Giangreco, A.; Sebastiano, A.

    2011-01-01

    embraces the call to develop evolving systems in continuously emergent organizations and to identify the main factors that can lead to continuous system development—a continuously moving implementation line—from within the organization. In doing so, we draw on a longitudinal analysis of the experience...... of a typical Western nursing home that, in the past 12 years, has aimed to internally develop a healthcare provision and management system to support its evolving needs. Our analysis shows that four factors enable this concurrent change: (1) the internal appreciation of change, (2) the external appreciation...... of change, (3) enlightened management, and (4) emancipated employees. By controlling for the latter two factors, managers of long-term care centers can motivate employees to contribute to the development of the system over long periods and limit undesired behaviors with information technology (IT). From...

  9. Multinationals Move Inland

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHRIS; DEVONSHIRE-ELLIS

    2008-01-01

    Central China, initially overlooked by many foreign investors as being too far from the ports in Tianjin, Shanghai and Shenzhen, is emerging as an essential destination for multinationals in China.The Future of Central China: A Provincial Roadmap There is a huge manufacturing drive in central China. Businesses are moving inland to set up projects, investments and operations here, primarily due to lower labor and land costs as well as preferential policies for manufacturers. Multinational companies also are starting to view the region as the next step toward an integrated China strategy, and the consumer population in the second-and third-tier cities in central China represents a growing, largely untapped domestic market for foreign products and services.

  10. AFSC/NMML/CCEP: Food habits of California sea lions in Washington, 1986 - 1999

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — From 1986 to 1999, The National Marine Mammal Laboratories' California Current Ecosystem Program (AFSC/NOAA) collected fecal samples and stomachs of male California...

  11. Plans, Patterns, and Move Categories Guiding a Highly Selective Search

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trippen, Gerhard

    In this paper we present our ideas for an Arimaa-playing program (also called a bot) that uses plans and pattern matching to guide a highly selective search. We restrict move generation to moves in certain move categories to reduce the number of moves considered by the bot significantly. Arimaa is a modern board game that can be played with a standard Chess set. However, the rules of the game are not at all like those of Chess. Furthermore, Arimaa was designed to be as simple and intuitive as possible for humans, yet challenging for computers. While all established Arimaa bots use alpha-beta search with a variety of pruning techniques and other heuristics ending in an extensive positional leaf node evaluation, our new bot, Rat, starts with a positional evaluation of the current position. Based on features found in the current position - supported by pattern matching using a directed position graph - our bot Rat decides which of a given set of plans to follow. The plan then dictates what types of moves can be chosen. This is another major difference from bots that generate "all" possible moves for a particular position. Rat is only allowed to generate moves that belong to certain categories. Leaf nodes are evaluated only by a straightforward material evaluation to help avoid moves that lose material. This highly selective search looks, on average, at only 5 moves out of 5,000 to over 40,000 possible moves in a middle game position.

  12. Role of moving planes and moving spheres following Dupin cyclides

    KAUST Repository

    Jia, Xiaohong

    2014-03-01

    We provide explicit representations of three moving planes that form a μ-basis for a standard Dupin cyclide. We also show how to compute μ-bases for Dupin cyclides in general position and orientation from their implicit equations. In addition, we describe the role of moving planes and moving spheres in bridging between the implicit and rational parametric representations of these cyclides. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.

  13. California State Waters Map Series: offshore of San Gregorio, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cochrane, Guy R.; Dartnell, Peter; Greene, H. Gary; Watt, Janet T.; Golden, Nadine E.; Endris, Charles A.; Phillips, Eleyne L.; Hartwell, Stephen R.; Johnson, Samuel Y.; Kvitek, Rikk G.; Erdey, Mercedes D.; Bretz, Carrie K.; Manson, Michael W.; Sliter, Ray W.; Ross, Stephanie L.; Dieter, Bryan E.; Chin, John L.; Cochran, Susan A.; Cochrane, Guy R.; Cochran, Susan A.

    2014-01-01

    the northern and southern parts of the map area are the result of right-lateral motion on strands of the San Gregorio Fault system. In the south, headlands near Pescadero Point have been uplifted by motion along the west strand of the San Gregorio Fault (also called the Frijoles Fault), which separates rocks of the Pigeon Point Formation south of the fault from rocks of the Purisima Formation north of the fault. The regional uplift in this map area has caused relatively shallow water depths within California's State Waters and, thus, little accommodation space for sediment accumulation. Sediment is observed offshore in the central part of the map area, in the shelter of the headlands north of the east strand of the San Gregorio Fault (also called the Coastways Fault) around Miramontes Point (about 5 km north of the map area) and also on the outer half of the California's State Waters shelf in the south where depths exceed 40 m. Sediment in the outer shelf of California's State Waters is rippled, indicating some mobility. The Offshore of San Gregorio map area lies within the cold-temperate biogeographic zone that is called either the "Oregonian province" or the "northern California ecoregion." This biogeographic province is maintained by the long-term stability of the southward-flowing California Current, an eastern limb of the North Pacific subtropical gyre that flows from Oregon to Baja California. At its midpoint off central California, the California Current transports subarctic surface (0–500 m deep) waters southward, about 150 to 1,300 km from shore. Seasonal northwesterly winds that are, in part, responsible for the California Current, generate coastal upwelling. The south end of the Oregonian province is at Point Conception (about 350 km south of the map area), although its associated phylogeographic group of marine fauna may extend beyond to the area offshore of Los Angeles in southern California. The ocean off of central California has experienced a warming

  14. Move and eat better

    CERN Multimedia

    2012-01-01

    CERN has many traditions, but in a week that’s seen the launch of the Medical Service’s  ‘Move & eat better’ campaign, it’s refreshing to note that among the oldest is a sporting one.  The CERN relay race dates back to 15 October 1971 when 21 pioneering teams set off to pound the pavements of CERN. Back then, the Focus users group came in first with a time of 12 minutes and 42 seconds. Today’s route is slightly different, and the number of teams has risen to over 100, with a new category of Nordic Walking introduced, as part of the campaign, for the first time.   The relay has provided some memorable events, and perhaps one of the longest-standing records in the history of sport, with the UA1 strollers’ 10 minutes and 13 seconds unbeaten for thirty years. In the women’s category, the UN Gazelles set the fastest time of 13 minutes and 16 seconds in 1996, while in the veterans category, you wi...

  15. ATLAS starts moving in

    CERN Multimedia

    Della Mussia, S

    2004-01-01

    The first large active detector component was lowered into the ATLAS cavern on 1st March. It consisted of the 8 modules forming the lower part of the central barrel of the tile hadronic calorimeter. The work of assembling the barrel, which comprises 64 modules, started the following day. Two road trailers each with 64 wheels, positioned side by side. This was the solution chosen to transport the lower part of the central barrel of ATLAS' tile hadronic calorimeter from Building 185 to the PX16 shaft at Point 1 (see Figure 1). The transportation, and then the installation of the component in the experimental cavern, which took place over three days were, to say the least, rather spectacular. On 25 February, the component, consisting of eight 6-metre modules, was loaded on to the trailers. The segment of the barrel was transported on a steel support so that it wouldn't move an inch during the journey. On 26 February, once all the necessary safety checks had been carried out, the convoy was able to leave Buildi...

  16. Move your body!

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    撒哈拉

    2005-01-01

    还怀念当年跳舞毯风靡的时光吗?左脚、右脚向前.向后,在不经意间展示你炫目的舞步。而最近PS2平台上的《EyeToy》让我们又接触到了一种需要游戏者舞动身体来参与的摄像头游戏.既玩了游戏又锻炼了身体.而昂达Eyebob摄像头让PC用户也能参与其中。想要玩玩摄像头游戏.现在不用转投Ps2的阵营.也不用改造你的硬件.只要你拥有一款摄像头.你就可以和家人与朋友轻松享受游戏的乐趣。来吧!Come on! Move your body now!

  17. Indexing large moving objects from past to future with PCFI

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Zhao-hong; LEE Chung-ho; GE Jun-wei; BAE Hae-young

    2004-01-01

    In moving object database, the moving objects' current position must be kept in memory, also to the trajectory, in some case, as same as the future. But the current existing indexes such as SEB-tree, SETI-tree, 2+3R-tree, 2-3RT-tree and etc. can only provide the capability for past and current query, and the TPR-Tree, TPR*-Tree and etc.can only provide the capability for current and future query. None of them can provide a strategy for indexing the past, current and also the future information of moving objects.In this paper, we propose the past-current-future Index (PCFI-Index) to index the past,current & future information of the moving objects. It is the combination of SETI-tree and TPR*-tree, the SETI liking index is used for indexing the historical trajectory segments except the front line structure, and the moving objects' current positions, velocities are indexed via the in-memory frontline structure which mainly implemented with TPR*-tree.Considering the large update operations on TPR-tree of large population, a hash table considering cache sensitivity is also introduced. It works with the frontline part, leading a bottom-up update of the tree. The performance analysis proves that the PCFI-index can handle most of the query efficiently and provides a uniform solution for the trajectory query, time-slice query, internal query and moving query.

  18. Design concepts for the California Extremely Large Telescope (CELT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Jerry E.

    2000-08-01

    The California Extremely Large Telescope is a study currently underway by the University of California and the California Institute of Technology, to assess the feasibility of building a 30-m ground based telescope that will push the frontiers to observational astronomy. The telescope will be fully steerable, with a large field of view, and be able to work in both a seeing-limited arena and as a diffraction-limited telescope, with adaptive optics.

  19. Conspicuity of moving soldiers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beintema, J.A.; Toet, A.; Vries, S.J. de

    2011-01-01

    The construction and validation of soldier combat models requires data on the conspicuity of camouflaged targets in the field, and human targets in particular. So far, this data is lacking. Also, it si currently unknown to what degree luminance contrast and motion contribute to target conspicuity. T

  20. The recycling is moving

    CERN Multimedia

    GS Department

    2011-01-01

    The recycling site currently situated near building 133 has been transferred to the car park of building 156. The site is identified by the sign “RECYCLING” and the above logo. In this new, more accessible site, you will find recycling bins for the following waste: PET (recyclable plastic bottles); Aluminium cans; Nespresso coffee capsules.  

  1. Congestion and residential moving behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Morten Marott; Pilegaard, Ninette; Van Ommeren, Jos

    2008-01-01

    we study how congestion and residential moving behaviour are interrelated, using a two-region job search model. Workers choose between interregional commuting and residential moving, in order to live closer to their place of work. This choice affects the external costs of commuting, due to conges......we study how congestion and residential moving behaviour are interrelated, using a two-region job search model. Workers choose between interregional commuting and residential moving, in order to live closer to their place of work. This choice affects the external costs of commuting, due...

  2. Magnetic levitation system for moving objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Post, Richard F.

    1998-01-01

    Repelling magnetic forces are produced by the interaction of a flux-concentrated magnetic field (produced by permanent magnets or electromagnets) with an inductively loaded closed electric circuit. When one such element moves with respect to the other, a current is induced in the circuit. This current then interacts back on the field to produce a repelling force. These repelling magnetic forces are applied to magnetically levitate a moving object such as a train car. The power required to levitate a train of such cars is drawn from the motional energy of the train itself, and typically represents only a percent or two of the several megawatts of power required to overcome aerodynamic drag at high speeds.

  3. The Southern California Twin Register at the University of Southern California: III

    OpenAIRE

    Baker, Laura A.; Tuvblad, Catherine; Wang, Pan; Gomez, Karina; Bezdjian, Serena; Niv, Sharon; Raine, Adrian

    2013-01-01

    The Southern California Twin Register at the University of Southern California (USC) was initiated in 1984 and continues to provide an important resource for studies investigating genetic and environmental influences on human behavior. This article provides an update on the current register and its potential for future twin studies using recruitment through school district databases and voter records. An overview is also provided for an ongoing longitudinal twin study investigating the develo...

  4. A Weather Analysis and Forecasting System for Baja California, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farfan, L. M.

    2006-05-01

    The weather of the Baja California Peninsula, part of northwestern Mexico, is mild and dry most of the year. However, during the summer, humid air masses associated with tropical cyclones move northward in the eastern Pacific Ocean. Added features that create a unique meteorological situation include mountain ranges along the spine of the peninsula, warm water in the Gulf of California, and the cold California Current in the Pacific. These features interact with the environmental flow to induce conditions that play a role in the occurrence of localized, convective systems during the approach of tropical cyclones. Most of these events occur late in the summer, generating heavy precipitation, strong winds, lightning, and are associated with significant property damage to the local populations. Our goal is to provide information on the characteristics of these weather systems by performing an analysis of observations derived from a regional network. This includes imagery from radar and geostationary satellite, and data from surface stations. A set of real-time products are generated in our research center and are made available to a broad audience (researchers, students, and business employees) by using an internet site. Graphical products are updated anywhere from one to 24 hours and includes predictions from numerical models. Forecasts are derived from an operational model (GFS) and locally generated simulations based on a mesoscale model (MM5). Our analysis and forecasting system has been in operation since the summer of 2005 and was used as a reference for a set of discussions during the development of eastern Pacific tropical cyclones. This basin had 15 named storms and none of them made landfall on the west coast of Mexico; however, four systems were within 800 km from the area of interest, resulting in some convective activity. During the whole season, a group of 30 users from our institution, government offices, and local businesses received daily information

  5. Shielding of moving line charges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Youmei; He, Bingyu [Department of Physics, School of Science, Hangzhou Dianzi University, Hangzhou 310018 (China); Yu, Wei [Shanghai Institute of Optics and Fine Mechanics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201800 (China); Yu, M.Y., E-mail: myyu@zju.edu.cn [Institute for Fusion Theory and Simulation and Department of Physics, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China); Institute for Theoretical Physics I, Ruhr University, D-44780 Bochum (Germany)

    2015-07-03

    A charged object moving in plasma can excite plasma waves that inevitably modify its Debye shielding characteristics. When the excited waves propagate sufficiently fast, the shielding can even break down. Here the properties of finite amplitude plasma waves excited by a moving line charge are investigated. It is found that when the speed of the latter is close to but less than the thermal speed of the background plasma electrons, only a localized disturbance in the form of a soliton that moves together with the line charge is excited. That is, the line charge is well shielded even though it is moving at a high speed and has generated a large local electrostatic field. However, for a pair of line charges moving together, such complete shielding behavior could not be found.

  6. 75 FR 43045 - Pistachios Grown in California, Arizona, and New Mexico; Modification of the Aflatoxin Regulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-23

    ... Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 983 Pistachios Grown in California, Arizona, and New Mexico... currently prescribed under the California, Arizona, and New ] Mexico pistachio marketing order (order). The order regulates the handling of pistachios grown in California, Arizona, and New Mexico and...

  7. Transfer and Articulation in the 1990s: California in the Larger Picture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    California State Postsecondary Education Commission, Sacramento.

    This report puts California's current efforts to find solutions to its problems of transfer and articulation in the broader context of national concerns. Following a brief summary and overview, part 1 sets forth a seris of conclusions and six recommendations for action by the University of California, the California State University, the…

  8. Authentic Assessment in California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Educational Leadership, 1989

    1989-01-01

    Describes the teacher-developed California Assessment Program (CAP) writing measure, designed to support California's reform curriculum and based on matrix sampling techniques. This program will be supplemented by literature and mathematics assessments. The greatest challenge is designing an assessment to match the state's new history and social…

  9. California's English Learner Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Laura E.

    2012-01-01

    English Learner (EL) students in California's schools are numerous and diverse, and they lag behind their native-English-speaking peers. Closing the achievement gap for EL students has been a long-standing goal for California educators, and there are some signs of success. Now that EL funding and curriculum issues are receiving a fresh level of…

  10. Gaussian moving averages and semimartingales

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Basse-O'Connor, Andreas

    2008-01-01

    In the present paper we study moving averages (also known as stochastic convolutions) driven by a Wiener process and with a deterministic kernel. Necessary and sufficient conditions on the kernel are provided for the moving average to be a semimartingale in its natural filtration. Our results...... are constructive - meaning that they provide a simple method to obtain kernels for which the moving average is a semimartingale or a Wiener process. Several examples are considered. In the last part of the paper we study general Gaussian processes with stationary increments. We provide necessary and sufficient...

  11. An index method for continuous moving objects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Hui-bin; XIE Kun-qing; MA Xiu-jun; XU dan; YANG Bao-gang

    2004-01-01

    There are current, historical and future information about continuously moving spatio-temporal objects. And there are correspondingly spatio-temporal indexes for current, past and future querying. Among the various types of spatio-temporal access methods, no one can support historical and future information querying. The Time Parameterized R-tree(TPR-tree) employs the idea of parametric bounding rectangles in the R-tree. It can effectively support predictive querying to continuously moving objects.Unfortunately, TPR-tree can not used to historical querying. This paper presents a partial-persistence method in order to extend TPR-tree for querying past information of moving objects. In this method, several TPR-trees will be created for more effectively predictive querying, because TPR-tree has a time horizon limit for predictive querying.Further more, a B-tree will be used to index time dimension. Since the partial-persistence method brings about huge storage space using, this paper also discusses some methods on how to reduce storage space. Finally, this paper presents an extensive experimental study for the proposed method and gives some interesting directions for future work.

  12. Migrants on the move.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karel, S

    1988-11-01

    International migration benefits both acceptor and sender countries. Skilled migrants bring economic vitality to many of the wealthy nations facing an extreme shortage of workers while their migration helps to ease their native land's overpopulation. There are currently between 20 and 22 million economically active migrants around the world; most are Asian or Latin American and migrate to the US, Canada, Australia, or new Zealand. The US takes in the largest number of legal immigrants yearly at 600,000, Australia admits 93,000, Canada 84,000, and New Zealand 35,000. Because of the rising unemployment rates, Canada allows 37,000 fewer entrants yearly today than in 1982, while New Zealand allows 11,000 fewer. 4 million legal immigrants entered the US between 1980 and 1986, and about 3.5 million illegal immigrants in 1987 alone. Asians account for about 45% of all US immigrants, while Europeans account for only 17%. 32% of all entrants claimed to be technicians or managers compared to about 2% in 1911. About 15% of Canada's population is foreign-born, while Australia's population is about 20% foreign-born. Some poor countries like Pakistan, South Korea, and Turkey send workers abroad so that they can collect remittances. Such an opening of global immigration policy can ease demographic imbalances, skills transfers, and economic development. PMID:12281763

  13. California sea lion and northern fur seal censuses conducted at Channel Islands, California by Alaska Fisheries Science Center from 1969-07-31 to 2015-08-08 (NCEI Accession 0145165)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Marine Mammal Laboratories' California Current Ecosystem Program (AFSC/NOAA) initiated and maintains census programs for California sea lions (Zalophus...

  14. Radar Cross Section of Moving Objects

    CERN Document Server

    Gholizade, H

    2013-01-01

    I investigate the effects of movement on radar cross section calculations. The results show that relativistic effects (the constant velocity case) can change the RCS of moving targets by changing the incident plane wave field vectors. As in the Doppler effect, the changes in the fields are proportional to $\\frac{v}{c}$. For accelerated objects, using the Newtonian equations of motion yields an effective electric field (or effective current density) on the object due to the finite mass of the conducting electrons. The results indicate that the magnetic moment of an accelerated object is different from that of an un-accelerated object, and this difference can change the RCS of the object. Results for moving sphere and non-uniformly rotating sphere are given and compared with static (\\textbf{v}=0) case.

  15. Rehabilitation Counselor Certification: Moving Forward

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saunders, Jodi L.; Barros-Bailey, Mary; Chapman, Cindy; Nunez, Patricia

    2009-01-01

    This article provides a brief history of the Commission on Rehabilitation Counselor Certification and presents recent changes and strategic goals for moving forward. Challenges and opportunities for the profession in relation to certification are also discussed. (Contains 3 tables.)

  16. NPS MOVES - Entertainment Research Directions

    OpenAIRE

    Zyda, Michael

    2000-01-01

    Outline: Zyda Bio in Book Covers, NRC report & its impact on VR/CG research, The future of networked entertainment, Research required by entertainment & defense to provide this future, The NPS MOVES Research Center & its Entertainment/Defense Agenda ...

  17. Study of moving reflector vibrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results on the experimental study of occasional vibrations of the IBR-2 moving reflectors are given. The influence of the moving reflector structure, the level of their axial and phase oscillations and periods of reflector rotation on the external reactivity fluctuations is analysed. The methods of the statistical analysis of the stationary bicomponent time series are used for experimental data processing. It is shown that at the period of the IBR-2 energy start-up the uncontrolled reactivity fluctuations due to the moving reflector vibrations were rather insignificant (4.5+-2.7x10-6 δ K/K). The construction of the reactivity modulator with the moving reflector as trident provides the regular reactor operation in the mean power range of 0-2 MeV

  18. Climate scenarios for California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cayan, Daniel R.; Maurer, Ed; Dettinger, Mike; Tyree, Mary; Hayhoe, Katharine; Bonfils, Celine; Duffy, Phil; Santer, Ben

    2006-01-01

    Possible future climate changes in California are investigated from a varied set of climate change model simulations. These simulations, conducted by three state-of-the-art global climate models, provide trajectories from three greenhouse gas (GHG) emission scenarios. These scenarios and the resulting climate simulations are not “predictions,” but rather are a limited sample from among the many plausible pathways that may affect California’s climate. Future GHG concentrations are uncertain because they depend on future social, political, and technological pathways, and thus the IPCC has produced four “families” of emission scenarios. To explore some of these uncertainties, emissions scenarios A2 (a medium-high emissions) and B1 (low emissions) were selected from the current IPCC Fourth climate assessment, which provides several recent model simulations driven by A2 and B1 emissions. The global climate model simulations addressed here were from PCM1, the Parallel Climate Model from the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) and U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) group, and CM2.1 from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Geophysical Fluids Dynamics Laboratory (GFDL).

  19. Autowaves in moving excitable media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.A.Davydov

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Within the framework of kinematic theory of autowaves we suggest a method for analytic description of stationary autowave structures appearing at the boundary between the moving and fixed excitable media. The front breakdown phenomenon is predicted for such structures. Autowave refraction and, particulary, one-side "total reflection" at the boundary is considered. The obtained analytical results are confirmed by computer simulations. Prospects of the proposed method for further studies of autowave dynamics in the moving excitable media are discussed.

  20. How Moving Backgrounds Influence Interception

    OpenAIRE

    Eli Brenner; Smeets, Jeroen B. J.

    2015-01-01

    Reaching movements towards an object are continuously guided by visual information about the target and the arm. Such guidance increases precision and allows one to adjust the movement if the target unexpectedly moves. On-going arm movements are also influenced by motion in the surrounding. Fast responses to motion in the surrounding could help cope with moving obstacles and with the consequences of changes in one's eye orientation and vantage point. To further evaluate how motion in the surr...

  1. Issues in California Community Colleges. Forum, 1986.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petit, Susan, Ed.

    1986-01-01

    This issue of "Forum," a journal designed to provide a marketplace of ideas for California community college faculty, contains six articles on current educational concerns. First, "Seeking a Working Vision: Community Colleges and the Mission Statement," by Richard A. Garcia, argues that community colleges must put joint emphasis on vocational and…

  2. California Cooperative Oceanic Fisheries Investigations: Reports. Volume 36, January 1 to December 31, 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olfe, J. [ed.

    1995-10-01

    California Cooperative Oceanic Fisheries Investigations (CalCOFI) performs research in the area of sampling physical, chemical, and biological variables in the California Current. The information received is stored in databases and gives a better understanding of the physics and chemistry of the California Current. Their effect on the food chain make it possible to view current oceanographic and biological conditions in the context of the long term. Measurements taken during 1994 and early 1995 on CalCOFI cruises have indicated a return to normal conditions after anomalous conditions that dominated the two preceding years. The data have permitted an increasingly prompt assessment of the state of the California Current system off southern California. This report also contains papers presented at the CalCOFI conference in 1994 regarding the 1991--92 El Nino and its impact on fisheries. In addition, individual scientific contributions are included which provide an additional understanding of the processes involved in the California Current.

  3. Local extirpations and regional declines of endemic upper beach invertebrates in southern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubbard, D. M.; Dugan, J. E.; Schooler, N. K.; Viola, S. M.

    2014-10-01

    Along the world's highly valued and populous coastlines, the upper intertidal zones of sandy beach ecosystems and the biodiversity that these zones support are increasingly threatened by impacts of human activities, coastal development, erosion, and climate change. The upper zones of beaches typically support invertebrates with restricted distributions and dispersal, making them particularly vulnerable to habitat loss and fragmentation. We hypothesized that disproportionate loss or degradation of these zones in the last century has resulted in declines of upper shore macroinvertebrates in southern California. We identified a suite of potentially vulnerable endemic upper beach invertebrates with direct development, low dispersal and late reproduction. Based on the availability of printed sources and museum specimens, we investigated historical changes in distribution and abundance of two intertidal isopod species (Tylos punctatus, Alloniscus perconvexus) in southern California. Populations of these isopods have been extirpated at numerous historically occupied sites: T. punctatus from 16 sites (57% decrease), and A. perconvexus from 14 sites (64% decrease). During the same period, we found evidence of only five colonization events. In addition, the northern range limit of the southern species, T. punctatus, moved south by 31 km (8% of range on California mainland) since 1971. Abundances of T. punctatus have declined on the mainland coast; only three recently sampled populations had abundances >7000 individuals m-1. For A. perconvexus populations, abundances >100 individuals m-1 now appear to be limited to the northern part of the study area. Our results show that numerous local extirpations of isopod populations have resulted in regional declines and in greatly reduced population connectivity in several major littoral cells of southern California. Two of the six major littoral cells (Santa Barbara and Zuma) in the area currently support 74% of the remaining isopod

  4. Geomorphic response to historic drought in northern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Georgina; Roering, Joshua; Mackey, Ben; Handwerger, Alexander; Guillod, Benoit; Schmidt, David

    2016-04-01

    California declared a state of drought emergency in early 2014 with a recent study showing that 2012 - 2015 constitutes a drought unprecedented in the state's historical record. Much has been reported on the drought's devastating impacts on water supply, agriculture and wildfire occurrence as well as its possible origins, including the role of anthropogenic climate change. However, its geomorphic impact has been given little attention. We address this gap by assessing the response of earthflows to drought in the Eel River in northern California. Despite their slow-moving nature, earthflows contribute ~50% of erosion in the region and are a constant threat to transport routes, making their behavior important to understand. We used pixel tracking in the program COSI CORR to measure velocities of 98 earthflows for the periods 2009 - 2012 and 2012 - 2015 from 0.5 m resolution Worldview satellite imagery. Putting these measurements in the context of velocities manually measured from aerial photographs dating back to the 1950s indicates that whilst earthflows have decelerated significantly in the ensuing drought this is part of a slowing trend commencing around 2000. We show that decadal earthflow velocities are closely correlated with the Palmer Drought Severity Index (PDSI), which in turn is correlated with North American Land Data Assimilation System (NLDAS)-modeled soil moisture. Slowing of earthflows since 2000 is coincident with a reduction of soil moisture, starting with the 2000 - 2001 drought from which earthflows have not yet returned to their pre-drought values and which set the stage for the slowest mean velocities observed in recent decades during the current drought. It will be important to continue to monitor these earthflows as rains return, particularly given the hypothesis that extreme drying may increase pathways for future runoff into earthflows.

  5. Moving Shadows, Moving Sun. Early Modem Sundials Restaging Miracles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mersmann, Jasmin

    2015-01-01

    Irrespective of geo- or heliocentric presuppositions, the functioning of sundials is based on the observation of moving shadows or light spots. Even though the cast shadow was often simply used to indicate the time, it could also remind the users of the ephemerality of earthly things or function as an index of planetary movements. This article examines the various ways in which early modem sundials visually interpret the moving shadow or light spot. The instruments address the shadow in inscriptions, integrate it into their design (e.g., in cruciform dials) or even manipulate its course (as in the so-called Horologium Ahaz). Both the crucifix and the Ahaz dials not only refer to astronomical miracles but actually restage them. Even though by means of the horologium it was not possible to explain the Old Testament miracle of the shadow moving backward, adepts were able to recreate it on a terrestrial scale. PMID:26495586

  6. California Ocean Uses Atlas

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset is a result of the California Ocean Uses Atlas Project: a collaboration between NOAA's National Marine Protected Areas Center and Marine Conservation...

