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Sample records for calibration method suitable

  1. Calibration method for ion mobility spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasiliev, Valery

    2011-01-01

    The new method for the calibration of the ion mobility spectrometer has been developed. This article describes the working principle, advantages and disadvantages of the calibration method operating in the mode of explosives detection. This method is most suitable for use in portable detectors, due to the small weight, small size parameters and low power consumption.

  2. Comparison of infusion pumps calibration methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batista, Elsa; Godinho, Isabel; do Céu Ferreira, Maria; Furtado, Andreia; Lucas, Peter; Silva, Claudia

    2017-12-01

    Nowadays, several types of infusion pump are commonly used for drug delivery, such as syringe pumps and peristaltic pumps. These instruments present different measuring features and capacities according to their use and therapeutic application. In order to ensure the metrological traceability of these flow and volume measuring equipment, it is necessary to use suitable calibration methods and standards. Two different calibration methods can be used to determine the flow error of infusion pumps. One is the gravimetric method, considered as a primary method, commonly used by National Metrology Institutes. The other calibration method, a secondary method, relies on an infusion device analyser (IDA) and is typically used by hospital maintenance offices. The suitability of the IDA calibration method was assessed by testing several infusion instruments at different flow rates using the gravimetric method. In addition, a measurement comparison between Portuguese Accredited Laboratories and hospital maintenance offices was performed under the coordination of the Portuguese Institute for Quality, the National Metrology Institute. The obtained results were directly related to the used calibration method and are presented in this paper. This work has been developed in the framework of the EURAMET projects EMRP MeDD and EMPIR 15SIP03.

  3. A calibration method for phoswich detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Gawlikowicz, W; Schröder, W U

    2002-01-01

    A new method of particle identification and energy calibration is proposed for phoswich detectors consisting of a fast plastic scintillator optically coupled to a CsI(Tl) crystal. In this method, functional relationships between integrated yields of three properly selected portions of the observed composite light output signal are parameterized in terms of three physical components (overlapping in time) of this signal. Then, a complete set of calibration constants is derived, linking these integrated partial yields to particle atomic numbers (Z) and energies (E). The calibration is based on the correlations between partial yields observed in actual data from the physics or 'production' runs, and energy deposits calculated for detector elements. The method is found suitable for a wide range of incident particle species and energies, largely eliminating the need for costly and time-consuming conventional calibration experiments with a variety of beams, targets, and bombarding energies.

  4. FTIR Calibration Methods and Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perron, Gaetan

    Over the past 10 years, several space-borne FTIR missions were launched for atmospheric research, environmental monitoring and meteorology. One can think of the Michelson Interferometer for Passive Atmospheric Sounding (MIPAS) launched by the European Space Agency, the Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment (ACE) launched by the Canadian Space Agency, the Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer (TES) launched by NASA and the Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer (IASI) launched by Eumetsat in Europe. Others are near to be launched, namely the Cross-track Infrared Sounder (CrIS) from the Integrated Program Of- fice in the United States and the Thermal And Near infrared Sensor for carbon Observation (TANSO) from the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency. Moreover, several missions under definition foresee the use of this technology as sensor, e.g. Meteosat Third Generation (MTG), Eumetsat Polar System (EPS) and the Premier mission, one of the six candidates of the next ESA Earth Explorer Core Mission. In order to produce good quality products, calibration is essential. Calibrated data is the output of three main sub-systems that are tightly coupled: the instrument, the calibration targets and the level 1B processor. Calibration requirements must be carefully defined and propagated to each sub-system. Often, they are carried out by different parties which add to the complexity. Under budget and schedule pressure, some aspects are sometimes neglected and jeopardized final quality. For space-borne FTIR, level 1B outputs are spectra that are radiometrically, spectrally calibrated and geolocated. Radiometric calibration means to assign an intensity value in units to the y-axis. Spectral calibration means to assign to the x-axis the proper frequency value in units. Finally, geolocated means to assign a target position over the earth geoid i.e. longitude, latitude and altitude. This paper will present calibration methods and issues related to space-borne FTIR missions, e.g. two

  5. Radioactive standards and calibration methods for contamination monitoring instruments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshida, Makoto [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    1997-06-01

    Contamination monitoring in the facilities for handling unsealed radioactive materials is one of the most important procedures for radiation protection as well as radiation dose monitoring. For implementation of the proper contamination monitoring, radiation measuring instruments should not only be suitable to the purpose of monitoring, but also be well calibrated for the objective qualities of measurement. In the calibration of contamination monitoring instruments, quality reference activities need to be used. They are supplied in different such as extended sources, radioactive solutions or radioactive gases. These reference activities must be traceable to the national standards or equivalent standards. On the other hand, the appropriate calibration methods must be applied for each type of contamination monitoring instruments. In this paper, the concepts of calibration for contamination monitoring instruments, reference sources, determination methods of reference quantities and practical calibration methods of contamination monitoring instruments, including the procedures carried out in Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute and some relevant experimental data. (G.K.)

  6. Suitability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bokdam, J.; Braeckel, van A.

    2002-01-01

    The suitability of grazing, burning, mowing and cutting as tools for succession control in peatland was assessed and expressed on a scale from 0 - 1. All management tools are suitable, but their effects are conditional. The suitability depends on the targeted vegetation transition and on their

  7. Calibration method for a radwaste assay system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dulama, C.; Dobrin, R.; Toma, Al.; Paunoiu, C.

    2004-01-01

    A waste assay system entirely designed and manufactured in the Institute for Nuclear Research is used in radwaste treatment and conditioning stream to ensure compliance with national repository radiological requirements. Usually, waste assay systems are calibrated by using various experimental arrangements including calibration phantoms. The paper presents a comparative study concerning the efficiency calibration performed by shell source method and a semiempirical, computational method based on a Monte Carlo algorithm. (authors)

  8. Immune Algorithm Complex Method for Transducer Calibration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YU Jiangming

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available As a key link in engineering test tasks, the transducer calibration has significant influence on accuracy and reliability of test results. Because of unknown and complex nonlinear characteristics, conventional method can’t achieve satisfactory accuracy. An Immune algorithm complex modeling approach is proposed, and the simulated studies on the calibration of third multiple output transducers is made respectively by use of the developed complex modeling. The simulated and experimental results show that the Immune algorithm complex modeling approach can improve significantly calibration precision comparison with traditional calibration methods.

  9. COMPARISON OF METHODS FOR GEOMETRIC CAMERA CALIBRATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Hieronymus

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Methods for geometric calibration of cameras in close-range photogrammetry are established and well investigated. The most common one is based on test-fields with well-known pattern, which are observed from different directions. The parameters of a distortion model are calculated using bundle-block-adjustment-algorithms. This methods works well for short focal lengths, but is essentially more problematic to use with large focal lengths. Those would require very large test-fields and surrounding space. To overcome this problem, there is another common method for calibration used in remote sensing. It employs measurements using collimator and a goniometer. A third calibration method uses diffractive optical elements (DOE to project holograms of well known pattern. In this paper these three calibration methods are compared empirically, especially in terms of accuracy. A camera has been calibrated with those methods mentioned above. All methods provide a set of distortion correction parameters as used by the photogrammetric software Australis. The resulting parameter values are very similar for all investigated methods. The three sets of distortion parameters are crosscompared against all three calibration methods. This is achieved by inserting the gained distortion parameters as fixed input into the calibration algorithms and only adjusting the exterior orientation. The RMS (root mean square of the remaining image coordinate residuals are taken as a measure of distortion correction quality. There are differences resulting from the different calibration methods. Nevertheless the measure is small for every comparison, which means that all three calibration methods can be used for accurate geometric calibration.

  10. Review of control rod calibration methods for irradiated AGRs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Telford, A. R.R.

    1975-10-15

    Methods of calibrating control rods with particular reference to irradiated CAGR are surveyed. Some systematic spatial effects are found and an estimate of their magnitude made. It is concluded that control rod oscillation provides a promising method of calibrating rods at power which is as yet untried on CAGR. Also the rod drop using inverse kinetics provides a rod calibration but spatial effects may be large and these would be difficult to correct theoretically. The pulsed neutron technique provides a calibration route with small errors due to spatial effects provided a suitable K-tube can be developed. The xenon transient method is shown to have spatial effects which have not needed consideration in earlier reactors but which in CAGR would need very careful evaluation.

  11. Radiation energy calibrating system and method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacobson, A.F.

    1980-01-01

    A radiation energy calibrating system and method which uses a pair of calibrated detectors for measurements of radiation intensity from x-ray tubes for a non-invasive determination of the electrical characteristics; I.E., the tube potential and/or current

  12. Toward metrological traceability for DNA fragment ratios in GM quantification. 3. Suitability of DNA calibrants studied with a MON 810 corn model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charels, Diana; Broeders, Sylvia; Corbisier, Philippe; Trapmann, Stefanie; Schimmel, Heinz; Emons, Hendrik

    2007-05-02

    The quantification of GMOs by real-time PCR relies on an external calibrant. In this paper the suitability of two DNA calibrants, genomic DNA from plant leaves and plasmidic DNA, was investigated. The PCR efficiencies, the correlation coefficients of the calibration curves, and the ratios between PCR efficiencies of transgenic and endogenous sequences were compared for both calibrants using 59 data sets produced by 43 laboratories. There were no significant differences between plasmidic and genomic DNA except for the PCR efficiencies of the calibration curves for the transgene of the construct-specific real-time PCR method. In the GM system investigated, PCR efficiencies of plasmidic calibrants were slightly closer to the PCR efficiencies observed for the unknowns than those of the genomic DNA calibrant. Therefore, plasmidic DNA was the more suitable calibrant for the PCR measurements on genomic DNA extracted from MON 810 seeds. It is shown that plasmidic DNA is an appropriate choice for the calibration of measurements of MON 810 corn with respect to the DNA copy number ratio.

  13. Review of Calibration Methods for Scheimpflug Camera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cong Sun

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The Scheimpflug camera offers a wide range of applications in the field of typical close-range photogrammetry, particle image velocity, and digital image correlation due to the fact that the depth-of-view of Scheimpflug camera can be greatly extended according to the Scheimpflug condition. Yet, the conventional calibration methods are not applicable in this case because the assumptions used by classical calibration methodologies are not valid anymore for cameras undergoing Scheimpflug condition. Therefore, various methods have been investigated to solve the problem over the last few years. However, no comprehensive review exists that provides an insight into recent calibration methods of Scheimpflug cameras. This paper presents a survey of recent calibration methods of Scheimpflug cameras with perspective lens, including the general nonparametric imaging model, and analyzes in detail the advantages and drawbacks of the mainstream calibration models with respect to each other. Real data experiments including calibrations, reconstructions, and measurements are performed to assess the performance of the models. The results reveal that the accuracies of the RMM, PLVM, PCIM, and GNIM are basically equal, while the accuracy of GNIM is slightly lower compared with the other three parametric models. Moreover, the experimental results reveal that the parameters of the tangential distortion are likely coupled with the tilt angle of the sensor in Scheimpflug calibration models. The work of this paper lays the foundation of further research of Scheimpflug cameras.

  14. Systems and methods of eye tracking calibration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    Methods and systems to facilitate eye tracking control calibration are provided. One or more objects are displayed on a display of a device, where the one or more objects are associated with a function unrelated to a calculation of one or more calibration parameters. The one or more calibration...... parameters relate to a calibration of a calculation of gaze information of a user of the device, where the gaze information indicates where the user is looking. While the one or more objects are displayed, eye movement information associated with the user is determined, which indicates eye movement of one...... or more eye features associated with at least one eye of the user. The eye movement information is associated with a first object location of the one or more objects. The one or more calibration parameters are calculated based on the first object location being associated with the eye movement information....

  15. Method of Calibrating a Force Balance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Peter A. (Inventor); Rhew, Ray D. (Inventor); Johnson, Thomas H. (Inventor); Landman, Drew (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    A calibration system and method utilizes acceleration of a mass to generate a force on the mass. An expected value of the force is calculated based on the magnitude and acceleration of the mass. A fixture is utilized to mount the mass to a force balance, and the force balance is calibrated to provide a reading consistent with the expected force determined for a given acceleration. The acceleration can be varied to provide different expected forces, and the force balance can be calibrated for different applied forces. The acceleration may result from linear acceleration of the mass or rotational movement of the mass.

  16. Calibration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greacen, E.L.; Correll, R.L.; Cunningham, R.B.; Johns, G.G.; Nicolls, K.D.

    1981-01-01

    Procedures common to different methods of calibration of neutron moisture meters are outlined and laboratory and field calibration methods compared. Gross errors which arise from faulty calibration techniques are described. The count rate can be affected by the dry bulk density of the soil, the volumetric content of constitutional hydrogen and other chemical components of the soil and soil solution. Calibration is further complicated by the fact that the neutron meter responds more strongly to the soil properties close to the detector and source. The differences in slope of calibration curves for different soils can be as much as 40%

  17. Method and apparatus for calibrating spectrophotometers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schreutelkamp, F.H.

    2003-01-01

    The present invention relates to a method of calibrating spectrophotometers by placing one or more filters in the light path of the spectrophotometer and measuring the amount of radiation by means of a detector. The present invention furthermore relates to an apparatus to be used with such a method.

  18. A simplified method of power calibration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, M.; Elliott, A.

    1974-01-01

    The Nuclear Reactor Facility, University of Missouri Rolla, has developed a unique method of power calibration for pool type reactors. Since water is incompressible it can be assumed that a rise in the water level of the pool while operating at power can be attributed to the heat input from the reactor core. Water level changes of a small magnitude are easily detectable. This method has proven to be less costly, less time consuming, and more reproducible than the conventional gold foil calibration, and has proven to be more accurate than a heat balance because several problems with heat flow through the walls and to the atmosphere are automatically compensated for with this method. The accuracy of this means of calibration depends upon the accuracy of the measurement of the water level and can normally be expected to be two to four percent. (author)

  19. A simplified method of power calibration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, M; Elliott, A [University of Missouri-Rolla (United States)

    1974-07-01

    The Nuclear Reactor Facility, University of Missouri Rolla, has developed a unique method of power calibration for pool type reactors. Since water is incompressible it can be assumed that a rise in the water level of the pool while operating at power can be attributed to the heat input from the reactor core. Water level changes of a small magnitude are easily detectable. This method has proven to be less costly, less time consuming, and more reproducible than the conventional gold foil calibration, and has proven to be more accurate than a heat balance because several problems with heat flow through the walls and to the atmosphere are automatically compensated for with this method. The accuracy of this means of calibration depends upon the accuracy of the measurement of the water level and can normally be expected to be two to four percent. (author)

  20. Advanced Method of the Elastomagnetic Sensors Calibration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikulas Prascak

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Elastomagnetic method (EM method is a highly sensitive non-contact evaluation method for measuring tensile and compressive stress in steel. The latest development of measuring devices and EM sensors has shown that the thermomagnetic phenomenon has a stron influence on th accuracy during the EM sensor calibration. To eliminate the influence of this effect a two dimensional regression method is presented.

  1. Calibration and uncertainty in electromagnetic fields measuring methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anglesio, L.; Crotti, G.; Borsero, M.; Vizio, G.

    1999-01-01

    Calibration and reliability in electromagnetic field measuring methods are assured by calibration of measuring instruments. In this work are illustrated systems for generation of electromagnetic fields at low and high frequency, calibration standard and accuracy [it

  2. Analysis of thermal power calibration method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zagar, T.; Ravnik, M.; Persic, A.

    2000-01-01

    The methods for determining fuel element burnup have recently become interesting because of activities related to the shipment of highly enriched fuel elements back to the United States for final disposal before 2009. The most common and practical method for determining fuel element burnup in research reactors is reactor calculation. Experience has shown that burnup calculations become complicated and biased with uncertainties if a long period of reactor operation must be reproduced. Besides this, accuracy of calculated burnup is always limited with accuracy of reactor power calibration, since burnup calculation is based on calculated power density distribution, which is usually expressed in terms of power released per fuel element and normalised to the reactor power It is obvious that reactor thermal power calibration is very important for precise fuel element burnup calculation. Calculated fuel element burnup is linearly dependent on the thermal reactor power. The reactor power level may be determined from measured absolute thermal flux distribution across the core in the horizontal and vertical planes. Flux distributions are measured with activation of cadmium covered and bare foils irradiated by the steady reactor power. But it should be realised that this method is time consuming and not accurate. This method is practical only for zero power reactors and is in practice very seldom performed for other reactors (e.g. for TRIGA reactor in Ljubljana absolute thermal flux distribution was not performed since reactor reconstruction in 1991). In case of power reactors and research reactors in which a temperature rise across the core is produced and measured than a heat balance method is the most common and accurate method of determining the power output of the core. The purpose of this paper is to analyse the accuracy of calorimetric reactor power calibration method and to analyse the influence of control rod position on nuclear detector reading for TRIGA reactors

  3. An Optimal Calibration Method for a MEMS Inertial Measurement Unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Fang

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available An optimal calibration method for a micro-electro-mechanical inertial measurement unit (MIMU is presented in this paper. The accuracy of the MIMU is highly dependent on calibration to remove the deterministic errors of systematic errors, which also contain random errors. The overlapping Allan variance is applied to characterize the types of random error terms in the measurements. The calibration model includes package misalignment error, sensor-to-sensor misalignment error and bias, and a scale factor is built. The new concept of a calibration method, which includes a calibration scheme and a calibration algorithm, is proposed. The calibration scheme is designed by D-optimal and the calibration algorithm is deduced by a Kalman filter. In addition, the thermal calibration is investigated, as the bias and scale factor varied with temperature. The simulations and real tests verify the effectiveness of the proposed calibration method and show that it is better than the traditional method.

  4. Studying the method of linearization of exponential calibration curves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bunzh, Z.A.

    1989-01-01

    The results of study of the method for linearization of exponential calibration curves are given. The calibration technique and comparison of the proposed method with piecewise-linear approximation and power series expansion, are given

  5. Suitability of the thermoluminescence method for detection of irradiated foods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinnioja, S.

    1993-01-01

    Irradiated foods can be detected by thermoluminescence (TL) of contaminating minerals. Altogether about 300 lots of herbs, spices, berries, mushrooms and seafood were studied by the TL method. Irradiated herbs and spices were easily differentiated from unirradiated ones two years after irradiation of a 10 kGy dose. The mineral composition of seafood was variable; and while calcite was suitable for the TL analysis, aragonite and smectite gave unreliable results. Control analyses during two years confirmed the reliability of TL method. (author)

  6. A novel iterative energy calibration method for composite germanium detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pattabiraman, N.S.; Chintalapudi, S.N.; Ghugre, S.S.

    2004-01-01

    An automatic method for energy calibration of the observed experimental spectrum has been developed. The method presented is based on an iterative algorithm and presents an efficient way to perform energy calibrations after establishing the weights of the calibration data. An application of this novel technique for data acquired using composite detectors in an in-beam γ-ray spectroscopy experiment is presented

  7. A novel iterative energy calibration method for composite germanium detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pattabiraman, N.S.; Chintalapudi, S.N.; Ghugre, S.S. E-mail: ssg@alpha.iuc.res.in

    2004-07-01

    An automatic method for energy calibration of the observed experimental spectrum has been developed. The method presented is based on an iterative algorithm and presents an efficient way to perform energy calibrations after establishing the weights of the calibration data. An application of this novel technique for data acquired using composite detectors in an in-beam {gamma}-ray spectroscopy experiment is presented.

  8. Calibration method of radiation monitoring system at TQNPC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Zhengshan; Zhang Qingli; Liu Jinjin; Miao Yuxing; Geng Lixin; Zhuang Yun; Dong Jianfeng; He Change

    2009-04-01

    The calibration methods and calibration device for standard monitor of radioactive particulate, iodine, noble gas and so on are not yet set up at home. On consideration of the present situation of the radiation monitoring system at the Third Qinshan Nuclear Power Co. Ltd., we have studied the calibration method of these radiation monitoring instruments used for measuring the waste liquid, particulate, iodine and noble gas produced during the operation of nuclear reactor. Through the check against these instruments during the No. 202 and No. 103 overhaul, we got initially the method of the calibration and obtained the transfer coefficient of calibration when secondary solid sources are used for calibration. Through the testing and calibration, the credibility of the radiation monitoring system is enhanced. And at the same time, the problems existing in the calibration are discussed. (authors)

  9. New method to calibrate a spinner anemometer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Demurtas, Giorgio; Friis Pedersen, Troels

    2014-01-01

    The spinner anemometer is a wind sensor, based on three one dimensional sonic sensor probes, mounted on the wind turbine spinner, and an algorithm to convert the wind speeds measured by the three sonic sensors to horizontal wind speed, yaw misalignment and flow inclination angle. The conversion...... algorithm utilizes two constants k1 and k2 that are specific to the spinner and blade root design and to the mounting position of the sonic sensors on the spinner. The two constants are calibrated by means of two different test and instrument set-ups. Both calibrations consider the rotor of the wind turbine...... to be stopped during calibration in order for the rotor induction not to influence on the calibration, so that the spinner anemometer measures ”free” wind values in stopped condition. The calibration of flow angle measurements is made by calibration of the ratio of the two algorithm constants k2=k1 = k...

  10. Calibration and intercomparison methods of dose calibrators used in nuclear medicine facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costa, Alessandro Martins da

    1999-01-01

    Dose calibrators are used in most of the nuclear medicine facilities to determine the amount of radioactivity administered to a patient in a particular investigation or therapeutic procedure. It is therefore of vital importance that the equipment used presents good performance and is regular;y calibrated at a authorized laboratory. This occurs of adequate quality assurance procedures are carried out. Such quality control tests should be performed daily, other biannually or yearly, testing, for example, its accuracy and precision, the reproducibility and response linearity. In this work a commercial dose calibrator was calibrated with solution of radionuclides used in nuclear medicine. Simple instrument tests, such as response linearity and the response variation of the source volume increase at a constant source activity concentration, were performed. This instrument can now be used as a working standard for calibration of other dose calibrators/ An intercomparison procedure was proposed as a method of quality control of dose calibrators used in nuclear medicine facilities. (author)

  11. Research on the calibration methods of the luminance parameter of radiation luminance meters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Weihai; Huang, Biyong; Lin, Fangsheng; Li, Tiecheng; Yin, Dejin; Lai, Lei

    2017-10-01

    This paper introduces standard diffusion reflection white plate method and integrating sphere standard luminance source method to calibrate the luminance parameter. The paper compares the effects of calibration results by using these two methods through principle analysis and experimental verification. After using two methods to calibrate the same radiation luminance meter, the data obtained verifies the testing results of the two methods are both reliable. The results show that the display value using standard white plate method has fewer errors and better reproducibility. However, standard luminance source method is more convenient and suitable for on-site calibration. Moreover, standard luminance source method has wider range and can test the linear performance of the instruments.

  12. Selection of suitable NDT methods for building inspection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauzi Ismail, Mohamad

    2017-11-01

    Construction of modern structures requires good quality concrete with adequate strength and durability. Several accidents occurred in the civil constructions and were reported in the media. Such accidents were due to poor workmanship and lack of systematic monitoring during the constructions. In addition, water leaking and cracking in residential houses was commonly reported too. Based on these facts, monitoring the quality of concrete in structures is becoming more and more important subject. This paper describes major Non-destructive Testing (NDT) methods for evaluating structural integrity of concrete building. Some interesting findings during actual NDT inspections on site are presented. The NDT methods used are explained, compared and discussed. The suitable methods are suggested as minimum NDT methods to cover parameters required in the inspection.

  13. Methods for calibrating radioactivity well logging tools

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waggoner, J.A.; Turcotte, R.E.; Hunt-Grubbe, R.H.

    1981-01-01

    Field-calibrating of well-logging tools is achieved by means of a sleeve, which has radioactive material distributed therein, and which envelopes the portion of the tool housing containing the detector. Accurate calibration can be performed and the source can be made considerably weaker than those now in use as it can be brought very close to the detector thus lessening errors. (U.K.)

  14. Numerical design and testing of a sound source for secondary calibration of microphones using the Boundary Element Method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cutanda Henriquez, Vicente; Juhl, Peter Møller; Barrera Figueroa, Salvador

    2009-01-01

    Secondary calibration of microphones in free field is performed by placing the microphone under calibration in an anechoic chamber with a sound source, and exposing it to a controlled sound field. A calibrated microphone is also measured as a reference. While the two measurements are usually made...... apart to avoid acoustic interaction. As a part of the project Euromet-792, aiming to investigate and improve methods for secondary free-field calibration of microphones, a sound source suitable for simultaneous secondary free-field calibration has been designed using the Boundary Element Method...... of the Danish Fundamental Metrology Institute (DFM). The design and verification of the source are presented in this communication....

  15. Unexplored Indoors method for pyranometers calibration traceable to SI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castillo-Matadamas, H A; Molina-Vazquez, J C; Quintero-Torres, R

    2015-01-01

    A method to calibrate pyranometers with direct traceability to the International System of Units (SI) is presented, the method use an electrically calibrated pyroelectric detector (ECPR) as standard and offers numerous advantages over outdoors conventional calibration methods, such as reducing the uncertainty from the reference standard and the final uncertainty of the sensitivity coefficient of the calibrated pyranometer; the measurement uncertainty achieved with this method at normal irradiance is 2.1% for a coverage factor k = 2 and could be reduce if one reduces the uncertainty level of the reference standard

  16. Determination of Selection Method in Genetic Algorithm for Land Suitability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irfianti Asti Dwi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Genetic Algoirthm is one alternative solution in the field of modeling optimization, automatic programming and machine learning. The purpose of the study was to compare some type of selection methods in Genetic Algorithm for land suitability. Contribution of this research applies the best method to develop region based horticultural commodities. This testing is done by comparing the three methods on the method of selection, the Roulette Wheel, Tournament Selection and Stochastic Universal Sampling. Parameters of the locations used in the test scenarios include Temperature = 27°C, Rainfall = 1200 mm, hummidity = 30%, Cluster fruit = 4, Crossover Probabiitiy (Pc = 0.6, Mutation Probabilty (Pm = 0.2 and Epoch = 10. The second test epoch incluides location parameters consist of Temperature = 30°C, Rainfall = 2000 mm, Humidity = 35%, Cluster fruit = 5, Crossover Probability (Pc = 0.7, Mutation Probability (Pm = 0.3 and Epoch 10. The conclusion of this study shows that the Roulette Wheel is the best method because it produces more stable and fitness value than the other two methods.

  17. Calibration Methods for Reliability-Based Design Codes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gayton, N.; Mohamed, A.; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard

    2004-01-01

    The calibration methods are applied to define the optimal code format according to some target safety levels. The calibration procedure can be seen as a specific optimization process where the control variables are the partial factors of the code. Different methods are available in the literature...

  18. Application of effective variance method for contamination monitor calibration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goncalez, O.L.; Freitas, I.S.M. de.

    1990-01-01

    In this report, the calibration of a thin window Geiger-Muller type monitor for alpha superficial contamination is presented. The calibration curve is obtained by the method of the least-squares fitting with effective variance. The method and the approach for the calculation are briefly discussed. (author)

  19. Comparison of different calibration methods suited for calibration problems with many variables

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holst, Helle

    1992-01-01

    This paper describes and compares different kinds of statistical methods proposed in the literature as suited for solving calibration problems with many variables. These are: principal component regression, partial least-squares, and ridge regression. The statistical techniques themselves do...

  20. A novel PET camera calibration method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yerian, K.; Hartz, R.K.; Gaeta, J.M.; Marani, S.; Wong, W.H.; Bristow, D.; Mullani, N.A.

    1985-01-01

    Reconstructed time-of-flight PET images must be corrected for differences in the sensitivity of detector pairs, variations in the TOF gain between groups of detector pairs, and for shifts in the detector-pair timing windows. These calibration values are measured for each detector-pair coincidence line using a positron emitting ring source. The quality of the measured value for a detector pair depends on its statistics. To improve statistics, algorithms are developed which derive individual detector calibration values for efficiency, TOF offsets, and TOF fwhm from the raw detector-pair measurements. For the author's current TOFPET system there are 162,000 detector pairs which are reduced to 720 individual detector values. The data for individual detectors are subsequently recombined, improving the statistical quality of the resultant detector-pair values. In addition, storage requirements are significantly reduced by saving the individual detector values. These parameters are automatically evaluated on a routine basis and problem detectors reported for adjustment or replacement. Decomposing the detector-pair measurements into individual detector values significantly improves the calibration values used to correct camera artifacts in PET imaging

  1. Evaluation of methods to calibrate radiation survey meters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robinson, R.C.; Arbeau, N.D.

    1987-04-01

    Calibration requirements for radiation survey meters used in industrial radiography have been reviewed. Information obtained from a literature search, discussions with CSLD inspectors and firms performing calibrations has been considered. Based on this review a set of minimum calibration requirements was generated which, when met, will determine that the survey meter is suited for measurements described in the current AEC Regulations that apply to industrial radiography equipment. These requirements are presented in this report and may be used as guidelines for evaluating calibration methods proposed or in use in industry. 39 refs

  2. Novel crystal timing calibration method based on total variation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xingjian; Isobe, Takashi; Watanabe, Mitsuo; Liu, Huafeng

    2016-11-01

    A novel crystal timing calibration method based on total variation (TV), abbreviated as ‘TV merge’, has been developed for a high-resolution positron emission tomography (PET) system. The proposed method was developed for a system with a large number of crystals, it can provide timing calibration at the crystal level. In the proposed method, the timing calibration process was formulated as a linear problem. To robustly optimize the timing resolution, a TV constraint was added to the linear equation. Moreover, to solve the computer memory problem associated with the calculation of the timing calibration factors for systems with a large number of crystals, the merge component was used for obtaining the crystal level timing calibration values. Compared with other conventional methods, the data measured from a standard cylindrical phantom filled with a radioisotope solution was sufficient for performing a high-precision crystal-level timing calibration. In this paper, both simulation and experimental studies were performed to demonstrate the effectiveness and robustness of the TV merge method. We compare the timing resolutions of a 22Na point source, which was located in the field of view (FOV) of the brain PET system, with various calibration techniques. After implementing the TV merge method, the timing resolution improved from 3.34 ns at full width at half maximum (FWHM) to 2.31 ns FWHM.

  3. Dose measurement method suitable for management of food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Ryuichi

    1990-01-01

    The report describes major features of dose measurement performed for the management of food irradiation processes, and dose measuring methods suitable for this purpose, and outlines some activities for establishing international standards for dose measurement. Traceability studies made recently are also reviewed. Compared with the sterilization of medical materials, food irradiation is different in some major points from a viewpoint of dose measurement: foods can undergo significant changes in bulk density, depending on its properties, during irradiation, and the variation in the uniformity of bulk density can be large within an irradiation unit and among different units. An accurate dosimeter and well-established traceability are essential for food irradiation control, and basically a dosimeter should be high in reproducibility and stable in dose response, and should be easy to readjust for eliminating systematic errors. A new type of dosimeter was developed recently, in which ESR is used to measure the free radicals generated by radiations in crystals of alanine, an amino acid. Standardization of large dose measurement procedures has been carried out by committee E10 set up under ASTM. (N.K.)

  4. Design of calibration method in neutron and individual dosimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belkhodia, M.

    1984-12-01

    Usually albedo dosemeters are calibrated with beam of monoenergetic neutrons. Since neutron energy around neutron sources varies greatly, we applied the calibration method to a mixed field whose energy spectrum lies between 0.025 ev and 10 Mev. The method is based on a mathematical model that deals with the dosimeter response as a function at the neutron energy. The measurements carried out with solid state nuclear track detectors show the dosimeter practical aspect. The albedo dosimeter calibration gave results on good agreement with the international institution recommendations

  5. Calibration methods for ECE systems with microwave sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tubbing, B.J.D.; Kissel, S.E.