  7. California Watershed Hydrologic Units

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — This dataset is intended to be used as a tool for water-resource management and planning activities, particularly for site-specific and localized studies requiring...

  8. Earthquakes in Southern California

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — There have been many earthquake occurrences in Southern California. This set of slides shows earthquake damage from the following events: Imperial Valley, 1979,...

  9. Coastal California Digital Imagery

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This digital ortho-imagery dataset is a survey of coastal California. The project area consists of approximately 3774 square miles. The project design of the...

  10. California Harpoon Fishery

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains vessel logbook and landings data from harpoon vessels that fish within 200 miles of the California coast, from 1974 to present. The harpoon...

  11. The Oxbow School, California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, Clifford A.

    2003-01-01

    Describes the design of the Oxbow School, an art- and design-oriented high school in Napa, California, including the educational context and design goals. Includes information on the architects, as well as floor plans and photographs. (EV)

  12. California Data Exchange Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to make July &28;Water Smart Month.&29; &28;Conserving ... Remote sensors today indicate that statewide, snowpack water content is 54 percent of ... California ranked first, along with Texas, on ...

  13. Explaining immigrants’ moves into homeownership

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Hans Skifter

    In the paper is examined the reasons for when and why immigrants in Greater Copenhagen move into homeownership after their 25th year based on data from the years 1990 to 2008 compared to residents with a Danish background. As for natives homeownership to a large extent is dependent on income......, employment and family situation, and actual changes, but the importance of these factors differ from Danes. Different immigrant groups have a somewhat lower propensity to move into homeownership than Danes, which only to some extent can be explained by differences in income, education and employment. Living...... in social housing and in multi-ethnic neighbourhoods reduces the probability of moving into homeownership. But there are still some unexplained reasons for lower homeownership rate among immigrants. A probable hypothesis is that immigrants are more uncertain about their future employment and income...

  14. Transmission Lines Emulating Moving Media

    CERN Document Server

    Vehmas, Joni; Tretyakov, Sergei

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we show how the electromagnetic phenomena in moving magnetodielectric media can be emulated using artificial composite structures at rest. In particular, we introduce nonreciprocal periodically loaded transmission lines which support waves obeying the same rules as plane electromagnetic waves in moving media. Because the actual physical structure is at rest, in these transmission lines there are no fundamental limitations on the velocity values, which may take values larger than the speed of light or even complex values (considering complex amplitudes in the time-harmonic regime). An example circuit of a unit cell of a "moving" transmission line is presented and analyzed both numerically and experimentally. The special case of composite right/left handed host line is also studied numerically. Besides the fundamental interest, the study is relevant for potential applications in realizing engineered materials for various transformations of electromagnetic fields.

  15. Organochloride pesticides in California sea lions revisited

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanabe Shinsuke

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs are ubiquitous environmental contaminants that have been banned in most countries, but considerable amounts continue to cycle the ecosphere. Top trophic level predators, like sea birds and marine mammals, bioaccumulate these lipophilic compounds, reflecting their presence in the environment. Results We measured concentrations of tDDT (p,p' - DDT + p,p' - DDD + p,p' - DDE and PCBs in the blubber of dead California sea lions stranded along the California coast. tDDT and PCB concentrations were 150 ± 257 ug/g lipid weight (mean ± SD and 44 ± 78 ug/g lipid weight, respectively. There were no differences in tDDT or PCB concentrations between animal categories varying in sex or age. There was a trend towards a decrease in tDDT and PCB concentrations from northern to southern California. The lipid content of the blubber was negatively correlated with levels of tDDT and PCBs. tDDT concentrations were approximately 3 times higher than PCB concentrations. Conclusions tDDT levels in the blubber of California sea lions decreased by over one order of magnitude from 1970 to 2000. PCB level changes over time were unclear owing to a paucity of data and analytical differences over the years. Current levels of these pollutants in California sea lions are among the highest among marine mammals and exceed those reported to cause immunotoxicity or endocrine disruption.

  16. Analysis of the California energy industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sathaye, J.; Ruderman, H.; Sextro, R.; Benenson, P.; Kunin, L.; Chan, P.; Kooser, J.; Ben Dov, Y.; Green, B.; Clear, R.

    1977-01-01

    The energy-supply system for California is an integral part of the state's economy, both in terms of energy as a commodity and in the economic effects of expanding requirements for new capital and man-power in the energy sector. It is this notion of an expanding energy system that forms one of the motivations for many of the energy policy discussions and formulations currently taking place. Some of the questions to be addressed are (1) if the energy system is to expand, by how much, and in what particular areas of supply; (2) what are the policy ramifications of certain changes as opposed to others; and (3) what are the major economic effects of changes in energy supply system plans. The purpose of this study is to: (a) describe quantitatively the California energy industry and its relationship to the California and U.S. economies; (b) provide the analytic capability for determining the direct and indirect employment and income impacts resulting from a given energy future for California, and (c) demonstrate and test the methodology with scenarios that embody varying combinations of conventional energy technologies, new energy technologies and energy conservation measures. The methodology developed is generally applicable to any set of specified changes. In this report three alternative energy futures for California are selected in order to quantify their resulting economic impacts.

  17. Moving object localization using optical flow for pedestrian detection from a moving vehicle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hariyono, Joko; Hoang, Van-Dung; Jo, Kang-Hyun

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a pedestrian detection method from a moving vehicle using optical flows and histogram of oriented gradients (HOG). A moving object is extracted from the relative motion by segmenting the region representing the same optical flows after compensating the egomotion of the camera. To obtain the optical flow, two consecutive images are divided into grid cells 14 × 14 pixels; then each cell is tracked in the current frame to find corresponding cell in the next frame. Using at least three corresponding cells, affine transformation is performed according to each corresponding cell in the consecutive images, so that conformed optical flows are extracted. The regions of moving object are detected as transformed objects, which are different from the previously registered background. Morphological process is applied to get the candidate human regions. In order to recognize the object, the HOG features are extracted on the candidate region and classified using linear support vector machine (SVM). The HOG feature vectors are used as input of linear SVM to classify the given input into pedestrian/nonpedestrian. The proposed method was tested in a moving vehicle and also confirmed through experiments using pedestrian dataset. It shows a significant improvement compared with original HOG using ETHZ pedestrian dataset. PMID:25114955

  18. California State Waters Map Series: offshore of Carpinteria, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Samuel Y.; Dartnell, Peter; Cochrane, Guy R.; Golden, Nadine E.; Phillips, Eleyne L.; Ritchie, Andrew C.; Kvitek, Rikk G.; Greene, H. Gary; Endris, Charles A.; Seitz, Gordon G.; Sliter, Ray W.; Erdey, Mercedes D.; Wong, Florence L.; Gutierrez, Carlos I.; Krigsman, Lisa M.; Draut, Amy E.; Hart, Patrick E.; Johnson, Samuel Y.; Cochran, Susan A.

    2013-01-01

    In 2007, the California Ocean Protection Council initiated the California Seafloor Mapping Program (CSMP), designed to create a comprehensive seafloor map of high-resolution bathymetry, marine benthic habitats, and geology within the 3-nautical-mile limit of California’s State Waters. The CSMP approach is to create highly detailed seafloor maps through collection, integration, interpretation, and visualization of swath sonar data, acoustic backscatter, seafloor video, seafloor photography, high-resolution seismic-reflection profiles, and bottom-sediment sampling data. The map products display seafloor morphology and character, identify potential marine benthic habitats, and illustrate both the surficial seafloor geology and shallow (to about 100 m) subsurface geology. The Offshore of Carpinteria map area lies within the central Santa Barbara Channel region of the Southern California Bight. This geologically complex region forms a major biogeographic transition zone, separating the cold-temperate Oregonian province north of Point Conception from the warm-temperate California province to the south. The map area is in the southern part of the Western Transverse Ranges geologic province, which is north of the California Continental Borderland. Significant clockwise rotation—at least 90°—since the early Miocene has been proposed for the Western Transverse Ranges province, and the region is presently undergoing north-south shortening. The small city of Carpinteria is the most significant onshore cultural center in the map area; the smaller town of Summerland lies west of Carpinteria. These communities rest on a relatively flat coastal piedmont that is surrounded on the north, east, and west by hilly relief on the flanks of the Santa Ynez Mountains. El Estero, a salt marsh on the coast west of Carpinteria, is an ecologically important coastal estuary. Southeast of Carpinteria, the coastal zone is narrow strip containing highway and railway transportation corridors

  19. 2002 in the MOVES Institute

    OpenAIRE

    Zyda, Michael

    2002-01-01

    The MOVES Institute’s mission is research, application, and education in the grand challenges of modeling, virtual environments, and simulation. Our specialties are 3D visual simulation, networked virtual environments, computer-generated autonomy, human-performance engineering, immersive technologies, defense/entertainment collaboration, and evolving operational modeling.

  20. An Improved Moving Mesh Algorithm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    we consider an iterative algorithm of mesh optimization for finite element solution, and give an improved moving mesh strategy that reduces rapidly the complexity and cost of solving variational problems.A numerical result is presented for a 2-dimensional problem by the improved algorithm.

  1. Carlson Wagonlit Travel is moving

    CERN Multimedia

    2013-01-01

    The renovation of the Main Building continues!   Because of this, Carlson Wagonlit Travel will move from building 62 to building 510 on 4 October and the agency will be closed in the afternoon. An emergency service will be organised for official travels only. Phone: 022 799 75 73 & 022 799 75 78 / e-mail: cern@carlsonwagonlit.ch

  2. Moving ring reactor 'Karin-1'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The conceptual design of a moving ring reactor ''Karin-1'' has been carried out to advance fusion system design, to clarify the research and development problems, and to decide their priority. In order to attain these objectives, a D-T reactor with tritium breeding blanket is designed, a commercial reactor with net power output of 500 MWe is designed, the compatibility of plasma physics with fusion engineering is demonstrated, and some other guideline is indicated. A moving ring reactor is composed mainly of three parts. In the first formation section, a plasma ring is formed and heated up to ignition temperature. The plasma ring of compact torus is transported from the formation section through the next burning section to generate fusion power. Then the plasma ring moves into the last recovery section, and the energy and particles of the plasma ring are recovered. The outline of a moving ring reactor ''Karin-1'' is described. As a candidate material for the first wall, SiC was adopted to reduce the MHD effect and to minimize the interaction with neutrons and charged particles. The thin metal lining was applied to the SiC surface to solve the problem of the compatibility with lithium blanket. Plasma physics, the engineering aspect and the items of research and development are described. (Kako, I.)

  3. Moving and Touching on Ruin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ Yes, the earthquake is a desper-ate disaster to China, but what we could see from this havoc is far more than ruin itself. Every story under the name of love touched our hearts and souls. With their moving and touching voices hovering above the seis-mic zone, let's dry our tears and do our best to rebuild the land of abundance...

  4. Coalition Hakes an Explosive Move

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ni Yanshuo

    2011-01-01

    @@ WHEN Rafale, Mirage 2000 and other fighter-bombers from Western coalition forces circled the Mediterranean region bound for Libya and Tomahawk cruise missiles whistled into the North African country, the world held its breath.Domestic street protests had moved to civil conflicts and foreign military operations in little over a month.

  5. The California Hazards Institute

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rundle, J. B.; Kellogg, L. H.; Turcotte, D. L.

    2006-12-01

    California's abundant resources are linked with its natural hazards. Earthquakes, landslides, wildfires, floods, tsunamis, volcanic eruptions, severe storms, fires, and droughts afflict the state regularly. These events have the potential to become great disasters, like the San Francisco earthquake and fire of 1906, that overwhelm the capacity of society to respond. At such times, the fabric of civic life is frayed, political leadership is tested, economic losses can dwarf available resources, and full recovery can take decades. A patchwork of Federal, state and local programs are in place to address individual hazards, but California lacks effective coordination to forecast, prevent, prepare for, mitigate, respond to, and recover from, the harmful effects of natural disasters. Moreover, we do not know enough about the frequency, size, time, or locations where they may strike, nor about how the natural environment and man-made structures would respond. As California's population grows and becomes more interdependent, even moderate events have the potential to trigger catastrophes. Natural hazards need not become natural disasters if they are addressed proactively and effectively, rather than reactively. The University of California, with 10 campuses distributed across the state, has world-class faculty and students engaged in research and education in all fields of direct relevance to hazards. For that reason, the UC can become a world leader in anticipating and managing natural hazards in order to prevent loss of life and property and degradation of environmental quality. The University of California, Office of the President, has therefore established a new system-wide Multicampus Research Project, the California Hazards Institute (CHI), as a mechanism to research innovative, effective solutions for California. The CHI will build on the rich intellectual capital and expertise of the Golden State to provide the best available science, knowledge and tools for

  6. Moving in a moving medium: new perspectives on flight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepard, Emily L C; Ross, Andrew N; Portugal, Steven J

    2016-09-26

    One of the defining features of the aerial environment is its variability; air is almost never still. This has profound consequences for flying animals, affecting their flight stability, speed selection, energy expenditure and choice of flight path. All these factors have important implications for the ecology of flying animals, and the ecosystems they interact with, as well as providing bio-inspiration for the development of unmanned aerial vehicles. In this introduction, we touch on the factors that drive the variability in airflows, the scales of variability and the degree to which given airflows may be predictable. We then summarize how papers in this volume advance our understanding of the sensory, biomechanical, physiological and behavioural responses of animals to air flows. Overall, this provides insight into how flying animals can be so successful in this most fickle of environments.This article is part of the themed issue 'Moving in a moving medium: new perspectives on flight'.

  7. Moving in a moving medium: new perspectives on flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepard, Emily L. C.; Portugal, Steven J.

    2016-01-01

    One of the defining features of the aerial environment is its variability; air is almost never still. This has profound consequences for flying animals, affecting their flight stability, speed selection, energy expenditure and choice of flight path. All these factors have important implications for the ecology of flying animals, and the ecosystems they interact with, as well as providing bio-inspiration for the development of unmanned aerial vehicles. In this introduction, we touch on the factors that drive the variability in airflows, the scales of variability and the degree to which given airflows may be predictable. We then summarize how papers in this volume advance our understanding of the sensory, biomechanical, physiological and behavioural responses of animals to air flows. Overall, this provides insight into how flying animals can be so successful in this most fickle of environments. This article is part of the themed issue ‘Moving in a moving medium: new perspectives on flight’. PMID:27528772

  8. Translating Cuba: Diasporic writing between moving cultures and moving media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Gremels

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the interrelation between transculturality and transmediality with an emphasis on processes of translation. It focuses on two examples of transcultural and transmedial writing taken from contemporary Cuban literature in Paris: Miguel Sales's recontextualization of Cuban popular music in Paris and William Navarrete's ekphrastic reinscription of his island into the realm of French romantic painting. The case studies are significant in this context because they show how cultural borders are simultaneously set and transgressed at medial crossings—between music and poetry, text, and image. Thus, cultural translations go hand in hand with medial transpositions that include forms of rewriting, recomposition, and revisualization. The connection between moving cultures and moving media also points to the question of “travelling memory” in diaspora.

  9. Research on Maneuverability of Moving Centroid Warhead

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIN Peng; ZHOU Feng-qi; ZHOU Jun

    2007-01-01

    The dynamic equations of the moving centroid warhead are derived, simplified and linearized, and a transfer function from moving mass displacement to normal overload of the warhead is obtained. Thus, the normal overload can be calculated when the mass moves to any different places. The research results provide a necessary theoretic reference for general design of control system of the moving centroid warhead.

  10. A Framework for Representing Moving Objects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Becker, Ludger; Blunck, Henrik; Hinrichs, Klaus;

    2004-01-01

    We present a framework for representing the trajectories of moving objects and the time-varying results of operations on moving objects. This framework supports the realization of discrete data models of moving objects databases, which incorporate representations of moving objects based on non-li...

  11. The Story of California = La Historia de California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartel, Nick

    "The Story of California" is a history and geography of the state of California, intended for classroom use by limited-English-proficient, native Spanish-speaking students in California's urban middle schools. The book is designed with the left page in English and the right page in Spanish to facilitate student transition into comfortable use of…

  12. Transhumant Ranchers in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulak, A.; Forero, L.; Huntsinger, L.

    2009-04-01

    There is a strong link between some of the richest, most productive lands of the western United States, including California's oak woodlands, and the traditional "transhumance" of ranchers using public ranges. Oak woodland ranchers with government grazing leases report that about half of their income stems from using government -owned montane ranges. For many, loss of these leases reduces their ranch productive capacity to a level insufficient for sustainability, augmenting the sale of ranch lands for development. Many thousands of hectares of oak woodlands are linked to the fate of government leases in this way, and this linkage limits the opportunities for conservation of oak woodlands as "working landscapes" via conservation easements. This type of conservation is the fastest growing type in California today. The first case study shows that over the past 100 years there has been a reduction in access to the natural resources needed for transhumance from three sources: competition from use of the pastures for recreation and nature preservation, management practices that have brought about change in the character of the natural resources themselves, and urban sprawl. Ranchers are leasing other properties, purchasing feed, and transporting animals to other regions to compensate. Most had increased their privately leased land over the previous five years. Though they desire to stay on their ranches, transhumant ranching is becoming increasingly difficult because of land use changes on both public and private lands and a third of ranchers believe that they may need to sell the property for development if they lose their summer permits. There are many "line camps" on Forest Service range—cabins that families or workers would stay in during the summer to tend the cattle. However, the need to support the ranch with work in town limits the ability of the household to participate in transhumance or even travel into the mountains to check on the animals. For ranching to

  13. TRAX - Real-World Tracking of Moving Objects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Christian Søndergaard; Pakalnis, Stardas

    2007-01-01

    accuracy. This paper presents the TRAX tracking system that supports several techniques capable of tracking the current positions of moving objects with guaranteed accuracies at low update and communication costs in real-world settings. The techniques are readily relevant for practical applications, but......Range of mobile services rely on knowing the current positions of populations of so-called moving objects. In the ideal setting, the positions of all objects are known always and exactly. While this is not possible in practice, it is possible to know each object's position with a certain guaranteed...

  14. Precise digital control system of a moving mirror's reciprocating move at even speed

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiuming DOU; Qiang GUO

    2008-01-01

    The moving mirror's speed evenness and distance at even speed determine the spectrogram auality and resolution of the Fourier transform spectrometer(FTS).To ireprove the performance of FTS.a precise control system isdesigned to realize the moving mirror(MM)'s reciprocating move at even speed.A laser reference measurement interferometer with phase-shifting through polarization is introduced.which makes the position measurement resolution reach the half wavelength of the laser.At the moment MM changes direction.the configuration of the interference signal is complicated,which induces the measurement count error using a common direction judgment method.In this paper,an improved direction iudgment method is proposed based on the analysis of the interfering signal while MM changes direction,and the cortesponding logical circuits are designed in Field Programmable Gate Array(FPGAl.The MM is driven by a moving coil direct current(DC)linear motor,and the mathematical model is described.According to the analysis of the system characteristics and requirement.a fuzzy-PID control strategy is proposed.The fuzzy.PID control algorithm and its digital realization are studied.In order to reduce the computing quantity.the PID parameters for different inputs are calculated in advance by computer and stored in memory as tables.so the main work of the fuzzy-PID digital control algorithm is the simple look-up of the table.which makes the computing quantity very small and easy to realize in a Digital Signal Processing(DSP)chip.The control system is realized,and the experiment results show that the moving nlirror's speed reaches evenness within 0.ls almost without overshoot after changing direction.

  15. Modeling electricity loads in California: ARMA models with hyperbolic noise

    OpenAIRE

    Joanna Nowicka-Zagrajek; Rafal Weron

    2001-01-01

    In this paper we address the issue of modeling and forecasting electricity loads. We apply a two-step procedure to a series of system-wide loads from the California power market. First, we remove the weekly and annual seasonalities. Then, after analyzing properties of the deseasonalized data we fit an autoregressive moving average model. The obtained residuals seem to be independent but with tails heavier than Gaussian. It turns out that the hyperbolic distribution provides an excellent fit. ...

  16. Progress on the California Extremely Large Telescope (CELT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Jerry E.

    2003-01-01

    The California Extremely Large Telescope (CELT) is a joint project of the University of California and the California Institute of Technology to build and operate a 30-meter diameter telescope for research in astronomy at visible and infrared wavelengths. The current optical design calls for a primary, secondary, and tertiary mirror with Ritchey-Chretién foci at two Nasmyth platforms. The primary mirror is a mosaic of 1080 actively stabilized hexagonal segments. This paper summarizes the recent progress on the conceptual design of this telescope.

  17. The moving mesh code Shadowfax

    CERN Document Server

    Vandenbroucke, Bert

    2016-01-01

    We introduce the moving mesh code Shadowfax, which can be used to evolve a mixture of gas, subject to the laws of hydrodynamics and gravity, and any collisionless fluid only subject to gravity, such as cold dark matter or stars. The code is written in C++ and its source code is made available to the scientific community under the GNU Affero General Public License. We outline the algorithm and the design of our implementation, and demonstrate its validity through the results of a set of basic test problems, which are also part of the public version. We also compare Shadowfax with a number of other publicly available codes using different hydrodynamical integration schemes, illustrating the advantages and disadvantages of the moving mesh technique.

  18. The moving plate capacitor paradox

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, B. R.; Abbott, D.; Parrondo, J. M. R.

    2000-03-01

    For the first time we describe an apparent paradox concerning a moving plate capacitor driven by thermal noise from a resistor. A demon restores the plates of the capacitor to their original position, only when the voltage across the capacitor is small—hence only small forces are present for the demon to work against. The demon has to work harder than this to avoid the situation of perpetual motion, but the question is how? We explore the concept of a moving plate capacitor, driven by noise, a step further by examining the case where the restoring force on the capacitor plates is provided by a simple spring, rather than some unknown demon. We display simulation results with interesting behavior, particularly where the capacitor plates collide with each other.

  19. Moved by a Rapid Transit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bueter, C.

    2013-04-01

    Enticing by virtue of its predictability, historical utility, and spectacle, the transit of Venus is a niche event among astronomical phenomena. Though the value of a transit for scientific purposes is now diminished, the brief appearance of Venus silhouetted against the background of the Sun in 2004 moved the artistic community to celebrate the rare alignment. Artists of all ages combined old traditions with fresh technology to create a 21st-century tapestry of music, sculpture, paintings, glasswork, quilts, sky shows, and digital imagery. A full catalog of transit-related art generated over the centuries would feature the sampling of entries presented here and at the Moved by a Rapid Transit website.

  20. Moving past sleight of hand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mintken, Paul E; Derosa, Carl; Little, Tamara; Smith, Britt

    2010-05-01

    Medical care historically has had a strong association with magic, illusion, and secrecy. Although we profess to be modern healthcare practitioners, utilizing manual therapy techniques, and strive for evidence-based practice, the reality is that one of the most ubiquitous of all manual therapy techniques, manipulation, is obscured by illusive and ill-defined terminology. As a first step in moving from magician to modern clinician, we recently proposed a nomenclature intended to standardize and clarify the terminology used in describing specific manual therapy techniques, recommending the use of 6 key characteristics. The persistent obfuscations appear to be aimed at obscuring the differentiation of manipulation from mobilization. The time has come for a more precise delineation between manipulation and mobilization and to move beyond seeing these valuable interventions simply as some sleight-of-hand technique.J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 2010;40(5):253-255. doi:10.2519/jospt.2010.0105.

  1. The moving mesh code SHADOWFAX

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandenbroucke, B.; De Rijcke, S.

    2016-07-01

    We introduce the moving mesh code SHADOWFAX, which can be used to evolve a mixture of gas, subject to the laws of hydrodynamics and gravity, and any collisionless fluid only subject to gravity, such as cold dark matter or stars. The code is written in C++ and its source code is made available to the scientific community under the GNU Affero General Public Licence. We outline the algorithm and the design of our implementation, and demonstrate its validity through the results of a set of basic test problems, which are also part of the public version. We also compare SHADOWFAX with a number of other publicly available codes using different hydrodynamical integration schemes, illustrating the advantages and disadvantages of the moving mesh technique.

  2. Different Paths to Some Fundamental Physical Laws: Relativistic Polarization of a Moving Magnetic Dipole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kholmetskii, Alexander L.; Yarman, T.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we consider the relativistic polarization of a moving magnetic dipole and show that this effect can be understood via the relativistic generalization of Kirchhoff's first law to a moving closed circuit with a steady current. This approach allows us to better understand the law of relativistic transformation of four-current density…

  3. IKAR moves to higher energies

    CERN Multimedia

    1979-01-01

    The measurements of hadron elastic scattering on protons at small angle (WA9 experiment) were extended at higher energies (NA8 experiment by the Clermont Ferrand-Leningrad-Lyon-Uppsala Collaboration). To this purpose the set-up was moved to the beam H8 in the EHN1 Hall of the SPS North Area. The photo shows the ionization chamber measuring the recoil energy (centre). Pierre Sahuc stands on the left.

  4. California Indian Food and Culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001

    This learning kit begins with a glossary of terms to help students learn about California Indians and their food. The kit explains that California Indians were the first people to live in the area now known as California, and that these tribes differed in the languages they spoke, the regions they lived in, and the foods that they ate. It explains…

  5. English Language Proficiency and Smoking Prevalence among California's Asian Americans

    OpenAIRE

    Tang, Hao; Shimizu, Robin; Chen, Moon S.

    2005-01-01

    The authors documented California's tobacco control initiatives for Asian Americans and the current tobacco use status among Asian subgroups and provide a discussion of the challenges ahead. The California Tobacco Control Program has employed a comprehensive approach to decrease tobacco use in Asian Americans, including ethnic-specific media campaigns, culturally competent interventions, and technical assistance and training networks. Surveillance of tobacco use among Asian Americans and the ...

  6. The Economics of Bulk Water Transport in Southern California

    OpenAIRE

    Andrew Hodges; Kristiana Hansen; Donald McLeod

    2014-01-01

    Municipalities often face increasing demand for limited water supplies with few available alternative sources. Under some circumstances, bulk water transport may offer a viable alternative. This case study documents a hypothetical transfer between a water utility district in northern California and urban communities located on the coast of central and southern California. We compare bulk water transport costs to those of constructing a new desalination facility, which is the current plan of ...

  7. Single Mothers in California: Understanding Their Health Insurance Coverage

    OpenAIRE

    Wyn, Roberta; Ojeda, Victoria

    2002-01-01

    This policy brief examines the health insurance coverage of single mothers in California, addressing the factors affecting their coverage, as well as changes in coverage between 1994-95 and 1998-99. The descriptive data for this study were obtained from analyses of the 1995, 1996, 1999 and 2000 March Current Population Surveys. The findings in this study illustrate the disadvantage that many single mothers in California experience in their access to heath insurance coverage. Nearly one in thr...

  8. CoSMoS (Coastal Storm Modeling System) Southern California v3.0 Phase 1 (100-year storm) sea-level rise 0.0 m: ocean currents projections

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Projected Hazard: Model-derived ocean current velocities (in meters per second) for the given storm condition and sea-level rise (SLR) scenario. Model Summary: The...

  9. CoSMoS (Coastal Storm Modeling System) Southern California v3.0 Phase 1 (100-year storm) sea-level rise 1.5 m: ocean currents projections

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Projected Hazard: Model-derived ocean current velocities (in meters per second) for the given storm condition and sea-level rise (SLR) scenario. Model Summary: The...

  10. CoSMoS (Coastal Storm Modeling System) Southern California v3.0 Phase 1 (100-year storm) sea-level rise 0.5 m: ocean currents projections

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Projected Hazard: Model-derived ocean current velocities (in meters per second) for the given storm condition and sea-level rise (SLR) scenario. Model Summary: The...