    1987-01-01

    The authors investigated the feasibility of two methods for calibration of electron cyclotron emission (ECE) systems, both based on the use of a microwave source. In the first method -called the Antenna Pattern Integration (API) method - the microwave source is scanned in space, so as to simulate a large - area - blackbody -source. In the second method -called the Untuned Cavity (UC) method -an untuned cavity, fed by the microwave source, is used to simulate a blackbody. For both methods, the hardware required to perform partly automated calibrations was developed. The microwave based methods were compared with a large area blackbody calibration on two different ECE systems, a Michelson interferometer and a grating polychromator. The API method was found to be more successful than the UC method. (author)

  6. Improvements on the directional characteristics of a calibration sound source using the Boundary Element Method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriquez, Vicente Cutanda; Barrera Figueroa, Salvador; Juhl, Peter Møller

    2008-01-01

    is of particular importance to achieve a sound field that reaches both microphones with the same level and that is sufficiently uniform at the microphone positions, in order to reduce the effect of misalignment. An existing sound source has been modeled using the Boundary Element Method, and the simulations have......The project Euromet-792 aims to investigate and improve methods for secondary free-field calibration of microphones. In this framework, the comparison method is being studied at DFM in relation to the more usual substitution method of microphone calibration. The design of the sound source...... been used to modify the source and make it suitable for this kind of calibration. It has been found that a central plug, already present in the device, can be re-shaped in such a way that makes the sound field on the microphone positions more uniform, even at rather high frequencies. Measurements have...

  7. Magnetometer and Gyroscope Calibration Method with Level Rotation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zongkai Wu

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Micro electro mechanical system (MEMS gyroscopes and magnetometers are usually integrated into a sensor module or chip and widely used in a variety of applications. In existing integrated gyroscope and magnetometer calibration methods, rotation in all possible orientations is a necessary condition for a good calibration result. However, rotation around two or more axes is difficult to attain, as it is limited by the range of movement of vehicles such as cars, ships, or planes. To solve this problem, this paper proposes an integrated magnetometer and gyroscope calibration method with level rotation. The proposed method presents a redefined magnetometer output model using level attitude. New gyroscope and magnetometer calibration models are then deduced. In addition, a simplified cubature Kalman filter (CKF is established to estimate calibration parameters. This method possesses important value for application in actual systems, as it only needs level rotation for real-time calibration of gyroscopes and magnetometers. Theoretical analysis and test results verify the validity and feasibility of this method.

  8. A Statistic-Based Calibration Method for TIADC System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuojun Yang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Time-interleaved technique is widely used to increase the sampling rate of analog-to-digital converter (ADC. However, the channel mismatches degrade the performance of time-interleaved ADC (TIADC. Therefore, a statistic-based calibration method for TIADC is proposed in this paper. The average value of sampling points is utilized to calculate offset error, and the summation of sampling points is used to calculate gain error. After offset and gain error are obtained, they are calibrated by offset and gain adjustment elements in ADC. Timing skew is calibrated by an iterative method. The product of sampling points of two adjacent subchannels is used as a metric for calibration. The proposed method is employed to calibrate mismatches in a four-channel 5 GS/s TIADC system. Simulation results show that the proposed method can estimate mismatches accurately in a wide frequency range. It is also proved that an accurate estimation can be obtained even if the signal noise ratio (SNR of input signal is 20 dB. Furthermore, the results obtained from a real four-channel 5 GS/s TIADC system demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method. We can see that the spectra spurs due to mismatches have been effectively eliminated after calibration.

  9. Two laboratory methods for the calibration of GPS speed meters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bai, Yin; Sun, Qiao; Du, Lei; Yu, Mei; Bai, Jie

    2015-01-01

    The set-ups of two calibration systems are presented to investigate calibration methods of GPS speed meters. The GPS speed meter calibrated is a special type of high accuracy speed meter for vehicles which uses Doppler demodulation of GPS signals to calculate the measured speed of a moving target. Three experiments are performed: including simulated calibration, field-test signal replay calibration, and in-field test comparison with an optical speed meter. The experiments are conducted at specific speeds in the range of 40–180 km h −1 with the same GPS speed meter as the device under calibration. The evaluation of measurement results validates both methods for calibrating GPS speed meters. The relative deviations between the measurement results of the GPS-based high accuracy speed meter and those of the optical speed meter are analyzed, and the equivalent uncertainty of the comparison is evaluated. The comparison results justify the utilization of GPS speed meters as reference equipment if no fewer than seven satellites are available. This study contributes to the widespread use of GPS-based high accuracy speed meters as legal reference equipment in traffic speed metrology. (paper)

  10. Determining the most suitable method of otolith preparation for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study compares sectioned and whole lapillus and asterisci otoliths as suitable structures for ageing tigerfish, Hydrocynus vittatus. Fifty tigerfish were collected from the Pongolapoort Dam, KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. Growth zone counts on sectioned lapilli showed the greatest percentage agreement (52%) and highest ...

  11. Calibrations of pocket dosemeters using a comparison method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Somarriba V, I.

    1996-01-01

    This monograph is dedicated mainly to the calibration of pocket dosemeters. Various types of radiation sources used in hospitals and different radiation detectors with emphasis on ionization chambers are briefly presented. Calibration methods based on the use of a reference dosemeter were developed to calibrate all pocket dosemeters existing at the Radiation Physics and Metrology Laboratory. Some of these dosemeters were used in personnel dosimetry at hospitals. Moreover, a study was realized about factors that affect the measurements with pocket dosemeters in the long term, such as discharges due to cosmic radiation. A DBASE IV program was developed to store the information included in the hospital's registry

  12. Innovative Calibration Method for System Level Simulation Models of Internal Combustion Engines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivo Prah

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper outlines a procedure for the computer-controlled calibration of the combined zero-dimensional (0D and one-dimensional (1D thermodynamic simulation model of a turbocharged internal combustion engine (ICE. The main purpose of the calibration is to determine input parameters of the simulation model in such a way as to achieve the smallest difference between the results of the measurements and the results of the numerical simulations with minimum consumption of the computing time. An innovative calibration methodology is based on a novel interaction between optimization methods and physically based methods of the selected ICE sub-systems. Therein physically based methods were used for steering the division of the integral ICE to several sub-models and for determining parameters of selected components considering their governing equations. Innovative multistage interaction between optimization methods and physically based methods allows, unlike the use of well-established methods that rely only on the optimization techniques, for successful calibration of a large number of input parameters with low time consumption. Therefore, the proposed method is suitable for efficient calibration of simulation models of advanced ICEs.

  13. Development of pre-critical excore detector linear subchannel calibration method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Yoo Sun; Goo, Bon Seung; Cha, Kyun Ho; Lee, Chang Seop; Kim, Yong Hee; Ahn, Chul Soo; Kim, Man Soo

    2001-01-01

    The improved pre-critical excore detector linear subchannel calibration method has been developed to improve the applicability of pre-critical calibration method. The existing calibration method does not always guarantee the accuracy of pre-critical calibration because the calibration results of the previous cycle are not reflected into the current cycle calibration. The developed method has a desirable feature that calibration error would not be propagated in the following cycles since the calibration data determined in previous cycle is incorporated in the current cycle calibration. The pre-critical excore detector linear calibration is tested for YGN unit 3 and UCN unit 3 to evaluate its characteristics and accuracy

  14. A suitability study of the fission product phantom and the bottle manikin absorption phantom for calibration of in vivo bioassay equipment for the DOELAP accreditation testing program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olsen, P.C.; Lynch, T.P.

    1991-08-01

    Pacific Northwest laboratory (PNL) conducted an intercomparison study of the Fission Product phantom and the bottle manikin absorption (BOMAB) phantom for the US Department of Energy (DOE) to determine the consistency of calibration response of the two phantoms and their suitability for certification and use under a planned bioassay laboratory accreditation program. The study was initiated to determine calibration factors for both types of phantoms and to evaluate the suitability of their use in DOE Laboratory Accreditation Program (DOELAP) round-robin testing. The BOMAB was found to be more appropriate for the DOELAP testing program. 9 refs., 9 figs., 9 tabs

  15. On the calibration methods for neutron moisture gauges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Apostol, I.

    1975-01-01

    Theoretical and experimental calibration methods for devices using neutron sources to measure the water content in subsurface soil and other samples are investigated. Neutron flux density is evaluated by means of the two and three group diffusion and Fermi age theories. The correction criteria for the calibration curves are presented. The agreement of the theoretical curves with the determined experimental data may be considered as excellent. (author)

  16. AN IMPROVED INTERFEROMETRIC CALIBRATION METHOD BASED ON INDEPENDENT PARAMETER DECOMPOSITION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Fan

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Interferometric SAR is sensitive to earth surface undulation. The accuracy of interferometric parameters plays a significant role in precise digital elevation model (DEM. The interferometric calibration is to obtain high-precision global DEM by calculating the interferometric parameters using ground control points (GCPs. However, interferometric parameters are always calculated jointly, making them difficult to decompose precisely. In this paper, we propose an interferometric calibration method based on independent parameter decomposition (IPD. Firstly, the parameters related to the interferometric SAR measurement are determined based on the three-dimensional reconstruction model. Secondly, the sensitivity of interferometric parameters is quantitatively analyzed after the geometric parameters are completely decomposed. Finally, each interferometric parameter is calculated based on IPD and interferometric calibration model is established. We take Weinan of Shanxi province as an example and choose 4 TerraDEM-X image pairs to carry out interferometric calibration experiment. The results show that the elevation accuracy of all SAR images is better than 2.54 m after interferometric calibration. Furthermore, the proposed method can obtain the accuracy of DEM products better than 2.43 m in the flat area and 6.97 m in the mountainous area, which can prove the correctness and effectiveness of the proposed IPD based interferometric calibration method. The results provide a technical basis for topographic mapping of 1 : 50000 and even larger scale in the flat area and mountainous area.

  17. An Improved Interferometric Calibration Method Based on Independent Parameter Decomposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, J.; Zuo, X.; Li, T.; Chen, Q.; Geng, X.

    2018-04-01

    Interferometric SAR is sensitive to earth surface undulation. The accuracy of interferometric parameters plays a significant role in precise digital elevation model (DEM). The interferometric calibration is to obtain high-precision global DEM by calculating the interferometric parameters using ground control points (GCPs). However, interferometric parameters are always calculated jointly, making them difficult to decompose precisely. In this paper, we propose an interferometric calibration method based on independent parameter decomposition (IPD). Firstly, the parameters related to the interferometric SAR measurement are determined based on the three-dimensional reconstruction model. Secondly, the sensitivity of interferometric parameters is quantitatively analyzed after the geometric parameters are completely decomposed. Finally, each interferometric parameter is calculated based on IPD and interferometric calibration model is established. We take Weinan of Shanxi province as an example and choose 4 TerraDEM-X image pairs to carry out interferometric calibration experiment. The results show that the elevation accuracy of all SAR images is better than 2.54 m after interferometric calibration. Furthermore, the proposed method can obtain the accuracy of DEM products better than 2.43 m in the flat area and 6.97 m in the mountainous area, which can prove the correctness and effectiveness of the proposed IPD based interferometric calibration method. The results provide a technical basis for topographic mapping of 1 : 50000 and even larger scale in the flat area and mountainous area.

  18. Color calibration and color-managed medical displays: does the calibration method matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roehrig, Hans; Rehm, Kelly; Silverstein, Louis D.; Dallas, William J.; Fan, Jiahua; Krupinski, Elizabeth A.

    2010-02-01

    Our laboratory has investigated the efficacy of a suite of color calibration and monitor profiling packages which employ a variety of color measurement sensors. Each of the methods computes gamma correction tables for the red, green and blue color channels of a monitor that attempt to: a) match a desired luminance range and tone reproduction curve; and b) maintain a target neutral point across the range of grey values. All of the methods examined here produce International Color Consortium (ICC) profiles that describe the color rendering capabilities of the monitor after calibration. Color profiles incorporate a transfer matrix that establishes the relationship between RGB driving levels and the International Commission on Illumination (CIE) XYZ (tristimulus) values of the resulting on-screen color; the matrix is developed by displaying color patches of known RGB values on the monitor and measuring the tristimulus values with a sensor. The number and chromatic distribution of color patches varies across methods and is usually not under user control. In this work we examine the effect of employing differing calibration and profiling methods on rendition of color images. A series of color patches encoded in sRGB color space were presented on the monitor using color-management software that utilized the ICC profile produced by each method. The patches were displayed on the calibrated monitor and measured with a Minolta CS200 colorimeter. Differences in intended and achieved luminance and chromaticity were computed using the CIE DE2000 color-difference metric, in which a value of ▵E = 1 is generally considered to be approximately one just noticeable difference (JND) in color. We observed between one and 17 JND's for individual colors, depending on calibration method and target.

  19. Standardization of calibration method of whole-body counter. 1. Calibration by using anthropometric phantoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishikawa, Tetsuo; Matsumoto, Masaki; Uchiyama, Masafumi; Kobayashi, Sadayoshi; Mizushita, Seiichi.

    1995-01-01

    To standardize the calibration methods of whole-body counters, three anthropometric phantoms were manufactured based on dozens of Japanese average value of body size data. Using these phantoms, the calibrations of some whole-body counters were carried out and the comparison of counting efficiency between anthropometric phantoms and block phantoms, which used to be used for the calibration of whole-body counters generally, was implemented. Five whole-body counters, one scanning system, two stationary systems and two chair systems, were used for this study. The following results were derived: As an example, in NIRS scanning system, the counting efficiency of anthropometric phantom of 162cm height was 12.7% greater than that of block phantom of the same height. This means 137 Cs body burdens in adult men used to be estimated with the excess of about 10%. Body burdens tended to be estimated excessively in adult because the difference of counting efficiency between anthropometric phantom and block phantom increases with increase of height. To standardize body burden data measured with various whole-body counters, the calibration of each whole-body counter should be conducted using anthropometric phantoms and phantoms which used to be used for the calibration of that whole-body counter. (author)

  20. Nanoscale array structures suitable for surface enhanced raman scattering and methods related thereto

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bond, Tiziana C.; Miles, Robin; Davidson, James C.; Liu, Gang Logan

    2014-07-22

    Methods for fabricating nanoscale array structures suitable for surface enhanced Raman scattering, structures thus obtained, and methods to characterize the nanoscale array structures suitable for surface enhanced Raman scattering. Nanoscale array structures may comprise nanotrees, nanorecesses and tapered nanopillars.

  1. Nanoscale array structures suitable for surface enhanced raman scattering and methods related thereto

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bond, Tiziana C; Miles, Robin; Davidson, James; Liu, Gang Logan

    2015-11-03

    Methods for fabricating nanoscale array structures suitable for surface enhanced Raman scattering, structures thus obtained, and methods to characterize the nanoscale array structures suitable for surface enhanced Raman scattering. Nanoscale array structures may comprise nanotrees, nanorecesses and tapered nanopillars.

  2. Nanoscale array structures suitable for surface enhanced raman scattering and methods related thereto

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bond, Tiziana C.; Miles, Robin; Davidson, James C.; Liu, Gang Logan

    2015-07-14

    Methods for fabricating nanoscale array structures suitable for surface enhanced Raman scattering, structures thus obtained, and methods to characterize the nanoscale array structures suitable for surface enhanced Raman scattering. Nanoscale array structures may comprise nanotrees, nanorecesses and tapered nanopillars.

  3. Geometric calibration method for multiple head cone beam SPECT systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rizo, Ph.; Grangeat, P.; Guillemaud, R.; Sauze, R.

    1993-01-01

    A method is presented for performing geometric calibration on Single Photon Emission Tomography (SPECT) cone beam systems with multiple cone beam collimators, each having its own orientation parameters. This calibration method relies on the fact that, in tomography, for each head, the relative position of the rotation axis and of the collimator does not change during the acquisition. In order to ensure the method stability, the parameters to be estimated in intrinsic parameters and extrinsic parameters are separated. The intrinsic parameters describe the acquisition geometry and the extrinsic parameters position of the detection system with respect to the rotation axis. (authors) 3 refs

  4. A novel calibration method for non-orthogonal shaft laser theodolite measurement system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Bin, E-mail: wubin@tju.edu.cn, E-mail: xueting@tju.edu.cn; Yang, Fengting; Ding, Wen [State Key Laboratory of Precision Measuring Technology and Instruments, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China); Xue, Ting, E-mail: wubin@tju.edu.cn, E-mail: xueting@tju.edu.cn [College of Electrical Engineering and Automation, Tianjin Key Laboratory of Process Measurement and Control, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China)

    2016-03-15

    Non-orthogonal shaft laser theodolite (N-theodolite) is a new kind of large-scale metrological instrument made up by two rotary tables and one collimated laser. There are three axes for an N-theodolite. According to naming conventions in traditional theodolite, rotary axes of two rotary tables are called as horizontal axis and vertical axis, respectively, and the collimated laser beam is named as sight axis. And the difference between N-theodolite and traditional theodolite is obvious, since the former one with no orthogonal and intersecting accuracy requirements. So the calibration method for traditional theodolite is no longer suitable for N-theodolite, while the calibration method applied currently is really complicated. Thus this paper introduces a novel calibration method for non-orthogonal shaft laser theodolite measurement system to simplify the procedure and to improve the calibration accuracy. A simple two-step process, calibration for intrinsic parameters and for extrinsic parameters, is proposed by the novel method. And experiments have shown its efficiency and accuracy.

  5. A calibration method for PLLs based on transient response

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cassia, Marco; Shah, Peter Jivan; Bruun, Erik

    2004-01-01

    A novel method to calibrate the frequency response of a Phase-Locked Loop is presented. The method requires just an additional digital counter and an auxiliary Phase-Frequency Detector (PFD) to measure the natural frequency of the PLL. The measured value can be used to tune the PLL response...

  6. Reliably detectable flaw size for NDE methods that use calibration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koshti, Ajay M.

    2017-04-01

    Probability of detection (POD) analysis is used in assessing reliably detectable flaw size in nondestructive evaluation (NDE). MIL-HDBK-1823 and associated mh18232 POD software gives most common methods of POD analysis. In this paper, POD analysis is applied to an NDE method, such as eddy current testing, where calibration is used. NDE calibration standards have known size artificial flaws such as electro-discharge machined (EDM) notches and flat bottom hole (FBH) reflectors which are used to set instrument sensitivity for detection of real flaws. Real flaws such as cracks and crack-like flaws are desired to be detected using these NDE methods. A reliably detectable crack size is required for safe life analysis of fracture critical parts. Therefore, it is important to correlate signal responses from real flaws with signal responses form artificial flaws used in calibration process to determine reliably detectable flaw size.

  7. A Method to Test Model Calibration Techniques: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Judkoff, Ron; Polly, Ben; Neymark, Joel

    2016-09-01

    This paper describes a method for testing model calibration techniques. Calibration is commonly used in conjunction with energy retrofit audit models. An audit is conducted to gather information about the building needed to assemble an input file for a building energy modeling tool. A calibration technique is used to reconcile model predictions with utility data, and then the 'calibrated model' is used to predict energy savings from a variety of retrofit measures and combinations thereof. Current standards and guidelines such as BPI-2400 and ASHRAE-14 set criteria for 'goodness of fit' and assume that if the criteria are met, then the calibration technique is acceptable. While it is logical to use the actual performance data of the building to tune the model, it is not certain that a good fit will result in a model that better predicts post-retrofit energy savings. Therefore, the basic idea here is that the simulation program (intended for use with the calibration technique) is used to generate surrogate utility bill data and retrofit energy savings data against which the calibration technique can be tested. This provides three figures of merit for testing a calibration technique, 1) accuracy of the post-retrofit energy savings prediction, 2) closure on the 'true' input parameter values, and 3) goodness of fit to the utility bill data. The paper will also discuss the pros and cons of using this synthetic surrogate data approach versus trying to use real data sets of actual buildings.

  8. Fast film dosimetry calibration method for IMRT treatment plan verification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwob, N.; Wygoda, A.

    2004-01-01

    Intensity-Modulated Radiation Therapy (IMRT) treatments are delivered dynamically and as so, require routinely performed verification measurements [1]. Radiographic film dosimetry is a well-adapted method for integral measurements of dynamic treatments fields, with some drawbacks related to the known problems of dose calibration of films. Classically, several films are exposed to increasing doses, and a Net Optical Density (N.O.D) vs. dose sensitometric curve (S.C.) is generated. In order to speed up the process, some authors have developed a method based on the irradiation of a single film with a non-uniform pattern of O.D., delivered with a dynamic MLC. However, this curve still needs to be calibrated to dose by the means of measurements in a water phantom. It is recommended to make a new calibration for every series of measurements, in order to avoid the processing quality dependence of the film response. These frequent measurements are very time consuming. We developed a simple method for quick dose calibration of films, including a check of the accuracy of the calibration curve obtained

  9. A geometry calibration method for rotation translation trajectory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Jun; Yan Bin; Li Lei; Lu Lizhong; Zhang Feng

    2013-01-01

    In cone-beam CT imaging system, it is difficult to directly measure the geometry parameters. In this paper, a geometry calibration method for rotation translation trajectory is proposed. Intrinsic parameters are solved from the relationship built on geometry parameter of the system and projection trajectory of calibration object. Parameters of rotation axis are extrapolated from the unified intrinsic parameter, and geometry parameters of the idle trajectory are acquired too. The calibration geometry can be analytically determined using explicit formulae, it can avoid getting into local optimum in iterative way. Simulation experiments are carried out on misaligned geometry, experiment results indicate that geometry artifacts due to misaligned geometry are effectively depressed by the proposed method, and the image quality is enhanced. (authors)

  10. Development of Method for X-band Weather Radar Calibration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jesper Ellerbæk; Thorndahl, Søren Liedtke; Rasmussen, Michael R.

    2013-01-01

    Calibration of the X-band LAWR (Local Area Weather Radar) is traditionally based on an assumed linear relation between the LAWRradar output and the rainfall intensity. However, closer inspections of the data reveal that the validity of this linear assumption is doubtful. Previous studies of this ......Calibration of the X-band LAWR (Local Area Weather Radar) is traditionally based on an assumed linear relation between the LAWRradar output and the rainfall intensity. However, closer inspections of the data reveal that the validity of this linear assumption is doubtful. Previous studies...... of this type of weather radar have also illustrated that the radar commonly has difficulties in estimating high rain rates. Therefore, a new radar–rainfall transformation model and a calibration method have been developed. The new method is based on nonlinear assumptions and is aimed at describing the whole...

  11. An Expectation-Maximization Method for Calibrating Synchronous Machine Models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meng, Da; Zhou, Ning; Lu, Shuai; Lin, Guang

    2013-07-21

    The accuracy of a power system dynamic model is essential to its secure and efficient operation. Lower confidence in model accuracy usually leads to conservative operation and lowers asset usage. To improve model accuracy, this paper proposes an expectation-maximization (EM) method to calibrate the synchronous machine model using phasor measurement unit (PMU) data. First, an extended Kalman filter (EKF) is applied to estimate the dynamic states using measurement data. Then, the parameters are calculated based on the estimated states using maximum likelihood estimation (MLE) method. The EM method iterates over the preceding two steps to improve estimation accuracy. The proposed EM method’s performance is evaluated using a single-machine infinite bus system and compared with a method where both state and parameters are estimated using an EKF method. Sensitivity studies of the parameter calibration using EM method are also presented to show the robustness of the proposed method for different levels of measurement noise and initial parameter uncertainty.

  12. Experimental facility and void fraction calibration methods for impedance probes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Fernando L. de; Rocha, Marcelo S., E-mail: floliveira@ipen.br, E-mail: msrocha@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    An experimental facility was designed and constructed with aims of to calibrate a capacitance probe for gas-liquid flow void fraction measurements. The facility is composed of a metallic hack with a vertical 2,300 mm high glass tube with 38 mm ID with stagnant water and compressed air bubbling system simulating the gas phase (vapor). At the lower part, a mixing section with a porous media element releases the air bubbles into the water, and the compressed air flow is measured by two calibrated rotameters. At the upper part a stagnant water tank separates the liquid and gas. Two pressure taps are located near the lower and upper sides of the glass tube for pressure difference measurement. The pressure difference is used for low void fraction values (0-15%) calibration methods, as described in the work. Two electrically controlled quick closing valves are installed between the porous media element and the upward separation tank for high void fraction values measurement (15-50%) used to calibrate the capacitance probe. The experimental facility design, construction, capacitance probe calibration methods and results, as well as flow pattern visualization, are presented. Finally, the capacitance probe will be installed on a natural circulation circuit mounted at the Nuclear Engineering Center (CEN/IPEN/CNEN-SP) for measurement of the instantaneous bulk void. Instantaneous signals generated by the capacitance probe will allow the determination of natural circulation loop global energy balance. (author)

  13. Experimental facility and void fraction calibration methods for impedance probes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, Fernando L. de; Rocha, Marcelo S.

    2013-01-01

    An experimental facility was designed and constructed with aims of to calibrate a capacitance probe for gas-liquid flow void fraction measurements. The facility is composed of a metallic hack with a vertical 2,300 mm high glass tube with 38 mm ID with stagnant water and compressed air bubbling system simulating the gas phase (vapor). At the lower part, a mixing section with a porous media element releases the air bubbles into the water, and the compressed air flow is measured by two calibrated rotameters. At the upper part a stagnant water tank separates the liquid and gas. Two pressure taps are located near the lower and upper sides of the glass tube for pressure difference measurement. The pressure difference is used for low void fraction values (0-15%) calibration methods, as described in the work. Two electrically controlled quick closing valves are installed between the porous media element and the upward separation tank for high void fraction values measurement (15-50%) used to calibrate the capacitance probe. The experimental facility design, construction, capacitance probe calibration methods and results, as well as flow pattern visualization, are presented. Finally, the capacitance probe will be installed on a natural circulation circuit mounted at the Nuclear Engineering Center (CEN/IPEN/CNEN-SP) for measurement of the instantaneous bulk void. Instantaneous signals generated by the capacitance probe will allow the determination of natural circulation loop global energy balance. (author)

  14. A novel calibration method for phase-locked loops

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cassia, Marco; Shah, Peter Jivan; Bruun, Erik

    2005-01-01

    A novel method to calibrate the frequency response of a Phase-Locked Loop is presented. The method requires just an additional digital counter to measure the natural frequency of the PLL; moreover it is capable of estimating the static phase offset. The measured value can be used to tune the PLL ...... response to the desired value. The method is demonstrated mathematically on a typical PLL topology and it is extended to SigmaDelta fractional-N PLLs. A set of simulations performed with two different simulators is used to verify the applicability of the method.......A novel method to calibrate the frequency response of a Phase-Locked Loop is presented. The method requires just an additional digital counter to measure the natural frequency of the PLL; moreover it is capable of estimating the static phase offset. The measured value can be used to tune the PLL...

  15. Comparison of protein extraction methods suitable for proteomics ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-07-27

    Jul 27, 2011 ... An efficient protein extraction method is a prerequisite for successful implementation of proteomics. ... research, it is noteworthy to discover a proteome ..... Proteomic analysis of rice (Oryza sativa) seeds during germination.

  16. Are deterministic methods suitable for short term reserve planning?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voorspools, Kris R.; D'haeseleer, William D.

    2005-01-01

    Although deterministic methods for establishing minutes reserve (such as the N-1 reserve or the percentage reserve) ignore the stochastic nature of reliability issues, they are commonly used in energy modelling as well as in practical applications. In order to check the validity of such methods, two test procedures are developed. The first checks if the N-1 reserve is a logical fixed value for minutes reserve. The second test procedure investigates whether deterministic methods can realise a stable reliability that is independent of demand. In both evaluations, the loss-of-load expectation is used as the objective stochastic criterion. The first test shows no particular reason to choose the largest unit as minutes reserve. The expected jump in reliability, resulting in low reliability for reserve margins lower than the largest unit and high reliability above, is not observed. The second test shows that both the N-1 reserve and the percentage reserve methods do not provide a stable reliability level that is independent of power demand. For the N-1 reserve, the reliability increases with decreasing maximum demand. For the percentage reserve, the reliability decreases with decreasing demand. The answer to the question raised in the title, therefore, has to be that the probability based methods are to be preferred over the deterministic methods

  17. Calibration Methods for a Space Borne Backscatter Lidar

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kunz, G.J.

    1996-01-01

    Lidar returns from cloud decks and from the Earth's surface are useful for calibrating single scatter lidar signals from space. To this end analytical methods (forward and backward) are presented for inverting lidar waveforms in terms of the path integrated lidar retum and the transmission losses

  18. Calibration method for direct conversion receiver front-ends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Müller

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Technology induced process tolerances in analog circuits cause device characteristics different from specification. For direct conversion receiver front-ends a system level calibration method is presented. The malfunctions of the devices are compensated by tuning dominant circuit parameters. Thereto optimization techniques are applied which use measurement values and special evaluation functions.

  19. New Methods for Kinematic Modelling and Calibration of Robots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søe-Knudsen, Rune

    2014-01-01

    the accuracy in an easy and accessible way. The required equipment is accessible, since the cost is held to a minimum and can be made with conventional processing equipment. Our first method calibrates the kinematics of a robot using known relative positions measured with the robot itself and a plate...... with holes matching the robot tool flange. The second method calibrates the kinematics using two robots. This method allows the robots to carry out the collection of measurements and the adjustment, by themselves, after the robots have been connected. Furthermore, we also propose a method for restoring......Improving a robot's accuracy increases its ability to solve certain tasks, and is therefore valuable. Practical ways of achieving this improved accuracy, even after robot repair, is also valuable. In this work, we introduce methods that improve the robot's accuracy and make it possible to maintain...

  20. Comparison of protein extraction methods suitable for proteomics ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An efficient protein extraction method is a prerequisite for successful implementation of proteomics. In this study, seedling roots of Jerusalem artichoke were treated with the concentration of 250 mM NaCl for 36 h. Subsequently, six different protocols of protein extraction were applied to seedling roots of Jerusalem artichoke ...

  1. An investigation of calibration methods for solution calorimetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yff, Barbara T S; Royall, Paul G; Brown, Marc B; Martin, Gary P

    2004-01-28

    Solution calorimetry has been used in a number of varying applications within pharmaceutical research as a technique for the physical characterisation of pharmaceutical materials, such as quantifying small degrees of amorphous content, identifying polymorphs and investigating interactions between drugs and carbohydrates or proteins and carbohydrates. A calibration test procedure is necessary to validate the instrumentation; a few of the suggested calibration reactions are the enthalpies of solution associated with dissolving Tris in 0.1 M HCl or NaCl, KCl or propan-1-ol in water. In addition, there are a number of different methods available to determine enthalpies of solution from the experimental data provided by the calorimeter, for example, the Regnault-Pfaundler's method, a graphical extrapolation based on the Dickinson method, or a manual integration-based method. Thus, the aim of the study was to investigate how each of these methods influences the values for the enthalpy of solution. Experiments were performed according to the method outlined by Hogan and Buckton [Int. J. Pharm. 207 (2000) 57] using KCl (samples of 50, 100 and 200 mg), Tris and sucrose as calibrants. For all three materials the manual integration method was found to be the most consistent with the KCl in water (sample mass of 200 mg) being the most precise. Thus, this method is recommended for the validation of solution calorimeters.

  2. A simple method suitable to study de novo root organogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaodong eChen

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available De novo root organogenesis is the process in which adventitious roots regenerate from detached or wounded plant tissues or organs. In tissue culture, appropriate types and concentrations of plant hormones in the medium are critical for inducing adventitious roots. However, in natural conditions, regeneration from detached organs is likely to rely on endogenous hormones. To investigate the actions of endogenous hormones and the molecular mechanisms guiding de novo root organogenesis, we developed a simple method to imitate natural conditions for adventitious root formation by culturing Arabidopsis thaliana leaf explants on B5 medium without additive hormones. Here we show that the ability of the leaf explants to regenerate roots depends on the age of the leaf and on certain nutrients in the medium. Based on these observations, we provide examples of how this method can be used in different situations, and how it can be optimized. This simple method could be used to investigate the effects of various physiological and molecular changes on the regeneration of adventitious roots. It is also useful for tracing cell lineage during the regeneration process by differential interference contrast observation of -glucuronidase staining, and by live imaging of proteins labeled with fluorescent tags.

  3. An MLC calibration method using a detector array

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simon, Thomas A.; Kahler, Darren; Simon, William E.; Fox, Christopher; Li, Jonathan; Palta, Jatinder; Liu, Chihray

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The authors have developed a quantitative calibration method for a multileaf collimator (MLC) which measures individual leaf positions relative to the MLC backup jaw on an Elekta Synergy linear accelerator. Methods: The method utilizes a commercially available two-axis detector array (Profiler 2; Sun Nuclear Corporation, Melbourne, FL). To calibrate the MLC bank, its backup jaw is positioned at the central axis and the opposing jaw is retracted to create a half-beam configuration. The position of the backup jaws field edge is then measured with the array to obtain what is termed the radiation defined reference line. The positions of the individual leaf ends relative to this reference line are then inferred by the detector response in the leaf end penumbra. Iteratively adjusting and remeasuring the leaf end positions to within specifications completes the calibration. Using the backup jaw as a reference for the leaf end positions is based on three assumptions: (1) The leading edge of an MLC leaf bank is parallel to its backup jaw's leading edge, (2) the backup jaw position is reproducible, and (3) the measured radiation field edge created by each leaf end is representative of that leaf's position. Data from an electronic portal imaging device (EPID) were used in a similar analysis to check the results obtained with the array. Results: The relative leaf end positions measured with the array differed from those measured with the EPID by an average of 0.11 ±0.09 mm per leaf. The maximum leaf positional change measured with the Profiler 2 over a 3 month period was 0.51 mm. A leaf positional accuracy of ±0.4 mm is easily attainable through the iterative calibration process. The method requires an average of 40 min to measure both leaf banks. Conclusions: This work demonstrates that the Profiler 2 is an effective tool for efficient and quantitative MLC quality assurance and calibration.

  4. An MLC calibration method using a detector array

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simon, Thomas A.; Kahler, Darren; Simon, William E.; Fox, Christopher; Li, Jonathan; Palta, Jatinder; Liu, Chihray [Department of Nuclear and Radiological Engineering, University of Florida, 202 Nuclear Science Building, Gainesville, Florida 32611-8300 (United States); Sun Nuclear Corporation, 425-A Pineda Court, Melbourne, Florida 32940 (United States) and Department of Radiation Oncology, Health Science Center, University of Florida, P.O. Box 100385, Gainesville, Florida 32610-0385 (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, Health Science Center, University of Florida, P.O. Box 100385, Gainesville, Florida 32610-0385 (United States); Sun Nuclear Corporation, 425-A Pineda Court, Melbourne, Florida 32940 (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, Tulane University, 1415 Tulane Ave, HC65, New Orleans, Louisiana 70112 (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, Health Science Center, University of Florida, P.O. Box 100385, Gainesville, Florida 32610-0385 (United States)

    2009-10-15

    Purpose: The authors have developed a quantitative calibration method for a multileaf collimator (MLC) which measures individual leaf positions relative to the MLC backup jaw on an Elekta Synergy linear accelerator. Methods: The method utilizes a commercially available two-axis detector array (Profiler 2; Sun Nuclear Corporation, Melbourne, FL). To calibrate the MLC bank, its backup jaw is positioned at the central axis and the opposing jaw is retracted to create a half-beam configuration. The position of the backup jaws field edge is then measured with the array to obtain what is termed the radiation defined reference line. The positions of the individual leaf ends relative to this reference line are then inferred by the detector response in the leaf end penumbra. Iteratively adjusting and remeasuring the leaf end positions to within specifications completes the calibration. Using the backup jaw as a reference for the leaf end positions is based on three assumptions: (1) The leading edge of an MLC leaf bank is parallel to its backup jaw's leading edge, (2) the backup jaw position is reproducible, and (3) the measured radiation field edge created by each leaf end is representative of that leaf's position. Data from an electronic portal imaging device (EPID) were used in a similar analysis to check the results obtained with the array. Results: The relative leaf end positions measured with the array differed from those measured with the EPID by an average of 0.11 {+-}0.09 mm per leaf. The maximum leaf positional change measured with the Profiler 2 over a 3 month period was 0.51 mm. A leaf positional accuracy of {+-}0.4 mm is easily attainable through the iterative calibration process. The method requires an average of 40 min to measure both leaf banks. Conclusions: This work demonstrates that the Profiler 2 is an effective tool for efficient and quantitative MLC quality assurance and calibration.

  5. Indoor calibration for stereoscopic camera STC: a new method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simioni, E.; Re, C.; Da Deppo, V.; Naletto, G.; Borrelli, D.; Dami, M.; Ficai Veltroni, I.; Cremonese, G.

    2017-11-01

    . The indoor simulation of the SC trajectory can therefore be provided by two rotation stages to generate a dual system of the real one with same stereo parameters but different scale. The set of acquired images will be used to get a 3D reconstruction of the target: depth information retrieved from stereo reconstruction and the known features of the target will allow to get an evaluation of the stereo system performance both in terms of horizontal resolution and vertical accuracy. To verify the 3D reconstruction capabilities of STC by means of this stereo validation set-up, the lab target surface should provide a reference, i.e. should be known with an accuracy better than that required on the 3D reconstruction itself. For this reason, the rock samples accurately selected to be used as lab targets have been measured with a suitable accurate 3D laser scanner. The paper will show this method in detail analyzing all the choices adopted to lead back a so complex system to the indoor solution for calibration.

  6. Gravimetric method for in vitro calibration of skin hydration measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinsen, Ørjan G; Grimnes, Sverre; Nilsen, Jon K; Tronstad, Christian; Jang, Wooyoung; Kim, Hongsig; Shin, Kunsoo; Naderi, Majid; Thielmann, Frank

    2008-02-01

    A novel method for in vitro calibration of skin hydration measurements is presented. The method combines gravimetric and electrical measurements and reveals an exponential dependency of measured electrical susceptance to absolute water content in the epidermal stratum corneum. The results also show that absorption of water into the stratum corneum exhibits three different phases with significant differences in absorption time constant. These phases probably correspond to bound, loosely bound, and bulk water.

  7. A laser sheet self-calibration method for scanning PIV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knutsen, Anna N.; Lawson, John M.; Dawson, James R.; Worth, Nicholas A.

    2017-10-01

    Knowledge of laser sheet position, orientation, and thickness is a fundamental requirement of scanning PIV and other laser-scanning methods. This paper describes the development and evaluation of a new laser sheet self-calibration method for stereoscopic scanning PIV, which allows the measurement of these properties from particle images themselves. The approach is to fit a laser sheet model by treating particles as randomly distributed probes of the laser sheet profile, whose position is obtained via a triangulation procedure enhanced by matching particle images according to their variation in brightness over a scan. Numerical simulations and tests with experimental data were used to quantify the sensitivity of the method to typical experimental error sources and validate its performance in practice. The numerical simulations demonstrate the accurate recovery of the laser sheet parameters over range of different seeding densities and sheet thicknesses. Furthermore, they show that the method is robust to significant image noise and camera misalignment. Tests with experimental data confirm that the laser sheet model can be accurately reconstructed with no impairment to PIV measurement accuracy. The new method is more efficient and robust in comparison with the standard (self-) calibration approach, which requires an involved, separate calibration step that is sensitive to experimental misalignments. The method significantly improves the practicality of making accurate scanning PIV measurements and broadens its potential applicability to scanning systems with significant vibrations.

  8. Self-Calibrating Ultrasonic Methods for In-Situ Monitoring of Fatigue Crack Progression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michaels, J.E.; Mi, B.; Cobb, A.C.; Michaels, T.E.; Stobbe, D.M.

    2005-01-01

    Ultrasonic sensors permanently affixed to aluminum coupons are used to monitor progression of damage during fatigue testing with the long term goal of structural health monitoring for diagnostics and prognostics. Necessary for success are proper design of the ultrasonic testing methods, robust transducer mounting techniques, and real-time signal processing for determining the state of the structure. It is also highly desirable for the overall system to be self-calibrating with built-in diagnostics in order to detect and compensate for sensor degradation or failure. Self-calibrating ultrasonic techniques are applied for monitoring of cracks initiating and propagating from the inaccessible inner diameters of rivet holes where the transducers are mounted on the accessible specimen surface. Angle beam ultrasonic methods are utilized that are suitable for detecting small defects in critical local regions of high stress. Results are presented for aluminum coupons subjected to low cycle fatigue and demonstrate ultrasonic tracking of crack growth

  9. Selection and evaluation of gamma decay standards for detector calibration using coincidence method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hlavac, S.

    2000-01-01

    Coincidence method for calibration of gamma detectors using suitable calibration standards with two cascading gamma rays is analyzed. From the list of recommended gamma ray standards currently under reevaluation by the CRP, 14 radionuclides were selected as the potential source candidates for the coincidence method. The following sources were selected 24 Na, 46 Sc, 60 Co, 66 Ga, 75 Se, 88 Y, Nb 94 , 111 In, 123m Te, 133 Ba, 134 Cs, 152 Eu, 154 Eu and 207 Bi. Reaction 11 B (p,γ) 12 C* was also selected as a source of high energy gamma rays. Experimental data on angular correlation coefficients for selected sources were collected from the literature and evaluated according to the recommended procedure. Theoretical angular correlation coefficients were calculated and compared to the evaluated data. (author)

  10. Calibration of acoustic sensors in ice using the reciprocity method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meures, Thomas; Bissok, Martin; Laihem, Karim; Paul, Larissa; Wiebusch, Christopher; Zierke, Simon [III. Physikalisches Institut, RWTH Aachen (Germany); Semburg, Benjamin [Bergische Universitaet Wuppertal (Germany). Fachbereich C

    2010-07-01

    Within the IceCube experiment at the South Pole an R and D program investigates new ways of ultra high energy neutrino detection. In particular when aiming for detector volumes of the order of 100 km{sup 3} acoustic or radio detectors are promising approaches. The acoustic detection method relies on the thermo-acoustic effect occurring when high energetic particles interact and deposit heat within a detection medium. This effect is investigated in the Aachen Acoustic Laboratory (AAL). The high energy particle interaction is simulated by a powerful pulsed Nd:YAG LASER shooting into a 3m{sup 3} tank of clear ice (or water). Eighteen acoustic sensors are situated on three rings in different depths and record the generated signals. These sensors serve as reference for later measurements of other devices. The reciprocity method, used for the absolute calibration of these sensors, is independent of an absolutely calibrated reference. This method and its application to the calibration of the AAL sensors are presented and first results are shown.

  11. Calibration method of microgrid polarimeters with image interpolation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhenyue; Wang, Xia; Liang, Rongguang

    2015-02-10

    Microgrid polarimeters have large advantages over conventional polarimeters because of the snapshot nature and because they have no moving parts. However, they also suffer from several error sources, such as fixed pattern noise (FPN), photon response nonuniformity (PRNU), pixel cross talk, and instantaneous field-of-view (IFOV) error. A characterization method is proposed to improve the measurement accuracy in visible waveband. We first calibrate the camera with uniform illumination so that the response of the sensor is uniform over the entire field of view without IFOV error. Then a spline interpolation method is implemented to minimize IFOV error. Experimental results show the proposed method can effectively minimize the FPN and PRNU.

  12. Method of energy calibration of the TANSY neutron detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoek, M.; Drozdowicz, K.; Aronsson, D.

    1990-03-01

    A method to calibrate an array of scintillation neutron detectors, using a γ source, is presented. The count rate is measured as a function of high voltage at a given discrimination level. The obtained distribution is differentiated and a maximum value is determined which corresponds to the voltage at which the gamma peak passes through the discrimination level. By repeating the measurement at different discrimination levels the experimental dependence between the discrimination level and the high voltage is found as a straight line in a log-log diagram. Two calibration parameter for each detector are determined from a fit of these straight lines. A recalculation from the energy of the used γ source to any other energy is then possible and the obtained relation can be used to calculate discrimination levels and high voltages for each detector. Verification procedures are described. (authors)

  13. Method for calibration of an axial tomographic scanner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sparks, R.A.

    1977-01-01

    The method of calibrating an axial tomographic scanner including frame means having an opening therein in which an object to be examined is to be placed, source and detector means mounted on the frame means for directing one or more beams of penetrating radiation through the object from the source to the detector means, and means to rotate the scanner including the source and detector means about the object whereby a plurality of sets of data corresponding to the transmission or absorption by the object of a plurality of beams of penetrating radiation are collected; the calibration method comprising mounting calibration means supporting an adjustable centering member onto the frame means, positioning the adjustable centering member at approximately the center of rotation of the scanner, placing position-sensitive indicator means adjacent the approximately centered member, rotating the scanner and the calibration means mounted thereon at least one time and, if necessary, adjusting the positioning of the centering member until the centering member is coincident with the center of rotation of the scanner as determined by minimum deflection of the position-sensitive indicator means, rotating and translating the source and detector means and determining for each angular orientation of the frame means supporting the source and detector means the central position of each translational scan relative to the centered member and/or if a plurality of detectors are utilized with the detector means for each planar slice of the object being examined, the central position of each translational scan for each detector relative to the centered member

  14. Multiple independent identification decisions: a method of calibrating eyewitness identifications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pryke, Sean; Lindsay, R C L; Dysart, Jennifer E; Dupuis, Paul

    2004-02-01

    Two experiments (N = 147 and N = 90) explored the use of multiple independent lineups to identify a target seen live. In Experiment 1, simultaneous face, body, and sequential voice lineups were used. In Experiment 2, sequential face, body, voice, and clothing lineups were used. Both studies demonstrated that multiple identifications (by the same witness) from independent lineups of different features are highly diagnostic of suspect guilt (G. L. Wells & R. C. L. Lindsay, 1980). The number of suspect and foil selections from multiple independent lineups provides a powerful method of calibrating the accuracy of eyewitness identification. Implications for use of current methods are discussed. ((c) 2004 APA, all rights reserved)

  15. Bayesian calibration of terrestrial ecosystem models: a study of advanced Markov chain Monte Carlo methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Dan; Ricciuto, Daniel; Walker, Anthony; Safta, Cosmin; Munger, William

    2017-09-01

    Calibration of terrestrial ecosystem models is important but challenging. Bayesian inference implemented by Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) sampling provides a comprehensive framework to estimate model parameters and associated uncertainties using their posterior distributions. The effectiveness and efficiency of the method strongly depend on the MCMC algorithm used. In this work, a differential evolution adaptive Metropolis (DREAM) algorithm is used to estimate posterior distributions of 21 parameters for the data assimilation linked ecosystem carbon (DALEC) model using 14 years of daily net ecosystem exchange data collected at the Harvard Forest Environmental Measurement Site eddy-flux tower. The calibration of DREAM results in a better model fit and predictive performance compared to the popular adaptive Metropolis (AM) scheme. Moreover, DREAM indicates that two parameters controlling autumn phenology have multiple modes in their posterior distributions while AM only identifies one mode. The application suggests that DREAM is very suitable to calibrate complex terrestrial ecosystem models, where the uncertain parameter size is usually large and existence of local optima is always a concern. In addition, this effort justifies the assumptions of the error model used in Bayesian calibration according to the residual analysis. The result indicates that a heteroscedastic, correlated, Gaussian error model is appropriate for the problem, and the consequent constructed likelihood function can alleviate the underestimation of parameter uncertainty that is usually caused by using uncorrelated error models.

  16. CURVE LSFIT, Gamma Spectrometer Calibration by Interactive Fitting Method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olson, D.G.

    1992-01-01

    1 - Description of program or function: CURVE and LSFIT are interactive programs designed to obtain the best data fit to an arbitrary curve. CURVE finds the type of fitting routine which produces the best curve. The types of fitting routines available are linear regression, exponential, logarithmic, power, least squares polynomial, and spline. LSFIT produces a reliable calibration curve for gamma ray spectrometry by using the uncertainty value associated with each data point. LSFIT is intended for use where an entire efficiency curve is to be made starting at 30 KeV and continuing to 1836 KeV. It creates calibration curves using up to three least squares polynomial fits to produce the best curve for photon energies above 120 KeV and a spline function to combine these fitted points with a best fit for points below 120 KeV. 2 - Method of solution: The quality of fit is tested by comparing the measured y-value to the y-value calculated from the fitted curve. The fractional difference between these two values is printed for the evaluation of the quality of the fit. 3 - Restrictions on the complexity of the problem - Maxima of: 2000 data points calibration curve output (LSFIT) 30 input data points 3 least squares polynomial fits (LSFIT) The least squares polynomial fit requires that the number of data points used exceed the degree of fit by at least two

  17. A novel enhanced calibration method for DSSSD detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaya, Levent; Vogt, Andreas; Reiter, Peter; Birkenbach, Benedikt; Hirsch, Rouven; Seidlitz, Michael; Warr, Nigel [Institut fuer Kernphysik, Universitaet zu Koeln (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    Double-sided silicon strip detectors (DSSSD) are employed for the detection of charged particles in low-energy nuclear physics providing position and energy information for the impinging particle. Intersecting areas of both p- and n-side strips form individual pixel segments allowing for a high detector granularity. However, due to limitation in fabrication and the response of readout electronics, the performance of different channels may vary. In order to achieve best energy information, a calibration of each p- and n-side strip with a very high precision is mandatory. DSSSD responses are analyzed employing energy correlation matrices between adjacent strips in order to determine charge-sharing and energy-loss effects. A novel calibration method is based on the fact that each event is registered simultaneously on the p- and n-side strips. A two-dimensional calibration procedure allows for a significant enhancement of the energy resolution. In this way, the performance of DSSSDs with position-dependent radiation damage is improved clearly by excluding locally damaged detector areas without losing the information of complete p- or n-side strips.

  18. Study on dry-calibration method of ultrasonic flowmeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozaki, Yoshihiko; Yasuda, Hidenori.

    1988-01-01

    This paper describes a study on a dry-calibration method for application of an ultrasonic flowmeter to the fields such as nuclear or thermal power plants where high temperature and pressurized fluids are used in coolant or feedwater systems. For the measurement of the flow quantity using the ultrasonic flowmeter, it is important to obtain a correction coefficient of the rate of line averaged axial velocity to plane averaged axial velocity. We have developed analytical method to predict the turbulent flow profiles in the cross sections of piping including bends. The method is based on parabolic flow model and k-ε model with wall functions for the near-wall regions. The axial velocity profiles and the correction coefficients predicted by the analytical method were compared with the experimental results for water and liquid sodium in various L/D conditions. The both results were shown to be in approximate agreement within about 5% accuracy for the flow profiles and about 2% accuracy for the correction coefficients, though the piping had the 90degC bend with a very small redius of curvature. In the case of small L/D conditions, it was also shown that the reverse flow effects could not be disregarded in the predominant direction. However, the accuracy of the dry-calibration by using the analytical method was confirmed to be within about 2% as things were. (author)

  19. Spectrometric methods used in the calibration of radiodiagnostic measuring instruments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Vries, W [Rijksuniversiteit Utrecht (Netherlands)

    1995-12-01

    Recently a set of parameters for checking the quality of radiation for use in diagnostic radiology was established at the calibration facility of Nederlands Meetinstituut (NMI). The establishment of the radiation quality required re-evaluation of the correction factors for the primary air-kerma standards. Free-air ionisation chambers require several correction factors to measure air-kerma according to its definition. These correction factors were calculated for the NMi free-air chamber by Monte Carlo simulations for monoenergetic photons in the energy range from 10 keV to 320 keV. The actual correction factors follow from weighting these mono-energetic correction factors with the air-kerma spectrum of the photon beam. This paper describes the determination of the photon spectra of the X-ray qualities used for the calibration of dosimetric instruments used in radiodiagnostics. The detector used for these measurements is a planar HPGe-detector, placed in the direct beam of the X-ray machine. To convert the measured pulse height spectrum to the actual photon spectrum corrections must be made for fluorescent photon escape, single and multiple compton scattering inside the detector, and detector efficiency. From the calculated photon spectra a number of parameters of the X-ray beam can be calculated. The calculated first and second half value layer in aluminum and copper are compared with the measured values of these parameters to validate the method of spectrum reconstruction. Moreover the spectrum measurements offer the possibility to calibrate the X-ray generator in terms of maximum high voltage. The maximum photon energy in the spectrum is used as a standard for calibration of kVp-meters.

  20. An Improved Calibration Method for Hydrazine Monitors for the United States Air Force

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korsah, K

    2003-07-07

    Kintek system output concentration is less than the calculated output of the generator alone but can be calibrated as a system by using coulometric titration of gas samples collected with impingers. (3) The calibrated Kintek system output concentration is reproducible even after having been disassembled and moved and reassembled. (4) The uncertainty of the reference gas concentration generated by the Kintek system is less than half the uncertainty of the Zellweger Analytics' (ZA) reference gas concentration and can be easily lowered to one third or less of the ZA method by using lower-uncertainty flow rate or total flow measuring instruments. (5) The largest sources of uncertainty in the current ORNL calibration system are the permeation rate of the permeation tubes and the flow rate of the impinger sampling pump used to collect gas samples for calibrating the Kintek system. Upgrading the measurement equipment, as stated in (4), can reduce both of these. (6) The coulometric titration technique can be used to periodically assess the performance of the Kintek system and determine a suitable recalibration interval. (7) The Kintek system has been used to calibrate two MDA 7100s and an Interscan 4187 in less than one workday. The system can be upgraded (e.g., by automating it) to provide more calibrations per day. (8) The humidity of both the reference gas and the environment of the Chemcassette affect the MDA 7100 hydrazine detector's readings. However, ORNL believes that the environmental effect is less significant than the effect of the reference gas humidity. (9) The ORNL calibration method based on the Kintek 491 M-B gas standard can correct for the effect of the humidity of the reference gas to produce the same calibration as that of ZA's. Zellweger Analytics calibrations are typically performed at 45%-55% relative humidity. (10) Tests using the Interscan 4187 showed that the instrument was not accurate in its lower (0-100 ppb) range. Subsequent

  1. Method of calibrating a fluid-level measurement system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodard, Stanley E. (Inventor); Taylor, Bryant D. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    A method of calibrating a fluid-level measurement system is provided. A first response of the system is recorded when the system's sensor(s) is (are) not in contact with a fluid of interest. A second response of the system is recorded when the system's sensor(s) is (are) fully immersed in the fluid of interest. Using the first and second responses, a plurality of expected responses of the system's sensor(s) is (are) generated for a corresponding plurality of levels of immersion of the sensor(s) in the fluid of interest.

  2. Method of making self-calibrated displacement measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pedersen, H.N.

    1977-01-01

    A method for monitoring the displacement of an object having an acoustically reflective surface at least partially submerged in an acoustically conductive medium is described. The reflective surface is designed to have a stepped interface responsive to an incident acoustic pulse to provide separate discrete reflected pulses to a receiving transducer. The difference in the time of flight of the reflected acoustic signals corresponds to the known step height and the time of travel of the signals to the receiving transducer provides a measure of the displacement of the object. Accordingly, the reference step length enables simultaneous calibration of each displacement measurement. 3 claims, 3 figures

  3. A method for the energy calibration of a heavy ion accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, B.; Michaelsen, R.; Sethi, R.C.; Ziegler, K.

    1985-01-01

    A method for the absolute energy calibration of a heavy ion accelerator was developed at VICKSI. The method is based on the use of a suitably selected heavy ion beam to calibrate an analysing magnet. In front of the entrance slit of the analysing system the beam is stripped with a thin carbon foil. The charge states of the resulting ions cover the whole range from the charge state of the injected ions to the charge state of the fully stripped ions. Ion and energy of the beam have been selected in such a way that the rigidities corresponding to the different charge states cover the full rigidity range of the analysing magnet. The field of the analysing magnet is varied and the NMR-frequency corresponding to each transmitted charge state is obtained. For the absolute calibration a standard α-source is used. The functional dependence of the rigidity versus NMR-frequency can be used to compute the energy of any beam. At present this method gives an absolute accuracy of +-0.15%. The various sources of erros are described. (orig.)

  4. Calibration of quantitative neutron radiography method for moisture measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nemec, T.; Jeraj, R.

    1999-01-01

    Quantitative measurements of moisture and hydrogenous matter in building materials by neutron radiography (NR) are regularly performed at TRIGA Mark II research of 'Jozef Stefan' Institute in Ljubljana. Calibration of quantitative method is performed using standard brick samples with known moisture content and also with a secondary standard, plexiglas step wedge. In general, the contribution of scattered neutrons to the neutron image is not determined explicitly what introduces an error to the measured signal. Influence of scattered neutrons is significant in regions with high gradients of moisture concentrations, where the build up of scattered neutrons causes distortion of the moisture concentration profile. In this paper detailed analysis of validity of our calibration method for different geometrical parameters is presented. The error in the measured hydrogen concentration is evaluated by an experiment and compared with results obtained by Monte Carlo calculation with computer code MCNP 4B. Optimal conditions are determined for quantitative moisture measurements in order to minimize the error due to scattered neutrons. The method is tested on concrete samples with high moisture content.(author)

  5. Lateral force calibration in atomic force microscopy: A new lateral force calibration method and general guidelines for optimization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cannara, Rachel J.; Eglin, Michael; Carpick, Robert W.

    2006-01-01

    Proper force calibration is a critical step in atomic and lateral force microscopies (AFM/LFM). The recently published torsional Sader method [C. P. Green et al., Rev. Sci. Instrum. 75, 1988 (2004)] facilitates the calculation of torsional spring constants of rectangular AFM cantilevers by eliminating the need to obtain information or make assumptions regarding the cantilever's material properties and thickness, both of which are difficult to measure. Complete force calibration of the lateral signal in LFM requires measurement of the lateral signal deflection sensitivity as well. In this article, we introduce a complete lateral force calibration procedure that employs the torsional Sader method and does not require making contact between the tip and any sample. In this method, a colloidal sphere is attached to a 'test' cantilever of the same width, but different length and material as the 'target' cantilever of interest. The lateral signal sensitivity is calibrated by loading the colloidal sphere laterally against a vertical sidewall. The signal sensitivity for the target cantilever is then corrected for the tip length, total signal strength, and in-plane bending of the cantilevers. We discuss the advantages and disadvantages of this approach in comparison with the other established lateral force calibration techniques, and make a direct comparison with the 'wedge' calibration method. The methods agree to within 5%. The propagation of errors is explicitly considered for both methods and the sources of disagreement discussed. Finally, we show that the lateral signal sensitivity is substantially reduced when the laser spot is not centered on the detector

  6. A Bionic Polarization Navigation Sensor and Its Calibration Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Huijie; Xu, Wujian

    2016-08-03

    The polarization patterns of skylight which arise due to the scattering of sunlight in the atmosphere can be used by many insects for deriving compass information. Inspired by insects' polarized light compass, scientists have developed a new kind of navigation method. One of the key techniques in this method is the polarimetric sensor which is used to acquire direction information from skylight. In this paper, a polarization navigation sensor is proposed which imitates the working principles of the polarization vision systems of insects. We introduce the optical design and mathematical model of the sensor. In addition, a calibration method based on variable substitution and non-linear curve fitting is proposed. The results obtained from the outdoor experiments provide support for the feasibility and precision of the sensor. The sensor's signal processing can be well described using our mathematical model. A relatively high degree of accuracy in polarization measurement can be obtained without any error compensation.

  7. Calibration of high resolution digital camera based on different photogrammetric methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamid, N F A; Ahmad, A

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents method of calibrating high-resolution digital camera based on different configuration which comprised of stereo and convergent. Both methods are performed in the laboratory and in the field calibration. Laboratory calibration is based on a 3D test field where a calibration plate of dimension 0.4 m × 0.4 m with grid of targets at different height is used. For field calibration, it uses the same concept of 3D test field which comprised of 81 target points located on a flat ground and the dimension is 9 m × 9 m. In this study, a non-metric high resolution digital camera called Canon Power Shot SX230 HS was calibrated in the laboratory and in the field using different configuration for data acquisition. The aim of the calibration is to investigate the behavior of the internal digital camera whether all the digital camera parameters such as focal length, principal point and other parameters remain the same or vice-versa. In the laboratory, a scale bar is placed in the test field for scaling the image and approximate coordinates were used for calibration process. Similar method is utilized in the field calibration. For both test fields, the digital images were acquired within short period using stereo and convergent configuration. For field calibration, aerial digital images were acquired using unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) system. All the images were processed using photogrammetric calibration software. Different calibration results were obtained for both laboratory and field calibrations. The accuracy of the results is evaluated based on standard deviation. In general, for photogrammetric applications and other applications the digital camera must be calibrated for obtaining accurate measurement or results. The best method of calibration depends on the type of applications. Finally, for most applications the digital camera is calibrated on site, hence, field calibration is the best method of calibration and could be employed for obtaining accurate

  8. Preparatory research to develop an operational method to calibrate airborne sensor data using a network of ground calibration sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milton, E.J.; Smith, G.M.; Lawless, K.P.

    1996-01-01

    The objective of the research is to develop an operational method to convert airborne spectral radiance data to reflectance using a number of well-characterized ground calibration sites located around the UK. The study is in three phases. First, a pilot study has been conducted at a disused airfield in southern England to test the feasibility of the open-quote empirical line close-quote method of sensor calibration. The second phase is developing methods to predict temporal changes in the bidirectional reflectance of ground calibration sites. The final phase of the project will look at methods to extend such calibrations spatially. This paper presents some results from the first phase of this study. The viability of the empirical line method of correction is shown to depend upon the use of ground targets whose in-band reflectance encompasses that of the targets of interest in the spectral band(s) concerned. The experimental design for the second phase of the study, in which methods to predict temporal trends in the bidirectional reflectance of these sites will be developed, is discussed. Finally, it is planned to develop an automated method of searching through Landsat TM data for the UK to identify a number of candidate ground calibration sites for which the model can be tested. 11 refs., 5 figs., 5 tabs

  9. Suitability of voltage stability study methods for real-time assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perez, Angel; Jóhannsson, Hjörtur; Vancraeyveld, Pieter

    2013-01-01

    This paper analyzes the suitability of existing methods for long-term voltage stability assessment for real-time operation. An overview of the relevant methods is followed with a comparison that takes into account the accuracy, computational efficiency and characteristics when used for security...... assessment. The results enable an evaluation of the run time of each method with respect to the number of inputs. Furthermore, the results assist in identifying which of the methods is most suitable for realtime operation in future power system with production based on fluctuating energy sources....

  10. A habitat suitability model for Chinese sturgeon determined using the generalized additive method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Yujun; Sun, Jie; Zhang, Shanghong

    2016-03-01

    The Chinese sturgeon is a type of large anadromous fish that migrates between the ocean and rivers. Because of the construction of dams, this sturgeon's migration path has been cut off, and this species currently is on the verge of extinction. Simulating suitable environmental conditions for spawning followed by repairing or rebuilding its spawning grounds are effective ways to protect this species. Various habitat suitability models based on expert knowledge have been used to evaluate the suitability of spawning habitat. In this study, a two-dimensional hydraulic simulation is used to inform a habitat suitability model based on the generalized additive method (GAM). The GAM is based on real data. The values of water depth and velocity are calculated first via the hydrodynamic model and later applied in the GAM. The final habitat suitability model is validated using the catch per unit effort (CPUEd) data of 1999 and 2003. The model results show that a velocity of 1.06-1.56 m/s and a depth of 13.33-20.33 m are highly suitable ranges for the Chinese sturgeon to spawn. The hydraulic habitat suitability indexes (HHSI) for seven discharges (4000; 9000; 12,000; 16,000; 20,000; 30,000; and 40,000 m3/s) are calculated to evaluate integrated habitat suitability. The results show that the integrated habitat suitability reaches its highest value at a discharge of 16,000 m3/s. This study is the first to apply a GAM to evaluate the suitability of spawning grounds for the Chinese sturgeon. The study provides a reference for the identification of potential spawning grounds in the entire basin.