  11. CoSMoS (Coastal Storm Modeling System) Southern California v3.0 Phase 1 (100-year storm) sea-level rise 2.0 m: ocean currents projections

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Projected Hazard: Model-derived ocean current velocities (in meters per second) for the given storm condition and sea-level rise (SLR) scenario. Model Summary: The...

  12. CoSMoS (Coastal Storm Modeling System) Southern California v3.0 Phase 1 (100-year storm) sea-level rise 1.0 m: ocean currents projections

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Projected Hazard: Model-derived ocean current velocities (in meters per second) for the given storm condition and sea-level rise (SLR) scenario. Model Summary: The...

  13. It Takes a Village: Moving Forward Towards Independence Offers Hope and Life Lessons to Young Adults with Learning Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Exceptional Parent, 2010

    2010-01-01

    Moving Forward Towards Independence, a California-based nonprofit organization founded in 1998 by a group of parents, is a unique residential program where young adults with disabilities learn to enjoy productive, fulfilling and healthy lives within a caring, responsive community made up of fellow residents, trained staff members, parents and…

  14. SOUTH WARNER WILDERNESS, CALIFORNIA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffield, Wendell A.; Weldin, Robert E.

    1984-01-01

    A mineral appraisal utilized geologic, geochemical, and geophysical data and an examination of mining claims in the South Warner Wilderness, California. Results of this study indicate that little promise for the occurrence of mineral resources exists within the area. Small veins of optical quality calcite occur on the east side of the area but, are not considered a resource.

  15. Indians of California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bureau of Indian Affairs (Dept. of Interior), Washington, DC.

    A brief historical review of the American Indian in California from prehistoric to modern times indicates the hardships and economic disadvantages which the Indians have suffered in the acculturation process. Discussion of the treaties which were negotiated and the Federal legislation which was passed indicates an attempt on the part of modern day…

  16. Computerevolution in California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobryn, Nancy M.

    The introduction of the microcomputer is producing complex changes in the cosmopolitan culture of Californians, including the way people live and learn at home, in school, and at the office. Recently, many bills have been proposed in California to introduce computer science and technology into the public education system; in addition, tax credits…

  17. Food habits of California sea lions in Washington state, 1986-02-26 to 1999-10-18 (NCEI Accession 0145637)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — From 1986 to 1999, The National Marine Mammal Laboratories' California Current Ecosystem Program (AFSC/NOAA) collected fecal samples and stomachs of male California...

  18. California Natural Gas Pipelines: A Brief Guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neuscamman, Stephanie [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Price, Don [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Pezzola, Genny [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Glascoe, Lee [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2013-01-22

    The purpose of this document is to familiarize the reader with the general configuration and operation of the natural gas pipelines in California and to discuss potential LLNL contributions that would support the Partnership for the 21st Century collaboration. First, pipeline infrastructure will be reviewed. Then, recent pipeline events will be examined. Selected current pipeline industry research will be summarized. Finally, industry acronyms are listed for reference.

  19. Simple Moving Average: A Method of Reporting Evolving Complication Rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harmsen, Samuel M; Chang, Yu-Hui H; Hattrup, Steven J

    2016-09-01

    Surgeons often cite published complication rates when discussing surgery with patients. However, these rates may not truly represent current results or an individual surgeon's experience with a given procedure. This study proposes a novel method to more accurately report current complication trends that may better represent the patient's potential experience: simple moving average. Reverse shoulder arthroplasty (RSA) is an increasingly popular and rapidly evolving procedure with highly variable reported complication rates. The authors used an RSA model to test and evaluate the usefulness of simple moving average. This study reviewed 297 consecutive RSA procedures performed by a single surgeon and noted complications in 50 patients (16.8%). Simple moving average for total complications as well as minor, major, acute, and chronic complications was then calculated using various lag intervals. These findings showed trends toward fewer total, major, and chronic complications over time, and these trends were represented best with a lag of 75 patients. Average follow-up within this lag was 26.2 months. Rates for total complications decreased from 17.3% to 8% at the most recent simple moving average. The authors' traditional complication rate with RSA (16.8%) is consistent with reported rates. However, the use of simple moving average shows that this complication rate decreased over time, with current trends (8%) markedly lower, giving the senior author a more accurate picture of his evolving complication trends with RSA. Compared with traditional methods, simple moving average can be used to better reflect current trends in complication rates associated with a surgical procedure and may better represent the patient's potential experience. [Orthopedics.2016; 39(5):e869-e876.].

  20. Global climate change and California's water resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This chapter records the deliberations of a group of California water experts about answers to these and other questions related to the impact of global warming on California's water resources. For the most part, those participating in the deliberations believe that the current state of scientific knowledge about global warming and its impacts on water resources is insufficient to permit hard distinctions to be made between short- and long-term changes. consequently, the ideas discussed here are based on a number of assumptions about specific climatic manifestations of global warming in California, as described earlier in this volume. Ultimately, however, effective public responses to forestall the potentially costly impacts of global climate change will probably depend upon the credible validation of the prospects of global climate warming. This chapter contains several sections. First, the likely effects of global warming on California's water resources and water-supply systems are identified and analyzed. Second, possible responses to mitigate these effects are enumerated and discussed. Third, the major policy issues are identified. A final section lists recommendations for action and major needs for information

  1. California State Waters Map Series--Offshore of Ventura, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Samuel Y.; Dartnell, Peter; Cochrane, Guy R.; Golden, Nadine E.; Phillips, Eleyne L.; Ritchie, Andrew C.; Kvitek, Rikk G.; Greene, H. Gary; Krigsman, Lisa M.; Endris, Charles A.; Seitz, Gordon G.; Gutierrez, Carlos I.; Sliter, Ray W.; Erdey, Mercedes D.; Wong, Florence L.; Yoklavich, Mary M.; Draut, Amy E.; Hart, Patrick E.; Johnson, Samuel Y.; Cochran, Susan A.

    2013-01-01

    , and the region is characterized by urban and agricultural development. Ventura Harbor sits just north of the mouth of the Santa Clara River, in an area formerly occupied by lagoons and marshes. The Offshore of Ventura map area lies in the eastern part of the Santa Barbara littoral cell, whose littoral drift is to the east-southeast. Drift rates of about 700,000 to 1,150,000 tons/yr have been reported at Ventura Harbor. At the east end of the littoral cell, eastward-moving sediment is trapped by Hueneme and Mugu Canyons and then transported into the deep-water Santa Monica Basin. The largest sediment source to this littoral cell (and the largest in all of southern California) is the Santa Clara River, which has an estimated annual sediment flux of 3.1 million tons. In addition, the Ventura River yields about 270,000 tons of sediment annually. Despite the large local sediment supply, coastal erosion problems are ongoing in the map area. Riprap, revetments, and seawalls variably protect the coast within and north of Ventura. The offshore part of the map area mainly consists of relatively flat, shallow continental shelf, which dips so gently (about 0.2° to 0.4°) that water depths at the 3-nautical-mile limit of California’s State Waters are just 20 to 40 m. This part of the Santa Barbara Channel is relatively well protected from large Pacific swells from the north and west by Point Conception and the Channel Islands; long-period swells affecting the area are mainly from the south-southwest. Fair-weather wave base is typically shallower than 20-m water depth, but winter storms are capable of resuspending fine-grained sediments in 30 m of water, and so shelf sediments in the map area probably are remobilized on an annual basis. The shelf is underlain by tens of meters of interbedded upper Quaternary shelf, estuarine, and fluvial sediments deposited as sea level fluctuated up and down in the last several hundred thousand years. Seafloor habitats in the broad Santa

  2. California State Waters Map Series--Offshore of Ventura, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Samuel Y.; Dartnell, Peter; Cochrane, Guy R.; Golden, Nadine E.; Phillips, Eleyne L.; Ritchie, Andrew C.; Kvitek, Rikk G.; Greene, H. Gary; Krigsman, Lisa M.; Endris, Charles A.; Seitz, Gordon G.; Gutierrez, Carlos I.; Sliter, Ray W.; Erdey, Mercedes D.; Wong, Florence L.; Yoklavich, Mary M.; Draut, Amy E.; Hart, Patrick E.; Johnson, Samuel Y.; Cochran, Susan A.

    2013-01-01

    , and the region is characterized by urban and agricultural development. Ventura Harbor sits just north of the mouth of the Santa Clara River, in an area formerly occupied by lagoons and marshes. The Offshore of Ventura map area lies in the eastern part of the Santa Barbara littoral cell, whose littoral drift is to the east-southeast. Drift rates of about 700,000 to 1,150,000 tons/yr have been reported at Ventura Harbor. At the east end of the littoral cell, eastward-moving sediment is trapped by Hueneme and Mugu Canyons and then transported into the deep-water Santa Monica Basin. The largest sediment source to this littoral cell (and the largest in all of southern California) is the Santa Clara River, which has an estimated annual sediment flux of 3.1 million tons. In addition, the Ventura River yields about 270,000 tons of sediment annually. Despite the large local sediment supply, coastal erosion problems are ongoing in the map area. Riprap, revetments, and seawalls variably protect the coast within and north of Ventura. The offshore part of the map area mainly consists of relatively flat, shallow continental shelf, which dips so gently (about 0.2° to 0.4°) that water depths at the 3-nautical-mile limit of California’s State Waters are just 20 to 40 m. This part of the Santa Barbara Channel is relatively well protected from large Pacific swells from the north and west by Point Conception and the Channel Islands; long-period swells affecting the area are mainly from the south-southwest. Fair-weather wave base is typically shallower than 20-m water depth, but winter storms are capable of resuspending fine-grained sediments in 30 m of water, and so shelf sediments in the map area probably are remobilized on an annual basis. The shelf is underlain by tens of meters of interbedded upper Quaternary shelf, estuarine, and fluvial sediments deposited as sea level fluctuated up and down in the last several hundred thousand years. Seafloor habitats in the broad Santa

  3. Structure of Moves in Research Article Abstracts in Applied Linguistics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seden Can

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available An abstract summarizes the accompanying article in order to promote it. While many move-analysis studies of abstracts in applied linguistics (AL have used similar coding frameworks and demonstrated similar rhetorical organizations, their findings have not yet been aggregated to show the overall picture. The present study aimed to both examine move structures in AL abstracts and compare the results with previous studies both synchronically and diachronically. Fifty abstracts were collected from articles published in the journal English for Specific Purposes (ESP between 2011 and 2013. Sentences were coded using a five-move scheme adapted from previous studies. Combining the results from previous research and the present study showed that most AL abstracts give information on the purpose, methodology, and findings of the associated article, while about half of the articles omit introduction of the topic and discussion of the findings. It was also found that authors frequently violate the move sequence expected by current schemes. These findings consistent with previous research suggest that future researchers informed by move analyses should explore the connection between the findings of move analyses and teaching materials for academic writing.

  4. Dark matter. A light move

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Redondo, Javier [Muenchen Univ. (Germany). Arnold Sommerfeld Center; Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik, Muenchen (Germany); Doebrich, Babette [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany)

    2013-11-15

    This proceedings contribution reports from the workshop Dark Matter - a light move, held at DESY in Hamburg in June 2013. Dark Matter particle candidates span a huge parameter range. In particular, well motivated candidates exist also in the sub-eV mass region, for example the axion. Whilst a plethora of searches for rather heavy Dark Matter particles exists, there are only very few experiments aimed at direct detection of sub-eV Dark Matter to this date. The aim of our workshop was to discuss if and how this could be changed in the near future.

  5. Moving Walkways, Escalators, and Elevators

    CERN Document Server

    Cardinal, J; Hurtado, F; Langerman, S; Palop, B

    2007-01-01

    We study a simple geometric model of transportation facility that consists of two points between which the travel speed is high. This elementary definition can model shuttle services, tunnels, bridges, teleportation devices, escalators or moving walkways. The travel time between a pair of points is defined as a time distance, in such a way that a customer uses the transportation facility only if it is helpful. We give algorithms for finding the optimal location of such a transportation facility, where optimality is defined with respect to the maximum travel time between two points in a given set.

  6. Young People's and Parent's Perceptions of Managed Moves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagley, Christopher; Hallam, Susan

    2016-01-01

    The current research aimed to increase understanding of the experiences of young people and their parents of managed moves, what contributed to success and the nature of the challenges experienced. The study was conducted in one English Local Authority, where five young people and their parents were interviewed. Five superordinate themes emerged…

  7. An Analysis of the California Community Colleges Library Space Standards with Proposed Revisions to the California Code of Regulations, Title 5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demmer, Linda

    This document serves as a "talking paper" for the Consultation Task Force for Library Space Standards. The current required formulae for planning library and learning resource facilities for community colleges in California are found in the California Code of Regulations (CCR), Title 5, Section 57030, "Library Space." This section has been in…

  8. Senior Living: Staying Positive and Moving Forward

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Issues Feature: Senior Living Staying Positive and Moving Forward Past Issues / Summer 2009 Table of Contents For ... Living / Long Distance Caregiving / Staying Positive and Moving Forward / Former WWII Fighter Pilot Finds New Home Near ...

  9. Amodal completion of moving objects by pigeons

    OpenAIRE

    Nagasaka, Yasuo; Wasserman, Edward A.

    2008-01-01

    In a series of four experiments, we explored whether pigeons complete partially occluded moving shapes. Four pigeons were trained to discriminate between a complete moving shape and an incomplete moving shape in a two-alternative forced-choice task. In testing, the birds were presented with a partially occluded moving shape. In Experiment 1, none of the pigeons appeared to complete the testing stimulus; instead, they appeared to perceive the testing stimulus as incomplete fragments. However, ...

  10. Development of a California commercial building benchmarking database

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kinney, Satkartar; Piette, Mary Ann

    2002-05-17

    Building energy benchmarking is a useful starting point for commercial building owners and operators to target energy savings opportunities. There are a number of tools and methods for benchmarking energy use. Benchmarking based on regional data can provides more relevant information for California buildings than national tools such as Energy Star. This paper discusses issues related to benchmarking commercial building energy use and the development of Cal-Arch, a building energy benchmarking database for California. Currently Cal-Arch uses existing survey data from California's Commercial End Use Survey (CEUS), a largely underutilized wealth of information collected by California's major utilities. Doe's Commercial Building Energy Consumption Survey (CBECS) is used by a similar tool, Arch, and by a number of other benchmarking tools. Future versions of Arch/Cal-Arch will utilize additional data sources including modeled data and individual buildings to expand the database.

  11. VENTANA WILDERNESS, CALIFORNIA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, R.C.; Fillo, P.V.

    1984-01-01

    A mineral survey of the Ventana Primitive Area (now the Ventana Wilderness) in California was made. On the basis of known mineral occurrences and geologic and geochemical studies, this part of the Coast Ranges of central California contains little evidence for the existence of mineral resources. Small bodies of good quality marble are scattered through parts of the wilderness. Because of their small size these marble occurrences are not considered as having resource potential. Detailed mapping and sampling of the sulfide-bearing gneiss and schist will be needed to determine the grade and extent of these rocks and the possibility that they, in fact, could represent significant resources. The numerous thermal springs in and near the area suggest a high geothermal gradient and that geothermal-energy resources should be investigated.

  12. California State Waters Map Series: offshore of Santa Barbara, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Samuel Y.; Dartnell, Peter; Cochrane, Guy R.; Golden, Nadine E.; Phillips, Eleyne L.; Ritchie, Andrew C.; Greene, H. Gary; Krigsman, Lisa M.; Kvitek, Rikk G.; Dieter, Bryan E.; Endris, Charles A.; Seitz, Gordon G.; Sliter, Ray W.; Erdey, Mercedes D.; Gutierrez, Carlos I.; Wong, Florence L.; Yoklavich, Mary M.; Draut, Amy E.; Hart, Patrick E.; Conrad, James E.; Cochran, Susan A.; Johnson, Samuel Y.; Cochran, Susan A.

    2013-01-01

    In 2007, the California Ocean Protection Council initiated the California Seafloor Mapping Program (CSMP), designed to create a comprehensive seafloor map of high-resolution bathymetry, marine benthic habitats, and geology within the 3-nautical-mile limit of California’s State Waters. The CSMP approach is to create highly detailed seafloor maps through collection, integration, interpretation, and visualization of swath sonar data, acoustic backscatter, seafloor video, seafloor photography, high-resolution seismic-reflection profiles, and bottom-sediment sampling data. The map products display seafloor morphology and character, identify potential marine benthic habitats, and illustrate both the surficial seafloor geology and shallow (to about 100 m) subsurface geology. The Offshore of Santa Barbara map area lies within the central Santa Barbara Channel region of the Southern California Bight. This geologically complex region forms a major biogeographic transition zone, separating the cold-temperate Oregonian province north of Point Conception from the warm-temperate California province to the south. The map area is in the southern part of the Western Transverse Ranges geologic province, which is north of the California Continental Borderland. Significant clockwise rotation—at least 90°—since the early Miocene has been proposed for the Western Transverse Ranges province, and geodetic studies indicate that the region is presently undergoing north-south shortening. Uplift rates (as much as 2.2 mm/yr) that are based on studies of onland marine terraces provide further evidence of significant shortening. The city of Santa Barbara, the main coastal population center in the map area, is part of a contiguous urban area that extends from Carpinteria to Goleta. This urban area was developed on the coalescing alluvial surfaces, uplifted marine terraces, and low hills that lie south of the east-west-trending Santa Ynez Mountains. Several beaches line the actively

  13. Accounting for California Water

    OpenAIRE

    Escriva-Bou, Alvar; McCann, Henry; Hanak, Ellen; Lund, Jay; Gray, Brian

    2016-01-01

    Understanding California’s water balance sheet—how much there is, who has claims to it, and what is actually being “spent”—is key to effectively managing the state’s limited water supply in support of a healthy economy and environment. The latest drought has spotlighted serious gaps in California’s water accounting system. California is a large, geographically diverse state, and its water systems are physically interconnected and institutionally fragmented. Water infrastructure connects the s...

  14. Exoplanet Caught on the Move

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-01

    For the first time, astronomers have been able to directly follow the motion of an exoplanet as it moves from one side of its host star to the other. The planet has the smallest orbit so far of all directly imaged exoplanets, lying almost as close to its parent star as Saturn is to the Sun. Scientists believe that it may have formed in a similar way to the giant planets in the Solar System. Because the star is so young, this discovery proves that gas giant planets can form within discs in only a few million years, a short time in cosmic terms. Only 12 million years old, or less than three-thousandths of the age of the Sun, Beta Pictoris is 75% more massive than our parent star. It is located about 60 light-years away towards the constellation of Pictor (the Painter) and is one of the best-known examples of a star surrounded by a dusty debris disc [1]. Earlier observations showed a warp of the disc, a secondary inclined disc and comets falling onto the star. "Those were indirect, but tell-tale signs that strongly suggested the presence of a massive planet, and our new observations now definitively prove this," says team leader Anne-Marie Lagrange. "Because the star is so young, our results prove that giant planets can form in discs in time-spans as short as a few million years." Recent observations have shown that discs around young stars disperse within a few million years, and that giant planet formation must occur faster than previously thought. Beta Pictoris is now clear proof that this is indeed possible. The team used the NAOS-CONICA instrument (or NACO [2]), mounted on one of the 8.2-metre Unit Telescopes of ESO's Very Large Telescope (VLT), to study the immediate surroundings of Beta Pictoris in 2003, 2008 and 2009. In 2003 a faint source inside the disc was seen (eso0842), but it was not possible to exclude the remote possibility that it was a background star. In new images taken in 2008 and spring 2009 the source had disappeared! The most recent

  15. Rolling motion in moving droplets

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Sumesh P Thampi; Rama Govindarajan

    2015-03-01

    Drops moving on a substrate under the action of gravity display both rolling and sliding motions. The two limits of a thin sheet-like drop in sliding motion on a surface, and a spherical drop in roll, have been extensively studied. We are interested in intermediate shapes. We quantify the contribution of rolling motion for any intermediate shape, and recently obtained a universal curve for the amount of roll as a function of a shape parameter using hybrid lattice Boltzmann simulations. In this paper, we discuss the linear relationship which is expected between the Capillary and Bond numbers, and provide detailed confirmation by simulations. We also show that the viscosity of the surrounding medium can qualitatively affect dynamics. Our results provide an answer to a natural question of whether drops roll or slide on a surface and carry implications for various applications where rolling motion may or may not be preferred.

  16. Scientific Insights for Managing Droughts in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lund, J. R.; Medellin-Azuara, J.; Howitt, R. E.; MacEwan, D.; Sumner, D. A.

    2015-12-01

    Droughts stress water systems and provide important opportunities to learn about vulnerabilities and motivate improvements in water systems. Current and past droughts in California show that this highly-engineered system is highly robust and resilient to droughts, as agriculture and urban water needs are mostly fulfilled and recover quickly following drought. However, environmental systems remain highly vulnerable and have shown less resilience to drought, with each drought bringing additional native species closer to extinction, often with little recovery following the drought. This paper reviews the impacts of California's ongoing 4-year drought and its importance for better understanding its ecological and water supply systems, as well as motivating improvements in water management and scientific work.

  17. Isotope and Genetic Analyses of a Mass Grave in Central California

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eerkens, Jelmer; Carlson, Traci; Malhi, Ripan S.;

    2016-01-01

    California. We present a testable model of demographic expansion, wherein villages in high-population-density areas frequently fissioned, with groups of individuals moving to lower-population-density areas to establish new villages. This model is consistent with previous models of linguistic expansion. Am J...

  18. Aiming High and Falling Short: California's Eighth-Grade Algebra-for-All Effort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domina, Thurston; McEachin, Andrew; Penner, Andrew; Penner, Emily

    2015-01-01

    The United States is in the midst of an effort to intensify middle school mathematics curricula by enrolling more 8th graders in Algebra. California is at the forefront of this effort, and in 2008, the state moved to make Algebra the accountability benchmark test for 8th-grade mathematics. This article takes advantage of this unevenly implemented…

  19. Real time moving object detection using motor signal and depth map for robot car

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Hao; Siu, Wan-Chi

    2013-12-01

    Moving object detection from a moving camera is a fundamental task in many applications. For the moving robot car vision, the background movement is 3D motion structure in nature. In this situation, the conventional moving object detection algorithm cannot be use to handle the 3D background modeling effectively and efficiently. In this paper, a novel scheme is proposed by utilizing the motor control signal and depth map obtained from a stereo camera to model the perspective transform matrix between different frames under a moving camera. In our approach, the coordinate relationship between frames during camera moving is modeled by a perspective transform matrix which is obtained by using current motor control signals and the pixel depth value. Hence, the relationship between a static background pixel and the moving foreground corresponding to the camera motion can be related by a perspective matrix. To enhance the robustness of classification, we allowed a tolerance range during the perspective transform matrix prediction and used multi-reference frames to classify the pixel on current frame. The proposed scheme has been found to be able to detect moving objects for our moving robot car efficiently. Different from conventional approaches, our method can model the moving background in 3D structure, without online model training. More importantly, the computational complexity and memory requirement are low making it possible to implement this scheme in real-time, which is even valuable for a robot vision system.

  20. Ecoregions of California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffith, Glenn E.; Omernik, James M.; Smith, David W.; Cook, Terry D.; Tallyn, Ed; Moseley, Kendra; Johnson, Colleen B.

    2016-02-23

    Ecoregions denote areas of general similarity in ecosystems and in the type, quality, and quantity of environmental resources. They are designed to serve as a spatial framework for the research, assessment, management, and monitoring of ecosystems and ecosystem components. By recognizing the spatial differences in the capacities and potentials of ecosystems, ecoregions stratify the environment by its probable response to disturbance (Bryce and others, 1999). These general purpose regions are critical for structuring and implementing ecosystem management strategies across Federal agencies, State agencies, and nongovernment organizations that are responsible for different types of resources in the same geographical areas (Omernik and others, 2000).The approach used to compile this map is based on the premise that ecological regions are hierarchical and can be identified through the analysis of the spatial patterns and the composition of biotic and abiotic phenomena that affect or reflect differences in ecosystem quality and integrity (Wiken, 1986; Omernik, 1987, 1995). These phenomena include geology, physiography, vegetation, climate, soils, land use, wildlife, and hydrology. The relative importance of each characteristic varies from one ecological region to another regardless of the hierarchical level. A Roman numeral hierarchical scheme has been adopted for different levels of ecological regions. Level I is the coarsest level, dividing North America into 15 ecological regions. Level II divides the continent into 50 regions (Commission for Environmental Cooperation Working Group, 1997, map revised 2006). At level III, the continental United States contains 105 ecoregions and the conterminous United States has 85 ecoregions (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 2013). Level IV, depicted here for California, is a further refinement of level III ecoregions. Explanations of the methods used to define these ecoregions are given in Omernik (1995), Omernik and others

  1. Quantification of moving target cyber defenses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farris, Katheryn A.; Cybenko, George

    2015-05-01

    Current network and information systems are static, making it simple for attackers to maintain an advantage. Adaptive defenses, such as Moving Target Defenses (MTD) have been developed as potential "game-changers" in an effort to increase the attacker's workload. With many new methods being developed, it is difficult to accurately quantify and compare their overall costs and effectiveness. This paper compares the tradeoffs between current approaches to the quantification of MTDs. We present results from an expert opinion survey on quantifying the overall effectiveness, upfront and operating costs of a select set of MTD techniques. We find that gathering informed scientific opinions can be advantageous for evaluating such new technologies as it offers a more comprehensive assessment. We end by presenting a coarse ordering of a set of MTD techniques from most to least dominant. We found that seven out of 23 methods rank as the more dominant techniques. Five of which are techniques of either address space layout randomization or instruction set randomization. The remaining two techniques are applicable to software and computer platforms. Among the techniques that performed the worst are those primarily aimed at network randomization.

  2. California community water systems inventory dataset, 2010

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Environmental Health Tracking Program — This data set contains information about all Community Water Systems in California. Data are derived from California Office of Drinking Water (ODW) Water Quality...

  3. Obesity in California, 2012 and 2013

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — These data are from the 2013 California Dietary Practices Surveys (CDPS), 2012 California Teen Eating, Exercise and Nutrition Survey (CalTEENS), and 2013 California...

  4. Predicting Success, Preventing Failure: An Investigation of the California High School Exit Exam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zau, Andrew C.; Betts, Julian R.

    2008-01-01

    Many educators, parents, and policymakers continue to call for reforms to the California High School Exit Exam (CAHSEE), citing concern about the 10 percent of California students who do not graduate because of their failure to pass the test. By law, current funding for tutoring those at risk of failing the CAHSEE is targeted at those in grade 12…

  5. Fees at California's Public Colleges and Universities. Report 10-01

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, Ryan

    2010-01-01

    Fees at California's public colleges and universities have increased considerably with the current state budget crisis, but are still lower than fees at comparable institutions in other states. At California State University (CSU), fees for full-time undergraduate students are $4,893 for the 2009-10 school year. Fees at the University of…

  6. A Report with Recommendations on State Governmental Organization and Legislative History of California Indians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whittlesey, Barry D.; And Others

    The report is twofold in presenting an analysis of current Indian programs in the State of California with recommendations for improvement based on a study of state and federal agencies and a brief history of Indian legislation significant for California Indians. Recommendations proposed were establishing a new Division of Native American Affairs…

  7. Method and apparatus for a combination moving bed thermal treatment reactor and moving bed filter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Badger, Phillip C.; Dunn, Jr., Kenneth J.

    2015-09-01

    A moving bed gasification/thermal treatment reactor includes a geometry in which moving bed reactor particles serve as both a moving bed filter and a heat carrier to provide thermal energy for thermal treatment reactions, such that the moving bed filter and the heat carrier are one and the same to remove solid particulates or droplets generated by thermal treatment processes or injected into the moving bed filter from other sources.

  8. New Tsunami Response, Mitigation, and Recovery Planning "Playbooks" for California (USA) Maritime Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, R. I.; Lynett, P. J.; Miller, K.; Eskijian, M.; Dengler, L. A.; Ayca, A.; Keen, A.; Admire, A. R.; Siegel, J.; Johnson, L. A.; Curtis, E.; Hornick, M.