  11. A calibration method for fringe reflection technique based on the analytical phase-slope description

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yuxiang; Yue, Huimin; Pan, Zhipeng; Liu, Yong

    2018-05-01

    The fringe reflection technique (FRT) has been one of the most popular methods to measure the shape of specular surface these years. The existing system calibration methods of FRT usually contain two parts, which are camera calibration and geometric calibration. In geometric calibration, the liquid crystal display (LCD) screen position calibration is one of the most difficult steps among all the calibration procedures, and its accuracy is affected by the factors such as the imaging aberration, the plane mirror flatness, and LCD screen pixel size accuracy. In this paper, based on the deduction of FRT analytical phase-slope description, we present a novel calibration method with no requirement to calibrate the position of LCD screen. On the other hand, the system can be arbitrarily arranged, and the imaging system can either be telecentric or non-telecentric. In our experiment of measuring the 5000mm radius sphere mirror, the proposed calibration method achieves 2.5 times smaller measurement error than the geometric calibration method. In the wafer surface measuring experiment, the measurement result with the proposed calibration method is closer to the interferometer result than the geometric calibration method.

  12. A method of camera calibration with adaptive thresholding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Lei; Yan, Shu-hua; Wang, Guo-chao; Zhou, Chun-lei

    2009-07-01

    In order to calculate the parameters of the camera correctly, we must figure out the accurate coordinates of the certain points in the image plane. Corners are the important features in the 2D images. Generally speaking, they are the points that have high curvature and lie in the junction of different brightness regions of images. So corners detection has already widely used in many fields. In this paper we use the pinhole camera model and SUSAN corner detection algorithm to calibrate the camera. When using the SUSAN corner detection algorithm, we propose an approach to retrieve the gray difference threshold, adaptively. That makes it possible to pick up the right chessboard inner comers in all kinds of gray contrast. The experiment result based on this method was proved to be feasible.

  13. Adaptive calibration method with on-line growing complexity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šika Z.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a modified variant of a kinematical calibration algorithm. In the beginning, a brief review of the calibration algorithm and its simple modification are described. As the described calibration modification uses some ideas used by the Lolimot algorithm, the algorithm is described and explained. Main topic of this paper is a description of a synthesis of the Lolimot-based calibration that leads to an adaptive algorithm with an on-line growing complexity. The paper contains a comparison of simple examples results and a discussion. A note about future research topics is also included.

  14. Calibration method for a carbon nanotube field-effect transistor biosensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abe, Masuhiro; Murata, Katsuyuki; Ataka, Tatsuaki; Matsumoto, Kazuhiko

    2008-01-01

    An easy calibration method based on the Langmuir adsorption theory is proposed for a carbon nanotube field-effect transistor (NTFET) biosensor. This method was applied to three NTFET biosensors that had approximately the same structure but exhibited different characteristics. After calibration, their experimentally determined characteristics exhibited a good agreement with the calibration curve. The reason why the observed characteristics of these NTFET biosensors differed among the devices was that the carbon nanotube (CNT) that formed the channel was not uniform. Although the controlled growth of a CNT is difficult, it is shown that an NTFET biosensor can be easy calibrated using the proposed calibration method, regardless of the CNT channel structures

  15. Estimating Rooftop Suitability for PV: A Review of Methods, Patents, and Validation Techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melius, J. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Margolis, R. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Ong, S. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2013-12-01

    A number of methods have been developed using remote sensing data to estimate rooftop area suitable for the installation of photovoltaics (PV) at various geospatial resolutions. This report reviews the literature and patents on methods for estimating rooftop-area appropriate for PV, including constant-value methods, manual selection methods, and GIS-based methods. This report also presents NREL's proposed method for estimating suitable rooftop area for PV using Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) data in conjunction with a GIS model to predict areas with appropriate slope, orientation, and sunlight. NREL's method is validated against solar installation data from New Jersey, Colorado, and California to compare modeled results to actual on-the-ground measurements.

  16. A Novel Self-Calibration Method for Acoustic Vector Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yao Zhang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The acoustic vector sensor (AVS can measure the acoustic pressure field’s spatial gradient, so it has directionality. But its channels may have nonideal gain/phase responses, which will severely degrade its performance in finding source direction. To solve this problem, in this study, a self-calibration algorithm based on all-phase FFT spectrum analysis is proposed. This method is “self-calibrated” because prior knowledge of the training signal’s arrival angle is not required. By measuring signals from different directions, the initial phase can be achieved by taking the all-phase FFT transform to each channel. We use the amplitude of the main spectrum peak of every channel in different direction to formulate an equation; the amplitude gain estimates can be achieved by solving this equation. In order to get better estimation accuracy, bearing difference of different training signals should be larger than a threshold, which is related to SNR. Finally, the reference signal’s direction of arrival can be estimated. This method is easy to implement and has advantage in accuracy and antinoise. The efficacy of this proposed scheme is verified with simulation results.

  17. A new systematic calibration method of ring laser gyroscope inertial navigation system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Guo; Gao, Chunfeng; Wang, Qi; Wang, Qun; Xiong, Zhenyu; Long, Xingwu

    2016-10-01

    Inertial navigation system has been the core component of both military and civil navigation systems. Before the INS is put into application, it is supposed to be calibrated in the laboratory in order to compensate repeatability error caused by manufacturing. Discrete calibration method cannot fulfill requirements of high-accurate calibration of the mechanically dithered ring laser gyroscope navigation system with shock absorbers. This paper has analyzed theories of error inspiration and separation in detail and presented a new systematic calibration method for ring laser gyroscope inertial navigation system. Error models and equations of calibrated Inertial Measurement Unit are given. Then proper rotation arrangement orders are depicted in order to establish the linear relationships between the change of velocity errors and calibrated parameter errors. Experiments have been set up to compare the systematic errors calculated by filtering calibration result with those obtained by discrete calibration result. The largest position error and velocity error of filtering calibration result are only 0.18 miles and 0.26m/s compared with 2 miles and 1.46m/s of discrete calibration result. These results have validated the new systematic calibration method and proved its importance for optimal design and accuracy improvement of calibration of mechanically dithered ring laser gyroscope inertial navigation system.

  18. An in situ hand calibration method using a pseudo-observation scheme for low-end inertial measurement units

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, You; Niu, Xiaoji; Zhang, Quan; Zhang, Hongping; Shi, Chuang

    2012-01-01

    MEMS chips have become ideal candidates for various applications since they are small sized, light weight, have low power consumption and are extremely low cost and reliable. However, the performance of MEMS sensors, especially their biases and scale factors, is highly dependent on environmental conditions such as temperature. Thus a quick and convenient calibration is needed to be conducted by users in field without any external equipment or any expert knowledge of calibration. A novel and efficient in situ hand calibration method is presented to meet these demands in this paper. The algorithm of the proposed calibration method makes use of the navigation algorithm of the loosely-coupled GPS/INS integrated systems, but replaces the GPS observations with a kind of pseudo-observations, which can be stated as follows: if an inertial measurement unit (IMU) was rotating approximately around its measurement center, the range of its position and its linear velocity both would be within a limited scope. Using a Kalman filtering algorithm, the biases and scale factors of both accelerometer triad and gyroscope triad can be calibrated together within a short period (about 30 s), requiring only motions by hands. Real test results show that the proposed method is suitable for most consumer grade MEMS IMUs due to its zero cost, easy operation and sufficient accuracy. (paper)

  19. SU-E-J-221: Advantages of a New Surface Imaging Calibration Method for SRS Treatments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paxton, A; Manger, R; Pawlicki, T; Kim, G

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The present calibration method used for the AlignRT surface imaging system relies on the placement of a calibration plate at the linac isocenter using isocenter surrogates (crosshairs, room lasers, etc.). This work investigated the potential advantages of a new calibration method that shifts the AlignRT isocenter to be coincident with the linac MV beam isocenter. Methods: To quantify the potential uncertainties associated with the present calibration method for SRS treatments, the calibration plate was intentionally shifted away from isocenter +/−3mm in the longitudinal and lateral directions and +/−1mm in the longitudinal, lateral, and vertical directions. A head phantom was placed in a mock SRS treatment position and monitored with the AlignRT system. The AlignRT-indicated offsets were recorded at 270, 315, 0, 45, and 90° couch angles for each intentional calibration misalignment. The new isocenter calibration was applied after each misalignment, and the measurements were repeated and compared to the previous results. Results: With intentional longitudinal and lateral shifts of +/−3mm and +/−1mm in the calibration plate, the average indicated offsets at couch rotations of +/−90° were 4.3mm and 1.6mm, respectively. This was in agreement with the theoretical offset of sqrt(2)*(intentional shift of the calibration plate). Since vertical shifts were along the rotation axis of the couch, these shifts had little effect on the offsets with changing couch angle. When the new calibration was applied, the indicated offsets were all within 0.5mm for all couch angles. These offsets were in agreement with the known magnitude of couch walkout. Conclusion: The potential pitfalls of the present calibration method have been established, and the advantages of the new calibration method have been demonstrated. This new calibration method effectively removes the potential miscalibration artifacts of the present calibration method, giving the AlignRT user more

  20. An optimization-based method for geometrical calibration in cone-beam CT without dedicated phantoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panetta, D; Belcari, N; Guerra, A Del; Moehrs, S

    2008-01-01

    In this paper we present a new method for the determination of geometrical misalignments in cone-beam CT scanners, from the analysis of the projection data of a generic object. No a priori knowledge of the object shape and positioning is required. We show that a cost function, which depends on the misalignment parameters, can be defined using the projection data and that such a cost function has a local minimum in correspondence to the actual parameters of the system. Hence, the calibration of the scanner can be carried out by minimizing the cost function using standard optimization techniques. The method is developed for a particular class of 3D object functions, for which the redundancy of the fan beam sinogram in the transaxial midplane can be extended to cone-beam projection data, even at wide cone angles. The method has an approximated validity for objects which do not belong to that class; in that case, a suitable subset of the projection data can be selected in order to compute the cost function. We show by numerical simulations that our method is capable to determine with high accuracy the most critical misalignment parameters of the scanner, i.e., the transversal shift and the skew of the detector. Additionally, the detector slant can be determined. Other parameters such as the detector tilt, the longitudinal shift and the error in the source-detector distance cannot be determined with our method, as the proposed cost function has a very weak dependence on them. However, due to the negligible influence of these latter parameters in the reconstructed image quality, they can be kept fixed at estimated values in both calibration and reconstruction processes without compromising the final result. A trade-off between computational cost and calibration accuracy must be considered when choosing the data subset used for the computation of the cost function. Results on real data of a mouse femur as obtained with a small animal micro-CT are shown as well, proving

  1. Kinematic parameter calibration method for industrial robot manipulator using the relative position

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ha, In Chul

    2008-01-01

    A new calibration method for industrial robot system calibration on a manufacturing floor is presented in this paper. To calibrate the robot system, a laser sensor to measure the distance between robot tool and measurement surface is attached to the robot end-effector and a grid is established in the floor. Given two position command pulses for a robot manipulator and using the position difference between two command pulses, the relative position measurement calibration method will find the real robot kinematic parameters. The procedures developed have been applied to an industrial robot. Finally, the effects of the models used to calibrate the robot are discussed. This calibration method represents an effective, low cost and feasible technique for the industrial robot calibration in lab. projects and industrial environments

  2. The JCMT Transient Survey: Data Reduction and Calibration Methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mairs, Steve; Lane, James [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Victoria, Victoria, BC, V8P 1A1 (Canada); Johnstone, Doug; Kirk, Helen [NRC Herzberg Astronomy and Astrophysics, 5071 West Saanich Road, Victoria, BC, V9E 2E7 (Canada); Lacaille, Kevin; Chapman, Scott [Department of Physics and Atmospheric Science, Dalhousie University, Halifax, NS, B3H 4R2 (Canada); Bower, Geoffrey C. [Academia Sinica Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics, 645 N. A‘ohōkū Place, Hilo, HI 96720 (United States); Bell, Graham S.; Graves, Sarah, E-mail: smairs@uvic.ca [East Asian Observatory, 660 North A‘ohōkū Place, University Park, Hilo, Hawaii 96720 (United States); Collaboration: JCMT Transient Team

    2017-07-01

    Though there has been a significant amount of work investigating the early stages of low-mass star formation in recent years, the evolution of the mass assembly rate onto the central protostar remains largely unconstrained. Examining in depth the variation in this rate is critical to understanding the physics of star formation. Instabilities in the outer and inner circumstellar disk can lead to episodic outbursts. Observing these brightness variations at infrared or submillimeter wavelengths constrains the current accretion models. The JCMT Transient Survey is a three-year project dedicated to studying the continuum variability of deeply embedded protostars in eight nearby star-forming regions at a one-month cadence. We use the SCUBA-2 instrument to simultaneously observe these regions at wavelengths of 450 and 850 μ m. In this paper, we present the data reduction techniques, image alignment procedures, and relative flux calibration methods for 850 μ m data. We compare the properties and locations of bright, compact emission sources fitted with Gaussians over time. Doing so, we achieve a spatial alignment of better than 1″ between the repeated observations and an uncertainty of 2%–3% in the relative peak brightness of significant, localized emission. This combination of imaging performance is unprecedented in ground-based, single-dish submillimeter observations. Finally, we identify a few sources that show possible and confirmed brightness variations. These sources will be closely monitored and presented in further detail in additional studies throughout the duration of the survey.

  3. The JCMT Transient Survey: Data Reduction and Calibration Methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mairs, Steve; Lane, James; Johnstone, Doug; Kirk, Helen; Lacaille, Kevin; Chapman, Scott; Bower, Geoffrey C.; Bell, Graham S.; Graves, Sarah

    2017-01-01

    Though there has been a significant amount of work investigating the early stages of low-mass star formation in recent years, the evolution of the mass assembly rate onto the central protostar remains largely unconstrained. Examining in depth the variation in this rate is critical to understanding the physics of star formation. Instabilities in the outer and inner circumstellar disk can lead to episodic outbursts. Observing these brightness variations at infrared or submillimeter wavelengths constrains the current accretion models. The JCMT Transient Survey is a three-year project dedicated to studying the continuum variability of deeply embedded protostars in eight nearby star-forming regions at a one-month cadence. We use the SCUBA-2 instrument to simultaneously observe these regions at wavelengths of 450 and 850 μ m. In this paper, we present the data reduction techniques, image alignment procedures, and relative flux calibration methods for 850 μ m data. We compare the properties and locations of bright, compact emission sources fitted with Gaussians over time. Doing so, we achieve a spatial alignment of better than 1″ between the repeated observations and an uncertainty of 2%–3% in the relative peak brightness of significant, localized emission. This combination of imaging performance is unprecedented in ground-based, single-dish submillimeter observations. Finally, we identify a few sources that show possible and confirmed brightness variations. These sources will be closely monitored and presented in further detail in additional studies throughout the duration of the survey.

  4. One step geometrical calibration method for optical coherence tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Díaz, Jesús Díaz; Ortmaier, Tobias; Stritzel, Jenny; Rahlves, Maik; Reithmeier, Eduard; Roth, Bernhard; Majdani, Omid

    2016-01-01

    We present a novel one-step calibration methodology for geometrical distortion correction for optical coherence tomography (OCT). A calibration standard especially designed for OCT is introduced, which consists of an array of inverse pyramidal structures. The use of multiple landmarks situated on four different height levels on the pyramids allow performing a 3D geometrical calibration. The calibration procedure itself is based on a parametric model of the OCT beam propagation. It is validated by experimental results and enables the reduction of systematic errors by more than one order of magnitude. In future, our results can improve OCT image reconstruction and interpretation for medical applications such as real time monitoring of surgery. (paper)

  5. Method of calibration for portable detectors of ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leal, Carlos; Carrizales, Lila; Guacaran, Douglas; Moreno, Ailed; Duran, Jose

    2008-01-01

    Full text: The LSCD is beginning a process of accreditation by the national authority of Venezuela (CENCAMER), so we felt the need to modify existing protocols calibration, suggested by the IAEA (Technical Reports Series No 133) to be adjusted in accordance with international standards of ISO 17025 EA-4/02 and Mexican standard NOM-021-NUCL-2002, adapting the calibration procedure of portable radiation detectors to those standards. The procedure used in the LSCD, conducts an intercomparison between measures between the standard reference and to calibrate the instrument, thus verifying the correct operation of the equipment and its usefulness to the individual or environmental radiation monitoring, not to exceed the limits primary for the public and occupationally Staff Exposed (POE), and propose a simple way to perform this calibration procedure and comply with the standard international and national standards, ensuring the proper functioning of the instruments calibrated. One of the calculations that has proven to be a useful tool in the verification of the conditions of operating the same, it is uncertainty, this procedure allows to characterize the response of individual detector, depending on the constraints specified by the manufacturer, to optimize the calibration is necessary to consider the multiple factors that can affect the measure and evaluate the response of the same, so it is vitally important estimating the typical uncertainty associated with the calibration technique employed, but this calculation is not trivial, depends on the type of detector found usually between 5% to 20%, both in uncertainty as the linearity, which are the parameters that are set to consider an instrument in good or bad condition. Typical are calibrated are: monitors air Geiger-Muller, Ionization cameras, detector of Neutron's, Proportional Counter, Personal dosimeters. (author)

  6. Improvements on the directional characteristics of a calibration sound source using the Boundary Element Method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cutanda Henriquez, Vicente; Barrera Figueroa, Salvador; Juhl, Peter Møller

    2008-01-01

    The project Euromet-792 aims to investigate and improve methods for secondary free-field calibration of microphones. In this framework, the comparison method is being studied at DFM in relation to the more usual substitution method of microphone calibration. The design of the sound source is of p...

  7. Calibration Method to Eliminate Zeroth Order Effect in Lateral Shearing Interferometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Chao; Xiang, Yang; Qi, Keqi; Chen, Dawei

    2018-04-01

    In this paper, a calibration method is proposed which eliminates the zeroth order effect in lateral shearing interferometry. An analytical expression of the calibration error function is deduced, and the relationship between the phase-restoration error and calibration error is established. The analytical results show that the phase-restoration error introduced by the calibration error is proportional to the phase shifting error and zeroth order effect. The calibration method is verified using simulations and experiments. The simulation results show that the phase-restoration error is approximately proportional to the phase shift error and zeroth order effect, when the phase shifting error is less than 2° and the zeroth order effect is less than 0.2. The experimental result shows that compared with the conventional method with 9-frame interferograms, the calibration method with 5-frame interferograms achieves nearly the same restoration accuracy.

  8. Calibration method for projector-camera-based telecentric fringe projection profilometry system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Haibo; Lin, Huijing; Yao, Linshen

    2017-12-11

    By combining a fringe projection setup with a telecentric lens, a fringe pattern could be projected and imaged within a small area, making it possible to measure the three-dimensional (3D) surfaces of micro-components. This paper focuses on the flexible calibration of the fringe projection profilometry (FPP) system using a telecentric lens. An analytical telecentric projector-camera calibration model is introduced, in which the rig structure parameters remain invariant for all views, and the 3D calibration target can be located on the projector image plane with sub-pixel precision. Based on the presented calibration model, a two-step calibration procedure is proposed. First, the initial parameters, e.g., the projector-camera rig, projector intrinsic matrix, and coordinates of the control points of a 3D calibration target, are estimated using the affine camera factorization calibration method. Second, a bundle adjustment algorithm with various simultaneous views is applied to refine the calibrated parameters, especially the rig structure parameters and coordinates of the control points forth 3D target. Because the control points are determined during the calibration, there is no need for an accurate 3D reference target, whose is costly and extremely difficult to fabricate, particularly for tiny objects used to calibrate the telecentric FPP system. Real experiments were performed to validate the performance of the proposed calibration method. The test results showed that the proposed approach is very accurate and reliable.

  9. Method for calibration measurement in a liquid scintillation counter and carrier used in the method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reunanen, M.A.

    1976-01-01

    The present invention relates to a method for use in liquid scintillation measurements to feed an accurately determined amount of radioactive substance to a fluid scintillation system for a calibration measurement. According to the invention an accurately determined amount of radioactive substance is adsorbed to a carrier, which is introduced into the fluid scintillation system. The invention also relates to a carrier for use in the method

  10. Model Robust Calibration: Method and Application to Electronically-Scanned Pressure Transducers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Eric L.; Starnes, B. Alden; Birch, Jeffery B.; Mays, James E.

    2010-01-01

    This article presents the application of a recently developed statistical regression method to the controlled instrument calibration problem. The statistical method of Model Robust Regression (MRR), developed by Mays, Birch, and Starnes, is shown to improve instrument calibration by reducing the reliance of the calibration on a predetermined parametric (e.g. polynomial, exponential, logarithmic) model. This is accomplished by allowing fits from the predetermined parametric model to be augmented by a certain portion of a fit to the residuals from the initial regression using a nonparametric (locally parametric) regression technique. The method is demonstrated for the absolute scale calibration of silicon-based pressure transducers.

  11. Calibration methods for the Hargreaves-Samani equation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas Borges Ferreira

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The estimation of the reference evapotranspiration is an important factor for hydrological studies, design and management of irrigation systems, among others. The Penman Monteith equation presents high precision and accuracy in the estimation of this variable. However, its use becomes limited due to the large number of required meteorological data. In this context, the Hargreaves-Samani equation could be used as alternative, although, for a better performance a local calibration is required. Thus, the aim was to compare the calibration process of the Hargreaves-Samani equation by linear regression, by adjustment of the coefficients (A and B and exponent (C of the equation and by combinations of the two previous alternatives. Daily data from 6 weather stations, located in the state of Minas Gerais, from the period 1997 to 2016 were used. The calibration of the Hargreaves-Samani equation was performed in five ways: calibration by linear regression, adjustment of parameter “A”, adjustment of parameters “A” and “C”, adjustment of parameters “A”, “B” and “C” and adjustment of parameters “A”, “B” and “C” followed by calibration by linear regression. The performances of the models were evaluated based on the statistical indicators mean absolute error, mean bias error, Willmott’s index of agreement, correlation coefficient and performance index. All the studied methodologies promoted better estimations of reference evapotranspiration. The simultaneous adjustment of the empirical parameters “A”, “B” and “C” was the best alternative for calibration of the Hargreaves-Samani equation.

  12. A method to calibrate a solar pyranometer for measuring reference diffuse irradiance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reda, I.; Stoffel, T.; Myers, D. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, CO (United States)

    2003-02-01

    Accurate pyranometer calibrations, traceable to internationally recognized standards, are critical for solar irradiance measurements. One calibration method is the component summation, where the pyranometers are calibrated outdoors under clear sky conditions, and the reference global solar irradiance is calculated as the sum of two reference components, the diffuse and subtended beam solar irradiances. The beam component is measured with pyrheliometers traceable to the World Radiometric Reference, while there is no internationally recognized reference for the diffuse component. In the absence of such a reference, we present a method to consistently calibrate pyranometers for measuring the diffuse component with an estimated uncertainty of {+-} (3% of reading +1 W/m{sup 2}). The method is based on using a modified shade/unshade method, and pyranometers with less than 1 W/m{sup 2} thermal offset errors. We evaluated the consistency of our method by calibrating three pyranometers four times. Calibration results show that the responsivity change is within {+-} 0.52% for the three pyranometers. We also evaluated the effect of calibrating pyranometers unshaded, then using them shaded to measure diffuse irradiance. We calibrated three unshaded pyranometers using the component summation method. Their outdoor measurements of clear sky diffuse irradiance, from sunrise to sundown, showed that the three calibrated pyranometers can be used to measure the diffuse irradiance to within {+-} 1.4 W/m{sup 2} variation from the reference irradiance. (author)

  13. THE METHOD OF GEOMETRIC CALIBRATION OF OPTOELECTRONIC SYSTEMS BASED ON ELECTRONIC TEST OBJECT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. A. Kozhevnikov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Designing remote sensing of the Earth devices is requires a lot of attention to evaluation lens distortion level and providing the required accuracy values of geometric calibration of optoelectronic systems at all. Test- objects known as most common tools for optical systems geometric calibration. The purpose of the research was creating an automatically method of distortion correction coefficients calculating with a 3 μm precision in the measurement process. The method of geometric calibration of the internal orientation elements of the optical system based on the electronic test object is proposed. The calculation of the test string brightness image from its multispectral image and filtered signal extrema position determination are presented. Ratio of magnitude of the distortion and interval center is given. Three variants of electronic test-objects with different step and element size are considered. Оptimal size of calibration element was defined as 3×3 pixels due to shape of the subpixels with the aspect ratio of the radiating areas about 1 : 3. It is advisable to use IPS as an electronic test object template. An experimental test and measurement stand functional diagram based on the collimator and optical bench «OSK-2CL» is showed. It was determined that test objects with a grid spacing of 4 and 8 pixels can’t provide tolerable image because of non-collimated emission of active sites and scattering on optical surfaces – the shape of the elements is substantially disrupted. Test-object with a 12 pixels grid spacing was used to distortion level analyzing as most suitable.Ratio of coordinate increment and element number graphs for two photographic lenses (Canon EF-S 17-85 f/4-5.6 IS USM and EF-S 18-55 f/3.5-5.6 IS II are presented. A calculation of the distortion values in edge zones was held, which were respectively 43 μm and 51.6 μm. The technique and algorithm of software implementation is described. Possible directions of the

  14. Hybrid Geometric Calibration Method for Multi-Platform Spaceborne SAR Image with Sparse Gcps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, G.; Tang, X.; Ai, B.; Li, T.; Chen, Q.

    2018-04-01

    Geometric calibration is able to provide high-accuracy geometric coordinates of spaceborne SAR image through accurate geometric parameters in the Range-Doppler model by ground control points (GCPs). However, it is very difficult to obtain GCPs that covering large-scale areas, especially in the mountainous regions. In addition, the traditional calibration method is only used for single platform SAR images and can't support the hybrid geometric calibration for multi-platform images. To solve the above problems, a hybrid geometric calibration method for multi-platform spaceborne SAR images with sparse GCPs is proposed in this paper. First, we calibrate the master image that contains GCPs. Secondly, the point tracking algorithm is used to obtain the tie points (TPs) between the master and slave images. Finally, we calibrate the slave images using TPs as the GCPs. We take the Beijing-Tianjin- Hebei region as an example to study SAR image hybrid geometric calibration method using 3 TerraSAR-X images, 3 TanDEM-X images and 5 GF-3 images covering more than 235 kilometers in the north-south direction. Geometric calibration of all images is completed using only 5 GCPs. The GPS data extracted from GNSS receiver are used to assess the plane accuracy after calibration. The results after geometric calibration with sparse GCPs show that the geometric positioning accuracy is 3 m for TSX/TDX images and 7.5 m for GF-3 images.

  15. Comparison of Four Weighting Methods in Fuzzy-based Land Suitability to Predict Wheat Yield

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Rahmati

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Land suitability evaluation is a process to examine the degree of land fitness for specific utilization and also makes it possible to estimate land productivity potential. In 1976, FAO provided a general framework for land suitability classification. It has not been proposed a specific method to perform this classification in the framework. In later years, a collection of methods was presented based on the FAO framework. In parametric method, different land suitability aspects are defined as completely discrete groups and are separated from each other by distinguished and consistent ranges. Therefore, land units that have moderate suitability can only choose one of the characteristics of predefined classes of land suitability. Fuzzy logic is an extension of Boolean logic by LotfiZadeh in 1965 based on the mathematical theory of fuzzy sets, which is a generalization of the classical set theory. By introducing the notion of degree in the verification of a condition, fuzzy method enables a condition to be in a state other than true or false, as well as provides a very valuable flexibility for reasoning, which makes it possible to take into account inaccuracies and uncertainties. One advantage of fuzzy logic in order to formalize human reasoning is that the rules are set in natural language. In evaluation method based on fuzzy logic, the weights are used for land characteristics. The objective of this study was to compare four methods of weight calculation in the fuzzy logic to predict the yield of wheat in the study area covering 1500 ha in Kian town in Shahrekord (Chahrmahal and Bakhtiari province, Iran. Materials and Methods: In such investigations, climatic factors, and soil physical and chemical characteristics are studied. This investigation involves several studies including a lab study, and qualitative and quantitative land suitability evaluation with fuzzy logic for wheat. Factors affecting the wheat production consist of

  16. Calibration of 14C Histograms : A Comparison of Methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stolk, Ad; Törnqvist, Torbjörn E.; Hekhuis, Kilian P.V.; Berendsen, Henk J.A.; Plicht, Johannes van der

    1994-01-01

    The interpretation of C-14 histograms is complicated by the non-linearity of the C-14 time scale in terms of Calendar years, which may result in clustering of C-14 ages in certain time intervals unrelated to the (geologic or archaeologic) phenomenon of interest. One can calibrate C-14 histograms for

  17. A New Method for Calibrating the Time Delay of a Piezoelectric Probe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Bengt Hurup

    1974-01-01

    A simple method for calibrating the time delay of a piezoelectric probe of the type often used in plasma physics is described.......A simple method for calibrating the time delay of a piezoelectric probe of the type often used in plasma physics is described....

  18. Noninvasive method for the calibration of the peak voltage (kVp) meters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macedo, E.M.; Navarro, M.V.T.; Pereira, L.; Garcia, I.F.M.; Navarro, V.C.C.

    2015-01-01

    Quality control in diagnostic radiology is one of the mechanisms that minimize radiation exposure, and the measurement of tube voltage is one of the main test in these procedures. So, the calibration of non-invasive tube voltage meters is essential to maintain the metrological reliability of quality control tests. Thus, this work describes the implementation of the calibration methodology of the quantity tube peak voltage by the substitution method, using non-invasive standard meter, at LABPROSAUD-IFBA. The results showed great performance and when compared with calibrations by invasive methods, showed maximum difference of 4%, contemplated in the uncertainty ranges of the calibrations. (author)

  19. Comparison between calibration methods of ionization chamber type pencil in greatness P_K_L

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macedo, E.M.; Pereira, L.C.S.; Ferreira, M.J.; Navarro, V.C.C.; Garcia, I.F.M.; Pires, E.J.; Navarro, M.V.T.

    2016-01-01

    Calibration of radiation meters is indispensable on Quality Assurance Program in Radiodiagnostic procedures, mainly Computed Tomography. Thus, this study aims evaluate two calibration methods of pencil ionization chambers in terms of Kerma-length Product (P_K_L) (a direct substitution method and an indirect one, through Kerma and length measurements). The results showed a good equivalence, with minimal concordance of 98,5% between calibration factors. About uncertainties, both showed similar results (substitution 2.2% and indirect 2.3%), indicating that the last one is better, due the costs reduction to implant this calibration procedure. (author)

  20. A validated method for the quantitation of 1,1-difluoroethane using a gas in equilibrium method of calibration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avella, Joseph; Lehrer, Michael; Zito, S William

    2008-10-01

    1,1-Difluoroethane (DFE), also known as Freon 152A, is a member of a class of compounds known as halogenated hydrocarbons. A number of these compounds have gained notoriety because of their ability to induce rapid onset of intoxication after inhalation exposure. Abuse of DFE has necessitated development of methods for its detection and quantitation in postmortem and human performance specimens. Furthermore, methodologies applicable to research studies are required as there have been limited toxicokinetic and toxicodynamic reports published on DFE. This paper describes a method for the quantitation of DFE using a gas chromatography-flame-ionization headspace technique that employs solventless standards for calibration. Two calibration curves using 0.5 mL whole blood calibrators which ranged from A: 0.225-1.350 to B: 9.0-180.0 mg/L were developed. These were evaluated for linearity (0.9992 and 0.9995), limit of detection of 0.018 mg/L, limit of quantitation of 0.099 mg/L (recovery 111.9%, CV 9.92%), and upper limit of linearity of 27,000.0 mg/L. Combined curve recovery results of a 98.0 mg/L DFE control that was prepared using an alternate technique was 102.2% with CV of 3.09%. No matrix interference was observed in DFE enriched blood, urine or brain specimens nor did analysis of variance detect any significant differences (alpha = 0.01) in the area under the curve of blood, urine or brain specimens at three identical DFE concentrations. The method is suitable for use in forensic laboratories because validation was performed on instrumentation routinely used in forensic labs and due to the ease with which the calibration range can be adjusted. Perhaps more importantly it is also useful for research oriented studies because the removal of solvent from standard preparation eliminates the possibility for solvent induced changes to the gas/liquid partitioning of DFE or chromatographic interference due to the presence of solvent in specimens.

  1. Calibration method of the pulsed X-ray relative sensitivity for ST401 plastic scintillators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie Hongwei; Song Guzhou; Wang Kuilu

    2011-01-01

    The relative sensitivity calibration method of the pulsed X-ray in ST401 plastic scintillator is presented. Experimental relative sensitivity calibrations of the plastic scintillators of different thicknesses from 1 mm to 50 mm are accomplished on the 'Chenguang' pulsed X-ray source and a Co radioactive source, The uncertainty of the calibration data is evaluated, which can be treated as the experimental evidence for the relative sensitivity conversion of ST401 plastic scintillator. (authors)

  2. Verification of the ISO calibration method for field pyranometers under tropical sky conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janjai, Serm; Tohsing, Korntip; Pattarapanitchai, Somjet; Detkhon, Pasakorn

    2017-02-01

    Field pyranomters need to be annually calibrated and the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) has defined a standard method (ISO 9847) for calibrating these pyranometers. According to this standard method for outdoor calibration, the field pyranometers have to be compared to a reference pyranometer for the period of 2 to 14 days, depending on sky conditions. In this work, the ISO 9847 standard method was verified under tropical sky conditions. To verify the standard method, calibration of field pyranometers was conducted at a tropical site located in Nakhon Pathom (13.82o N, 100.04o E), Thailand under various sky conditions. The conditions of the sky were monitored by using a sky camera. The calibration results for different time periods used for the calibration under various sky conditions were analyzed. It was found that the calibration periods given by this standard method could be reduced without significant change in the final calibration result. In addition, recommendation and discussion on the use of this standard method in the tropics were also presented.

  3. Suitability of leaching test methods for fly ash and slag: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manoj Kumar Tiwari

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Fly ash and slag leachate pollution can be of great environmental concern due to generation of these wastes in huge quantities from their respective industrial units, mainly coal-based thermal power plants and iron and steel plants. For simulation of natural leaching in laboratory, various leaching methods are available, but selection of a method that can exactly simulate the real-life scenario for accurate estimation of various pollutants is challenging; particularly, the heavy metals present and impact due to reuse or disposal of these wastes. For choosing the most suitable leaching method according to specific situation, one must primarily consider the chemical and physical properties of wastes, the composition of the source, age of waste disposal, and the climatic conditions of the disposal area. Since these factors may not be specified, a variety of leaching methods with relevant equipment have been proposed by researchers; that are based on their required information to particular conditions in absence of a prescribed protocol and non standardization of equipment. The present review is an attempt to investigate the suitable leaching method for coal fly ash and slag.

  4. Standard Test Method for Calibration of Non-Concentrator Photovoltaic Secondary Reference Cells

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2010-01-01

    1.1 This test method covers calibration and characterization of secondary terrestrial photovoltaic reference cells to a desired reference spectral irradiance distribution. The recommended physical requirements for these reference cells are described in Specification E1040. Reference cells are principally used in the determination of the electrical performance of a photovoltaic device. 1.2 Secondary reference cells are calibrated indoors using simulated sunlight or outdoors in natural sunlight by reference to a primary reference cell previously calibrated to the same desired reference spectral irradiance distribution. 1.3 Secondary reference cells calibrated according to this test method will have the same radiometric traceability as the of the primary reference cell used for the calibration. Therefore, if the primary reference cell is traceable to the World Radiometric Reference (WRR, see Test Method E816), the resulting secondary reference cell will also be traceable to the WRR. 1.4 This test method appli...

  5. A Low Cost Calibration Method for Urban Drainage Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Michael R.; Thorndahl, Søren; Schaarup-Jensen, Kjeld

    2008-01-01

    The calibration of the hydrological reduction coefficient is examined for a small catchment. The objective is to determine the hydrological reduction coefficient, which is used for describing how much of the precipitation which falls on impervious areas, that actually ends up in the sewer...... to what can be found with intensive in-sewer measurement of rain and runoff. The results also clearly indicate that there is a large variation in hydrological reduction coefficient between different rain events....

  6. Absolute efficiency calibration of HPGe detector by simulation method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Narayani, K.; Pant, Amar D.; Verma, Amit K.; Bhosale, N.A.; Anilkumar, S.

    2018-01-01

    High resolution gamma ray spectrometry by HPGe detectors is a powerful radio analytical technique for estimation of activity of various radionuclides. In the present work absolute efficiency calibration of the HPGe detector was carried out using Monte Carlo simulation technique and results are compared with those obtained by experiment using standard radionuclides of 152 Eu and 133 Ba. The coincidence summing correction factors for the measurement of these nuclides were also calculated

  7. New method of assigning uncertainty in volume calibration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lechner, J.A.; Reeve, C.P.; Spiegelman, C.H.

    1980-12-01

    This paper presents a practical statistical overview of the pressure-volume calibration curve for large nuclear materials processing tanks. It explains the appropriateness of applying splines (piecewise polynomials) to this curve, and it presents an overview of the associated statistical uncertainties. In order to implement these procedures, a practical and portable FORTRAN IV program is provided along with its users' manual. Finally, the recommended procedure is demonstrated on actual tank data collected by NBS

  8. A non-contact, thermal noise based method for the calibration of lateral deflection sensitivity in atomic force microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mullin, Nic; Hobbs, Jamie K.

    2014-01-01

    Calibration of lateral forces and displacements has been a long standing problem in lateral force microscopies. Recently, it was shown by Wagner et al. that the thermal noise spectrum of the first torsional mode may be used to calibrate the deflection sensitivity of the detector. This method is quick, non-destructive and may be performed in situ in air or liquid. Here we make a full quantitative comparison of the lateral inverse optical lever sensitivity obtained by the lateral thermal noise method and the shape independent method developed by Anderson et al. We find that the thermal method provides accurate results for a wide variety of rectangular cantilevers, provided that the geometry of the cantilever is suitable for torsional stiffness calibration by the torsional Sader method, in-plane bending of the cantilever may be eliminated or accounted for and that any scaling of the lateral deflection signal between the measurement of the lateral thermal noise and the measurement of the lateral deflection is eliminated or corrected for. We also demonstrate that the thermal method may be used to characterize the linearity of the detector signal as a function of position, and find a deviation of less than 8% for the instrument used

  9. Optimized star sensors laboratory calibration method using a regularization neural network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chengfen; Niu, Yanxiong; Zhang, Hao; Lu, Jiazhen

    2018-02-10

    High-precision ground calibration is essential to ensure the performance of star sensors. However, the complex distortion and multi-error coupling have brought great difficulties to traditional calibration methods, especially for large field of view (FOV) star sensors. Although increasing the complexity of models is an effective way to improve the calibration accuracy, it significantly increases the demand for calibration data. In order to achieve high-precision calibration of star sensors with large FOV, a novel laboratory calibration method based on a regularization neural network is proposed. A multi-layer structure neural network is designed to represent the mapping of the star vector and the corresponding star point coordinate directly. To ensure the generalization performance of the network, regularization strategies are incorporated into the net structure and the training algorithm. Simulation and experiment results demonstrate that the proposed method can achieve high precision with less calibration data and without any other priori information. Compared with traditional methods, the calibration error of the star sensor decreased by about 30%. The proposed method can satisfy the precision requirement for large FOV star sensors.

  10. Absolute calibration method for nanosecond-resolved, time-streaked, fiber optic light collection, spectroscopy systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnston, Mark D.; Oliver, Bryan V.; Droemer, Darryl W.; Frogget, Brent; Crain, Marlon D.; Maron, Yitzhak

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes a convenient and accurate method to calibrate fast ( 2 /steradian/nm). Error analysis shows this method to be accurate to within +/– 20%, which represents a high level of accuracy for this type of measurement.

  11. Calibration of resistance factors for drilled shafts for the new FHWA design method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    The Load and Resistance Factor Design (LRFD) calibration of deep foundation in Louisiana was first completed for driven piles (LTRC Final Report 449) in May 2009 and then for drilled shafts using 1999 FHWA design method (ONeill and Reese method) (...

  12. Hot-Wire Calibration at Low Velocities: Revisiting the Vortex Shedding Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sohrab S. Sattarzadeh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The necessity to calibrate hot-wire probes against a known velocity causes problems at low velocities, due to the inherent inaccuracy of pressure transducers at low differential pressures. The vortex shedding calibration method is in this respect a recommended technique to obtain calibration data at low velocities, due to its simplicity and accuracy. However, it has mainly been applied in a low and narrow Reynolds number range known as the laminar vortex shedding regime. Here, on the other hand, we propose to utilize the irregular vortex shedding regime and show where the probe needs to be placed with respect to the cylinder in order to obtain unambiguous calibration data.

  13. Camera calibration method of binocular stereo vision based on OpenCV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Wanzhen; Dong, Xiaona

    2015-10-01

    Camera calibration, an important part of the binocular stereo vision research, is the essential foundation of 3D reconstruction of the spatial object. In this paper, the camera calibration method based on OpenCV (open source computer vision library) is submitted to make the process better as a result of obtaining higher precision and efficiency. First, the camera model in OpenCV and an algorithm of camera calibration are presented, especially considering the influence of camera lens radial distortion and decentering distortion. Then, camera calibration procedure is designed to compute those parameters of camera and calculate calibration errors. High-accurate profile extraction algorithm and a checkboard with 48 corners have also been used in this part. Finally, results of calibration program are presented, demonstrating the high efficiency and accuracy of the proposed approach. The results can reach the requirement of robot binocular stereo vision.

  14. Improvement of Accuracy in Environmental Dosimetry by TLD Cards Using Three-dimensional Calibration Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HosseiniAliabadi S. J.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: The angular dependency of response for TLD cards may cause deviation from its true value on the results of environmental dosimetry, since TLDs may be exposed to radiation at different angles of incidence from the surrounding area. Objective: A 3D setting of TLD cards has been calibrated isotropically in a standard radiation field to evaluate the improvement of the accuracy of measurement for environmental dosimetry. Method: Three personal TLD cards were rectangularly placed in a cylindrical holder, and calibrated using 1D and 3D calibration methods. Then, the dosimeter has been used simultaneously with a reference instrument in a real radiation field measuring the accumulated dose within a time interval. Result: The results show that the accuracy of measurement has been improved by 6.5% using 3D calibration factor in comparison with that of normal 1D calibration method. Conclusion: This system can be utilized in large scale environmental monitoring with a higher accuracy

  15. A new method to calibrate Lagrangian model with ASAR images for oil slick trajectory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Siyu; Huang, Xiaoxia; Li, Hongga

    2017-03-15

    Since Lagrangian model coefficients vary with different conditions, it is necessary to calibrate the model to obtain optimal coefficient combination for special oil spill accident. This paper focuses on proposing a new method to calibrate Lagrangian model with time series of Envisat ASAR images. Oil slicks extracted from time series images form a detected trajectory of special oil slick. Lagrangian model is calibrated by minimizing the difference between simulated trajectory and detected trajectory. mean center position distance difference (MCPD) and rotation difference (RD) of Oil slicks' or particles' standard deviational ellipses (SDEs) are calculated as two evaluations. The two parameters are taken to evaluate the performance of Lagrangian transport model with different coefficient combinations. This method is applied to Penglai 19-3 oil spill accident. The simulation result with calibrated model agrees well with related satellite observations. It is suggested the new method is effective to calibrate Lagrangian model. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. An innovative method to calibrate a spinner anemometer without the use of yaw position sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Demurtas

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available A spinner anemometer can be used to measure the yaw misalignment and flow inclination experienced by a wind turbine. Previous calibration methods used to calibrate a spinner anemometer for flow angle measurements were based on measurements of a spinner anemometer with default settings (arbitrary values, generally k1,d  =  1 and k2,d  =  1 and a reference yaw misalignment signal measured with a yaw position sensor. The yaw position sensor is normally present in wind turbines for control purposes; however, such a signal is not always available for a spinner anemometer calibration. Therefore, an additional yaw position sensor was installed prior to the spinner anemometer calibration. An innovative method to calibrate the spinner anemometer without a yaw positions sensor was then developed. It was noted that a non-calibrated spinner anemometer that overestimates (underestimates the inflow angle will also overestimate (underestimate the wind speed when there is a yaw misalignment. The new method leverages the non-linearity of the spinner anemometer algorithm to find the calibration factor Fα by an optimization process that minimizes the dependency of the wind speed on the yaw misalignment. The new calibration method was found to be rather robust, with Fα values within ±2.7 % of the mean value for four successive tests at the same rotor position.

  17. In-flight calibration methods used for the Ørsted mission

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Nils; Risbo, Torben; Brauer, Peter

    2000-01-01

    Several methods have been developed for the in-flight calibration of the Ørsted vector magnetometer. They are based on one of the following principles: a) estimating of the magnetometer constants by means of a scalar calibration (comparison of the vector magnetometer (CSC) with the scalar Overhau...

  18. Some methods for calibration and beta radiation dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caldas, Linda V. Ehlin

    1980-01-01

    The calibration of beta radiation was studied from the point of view of primary and secondary standardization, using extrapolation chambers and examining several effects. The properties of a commercial ionization chamber were investigated, and the possibility of its use in calibration and dosimetry of 90 Sr- 90 Y beta radiation was demonstrated . A secondary standard calibration facility was developed and the results obtained with this facility were compared with those obtained from a primary system directly or indirectly. Nearly energy independent response was obtained in.the range 60 keV to 0,8 MeV with this secondary standard. Two solid state techniques namely thermoluminescence (TL) and thermally stimulated exoelectron emission (TSEE) were also used for beta dosimetry. Various characteristics like reproducibility, response with dose,energy dependence, etc. were studied for the materials: LiF, CaF 2 ,Li 2 B 4 O 7 , Be O, CaSO 4 and Al 2 O 3 . TL detectors of thickness 0,9 mm underestimate the dose 60 μm thick CaSO 4 :Tm embedded on a thin aluminium plate gave energy independent response behind skin layers of 7 mg/cm 2 . Mixed field of beta, X and gamma radiation was analysed using this detector. Quartz based Be O and graphite based alpha beta-Al 2 O 3 were found to be good beta radiation detectors when the TSEE technique is used. Energy independent CaSO 4 :Tm TL dosimeters were used in international comparison for dose measurements and the results obtained were in agreement with the actual given doses within 10%. The TL detectors were also used for dose rate measurements from glazed painted tiles used in construction industry and a 85 Kr source used in textile and metal industries. Results obtained in the later case were Q compared with those using the secondary standard facility. (author)

  19. ISS Payload Racks Automated Flow Control Calibration Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmonds, Boris G.

    2003-01-01

    Payload Racks utilize MTL and/or LTL station water for cooling of payloads and avionics. Flow control range from valves of fully closed, to up to 300 Ibmhr. Instrument accuracies are as high as f 7.5 Ibm/hr for flow sensors and f 3 Ibm/hr for valve controller, for a total system accuracy of f 10.5 Ibm/hr. Improved methodology was developed, tested and proven that reduces accuracy of the commanded flows to less than f 1 Ibmhr. Uethodology could be packed in a "calibration kit" for on- orbit flow sensor checkout and recalibration, extending the rack operations before return to earth. -

  20. Practical use of control rod calibration system with the inverse kinetics method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamanaka, Haruhiko; Hayashi, Kazuhiko; Motohashi, Jun; Kawashima, Kazuhito; Ichimura, Toshiyuki; Tamai, Kazuo; Takeuti, Mitsuo

    2002-01-01

    The control rod calibration results in the JRR-3 are used as a reactivity standard to measure and manage the reactivity change in the core. The total travel of all six control rods has been calibrated by an inverse kinetics method (IK method) during an annual maintenance period. The IK method has the great merit in saving measuring time compared with the conventional positive period method (PP method). The JRR-3 control rod calibration system was renovated and put into practical use in order to improve reliability and function by accumulating 10-year experience with the IK method in the JRR-3. The report shows the function, the performance and results of verification of the JRR-3 control rod calibration system. (author)

  1. Calibration and intercomparison methods of dose calibrators used in nuclear medicine facilities; Metodos de calibracao e de intercomparacao de calibradores de dose utilizados em servicos de medicina nuclear

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa, Alessandro Martins da

    1999-07-01

    Dose calibrators are used in most of the nuclear medicine facilities to determine the amount of radioactivity administered to a patient in a particular investigation or therapeutic procedure. It is therefore of vital importance that the equipment used presents good performance and is regular;y calibrated at a authorized laboratory. This occurs of adequate quality assurance procedures are carried out. Such quality control tests should be performed daily, other biannually or yearly, testing, for example, its accuracy and precision, the reproducibility and response linearity. In this work a commercial dose calibrator was calibrated with solution of radionuclides used in nuclear medicine. Simple instrument tests, such as response linearity and the response variation of the source volume increase at a constant source activity concentration, were performed. This instrument can now be used as a working standard for calibration of other dose calibrators/ An intercomparison procedure was proposed as a method of quality control of dose calibrators used in nuclear medicine facilities. (author)

  2. Beyond discrimination: A comparison of calibration methods and clinical usefulness of predictive models of readmission risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Colin G; Sharman, Kavya; Hripcsak, George

    2017-12-01

    Prior to implementing predictive models in novel settings, analyses of calibration and clinical usefulness remain as important as discrimination, but they are not frequently discussed. Calibration is a model's reflection of actual outcome prevalence in its predictions. Clinical usefulness refers to the utilities, costs, and harms of using a predictive model in practice. A decision analytic approach to calibrating and selecting an optimal intervention threshold may help maximize the impact of readmission risk and other preventive interventions. To select a pragmatic means of calibrating predictive models that requires a minimum amount of validation data and that performs well in practice. To evaluate the impact of miscalibration on utility and cost via clinical usefulness analyses. Observational, retrospective cohort study with electronic health record data from 120,000 inpatient admissions at an urban, academic center in Manhattan. The primary outcome was thirty-day readmission for three causes: all-cause, congestive heart failure, and chronic coronary atherosclerotic disease. Predictive modeling was performed via L1-regularized logistic regression. Calibration methods were compared including Platt Scaling, Logistic Calibration, and Prevalence Adjustment. Performance of predictive modeling and calibration was assessed via discrimination (c-statistic), calibration (Spiegelhalter Z-statistic, Root Mean Square Error [RMSE] of binned predictions, Sanders and Murphy Resolutions of the Brier Score, Calibration Slope and Intercept), and clinical usefulness (utility terms represented as costs). The amount of validation data necessary to apply each calibration algorithm was also assessed. C-statistics by diagnosis ranged from 0.7 for all-cause readmission to 0.86 (0.78-0.93) for congestive heart failure. Logistic Calibration and Platt Scaling performed best and this difference required analyzing multiple metrics of calibration simultaneously, in particular Calibration

  3. Design of a Two-Step Calibration Method of Kinematic Parameters for Serial Robots

    Science.gov (United States)

    WANG, Wei; WANG, Lei; YUN, Chao

    2017-03-01

    Serial robots are used to handle workpieces with large dimensions, and calibrating kinematic parameters is one of the most efficient ways to upgrade their accuracy. Many models are set up to investigate how many kinematic parameters can be identified to meet the minimal principle, but the base frame and the kinematic parameter are indistinctly calibrated in a one-step way. A two-step method of calibrating kinematic parameters is proposed to improve the accuracy of the robot's base frame and kinematic parameters. The forward kinematics described with respect to the measuring coordinate frame are established based on the product-of-exponential (POE) formula. In the first step the robot's base coordinate frame is calibrated by the unit quaternion form. The errors of both the robot's reference configuration and the base coordinate frame's pose are equivalently transformed to the zero-position errors of the robot's joints. The simplified model of the robot's positioning error is established in second-power explicit expressions. Then the identification model is finished by the least square method, requiring measuring position coordinates only. The complete subtasks of calibrating the robot's 39 kinematic parameters are finished in the second step. It's proved by a group of calibration experiments that by the proposed two-step calibration method the average absolute accuracy of industrial robots is updated to 0.23 mm. This paper presents that the robot's base frame should be calibrated before its kinematic parameters in order to upgrade its absolute positioning accuracy.

  4. Self-Calibration Method Based on Surface Micromaching of Light Transceiver Focal Plane for Optical Camera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Li

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available In remote sensing photogrammetric applications, inner orientation parameter (IOP calibration of remote sensing camera is a prerequisite for determining image position. However, achieving such a calibration without temporal and spatial limitations remains a crucial but unresolved issue to date. The accuracy of IOP calibration methods of a remote sensing camera determines the performance of image positioning. In this paper, we propose a high-accuracy self-calibration method without temporal and spatial limitations for remote sensing cameras. Our method is based on an auto-collimating dichroic filter combined with a surface micromachining (SM point-source focal plane. The proposed method can autonomously complete IOP calibration without the need of outside reference targets. The SM procedure is used to manufacture a light transceiver focal plane, which integrates with point sources, a splitter, and a complementary metal oxide semiconductor sensor. A dichroic filter is used to fabricate an auto-collimation light reflection element. The dichroic filter, splitter, and SM point-source focal plane are integrated into a camera to perform an integrated self-calibration. Experimental measurements confirm the effectiveness and convenience of the proposed method. Moreover, the method can achieve micrometer-level precision and can satisfactorily complete real-time calibration without temporal or spatial limitations.

  5. A flexible calibration method for laser displacement sensors based on a stereo-target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Jie; Sun, Junhua; Liu, Zhen; Zhang, Guangjun

    2014-01-01

    Laser displacement sensors (LDSs) are widely used in online measurement owing to their characteristics of non-contact, high measurement speed, etc. However, existing calibration methods for LDSs based on the traditional triangulation measurement model are time-consuming and tedious to operate. In this paper, a calibration method for LDSs based on a vision measurement model of the LDS is presented. According to the constraint relationships of the model parameters, the calibration is implemented by freely moving a stereo-target at least twice in the field of view of the LDS. Both simulation analyses and real experiments were conducted. Experimental results demonstrate that the calibration method achieves an accuracy of 0.044 mm within the measurement range of about 150 mm. Compared to traditional calibration methods, the proposed method has no special limitation on the relative position of the LDS and the target. The linearity approximation of the measurement model in the calibration is not needed, and thus the measurement range is not limited in the linearity range. It is easy and quick to implement the calibration for the LDS. The method can be applied in wider fields. (paper)

  6. In Search of Easy-to-Use Methods for Calibrating ADCP's for Velocity and Discharge Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberg, K.; ,

    2002-01-01

    A cost-effective procedure for calibrating acoustic Doppler current profilers (ADCP) in the field was presented. The advantages and disadvantages of various methods which are used for calibrating ADCP were discussed. The proposed method requires the use of differential global positioning system (DGPS) with sub-meter accuracy and standard software for collecting ADCP data. The method involves traversing a long (400-800 meter) course at a constant compass heading and speed, while collecting simultaneous DGPS and ADCP data.

  7. A simple method of genomic DNA extraction suitable for analysis of bulk fungal strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Y J; Zhang, S; Liu, X Z; Wen, H A; Wang, M

    2010-07-01

    A simple and rapid method (designated thermolysis) for extracting genomic DNA from bulk fungal strains was described. In the thermolysis method, a few mycelia or yeast cells were first rinsed with pure water to remove potential PCR inhibitors and then incubated in a lysis buffer at 85 degrees C to break down cell walls and membranes. This method was used to extract genomic DNA from large numbers of fungal strains (more than 92 species, 35 genera of three phyla) isolated from different sections of natural Ophiocordyceps sinensis specimens. Regions of interest from high as well as single-copy number genes were successfully amplified from the extracted DNA samples. The DNA samples obtained by this method can be stored at -20 degrees C for over 1 year. The method was effective, easy and fast and allowed batch DNA extraction from multiple fungal isolates. Use of the thermolysis method will allow researchers to obtain DNA from fungi quickly for use in molecular assays. This method requires only minute quantities of starting material and is suitable for diverse fungal species.

  8. Forest Carbon Leakage Quantification Methods and Their Suitability for Assessing Leakage in REDD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabine Henders

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper assesses quantification methods for carbon leakage from forestry activities for their suitability in leakage accounting in a future Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation (REDD mechanism. To that end, we first conducted a literature review to identify specific pre-requisites for leakage assessment in REDD. We then analyzed a total of 34 quantification methods for leakage emissions from the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM, the Verified Carbon Standard (VCS, the Climate Action Reserve (CAR, the CarbonFix Standard (CFS, and from scientific literature sources. We screened these methods for the leakage aspects they address in terms of leakage type, tools used for quantification and the geographical scale covered. Results show that leakage methods can be grouped into nine main methodological approaches, six of which could fulfill the recommended REDD leakage requirements if approaches for primary and secondary leakage are combined. The majority of methods assessed, address either primary or secondary leakage; the former mostly on a local or regional and the latter on national scale. The VCS is found to be the only carbon accounting standard at present to fulfill all leakage quantification requisites in REDD. However, a lack of accounting methods was identified for international leakage, which was addressed by only two methods, both from scientific literature.

  9. Self-calibration method for rotating laser positioning system using interscanning technology and ultrasonic ranging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jun; Yu, Zhijing; Zhuge, Jingchang

    2016-04-01

    A rotating laser positioning system (RLPS) is an efficient measurement method for large-scale metrology. Due to multiple transmitter stations, which consist of a measurement network, the position relationship of these stations must be first calibrated. However, with such auxiliary devices such as a laser tracker, scale bar, and complex calibration process, the traditional calibration methods greatly reduce the measurement efficiency. This paper proposes a self-calibration method for RLPS, which can automatically obtain the position relationship. The method is implemented through interscanning technology by using a calibration bar mounted on the transmitter station. Each bar is composed of three RLPS receivers and one ultrasonic sensor whose coordinates are known in advance. The calibration algorithm is mainly based on multiplane and distance constraints and is introduced in detail through a two-station mathematical model. The repeated experiments demonstrate that the coordinate measurement uncertainty of spatial points by using this method is about 0.1 mm, and the accuracy experiments show that the average coordinate measurement deviation is about 0.3 mm compared with a laser tracker. The accuracy can meet the requirements of most applications, while the calibration efficiency is significantly improved.

  10. A new method for automated dynamic calibration of tipping-bucket rain gauges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphrey, M.D.; Istok, J.D.; Lee, J.Y.; Hevesi, J.A.; Flint, A.L.

    1997-01-01

    Existing methods for dynamic calibration of tipping-bucket rain gauges (TBRs) can be time consuming and labor intensive. A new automated dynamic calibration system has been developed to calibrate TBRs with minimal effort. The system consists of a programmable pump, datalogger, digital balance, and computer. Calibration is performed in two steps: 1) pump calibration and 2) rain gauge calibration. Pump calibration ensures precise control of water flow rates delivered to the rain gauge funnel; rain gauge calibration ensures precise conversion of bucket tip times to actual rainfall rates. Calibration of the pump and one rain gauge for 10 selected pump rates typically requires about 8 h. Data files generated during rain gauge calibration are used to compute rainfall intensities and amounts from a record of bucket tip times collected in the field. The system was tested using 5 types of commercial TBRs (15.2-, 20.3-, and 30.5-cm diameters; 0.1-, 0.2-, and 1.0-mm resolutions) and using 14 TBRs of a single type (20.3-cm diameter; 0.1-mm resolution). Ten pump rates ranging from 3 to 154 mL min-1 were used to calibrate the TBRs and represented rainfall rates between 6 and 254 mm h-1 depending on the rain gauge diameter. All pump calibration results were very linear with R2 values greater than 0.99. All rain gauges exhibited large nonlinear underestimation errors (between 5% and 29%) that decreased with increasing rain gauge resolution and increased with increasing rainfall rate, especially for rates greater than 50 mm h-1. Calibration curves of bucket tip time against the reciprocal of the true pump rate for all rain gauges also were linear with R2 values of 0.99. Calibration data for the 14 rain gauges of the same type were very similar, as indicated by slope values that were within 14% of each other and ranged from about 367 to 417 s mm h-1. The developed system can calibrate TBRs efficiently, accurately, and virtually unattended and could be modified for use with other

  11. A tailing genome walking method suitable for genomes with high local GC content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Taian; Fang, Yongxiang; Yao, Wenjuan; Guan, Qisai; Bai, Gang; Jing, Zhizhong

    2013-10-15

    The tailing genome walking strategies are simple and efficient. However, they sometimes can be restricted due to the low stringency of homo-oligomeric primers. Here we modified their conventional tailing step by adding polythymidine and polyguanine to the target single-stranded DNA (ssDNA). The tailed ssDNA was then amplified exponentially with a specific primer in the known region and a primer comprising 5' polycytosine and 3' polyadenosine. The successful application of this novel method for identifying integration sites mediated by φC31 integrase in goat genome indicates that the method is more suitable for genomes with high complexity and local GC content. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. A METHOD FOR SELF-CALIBRATION IN SATELLITE WITH HIGH PRECISION OF SPACE LINEAR ARRAY CAMERA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Liu

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available At present, the on-orbit calibration of the geometric parameters of a space surveying camera is usually processed by data from a ground calibration field after capturing the images. The entire process is very complicated and lengthy and cannot monitor and calibrate the geometric parameters in real time. On the basis of a large number of on-orbit calibrations, we found that owing to the influence of many factors, e.g., weather, it is often difficult to capture images of the ground calibration field. Thus, regular calibration using field data cannot be ensured. This article proposes a real time self-calibration method for a space linear array camera on a satellite using the optical auto collimation principle. A collimating light source and small matrix array CCD devices are installed inside the load system of the satellite; these use the same light path as the linear array camera. We can extract the location changes of the cross marks in the matrix array CCD to determine the real-time variations in the focal length and angle parameters of the linear array camera. The on-orbit status of the camera is rapidly obtained using this method. On one hand, the camera’s change regulation can be mastered accurately and the camera’s attitude can be adjusted in a timely manner to ensure optimal photography; in contrast, self-calibration of the camera aboard the satellite can be realized quickly, which improves the efficiency and reliability of photogrammetric processing.

  13. Radon in air calibration procedure: A primary method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lucas, H.F.; Markun, F.

    1988-01-01

    A procedure has been developed for preparing 3- to 9-iota volumes of air under natural conditions with a known concentration of /sup 222/Rn to be used for calibrating radon systems. Air is passed into a plastic bag through a standard /sup 226/Ra solution (prepared by the U.S. National Bureau of Standards) contained in an emanation flask. This plastic bag retains /sup 222/Rn with little loss into or through the bag walls. The mean ratios of the /sup 222/Rn in the air at 2 and 7 days after filling to that immediately after filling were -.992 +- 0.006 and 0.969 +- 0.008, which suggests a rate of radon loss into the bag of 0.4 +- 0.1%/day

  14. Calibration methods and tools for KM3NeT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kulikovskiy Vladimir

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The KM3NeT detectors, ARCA and ORCA, composed of several thousands digital optical modules, are in the process of their realization in the Mediterranean Sea. Each optical module contains 31 3-inch photomultipliers. Readout of the optical modules and other detector components is synchronized at the level of sub-nanoseconds. The position of the module is measured by acoustic piezo detectors inside the module and external acoustic emitters installed on the bottom of the sea. The orientation of the module is obtained with an internal attitude and heading reference system chip. Detector calibration, i.e. timing, positioning and sea-water properties, is overviewed in this talk and discussed in detail in this conference. Results of the procedure applied to the first detector unit ready for installation in the deep sea will be shown.