    2015-12-01

    The 2010 Chile and 2011 Japan tsunamis both struck the California coast offering valuable experience and raised a number of significant issues for harbor masters, port captains, and other maritime entities. There was a general call for more planning products to help guide maritime communities in their tsunami response, mitigation, and recovery activities. The State of California is working with the U.S. Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA), the U.S. National Tsunami Hazard Mitigation Program (NTHMP), and other tsunami experts to provide communities with new tsunami planning tools to address these issues: Response Playbooks and plans have been developed for ports and harbors identifying potential tsunami current hazards and related damage for various size events. Maps have been generated showing minor, moderate, and severe damage levels that have been linked to current velocity thresholds of 3, 6, and 9 knots, respectively. Knowing this information allows harbor personnel to move ships or strengthen infrastructure prior to the arrival of distant source tsunamis. Damage probability tools and mitigation plans have been created to help reduce tsunami damage by evaluating the survivability of small and large vessels in harbors and ports. These results were compared to the actual damage assessments performed in California and Japan following the 2011 Japanese tsunami. Fragility curves were developed based on current velocity and direction to help harbor and port officials upgrade docks, piles, and related structures. Guidance documents are being generated to help in the development of both local and statewide recovery plans. Additional tools, like post-tsunami sediment and debris movement models, will allow harbors and ports to better understand if and where recovery issues are most likely to occur. Streamlining the regulatory and environmental review process is also a goal of the guidance. These maritime products and procedures are being integrated into guidance

  9. Euphotic Zone Study moves forward

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denman, Kenneth

    The Global Ocean Euphotic Zone Study (GOEZS), a potential core program of the International Geosphere-Biosphere Programme (IGBP) being planned jointly with the Scientific Committee on Oceanic Research (SCOR), was recently given the go-ahead by IGBP's Scientific Committee to move on to the next level of developing its scientific program.The GOEZS program will focus on the coupled physical, biological, and chemical processes operating in the euphotic zone, which is the ocean surface layer where sufficient light penetrates for photosynthesis by phytoplankton to exceed their metabolic energy losses. The upper ocean is extremely important to understanding the atmosphereocean system because it mediates exchanges of heat, momentum, carbon dioxide, sulphur, and nitrogen between the atmosphere and the ocean interior. For the major greenhouse gas carbon dioxide for example, there is more carbon in the upper ocean than in the whole atmosphere. Essentially all carbon dioxide from the atmosphere that passes from the upper ocean to the ocean interior has been transformed chemically or biologically in the upper ocean. Moreover, the upper ocean is the site of all marine shipping and most recreation and industrial activity and contains the planktonic food chain and most fish stocks.

  10. The Telecom Lab is moving

    CERN Multimedia

    IT Department

    2009-01-01

    As of 2nd March 2009, the Telecom Lab will move to Building 58 R-017. The Telecom Lab is the central point for all support questions regarding CERN mobile phone services (provision of SIM cards, requests for modifications of subscriptions, diagnostics for mobile phone problems, etc.). The opening hours as well as the contact details for the Telecom Lab remain unchanged: New location: Building 58 R-017 Opening hours: Every week day, from 11 a.m. to 12 a.m. Phone number: 72480 Email address: labo.telecom@cern.ch This change has no impact on support requests for mobile services. Users can still submit their requests concerning mobile phone subscriptions using the usual EDH form (https://edh.cern.ch/Document/GSM). The automatic message sent to inform users of their SIM card availability will be updated to indicate the new Telecom Lab location. You can find all information related to CERN mobile phone services at the following link: http://cern.ch/gsm CS Section - IT/CS group

  11. Cosmology with moving bimetric fluids

    CERN Document Server

    García-García, Carlos; Martín-Moruno, Prado

    2016-01-01

    We study cosmological implications of bigravity and massive gravity solutions with non-simultaneously diagonal metrics by considering the generalized Gordon and Kerr-Schild ansatzes. The scenario that we obtain is equivalent to that of General Relativity with additional non-comoving perfect fluids. We show that the most general ghost-free bimetric theory generates three kinds of effective fluids whose equations of state are fixed by a function of the ansatz. Different choices of such function allow to reproduce the behaviour of different dark fluids. In particular, the Gordon ansatz is suitable for the description of various kinds of slowly-moving fluids, whereas the Kerr-Schild one is shown to describe a null dark energy component. The motion of those dark fluids with respect to the CMB is shown to generate, in turn, a relative motion of baryonic matter with respect to radition which contributes to the CMB anisotropies. CMB dipole observations are able to set stringent limits on the dark sector described by ...

  12. California Fish Passage Assessment Database [ds69

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — The Passage Assessment Database shapefile contains locations of known and potential barriers to salmonid migration in California streams with additional information...

  13. Giant Reed Distribution - Northern California [ds333

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — The Arundo Distribution layer is a compilation of Arundo donax observations in northern and central California, obtained from several sources, including Arundo...

  14. California Tiger Salamander Range - CWHR [ds588

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — Vector datasets of CWHR range maps are one component of California Wildlife Habitat Relationships (CWHR), a comprehensive information system and predictive model...

  15. The Southern California Twin Register at the University of Southern California

    OpenAIRE

    Baker, Laura A.; Barton, Mafalda; Raine, Adrian

    2002-01-01

    The Southern California Twin Register is the result of an effort to recruit twins of all ages in the city of Los Angeles and surrounding areas. The register currently includes an ethnically diverse sample of more than 2600 twin pairs. The most recently recruited pairs have been drawn primarily from computerized records of enrollments in local public school districts, and are comparable in sex and ethnic distributions to the general public school population. An ongoing twin study of social and...

  16. California State Waters Map Series—Offshore of Monterey, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Samuel Y.; Dartnell, Peter; Hartwell, Stephen R.; Cochrane, Guy R.; Golden, Nadine E.; Watt, Janet T.; Davenport, Clifton W.; Kvitek, Rikk G.; Erdey, Mercedes D.; Krigsman, Lisa M.; Sliter, Ray W.; Maier, Katherine L.; Johnson, Samuel Y.; Cochran, Susan A.

    2016-08-18

    swells from the northwest throughout the year. Wave heights range from 2 to 10 m, the larger swells occurring from October to May. During El Niño–Southern Oscillation (ENSO) events, winter storms track farther south than they do in normal (non-ENSO) years, thereby impacting the map area more frequently and with waves of larger heights.Benthic species observed in the map area are natives of the cold-temperate biogeographic zone that is called either the “Oregonian province” or the “northern California ecoregion.” This biogeographic province is maintained by the long-term stability of the southward-flowing California Current, the eastern limb of the North Pacific subtropical gyre that flows from southern British Columbia to Baja California.Biological productivity resulting from coastal upwelling supports populations of Sooty Shearwater, Western Gull, Common Murre, Cassin’s Auklet, and many other less populous bird species. An observable recovery of Humpback and Blue Whales has occurred in the area; both species are dependent on coastal upwelling to provide nutrients. The large extent of exposed inner shelf bedrock supports large forests of “bull kelp,” which is well adapted for high-wave-energy environments. The kelp beds are well-known habitat for the population of southern sea otters. Common fish species found in the kelp beds and rocky reefs include lingcod and various species of rockfish and greenling.

  17. Staggering successes amid controversy in California water management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lund, J. R.

    2012-12-01

    Water in California has always been important and controversial, and it probably always will be. California has a large, growing economy and population in a semi-arid climate. But California's aridity, hydrologic variability, and water controversies have not precluded considerable economic successes. The successes of California's water system have stemmed from the decentralization of water management with historically punctuated periods of more centralized strategic decision-making. Decentralized management has allowed California's water users to efficiently explore incremental solutions to water problems, ranging from early local development of water systems (such as Hetch Hetchy, Owens Valley, and numerous local irrigation projects) to more contemporary efforts at water conservation, water markets, wastewater reuse, and conjunctive use of surface and groundwater. In the cacophony of local and stakeholder interests, strategic decisions have been more difficult, and consequently occur less frequently. California state water projects and Sacramento Valley flood control are examples where decades of effort, crises, floods and droughts were needed to mobilize local interests to agree to major strategic decisions. Currently, the state is faced with making strategic environmental and water management decisions regarding its deteriorating Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta. Not surprisingly, human uncertainties and physical and fiscal non-stationarities dominate this process.

  18. Conservation issues: California chaparral

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halsey, Richard W.; Keeley, Jon E.

    2016-01-01

    California chaparral, a sclerophyllous shrub-dominated plant community shaped by a Mediterranean-type climate and infrequent, high-intensity fire, is one of the most biodiverse and threatened habitats on Earth. Distinct forms of chaparral, distinguished by differing species composition, geography, and edaphic characteristics, can cover thousands of hectares with dense vegetation or be restricted to smaller communities identified by the presence of endemic species. To maintain the biodiversity of chaparral, protective land management actions will be required to mitigate the loss due to the impacts of human population growth, development, climate change, and increased fire frequencies.

  19. Satellite Remote Sensing Detection of Wastewater Plumes in Southern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trinh, R. C.; Holt, B.; Pan, B. J.; Rains, C.; Gierach, M. M.

    2014-12-01

    Wastewater discharged through ocean outfalls can surface near coastlines and beaches, posing a threat to the marine environment and human health. Coastal waters of the Southern California Bight (SCB) are an ecologically important marine habitat and a valuable resource in terms of commercial fishing and recreation. Two of the largest wastewater treatment plants along the U.S. West Coast discharge into the SCB, including the Hyperion Wastewater Treatment Plant (HWTP) and the Orange County Sanitation District (OCSD). In 2006, HWTP conducted an internal inspection of its primary 8 km outfall pipe (60 m depth), diverting treated effluent to a shorter 1.2 km pipe (18 m depth) from Nov. 28 to Nov. 30. From Sep. 11 - Oct. 4, 2012, OCSD conducted a similar diversion, diverting effluent from their 7 km outfall pipe to a shallower 2.2 km pipe, both with similar depths to HWTP. Prevailing oceanographic conditions in the SCB, such as temporally reduced stratification and surface circulation patterns, increased the risk of effluent being discharged from these shorter and shallower pipes surfacing and moving onshore. The aim of this study was to evaluate the capabilities of satellite remote sensing data (i.e., sea surface roughness from SAR, sea surface temperature from MODIS-Aqua and ASTER-Terra, chlorophyll-a and water leaving radiance from MODIS-Aqua) in the identification and tracking of wastewater plumes during the 2006 HWTP and 2012 OCSD diversion events. Satellite observations were combined with in situ, wind, and current data taken during the diversion events, to validate remote sensing techniques and gain surface to subsurface context of the nearshore diversion events. Overall, it was found that satellite remote sensing data were able to detect surfaced wastewater plumes along the coast, providing key spatial information that could inform in situ field sampling during future diversion events, such as the planned 2015 HWTP diversion, and thereby constrain costs.

  20. Experts Question California's Algebra Edict

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavanagh, Sean

    2008-01-01

    Business leaders from important sectors of the American economy have been urging schools to set higher standards in math and science--and California officials, in mandating that 8th graders be tested in introductory algebra, have responded with one of the highest such standards in the land. Still, many California educators and school…

  1. Moving Image Preservation in Libraries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Stefano, Paula

    2003-01-01

    Examines the current practices of film and video preservation in libraries and examines barriers that have hindered the development of full-fledged preservation programs for them. Topics include advances in education and training; preservation paradigms; and mechanics of film production that affect preservation. (Author/LRW)

  2. Fires in Southern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    In what seemed like the blink of an eye, wildfires ignited in the paper-dry, drought-stricken vegetation of Southern California over the weekend of October 20, 2007, and exploded into massive infernos that forced hundreds of thousands of people to evacuate their communities. Driven by Santa Ana winds, fires grew thousands of acres in just one to two days. The fires sped down from the mountains into the outskirts of coastal cities, including San Diego. Dozens of homes have burned to the ground, and at least one person has died, according to local news reports. Several of the fires were burning completely out of control as of October 22. This image of the fires in California was captured at 1:55 p.m. U.S. Pacific Daylight Time on October 22, 2007. Places where MODIS detected actively burning fires are outlined in red. Thick streamers of smoke unfurl over the Pacific Ocean. The brownish plumes are clouds of dust. Fires northwest of Los Angeles seemed calmer at the time of this image than they were the previous day.

  3. Progress in California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gipe, P.

    1990-01-01

    Though the wind energy continues to take it on the chin in the rough and tumble of California's celebrity politics, several indicators are pointing toward a modest revival. First several new reports laud wind energy at good sites as now competitive with conventional sources. Second, utility subsidiaries are signaling their approval by cautiously venturing into the technology. Also, technological refinements and reorganizations continue while a demand for new generating capacity may be developing in the state. Three new reports all paint a picture of wind energy finally coming of age. The California Energy Commission's most recent Energy Technology Status report says that wind-generated electricity is competitive with coal, oil, gas, and most other technologies. Similarly, a staff report found that after tallying the economic, social, and environmental costs, wind was one of the least cost sources of new generation. Most recently the Electric Power Research Institute's Journal reported the wind energy, at about 8 cents/k Wh, is equivalent to generation from conventional sources.

  4. Historic drought puts the brakes on earthflows in Northern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, G. L.; Roering, J. J.; Mackey, B. H.; Handwerger, A. L.; Schmidt, D. A.; Guillod, B. P.

    2016-06-01

    California's ongoing, unprecedented drought is having profound impacts on the state's resources. Here we assess its impact on 98 deep-seated, slow-moving landslides in Northern California. We used aerial photograph analysis, satellite interferometry, and satellite pixel tracking to measure earthflow velocities spanning 1944-2015 and compared these trends with the Palmer Drought Severity Index, a proxy for soil moisture and pore pressure that governs landslide motion. We find that earthflow velocities reached a historical low in the 2012-2015 drought, but that their deceleration began at the turn of the century in response to a longer-term moisture deficit. Our analysis implies depth-dependent sensitivity of earthflows to climate forcing, with thicker earthflows reflecting longer-term climate trends and thinner earthflows exhibiting less systematic velocity variations. These findings have implications for mechanical-hydrologic interactions that link landslide movement with climate change as well as sediment delivery in the region.

  5. The California power crisis: the role for distributed generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article examines the impact of the California power crisis on cogeneration and the on-site generation market, and highlights the plight of independent power generators including cogeneration facilities who have typically long-term contracts with the cash-strapped state electric utilities and have to defer maintenance due to unpaid bills. The move towards distributed generation, the efforts to increase backup diesel-fired generation during blackouts, and the government's efforts to encourage distributed energy are discussed along with the concerns of air quality regulators with on-site generation emissions, and the impact of the California crisis on the future of distributed energy. The growing role of distributed energy in meeting demand and holding down costs is explored, and the expanding market for microturbines is noted

  6. Coulomb's Law in a Moving Medium--A Review Exercise in Advanced Undergraduate Electromagnetism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sastry, G. P.

    1978-01-01

    The electromagnetic field of a static charge in a moving medium is evaluated using elements of special relativity, residue calculus, and Fourier integration. Some of the concepts in electrodynamics that are of current research value are discussed. (BB)

  7. Fundraising Practices of the University of California, the California State University, and California Private Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karsevar, Kent J.

    2012-01-01

    Factors such as a declining tax revenues and an underperforming economy have been justifying the need for additional external private funding to meet the increasing needs of a growing California higher education system and ethnically diverse student body. The purpose of this study was to examine ways in which California private higher education…

  8. Moving from customer lifetime value to customer equity

    OpenAIRE

    Drèze, Xavier; Bonfrer, André

    2009-01-01

    We study the consequence of moving from Customer Lifetime Value maximization to Customer Equity maximization. Customer equity has traditionally been seen as the discounted sum of the lifetime earnings from all current and future customers and thus it has been largely assumed that maximizing customer lifetime value would lead to maximum customer equity. We show that the transition from CLV to CE is not that straightforward. Although the CLV model is appropriate for managing a single non-replac...

  9. Moving Parkinson care to the home.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorsey, E Ray; Vlaanderen, Floris P; Engelen, Lucien Jlpg; Kieburtz, Karl; Zhu, William; Biglan, Kevin M; Faber, Marjan J; Bloem, Bastiaan R

    2016-09-01

    In many ways, the care of individuals with Parkinson disease does not meet their needs. Despite the documented benefits of receiving care from clinicians with Parkinson disease expertise, many patients (if not most) do not. Moreover, current care models frequently require older individuals with impaired mobility, cognition, and driving ability to be driven by overburdened caregivers to large, complex urban medical centers. Moving care to the patient's home would make Parkinson disease care more patient-centered. Demographic factors, including aging populations, and social factors, such as the splintering of the extended family, will increase the need for home-based care. Technological advances, especially the ability to assess and deliver care remotely, will enable the transition of care back to the home. However, despite its promise, this next generation of home-based care will have to overcome barriers, including outdated insurance models and a technological divide. Once these barriers are addressed, home-based care will increase access to high quality care for the growing number of individuals with Parkinson disease. © 2016 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society.

  10. The Crab Nebula's Moving Wisps in Radio

    CERN Document Server

    Bietenholz, M F; Hester, J J

    2001-01-01

    We present three high resolution radio images of the Crab nebula, taken in 1998.6, 1998.8 and 2000.1 with the VLA. These are the best radio images of the Crab to date. We show that, near the pulsar, there are significant changes between our three observing epochs. These changes have an elliptical geometry very similar to that of the optical wisps. One radio wisp in particular can be unambiguously identified between two of our observing epochs, and moves outward with an apparent velocity of ~0.24. The similarity in both morphology and behavior of the present radio wisps to the optical wisps suggests that they are associated. This implies that the radio wisps, like the optical ones, are likely manifestations of the shock in the Crab pulsar's wind. This suggests that the radio emitting electrons are accelerated in the same region as the ones responsible for the optical to X-ray emission, contrary to most current models.

  11. Moving Parkinson care to the home.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorsey, E Ray; Vlaanderen, Floris P; Engelen, Lucien Jlpg; Kieburtz, Karl; Zhu, William; Biglan, Kevin M; Faber, Marjan J; Bloem, Bastiaan R

    2016-09-01

    In many ways, the care of individuals with Parkinson disease does not meet their needs. Despite the documented benefits of receiving care from clinicians with Parkinson disease expertise, many patients (if not most) do not. Moreover, current care models frequently require older individuals with impaired mobility, cognition, and driving ability to be driven by overburdened caregivers to large, complex urban medical centers. Moving care to the patient's home would make Parkinson disease care more patient-centered. Demographic factors, including aging populations, and social factors, such as the splintering of the extended family, will increase the need for home-based care. Technological advances, especially the ability to assess and deliver care remotely, will enable the transition of care back to the home. However, despite its promise, this next generation of home-based care will have to overcome barriers, including outdated insurance models and a technological divide. Once these barriers are addressed, home-based care will increase access to high quality care for the growing number of individuals with Parkinson disease. © 2016 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society. PMID:27501323

  12. Novel Simulated moving bed technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Purdue University

    2003-12-30

    Cellulose and hemicellulose from plants and other biomass can be hydrolyzed to produce sugars (i.e. glucose and xylose). Once these sugars are separated from other impurities, they can serve as feedstock in fermentation to produce ethanol (as fuels), lactic acid, or other valuable chemicals. The need for producing fuels and chemicals from renewable biomass has become abundantly clear over the last decade. However, the cost of producing fermentable sugars from biomass hydrolyzate using existing technology is relatively high and has been a major obstacle. The objective of this project is to develop an efficient and economical simulated moving bed (SMB) process to recover fermentable sugars from biomass hydrolyzate. Sulfuric acid can hydrolyze the cellulose and hemicellulose in biomass to sugars, but this process can generate byproducts such as acetic acid, and can lead to further degradation of the xylose to furfural and glucose to hydroxymethyl furfural (HMF). Also, lignin and other compounds in the biomass will degrade to various phenolic compounds. If the concentrations of these compounds exceed certain threshold levels, they will be toxic to the downstream fermentation, and will severely limit the usefulness of the derived sugars. Standard post-hydrolysis processing involves neutralization of sulfuric acid, usually with lime (calcium hydroxide). A study by Wooley et al.showed that the limed hydrolyzate gave a low ethanol yield in fermentation test (20% of theoretical yield compared to 77% of theoretical yield from fermentation of pure sugars). They showed that instead of adding lime, an ion exclusion chromatography process could be used to remove acids, as well as to isolate the sugars from the biomass hydrolyzate. In this project, we investigated the feasibility of developing an economical SMB process based on (1) a polymeric adsorbent, Dowex99, which was used by Wooley et al., (2) a second polymeric adsorbent, poly-4-vinyl pyridine (or PVP in short, Reilly

  13. Superresolution reconstruction for moving point target detection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijk, J.; Eekeren, A.W.M. van; Schutte, K.; Lange, D.J.J. de; Vliet, L.J. van

    2008-01-01

    When bright moving objects are viewed with an electrooptical system at long range, they appear as small, slightly blurred moving points in the recorded image sequence. Typically, such point targets need to be detected in an early stage. However, in some scenarios the background of a scene may contai

  14. Moving core beam energy absorber and converter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degtiarenko, Pavel V.

    2012-12-18

    A method and apparatus for the prevention of overheating of laser or particle beam impact zones through the use of a moving-in-the-coolant-flow arrangement for the energy absorbing core of the device. Moving of the core spreads the energy deposition in it in 1, 2, or 3 dimensions, thus increasing the effective cooling area of the device.

  15. Improvisation: Another Way to Move and Dance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Rachel

    2004-01-01

    Using improvisation in movement and dance classes is an ideal way to help students relate to how their bodies move. Students can learn confidence from the way they move by experimenting with unconventional and different methods. Improvisation, as such, is responding spontaneously to stimuli (music) in order to create a composition that allows for…

  16. Faculty Senates in California Community Colleges: Five Years of Operation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, Adalbert D.

    Reviewed in this report are the steps that led to the formation of faculty senates in California. Through interviews, the functions of such senates and their current status were determined and guidelines were formulated that would lead toward implementation of the concept of shared authority in community college governance. Interviewing…

  17. Closing the School Discipline Gap in California: Signs of Progress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Losen, Daniel J.; Keith, Michael A., II; Hodson, Cheri L.; Martinez, Tia E.; Belway, Shakti

    2015-01-01

    This report describes the most current state and district suspension rates, and covers both trends and racial disparities in the use of suspension in California. A spreadsheet accompanying this report enables any reader to find their own district's most recent disaggregated data, as well as three-year trends for out-of-school suspensions, all of…

  18. AFSC/NMML/CCEP: Food Habits of Pinnipeds at San Miguel Island, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Marine Mammal Laboratories' California Current Ecosystem Program (AFSC/NOAA) collects fecal samples to examine the diet of pinnipeds, including...

  19. AFSC/NMML/CCEP: Northern fur seal demography at San Miguel Island, California, 1974 - 2014

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Marine Mammal Laboratories' California Current Ecosystem Program (AFSC/NOAA) initiated a long-term marking program of northern fur seals (Callorhinus...

  20. Talent Cultivation Project Onthe Move

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    In the golden autumn of 2002, a ceremony was held in Lhasa for the Tibet Development Fund to donate to the Talent Cultivation Project. Nineteen Tibetan students currently studying in the hinterland and Tibetan universities and high schools, whose families live below the poverty line, formed the first group of recipients; 24 others belong to the second group to be aided. Radi (Chairman of the People’s Congress of the Tibet Autonomous Region), Lobsang Toinzhub (Vice-Chairman of the TAR government and advisor to the Tibet Development Fund), and Lhamin Soinam Lhunzhub (Vice-Chairman of the CPPCC Tibet Committee and council member of the Tibet Development Fund)

  1. PYRAMID ROADLESS AREA, CALIFORNIA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, Augustus K.; Scott, Douglas F.

    1984-01-01

    A geologic and mineral survey was conducted in the Pyramid Roadless Area, California. The area contains mineral showings, but no mineral-resource potential was identified during our studies. Three granodiorite samples on the west side of the roadless area contained weakly anomalous concentrations of uranium. Two samples of roof-pendant rocks, one metasedimentary rock and one metavolcanic rock, contain low concentrations of copper, and of copper and molybdenum, respectively. Although none was identified, the geologic terrane is permissive for mineral occurrences and large-scale, detailed geologic mapping of the areas of metasedimentary and metavolcanic roof pendants in the Pyramid Roadless Area could define a mineral-resource potential for tungsten and precious metals.

  2. Moving Object Detection Using Graph’s Axis Change Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gagandeep Kaur

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The detection and identify moving objects in a video sequence is very important concept. The currently available techniques for motion estimation can be broadly categorized into main classes: block matching methods and optical flow methods. But here detection of moving objects is detected by using Graph’s axis change method. Here we convert the image in to pixels and then calculate the values when the pixel change its position according to x axis and y axis. There is no problem of fixed and movable background. This paper investigates the different motion estimation algorithms used for video processing applications. Among the available motion estimation methods, the Lucas kanade Algorithm using changed axis’s method has been used in this paper for detection of moving objects in a video sequence. The algorithm produces the result of Horizontal and Vertical components velocity, u and v respectively. This velocity is measured in the form of vectors and has been used to segment the moving objects from the video sequence. The algorithm has been applied to different sets of synthetic and real video sequence.

  3. Do the elderly move at the right time?

    OpenAIRE

    Kulander, Maria

    2013-01-01

    For many years the policy in Sweden has been to help the elderly to stay in their current homes as long as possible. Is this a good policy for the elderly and is this a good policy from a welfare perspective? The study focused on two aspects of the moving pattern for the elderly. Are the household staying in their current home because it is optimal from the household’s point of view or because there is some kind of transaction cost? Is the optimal solution for the household also the best opti...

  4. Moving Matters: The Causal Effect of Moving Schools on Student Performance. Working Paper #01-15

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Amy Ellen; Stiefel, Leanna; Cordes, Sarah A.

    2015-01-01

    The majority of existing research on mobility indicates that students do worse in the year of a school move. This research, however, has been unsuccessful in isolating the causal effects of mobility and often fails to distinguish the heterogeneous impacts of moves, conflating structural moves (mandated by a school's terminal grade) and…

  5. 77 FR 16566 - Submission for OMB Review, Comment Request, Proposed Collection: Let's Move Museums, Let's Move...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-21

    ... Museums, Let's Move Gardens collection was published in the Federal Register on November 16, 2011 (FR vol... Move Museums, Let's Move Gardens AGENCY: Institute of Museum and Library Services, The National... Institute of Museum and Library Services announces that the following information collection has...

  6. From California dreaming to California data: Challenging historic models for landfill CH4 emissions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kurt Spokas

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Improved quantification of diverse CH4 sources at the urban scale is needed to guide local GHG mitigation strategies in the Anthropocene. Herein, we focus on landfill CH4 emissions in California, challenging the current IPCC methodology which focuses on a climate dependency for landfill CH4 generation (methanogenesis, but does not explicitly consider climate or soil dependencies for emissions. Relying on a comprehensive California landfill database, a field-validated process-based model for landfill CH4 emissions (CALMIM, and select field measurements at 10 California sites with a variety of methods, we support the contrary position: Limited climate dependency for methanogenesis, but strong climate dependency for landfill CH4 emissions. Contrary to the historic IPCC empirical model for methanogenesis with kinetic constants related to climate, we demonstrate a simpler and more robust linear empirical relationship (r2 = 0.85; n=128 between waste mass and landfill biogas recovery [126 × 10-6 Nm3 CH4 hr-1 Mgwaste-1]. More interestingly, there are no statistically significant relationships with climate, site age, or status (open/closed for landfill biogas recovery. The current IPCC methodology does not consider soil or climate drivers for gaseous transport or seasonal methanotrophy in different cover soils. On the other hand, we illustrate strong climate and soil dependencies for landfill emissions—e.g., average intermediate cover emissions below 20 g CH4 m-2 d-1 when the site’s mean annual precipitation is >500 mm y-1. Thereby, for the California landfill CH4 inventory, the highest-emitting sites shift from landfills containing the largest mass of waste to sites dominated by intermediate cover types having a reduced rate of soil CH4 oxidation during the annual cycle. These differences have profound implications for developing more realistic, science-based urban and regional scale GHG inventories for landfill CH4 while reducing

  7. DS796 California Groundwater Units

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The California Groundwater Units dataset classifies and delineates the State into one of three groundwater based polygon units: (1) those areas defined as alluvial...

  8. Contours--Offshore Aptos, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents data for the bathymetric contours for several seafloor maps of the Offshore of Aptos map area, California. The vector data file is...

  9. Flight tracks, Northern California TRACON

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This dataset contains the records of all the flights in the Northern California TRACON. The data was provided by the aircraft noise abatement office...

  10. Invertebrate diversity in southern California

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This shapefile displays mean invertebrate diversity within 5 minute grid cells. The Shannon Index of diversity was calculated from Southern California Coastal Water...

  11. Chukar Range - California [ds570

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — This layer was created from regional biologist input on paper maps. All paper maps were collected and sent to a single Research Analyst to digitize. Some liberties...

  12. Contours--Offshore Monterey, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents bathymetric contours for several seafloor maps of the Monterey Canyon and Vicinity map area, California. The raster data file is...

  13. Bathymetry--Offshore Bolinas, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents data for the bathymetry and shaded-relief maps of the Offshore of Bolinas, California (raster data file is included in...

  14. Bathymetry--Offshore Pacifica, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents data for the bathymetry and shaded-relief maps of Offshore Pacifica, California. The raster data file is included in...

  15. Habitat--Offshore Monterey, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents data for the habitat map of the seafloor of the Offshore of Monterey map area, California. The vector data file is included in...

  16. Deregulation and natural gas trade relationships: lessons from the Alberta-California experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1978 the US government moved to deregulate the American natural gas industry. The market changes that resulted from this initial step took time to ripple their way out to regional and subnational gas trading relationships. This ripple effect required subnational governments (state and provincial regulators) to rethink their gas regulatory policies. This article examines the restructuring of the Alberta-California gas trade. It explores how changes in US policy forced California and Alberta regulators to recast their policies. It concludes with several lessons that can be drawn from this case about the complex challenge of restructuring international gas trading relationships. (author)

  17. Performance Simulations of Moving Target Search Algorithms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter K. K. Loh

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The design of appropriate moving target search (MTS algorithms for computer-generated bots poses serious challenges as they have to satisfy stringent requirements that include computation and execution efficiency. In this paper, we investigate the performance and behaviour of existing moving target search algorithms when applied to search-and-capture gaming scenarios. As part of the investigation, we also introduce a novel algorithm known as abstraction MTS. We conduct performance simulations with a game bot and moving target within randomly generated mazes of increasing sizes and reveal that abstraction MTS exhibits competitive performance even with large problem spaces.

  18. Fixing the shadows while moving the gnomon

    OpenAIRE

    Gangui, Alejandro

    2016-01-01

    It is a common practice to fix a vertical gnomon and study the moving shadow cast by it. This shows our local solar time and gives us a hint regarding the season in which we perform the observation. The moving shadow can also tell us our latitude with high precision. In this paper we propose to exchange the roles and while keeping the shadows fixed on the ground we will move the gnomon. This lets us understand in a simple way the relevance of the tropical lines of latitude and the behavior of...

  19. The California cogeneration success story

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This chapter describes the involvement of Southern California Gas Company(SoCalGas) in the promotion and demonstration of the benefits of cogeneration in California. The topics covered in this chapter are market strategy, cogeneration program objectives, cogeneration program, incentive cofunding, special gas rate, special service priority, special gas pressure and main options, advertising, promotional brochures and handbooks, technical support, program accomplishments, cogeneration outlook, and reasons for success of the program

  20. California Gnatcatcher Observations - 2004-2009 [ds457

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — In southern California, the coastal California gnatcatcher (CAGN) has become both the flagship species and an umbrella species identified with conservation, where...

  1. Geospatial Analysis of Oil and Gas Wells in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riqueros, N. S.; Kang, M.; Jackson, R. B.

    2015-12-01

    California currently ranks third in oil production by U.S. state and more than 200,000 wells have been drilled in the state. Oil and gas wells provide a potential pathway for subsurface migration, leading to groundwater contamination and emissions of methane and other fluids to the atmosphere. Here we compile available public databases on oil and gas wells from the California Department of Conservation's Division of Oil, Gas, and Geothermal Resources, the U.S. Geological Survey, and other state and federal sources. We perform geospatial analysis at the county and field levels to characterize depths, producing formations, spud/completion/abandonment dates, land cover, population, and land ownership of active, idle, buried, abandoned, and plugged wells in California. The compiled database is designed to serve as a quantitative platform for developing field-based groundwater and air emission monitoring plans.

  2. The Economics of Bulk Water Transport in Southern California

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Hodges

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Municipalities often face increasing demand for limited water supplies with few available alternative sources. Under some circumstances, bulk water transport may offer a viable alternative. This case study documents a hypothetical transfer between a water utility district in northern California and urban communities located on the coast of central and southern California. We compare bulk water transport costs to those of constructing a new desalination facility, which is the current plan of many communities for increasing supplies. We find that using water bags to transport fresh water between northern and southern California is in some instances a low-cost alternative to desalination. The choice is constrained, however, by concerns about reliability and, thus, risk. Case-study results demonstrate the challenges of water supply augmentation in water-constrained regions.

  3. Why the Greenwich Meridian Moved

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seidelmann, P. Kenneth; Kaplan, George H.

    2016-05-01

    In 1884, the International Meridian Conference recommended that the prime meridian “to be employed as a common zero of longitude and standard of time-reckoning throughout the globe” pass through the “centre of the transit instrument at the Observatory of Greenwich”. Today, tourists visiting its meridian line must walk east approximately 102 meters before their satellite-navigation receivers indicate zero longitude. This offset is attributable to the difference between astronomical and geodetic coordinates. Specifically, the longitude shift can be accounted for by the deflection of the vertical in the east-west direction at Greenwich, along with an imposed condition of continuity in astronomical time. The coordinates of satellite-navigation receivers are provided in reference frames that are related to the geocentric reference frame introduced by the Bureau International de l'Heure (BIH) in 1984. This BIH Terrestrial System (BTS 84) provided the basis for orientation of all subsequent geocentric reference frames, including all realizations of the World Geodetic System 1984 (WGS 84) and the International Terrestrial Reference Frame (ITRF). Despite the lateral offset of the original and current zero-longitude lines at Greenwich, the orientation of the meridian plane used to measure Universal Time has remained essentially unchanged.

  4. Oligocene tectonics and sedimentation, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsen, T.H.

    1984-01-01

    During the Oligocene epoch, California was marked by extensive nonmarine sedimentation, in contrast to its pre-Oligocene and post-Oligocene depositional history. The Oligocene continental deposits are especially widespread in southern California and fill a number of small and generally partly restricted basins. Fluvial facies in many basins prograded over previously deposited lower Tertiary turbidites. Volcanism, from widespread centers, was associated with the nonmarine sedimentation. However, some basins remained marine and a few contain Oligocene turbidites and pelagic sediments deposited at bathyal depths. The Oligocene redbeds of California do not form a post-orogenic molasse sequence comparable to the Old Red Sandstone or Alpine molasse. They are synorogenic and record local uplift of basins and surrounding source areas. Late Cretaceous to contemporary orogenesis in California has been generally characterized by the formation of small restricted basins of variable depth adjacent to small upland areas in response to strike-slip faulting. Deposition of Oligocene redbeds was associated with climatic change from warm and humid to cold and semiarid, and a global lowering of sea level. Oligocene tectonism occurred during the transition from subduction of the Farallon Plate to initiation of the modern San Andreas transform system. However, the major influence that caused uplift, formation of fault-bounded basins, and extensive redbed deposition, especially in southern California, was the approach of the Pacific-Farallon spreading ridge to the western margin of California. ?? 1984.

  5. Mathematical Modelling of Turbidity Currents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fay, G. L.; Fowler, A.; Howell, P.

    2011-12-01

    A turbidity current is a submarine sediment flow which propagates downslope through the ocean into the deep sea. Turbidity currents can occur randomly and without much warning and consequently are hard to observe and measure. The driving force in a turbidity current is the presence of sediment in the current - gravity acts on the sediment in suspension, causing it to move downstream through the ocean water. A phenomenon known as ignition or autosuspension has been observed in turbidity currents in submarine canyons, and it occurs when a current travelling downslope gathers speed as it erodes sediment from the sea floor in a self-reinforcing cycle. Using the turbidity current model of Parker et al. (Journal of Fluid Mechanics, 1986) we investigate the evolution of a 1-D turbidity current as it moves downstream. To seek a better understanding of the dynamics of flow as the current evolves in space and time, we present analytical results alongside computed numerical solutions, incorporating entrainment of water and erosion and deposition of sediment. We consider varying slope functions and inlet conditions and attempt to predict when the current will become extinct. We examine currents which are in both supercritical and subcritical flow regimes and consider the dynamics of the flow as the current switches regime.

  6. Stereo Pair, Pasadena, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    This stereoscopic image pair is a perspective view that shows the western part of the city of Pasadena, California, looking north toward the San Gabriel Mountains. Portions of the cities of Altadena and La Canada Flintridge are also shown. The cluster of large buildings left of center, at the base of the mountains, is the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. This image shows the power of combining data from different sources to create planning tools to study problems that affect large urban areas. In addition to the well-known earthquake hazards, Southern California is affected by a natural cycle of fire and mudflows. Data shown in this image can be used to predict both how wildfires spread over the terrain and how mudflows are channeled down the canyons.The image was created from three datasets: the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) supplied the elevation, U. S. Geological Survey digital aerial photography provided the image detail, and the Landsat Thematic Mapper provided the color. The United States Geological Survey's Earth Resources Observations Systems (EROS) Data Center, Sioux Falls, South Dakota, provided the Landsat data and the aerial photography. The image can be viewed in 3-D by viewing the left image with the right eye and the right image with the left eye (cross-eyed viewing), or by downloading and printing the image pair, and viewing them with a stereoscope.The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), launched on February 11, 2000, used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. The mission was designed to collect three-dimensional measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter-long (200-foot) mast, an additional C-band imaging antenna and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA

  7. Being Moved: Linguistic Representation and Conceptual Structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milena eKuehnast

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This study explored the organisation of the semantic field and the conceptual structure of moving experiences by investigating German-language expressions referring to the emotional state of being moved. We used present and past participles of eight psychological verbs as primes in a free word-association task, as these grammatical forms place their conceptual focus on the eliciting situation and on the felt emotional state, respectively. By applying a taxonomy of basic knowledge types and computing the Cognitive Salience Index, we identified joy and sadness as key emotional ingredients of being moved, and significant life events and art experiences as main elicitors of this emotional state. Metric multidimensional scaling analyses of the semantic field revealed that the core terms designate a cluster of emotional states characterised by low degrees of arousal and slightly positive valence, the latter due to a nearly balanced representation of positive and negative elements in the conceptual structure of being moved.

  8. Moving objects management models, techniques and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Meng, Xiaofeng; Xu, Jiajie

    2014-01-01

    This book describes the topics of moving objects modeling and location tracking, indexing and querying, clustering, location uncertainty, traffic aware navigation and privacy issues as well as the application to intelligent transportation systems.

  9. Sad Music Moves Those Who Are Empathetic

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_160987.html Sad Music Moves Those Who Are Empathetic They become engrossed ... 15, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Many people find sad music relaxing but to those who are very empathetic, ...

  10. Fusion Framework for Moving-Object Classification

    OpenAIRE

    Chavez-Garcia, Ricardo Omar; Vu, Trung-Dung; Aycard, Olivier; Tango, Fabio

    2013-01-01

    International audience Perceiving the environment is a fundamental task for Advance Driver Assistant Systems. While simultaneous localization and mapping represents the static part of the environment, detection and tracking of moving objects aims at identifying the dynamic part. Knowing the class of the moving objects surrounding the vehicle is a very useful information to correctly reason, decide and act according to each class of object, e.g. car, truck, pedestrian, bike, etc. Active and...

  11. Schlumberger soundings near Medicine Lake, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zohdy, A.A.R.; Bisdorf, R.J.

    1990-01-01

    The use of direct current resistivity soundings to explore the geothermal potential of the Medicine Lake area in northern California proved to be challenging because of high contact resistances and winding roads. Deep Schlumberger soundings were made by expanding current electrode spacings along the winding roads. Corrected sounding data were interpreted using an automatic interpretation method. Forty-two maps of interpreted resistivity were calculated for depths extending from 20 to 1000 m. Computer animation of these 42 maps revealed that: 1) certain subtle anomalies migrate laterallly with depth and can be traced to their origin, 2) an extensive volume of low-resistivity material underlies the survey area, and 3) the three areas (east of Bullseye Lake, southwest of Glass Mountain, and northwest of Medicine Lake) may be favorable geothermal targets. Six interpreted resistivity maps and three cross-sections illustrate the above findings. -from Authors

  12. Current Trends in Language Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Revue des Langues Vivantes, 1975

    1975-01-01

    Examines the effects of Chomsky's theories of linguistics and language acquisition on language teaching methodology, specifically on the use of the audio-lingual method. Current trends in methodology move in two basic directions: 1) towards relaxation of the tighter restrictions of the audio-lingual method, and 2) towards development of techniques…

  13. The Current in a Wire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Keith

    2009-01-01

    This little problem arose because I was frustrated with the standard electromagnetism texts, which show the magnetic field due to a current-bearing wire outside the wire [proportional to] 1/r and inside [proportional to] r. However, they never point out that the moving electrons must be influenced by the magnetic field created by the other moving…

  14. Detection of moving objects from a moving platform in urban scenes

    OpenAIRE

    Haar, F.B. ter; Hollander, R.J.M. den; van Dijk, J.

    2010-01-01

    Moving object detection in urban scenes is important for the guidance of autonomous vehicles, robot navigation, and monitoring. In this paper moving objects are automatically detected using three sequential frames and tracked over a longer period. To this extend we modify the plane+parallax, fundamental matrix, and trifocal tensor algorithms to operate on three sequential frames automatically, and test their ability to detect moving objects in challenging urban scenes. Frame-to-frame correspo...

  15. Home range, habitat selection, and movements of California black rails at tidal marshes at San Francisco Bay, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsao, Danika C.; Takekawa, John Y.; Woo, Isa; Yee, Julie L.; Evens, Jules G.

    2009-01-01

    Little is known about the movements and habitat selection of California Black Rails (Laterallus jamaicensis coturniculus) in coastal California. We captured 130 Black Rails, of which we radio-marked 48, in tidal marshes in San Francisco Bay during 2005 and 2006. Our objective was to examine their home ranges, movements, and habitat selection to improve the species' conservation. The mean fixed-kernel home range was 0.59 ha, the mean core area was 0.14 ha. Home ranges and core areas did not differ by year or site. Males had significantly larger home ranges and core areas than did females. All sites combined, Black Rails used areas with > or = 94% total vegetative cover, with perennial pickleweed (Sarcocornia pacifica) the dominant plant. The rails' habitat selection varied by year and site but not by sex. A multivariate analysis of variance indicated that Black Rails selected areas with pickleweed taller and denser than average, greater cover and height of alkali bulrush (Bolboschoenus maritimus) and common saltgrass (Distichlis spicata), more stems between 20 and 30 cm above the ground, maximum vegetation height, and shorter distance to refugia. On average, Black Rails moved 27.6 +/- 1.8 (SE) m daily and 38.4 +/- 5.5 m during extreme high tides. Understanding the California Black Rail's movements, home range, and habitat use is critical for management to benefit the species.

  16. Seagrass distribution off California

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These data are a compilation of currently available seagrass GIS data sets for the west coast of the United States. These data have been compiled from seventeen...

  17. California State Waters Map Series: offshore of Refugio Beach, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Samuel Y.; Dartnell, Peter; Cochrane, Guy R.; Golden, Nadine E.; Phillips, Eleyne L.; Ritchie, Andrew C.; Krigsman, Lisa M.; Dieter, Bryan E.; Conrad, James E.; Greene, H. Gary; Seitz, Gordon G.; Endris, Charles A.; Sliter, Ray W.; Wong, Florence L.; Erdey, Mercedes D.; Gutierrez, Carlos I.; Yoklavich, Mary M.; East, Amy E.; Hart, Patrick E.; Johnson, Samuel Y.; Cochran, Susan A.

    2015-01-01

    In 2007, the California Ocean Protection Council initiated the California Seafloor Mapping Program (CSMP), designed to create a comprehensive seafloor map of high-resolution bathymetry, marine benthic habitats, and geology within California’s State Waters. The CSMP approach is to create highly detailed seafloor maps through collection, integration, interpretation, and visualization of swath sonar data, acoustic backscatter, seafloor video, seafloor photography, high-resolution seismic-reflection profiles, and bottom-sediment sampling data. The map products display seafloor morphology and character, identify potential marine benthic habitats, and illustrate both the surficial seafloor geology and shallow (to about 100 m) subsurface geology.

  18. California State Waters Map Series: offshore of Salt Point, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Samuel Y.; Dartnell, Peter; Golden, Nadine E.; Hartwell, Stephen R.; Erdey, Mercedes D.; Greene, H. Gary; Cochrane, Guy R.; Kvitek, Rikk G.; Manson, Michael W.; Endris, Charles A.; Dieter, Bryan E.; Watt, Janet T.; Krigsman, Lisa M.; Sliter, Ray W.; Lowe, Erik N.; Chinn, John L.; Johnson, Samuel Y.; Cochran, Susan A.

    2015-01-01

    In 2007, the California Ocean Protection Council initiated the California Seafloor Mapping Program (CSMP), designed to create a comprehensive seafloor map of high-resolution bathymetry, marine benthic habitats, and geology within the 3-nautical-mile limit of California’s State Waters. The CSMP approach is to create highly detailed seafloor maps through collection, integration, interpretation, and visualization of swath sonar data, acoustic backscatter, seafloor video, seafloor photography, high-resolution seismic-reflection profiles, and bottom-sediment sampling data. The map products display seafloor morphology and character, identify potential marine benthic habitats, and illustrate both the surficial seafloor geology and shallow (to about 100 m) subsurface geology.

  19. California State Waters Map Series: offshore of Tomales Point, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Samuel Y.; Dartnell, Peter; Golden, Nadine E.; Hartwell, Stephen R.; Greene, H. Gary; Erdey, Mercedes D.; Cochrane, Guy R.; Watt, Janet Tilden; Kvitek, Rikk G.; Manson, Michael W.; Endris, Charles A.; Dieter, Bryan E.; Krigsman, Lisa M.; Sliter, Ray W.; Lowe, Erik N.; Chinn, John L.; Johnson, Samuel Y.; Cochran, Susan A.

    2015-01-01

    In 2007, the California Ocean Protection Council initiated the California Seafloor Mapping Program (CSMP), designed to create a comprehensive seafloor map of high-resolution bathymetry, marine benthic habitats, and geology within the 3-nautical-mile limit of California’s State Waters. The CSMP approach is to create highly detailed seafloor maps through collection, integration, interpretation, and visualization of swath sonar data, acoustic backscatter, seafloor video, seafloor photography, high-resolution seismic-reflection profiles, and bottom-sediment sampling data. The map products display seafloor morphology and character, identify potential marine benthic habitats, and illustrate both the surficial seafloor geology and shallow (to about 200 m) subsurface geology.

  20. California State Waters Map Series: offshore of Pacifica, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Brian D.; Phillips, Eleyne L.; Dartnell, Peter; Greene, H. Gary; Bretz, Carrie K.; Kvitek, Rikk G.; Hartwell, Stephen R.; Johnson, Samuel Y.; Cochrane, Guy R.; Dieter, Bryan E.; Sliter, Ray W.; Ross, Stephanie L.; Golden, Nadine E.; Watt, Janet Tilden; Chinn, John L.; Erdey, Mercedes D.; Krigsman, Lisa M.; Manson, Michael W.; Endris, Charles A.; Cochran, Susan A.; Edwards, Brian D.

    2015-01-01

    In 2007, the California Ocean Protection Council initiated the California Seafloor Mapping Program (CSMP), designed to create a comprehensive seafloor map of high-resolution bathymetry, marine benthic habitats, and geology within the 3-nautical-mile limit of California’s State Waters. The CSMP approach is to create highly detailed seafloor maps through collection, integration, interpretation, and visualization of swath sonar data, acoustic backscatter, seafloor video, seafloor photography, high-resolution seismic-reflection profiles, and bottom-sediment sampling data. The map products display seafloor morphology and character, identify potential marine benthic habitats, and illustrate both the surficial seafloor geology and shallow (to about 100 m) subsurface geology. 

  1. California State Waters Map Series: Drakes Bay and vicinity, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watt, Janet T.; Dartnell, Peter; Golden, Nadine E.; Greene, H. Gary; Erdey, Mercedes D.; Cochrane, Guy R.; Johnson, Samuel Y.; Hartwell, Stephen R.; Kvitek, Rikk G.; Manson, Michael W.; Endris, Charles A.; Dieter, Bryan E.; Sliter, Ray W.; Krigsman, Lisa M.; Lowe, Erik N.; Chinn, John L.; Watt, Janet T.; Cochran, Susan A.

    2015-01-01

    In 2007, the California Ocean Protection Council initiated the California Seafloor Mapping Program (CSMP), designed to create a comprehensive seafloor map of high-resolution bathymetry, marine benthic habitats, and geology within the 3-nautical-mile limit of California’s State Waters. The CSMP approach is to create highly detailed seafloor maps through collection, integration, interpretation, and visualization of swath sonar data, acoustic backscatter, seafloor video, seafloor photography, high-resolution seismic-reflection profiles, and bottom-sediment sampling data. The map products display seafloor morphology and character, identify potential marine benthic habitats, and illustrate both the surficial seafloor geology and shallow (to about 100 m) subsurface geology.

  2. California State Waters Map Series: offshore of San Francisco, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cochrane, Guy R.; Johnson, Samuel Y.; Dartnell, Peter; Greene, H. Gary; Erdey, Mercedes D.; Golden, Nadine E.; Hartwell, Stephen R.; Endris, Charles A.; Manson, Michael W.; Sliter, Ray W.; Kvitek, Rikk G.; Watt, Janet Tilden; Ross, Stephanie L.; Bruns, Terry R.; Cochrane, Guy R.; Cochran, Susan A.

    2015-01-01

    In 2007, the California Ocean Protection Council initiated the California Seafloor Mapping Program (CSMP), designed to create a comprehensive seafloor map of high-resolution bathymetry, marine benthic habitats, and geology within California’s State Waters. The CSMP approach is to create highly detailed seafloor maps through collection, integration, interpretation, and visualization of swath sonar data, acoustic backscatter, seafloor video, seafloor photography, high-resolution seismic-reflection profiles, and bottom-sediment sampling data. The map products display seafloor morphology and character, identify potential marine benthic habitats, and illustrate both the surficial seafloor geology and shallow (to about 100 m) subsurface geology.

  3. Spin current

    CERN Document Server

    Valenzuela, Sergio O; Saitoh, Eiji; Kimura, Takashi

    2012-01-01

    In a new branch of physics and technology called spin-electronics or spintronics, the flow of electrical charge (usual current) as well as the flow of electron spin, the so-called 'spin current', are manipulated and controlled together. This book provides an introduction and guide to the new physics and application of spin current.

  4. Camouflage, detection and identification of moving targets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Joanna R; Cuthill, Innes C; Baddeley, Roland; Shohet, Adam J; Scott-Samuel, Nicholas E

    2013-05-01

    Nearly all research on camouflage has investigated its effectiveness for concealing stationary objects. However, animals have to move, and patterns that only work when the subject is static will heavily constrain behaviour. We investigated the effects of different camouflages on the three stages of predation-detection, identification and capture-in a computer-based task with humans. An initial experiment tested seven camouflage strategies on static stimuli. In line with previous literature, background-matching and disruptive patterns were found to be most successful. Experiment 2 showed that if stimuli move, an isolated moving object on a stationary background cannot avoid detection or capture regardless of the type of camouflage. Experiment 3 used an identification task and showed that while camouflage is unable to slow detection or capture, camouflaged targets are harder to identify than uncamouflaged targets when similar background objects are present. The specific details of the camouflage patterns have little impact on this effect. If one has to move, camouflage cannot impede detection; but if one is surrounded by similar targets (e.g. other animals in a herd, or moving background distractors), then camouflage can slow identification. Despite previous assumptions, motion does not entirely 'break' camouflage. PMID:23486439

  5. Maxwell Equations for Slow-Moving Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozov, Andrey

    2015-12-01

    In the present work, the Minkowski equations obtained on the basis of theory of relativity are used to describe electromagnetic fields in moving media. But important electromagnetic processes run under non-relativistic conditions of slow-moving media. Therefore, one should carry out its description in terms of classical mechanics. Hertz derived electrodynamic equations for moving media within the frame of classical mechanics on the basis of the Maxwell theory. His equations disagree with the experimental data concerned with the moving dielectrics. In the paper, a way of description of electromagnetic fields in slow-moving media on the basis of the Maxwell theory within the frame of classical mechanics is offered by combining the Hertz approach and the experimental data concerned with the movement of dielectrics in electromagnetic fields. Received Maxwell equations lack asymmetry in the description of the reciprocal electrodynamic action of a magnet and a conductor and conform to known experimental data. Comparative analysis of the Minkowski and Maxwell models is carried out.

  6. California cooperative oceanic fisheries investigations. Reports volume 37, January 1--December 31, 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olfe, J. [ed.

    1996-10-01

    Scientists from the California Department of Fish and Game (CDFG), the Southwest Fisheries Science Center of the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), and the Scripps Institution of Oceanography, University of California, San Diego (UCSD), have collaborated for 46 years in the longest-running large-scale study ever undertaken in the ocean. This study was begun in order to understand the causes of changes in population, over time, of commercially important fishes in California`s coastal waters. When the study began, the Pacific sardine was by far the most significant species of economic concern to the State of California. Because its population changes were thought to be caused by a diversity of atmospheric, oceanic, and biological variables, a wide array of measurements in the California Current region were begun and have been continued to this day. This long time series of data allows not only a better understanding of the flux of fish populations, but also lays the foundation for understanding interdecadal and secular change in the seas. This document contains papers from symposium of the 1995 CalCOFI Conference related to interdecadal changes in the ecology of the California current.

  7. Economic and policy implications of public support for ethanol production in California's San Joaquin Valley

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The US Environmental Protection Agency requires that only oxygenated gasoline may be sold in regions that are not in compliance with national air quality standards. Several non-attainment regions are located in California, and most of the gasoline sold there is oxygenated with methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE). California is planning to discontinue the use of MTBE in gasoline by January 2004. This policy will generate greater demand for ethanol, which is the leading substitute for MTBE. Most of the ethanol required in California will be imported from other states, unless California develops an ethanol production industry. The costs of producing ethanol in California may exceed the benefits, unless substantial value is attributed to non-market, public goods, such as maintaining agriculture and reducing unemployment in rural areas. We examine the firm-level economics of using corn and other agricultural products to produce ethanol in California, and the potential regional economic impacts of building and operating an ethanol plant. The cost of production is greater than the current price of ethanol for all of the feedstocks we consider. Production generates economic activity, but at current prices for inputs and outputs, substantial subsidies will be required to encourage firms to produce ethanol in California

  8. Learning random networks for compression of still and moving images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelenbe, Erol; Sungur, Mert; Cramer, Christopher

    1994-01-01

    Image compression for both still and moving images is an extremely important area of investigation, with numerous applications to videoconferencing, interactive education, home entertainment, and potential applications to earth observations, medical imaging, digital libraries, and many other areas. We describe work on a neural network methodology to compress/decompress still and moving images. We use the 'point-process' type neural network model which is closer to biophysical reality than standard models, and yet is mathematically much more tractable. We currently achieve compression ratios of the order of 120:1 for moving grey-level images, based on a combination of motion detection and compression. The observed signal-to-noise ratio varies from values above 25 to more than 35. The method is computationally fast so that compression and decompression can be carried out in real-time. It uses the adaptive capabilities of a set of neural networks so as to select varying compression ratios in real-time as a function of quality achieved. It also uses a motion detector which will avoid retransmitting portions of the image which have varied little from the previous frame. Further improvements can be achieved by using on-line learning during compression, and by appropriate compensation of nonlinearities in the compression/decompression scheme. We expect to go well beyond the 250:1 compression level for color images with good quality levels.