  15. The measurement of surface roughness to determine the suitability of different methods for stone cleaning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vazquez-Calvo, Carmen; Alvarez de Buergo, Monica; Fort, Rafael; Varas-Muriel, Maria Jose

    2012-01-01

    The roughness of stone surface was measured, before and after bead blasting-based cleaning methods, to select the most efficient one to be used in masonry and stonework of specific areas of the Cathedral of Segovia (Spain). These types of cleaning methods can, besides the removal of soiling and surface deposits, leave a rougher surface, which would mean higher and more rapid water retention and deposit accumulation due to a specific surface increase, therefore accelerating stone decay. Or, in contrast, the cleaning method can be so aggressive that it can smooth the surface by reducing its roughness, a fact that usually corresponds to excessive material removal—soot and deposits–-but also part of the stone substrate. Roughness results were complemented with scanning electron microscopy observations and analyses and colour measurements. Finally, it was possible to select the best cleaning method among the six that were analysed, for different areas and different stone materials. Therefore, this study confirms the measurement of surface roughness as a reliable test to determine the suitability of stone cleaning methods; it is a non-destructive technique, portable and friendly to use, which can help us to rapidly assess—together with other techniques—the efficacy and aggressiveness of the stone cleaning method. (paper)

  16. A holistic calibration method with iterative distortion compensation for stereo deflectometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yongjia; Gao, Feng; Zhang, Zonghua; Jiang, Xiangqian

    2018-07-01

    This paper presents a novel holistic calibration method for stereo deflectometry system to improve the system measurement accuracy. The reconstruction result of stereo deflectometry is integrated with the calculated normal data of the measured surface. The calculation accuracy of the normal data is seriously influenced by the calibration accuracy of the geometrical relationship of the stereo deflectometry system. Conventional calibration approaches introduce form error to the system due to inaccurate imaging model and distortion elimination. The proposed calibration method compensates system distortion based on an iterative algorithm instead of the conventional distortion mathematical model. The initial value of the system parameters are calculated from the fringe patterns displayed on the systemic LCD screen through a reflection of a markless flat mirror. An iterative algorithm is proposed to compensate system distortion and optimize camera imaging parameters and system geometrical relation parameters based on a cost function. Both simulation work and experimental results show the proposed calibration method can significantly improve the calibration and measurement accuracy of a stereo deflectometry. The PV (peak value) of measurement error of a flat mirror can be reduced to 69.7 nm by applying the proposed method from 282 nm obtained with the conventional calibration approach.

  17. Influence of Ultrasonic Nonlinear Propagation on Hydrophone Calibration Using Two-Transducer Reciprocity Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshioka, Masahiro; Sato, Sojun; Kikuchi, Tsuneo; Matsuda, Yoichi

    2006-05-01

    In this study, the influence of ultrasonic nonlinear propagation on hydrophone calibration by the two-transducer reciprocity method is investigated quantitatively using the Khokhlov-Zabolotskaya-Kuznetsov (KZK) equation. It is proposed that the correction for the diffraction and attenuation of ultrasonic waves used in two-transducer reciprocity calibration can be derived using the KZK equation to remove the influence of nonlinear propagation. The validity of the correction is confirmed by comparing the sensitivities calibrated by the two-transducer reciprocity method and laser interferometry.

  18. A New Online Calibration Method Based on Lord's Bias-Correction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Yinhong; Chen, Ping; Li, Yong; Zhang, Shumei

    2017-09-01

    Online calibration technique has been widely employed to calibrate new items due to its advantages. Method A is the simplest online calibration method and has attracted many attentions from researchers recently. However, a key assumption of Method A is that it treats person-parameter estimates θ ^ s (obtained by maximum likelihood estimation [MLE]) as their true values θ s , thus the deviation of the estimated θ ^ s from their true values might yield inaccurate item calibration when the deviation is nonignorable. To improve the performance of Method A, a new method, MLE-LBCI-Method A, is proposed. This new method combines a modified Lord's bias-correction method (named as maximum likelihood estimation-Lord's bias-correction with iteration [MLE-LBCI]) with the original Method A in an effort to correct the deviation of θ ^ s which may adversely affect the item calibration precision. Two simulation studies were carried out to explore the performance of both MLE-LBCI and MLE-LBCI-Method A under several scenarios. Simulation results showed that MLE-LBCI could make a significant improvement over the ML ability estimates, and MLE-LBCI-Method A did outperform Method A in almost all experimental conditions.

  19. An Analysis on a Dynamic Amplifier and Calibration Methods for a Pseudo-Differential Dynamic Comparator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paik, Daehwa; Miyahara, Masaya; Matsuzawa, Akira

    This paper analyzes a pseudo-differential dynamic comparator with a dynamic pre-amplifier. The transient gain of a dynamic pre-amplifier is derived and applied to equations of the thermal noise and the regeneration time of a comparator. This analysis enhances understanding of the roles of transistor's parameters in pre-amplifier's gain. Based on the calculated gain, two calibration methods are also analyzed. One is calibration of a load capacitance and the other is calibration of a bypass current. The analysis helps designers' estimation for the accuracy of calibration, dead-zone of a comparator with a calibration circuit, and the influence of PVT variation. The analyzed comparator uses 90-nm CMOS technology as an example and each estimation is compared with simulation results.

  20. Near surface illumination method to detect particle size information by optical calibration free remission measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stocker, Sabrina; Foschum, Florian; Kienle, Alwin

    2017-07-01

    A calibration free method to detect particle size information is presented. A possible application for such measurements is the investigation of raw milk since there not only the fat and protein content varies but also the fat droplet size. The newly developed method is sensitive to the scattering phase function, which makes it applicable to many other applications, too. By simulating the light propagation by use of Monte Carlo simulations, a calibration free device can be developed from this principle.

  1. A simultaneous electron energy and dosimeter calibration method for an electron beam irradiator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, R.; Sunaga, H.; Kojima, T.

    1991-01-01

    In radiation processing using electron accelerators, the reproducibility of absorbed dose in the product depends not only on the variation of beam current and conveyor speed, but also on variations of other accelerator parameters. This requires routine monitoring of the beam current and the scan width, and also requires periodical calibration of routine dosimeters usually in the shape of film, electron energy, and other radiation field parameters. The electron energy calibration is important especially for food processing. The dose calibration method using partial absorption calorimeters provides only information about absorbed dose. Measurement of average electron current density provides basic information about the radiation field formed by the beam scanning and scattering at the beam window, though it does not allow direct dose calibration. The total absorption calorimeter with a thick absorber allows dose and dosimeter calibration, if the depth profile of relative dose in a reference absorber is given experimentally. It also allows accurate calibration of the average electron energy at the surface of the calorimeter core, if electron fluence received by the calorimeter is measured at the same time. This means that both electron energy and dosimeters can be simultaneously calibrated by irradiation of a combined system including the calorimeter, the detector of the electron current density meter, and a thick reference absorber for depth profile measurement of relative dose. We have developed a simple and multifunctional system using the combined calibration method for 5 MeV electron beams. The paper describes a simultaneous calibration method for electron energy and film dosimeters, and describes the electron current density meter, the total absorption calorimeter, and the characteristics of this method. (author). 13 refs, 7 figs, 3 tabs

  2. Determining suitable lego-structures to estimate stability of larger peptide nanostructures using computational methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beke, Tamás; Czajlik, András; Csizmadia, Imre G; Perczel, András

    2006-02-02

    Nanofibers, nanofilms and nanotubes constructed of one to four strands of oligo-alpha- and oligo-beta-peptides were obtained by using carefully selected building units. Lego-type approaches based on thermoneutral isodesmic reactions can be used to reconstruct the total energies of both linear and tubular periodic nanostructures with acceptable accuracy. Total energies of several different nanostructures were accurately determined with errors typically falling in the subchemical range. Thus, attention will be focused on the description of suitable isodesmic reactions that have enabled the determination of the total energy of polypeptides and therefore offer a very fast, efficient and accurate method to obtain energetic information on large and even very large nanosystems.

  3. Suitability of the echo-time-shift method as laboratory standard for thermal ultrasound dosimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuhrmann, Tina; Georg, Olga; Haller, Julian; Jenderka, Klaus-Vitold

    2017-03-01

    Ultrasound therapy is a promising, non-invasive application with potential to significantly improve cancer therapies like surgery, viro- or immunotherapy. This therapy needs faster, cheaper and more easy-to-handle quality assurance tools for therapy devices as well as possibilities to verify treatment plans and for dosimetry. This limits comparability and safety of treatments. Accurate spatial and temporal temperature maps could be used to overcome these shortcomings. In this contribution first results of suitability and accuracy investigations of the echo-time-shift method for two-dimensional temperature mapping during and after sonication are presented. The analysis methods used to calculate time-shifts were a discrete frame-to-frame and a discrete frame-to-base-frame algorithm as well as a sigmoid fit for temperature calculation. In the future accuracy could be significantly enhanced by using continuous methods for time-shift calculation. Further improvements can be achieved by improving filtering algorithms and interpolation of sampled diagnostic ultrasound data. It might be a comparatively accurate, fast and affordable method for laboratory and clinical quality control.

  4. An Effectiveness Of Vark Questionnaire In Determining The Most Suitable Teaching Method For Private Course Student : A Case Study

    OpenAIRE

    Fietra, Yoana Tasya

    2016-01-01

    The title of this thesis is An Effectiveness of VARK Questionnaire in Determining The Most Suitable Teaching Method for Private Course Student. For many years, the goal of language pedagogy was to find the right method. As a teacher, must understand how to teach their student in a good way by selecting a suitable method. I used VARK questionnaire version (7.8). to know what the most suitable teaching method will use for the student based on the student’s learning style. VARK is the kind of ps...

  5. Mesoscale hybrid calibration artifact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Hy D.; Claudet, Andre A.; Oliver, Andrew D.

    2010-09-07

    A mesoscale calibration artifact, also called a hybrid artifact, suitable for hybrid dimensional measurement and the method for make the artifact. The hybrid artifact has structural characteristics that make it suitable for dimensional measurement in both vision-based systems and touch-probe-based systems. The hybrid artifact employs the intersection of bulk-micromachined planes to fabricate edges that are sharp to the nanometer level and intersecting planes with crystal-lattice-defined angles.

  6. A simple method for calibration of Lucas scintillation cell counting system for measurement of 226Ra and 222Rn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.K. Sethy

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Known quantity of radium from high grade ore solution was chemically separated and carefully kept inside the cavity of a Lucas Cell (LC. The 222Rn gradually builds up and attain secular equilibrium with its parent 226Ra. This gives a steady count after a suitable buildup period (>25 days. This secondary source was used to calibrate the radon counting system. The method is validated in by comparison with identical measurement with AlphaGuard Aquakit. The radon counting system was used to evaluate dissolved radon in ground water sample by gross alpha counting in LC. Radon counting system measures the collected radon after a delay of >180 min by gross alpha counting. Simultaneous measurement also carried out by AlphaGuard Aquakit in identical condition. AlphaGuard measures dissolved radon from water sample by constant aeration in a closed circuit without giving any delay. Both the methods are matching with a correlation coefficient of >0.9. This validates the calibration of Lucas scintillation cell counting system by designed encapsulated source. This study provides an alternative for calibration in absence of costly Radon source available in the market.

  7. Laboratory assessment of novel oral anticoagulants: method suitability and variability between coagulation laboratories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helin, Tuukka A; Pakkanen, Anja; Lassila, Riitta; Joutsi-Korhonen, Lotta

    2013-05-01

    Laboratory tests to assess novel oral anticoagulants (NOACs) are under evaluation. Routine monitoring is unnecessary, but under special circumstances bioactivity assessment becomes crucial. We analyzed the effects of NOACs on coagulation tests and the availability of specific assays at different laboratories. Plasma samples spiked with dabigatran (Dabi; 120 and 300 μg/L) or rivaroxaban (Riva; 60, 146, and 305 μg/L) were sent to 115 and 38 European laboratories, respectively. International normalized ratio (INR) and activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) were analyzed for all samples; thrombin time (TT) was analyzed specifically for Dabi and calibrated anti-activated factor X (anti-Xa) activity for Riva. We compared the results with patient samples. Results of Dabi samples were reported by 73 laboratories (13 INR and 9 APTT reagents) and Riva samples by 22 laboratories (5 INR and 4 APTT reagents). Both NOACs increased INR values; the increase was modest, albeit larger, for Dabi, with higher CV, especially with Quick (vs Owren) methods. Both NOACs dose-dependently prolonged the APTT. Again, the prolongation and CVs were larger for Dabi. The INR and APTT results varied reagent-dependently (P laboratories, respectively. The screening tests INR and APTT are suboptimal in assessing NOACs, having high reagent dependence and low sensitivity and specificity. They may provide information, if laboratories recognize their limitations. The variation will likely increase and the sensitivity differ in clinical samples. Specific assays measure NOACs accurately; however, few laboratories applied them. © 2013 American Association for Clinical Chemistry.

  8. Selection strategy for the most Suitable CEC method for clay barrier characterisation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dohrmann, R.; Kaufhold, S.

    2010-01-01

    competition to barium ions in smectite interlayers. The present study aims at proposing a selection strategy for CEC methods including exchangeable cation determination of different clay materials typically used in radioactive waste disposal studies. 1) If the clay/bentonite contains calcium carbonates but no gypsum several methods are available, all of them are based on a saturation of the exchange solution with calcite before the exchange experiment starts: AgTU-calcite, CoHex-calcite, and Cu-trien5xcalcite. If dolomite is present the initial calcite saturation minimizes dolomite dissolution as well (proved for AgTU-calcite). 2) If a bentonite contains carbonates and gypsum the only known successful method for determination of all exchangeable cations (including calcium) and the CEC is a combination of two separate results: i) calcite saturation of exchange solution (e.g. Cu-trien5xcalcite) and ii) quantification of gypsum with suitable mineralogical methods. Result i) is free of error caused by calcite dissolution; however it is still wrong because it contains significant amounts of Ca 2+ from gypsum dissolution. After proving that gypsum was completely dissolved during the exchange experiment result ii) was used to subtract the theoretical Ca 2+ portion of gypsum from result i). Gypsum saturation of exchange solutions was tested as not suitable owing to the high solubility of gypsum which results in high initial Ca 2+ concentrations. 3) If no such soluble minerals are present and if the pore water contains no excess electrolyte then usually any accepted CEC method can be used, however, the results should always be checked for plausibility (e.g. using mineralogical composition of the sample). Any accepted method means that methods with known systematic errors (hydrophobic interaction, dependency on layer charge density) are excluded. (authors)

  9. Comparative study among calibration methods of clinical applicators of beta radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antonio, Patricia de Lara

    2009-01-01

    90 Sr+ 90 Y clinical applicators are instruments used in brachytherapy procedures and they have to be periodically calibrated, according to international standards and recommendations. In this work, four calibration methods of dermatological and ophthalmic applicators were studied, comparing the results with those given by the calibration certificates of the manufacturers. The methods included the use of the standard applicator of the Calibration Laboratory (LCI), calibrated by the National Institute of Standards and Technology; an Amersham applicator (LCI) as reference; a mini-extrapolation chamber developed at LCI as an absolute standard; and thermoluminescent dosimetry. The mini-extrapolation chamber and a PTW commercial extrapolation chamber were studied in relation to their performance through quality control tests of their response, as leakage current, repeatability and reproducibility. The distribution of the depth dose in water, that presents high importance in dosimetry of clinical applicators, was determined using the mini extrapolation chamber and the thermoluminescent dosimeters. The results obtained were considered satisfactory for the both cases, and comparable to the data of the IAEA (2002) standard. Furthermore, a dosimetry postal kit was developed for the calibration of clinical applicators using the thermoluminescent technique, to be sent to clinics and hospitals, without the need of the transport of the sources to IPEN for calibration. (author)

  10. Quantitative assessment of contact and non-contact lateral force calibration methods for atomic force microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tran Khac, Bien Cuong; Chung, Koo-Hyun, E-mail: khchung@ulsan.ac.kr

    2016-02-15

    Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) has been widely used for measuring friction force at the nano-scale. However, one of the key challenges faced by AFM researchers is to calibrate an AFM system to interpret a lateral force signal as a quantifiable force. In this study, five rectangular cantilevers were used to quantitatively compare three different lateral force calibration methods to demonstrate the legitimacy and to establish confidence in the quantitative integrity of the proposed methods. The Flat-Wedge method is based on a variation of the lateral output on a surface with flat and changing slopes, the Multi-Load Pivot method is based on taking pivot measurements at several locations along the cantilever length, and the Lateral AFM Thermal-Sader method is based on determining the optical lever sensitivity from the thermal noise spectrum of the first torsional mode with a known torsional spring constant from the Sader method. The results of the calibration using the Flat-Wedge and Multi-Load Pivot methods were found to be consistent within experimental uncertainties, and the experimental uncertainties of the two methods were found to be less than 15%. However, the lateral force sensitivity determined by the Lateral AFM Thermal-Sader method was found to be 8–29% smaller than those obtained from the other two methods. This discrepancy decreased to 3–19% when the torsional mode correction factor for an ideal cantilever was used, which suggests that the torsional mode correction should be taken into account to establish confidence in Lateral AFM Thermal-Sader method. - Highlights: • Quantitative assessment of three lateral force calibration methods for AFM. • Advantages and disadvantages of three different lateral force calibration method. • Implementation of Multi-Load Pivot method as non-contact calibration technique. • The torsional mode correction for Lateral AFM Thermal-Sader method.

  11. Quantitative assessment of contact and non-contact lateral force calibration methods for atomic force microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tran Khac, Bien Cuong; Chung, Koo-Hyun

    2016-01-01

    Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) has been widely used for measuring friction force at the nano-scale. However, one of the key challenges faced by AFM researchers is to calibrate an AFM system to interpret a lateral force signal as a quantifiable force. In this study, five rectangular cantilevers were used to quantitatively compare three different lateral force calibration methods to demonstrate the legitimacy and to establish confidence in the quantitative integrity of the proposed methods. The Flat-Wedge method is based on a variation of the lateral output on a surface with flat and changing slopes, the Multi-Load Pivot method is based on taking pivot measurements at several locations along the cantilever length, and the Lateral AFM Thermal-Sader method is based on determining the optical lever sensitivity from the thermal noise spectrum of the first torsional mode with a known torsional spring constant from the Sader method. The results of the calibration using the Flat-Wedge and Multi-Load Pivot methods were found to be consistent within experimental uncertainties, and the experimental uncertainties of the two methods were found to be less than 15%. However, the lateral force sensitivity determined by the Lateral AFM Thermal-Sader method was found to be 8–29% smaller than those obtained from the other two methods. This discrepancy decreased to 3–19% when the torsional mode correction factor for an ideal cantilever was used, which suggests that the torsional mode correction should be taken into account to establish confidence in Lateral AFM Thermal-Sader method. - Highlights: • Quantitative assessment of three lateral force calibration methods for AFM. • Advantages and disadvantages of three different lateral force calibration method. • Implementation of Multi-Load Pivot method as non-contact calibration technique. • The torsional mode correction for Lateral AFM Thermal-Sader method.

  12. Establishment of a new calibration method of pencil ionization chamber for dosimetry in computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dias, Daniel Menezes

    2010-01-01

    Pencil ionization chambers are used for beam dosimetry in computed tomography equipment (CT). In this study, a new calibration methodology was established, in order to make the Calibration Laboratory of Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (LCI) suitable to international metrological standards, dealing with specific procedures for calibration of these chambers used in CT. Firstly, the setup for the new RQT radiation qualities was mounted, in agreement with IEC61267 from the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC). After the establishment of these radiation qualities, a specific calibration methodology for pencil ionization chambers was set, according to Technical Report Series No. 457, from the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), which describes particularities of the procedure to be followed by the Secondary Standard Dosimetry Laboratories (SSDL's), concerning to collimation and positioning related to the radiation beam. Initially, PPV (kV) measurements and the determination of copper additional filtrations were carried out, measuring the half value layers (HVL) recommended by the IEC 61267 standard, after that the RQT 8, RQT 9 and RQT 10 radiation quality references were established. For additional filters, aluminum and copper of high purity (around 99.9%) were used. RQT's in thickness of copper filters equivalent to the set 'RQR (Al) + Additional Filtration (Cu)' was directly found by an alternative methodology used to determine additional filtrations, which is a good option when RQR's have not the possibility of be setting up. With the establishment of this new methodology for the ionization pencil chambers calibration, the LCI is ready to calibrate these instruments according to the most recent international standards. Therefore, an improvement in calibration traceability, as well as in metrological services offered by IPEN to all Brazil is achieved. (author)

  13. Is the molecular statics method suitable for the study of nanomaterials? A study case of nanowires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, I-L; Chen, Y-C

    2007-01-01

    Both molecular statics and molecular dynamics methods were employed to study the mechanical properties of copper nanowires. The size effect on both elastic and plastic properties of square cross-sectional nanowire was examined and compared systematically using two molecular approaches. It was found consistently from both molecular methods that the elastic and plastic properties of nanowires depend on the lateral size of nanowires. As the lateral size of nanowires decreases, the values of Young's modulus decrease and dislocation nucleation stresses increase. However, it was shown that the dislocation nucleation stress would be significantly influenced by the axial periodic length of the nanowire model using the molecular statics method while molecular dynamics simulations at two distinct temperatures (0.01 and 300 K) did not show the same dependence. It was concluded that molecular statics as an energy minimization numerical scheme is quite insensitive to the instability of atomic structure especially without thermal fluctuation and might not be a suitable tool for studying the behaviour of nanomaterials beyond the elastic limit

  14. Calibration of an accountability tank by bubbling pressure method: correction factors to be taken into account

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cauchetier, Ph.

    1993-01-01

    To obtain the needed precision in the calibration of an accountability tank by bubbling pressure method, it requires to use very slow bubbling. The measured data (mass and pressure) must be transformed into physical sizes of the vessel (height and cubic capacity). All corrections to take in account (buoyancy, calibration curve of the sensor, density of the liquid, weight of the gas column, bubbling overpressure, temperature...) are reviewed and valuated. We give the used equations. (author). 3 figs., 1 tab., 2 refs

  15. On the method of calibration of the energy dispersive EXAFS ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    samples, whose absorption edge energies are well-established. .... bend the crystal to take shape of an ellipse (Lee et al 1994). ..... Kelly S D, Hesterberg D and Ravel B 2008 Methods of Soil Analysis, Part 5, Mineralogical Methods,. Chapter ...

  16. Potential Suitable Methods for Measuring the Effects of Animal-Assisted Activities and Therapy: a Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Machová K.

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Dogs are companions of humans since time beyond memory and their use in rehabilitation processes is increasingly frequent. Dogs can be used for animal-assisted activities (AAA as well as animal-assisted therapy (AAT. The effects, however, have not been fully demonstrated, reasons for this including difficulties in providing evidence of positive action. According to previous studies, there is a decrease in heart and respiratory rate, blood pressure reduction, more positive mood as well as warming of muscles, which promotes relaxation of spastic areas. Regulation of hormone levels might also occur as a result of AAA/AAT. Indeed, increases in oxytocin levels and decreases of cortisol have been found. However, a unified methodology for clear measuring the entire impact of AAA/AAT on patients is missing. This survey evaluated different methods for measuring the effects of AAA/AAT, with results showing that the most suitable ones, selected on the basis of the effect of rehabilitation, comprise thermography, spectral analysis of heart rate, electromyography (EMG, polyelectromyography (PEMG, and blood sampling. Because AAT making use of dogs has not yet been recognized as an official method of treatment, it is very important to find out objective means to evidence its beneficial effects. Highlights:

  17. A Review on Microdialysis Calibration Methods: the Theory and Current Related Efforts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kho, Chun Min; Enche Ab Rahim, Siti Kartini; Ahmad, Zainal Arifin; Abdullah, Norazharuddin Shah

    2017-07-01

    Microdialysis is a sampling technique first introduced in the late 1950s. Although this technique was originally designed to study endogenous compounds in animal brain, it is later modified to be used in other organs. Additionally, microdialysis is not only able to collect unbound concentration of compounds from tissue sites; this technique can also be used to deliver exogenous compounds to a designated area. Due to its versatility, microdialysis technique is widely employed in a number of areas, including biomedical research. However, for most in vivo studies, the concentration of substance obtained directly from the microdialysis technique does not accurately describe the concentration of the substance on-site. In order to relate the results collected from microdialysis to the actual in vivo condition, a calibration method is required. To date, various microdialysis calibration methods have been reported, with each method being capable to provide valuable insights of the technique itself and its applications. This paper aims to provide a critical review on various calibration methods used in microdialysis applications, inclusive of a detailed description of the microdialysis technique itself to start with. It is expected that this article shall review in detail, the various calibration methods employed, present examples of work related to each calibration method including clinical efforts, plus the advantages and disadvantages of each of the methods.

  18. Determination of calibration equations by means of the generalized least squares method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zijp, W.L.

    1984-12-01

    For the determination of two-dimensional calibration curves (e.g. in tank calibration procedures) or of three dimensional calibration equations (e.g. for the calibration of NDA equipment for enrichment measurements) one performs measurements under well chosen conditions, where all observables of interest (inclusive the values of the standard material) are subject to measurement uncertainties. Moreover correlations in several measurements may occur. This document describes the mathematical-statistical approach to determine the values of the model parameters and their covariance matrix, which fit best to the mathematical model for the calibration equation. The formulae are based on the method of generalized least squares where the term generalized implies that non-linear equations in the unknown parameters and also covariance matrices of the measurement data of the calibration can be taken into account. In the general case an iteration procedure is required. No iteration is required when the model is linear in the parameters and the covariance matrices for the measurements of co-ordinates of the calibration points are proportional to each other

  19. Improvements to and Comparison of Static Terrestrial LiDAR Self-Calibration Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Preston Hartzell

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Terrestrial laser scanners are sophisticated instruments that operate much like high-speed total stations. It has previously been shown that unmodelled systematic errors can exist in modern terrestrial laser scanners that deteriorate their geometric measurement precision and accuracy. Typically, signalised targets are used in point-based self-calibrations to identify and model the systematic errors. Although this method has proven its effectiveness, a large quantity of signalised targets is required and is therefore labour-intensive and limits its practicality. In recent years, feature-based self-calibration of aerial, mobile terrestrial, and static terrestrial laser scanning systems has been demonstrated. In this paper, the commonalities and differences between point-based and plane-based self-calibration (in terms of model identification and parameter correlation are explored. The results of this research indicate that much of the knowledge from point-based self-calibration can be directly transferred to plane-based calibration and that the two calibration approaches are nearly equivalent. New network configurations, such as the inclusion of tilted scans, were also studied and prove to be an effective means for strengthening the self-calibration solution, and improved recoverability of the horizontal collimation axis error for hybrid scanners, which has always posed a challenge in the past.

  20. A Visual Servoing-Based Method for ProCam Systems Calibration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeremie Mosnier

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Projector-camera systems are currently used in a wide field of applications, such as 3D reconstruction and augmented reality, and can provide accurate measurements, depending on the configuration and calibration. Frequently, the calibration task is divided into two steps: camera calibration followed by projector calibration. The latter still poses certain problems that are not easy to solve, such as the difficulty in obtaining a set of 2D–3D points to compute the projection matrix between the projector and the world. Existing methods are either not sufficiently accurate or not flexible. We propose an easy and automatic method to calibrate such systems that consists in projecting a calibration pattern and superimposing it automatically on a known printed pattern. The projected pattern is provided by a virtual camera observing a virtual pattern in an OpenGL model. The projector displays what the virtual camera visualizes. Thus, the projected pattern can be controlled and superimposed on the printed one with the aid of visual servoing. Our experimental results compare favorably with those of other methods considering both usability and accuracy.

  1. Misalignment calibration of geomagnetic vector measurement system using parallelepiped frame rotation method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pang, Hongfeng; Zhu, XueJun; Pan, Mengchun; Zhang, Qi; Wan, Chengbiao; Luo, Shitu; Chen, Dixiang; Chen, Jinfei; Li, Ji; Lv, Yunxiao

    2016-01-01

    Misalignment error is one key factor influencing the measurement accuracy of geomagnetic vector measurement system, which should be calibrated with the difficulties that sensors measure different physical information and coordinates are invisible. A new misalignment calibration method by rotating a parallelepiped frame is proposed. Simulation and experiment result show the effectiveness of calibration method. The experimental system mainly contains DM-050 three-axis fluxgate magnetometer, INS (inertia navigation system), aluminium parallelepiped frame, aluminium plane base. Misalignment angles are calculated by measured data of magnetometer and INS after rotating the aluminium parallelepiped frame on aluminium plane base. After calibration, RMS error of geomagnetic north, vertical and east are reduced from 349.441 nT, 392.530 nT and 562.316 nT to 40.130 nT, 91.586 nT and 141.989 nT respectively. - Highlights: • A new misalignment calibration method by rotating a parallelepiped frame is proposed. • It does not need to know sensor attitude information or local dip angle. • The calibration system attitude change angle is not strictly required. • It can be widely used when sensors measure different physical information. • Geomagnetic vector measurement error is reduced evidently.

  2. Misalignment calibration of geomagnetic vector measurement system using parallelepiped frame rotation method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pang, Hongfeng [Academy of Equipment, Beijing 101416 (China); College of Mechatronics Engineering and Automation, National University of Defense Technology, Changsha 410073 (China); Zhu, XueJun, E-mail: zhuxuejun1990@126.com [College of Mechatronics Engineering and Automation, National University of Defense Technology, Changsha 410073 (China); Pan, Mengchun; Zhang, Qi; Wan, Chengbiao; Luo, Shitu; Chen, Dixiang; Chen, Jinfei; Li, Ji; Lv, Yunxiao [College of Mechatronics Engineering and Automation, National University of Defense Technology, Changsha 410073 (China)

    2016-12-01

    Misalignment error is one key factor influencing the measurement accuracy of geomagnetic vector measurement system, which should be calibrated with the difficulties that sensors measure different physical information and coordinates are invisible. A new misalignment calibration method by rotating a parallelepiped frame is proposed. Simulation and experiment result show the effectiveness of calibration method. The experimental system mainly contains DM-050 three-axis fluxgate magnetometer, INS (inertia navigation system), aluminium parallelepiped frame, aluminium plane base. Misalignment angles are calculated by measured data of magnetometer and INS after rotating the aluminium parallelepiped frame on aluminium plane base. After calibration, RMS error of geomagnetic north, vertical and east are reduced from 349.441 nT, 392.530 nT and 562.316 nT to 40.130 nT, 91.586 nT and 141.989 nT respectively. - Highlights: • A new misalignment calibration method by rotating a parallelepiped frame is proposed. • It does not need to know sensor attitude information or local dip angle. • The calibration system attitude change angle is not strictly required. • It can be widely used when sensors measure different physical information. • Geomagnetic vector measurement error is reduced evidently.

  3. Local Strategy Combined with a Wavelength Selection Method for Multivariate Calibration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haitao Chang

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available One of the essential factors influencing the prediction accuracy of multivariate calibration models is the quality of the calibration data. A local regression strategy, together with a wavelength selection approach, is proposed to build the multivariate calibration models based on partial least squares regression. The local algorithm is applied to create a calibration set of spectra similar to the spectrum of an unknown sample; the synthetic degree of grey relation coefficient is used to evaluate the similarity. A wavelength selection method based on simple-to-use interactive self-modeling mixture analysis minimizes the influence of noisy variables, and the most informative variables of the most similar samples are selected to build the multivariate calibration model based on partial least squares regression. To validate the performance of the proposed method, ultraviolet-visible absorbance spectra of mixed solutions of food coloring analytes in a concentration range of 20–200 µg/mL is measured. Experimental results show that the proposed method can not only enhance the prediction accuracy of the calibration model, but also greatly reduce its complexity.

  4. An investigation of methods for free-field comparison calibration of measurement microphones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barrera-Figueroa, Salvador; Moreno Pescador, Guillermo; Jacobsen, Finn

    2010-01-01

    Free-field comparison calibration of measurement microphones requires that a calibrated reference microphone and a test microphone are exposed to the same sound pressure in a free field. The output voltages of the microphones can be measured either sequentially or simultaneously. The sequential...... method requires the sound field to have good temporal stability. The simultaneous method requires instead that the sound pressure is the same in the positions where the microphones are placed. In this paper the results of the application of the two methods are compared. A third combined method...