  9. Moving granular-bed filter development program. Topical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Newby, R.A.; Yang, W.C.; Smeltzer, E.E.; Lippert, T.E.

    1994-04-01

    Advanced, coal-based, power plants, such as IGCC and Advanced-PFBC, are currently nearing commercial demonstration. These power plant technologies require hot gas filtration as part of their gas cleaning trains. Ceramic barrier filters are the major filter candidates being developed for these hot gas cleaning applications. While ceramic barrier filters achieve high levels of particle removal, concerns exist for their reliability and operability in these applications. An alternative hot gas filtration technology is the moving granular bed filter. An advanced, moving granular bed filter has been conceived, and early development activities performed by the Westinghouse Electric Corporation, Science and Technology Center. This document reports on the Base Contract tasks performed to resolve the barrier technical issues for this technology. The concept, the Standleg Moving Granular Bed Filter (SMGBF) has a concurrent downward, gas and bed media flow configuration that results in simplified features and improved scaleup feasibility compared to alternative designs. Two modes of bed media operation were assessed in the program: once-through using pelletized power plant waste as bed media, and recycle of bed media via standleg and pneumatic transport techniques. Cold Model testing; high-temperature, high-pressure testing; and pelletization testing using advanced power plant wastes, have been conducted in the program. A commercial, economic assessment of the SMGBF technology was performed for IGCC and Advanced-PFBC applications. The evaluation shows that the barrier technical issues can be resolved, and that the technology is potentially competitive with ceramic barrier filters.

  10. Teale Urband and rural areas of California

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — California Spatial Information System (CaSIL) is a project designed to improve access to geo-spatial and geo-spatial related data information throughout the state...

  11. Licensing and Certification District Offices, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This data contains a list of California Licensing and Certification District Offices. The California Department of Public Health, Center for Health Care Quality,...

  12. California Least Tern Breeding Survey 1996 Season

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — In 1996, 3330-3392 pairs of the endangered California least tern (Sterna antillarum browni) nested at 35 sites along the coast of California. This 29% increase in...

  13. California Least Tern Breeding Survey 1994 Season

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — In 1994, a minimum of approximately 2,792 pairs of the endangered California least tern (Sterna antillarum browni) nested at 36 sites along the coast of California....

  14. California Geological Survey Geologic Map Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — All the individual maps from the Geologic Atlas of California and the Regional Geologic map series have been georeferenced for display in a GIS (and viewable online...

  15. Teale California Office of Emergency Services

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — California Spatial Information System (CaSIL) is a project designed to improve access to geo-spatial and geo-spatial related data information throughout the state...

  16. California Least Tern Breeding Survey 1992 Season

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — In 1992, approximately 2,106 pairs of the endangered California Least Tern (Sterna antillarum browni) nested at 38 sites along the coast of California, from the San...

  17. 78 FR 77447 - California Wind Energy Association, First Solar, Inc. v. California Independent System Operator...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-23

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission California Wind Energy Association, First Solar, Inc. v. California Independent System Operator Corporation, Southern California Edison Company; Notice of Complaint Take notice... Practice and Procedure, 18 CFR 385.206 (2013), California Wind Energy Association and First Solar,...

  18. A ground moving target emergency tracking method for catastrophe rescue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, X.; Li, D.; Li, G.

    2014-11-01

    ground moving target through the communication number of the handheld devices. The handheld devices receive and identify the activation short message, and send the current location information to the server. Therefore, the emergency tracking mode is triggered. The real time location of the filtered target can be shown on the organizer's screen, and the organizer can assign the rescue tasks to the rescuer teams and volunteers based on their real time location. The ground moving target emergency tracking prototype system is implemented using Oracle 11g, Visual Studio 2010 C#, Android, SMS Modem, and Google Maps API.

  19. Southern California Adjoint Source Inversions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tromp, J.; Kim, Y.

    2007-12-01

    Southern California Centroid-Moment Tensor (CMT) solutions with 9 components (6 moment tensor elements, latitude, longitude, and depth) are sought to minimize a misfit function computed from waveform differences. The gradient of a misfit function is obtained based upon two numerical simulations for each earthquake: one forward calculation for the southern California model, and an adjoint calculation that uses time-reversed signals at the receivers. Conjugate gradient and square-root variable metric methods are used to iteratively improve the earthquake source model while reducing the misfit function. The square-root variable metric algorithm has the advantage of providing a direct approximation to the posterior covariance operator. We test the inversion procedure by perturbing each component of the CMT solution, and see how the algorithm converges. Finally, we demonstrate full inversion capabilities using data for real Southern California earthquakes.

  20. Design of Flywheel with a Moving Hole

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jihad S. Addasi

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available A special apparatus has been designed to study linear, circular, and rotational motions. This apparatus consists of a flywheel, rotating in horizontal plane by the mean of a hanging mass. This flywheel carries a hole, which can be moved on a radial rail. This hole can be fixed at desired distance from the flywheel axis. Putting a metallic sphere on this hole gives centripetal motion with certain radius to this sphere. The moving hole acts by normal force on the metallic sphere and moves it in circular path. The increasing angular velocity of the metallic sphere has its maximum value when the sphere leaves the hole. Theoretical and experimental analysis for this apparatus shows that the centripetal acceleration depends only on the geometry of both sphere and hole. The designed apparatus has a very simple design and does not have any undesired forces.

  1. Representation, indexing, and retrieval of moving objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Huanzhuo; Gong, Jianya; Li, Deren; Pan, Jianping; Chen, Yumin

    2003-12-01

    Moving objects are complicated to manage because they involve temporal attributes as well as spatial attributes. There are two methods to represent the motion of moving objects, function method and sampling method. Motion state modeling, based on sampling method, can give object's position, orientation and their changes at a specific epoch, and encapsulates all the calculation by object orientation method. A big job is to search the motion state vectors efficiently, which can be performed with the help of 2n index trees. 2n index tree is an efficient index method to multi-dimensional data. Different kinds of motion data retrieval can be transformed to basic searching in 2n index trees. With proper operation algorithm, 2n index trees work well with the indexing and retrieval of moving objects.

  2. Fixing the shadows while moving the gnomon

    CERN Document Server

    Gangui, Alejandro

    2016-01-01

    It is a common practice to fix a vertical gnomon and study the moving shadow cast by it. This shows our local solar time and gives us a hint regarding the season in which we perform the observation. The moving shadow can also tell us our latitude with high precision. In this paper we propose to exchange the roles and while keeping the shadows fixed on the ground we will move the gnomon. This lets us understand in a simple way the relevance of the tropical lines of latitude and the behavior of shadows in different locations. We then put these ideas into practice using sticks and threads during a solstice on two sites located on opposite sides of the Tropic of Capricorn.

  3. Immigrants’ moves into homeownership in Copenhagen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Hans Skifter

    in social housing and in multi-ethnic neighbourhoods reduces the probability of moving into homeownership. But there are still some unexplained reasons for lower homeownership rate among immigrants. A probable hypothesis is that immigrants are more uncertain about their future employment and income......In the paper is examined the reasons for when and why immigrants in Greater Copenhagen move into homeownership after their 25th year based on data from the years 1990 to 2008 compared to residents with a Danish background. As for natives homeownership to a large extent is dependent on income......, employment and family situation, and actual changes, but the importance of these factors differ from Danes. Different immigrant groups have a somewhat lower propensity to move into homeownership than Danes, which only to some extent can be explained by differences in income, education and employment. Living...

  4. California Tribal Nations Technical Water Research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ben, C; Coty, J

    2005-08-15

    This research focused on identifying the key technical water issues of federally recognized California Native American tribes, the context within which these water issues arise for the tribes, and an appropriate format for potentially opening further dialogue on water research issues between the tribes and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) scientists. At LLNL, a Water Quality and Resource Management Issues Workshop held in January of 2003 resulted in multiple recommendations, one proposing a LLNL dialogue with California tribes to further inform LLNL's prioritization of water issues based on identified needs across national sectors. The focus of this aforementioned Water Quality and Resource Management Issues Workshop was to identify national and international priority water research issues with which LLNL may align their research efforts and contribute to resolving these needs. LLNL staff researched various sectors to delineate the key water issues associated with each. This preliminary water issue research included diverse entities such as international water agencies, federal and state agencies, industry, non-governmental agencies, and private organizations. The key (identified) water issues across these sectors were presented to workshop attendees and used during workshop debates and sessions. However, the key water issues of federally recognized Native American tribes remained less understood, resulting in a workshop proposal for additional research and LLNL potentially hosting a dialog with representatives of these tribes. Federally recognized Native American tribes have a unique government-to-government relationship with the United States (U.S.) government, in contrast to other sectors researched for the workshop. Within the U.S., the number of federally recognized tribes currently stands at 562 and, in addition to this large number of tribes, much diversity across these tribes exists. For the purposes of this preliminary research and report

  5. California Hydrogen Infrastructure Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heydorn, Edward C

    2013-03-12

    Air Products and Chemicals, Inc. has completed a comprehensive, multiyear project to demonstrate a hydrogen infrastructure in California. The specific primary objective of the project was to demonstrate a model of a real-world retail hydrogen infrastructure and acquire sufficient data within the project to assess the feasibility of achieving the nation's hydrogen infrastructure goals. The project helped to advance hydrogen station technology, including the vehicle-to-station fueling interface, through consumer experiences and feedback. By encompassing a variety of fuel cell vehicles, customer profiles and fueling experiences, this project was able to obtain a complete portrait of real market needs. The project also opened its stations to other qualified vehicle providers at the appropriate time to promote widespread use and gain even broader public understanding of a hydrogen infrastructure. The project engaged major energy companies to provide a fueling experience similar to traditional gasoline station sites to foster public acceptance of hydrogen. Work over the course of the project was focused in multiple areas. With respect to the equipment needed, technical design specifications (including both safety and operational considerations) were written, reviewed, and finalized. After finalizing individual equipment designs, complete station designs were started including process flow diagrams and systems safety reviews. Material quotes were obtained, and in some cases, depending on the project status and the lead time, equipment was placed on order and fabrication began. Consideration was given for expected vehicle usage and station capacity, standard features needed, and the ability to upgrade the station at a later date. In parallel with work on the equipment, discussions were started with various vehicle manufacturers to identify vehicle demand (short- and long-term needs). Discussions included identifying potential areas most suited for hydrogen fueling

  6. Energy geopolitics moves toward the Great North

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Because of the developing political chaos in the Middle-East and of the political problems of Russia (Tchetchenia, North-Ossetia, and more recently in its relations with Ukraine), the geopolitics of petroleum is moving towards the North: Baltic, Barents and Bering seas. This trend will concern in particular the Siberian gas, the Norwegian gas and the petroleum from Alaska. The conclusion of the author is that this northward move is favourable to the interests of the United States which will remain the 'masters of the energy geopolitical game'. (J.S.)

  7. DIFFUSION BACKGROUND MODEL FOR MOVING OBJECTS DETECTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. V. Vishnyakov

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we propose a new approach for moving objects detection in video surveillance systems. It is based on construction of the regression diffusion maps for the image sequence. This approach is completely different from the state of the art approaches. We show that the motion analysis method, based on diffusion maps, allows objects that move with different speed or even stop for a short while to be uniformly detected. We show that proposed model is comparable to the most popular modern background models. We also show several ways of speeding up diffusion maps algorithm itself.

  8. Querying moving objects detected by sensor networks

    CERN Document Server

    Bestehorn, Markus

    2012-01-01

    Declarative query interfaces to Sensor Networks (SN) have become a commodity. These interfaces allow access to SN deployed for collecting data using relational queries. However, SN are not confined to data collection, but may track object movement, e.g., wildlife observation or traffic monitoring. While rational approaches are well suited for data collection, research on ""Moving Object Databases"" (MOD) has shown that relational operators are unsuitable to express information needs on object movement, i.e., spatio-temporal queries. ""Querying Moving Objects Detected by Sensor Networks"" studi

  9. Spoke formation under moving plasma clouds

    CERN Document Server

    Farmer, A J; Farmer, Alison J.; Goldreich, Peter

    2005-01-01

    Goertz and Morfill (1983) propose that spokes on Saturn's rings form under radially moving plasma clouds produced by meteoroid impacts. We demonstrate that the speed at which a plasma cloud can move relative to the ring material is bounded from above by the difference between the Keplerian and corotation velocities. The radial orientation of new spokes requires radial speeds that are at least an order of magnitude larger than this upper limit, thus the model advanced by Goertz and Morfill fails to make radial spokes.

  10. ELECTROMAGNETIC APPARATUS FOR MOVING A ROD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, J.N.

    1958-04-22

    An electromagnetic apparatus for moving a rod-like member in small steps in either direction is described. The invention has particular application in the reactor field where the reactor control rods must be moved only a small distance and where the use of mechanical couplings is impractical due to the high- pressure seals required. A neutron-absorbing rod is mounted in a housing with gripping uaits that engage the rod, and coils for magnetizing the gripping units to make them grip, shift, and release the rod are located outside the housing.

  11. On the atmosphere of a moving body

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Johan Rønby; Aref, Hassan

    2010-01-01

    We explore whether a rigid body moving freely with no circulation around it in a two-dimensional ideal fluid can carry a fluid "atmosphere" with it in its motion. Somewhat surprisingly, the answer appears to be "yes." When the body is elongated and the motion is dominated by rotation, we...... demonstrate numerically that, indeed, regions of fluid follow the body in its motion. We see this as an example of the stability of Kolmogorov-Arnold-Moser tori. These observations of an atmosphere around a moving body with no circulation around it appear to be new. (C) 2010 American Institute of Physics...

  12. On the atmosphere of a moving body

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Johan Rønby; Aref, Hassan

    2010-01-01

    We have explored whether a rigid body moving freely with no circulation around it in a two-dimensional ideal fluid can carry a fluid ``atmosphere'' with it in its motion. Somewhat surprisingly, the answer appears to be ``yes''. When the body is elongated and the motion is dominated by rotation, we...... demonstrate numerically that, indeed, regions of fluid follow the body in its motion. Since there is a double-island structure for the case of pure rotation, as already found by Morton and Darwin many years ago, we see the existence of an atmosphere for the moving body as an example of the stability...

  13. Higher Education in California: Student Costs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Jacob

    2014-01-01

    Increases in tuition across California's public four-year universities have heightened concerns about the affordability of a college education, especially for those with the lowest incomes. In-state full tuition at the University of California (UC) and California State University (CSU) has risen more dramatically than at other public universities…

  14. Fees at California's Public Colleges and Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, Ryan

    2009-01-01

    Fees at California's public colleges and universities have increased in the past two decades, but are still lower than fees at comparable institutions in other states. Fees for full-time undergraduate students at the University of California were $8,027 in 2008-09 and fees at California State University were $3,849. Fees are likely to rise for the…

  15. On Two California Penutian Roots for "Two"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverstein, Michael

    1975-01-01

    This article proposes a California Penutian etymology for two distinct roots meaning "two," and shows some of the transformations of morphological material which have characterized innovations in language subgroups related to California Penutian. This provides important evidence for the history of California Penutian. (CLK)

  16. Aqui y Alla en California. (Here and There in California).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galarza, Ernesto

    One in the series "Coleccion Mini-Libros" (Mini-Book Collection) written in Spanish as an enrichment tool for the Spanish speaker, the booklet is a compilation of photographs accompanied by brief descriptions of various points of beauty and interest throughout the State of California. Among the points of interest described are La Sierra Nevada,…

  17. California`s schedule coordinator : market maker with advantage?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woychik, E.C. [Strategy Integration, Oakland, CA (United States)

    1998-07-01

    The new role for Schedule Coordinators (SCs) in California`s newly restructured electric power industry was discussed. The SC concept and its complex roles in the physical (as opposed to financial) markets for power was described. The role of the SC is to negotiate generator and load changes with its client participants. The SC can reflect any contracted-for arrangement in its next set of schedules to the ISO. The SC is free to negotiate any bilateral contract with or between client participants and can combine any or all contracts between market participants. California`s Power Exchange (PX) is also considered a SC, but compared to other SCs, it has restricted capabilities. The PX is a market maker that accepts day-ahead and hour-ahead energy bids (supply and demand) and loads. If market power abuse becomes evident, FERC can re-regulate the ISO and PX. The implications of this experiment for electricity reforms are enormous. In the past the concern was on concentration of generation ownership. In the future competitors may have to focus on concentration of generation control through SCs. The industry will have to be vigilant to ensure that the experiment leads to dynamic rivalry of companies and not to the pursuit and capture of monopoly powers.

  18. Move-by-move dynamics of the advantage in chess matches reveals population-level learning of the game

    CERN Document Server

    Ribeiro, H V; Lenzi, E K; del Castillo-Mussot, M; Amaral, L A N

    2012-01-01

    The complexity of chess matches has attracted broad interest since its invention. This complexity and the availability of large number of recorded matches make chess an ideal model systems for the study of population-level learning of a complex system. We systematically investigate the move-by-move dynamics of the white player's advantage from over seventy thousand high level chess matches spanning over 150 years. We find that the average advantage of the white player is positive and that it has been increasing over time. Currently, the average advantage of the white player is ~0.17 pawns but it is exponentially approaching a value of 0.23 pawns with a characteristic time scale of 67 years. We also study the diffusion of the move dependence of the white player's advantage and find that it is non-Gaussian, has long-ranged anti-correlations and that after an initial period with no diffusion it becomes super-diffusive. We find that the duration of the non-diffusive period, corresponding to the opening stage of a...

  19. Real-time Detection of Moving Objects from Moving Vehicles Using Dense Stereo and Optical Flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talukder, Ashit; Matthies, Larry

    2004-01-01

    Dynamic scene perception is very important for autonomous vehicles operating around other moving vehicles and humans. Most work on real-time object tracking from moving platforms has used sparse features or assumed flat scene structures. We have recently extended a real-time. dense stereo system to include realtime. dense optical flow, enabling more comprehensive dynamic scene analysis. We describe algorithms to robustly estimate 6-DOF robot egomotion in the presence of moving objects using dense flow and dense stereo. We then use dense stereo and egomotion estimates to identify other moving objects while the robot itself is moving. We present results showing accurate egomotion estimation and detection of moving people and vehicles under general 6DOF motion of the robot and independently moving objects. The system runs at 18.3 Hz on a 1.4 GHz Pentium M laptop. computing 160x120 disparity maps and optical flow fields, egomotion, and moving object segmentation. We believe this is a significant step toward general unconstrained dynamic scene analysis for mobile robots, as well as for improved position estimation where GPS is unavailable.

  20. Detection of moving objects from a moving platform in urban scenes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haar, F.B. ter; Hollander, R.J.M. den; Dijk, J.

    2010-01-01

    Moving object detection in urban scenes is important for the guidance of autonomous vehicles, robot navigation, and monitoring. In this paper moving objects are automatically detected using three sequential frames and tracked over a longer period. To this extend we modify the plane+parallax, fundame

  1. California State Waters Map Series: offshore of Half Moon Bay, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cochrane, Guy R.; Dartnell, Peter; Greene, H. Gary; Johnson, Samuel Y.; Golden, Nadine E.; Hartwell, Stephen R.; Dieter, Bryan E.; Manson, Michael W.; Sliter, Ray W.; Ross, Stephanie L.; Watt, Janet T.; Endris, Charles A.; Kvitek, Rikk G.; Phillips, Eleyne L.; Erdey, Mercedes D.; Chin, John L.; Bretz, Carrie K.

    2014-01-01

    compression related to right-lateral strike-slip movement along the San Gregorio Fault Zone. The lowest elevation coincides with the deepest part of Half Moon Bay; the terrace surface rises both to the north and to the south. Uplift in this map area has resulted in relatively shallow water depths within California’s State Waters and, thus, little accommodation space for sediment accumulation. Sediment is observed in the shelter of Half Moon Bay and on the outer half of the California’s State Waters shelf. Sediment in the area is mobile, often forming dunes and sand waves. A westward bend in the San Andreas Fault Zone, southeast of the map area, coupled with right-lateral movement along the Seal Cove Fault, which comes ashore in Pillar Point Harbor, has resulted in the folding and uplifting of sedimentary rocks of the Purisima Formation in the offshore. Differential erosion of these folded and faulted layers of the Purisima Formation has exposed the parallel curved-rock ridges that are visible on the seafloor from the headland at Pillar Point. During the winter, strong North Pacific storms generate large, long-period waves that shoal and break over this bedrock reef at the world-famous surfing location known as Mavericks. The Offshore of Half Moon Bay map area lies within the cold-temperate biogeographic zone that is called either the “Oregonian province” or the “northern California ecoregion.” This biogeographic province is maintained by the long-term stability of the southward-flowing California Current, an eastern limb of the North Pacific subtropical gyre that flows from Oregon to Baja California. At its midpoint off central California, the California Current transports subarctic surface (0–500 m deep) waters southward, about 150 to 1,300 km from shore. Seasonal northwesterly winds that are, in part, responsible for the California Current, generate coastal upwelling. The south end of the Oregonian province is at Point Conception (about 365 km south of the map

  2. California State Waters Map Series—Offshore of Santa Cruz, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cochrane, Guy R.; Dartnell, Peter; Johnson, Samuel Y.; Erdey, Mercedes D.; Golden, Nadine E.; Greene, H. Gary; Dieter, Bryan E.; Hartwell, Stephen R.; Ritchie, Andrew C.; Finlayson, David P.; Endris, Charles A.; Watt, Janet T.; Davenport, Clifton W.; Sliter, Ray W.; Maier, Katherine L.; Krigsman, Lisa M.; Cochrane, Guy R.; Cochran, Susan A.

    2016-03-24

    upper Quaternary shelf, estuarine, and fluvial sediments deposited as sea level fluctuated in the late Pleistocene. The inner shelf is characterized by bedrock outcrops that have local thin sediment cover, the result of regional uplift, high wave energy, and limited sediment supply. The midshelf occupies part of an extensive, shore-parallel mud belt. The thickest sediment deposits, inferred to consist mainly of lowstand nearshore deposits, are found in the southeastern and northwestern parts of the map area.Coastal sediment transport in the map area is characterized by northwest-to-southeast littoral transport of sediment that is derived mainly from ephemeral streams in the Santa Cruz Mountains and also from local coastal-bluff erosion. During the last approximately 300 years, as much as 18 million cubic yards (14 million cubic meters) of sand-sized sediment has been eroded from the area between Año Nuevo Island and Point Año Nuevo and transported south; this mass of eroded sand is now enriching beaches in the map area. Sediment transport is within the Santa Cruz littoral cell, which terminates in the submarine Monterey Canyon.Benthic species observed in the Offshore of Santa Cruz map area are natives of the cold-temperate biogeographic zone that is called either the “Oregonian province” or the “northern California ecoregion.” This biogeographic province is maintained by the long-term stability of the southward-flowing California Current, the eastern limb of the North Pacific subtropical gyre that flows from southern British Columbia to Baja California. At its midpoint off central California, the California Current transports subarctic surface (0–500 m deep) waters southward, about 150 to 1,300 km from shore. Seasonal northwesterly winds that are, in part, responsible for the California Current, generate coastal upwelling. The south end of the Oregonian province is at Point Conception (about 300 km south of the map area), although its associated

  3. The effect of monocular depth cues on the detection of moving objects by moving observers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Royden, Constance S; Parsons, Daniel; Travatello, Joshua

    2016-07-01

    An observer moving through the world must be able to identify and locate moving objects in the scene. In principle, one could accomplish this task by detecting object images moving at a different angle or speed than the images of other items in the optic flow field. While angle of motion provides an unambiguous cue that an object is moving relative to other items in the scene, a difference in speed could be due to a difference in the depth of the objects and thus is an ambiguous cue. We tested whether the addition of information about the distance of objects from the observer, in the form of monocular depth cues, aided detection of moving objects. We found that thresholds for detection of object motion decreased as we increased the number of depth cues available to the observer. PMID:27264029

  4. ''Social capitalism'' in renewable energy generation: China and California comparisons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With a population of over 1.3 billion people, demand for renewable energy is expected to grow to a USD $12 billion market in the near term. Under Renewable Energy Law (REL) in February 2005 in the People's Republic of China (PRC) passed by the National Congress, renewable energy projects will be able to receive a range of financial incentives starting in 2006, which will more than double the PRC current renewable energy generation from 7% to 15% by 2020. Most of the increase will be in hydroelectric generated power. Nonetheless, the nation and especially the provinces are moving rapidly to develop a wide range of renewable energy generation including solar, wind, geothermal and run of the river. Because China practices ''social capitalism'' as expressed in it's recurrent Five Year National Plans since 1999, the national government and all the provinces have programs, unlike many western and industrialized nations, to ''plan'' and provide for infrastructures. This paper concerns only the energy infrastructure sector and renewable energy generation in particular. The planning process includes financial incentives and investments which are a major part of the Chinese law focused on ''encouraging foreign investment industries''. The key part of the law is to guarantee long-term power purchase agreements with state owned and controlled ''utilities''. In short, China may have gotten the economics of the energy sector correct in its concern for planning and finance. The paper develops these energy infrastructure ideas along with the legal and financial requirements as ''lessons'' learned from the USA and especially California. These lessons now apply to China and allow it to learn from the American mistakes. Empirical data will be drawn from work done in China that examine the renewable energy generation and infrastructures and hence allow the RPC and its Provinces to ''leap frog ''the mistakes of other developed nations. Further lessons will be learned from provinces and

  5. A nitrogen mass balance for California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liptzin, D.; Dahlgren, R. A.

    2010-12-01

    Human activities have greatly altered the global nitrogen cycle and these changes are apparent in water quality, air quality, ecosystem and human health. However, the relative magnitude of the sources of new reactive nitrogen and the fate of this nitrogen is not well established. Further, the biogeochemical aspects of the nitrogen cycle are often studied in isolation from the economic and social implications of all the transformations of nitrogen. The California Nitrogen Assessment is an interdisciplinary project whose aim is evaluating the current state of nitrogen science, practice, and policy in the state of California. Because of the close proximity of large population centers, highly productive and diverse agricultural lands and significant acreage of undeveloped land, California is a particularly interesting place for this analysis. One component of this assessment is developing a mass balance of nitrogen as well as identifying gaps in knowledge and quantifying uncertainty. The main inputs of new reactive nitrogen to the state are 1) synthetic nitrogen fertilizer, 2) biological nitrogen fixation, and 3) atmospheric nitrogen deposition. Permanent losses of nitrogen include 1) gaseous losses (N2, N2O, NHx, NOy), 2) riverine discharge, 3) wastewater discharge to the ocean, and 4) net groundwater recharge. A final term is the balance of food, feed, and fiber to support the human and animal populations. The largest input of new reactive nitrogen to California is nitrogen fertilizer, but both nitrogen fixation and atmospheric deposition contribute significantly. Non-fertilizer uses, such as the production of nylon and polyurethane, constitutes about 5% of the synthetic N synthesized production. The total nitrogen fixation in California is roughly equivalent on the 400,000 ha of alfalfa and the approximately 40 million ha of natural lands. In addition, even with highly productive agricultural lands, the large population of livestock, in particular dairy cows

  6. The California Multimedia Risk Assessment Protocol for Alternative Fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatch, T.; Ginn, T. R.; McKone, T. E.; Rice, D. W.

    2013-12-01

    framework has been implemented for a number of alternative fuels to date. MMRAs for Biodiesel, Ethanol blended Gasoline, Renewable Diesel, and Biobutanol have been submitted to California for regulatory approval. Currently, assessments are being conducted for natural gasoline (alkanes blended with natural gas) and DiMethyl Ether. With each new fuel MMRA, lessons are learned on how to perform a MMRA better. As a result, the multimedia assessment guidelines are being slightly revised based on lessons learned from the MMRAs completed to date.

  7. Move-by-move dynamics of the advantage in chess matches reveals population-level learning of the game.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haroldo V Ribeiro

    Full Text Available The complexity of chess matches has attracted broad interest since its invention. This complexity and the availability of large number of recorded matches make chess an ideal model systems for the study of population-level learning of a complex system. We systematically investigate the move-by-move dynamics of the white player's advantage from over seventy thousand high level chess matches spanning over 150 years. We find that the average advantage of the white player is positive and that it has been increasing over time. Currently, the average advantage of the white player is 0.17 pawns but it is exponentially approaching a value of 0.23 pawns with a characteristic time scale of 67 years. We also study the diffusion of the move dependence of the white player's advantage and find that it is non-Gaussian, has long-ranged anti-correlations and that after an initial period with no diffusion it becomes super-diffusive. We find that the duration of the non-diffusive period, corresponding to the opening stage of a match, is increasing in length and exponentially approaching a value of 15.6 moves with a characteristic time scale of 130 years. We interpret these two trends as a resulting from learning of the features of the game. Additionally, we find that the exponent [Formula: see text] characterizing the super-diffusive regime is increasing toward a value of 1.9, close to the ballistic regime. We suggest that this trend is due to the increased broadening of the range of abilities of chess players participating in major tournaments.

  8. Moving Facts in an Arctic field

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hastrup, Kirsten Blinkenberg; Flora, Janne; Andersen, Astrid Oberborbeck

    2016-01-01

    , and an engagement with other disciplinary practices. The gain of our cross-disciplinary experiment was therefore not only to know more about the makings of a particular landscape in a multi-disciplinary perspective, but also to understand how anthropology makes sense of inherently moving facts....

  9. Bacterial Chemotaxis with a Moving Target

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dominick, Corey

    2015-03-01

    Most chemotaxis studies so far have been conducted in a quiescent fluid with a well-defined chemical gradient. Such experiments may be appropriate for studying enteric bacteria, such as Escherichia coli, but the environment it provides is very different from that typically encountered by marine bacteria. Herein we describe an experiment in which marine bacterium Vibrio alginolyticusis subject to stimulation by a small moving target. A micropipette of the tip size <1 ?m is used to slowly release a chemoattractant, serine, at different concentrations. The pipette is made to move with different patterns and speeds, ranging from 0 to 100 ?m/s; the latter is about twice the bacterial swimming speed. We found that if the pipette is moved slowly, with 1/4 of bacterial swimming speed, cells accumulate near the tip region but when it is moved with speed greater than 1/2 the bacterial swimming speed, cells trail behind the pipette over a large distance. The behaviors observed in V. alginolyticusare significantly different from E. coli, suggesting that the former is a better chemotaxer in a changing environment.

  10. EPI moved in beam S3

    CERN Multimedia

    1977-01-01

    The housing of the External Particle Identifier (EPI) is being moved to S3 beam. Test measurements with EPI were performed in the S3 beam between 20 and 110 GeV/c, before installing it behind BEBC. 110 GeV/c before

  11. Moving frames for heart fiber geometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Piuze, Emmanuel; Sporring, Jon; Siddiqi, Kaleem

    2013-01-01

    fibers is central to our understanding of normal heart function. Motivated by a recent abstraction by Savadjiev et al. of heart wall fibers into generalized helicoid minimal surfaces, this paper develops an extension based on differential forms. The key idea is to use Maurer-Cartan’s method of moving...

  12. Localizing non-retinotopically moving objects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuki Yamada

    Full Text Available How does the brain determine the position of moving objects? It turns out to be rather complex to answer this question when we realize that the brain has to solve the motion correspondence problem in two kinds of reference frames: Retinotopic and non-retinotopic ones. We show that visual objects are mislocalized along a non-retinotopic motion direction. Observers viewed two successive movie frames each consisting of an outlined square and two target elements inside the square. In the non-retinotopic condition the elements as well as the square moved vertically while two bars also centripetally or centrifugally moved. In the retinotopic condition the vertical movement of them was removed from the stimuli. The task of the observers was to judge a relative position of the elements. Consequently, the elements were mislocalized in the direction of both retinotopic and non-retinotopic motion, although the mislocalization was significantly larger in the retinotopic than in the non-retinotopic conditions. The results suggest that non-retinotopic as well as retinotopic motion processing contributes to the determination of perceived positions of moving objects.

  13. Developing Reading Comprehension with Moving Image Narratives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maine, Fiona; Shields, Robin

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports the findings from a small-scale exploratory study that investigated how moving-image narratives might enable children to develop transferable reading comprehension strategies. Using short, animated, narrative films, 28 primary-aged children engaged in a 10-week programme that included the explicit instruction of comprehension…

  14. Institute of Microbiology moves to new premises

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ The CAS Institute of Microbiology, which is originally located in northeast Beijing's Zhongguancun, a suburb northwest to the downtown, has recently moved to its new buildings in the northern suburbs of Beijing, where most of the CAS institutes in life sciences and geosciences in Beijing area herd together.

  15. Home Visiting: Looking Back and Moving Forward

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boller, Kimberly; Strong, Debra A.; Daro, Deborah

    2010-01-01

    Recent large federal investments in services for pregnant women and young children will fuel the expansion of home visiting services across the U.S. The authors summarize the history of home visiting and describe trends toward evidence-based and national program models. Moving to an integrated system requires supports for implementation with…

  16. Finding Funds to Move Summer Learning Forward

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seidel, Bob

    2015-01-01

    Summer learning loss creates a permanent drag on the US education system. With the generous support of the Charles Stewart Mott Foundation, the National Summer Learning Association (NSLA) developed "Moving Summer Learning Forward: A Strategic Roadmap for Funding in Tough Times" to provide out-of-school time programs, school districts,…

  17. Family Socialization: New Moves and Next Steps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodnow, Jacqueline J.

    2005-01-01

    The areas considered in this chapter have to do with the aims of family socialization, the nature of influence, linking multiple sources of influence, and the range of families and contexts used as a basis for accounts of socialization. In each area, moving beyond restrictive assumptions opens up new ways of thinking and new research questions.

  18. Supportive Discourse Moves in Persian Requests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nodoushan, Mohammad Ali Salmani; Allami, Hamid

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports the findings of a study designed to investigate the types of supportive discourse moves employed by Persian speakers in their Requestive Speech Acts. 372 respondents took a Discourse Completion Test (DCT) with six scenarios ranging from formal to informal degrees of Perceived Situational Seriousness, and returned 2232 Requestive…

  19. Stars to Keep Burberry Moving to China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ Film star Rhys Ifans and the Prince of Wales have joined the campaign to stop Burberry moving its manufacture to China.The stars were also involved in the campaign to stop Burberry closing a factory in the Welsh valleys with the toss of 300 jobs in December last year.

  20. Moving Finite Elements and Dynamic Vehicle Interaction

    OpenAIRE

    Lane, Hakan; Kettil, Per; Wiberg, Nils-Erik

    2009-01-01

    Moving Finite Elements and Dynamic Vehicle Interaction (Lane, Hakan) Department of Applied Mechanics Chalmers University of Technology Gothenburg--> - SWEDEN (Lane, Hakan) Department of Applied Mechanics Chalmers University of Technology Gothenburg--> - SWEDEN (Kettil, Per) Department of Applied Mechanics Chalmers University of Technology Gothenburg--> - SWEDEN (Wiberg, Nils-Erik) SWEDEN Received: 2006-07-24 Acce...

  1. Moving On: Young People and Substance Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daley, Kathryn; Chamberlain, Chris

    2009-01-01

    To help explain why some young people move from recreational drug use to substance abuse, twelve in-depth interviews were conducted with young people who had experienced problematic substance use. The data were supplemented by statistical data on 111 young people. The researchers found a variety of "structural" factors that help explain young…

  2. Moving to get aHead

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bardram, Jakob Eyvind; Bossen, Claus

    2003-01-01

    actors move about continuously in order to accomplish their work. They do so because they need to get access to knowledge, resources, persons and/or places. We analyze the integral nature of mobility to this kind of work practice from the ethnographic description of a hospital department...

  3. Electromagnetic Sources in a Moving Conducting Medium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johannsen, Günther

    1971-01-01

    The problem of an arbitrary source distribution in a uniformly moving, homogeneous, isotropic, nondispersive, conducting medium is solved. The technique used is to solve the problem in the rest system of the medium and then write the result in an appropriate four-dimensional, covariant form which...

  4. Electromagnetic Sources in Moving Simple Medium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johannsen, Günther

    1970-01-01

    A retarded potential tensor (4-vector) is derived in an arbitrary system of inertia for an arbitrary electromagnetic source in a moving homogeneous, isotropic, nondispersive, lossless dielectric. The velocity is uniform, and the result is relativistic correct. ©1970 The American Institute...

  5. Tracking Moving Objects with Few Handovers

    CERN Document Server

    Eppstein, David; Löffler, Maarten

    2011-01-01

    We study the online problem of assigning a moving point to a base-station region that contains it. For instance, the moving object could represent a cellular phone and the base station could represent the coverage zones of cell towers. Our goal is to minimize the number of handovers that occur when the point moves outside its assigned region and must be assigned to a new region. We study this problem in terms of competitive analysis and we measure the competitive ratio of our algorithms as a function of the ply of the system of regions, that is, the maximum number of regions that cover any single point. In the offline version of this problem, when object motions are known in advance, a simple greedy strategy suffices to determine an optimal assignment of objects to base stations, with as few handovers as possible. For the online version of this problem for moving points in one dimension, we present a deterministic algorithm that achieves a competitive ratio of O(log ply) with respect to the optimal algorithm,...

  6. Moving Divertor Plates in a Tokamak

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S.J. Zweben, H. Zhang

    2009-02-12

    Moving divertor plates could help solve some of the problems of the tokamak divertor through mechanical ingenuity rather than plasma physics. These plates would be passively heated on each pass through the tokamak and cooled and reprocessed outside the tokamak. There are many design options using varying plate shapes, orientations, motions, coatings, and compositions.

  7. "Motherly Business" and the Moves to Manhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, John Noell

    1994-01-01

    Discusses three novels that focus on the mother/son relationship: Bruce Books'"The Moves Make the Man," Chris Crutcher's "Stotan!" and Walter Dean Myers'"Fallen Angels." Notes that all three deal with forms of combat, both physical and mental, with competition, and with a struggle to survive--a struggle that each novelist turns into a metaphor for…

  8. A dynamic analysis of moving average rules

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C. Chiarella; X.Z. He; C.H. Hommes

    2006-01-01

    The use of various moving average (MA) rules remains popular with financial market practitioners. These rules have recently become the focus of a number empirical studies, but there have been very few studies of financial market models where some agents employ technical trading rules of the type use

  9. Moving toward Gender Equality: Issues and Implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldwin, Cynthia

    1993-01-01

    Examines society's orientation toward a dominator model of interaction and discusses it within the context of history. Articulates conscious choices counselors can make to move toward a more equitable and humanistic style of interpersonal interaction. Concludes that vital struggle between dominance and partnership is struggle for both men and…

  10. [Issues in California Community Colleges].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grosz, Karen Sue, Ed.

    1988-01-01

    Designed as a forum for the exchange of ideas among California community college faculty, this journal offers a series of articles addressing instructional and administrative concerns. The volume contains: (1) "Campus Life: A Book Review," by John McFarland; (2) "The Scholar in the Two-Year College: Magritte's Mermaid or Chiron?" by Susan Petit,…

  11. California Amusement Rides and Liability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epstein, Adam

    2005-01-01

    Twenty-three-year-old Cristina Moreno traveled from Spain to California for her honeymoon in 2000. As part of her visit, she rode the Indiana Jones amusement ride at Disneyland with her new husband. On June 25, 2000, she suffered a brain injury, and she eventually died on September 1, 2000, as a result of injuries allegedly sustained while riding…

  12. The Chilula Indians of California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lake, Robert, Jr.

    1979-01-01

    The article discusses the sources and preparation of many of the foods and medicines used by California's Chilula Indians. It notes the specific uses of 34 roots, herbs, and vegetables, giving both the Latin and common names for all and illustrations for some. Includes "menus" for Chilula meals. (SB)

  13. Lyme Disease in Northern California

    OpenAIRE

    Campagna, Joan; Lavoie, Paul E.; Birnbaum, Neal S.; Furman, Deane P.

    1983-01-01

    Lyme disease is a recently described clinical entity with cutaneous, neurologic, articular and cardiac manifestations. Since the original description of the disease in 1977, more than 500 cases have been reported. Although the vast majority of patients have been from the area near Lyme, Connecticut, we have seen four patients from northern California with various aspects of Lyme disease.

  14. California Hydrogen Infrastructure Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edward C. Heydorn

    2013-03-12

    Air Products and Chemicals, Inc. has completed a comprehensive, multiyear project to demonstrate a hydrogen infrastructure in California. The specific primary objective of the project was to demonstrate a model of a “real-world” retail hydrogen infrastructure and acquire sufficient data within the project to assess the feasibility of achieving the nation’s hydrogen infrastructure goals. The project helped to advance hydrogen station technology, including the vehicle-to-station fueling interface, through consumer experiences and feedback. By encompassing a variety of fuel cell vehicles, customer profiles and fueling experiences, this project was able to obtain a complete portrait of real market needs. The project also opened its stations to other qualified vehicle providers at the appropriate time to promote widespread use and gain even broader public understanding of a hydrogen infrastructure. The project engaged major energy companies to provide a fueling experience similar to traditional gasoline station sites to foster public acceptance of hydrogen. Work over the course of the project was focused in multiple areas. With respect to the equipment needed, technical design specifications (including both safety and operational considerations) were written, reviewed, and finalized. After finalizing individual equipment designs, complete station designs were started including process flow diagrams and systems safety reviews. Material quotes were obtained, and in some cases, depending on the project status and the lead time, equipment was placed on order and fabrication began. Consideration was given for expected vehicle usage and station capacity, standard features needed, and the ability to upgrade the station at a later date. In parallel with work on the equipment, discussions were started with various vehicle manufacturers to

  15. Rust disease continues to threaten California garlic crop

    OpenAIRE

    Koike, Steven T.; Smith, Richard; Davis, R. Michael; Nunez, J. Joe; Voss, Ron E.

    2001-01-01

    In 1998, following the very wet EI Niño weather event, a devastating outbreak of rust disease severely damaged the garlic crop in California. The disease also occurred in 1999 and 2000, indicating that rust may have developed into an annual problem. We identified the pathogen as Puccinia allii. In our study, it infected allium crops such as garlic, onion and chives, but not leek, elephant garlic or shallot. Currently registered materials did not control the disease, but tebuconazole (Folicur)...

  16. Population analysis relative to geothermal energy development, Imperial County, California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pick, J.B.; Jung, T.H.; Butler, E.

    1977-01-01

    The historical and current population characteristics of Imperial County, California, are examined. These include vital rates, urbanization, town sizes, labor force composition, income, utility usage, and ethnic composition. Inferences are drawn on some of the important social and economic processes. Multivariate statistical analysis is used to study present relationships between variables. Population projections for the County were performed under historical, standard, and geothermal projection assumptions. The transferability of methods and results to other geothermal regions anticipating energy development is shown. (MHR)

  17. The Trouble With Electricity Markets: Understanding California's Restructuring Disaster

    OpenAIRE

    Severin Borenstein

    2002-01-01

    In June 2000, after two years of fairly smooth operation, California's deregulated wholesale electricity market began producing extremely high prices and threats of supply shortages. The upheaval demonstrated dramatically why most current electricity markets are extremely volatile: demand is difficult to forecast and exhibits virtually no price responsiveness, while supply faces strict production constraints and prohibitive storage costs. This structure leads to periods of surplus and of shor...

  18. Potential of energy farming in the southeastern California desert

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lew, V.

    1980-04-01

    The California Energy Commission is currently analyzing the use of energy farms to provide future sources of energy for California. Energy farms can be defined as growing plants and converting them to various forms of energy. The use of marginal desert lands in southeastern California for the siting of energy farms using acacia, Eucalyptus, euphorbia, quayule, jojoba, mesquite, or tamarisk is considered. Two hypothetical scenarios using either rainfall, or rainfall and groundwater as water sources were described to determine the maximum amount of energy produced from estimated amounts of suitable land in this area. Considering both scenarios, the maximum range of energy produced is .03 to 0.4 Quads. It is recommended that (1) genetic research be continued to increase biomass yields of these and other candidate plants grown in the desert; and (2) small test plots be established at varying desert locations to collect yield growth, and survival data. Once this information is known, the identification of the best plant(s) to use for energy farming in the California desert area will be known, as well as the cost and quantity of energy produced.

  19. Rational Expectations, psychology and inductive learning via moving thresholds

    CERN Document Server

    Lamba, H

    2007-01-01

    This work suggests modifications to a previously introduced class of heterogeneous agent models that allow for the inclusion of different types of agent motivations and behaviours in a unified way. The agents operate within a highly simplified environment where they are only able to be long or short one unit of the asset. The price of the asset is influenced by both an external information stream and the demand of the agents. The current strategy of each agent is defined by a pair of moving thresholds straddling the current price. When the price crosses either of the thresholds for a particular agent, that agent switches position and a new pair of thresholds is generated. Different kinds of threshold motion correspond to different sources of motivation, running the gamut from purely rational information-processing, through rational (but often undesirable) behaviour induced by perverse incentives and moral hazards, to purely psychological effects. As with the previous class of models, the fact that the simples...

  20. Moving grids for magnetic reconnection via Newton-Krylov methods

    KAUST Repository

    Yuan, Xuefei

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a set of computationally efficient, adaptive grids for magnetic reconnection phenomenon where the current density can develop large gradients in the reconnection region. Four-field extended MagnetoHydroDynamics (MHD) equations with hyperviscosity terms are transformed so that the curvilinear coordinates replace the Cartesian coordinates as the independent variables, and moving grids\\' velocities are also considered in this transformed system as a part of interpolating the physical solutions from the old grid to the new grid as time advances. The curvilinear coordinates derived from the current density through the Monge-Kantorovich (MK) optimization approach help to reduce the resolution requirements during the computation. © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Urban-wildland fires: how California and other regions of the US can learn from Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Most urban-wildland interface (UWI) fires in California and the other regions of the US are managed in a similar fashion: fire agencies anticipate the spread of fire, mandatory evacuations are ordered, and professional fire services move in and attempt to suppress the fires. This approach has not reduced building losses in California. Conversely, losses and the associated suite of environmental impacts, including reduced air quality, have dramatically increased over the last three decades. In contrast to California, Australia has developed a more effective 'Prepare, stay and defend, or leave early' policy. Using this approach, trained residents decide whether they will stay and actively defend their well-prepared property or leave early before a fire threatens them. Australian strategies have the distinct advantage of engaging and preparing those most affected by such fires: homeowners. Investing more in fire suppression alone, the common response after large UWI fires in California, will not reduce losses. US society has attempted to accommodate many of the natural hazards inherent to the landscapes that we inhabit; by examining the Australian model, we may approach a more sustainable coexistence with fire as well. However, it should be noted that some California communities are so vulnerable that a 'Prepare and leave early' strategy may be the only option.

  2. California Drought Recovery Assessment Using GRACE Satellite Gravimetry Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Love, C. A.; Aghakouchak, A.; Madadgar, S.; Tourian, M. J.

    2015-12-01

    California has been experiencing its most extreme drought in recent history due to a combination of record high temperatures and exceptionally low precipitation. An estimate for when the drought can be expected to end is needed for risk mitigation and water management. A crucial component of drought recovery assessments is the estimation of terrestrial water storage (TWS) deficit. Previous studies on drought recovery have been limited to surface water hydrology (precipitation and/or runoff) for estimating changes in TWS, neglecting the contribution of groundwater deficits to the recovery time of the system. Groundwater requires more time to recover than surface water storage; therefore, the inclusion of groundwater storage in drought recovery assessments is essential for understanding the long-term vulnerability of a region. Here we assess the probability, for varying timescales, of California's current TWS deficit returning to its long-term historical mean. Our method consists of deriving the region's fluctuations in TWS from changes in the gravity field observed by NASA's Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) satellites. We estimate the probability that meteorological inputs, precipitation minus evaporation and runoff, over different timespans will balance the current GRACE-derived TWS deficit (e.g. in 3, 6, 12 months). This method improves upon previous techniques as the GRACE-derived water deficit comprises all hydrologic sources, including surface water, groundwater, and snow cover. With this empirical probability assessment we expect to improve current estimates of California's drought recovery time, thereby improving risk mitigation.

  3. EDITORIAL: `Il sole - no si move'

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kibble, Bob

    1999-05-01

    The Sun may not have moved for Galileo but it is certain that this coming August the Sun will have moved millions of folk towards a thin strip of land about 100 km wide stretching from Cornwall to the Indian Ocean. If you have yet to book your place for the biggest live show of this millennium year there are still places in hotels and campsites. The April edition of the UK camping and caravaning club magazine included at least four sites in Cornwall alone with vacancies. I am told that the difference between seeing a 98% eclipse and totality is considerably greater than 2%. The message appears to be - try to get to the line. However, a popular misconception among lay folk seems to be that you will only be able to see the event in Cornwall. As you will read in this issue the partial event will be visible from virtually the whole of Europe. Anyone who has tried to holiday in Cornwall or Devon will tell you how congested the roads become in any ordinary August. The best advice for this year is either to travel to the south west by bicycle or attack the totality path as it crosses Europe. Access will be much easier. For my part I have booked a hotel in Trier, Germany, about 20 km north of the totality path. An early breakfast on the 11th should leave enough time to motorcycle down to see the shadow. Of course, the whole business is weather dependent. With the chance of a clear sky in Cornwall, Devon and most of western Europe being about 50% on the date in question, forward planning depends on whether you are a `half empty' or a `half full' person. It is worth keeping this fact in mind especially if you drag an expectant family hundreds of miles through traffic just to watch the clouds drift by. Take a colouring book and a board game just in case. Of course, the chance of a clear sky increases to about 90% across Turkey but there are reasons why such a trip might not be so wise in the current political climate. In this special issue readers will find plenty to interest

  4. Wastewater effluent dispersal in Southern California Bays

    KAUST Repository

    Uchiyama, Yusuke

    2014-03-01

    The dispersal and dilution of urban wastewater effluents from offshore, subsurface outfalls is simulated with a comprehensive circulation model with downscaling in nested grid configurations for San Pedro and Santa Monica Bays in Southern California during Fall of 2006. The circulation is comprised of mean persistent currents, mesoscale and submesoscale eddies, and tides. Effluent volume inflow rates at Huntington Beach and Hyperion are specified, and both their present outfall locations and alternative nearshore diversion sites are assessed. The effluent tracer concentration fields are highly intermittent mainly due to eddy currents, and their probability distribution functions have long tails of high concentration. The dilution rate is controlled by submesoscale stirring and straining in tracer filaments. The dominant dispersal pattern is alongshore in both directions, approximately along isobaths, over distances of more than 10. km before dilution takes over. The current outfall locations mostly keep the effluent below the surface and away from the shore, as intended, but the nearshore diversions do not. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.

  5. Cell survival studies for moving targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    More than 330 patients with static tumors have been treated at GSI with a scanned C-12 beam. For targets that are subject to respiratory motion, treatment is not yet possible because target motion and scanning motion interfere. GSI is developing a motion compensation system to compensate target motion by adaptation of each individual Bragg peak position. Within this project, the GSI treatment planning software TRiP was extended to calculate physical dose distributions in the presence of motion. These motion extensions were experimentally validated. Recently we included the calculation of cell survival for moving targets. To validate the software, a program of experimental studies with biological samples has been started. In a first set of experiments, living cell cultures were placed on a periodically moving table and irradiated with and without motion compensation. Results are compared to reference cell cultures that were static during standard irradiations. Furthermore, measured cell survival distributions are compared to calculated distributions for all irradiation schemes

  6. Drop Impact on to Moving Liquid Pools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz-Sánchez, Beatriz Natividad; Castrejón-Pita, José Rafael; Castrejón-Pita, Alfonso Arturo; Hutchings, Ian M.

    2014-11-01

    The deposition of droplets on to moving liquid substrates is an omnipresent situation both in nature and industry. A diverse spectrum of phenomena emerges from this simple process. In this work we present a parametric experimental study that discerns the dynamics of the impact in terms of the physical properties of the fluid and the relative velocity between the impacting drop and the moving liquid pool. The behaviour ranges from smooth coalescence (characterized by little mixing) to violent splashing (generation of multiple satellite droplets and interfacial vorticity). In addition, transitional regimes such as bouncing and surfing are also found. We classify the system dynamics and show a parametric diagram for the conditions of each regime. This work was supported by the EPSRC (Grant EP/H018913/1), the Royal Society, Becas Santander Universidades and the International Relationships Office of the University of Extremadura.

  7. Clutter Moves in Old Age Homecare

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lutz, Peter

    2010-01-01

    This chapter introduces the notion of clutter moves as an experimental heuristic for tracing how movement threads together a range of cluttered entities in old age homecare ecologies. In particular it is concerned with older people and their cluttered technologies. It is based on empirical data...... originating from an ethnographic study of old age homecare in the United States. Here the category of home clutter was revealed as more complex than it is commonly portrayed in popular or scholarly accounts, especially gerontology and geriatric–related literature on falling risks. This literature frequently...... not always readily apparent. The chapter ends with reflections on the notion of clutter technology to extend the heuristic of clutter moves. This is offered to help to rethink new technologies in relation to old age homecare ecologies....

  8. Electrodynamics of moving magnetoelectric media: variational approach

    CERN Document Server

    Obukhov, Yuri N

    2007-01-01

    Recently, Feigel has predicted a new effect in magnetoelectric media. The theoretical evaluation of this effect requires a careful analysis of a dynamics of the moving magnetoelectric medium and, in particular, the derivation of the energy-momentum of the electromagnetic field in such a medium. Then, one can proceed with the study of the wave propagation in this medium and derive the mechanical quantities such as the energy, the momentum, and their fluxes and the corresponding forces. In this paper, we develop a consistent general-relativistic variational approach to the moving dielectric and magnetic medium with and without magnetoelectric properties. The old experiments in which the light pressure was measured in fluids are reanalysed in our new framework.

  9. Electrodynamics of moving magnetoelectric media: Variational approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Obukhov, Yuri N. [Institute for Theoretical Physics, University of Cologne, 50923 Cologne (Germany); Department of Theoretical Physics, Moscow State University, 117234 Moscow (Russian Federation)], E-mail: yo@htp.uni-koeln.de; Hehl, Friedrich W. [Institute for Theoretical Physics, University of Cologne, 50923 Cologne (Germany); Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Missouri-Columbia, Columbia, MO 65211 (United States)], E-mail: hehl@thp.uni-koeln.de

    2007-11-05

    Recently, Feigel has predicted a new effect in magnetoelectric media. The theoretical evaluation of this effect requires a careful analysis of a dynamics of the moving magnetoelectric medium and, in particular, the derivation of the energy-momentum of the electromagnetic field in such a medium. Then, one can proceed with the study of the wave propagation in this medium and derive the mechanical quantities such as the energy, the momentum, and their fluxes and the corresponding forces. In this Letter, we develop a consistent general-relativistic variational approach to the moving dielectric and magnetic medium with and without magnetoelectric properties. The old experiments in which the light pressure was measured in fluids are reanalysed in our new framework.