  5. Calibration of the photometric method of heavy ion charge measurements in emulsion using a CCD camera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kudzia, D.; Wilczynska, B.; Wilczynski, H.

    2002-01-01

    A previously developed method of heavy ion charge measurements in emulsion has been significantly improved. The charge measurements are based on analysis of photometric profiles of the particle tracks in emulsion. These profiles are obtained using a CCD camera mounted on an optical microscope. So far, the manual charge determination by delta ray counting had to be used for calibration of the photometric method. In this paper a complete procedure for calibration of the photometric method is shown, without resorting to the manual method

  6. A counting-weighted calibration method for a field-programmable-gate-array-based time-to-digital converter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Yuan-Ho

    2017-01-01

    In this work, we propose a counting-weighted calibration method for field-programmable-gate-array (FPGA)-based time-to-digital converter (TDC) to provide non-linearity calibration for use in positron emission tomography (PET) scanners. To deal with the non-linearity in FPGA, we developed a counting-weighted delay line (CWD) to count the delay time of the delay cells in the TDC in order to reduce the differential non-linearity (DNL) values based on code density counts. The performance of the proposed CWD-TDC with regard to linearity far exceeds that of TDC with a traditional tapped delay line (TDL) architecture, without the need for nonlinearity calibration. When implemented in a Xilinx Vertix-5 FPGA device, the proposed CWD-TDC achieved time resolution of 60 ps with integral non-linearity (INL) and DNL of [−0.54, 0.24] and [−0.66, 0.65] least-significant-bit (LSB), respectively. This is a clear indication of the suitability of the proposed FPGA-based CWD-TDC for use in PET scanners.

  7. A counting-weighted calibration method for a field-programmable-gate-array-based time-to-digital converter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Yuan-Ho, E-mail: chenyh@mail.cgu.edu.tw [Department of Electronic Engineering, Chang Gung University, Tao-Yuan 333, Taiwan (China); Department of Radiation Oncology, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Tao-Yuan 333, Taiwan (China); Center for Reliability Sciences and Technologies, Chang Gung University, Tao-Yuan 333, Taiwan (China)

    2017-05-11

    In this work, we propose a counting-weighted calibration method for field-programmable-gate-array (FPGA)-based time-to-digital converter (TDC) to provide non-linearity calibration for use in positron emission tomography (PET) scanners. To deal with the non-linearity in FPGA, we developed a counting-weighted delay line (CWD) to count the delay time of the delay cells in the TDC in order to reduce the differential non-linearity (DNL) values based on code density counts. The performance of the proposed CWD-TDC with regard to linearity far exceeds that of TDC with a traditional tapped delay line (TDL) architecture, without the need for nonlinearity calibration. When implemented in a Xilinx Vertix-5 FPGA device, the proposed CWD-TDC achieved time resolution of 60 ps with integral non-linearity (INL) and DNL of [−0.54, 0.24] and [−0.66, 0.65] least-significant-bit (LSB), respectively. This is a clear indication of the suitability of the proposed FPGA-based CWD-TDC for use in PET scanners.

  8. A new calibration method for tri-axial field sensors in strap-down navigation systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Xiang; Li, Zhi

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a novel calibration method for tri-axial field sensors, such as magnetometers and accelerometers, in strap-down navigation systems. Strap-down tri-axial sensors have been widely used as they have the advantages of small size and low cost, but they need to be calibrated in order to ensure their accuracy. The most commonly used calibration method for a tri-axial field sensor is based on ellipsoid fitting, which has no requirement for external references. However, the self-calibration based on ellipsoid fitting is unable to determine and compensate the mutual misalignment between different sensors in a multi-sensor system. Therefore, a novel calibration method that employs the invariance of the dot product of two constant vectors is introduced in this paper. The proposed method, which is named dot product invariance method, brings a complete solution for the error model of tri-axial field sensors, and can solve the problem of alignment in a multi-sensor system. Its effectiveness and superiority over the ellipsoid fitting method are illustrated by numerical simulations, and its application on a digital magnetic compass shows significant enhancement of the heading accuracy. (paper)

  9. Photometric calibration of the COMBO-17 survey with the Softassign Procrustes Matching method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheikhbahaee, Z.; Nakajima, R.; Erben, T.; Schneider, P.; Hildebrandt, H.; Becker, A. C.

    2017-11-01

    Accurate photometric calibration of optical data is crucial for photometric redshift estimation. We present the Softassign Procrustes Matching (SPM) method to improve the colour calibration upon the commonly used Stellar Locus Regression (SLR) method for the COMBO-17 survey. Our colour calibration approach can be categorised as a point-set matching method, which is frequently used in medical imaging and pattern recognition. We attain a photometric redshift precision Δz/(1 + zs) of better than 2 per cent. Our method is based on aligning the stellar locus of the uncalibrated stars to that of a spectroscopic sample of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey standard stars. We achieve our goal by finding a correspondence matrix between the two point-sets and applying the matrix to estimate the appropriate translations in multidimensional colour space. The SPM method is able to find the translation between two point-sets, despite the existence of noise and incompleteness of the common structures in the sets, as long as there is a distinct structure in at least one of the colour-colour pairs. We demonstrate the precision of our colour calibration method with a mock catalogue. The SPM colour calibration code is publicly available at https://neuronphysics@bitbucket.org/neuronphysics/spm.git.

  10. Calibration of the identiFINDER detector for the iodine measurement in thyroid using the Monte Carlo method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramos M, D.; Yera S, Y.; Lopez B, G. M.; Acosta R, N.; Vergara G, A.

    2014-08-01

    This work is based on the determination of the detection efficiency of 125 I and 131 I in thyroid of the identiFINDER detector using the Monte Carlo method. The suitability of the calibration method is analyzed, when comparing the results of the direct Monte Carlo method with the corrected, choosing the latter because the differences with the real efficiency stayed below 10%. To simulate the detector their geometric parameters were optimized using a tomographic study, what allowed the uncertainties minimization of the estimates. Finally were obtained the simulations of the detector geometry-point source to find the correction factors to 5 cm, 15 cm and 25 cm, and those corresponding to the detector-simulator arrangement for the method validation and final calculation of the efficiency, demonstrating that in the Monte Carlo method implementation if simulates at a greater distance than the used in the Laboratory measurements an efficiency overestimation can be obtained, while if simulates at a shorter distance this will be underestimated, so should be simulated at the same distance to which will be measured in the reality. Also, is achieved the obtaining of the efficiency curves and minimum detectable activity for the measurement of 131 I and 125 I. In general is achieved the implementation of the Monte Carlo methodology for the identiFINDER calibration with the purpose of estimating the measured activity of iodine in thyroid. This method represents an ideal way to replace the lack of patterns solutions and simulators assuring the capacities of the Internal Contamination Laboratory of the Centro de Proteccion e Higiene de las Radiaciones are always calibrated for the iodine measurement in thyroid. (author)

  11. A novel method to calibrate DOI function of a PET detector with a dual-ended-scintillator readout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shao Yiping; Yao Rutao; Ma Tianyu

    2008-01-01

    The detection of depth-of-interaction (DOI) is a critical detector capability to improve the PET spatial resolution uniformity across the field-of-view and will significantly enhance, in particular, small bore system performance for brain, breast, and small animal imaging. One promising technique of DOI detection is to use dual-ended-scintillator readout that uses two photon sensors to detect scintillation light from both ends of a scintillator array and estimate DOI based on the ratio of signals (similar to Anger logic). This approach needs a careful DOI function calibration to establish accurate relationship between DOI and signal ratios, and to recalibrate if the detection condition is shifted due to the drift of sensor gain, bias variations, or degraded optical coupling, etc. However, the current calibration method that uses coincident events to locate interaction positions inside a single scintillator crystal has severe drawbacks, such as complicated setup, long and repetitive measurements, and being prone to errors from various possible misalignments among the source and detector components. This method is also not practically suitable to calibrate multiple DOI functions of a crystal array. To solve these problems, a new method has been developed that requires only a uniform flood source to irradiate a crystal array without the need to locate the interaction positions, and calculates DOI functions based solely on the uniform probability distribution of interactions over DOI positions without knowledge or assumption of detector responses. Simulation and experiment have been studied to validate the new method, and the results show that the new method, with a simple setup and one single measurement, can provide consistent and accurate DOI functions for the entire array of multiple scintillator crystals. This will enable an accurate, simple, and practical DOI function calibration for the PET detectors based on the design of dual-ended-scintillator readout. In

  12. Crystal timing offset calibration method for time of flight PET scanners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Jinghan; Song, Xiyun

    2016-03-01

    In time-of-flight (TOF) positron emission tomography (PET), precise calibration of the timing offset of each crystal of a PET scanner is essential. Conventionally this calibration requires a specially designed tool just for this purpose. In this study a method that uses a planar source to measure the crystal timing offsets (CTO) is developed. The method uses list mode acquisitions of a planar source placed at multiple orientations inside the PET scanner field-of-view (FOV). The placement of the planar source in each acquisition is automatically figured out from the measured data, so that a fixture for exactly placing the source is not required. The expected coincidence time difference for each detected list mode event can be found from the planar source placement and the detector geometry. A deviation of the measured time difference from the expected one is due to CTO of the two crystals. The least squared solution of the CTO is found iteratively using the list mode events. The effectiveness of the crystal timing calibration method is evidenced using phantom images generated by placing back each list mode event into the image space with the timing offset applied to each event. The zigzagged outlines of the phantoms in the images become smooth after the crystal timing calibration is applied. In conclusion, a crystal timing calibration method is developed. The method uses multiple list mode acquisitions of a planar source to find the least squared solution of crystal timing offsets.

  13. Optimization of suitable ethanol blend ratio for motorcycle engine using response surface method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yu-Liang; Chen, Suming; Tsai, Jin-Ming; Tsai, Chao-Yin; Fang, Hsin-Hsiung; Yang, I-Chang; Liu, Sen-Yuan

    2012-01-01

    In view of energy shortage and air pollution, ethanol-gasoline blended fuel used for motorcycle engine was studied in this work. The emissions of carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen oxides (NO(X)) and engine performance of a 125 cc four-stroke motorcycle engine with original carburetor using ethanol-gasoline fuels were investigated. The model of three-variable Box Behnken design (BBD) was used for experimental design, the ethanol blend ratios were prepared at 0, 10, 20 vol%; the speeds of motorcycle were selected as 30, 45, 60 km/h; and the throttle positions were set at 30, 60, 90 %. Both engine performance and air pollutant emissions were then analyzed by response surface method (RSM) to yield optimum operation parameters for tolerable pollutant emissions and maximum engine performance. The RSM optimization analysis indicated that the most suitable ethanol-gasoline blended ratio was found at the range of 3.92-4.12 vol% to yield a comparable fuel conversion efficiency, while considerable reductions of exhaust pollutant emissions of CO (-29 %) and NO(X) (-12 %) when compared to pure gasoline fuel. This study demonstrated low ethanol-gasoline blended fuels could be used in motorcycle carburetor engines without any modification to keep engine power while reducing exhaust pollutants.

  14. Synthetic samples as imitators of elements composition for calibration in nuclear-physical methods of analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lakhov, V.M.; Gerling, V.Eh.; Il'ina, L.K.; Trojnina, G.G.; Galisheva, Eh.P.

    1987-01-01

    The papers on the problems of developing and application of synthetic standard samples (SS), imitating the substance and material (rocks, ores) element composition aimed at calibration, testing and certification of the equipment as well as check on the results of neutron-activation, X-ray spectral, X-ray radiometric, X-ray fluorescence and other nuclear-physical methods of analysis, are reviewed. It is shown that choice of SS preparation method is defined by peculiarities of analysis method for which calibration SS is designed. Experience in application of SS imitators of element composition in interlaboratory comparisons testifies to potential application of synthetic SS for calibration in different methods of analysis including, nuclear-physical ones

  15. A Multi-Projector Calibration Method for Virtual Reality Simulators with Analytically Defined Screens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Portalés

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The geometric calibration of projectors is a demanding task, particularly for the industry of virtual reality simulators. Different methods have been developed during the last decades to retrieve the intrinsic and extrinsic parameters of projectors, most of them being based on planar homographies and some requiring an extended calibration process. The aim of our research work is to design a fast and user-friendly method to provide multi-projector calibration on analytically defined screens, where a sample is shown for a virtual reality Formula 1 simulator that has a cylindrical screen. The proposed method results from the combination of surveying, photogrammetry and image processing approaches, and has been designed by considering the spatial restrictions of virtual reality simulators. The method has been validated from a mathematical point of view, and the complete system—which is currently installed in a shopping mall in Spain—has been tested by different users.

  16. A GPS-Based Pitot-Static Calibration Method Using Global Output-Error Optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, John V.; Cunningham, Kevin

    2010-01-01

    Pressure-based airspeed and altitude measurements for aircraft typically require calibration of the installed system to account for pressure sensing errors such as those due to local flow field effects. In some cases, calibration is used to meet requirements such as those specified in Federal Aviation Regulation Part 25. Several methods are used for in-flight pitot-static calibration including tower fly-by, pacer aircraft, and trailing cone methods. In the 1990 s, the introduction of satellite-based positioning systems to the civilian market enabled new inflight calibration methods based on accurate ground speed measurements provided by Global Positioning Systems (GPS). Use of GPS for airspeed calibration has many advantages such as accuracy, ease of portability (e.g. hand-held) and the flexibility of operating in airspace without the limitations of test range boundaries or ground telemetry support. The current research was motivated by the need for a rapid and statistically accurate method for in-flight calibration of pitot-static systems for remotely piloted, dynamically-scaled research aircraft. Current calibration methods were deemed not practical for this application because of confined test range size and limited flight time available for each sortie. A method was developed that uses high data rate measurements of static and total pressure, and GPSbased ground speed measurements to compute the pressure errors over a range of airspeed. The novel application of this approach is the use of system identification methods that rapidly compute optimal pressure error models with defined confidence intervals in nearreal time. This method has been demonstrated in flight tests and has shown 2- bounds of approximately 0.2 kts with an order of magnitude reduction in test time over other methods. As part of this experiment, a unique database of wind measurements was acquired concurrently with the flight experiments, for the purpose of experimental validation of the

  17. Shrinkage calibration method for μPIM manufactured parts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Quagliotti, Danilo; Tosello, Guido; Salaga, J.

    2016-01-01

    Five green and five sintered parts of a micro mechanical component, produced by micro powder injection moulding, were measured using an optical coordinate measuring machine. The aim was to establish a method for quality assurance of the final produced parts. Initially, the so called “green” parts...... were compared with the sintered parts (final products) calculating the percentage of shrinkage after sintering. Successively, the expanded uncertainty of the measured dimensions were evaluated for each single part as well as for the overall parts. Finally, the estimated uncertainty for the shrinkage...... was evaluated propagating the expanded uncertainty previously stated and considering green and sintered parts correlated. Results showed that the proposed method can be effective instating tolerances if it is assumed that the variability on the dimensions induced by the shrinkage equals the propagated expanded...

  18. SU-F-E-19: A Novel Method for TrueBeam Jaw Calibration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corns, R; Zhao, Y; Huang, V [Fraser Valley Cancer Centre - BC Cancer Agency, Surrey, BC (United Kingdom)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: A simple jaw calibration method is proposed for Varian TrueBeam using an EPID-Encoder combination that gives accurate fields sizes and a homogeneous junction dose. This benefits clinical applications such as mono-isocentric half-beam block breast cancer or head and neck cancer treatment with junction/field matching. Methods: We use EPID imager with pixel size 0.392 mm × 0.392 mm to determine the radiation jaw position as measured from radio-opaque markers aligned with the crosshair. We acquire two images with different symmetric field sizes and record each individual jaw encoder values. A linear relationship between each jaw’s position and its encoder value is established, from which we predict the encoder values that produce the jaw positions required by TrueBeam’s calibration procedure. During TrueBeam’s jaw calibration procedure, we move the jaw with the pendant to set the jaw into position using the predicted encoder value. The overall accuracy is under 0.1 mm. Results: Our in-house software analyses images and provides sub-pixel accuracy to determine field centre and radiation edges (50% dose of the profile). We verified the TrueBeam encoder provides a reliable linear relationship for each individual jaw position (R{sup 2}>0.9999) from which the encoder values necessary to set jaw calibration points (1 cm and 19 cm) are predicted. Junction matching dose inhomogeneities were improved from >±20% to <±6% using this new calibration protocol. However, one technical challenge exists for junction matching, if the collimator walkout is large. Conclusion: Our new TrueBeam jaw calibration method can systematically calibrate the jaws to crosshair within sub-pixel accuracy and provides both good junction doses and field sizes. This method does not compensate for a larger collimator walkout, but can be used as the underlying foundation for addressing the walkout issue.

  19. A New Time Calibration Method for Switched-capacitor-array-based Waveform Samplers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, H; Chen, C-T; Eclov, N; Ronzhin, A; Murat, P; Ramberg, E; Los, S; Moses, W; Choong, W-S; Kao, C-M

    2014-12-11

    We have developed a new time calibration method for the DRS4 waveform sampler that enables us to precisely measure the non-uniform sampling interval inherent in the switched-capacitor cells of the DRS4. The method uses the proportionality between the differential amplitude and sampling interval of adjacent switched-capacitor cells responding to a sawtooth-shape pulse. In the experiment, a sawtooth-shape pulse with a 40 ns period generated by a Tektronix AWG7102 is fed to a DRS4 evaluation board for calibrating the sampling intervals of all 1024 cells individually. The electronic time resolution of the DRS4 evaluation board with the new time calibration is measured to be ~2.4 ps RMS by using two simultaneous Gaussian pulses with 2.35 ns full-width at half-maximum and applying a Gaussian fit. The time resolution dependencies on the time difference with the new time calibration are measured and compared to results obtained by another method. The new method could be applicable for other switched-capacitor-array technology-based waveform samplers for precise time calibration.

  20. Brightness checkerboard lattice method for the calibration of the coaxial reverse Hartmann test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xinji; Hui, Mei; Li, Ning; Hu, Shinan; Liu, Ming; Kong, Lingqin; Dong, Liquan; Zhao, Yuejin

    2018-01-01

    The coaxial reverse Hartmann test (RHT) is widely used in the measurement of large aspheric surfaces as an auxiliary method for interference measurement, because of its large dynamic range, highly flexible test with low frequency of surface errors, and low cost. And the accuracy of the coaxial RHT depends on the calibration. However, the calibration process remains inefficient, and the signal-to-noise ratio limits the accuracy of the calibration. In this paper, brightness checkerboard lattices were used to replace the traditional dot matrix. The brightness checkerboard method can reduce the number of dot matrix projections in the calibration process, thus improving efficiency. An LCD screen displayed a brightness checkerboard lattice, in which the brighter checkerboard and the darker checkerboard alternately arranged. Based on the image on the detector, the relationship between the rays at certain angles and the photosensitive positions of the detector coordinates can be obtained. And a differential de-noising method can effectively reduce the impact of noise on the measurement results. Simulation and experimentation proved the feasibility of the method. Theoretical analysis and experimental results show that the efficiency of the brightness checkerboard lattices is about four times that of the traditional dot matrix, and the signal-to-noise ratio of the calibration is significantly improved.

  1. Comparison of methods of calibration of a neutron probe by gravimetry or neutron-capture model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vachaud, G.; Royer, J.M.; Cooper, J.D.

    1977-01-01

    This paper presents a systematic analysis of two methods used for determining calibration curves of neutron probes. The uncertainties resulting from the use of the gravimetric method, with a linear correlation between count rates and water content of soil samples, are considered first. Particular care is given to the determination of errors in the values of water content and count rates, and to the difficulties arising from the choice of the correlation technique. The neutron-calibration curve of the soil was also obtained with a technique based on the determination of neutron thermal adsorption and diffusion constants. The importance of errors associated with this method is also analyzed. Different field examples are then presented. It appears that the neutron-capture technique should be particularly well suited for determining the calibration curve of clay soils or heterogeneous materials for which the gravimetric calibration technique cannot be applied with confidence. On the other hand, it is also shown that for a soil with a very well-defined gravimetric calibration curve, the neutron-capture technique gives results still at least as good as with the former method

  2. The systematic error of temperature noise correlation measurement method and self-calibration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tian Hong; Tong Yunxian

    1993-04-01

    The turbulent transport behavior of fluid noise and the nature of noise affect on the velocity measurement system have been studied. The systematic error of velocity measurement system is analyzed. A theoretical calibration method is proposed, which makes the velocity measurement of time-correlation as an absolute measurement method. The theoretical results are in good agreement with experiments

  3. Research on direct calibration method of eye-to-hand system of robot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Xiaoping; Xie, Ke; Peng, Tao

    2013-10-01

    In the position-based visual servoing control for robot, the hand-eye calibration is very important because it can affect the control precision of the system. According to the robot with eye-to-hand stereovision system, this paper proposes a direct method of hand-eye calibration. The method utilizes the triangle measuring principle to solve the coordinates in the camera coordinate system of scene point. It calculates the estimated coordinates by the hand-eye calibration equation set which indicates the transformational relation from the robot to the camera coordinate system, and then uses the error of actual and estimated coordinates to establish the objective function. Finally the method substitutes the parameters into the function repeatedly until it converged to optimize the result. The related experiment compared the measured coordinates with the actual coordinates, shows the efficiency and the precision of it.

  4. Optical System Error Analysis and Calibration Method of High-Accuracy Star Trackers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheng You

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The star tracker is a high-accuracy attitude measurement device widely used in spacecraft. Its performance depends largely on the precision of the optical system parameters. Therefore, the analysis of the optical system parameter errors and a precise calibration model are crucial to the accuracy of the star tracker. Research in this field is relatively lacking a systematic and universal analysis up to now. This paper proposes in detail an approach for the synthetic error analysis of the star tracker, without the complicated theoretical derivation. This approach can determine the error propagation relationship of the star tracker, and can build intuitively and systematically an error model. The analysis results can be used as a foundation and a guide for the optical design, calibration, and compensation of the star tracker. A calibration experiment is designed and conducted. Excellent calibration results are achieved based on the calibration model. To summarize, the error analysis approach and the calibration method are proved to be adequate and precise, and could provide an important guarantee for the design, manufacture, and measurement of high-accuracy star trackers.

  5. Optical system error analysis and calibration method of high-accuracy star trackers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Ting; Xing, Fei; You, Zheng

    2013-04-08

    The star tracker is a high-accuracy attitude measurement device widely used in spacecraft. Its performance depends largely on the precision of the optical system parameters. Therefore, the analysis of the optical system parameter errors and a precise calibration model are crucial to the accuracy of the star tracker. Research in this field is relatively lacking a systematic and universal analysis up to now. This paper proposes in detail an approach for the synthetic error analysis of the star tracker, without the complicated theoretical derivation. This approach can determine the error propagation relationship of the star tracker, and can build intuitively and systematically an error model. The analysis results can be used as a foundation and a guide for the optical design, calibration, and compensation of the star tracker. A calibration experiment is designed and conducted. Excellent calibration results are achieved based on the calibration model. To summarize, the error analysis approach and the calibration method are proved to be adequate and precise, and could provide an important guarantee for the design, manufacture, and measurement of high-accuracy star trackers.

  6. [Outlier sample discriminating methods for building calibration model in melons quality detecting using NIR spectra].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Hai-Qing; Wang, Chun-Guang; Zhang, Hai-Jun; Yu, Zhi-Hong; Li, Jian-Kang

    2012-11-01

    Outlier samples strongly influence the precision of the calibration model in soluble solids content measurement of melons using NIR Spectra. According to the possible sources of outlier samples, three methods (predicted concentration residual test; Chauvenet test; leverage and studentized residual test) were used to discriminate these outliers respectively. Nine suspicious outliers were detected from calibration set which including 85 fruit samples. Considering the 9 suspicious outlier samples maybe contain some no-outlier samples, they were reclaimed to the model one by one to see whether they influence the model and prediction precision or not. In this way, 5 samples which were helpful to the model joined in calibration set again, and a new model was developed with the correlation coefficient (r) 0. 889 and root mean square errors for calibration (RMSEC) 0.6010 Brix. For 35 unknown samples, the root mean square errors prediction (RMSEP) was 0.854 degrees Brix. The performance of this model was more better than that developed with non outlier was eliminated from calibration set (r = 0.797, RMSEC= 0.849 degrees Brix, RMSEP = 1.19 degrees Brix), and more representative and stable with all 9 samples were eliminated from calibration set (r = 0.892, RMSEC = 0.605 degrees Brix, RMSEP = 0.862 degrees).

  7. Comparison of two methods of therapy level calibration at 60Co gamma beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bjerke, H.; Jaervinen, H.; Grimbergen, T.W.M.; Grindborg, J.E.; Chauvenet, B.; Czap, L.; Ennow, K.; Moretti, C.; Rocha, P.

    1998-01-01

    The accuracy and traceability of the calibration of radiotherapy dosimeters is of great concern to those involved in the delivery of radiotherapy. It has been proposed that calibration should be carried out directly in terms of absorbed dose to water, instead of using the conventional and widely applied quantity of air kerma. In this study, the faithfulness in disseminating standards of both air kerma and absorbed dose to water were evaluated, through comparison of both types of calibration for three types of commonly used radiotherapy dosimeters at 60 Co gamma beams at a few secondary and primary standard dosimetry laboratories (SSDLs and PSDLs). A supplementary aim was to demonstrate the impact which the change in the method of calibration would have on clinical dose measurements at the reference point. Within the estimated uncertainties, both the air kerma and absorbed dose to water calibration factors obtained at different laboratories were regarded as consistent. As might be expected, between the SSDLs traceable to the same PSDL the observed differences were smaller (less than 0.5%) than between PSDLs or SSDLs traceable to different PSDLs (up to 1.5%). This can mainly be attributed to the reported differences between the primary standards. The calibration factors obtained by the two methods differed by up to about 1.5% depending on the primary standards involved and on the parameters of calculation used for 60 Co gamma radiation. It is concluded that this discrepancy should be settled before the new method of calibration at 60 Co gamma beams in terms of absorbed dose to water is taken into routine use. (author)

  8. Comparison of two methods of therapy level calibration at 60Co gamma beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bjerke, H; Jaervinen, H; Grimbergen, T W M; Grindborg, J-E; Chauvenet, B; Czap, L; Ennow, K; Moretti, C; Rocha, P

    1998-01-01

    The accuracy and traceability of the calibration of radiotherapy dosimeters is of great concern to those involved in the delivery of radiotherapy. It has been proposed that calibration should be carried out directly in terms of absorbed dose to water, instead of using the conventional and widely applied quantity of air kerma. In this study, the faithfulness in disseminating standards of both air kerma and absorbed dose to water were evaluated, through comparison of both types of calibration for three types of commonly used radiotherapy dosimeters at 60 Co gamma beams at a few secondary and primary standard dosimetry laboratories (SSDLs and PSDLs). A supplementary aim was to demonstrate the impact which the change in the method of calibration would have on clinical dose measurements at the reference point. Within the estimated uncertainties, both the air kerma and absorbed dose to water calibration factors obtained at different laboratories were regarded as consistent. As might be expected, between the SSDLs traceable to the same PSDL the observed differences were smaller (less than 0.5%) than between PSDLs or SSDLs traceable to different PSDLs (up to 1.5%). This can mainly be attributed to the reported differences between the primary standards. The calibration factors obtained by the two methods differed by up to about 1.5% depending on the primary standards involved and on the parameters of calculation used for 60 Co gamma radiation. It is concluded that this discrepancy should be settled before the new method of calibration at 60 Co gamma beams in terms of absorbed dose to water is taken into routine use

  9. A Start-up Calibration Method for Generic Current-Steering D/A Converters with Optimal Area Solution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Radulov, G.I.; Quinn, P.J.; Hegt, J.A.; Roermund, van A.H.M.

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents a new start-up calibration method for current-steering D/A converters, based on a 1-bit ADC. The paper proposes a new current cell that allows calibration of non-identical current sources by way of a shared calibration apparatus. The current cell uses parallel selfcalibrated unit

  10. A calibration and data assimilation method using the Bayesian MARS emulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stripling, H.F.; McClarren, R.G.; Kuranz, C.C.; Grosskopf, M.J.; Rutter, E.; Torralva, B.R.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► We outline a transparent, flexible method for the calibration of uncertain inputs to computer models. ► We account for model, data, emulator, and measurement uncertainties. ► The method produces improved predictive results, which are validated using leave one-out experiments. ► Our implementation leverages the Bayesian MARS emulator, but any emulator may be substituted. -- Abstract: We present a method for calibrating the uncertain inputs to a computer model using available experimental data. The goal of the procedure is to estimate the posterior distribution of the uncertain inputs such that when samples from the posterior are used as inputs to future model runs, the model is more likely to replicate (or predict) the experimental response. The calibration is performed by sampling the space of the uncertain inputs, using the computer model (or, more likely, an emulator for the computer model) to assign weights to the samples, and applying the weights to produce the posterior distributions and generate predictions of new experiments with confidence bounds. The method is similar to Metropolis–Hastings calibration methods with independently sampled updates, except that we generate samples beforehand and replace the candidate acceptance routine with a weighting scheme. We apply our method to the calibration of a Hyades 2D model of laser energy deposition in beryllium. We employ a Bayesian Multivariate Adaptive Regression Splines (BMARS) emulator as a surrogate for Hyades 2D. We treat a range of uncertainties in our application, including uncertainties in the experimental inputs, experimental measurement error, and systematic experimental timing errors. The resulting posterior distributions agree with our existing intuition, and we validate the results by performing a series of leave-one-out predictions. We find that the calibrated predictions are considerably more accurate and less uncertain than blind sampling of the forward model alone.

  11. Calibration of groundwater vulnerability mapping using the generalized reduced gradient method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elçi, Alper

    2017-12-01

    Groundwater vulnerability assessment studies are essential in water resources management. Overlay-and-index methods such as DRASTIC are widely used for mapping of groundwater vulnerability, however, these methods mainly suffer from a subjective selection of model parameters. The objective of this study is to introduce a calibration procedure that results in a more accurate assessment of groundwater vulnerability. The improvement of the assessment is formulated as a parameter optimization problem using an objective function that is based on the correlation between actual groundwater contamination and vulnerability index values. The non-linear optimization problem is solved with the generalized-reduced-gradient (GRG) method, which is numerical algorithm based optimization method. To demonstrate the applicability of the procedure, a vulnerability map for the Tahtali stream basin is calibrated using nitrate concentration data. The calibration procedure is easy to implement and aims the maximization of correlation between observed pollutant concentrations and groundwater vulnerability index values. The influence of each vulnerability parameter in the calculation of the vulnerability index is assessed by performing a single-parameter sensitivity analysis. Results of the sensitivity analysis show that all factors are effective on the final vulnerability index. Calibration of the vulnerability map improves the correlation between index values and measured nitrate concentrations by 19%. The regression coefficient increases from 0.280 to 0.485. It is evident that the spatial distribution and the proportions of vulnerability class areas are significantly altered with the calibration process. Although the applicability of the calibration method is demonstrated on the DRASTIC model, the applicability of the approach is not specific to a certain model and can also be easily applied to other overlay-and-index methods. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. K-edge energy-based calibration method for photon counting detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Yongshuai; Ji, Xu; Zhang, Ran; Li, Ke; Chen, Guang-Hong

    2018-01-01

    In recent years, potential applications of energy-resolved photon counting detectors (PCDs) in the x-ray medical imaging field have been actively investigated. Unlike conventional x-ray energy integration detectors, PCDs count the number of incident x-ray photons within certain energy windows. For PCDs, the interactions between x-ray photons and photoconductor generate electronic voltage pulse signals. The pulse height of each signal is proportional to the energy of the incident photons. By comparing the pulse height with the preset energy threshold values, x-ray photons with specific energies are recorded and sorted into different energy bins. To quantitatively understand the meaning of the energy threshold values, and thus to assign an absolute energy value to each energy bin, energy calibration is needed to establish the quantitative relationship between the threshold values and the corresponding effective photon energies. In practice, the energy calibration is not always easy, due to the lack of well-calibrated energy references for the working energy range of the PCDs. In this paper, a new method was developed to use the precise knowledge of the characteristic K-edge energy of materials to perform energy calibration. The proposed method was demonstrated using experimental data acquired from three K-edge materials (viz., iodine, gadolinium, and gold) on two different PCDs (Hydra and Flite, XCounter, Sweden). Finally, the proposed energy calibration method was further validated using a radioactive isotope (Am-241) with a known decay energy spectrum.