  10. Moving and handling: reducing risk through assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, Gemma

    2016-06-01

    Manual handling injuries can occur almost anywhere in a healthcare environment, and most staff perform a variety of moving and handling tasks every day. Heavy lifting, awkward posture, and previous or existing injury can increase the risk of musculoskeletal disorders. A healthcare professional's involvement in moving and handling is more widespread than it might appear, and their actions and understanding of techniques, legislation and guidelines have a direct effect on patient care. Every situation that involves the handling, or partial handling, of a person presents varying levels of risk to the patient and the carer. Maintaining a good level of patient mobility and independence is an essential part of care delivery and can reduce the risk of long-term physical and psychological effects. Delivery of care should focus on the individual's capacity, not their incapacity, to ensure that they are treated with dignity and respect. PMID:27275915

  11. A Luneburg lens in moving coordinates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gladyshev, V. O.; Tereshin, A. A.

    2016-05-01

    The reflection of light rays by a reference microsatellite of new design, which moves with a velocity of 7500 m/s along a near-Earth orbit with a radius of 835 km, is calculated. The microsatellite is a bilayer Luneburg lens with an outer radius of 85 mm. The process of propagation of electromagnetic radiation in a Luneburg lens is analyzed for the first time with the effects of electrodynamics of moving media and optical glass dispersion taken into account. It is demonstrated that the lens motion leads to additional deflection and mixing of rays with various angles of incidence. The obtained results allow one to improve the accuracy of determination of satellite coordinates and open up new opportunities for tests of the theory of relativity and electrodynamics.

  12. Camouflage, detection and identification of moving targets

    OpenAIRE

    Hall, Joanna R.; Cuthill, Innes C.; Baddeley, Roland; Shohet, Adam J.; Scott-Samuel, Nicholas E.

    2013-01-01

    Nearly all research on camouflage has investigated its effectiveness for concealing stationary objects. However, animals have to move, and patterns that only work when the subject is static will heavily constrain behaviour. We investigated the effects of different camouflages on the three stages of predation—detection, identification and capture—in a computer-based task with humans. An initial experiment tested seven camouflage strategies on static stimuli. In line with previous literature, b...

  13. Radar Detection of Moving Targets Behind Corners

    OpenAIRE

    Sume, Ain; Gustafsson, Magnus; Herberthson, Magnus; Jänis, Anna; Nilsson, Stefan; Rahm, Jonas; Örbom, Anders

    2011-01-01

    Detection of moving objects concealed behind a concrete wall corner has been demonstrated, using Doppler-based techniques with a stepped-frequency radar centered at 10 GHz, in a reduced-scale model of a street scenario. Micro-Doppler signatures have been traced in the return from a human target, both for walking and for breathing. Separate material measurements of the reflection and transmission of the concrete in the wall have showed that wall reflections are the dominating wave propagation ...

  14. BKSTS illustrated dictionary of moving image technology

    CERN Document Server

    Uren, Martin

    2013-01-01

    The fourth edition of the BKSTS dictionary provides clear and concise explanations of the terminology and acronyms encountered in the broadcasting and moving image industries.Convergence of these industries means that those practising within them are increasingly faced with unfamiliar terminology. Martin Uren has reflected this change in his extended choice of industry terms, acronyms and colloquialisms. He provides:- Over 3300 definitions covering film, television, sound and multimedia technologies, together with technical terms from the computing, networks and telecommunications industries.-

  15. Second harmonic generation in the moving media

    OpenAIRE

    Ghalandari, Mahboubeh

    2015-01-01

    Because of the importance of second harmonic generation in some nonlinear media, in this paper, we investigated induced second harmonic generation in diamond where there is no intrinsic second order susceptibility, X(2). The electric field is proposed to introduce moving susceptibility of the second order and induce second harmonic generation. Then, spatiotemporal (QPM) is applied to optimize the induced second harmonic generation. Numerical results reveals that in this way, the induced secon...

  16. A freely-moving monkey treadmill model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Justin D.; Nuyujukian, Paul; Freifeld, Oren; Gao, Hua; Walker, Ross; Ryu, Stephen I.; Meng, Teresa H.; Murmann, Boris; Black, Michael J.; Shenoy, Krishna V.

    2014-08-01

    Objective. Motor neuroscience and brain-machine interface (BMI) design is based on examining how the brain controls voluntary movement, typically by recording neural activity and behavior from animal models. Recording technologies used with these animal models have traditionally limited the range of behaviors that can be studied, and thus the generality of science and engineering research. We aim to design a freely-moving animal model using neural and behavioral recording technologies that do not constrain movement. Approach. We have established a freely-moving rhesus monkey model employing technology that transmits neural activity from an intracortical array using a head-mounted device and records behavior through computer vision using markerless motion capture. We demonstrate the flexibility and utility of this new monkey model, including the first recordings from motor cortex while rhesus monkeys walk quadrupedally on a treadmill. Main results. Using this monkey model, we show that multi-unit threshold-crossing neural activity encodes the phase of walking and that the average firing rate of the threshold crossings covaries with the speed of individual steps. On a population level, we find that neural state-space trajectories of walking at different speeds have similar rotational dynamics in some dimensions that evolve at the step rate of walking, yet robustly separate by speed in other state-space dimensions. Significance. Freely-moving animal models may allow neuroscientists to examine a wider range of behaviors and can provide a flexible experimental paradigm for examining the neural mechanisms that underlie movement generation across behaviors and environments. For BMIs, freely-moving animal models have the potential to aid prosthetic design by examining how neural encoding changes with posture, environment and other real-world context changes. Understanding this new realm of behavior in more naturalistic settings is essential for overall progress of basic

  17. Robot maps, robot moves, robot avoids

    OpenAIRE

    Farrugia, Claire; Duca, Edward

    2014-01-01

    Robotics is a cornerstone for this century’s innovations. From robot nurses to your own personal assistant, most robots need to know: ‘where is it?’ ‘Where should it go?’ And ‘how to get there?’ Without answers to these questions a robot cannot do much. http://www.um.edu.mt/think/robot-maps-robot-moves-robot-avoids/

  18. Culture as a Moving Symbolic Border.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simão, Lívia Mathias

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this paper is to propose the notion of culture as a symbolic moving border. Departing from both, Boesch's (1991) concept of culture as a symbolic field of action, and Herbst's (1995) co-genetic logic, I will discuss the dynamics of self-other relationships in terms of their potentiality as sources of movement in culture. A brief analysis of an empirical material is given in illustrative character of the ideas here exposed. PMID:26245862

  19. DNA charge transport: Moving beyond 1D

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yuqi; Zhang, William B.; Liu, Chaoren; Zhang, Peng; Balaeff, Alexander; Beratan, David N.

    2016-10-01

    Charge transport across novel DNA junctions has been studied for several decades. From early attempts to move charge across DNA double crossover junctions to recent studies on DNA three-way junctions and G4 motifs, it is becoming clear that efficient cross-junction charge migration requires strong base-to-base electronic coupling at the junction, facilitated by favorable pi-stacking. We review recent progress toward the goal of manipulating and controlling charge transport through DNA junctions.

  20. Moving object detection using background subtraction

    CERN Document Server

    Shaikh, Soharab Hossain; Chaki, Nabendu

    2014-01-01

    This Springer Brief presents a comprehensive survey of the existing methodologies of background subtraction methods. It presents a framework for quantitative performance evaluation of different approaches and summarizes the public databases available for research purposes. This well-known methodology has applications in moving object detection from video captured with a stationery camera, separating foreground and background objects and object classification and recognition. The authors identify common challenges faced by researchers including gradual or sudden illumination change, dynamic bac

  1. [Continuous ECG recording for freely moving patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Bo; Liu, Shengyang; Chen, Jianfang; Zhang, Genxuan; Tsau, Young

    2013-04-01

    As more and more people are becoming aged in China and many of them tend to suffer from chronic cardiac problems, the long-term dynamic cardiac monitoring for freely moving patients becomes essential. A new design for continuous ECG recording on the freely moving patients at home and/or at work is proposed here. It is miniature in size, using digital technologies of the low gain amplifier, the high resolution analog to digital converter and the real-time digital filter that features > 100dB input signal dynamic range (ISDR), > 100dB common-mode rejection ratio (CMRR), and < 5microV (RMS) internal noise. The device works continuously more than 24 hours with a pair of AAA batteries, and is capable of storing the recorded data into a storage card. The preliminary tests showed that the P-QRS-T waveforms were captured and displayed smoothly in resting, walking, and activities, making the device useful in monitoring and analyzing for the patients on the move. PMID:23858751

  2. Moving hot cell for LMFBR type reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kanbe, Mitsuru

    1994-09-16

    A moving hot cell for an LMFBR type reactor is made movable on a reactor operation floor between a position just above the reactor container and a position retreated therefrom. Further, it comprises an overhung portion which can incorporate a spent fuel just thereunder, and a crane for moving a fuel assembly between a spent fuel cask and a reactor container. Further, an opening/closing means having a shielding structure is disposed to the bottom portion and the overhung portion thereof, to provide a sealing structure, in which only the receiving port for the spent fuel cask faces to the inner side, and the cask itself is disposed at the outside. Upon exchange of fuels, the movable hot cell is placed just above the reactor to take out the spent fuels, so that a region contaminated with primary sodium is limited within the hot cell. On the other hand, upon maintenance and repair for equipments, the hot cell is moved, thereby enabling to provide a not contaminated reactor operation floor. (N.H.).

  3. Boosting Moving Object Indexing through Velocity Partitioning

    CERN Document Server

    Nguyen, Thi; Zhang, Rui; Ward, Phillip

    2012-01-01

    There have been intense research interests in moving object indexing in the past decade. However, existing work did not exploit the important property of skewed velocity distributions. In many real world scenarios, objects travel predominantly along only a few directions. Examples include vehicles on road networks, flights, people walking on the streets, etc. The search space for a query is heavily dependent on the velocity distribution of the objects grouped in the nodes of an index tree. Motivated by this observation, we propose the velocity partitioning (VP) technique, which exploits the skew in velocity distribution to speed up query processing using moving object indexes. The VP technique first identifies the "dominant velocity axes (DVAs)" using a combination of principal components analysis (PCA) and k-means clustering. Then, a moving object index (e.g., a TPR-tree) is created based on each DVA, using the DVA as an axis of the underlying coordinate system. An object is maintained in the index whose DVA...

  4. Photometer for tracking a moving light source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strawa, Anthony W. (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    A photometer that tracks a path of a moving light source with little or no motion of the photometer components. The system includes a non-moving, truncated paraboloid of revolution, having a paraboloid axis, a paraboloid axis, a small entrance aperture, a larger exit aperture and a light-reflecting inner surface, that receives and reflects light in a direction substantially parallel to the paraboloid axis. The system also includes a light processing filter to receive and process the redirected light, and to issue the processed, redirected light as processed light, and an array of light receiving elements, at least one of which receives and measures an associated intensity of a portion of the processed light. The system tracks a light source moving along a path and produces a corresponding curvilinear image of the light source path on the array of light receiving elements. Undesired light wavelengths from the light source may be removed by coating a selected portion of the reflecting inner surface or another light receiving surface with a coating that absorbs incident light in the undesired wavelength range.

  5. DYNAMIC RESPONSES OF VISCOELASTIC AXIALLY MOVING BELT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李映辉; 高庆; 蹇开林; 殷学纲

    2003-01-01

    Based on the Kelvin viscoelastic differential constitutive law and the motion equation of the axially moving belt, the nonlinear dynamic model of the viscoelastic axial moving belt was established. And then it was reduced to be a linear differential system which the analytical solutions with a constant transport velocity and with a harmonically varying transport velocity were obtained by applying Lie group transformations. According to the nonlinear dynamic model, the effects of material parameters and the steady-state velocity and the perturbed axial velocity of the belt on the dynamic responses of the belts were investigated by the research of digital simulation. The result shows: 1 ) The nonlinear vibration frequency of the belt will become small when the relocity of the belt increases. 2 ) Increasing the value of viscosity or decreasing the value of elasticity leads to a deceasing in vibration frequencies. 3 ) The most effects of the transverse amplitudes come from the frequency of the perturbed velocity when the belt moves with harmonic velocity.

  6. Essays in the California electricity reserves markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metaxoglou, Konstantinos

    This dissertation examines inefficiencies in the California electricity reserves markets. In Chapter 1, I use the information released during the investigation of the state's electricity crisis of 2000 and 2001 by the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission to diagnose allocative inefficiencies. Building upon the work of Wolak (2000), I calculate a lower bound for the sellers' price-cost margins using the inverse elasticities of their residual demand curves. The downward bias in my estimates stems from the fact that I don't account for the hierarchical substitutability of the reserve types. The margins averaged at least 20 percent for the two highest quality types of reserves, regulation and spinning, generating millions of dollars in transfers to a handful of sellers. I provide evidence that the deviations from marginal cost pricing were due to the markets' high concentration and a principal-agent relationship that emerged from their design. In Chapter 2, I document systematic differences between the markets' day- and hour-ahead prices. I use a high-dimensional vector moving average model to estimate the premia and conduct correct inferences. To obtain exact maximum likelihood estimates of the model, I employ the EM algorithm that I develop in Chapter 3. I uncover significant day-ahead premia, which I attribute to market design characteristics too. On the demand side, the market design established a principal-agent relationship between the markets' buyers (principal) and their supervisory authority (agent). The agent had very limited incentives to shift reserve purchases to the lower priced hour-ahead markets. On the supply side, the market design raised substantial entry barriers by precluding purely speculative trading and by introducing a complicated code of conduct that induced uncertainty about which actions were subject to regulatory scrutiny. In Chapter 3, I introduce a state-space representation for vector autoregressive moving average models that enables

  7. California State Waters Map Series--Hueneme Canyon and vicinity, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Samuel Y.; Dartnell, Peter; Cochrane, Guy R.; Golden, Nadine E.; Phillips, Eleyne L.; Ritchie, Andrew C.; Kvitek, Rikk G.; Greene, H. Gary; Krigsman, Lisa M.; Endris, Charles A.; Clahan, Kevin B.; Sliter, Ray W.; Wong, Florence L.; Yoklavich, Mary M.; Normark, William R.

    2012-01-01

    of three smaller, unnamed headless canyons incised into the shelf southeast of Hueneme Canyon. The shelf is underlain by tens of meters of interbedded upper Quaternary shelf, estuarine, and fluvial deposits that formed as sea level fluctuated in the last several hundred thousand years. Hueneme Canyon extends about 15 km offshore from its canyon head near the dredged navigation channel of the Port of Hueneme. The canyon is relatively deep (about 150 m at the California's State Waters limit) and steep (canyon flanks as steep as 25° to 30°). Historically, Hueneme Canyon functioned as the eastern termination of the Santa Barbara littoral cell by trapping all eastward littoral drift, not only feeding the large Hueneme submarine fan but acting as the major conduit of sediment to the deep Santa Monica Basin; however, recent dredging programs needed to maintain Channel Islands Harbor and the Port of Hueneme have moved the nearshore sediment trapped by jetties and breakwaters to an area southeast of the Hueneme Canyon head. Seafloor habitats in the broad Santa Barbara Channel region consist of significant amounts of soft sediment and isolated areas of rocky habitat that support kelp-forest communities nearshore and rocky-reef communities in deep water. The potential marine benthic habitat types mapped in the Hueneme Canyon and vicinity map area are related directly to the geomorphology and sedimentary processes that are the result of its Quaternary geologic history. The two basic megahabitats in the map area are Shelf (continental shelf) and Flank (continental slope). The flat seafloor of the continental shelf in the Hueneme Canyon and vicinity map area is dynamic, as indicated by mobile sand sheets and coarser grained scour depressions. The active Hueneme Canyon provides considerable relief to the continental shelf in the map area, and its irregular morphology of eroded walls, landslide scarps, and deposits and gullies provide promising habitat for groundfish, crabs

  8. Lessons from the first year of competition in the California electricity markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Situated at the western edge of the continent and the eastern rim of the Pacific, California has always possessed allure as a place of frontiers. California's developing competitive electricity markets represent another frontier that has attracted widespread interest. At the first birthday of these markets, it seems appropriate to review their current state of development, even though they are surely in a transitional state. The authors do not undertake to make a comprehensive assessment of the efficiency of these markets, given their evolving nature. Rather, in reviewing one year of data, their goal is to examine the economic and technical relationships between the various power markets arising under the California Power Exchange (PX) and the California Independent System Operator (ISO). The analysis also considers the decision faced by generators selling into both the PX and ancillary service markets, identifying those areas where there may be losses in both efficiency and profits

  9. School Health Services for Children With Special Health Care Needs in California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Dian L; Hebbeler, Kathleen; Davis-Alldritt, Linda; Anderson, Lori S; Knauer, Heather

    2015-10-01

    Children with special health care needs (CSHCN) are at risk for school failure when their health needs are not met. Current studies have identified a strong connection between school success and health. This study attempted to determine (a) how schools meet the direct service health needs of children and (b) who provides those services. The study used the following two methods: (a) analysis of administrative data from the California Basic Educational Data System and (b) a cross-sectional online survey of 446 practicing California school nurses. Only 43% of California's school districts employ school nurses. Unlicensed school personnel with a variety of unregulated training provide school health services. There is a lack of identification of CSHCN, and communication barriers impair the ability to deliver care. Study results indicate that California invests minimally in school health services. PMID:25854694

  10. California State Waters Map Series—Offshore of Santa Cruz, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cochrane, Guy R.; Dartnell, Peter; Johnson, Samuel Y.; Erdey, Mercedes D.; Golden, Nadine E.; Greene, H. Gary; Dieter, Bryan E.; Hartwell, Stephen R.; Ritchie, Andrew C.; Finlayson, David P.; Endris, Charles A.; Watt, Janet T.; Davenport, Clifton W.; Sliter, Ray W.; Maier, Katherine L.; Krigsman, Lisa M.; Cochrane, Guy R.; Cochran, Susan A.

    2016-03-24

    upper Quaternary shelf, estuarine, and fluvial sediments deposited as sea level fluctuated in the late Pleistocene. The inner shelf is characterized by bedrock outcrops that have local thin sediment cover, the result of regional uplift, high wave energy, and limited sediment supply. The midshelf occupies part of an extensive, shore-parallel mud belt. The thickest sediment deposits, inferred to consist mainly of lowstand nearshore deposits, are found in the southeastern and northwestern parts of the map area.Coastal sediment transport in the map area is characterized by northwest-to-southeast littoral transport of sediment that is derived mainly from ephemeral streams in the Santa Cruz Mountains and also from local coastal-bluff erosion. During the last approximately 300 years, as much as 18 million cubic yards (14 million cubic meters) of sand-sized sediment has been eroded from the area between Año Nuevo Island and Point Año Nuevo and transported south; this mass of eroded sand is now enriching beaches in the map area. Sediment transport is within the Santa Cruz littoral cell, which terminates in the submarine Monterey Canyon.Benthic species observed in the Offshore of Santa Cruz map area are natives of the cold-temperate biogeographic zone that is called either the “Oregonian province” or the “northern California ecoregion.” This biogeographic province is maintained by the long-term stability of the southward-flowing California Current, the eastern limb of the North Pacific subtropical gyre that flows from southern British Columbia to Baja California. At its midpoint off central California, the California Current transports subarctic surface (0–500 m deep) waters southward, about 150 to 1,300 km from shore. Seasonal northwesterly winds that are, in part, responsible for the California Current, generate coastal upwelling. The south end of the Oregonian province is at Point Conception (about 300 km south of the map area), although its associated

  11. Is California's future hydraulically sustainable?

    OpenAIRE

    Richard E. Howitt

    2011-01-01

    The term “hydraulic society” describes the ancient cities and social systems that relied on irrigated agriculture, such as Egypt's Nile Valley. For 5,000 years, the annual cycle of floods replenished the Nile region's soil and nutrients, eliminating the need for complex canal systems such as those found in the Sumerian and Mesopotamian regions. California is the first hydraulic society that is rapidly developing into a postindustrial economy; this change will require the partial re-allocation...

  12. Australian growth: a California perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Ian W. McLean; Taylor, Alan M.

    2001-01-01

    Examination of special cases assists understanding of the mechanics of long-run economic growth more generally. Australia and California are two economies having the rare distinction of achieving 150 years of sustained high and rising living standards for rapidly expanding populations. They are suitable comparators since in some respects they are quite similar, especially in their initial conditions in the mid-nineteenth century, their legal and cultural inheritances, and with respect to some...

  13. Turkey vulture and California condor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pattee, O.H.; Wilbur, S.R.

    1989-01-01

    Populations of turkey vultures in the western states appear stable, with no evidence of recent significant changes in distribution. Turkey vultures occupy a variety of habitats, nest in diverse situations and utilize a wide variety of carrion. Consequently, no particular limiting factor is likely to have a major effect on the total population. California condor numbers, in contrast, have continued to decline. With the capture of the last wild bird in 1987, the species has been extirpated from the wild. Reestablishment will depend on production and introduction of captive-reared birds, hopefully within the next 10 years. In the 18th century, condors inhabited areas along the Pacific coast from British Columbia to Baja California. Since 1950, the range has been restricted to a six county area adjacent to the southern San Joaquin Valley of California. Within this area, there appears to be no shortage of suitable nest sites; all recently used nest sites are within federally-controlled lands. Suitable foraging grounds have continued to diminish and are now largely limited to private rangelands and some Bureau of Land Management rangelands within the foothills of the San Joaquin Valley. Only these areas continue to supply the large mammal carcasses that the California condor needs for survival. The habitat of the condor is subject to a variety of land use practices and development pressures. Excessive mortality, coupled with low reproductive potential, continues to threaten the recovery of the species. Development of management practices to reduce mortality, particularly those that are contaminant-related, and of a preserve design to insure adequate habitat for the reintroduced population are still necessary for eventual recovery of the species.

  14. THE CALIFORNIA MEDICAL MALPRACTICE PICTURE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    RUBSAMEN, D S

    1963-11-01

    The California physician's steadily increasing risk of legal liability poses a basic question: Will he ultimately wind up a guarantor of results, carrying a great burden of malpractice insurance in order to pay for every untoward result of medical treatment? This alarming prospect is the result of many years of judicial (and therefore lay) speculation on the legal significance of the injury which brings the patient into court. Does it look as though this injury probably is associated with medical negligence? If so, let the doctor explain. And the explanation must be very complete. The legal instrument which thus reverses the traditional requirements of proof, permitting the patient-plaintiff to remain silent while the doctor-defendant must exculpate himself, is an evidentiary doctrine called res ipsa loquitur-the thing speaks for itself. The application of the doctrine relieves the patient-plaintiff of the necessity of producing an expert witness to point the finger and say, "The medical conduct that produced this injury was sub-standard." The increased use of the doctrine reflects a judicial conviction that in many parts of California physicians refuse to testify for the patient-plaintiff regardless of the merit to his case.A recent California Supreme Court decision suggests that the Court is not unaware of the adverse social consequences implicit in the irrational expansion of the physician's risk of legal liability. But a reversal of this trend would seem to be contingent on positive conduct from the medical profession in California-conduct demonstrating that no meritorious patient-plaintiff will fail in his malpractice lawsuit for lack of an expert medical witness. PMID:14081771

  15. PV Validation and Bankability Workshop: San Jose, California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Granata, J.; Howard, J.

    2011-12-01

    This report is a collaboration between Sandia National Laboratories, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory, and the Florida Solar Energy Center (FSEC). The report provides feedback from the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Solar Program PV Validation and Bankability Workshop in San Jose, California on August 31, 2011. It focuses on the current state of PV in the United States, private funding to fund U.S. PV industry growth, roles and functions of the regional test center program, and ways to improve the current validation and bankability practices.

  16. Current Titles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Various

    2006-06-01

    This booklet is published for those interested in current research being conducted at the National Center for Electron Microscopy. The NCEM is a DOE-designated national user facility and is available at no charge to qualified researchers. Access is controlled by an external steering committee. Interested researchers may contact Jane Cavlina, Administrator, at 510/486-6036.

  17. A Longitudinal Study of Hedges in Different Moves of EMRAs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    寇英

    2013-01-01

    This paper investigates the evolutionary change in the OF (OF) of hedges in different moves of EMRAs (EMRAs). Two corpora are established for longitudinal study, with Corpus A consisting of EMRAs from 1990-1994 and Corpus B from 2005-2009. Generally, no significant change has been found in overall use of hedges. However, apart from move 6, 7 and 10, we have found some interesting changes in the other moves. On the one hand, the OF of hedges in move 1, move 3, move 4 and move 5 shows a significant increase. On the other hand, the OF of hedges in move 2, 8, 9 and move 11 show a significant de⁃crease.

  18. Aperture maneuver with compelled breath (AMC) for moving tumors: A feasibility study with a moving phantom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Respiration causes target motion, which is known to be one of the technical bottlenecks in radiotherapy, especially for stereotactic radio-surgery and intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT). To overcome this problem, aperture maneuver with compelled breath (AMC) has been developed. In order to simulate compelled respiratory motion, a moving phantom using a ventilator was designed. As the air flow was forced to the bellows, which simulates the lungs, by a ventilator, a film connected to the ventilator moved like the respiratory target motion. A software was developed to transfer multileaf collimator motion from breathless to actual periodic breathing conditions. Static fields as well as step-and-shoot IMRT fields were modified in accordance with moving shapes to follow the target position, using the software with the controlled breathing information. Film dosimetry for a small field and for IMRT fields with a moving phantom was performed. To evaluate clinical implementation, five healthy volunteers were tested to breathe through a ventilator, and all of them could adapt the compelled breath without any difficulties. Additive margins for a moving target with AMC were not larger than 3 mm for respiratory organ motions up to 18 mm, while those with the static beam were 9 mm. For IMRT fields, large discrepancies were present between a static target and a moving target with the static beam, while they coincided well with AMC. Clinical acceptable differences between the dose distributions from a static target with the static beam and from a moving target with AMC revealed that this technique could be applied clinically

  19. Neighborhood Supported Model Level Fuzzy Aggregation for Moving Object Segmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiranjeevi, Pojala; Sengupta, Somnath

    2014-02-01

    We propose a new algorithm for moving object detection in the presence of challenging dynamic background conditions. We use a set of fuzzy aggregated multifeature similarity measures applied on multiple models corresponding to multimodal backgrounds. The algorithm is enriched with a neighborhood-supported model initialization strategy for faster convergence. A model level fuzzy aggregation measure driven background model maintenance ensures more robustness. Similarity functions are evaluated between the corresponding elements of the current feature vector and the model feature vectors. Concepts from Sugeno and Choquet integrals are incorporated in our algorithm to compute fuzzy similarities from the ordered similarity function values for each model. Model updating and the foreground/background classification decision is based on the set of fuzzy integrals. Our proposed algorithm is shown to outperform other multi-model background subtraction algorithms. The proposed approach completely avoids explicit offline training to initialize background model and can be initialized with moving objects also. The feature space uses a combination of intensity and statistical texture features for better object localization and robustness. Our qualitative and quantitative studies illustrate the mitigation of varieties of challenging situations by our approach. PMID:24235250

  20. COLOR INFLUENCES IDENTIFICATION OF THE MOVING OBJECTS MORE THAN SHAPE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suncica Zdravkovic

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available When people track moving objects, they concentrate on different characteristics.Recent results show that people more often concentrate on spatiotemporalthan featural properties of the objects. In other words, location and directionof motion seem to be more informative properties than the stable featuralcharacteristics. This finding contradicts some of our knowledge about cognitivesystem. Current research was done in attempt to specify the effect of featuralcharacteristics, especially color and shape. In Experiment 1, subjects were askedto track four mobile targets presented with another four moving objects. Afterthe motion has stopped, they had to mark the initial four targets. Our resultshave shown that participants pay more attention to the featural properties thanto spatiotemporal characteristics. Since our task was more difficult than thetasks typically reported in the literature, the results might be interpreted as if thesubjects relied mostly on attentional processes. The task in Experiment 2 wasmade even more difficult: the subjects were asked to direct attention on identityof every target. Consequently, the task demanded more complex cognitiveprocesses and emphasizing effects of featural properties. Results suggest thatcolor and shape does not have the same influences on multiple object tracking,but that color has more significant effect.