  13. Selection of suitable propagation method for consistent plantlets production in Stevia rebaudiana (Bertoni)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalil, Shahid Akbar; Zamir, Roshan; Ahmad, Nisar

    2014-01-01

    Stevia rebaudiana (Bert.) is an emerging sugar alternative and anti-diabetic plant in Pakistan. That is why people did not know the exact time of propagation. The main objective of the present study was to establish feasible propagation methods for healthy biomass production. In the present study, seed germination, stem cuttings and micropropagation were investigated for higher productivity. Fresh seeds showed better germination (25.51–40%) but lost viability after a few days of storage. In order to improve the germination percentage, seeds were irradiated with 2.5, 5.0, 7.5 and 10 Gy gamma doses. But gamma irradiation did not show any significant change in seed germination. A great variation in survival of stem cutting was observed in each month of 2012. October and November were found the most suitable months for stem cutting survival (60%). In order to enhance survival, stem cuttings were also dipped in different plant growth regulators (PGRs) solution. Only indole butyric acid (IBA; 1000 ppm) treated cutting showed a higher survival (33%) than control (11.1%). Furthermore, simple and feasible indirect regeneration system was established from leaf explants. Best callus induction (84.6%) was observed on MS-medium augmented with 6-benzyladenine (BA) and 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D; 2.0 mg l−1). For the first time, we obtained the highest number of shoots (106) on a medium containing BA (1.5 mg l−1) and gibberellic acid (GA3; 0.5 mg l−1). Plantlets were successfully acclimatized in plastic pots. The current results preferred micropropagation (85%) over seed germination (25.51–40%) and stem cutting (60%). PMID:25473365

  14. Selection of suitable propagation method for consistent plantlets production in Stevia rebaudiana (Bertoni).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalil, Shahid Akbar; Zamir, Roshan; Ahmad, Nisar

    2014-12-01

    Stevia rebaudiana (Bert.) is an emerging sugar alternative and anti-diabetic plant in Pakistan. That is why people did not know the exact time of propagation. The main objective of the present study was to establish feasible propagation methods for healthy biomass production. In the present study, seed germination, stem cuttings and micropropagation were investigated for higher productivity. Fresh seeds showed better germination (25.51-40%) but lost viability after a few days of storage. In order to improve the germination percentage, seeds were irradiated with 2.5, 5.0, 7.5 and 10 Gy gamma doses. But gamma irradiation did not show any significant change in seed germination. A great variation in survival of stem cutting was observed in each month of 2012. October and November were found the most suitable months for stem cutting survival (60%). In order to enhance survival, stem cuttings were also dipped in different plant growth regulators (PGRs) solution. Only indole butyric acid (IBA; 1000 ppm) treated cutting showed a higher survival (33%) than control (11.1%). Furthermore, simple and feasible indirect regeneration system was established from leaf explants. Best callus induction (84.6%) was observed on MS-medium augmented with 6-benzyladenine (BA) and 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D; 2.0 mg l(-1)). For the first time, we obtained the highest number of shoots (106) on a medium containing BA (1.5 mg l(-1)) and gibberellic acid (GA3; 0.5 mg l(-1)). Plantlets were successfully acclimatized in plastic pots. The current results preferred micropropagation (85%) over seed germination (25.51-40%) and stem cutting (60%).

  15. Standardization of Laser Methods and Techniques for Vibration Measurements and Calibrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martens, Hans-Juergen von

    2010-01-01

    The realization and dissemination of the SI units of motion quantities (vibration and shock) have been based on laser interferometer methods specified in international documentary standards. New and refined laser methods and techniques developed by national metrology institutes and by leading manufacturers in the past two decades have been swiftly specified as standard methods for inclusion into in the series ISO 16063 of international documentary standards. A survey of ISO Standards for the calibration of vibration and shock transducers demonstrates the extended ranges and improved accuracy (measurement uncertainty) of laser methods and techniques for vibration and shock measurements and calibrations. The first standard for the calibration of laser vibrometers by laser interferometry or by a reference accelerometer calibrated by laser interferometry (ISO 16063-41) is on the stage of a Draft International Standard (DIS) and may be issued by the end of 2010. The standard methods with refined techniques proved to achieve wider measurement ranges and smaller measurement uncertainties than that specified in the ISO Standards. The applicability of different standardized interferometer methods to vibrations at high frequencies was recently demonstrated up to 347 kHz (acceleration amplitudes up to 350 km/s 2 ). The relative deviations between the amplitude measurement results of the different interferometer methods that were applied simultaneously, differed by less than 1% in all cases.

  16. A METHOD TO CALIBRATE THE HIGH-RESOLUTION CATANIA ASTROPHYSICAL OBSERVATORY SPECTROPOLARIMETER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leone, F.; Gangi, M.; Giarrusso, M.; Scalia, C. [Università di Catania, Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Sezione Astrofisica, Via S. Sofia 78, I-95123 Catania (Italy); Avila, G. [ESO, Karl-Schwarzschild-Straße 2, D-85748, Garching bei München (Germany); Bellassai, G.; Bruno, P.; Catalano, S.; Benedetto, R. Di; Stefano, A. Di; Greco, V.; Martinetti, E.; Miraglia, M.; Munari, M.; Pontoni, C.; Scuderi, S.; Spanó, P. [INAF—Osservatorio Astrofisico di Catania, Via S. Sofia 78, I-95123 Catania (Italy)

    2016-05-01

    The Catania Astrophysical Observatory Spectropolarimeter (CAOS) is a white-pupil cross-dispersed échelle spectrograph with a spectral resolution of up to R  = 55,000 in the 375–1100 nm range in a single exposure, with complete coverage up to 856 nm. CAOS is linked to the 36-inch telescope, at Mount Etna Observatory, with a couple of 100 μ m optical fibers and it achieves a signal-to-noise ratio better than 60 for a V  = 10 mag star in one hour. CAOS is thermally stabilized in temperature within a 0.01 K rms, so that radial velocities are measured with a precision better than 100 m s{sup −1} from a single spectral line. Linear and circular spectropolarimetric observations are possible by means of a Savart plate working in series with a half-wave and a quarter-wave retarder plate in the 376–850 nm range. As is usual for high-resolution spectropolarimeters, CAOS is suitable to measure all Stokes parameters across spectral lines and it cannot measure the absolute degree of polarization. Observations of unpolarized standard stars show that instrumental polarization is generally zero at 550 nm and can increase up to 3% at the other wavelengths. Since polarized and unpolarized standard stars are useless, we suggest a method to calibrate a high-resolution spectropolarimeter on the basis of the polarimetric properties of spectral lines formed in the presence of a magnetic field. As applied to CAOS, observations of magnetic chemically peculiar stars of the main sequence show that the cross-talk from linear to circular polarization is smaller than 0.4% and that conversion from circular to linear is less than 2.7%. Strength and wavelength dependences of cross-talk can be entirely ascribed, via numerical simulations, to the incorrect retardance of achromatic wave plates.

  17. Calibration method for a vision guiding-based laser-tracking measurement system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shao, Mingwei; Wei, Zhenzhong; Hu, Mengjie; Zhang, Guangjun

    2015-01-01

    Laser-tracking measurement systems (laser trackers) based on a vision-guiding device are widely used in industrial fields, and their calibration is important. As conventional methods typically have many disadvantages, such as difficult machining of the target and overdependence on the retroreflector, a novel calibration method is presented in this paper. The retroreflector, which is necessary in the normal calibration method, is unnecessary in our approach. As the laser beam is linear, points on the beam can be obtained with the help of a normal planar target. In this way, we can determine the function of a laser beam under the camera coordinate system, while its corresponding function under the laser-tracker coordinate system can be obtained from the encoder of the laser tracker. Clearly, when several groups of functions are confirmed, the rotation matrix can be solved from the direction vectors of the laser beams in different coordinate systems. As the intersection of the laser beams is the origin of the laser-tracker coordinate system, the translation matrix can also be determined. Our proposed method not only achieves the calibration of a single laser-tracking measurement system but also provides a reference for the calibration of a multistation system. Simulations to evaluate the effects of some critical factors were conducted. These simulations show the robustness and accuracy of our method. In real experiments, the root mean square error of the calibration result reached 1.46 mm within a range of 10 m, even though the vision-guiding device focuses on a point approximately 5 m away from the origin of its coordinate system, with a field of view of approximately 200 mm  ×  200 mm. (paper)

  18. Simple method for absolute calibration of geophones, seismometers, and other inertial vibration sensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kann, Frank van; Winterflood, John

    2005-01-01

    A simple but powerful method is presented for calibrating geophones, seismometers, and other inertial vibration sensors, including passive accelerometers. The method requires no cumbersome or expensive fixtures such as shaker platforms and can be performed using a standard instrument commonly available in the field. An absolute calibration is obtained using the reciprocity property of the device, based on the standard mathematical model for such inertial sensors. It requires only simple electrical measurement of the impedance of the sensor as a function of frequency to determine the parameters of the model and hence the sensitivity function. The method is particularly convenient if one of these parameters, namely the suspended mass is known. In this case, no additional mechanical apparatus is required and only a single set of impedance measurements yields the desired calibration function. Moreover, this measurement can be made with the device in situ. However, the novel and most powerful aspect of the method is its ability to accurately determine the effective suspended mass. For this, the impedance measurement is made with the device hanging from a simple spring or flexible cord (depending on the orientation of its sensitive axis). To complete the calibration, the device is weighed to determine its total mass. All the required calibration parameters, including the suspended mass, are then determined from a least-squares fit to the impedance as a function of frequency. A demonstration using both a 4.5 Hz geophone and a 1 Hz seismometer shows that the method can yield accurate absolute calibrations with an error of 0.1% or better, assuming no a priori knowledge of any parameters

  19. PMT response drift of ATLAS Tile Laser II calibration system: an introduction of a new method

    CERN Document Server

    Di Gregorio, Giulia

    2016-01-01

    In this article I describe the performance of the monitoring diodes of the Laser II system, a new system for run II used to calibrate the gain variation of PMTs in between two cesium scan. I also show a new method to measure the PMT drift response that it is compared to the method used up to now (Clermont-Ferrant) corrected with the Pisa method. The agreement between the two method is within 0.2%.

  20. Calibrating a combined energy systems analysis and controller design method with empirical data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murphy, Gavin Bruce; Counsell, John; Allison, John; Brindley, Joseph

    2013-01-01

    The drive towards low carbon constructions has seen buildings increasingly utilise many different energy systems simultaneously to control the human comfort of the indoor environment; such as ventilation with heat recovery, various heating solutions and applications of renewable energy. This paper describes a dynamic modelling and simulation method (IDEAS – Inverse Dynamics based Energy Assessment and Simulation) for analysing the energy utilisation of a building and its complex servicing systems. The IDEAS case study presented in this paper is based upon small perturbation theory and can be used for the analysis of the performance of complex energy systems and also for the design of smart control systems. This paper presents a process of how any dynamic model can be calibrated against a more empirical based data model, in this case the UK Government's SAP (Standard Assessment Procedure). The research targets of this work are building simulation experts for analysing the energy use of a building and also control engineers to assist in the design of smart control systems for dwellings. The calibration process presented is transferable and has applications for simulation experts to assist in calibrating any dynamic building simulation method with an empirical based method. - Highlights: • Presentation of an energy systems analysis method for assessing the energy utilisation of buildings and their complex servicing systems. • An inverse dynamics based controller design method is detailed. • Method of how a dynamic model can be calibrated with an empirical based model

  1. Method for lateral force calibration in atomic force microscope using MEMS microforce sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dziekoński, Cezary; Dera, Wojciech; Jarząbek, Dariusz M

    2017-11-01

    In this paper we present a simple and direct method for the lateral force calibration constant determination. Our procedure does not require any knowledge about material or geometrical parameters of an investigated cantilever. We apply a commercially available microforce sensor with advanced electronics for direct measurement of the friction force applied by the cantilever's tip to a flat surface of the microforce sensor measuring beam. Due to the third law of dynamics, the friction force of the equal value tilts the AFM cantilever. Therefore, torsional (lateral force) signal is compared with the signal from the microforce sensor and the lateral force calibration constant is determined. The method is easy to perform and could be widely used for the lateral force calibration constant determination in many types of atomic force microscopes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Corrected direct force balance method for atomic force microscopy lateral force calibration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asay, David B.; Hsiao, Erik; Kim, Seong H.

    2009-01-01

    This paper reports corrections and improvements of the previously reported direct force balance method (DFBM) developed for lateral calibration of atomic force microscopy. The DFBM method employs the lateral force signal obtained during a force-distance measurement on a sloped surface and relates this signal to the applied load and the slope of the surface to determine the lateral calibration factor. In the original publication [Rev. Sci. Instrum. 77, 043903 (2006)], the tip-substrate contact was assumed to be pinned at the point of contact, i.e., no slip along the slope. In control experiments, the tip was found to slide along the slope during force-distance curve measurement. This paper presents the correct force balance for lateral force calibration.

  3. Calibration uncertainty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heydorn, Kaj; Anglov, Thomas

    2002-01-01

    Methods recommended by the International Standardization Organisation and Eurachem are not satisfactory for the correct estimation of calibration uncertainty. A novel approach is introduced and tested on actual calibration data for the determination of Pb by ICP-AES. The improved calibration...

  4. Comparing habitat suitability and connectivity modeling methods for conserving pronghorn migrations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erin E Poor

    Full Text Available Terrestrial long-distance migrations are declining globally: in North America, nearly 75% have been lost. Yet there has been limited research comparing habitat suitability and connectivity models to identify migration corridors across increasingly fragmented landscapes. Here we use pronghorn (Antilocapra americana migrations in prairie habitat to compare two types of models that identify habitat suitability: maximum entropy (Maxent and expert-based (Analytic Hierarchy Process. We used distance to wells, distance to water, NDVI, land cover, distance to roads, terrain shape and fence presence to parameterize the models. We then used the output of these models as cost surfaces to compare two common connectivity models, least-cost modeling (LCM and circuit theory. Using pronghorn movement data from spring and fall migrations, we identified potential migration corridors by combining each habitat suitability model with each connectivity model. The best performing model combination was Maxent with LCM corridors across both seasons. Maxent out-performed expert-based habitat suitability models for both spring and fall migrations. However, expert-based corridors can perform relatively well and are a cost-effective alternative if species location data are unavailable. Corridors created using LCM out-performed circuit theory, as measured by the number of pronghorn GPS locations present within the corridors. We suggest the use of a tiered approach using different corridor widths for prioritizing conservation and mitigation actions, such as fence removal or conservation easements.

  5. Comparing habitat suitability and connectivity modeling methods for conserving pronghorn migrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poor, Erin E; Loucks, Colby; Jakes, Andrew; Urban, Dean L

    2012-01-01

    Terrestrial long-distance migrations are declining globally: in North America, nearly 75% have been lost. Yet there has been limited research comparing habitat suitability and connectivity models to identify migration corridors across increasingly fragmented landscapes. Here we use pronghorn (Antilocapra americana) migrations in prairie habitat to compare two types of models that identify habitat suitability: maximum entropy (Maxent) and expert-based (Analytic Hierarchy Process). We used distance to wells, distance to water, NDVI, land cover, distance to roads, terrain shape and fence presence to parameterize the models. We then used the output of these models as cost surfaces to compare two common connectivity models, least-cost modeling (LCM) and circuit theory. Using pronghorn movement data from spring and fall migrations, we identified potential migration corridors by combining each habitat suitability model with each connectivity model. The best performing model combination was Maxent with LCM corridors across both seasons. Maxent out-performed expert-based habitat suitability models for both spring and fall migrations. However, expert-based corridors can perform relatively well and are a cost-effective alternative if species location data are unavailable. Corridors created using LCM out-performed circuit theory, as measured by the number of pronghorn GPS locations present within the corridors. We suggest the use of a tiered approach using different corridor widths for prioritizing conservation and mitigation actions, such as fence removal or conservation easements.

  6. Calibration method based on direct radioactivity measurement for radioactive gas monitoring instruments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshida, Makoto; Ohi, Yoshihiro; Chida, Tohru; Wu, Youyang.

    1993-01-01

    A calibration method for radioactive gas monitoring instruments was studied. In the method, gaseous radioactivity standards were provided on the basis of the direct radioactivity measurement by the diffusion-in long proportional counter method (DLPC method). The radioactivity concentration of the gas mixture through a monitoring instrument was determined by sampling the known volume of the gas mixture into the proportional counter used for the DLPC method. Since oxygen in the gas mixture decreased the counting efficiency in a proportional counter, the influence on calibration was experimentally estimated. It was not serious and able to be easily corrected. By the present method, the relation between radioactivity concentration and ionization current was determined for a gas-flow ionization chamber with 1.5 l effective volume. It showed good agreement with the results in other works. (author)

  7. An alternative method for calibration of narrow band radiometer using a radiative transfer model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salvador, J; Wolfram, E; D' Elia, R [Centro de Investigaciones en Laseres y Aplicaciones, CEILAP (CITEFA-CONICET), Juan B. de La Salle 4397 (B1603ALO), Villa Martelli, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Zamorano, F; Casiccia, C [Laboratorio de Ozono y Radiacion UV, Universidad de Magallanes, Punta Arenas (Chile) (Chile); Rosales, A [Universidad Nacional de la Patagonia San Juan Bosco, UNPSJB, Facultad de Ingenieria, Trelew (Argentina) (Argentina); Quel, E, E-mail: jsalvador@citefa.gov.ar [Universidad Nacional de la Patagonia Austral, Unidad Academica Rio Gallegos Avda. Lisandro de la Torre 1070 ciudad de Rio Gallegos-Sta Cruz (Argentina) (Argentina)

    2011-01-01

    The continual monitoring of solar UV radiation is one of the major objectives proposed by many atmosphere research groups. The purpose of this task is to determine the status and degree of progress over time of the anthropogenic composition perturbation of the atmosphere. Such changes affect the intensity of the UV solar radiation transmitted through the atmosphere that then interacts with living organisms and all materials, causing serious consequences in terms of human health and durability of materials that interact with this radiation. One of the many challenges that need to be faced to perform these measurements correctly is the maintenance of periodic calibrations of these instruments. Otherwise, damage caused by the UV radiation received will render any one calibration useless after the passage of some time. This requirement makes the usage of these instruments unattractive, and the lack of frequent calibration may lead to the loss of large amounts of acquired data. Motivated by this need to maintain calibration or, at least, know the degree of stability of instrumental behavior, we have developed a calibration methodology that uses the potential of radiative transfer models to model solar radiation with 5% accuracy or better relative to actual conditions. Voltage values in each radiometer channel involved in the calibration process are carefully selected from clear sky data. Thus, tables are constructed with voltage values corresponding to various atmospheric conditions for a given solar zenith angle. Then we model with a radiative transfer model using the same conditions as for the measurements to assemble sets of values for each zenith angle. The ratio of each group (measured and modeled) allows us to calculate the calibration coefficient value as a function of zenith angle as well as the cosine response presented by the radiometer. The calibration results obtained by this method were compared with those obtained with a Brewer MKIII SN 80 located in the

  8. A liposome-based size calibration method for measuring microvesicles by flow cytometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Jens Bæk

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Over the last years the need for a gold standard to determine the sizes of extracellular vesicles including microvesicles by flow cytometry has been emphasized. METHODS: This work suggests to use artificial vesicles as calibrators to ascertain the size of microvesicles from the side...

  9. Differential computation method used to calibrate the angle-centroid relationship in coaxial reverse Hartmann test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xinji; Hui, Mei; Zhao, Zhu; Liu, Ming; Dong, Liquan; Kong, Lingqin; Zhao, Yuejin

    2018-05-01

    A differential computation method is presented to improve the precision of calibration for coaxial reverse Hartmann test (RHT). In the calibration, the accuracy of the distance measurement greatly influences the surface shape test, as demonstrated in the mathematical analyses. However, high-precision absolute distance measurement is difficult in the calibration. Thus, a differential computation method that only requires the relative distance was developed. In the proposed method, a liquid crystal display screen successively displayed two regular dot matrix patterns with different dot spacing. In a special case, images on the detector exhibited similar centroid distributions during the reflector translation. Thus, the critical value of the relative displacement distance and the centroid distributions of the dots on the detector were utilized to establish the relationship between the rays at certain angles and the detector coordinates. Experiments revealed the approximately linear behavior of the centroid variation with the relative displacement distance. With the differential computation method, we increased the precision of traditional calibration 10-5 rad root mean square. The precision of the RHT was increased by approximately 100 nm.

  10. A novel single-step, multipoint calibration method for instrumented Lab-on-Chip systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pfreundt, Andrea; Patou, François; Zulfiqar, Azeem

    2014-01-01

    for instrument-based PoC blood biomarker analysis systems. Motivated by the complexity of associating high-accuracy biosensing using silicon nanowire field effect transistors with ease of use for the PoC system user, we propose a novel one-step, multipoint calibration method for LoC-based systems. Our approach...... specifically addresses the important interfaces between a novel microfluidic unit to integrate the sensor array and a mobile-device hardware accessory. A multi-point calibration curve is obtained by generating a defined set of reference concentrations from a single input. By consecutively splitting the flow...

  11. Energy Calibration of the BaBar EMC Using the Pi0 Invariant Mass Method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanner, David J.; /Manchester U.

    2007-04-06

    The BaBar electromagnetic calorimeter energy calibration method was compared with the local and global peak iteration procedures, of Crystal Barrel and CLEO-II. An investigation was made of the possibility of {Upsilon}(4S) background reduction which could lead to increased statistics over a shorter time interval, for efficient calibration runs. The BaBar software package was used with unreconstructed data to study the energy response of the calorimeter, by utilizing the {pi}{sup 0} mass constraint on pairs of photon clusters.

  12. An accurate calibration method of the multileaf collimator valid for conformal and intensity modulated radiation treatments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sastre-Padro, Maria; Heide, Uulke A van der; Welleweerd, Hans [Department of Radiotherapy, University Medical Center Utrecht, Heidelberglaan 100, 3584 CX Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2004-06-21

    Because for IMRT treatments the required accuracy on leaf positioning is high, conventional calibration methods may not be appropriate. The aim of this study was to develop the tools for an accurate MLC calibration valid for conventional and IMRT treatments and to investigate the stability of the MLC. A strip test consisting of nine adjacent segments 2 cm wide, separated by 1 mm and exposed on Kodak X-Omat V films at D{sub max} depth, was used for detecting leaf-positioning errors. Dose profiles along the leaf-axis were taken for each leaf-pair. We measured the dose variation on each abutment to quantify the relative positioning error (RPE) and the absolute position of the abutment to quantify the absolute positioning error (APE). The accuracy of determining the APE and RPE was 0.15 and 0.04 mm, respectively. Using the RPE and the APE the MLC calibration parameters were calculated in order to obtain a flat profile on the abutment at the correct position. A conventionally calibrated Elekta MLC was re-calibrated using the strip test. The stability of the MLC and leaf-positioning reproducibility was investigated exposing films with 25 adjacent segments 1 cm wide during three months and measuring the standard deviation of the RPE values. A maximum shift over the three months of 0.27 mm was observed and the standard deviation of the RPE values was 0.11 mm.

  13. An accurate calibration method of the multileaf collimator valid for conformal and intensity modulated radiation treatments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sastre-Padro, Maria; Heide, Uulke A van der; Welleweerd, Hans

    2004-01-01

    Because for IMRT treatments the required accuracy on leaf positioning is high, conventional calibration methods may not be appropriate. The aim of this study was to develop the tools for an accurate MLC calibration valid for conventional and IMRT treatments and to investigate the stability of the MLC. A strip test consisting of nine adjacent segments 2 cm wide, separated by 1 mm and exposed on Kodak X-Omat V films at D max depth, was used for detecting leaf-positioning errors. Dose profiles along the leaf-axis were taken for each leaf-pair. We measured the dose variation on each abutment to quantify the relative positioning error (RPE) and the absolute position of the abutment to quantify the absolute positioning error (APE). The accuracy of determining the APE and RPE was 0.15 and 0.04 mm, respectively. Using the RPE and the APE the MLC calibration parameters were calculated in order to obtain a flat profile on the abutment at the correct position. A conventionally calibrated Elekta MLC was re-calibrated using the strip test. The stability of the MLC and leaf-positioning reproducibility was investigated exposing films with 25 adjacent segments 1 cm wide during three months and measuring the standard deviation of the RPE values. A maximum shift over the three months of 0.27 mm was observed and the standard deviation of the RPE values was 0.11 mm

  14. A curve fitting method for extrinsic camera calibration from a single image of a cylindrical object

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winkler, A W; Zagar, B G

    2013-01-01

    An important step in the process of optical steel coil quality assurance is to measure the proportions of width and radius of steel coils as well as the relative position and orientation of the camera. This work attempts to estimate these extrinsic parameters from single images by using the cylindrical coil itself as the calibration target. Therefore, an adaptive least-squares algorithm is applied to fit parametrized curves to the detected true coil outline in the acquisition. The employed model allows for strictly separating the intrinsic and the extrinsic parameters. Thus, the intrinsic camera parameters can be calibrated beforehand using available calibration software. Furthermore, a way to segment the true coil outline in the acquired images is motivated. The proposed optimization method yields highly accurate results and can be generalized even to measure other solids which cannot be characterized by the identification of simple geometric primitives. (paper)

  15. A curve fitting method for extrinsic camera calibration from a single image of a cylindrical object

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkler, A. W.; Zagar, B. G.

    2013-08-01

    An important step in the process of optical steel coil quality assurance is to measure the proportions of width and radius of steel coils as well as the relative position and orientation of the camera. This work attempts to estimate these extrinsic parameters from single images by using the cylindrical coil itself as the calibration target. Therefore, an adaptive least-squares algorithm is applied to fit parametrized curves to the detected true coil outline in the acquisition. The employed model allows for strictly separating the intrinsic and the extrinsic parameters. Thus, the intrinsic camera parameters can be calibrated beforehand using available calibration software. Furthermore, a way to segment the true coil outline in the acquired images is motivated. The proposed optimization method yields highly accurate results and can be generalized even to measure other solids which cannot be characterized by the identification of simple geometric primitives.

  16. A method for calibrating coil constants by using the free induction decay of noble gases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linlin Chen

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available We propose a precise method to calibrate the coil constants of spin-precession gyroscopes and optical atomic magnetometers. This method is based on measuring the initial amplitude of Free Induction Decay (FID of noble gases, from which the π/2 pulse duration can be calculated, since it is inversely proportional to the amplitude of the π/2 pulse. Therefore, the coil constants can be calibrated by measuring the π/2 pulse duration. Compared with the method based on the Larmor precession frequency of atoms, our method can avoid the effect of the pump and probe powers. We experimentally validated the method in a Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Gyroscope (NMRG, and the experimental results show that the coil constants are 436.63±0.04 nT/mA and 428.94±0.02 nT/mA in the x and y directions, respectively.

  17. An accurate calibration method for accelerometer nonlinear scale factor on a low-cost three-axis turntable

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pan, Jianye; Zhang, Chunxi; Cai, Qingzhong

    2014-01-01

    Strapdown inertial navigation system (SINS) requirements are very demanding on gyroscopes and accelerometers as well as on calibration. To improve the accuracy of SINS, high-accuracy calibration is needed. Adding the accelerometer nonlinear scale factor into the model and reducing estimation errors is essential for improving calibration methods. In this paper, the inertial navigation error model is simplified, including only velocity and tilt errors. Based on the simplified error model, the relationship between the navigation errors (the rates of change of velocity errors) and the inertial measurement unit (IMU) calibration parameters is presented. A tracking model is designed to estimate the rates of change of velocity errors. With a special calibration procedure consisting of six rotation sequences, the accelerometer nonlinear scale factor errors can be computed by the estimates of the rates of change of velocity errors. Simulation and laboratory test results show that the accelerometer nonlinear scale factor can be calibrated with satisfactory accuracy on a low-cost three-axis turntable in several minutes. The comparison with the traditional calibration method highlights the superior performance of the proposed calibration method without precise orientation control. In addition, the proposed calibration method saves a lot of time in comparison with the multi-position calibration method. (paper)

  18. A PURE NODAL-ANALYSIS METHOD SUITABLE FOR ANALOG CIRCUITS USING NULLORS

    OpenAIRE

    E. Tlelo-Cuautle; L.A. Sarmiento-Reyes

    2003-01-01

    A novel technique suitable for computer-aided analysis of analog integrated circuits (ICs) is introduced. This technique uses the features of both nodal-analysis (NA) and symbolic analysis, at nullor level. First, the nullor is used to model the ideal behavior of several analog devices, namely: transistors, opamps, OTAs, and current conveyors. From this modeling approach, it is shown how to transform circuits working in voltage-mode to current-mode and vice-versa. Second, it is demonstrated t...

  19. Comparatively Studied Color Correction Methods for Color Calibration of Automated Microscopy Complex of Biomedical Specimens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. A. Kravtsova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers a task of generating the requirements and creating a calibration target for automated microscopy systems (AMS of biomedical specimens to provide the invariance of algorithms and software to the hardware configuration. The required number of color fields of the calibration target and their color coordinates are mostly determined by the color correction method, for which coefficients of the equations are estimated during the calibration process. The paper analyses existing color calibration techniques for digital imaging systems using an optical microscope and shows that there is a lack of published results of comparative studies to demonstrate a particular useful color correction method for microscopic images. A comparative study of ten image color correction methods in RGB space using polynomials and combinations of color coordinate of different orders was carried out. The method of conditioned least squares to estimate the coefficients in the color correction equations using captured images of 217 color fields of the calibration target Kodak Q60-E3 was applied. The regularization parameter in this method was chosen experimentally. It was demonstrated that the best color correction quality characteristics are provided by the method that uses a combination of color coordinates of the 3rd order. The study of the influence of the number and the set of color fields included in calibration target on color correction quality for microscopic images was performed. Six train sets containing 30, 35, 40, 50, 60 and 80 color fields, and test set of 47 color fields not included in any of the train sets were formed. It was found out that the train set of 60 color fields minimizes the color correction error values for both operating modes of digital camera: using "default" color settings and with automatic white balance. At the same time it was established that the use of color fields from the widely used now Kodak Q60-E3 target does not

  20. NEW METHOD FOR THE CALIBRATION OF MULTI-CAMERA MOBILE MAPPING SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. P. Kersting

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Mobile Mapping Systems (MMS allow for fast and cost-effective collection of geo-spatial information. Such systems integrate a set of imaging sensors and a position and orientation system (POS, which entails GPS and INS units. System calibration is a crucial process to ensure the attainment of the expected accuracy of such systems. It involves the calibration of the individual sensors as well as the calibration of the mounting parameters relating the system components. The mounting parameters of multi-camera MMS include two sets of relative orientation parameters (ROP: the lever arm offsets and the boresight angles relating the cameras and the IMU body frame and the ROP among the cameras (in the absence of GPS/INS data. In this paper, a novel single-step calibration method, which has the ability of estimating these two sets of ROP, is devised. Besides the ability to estimate the ROP among the cameras, the proposed method can use such parameters as prior information in the ISO procedure. The implemented procedure consists of an integrated sensor orientation (ISO where the GPS/INS-derived position and orientation and the system mounting parameters are directly incorporated in the collinearity equations. The concept of modified collinearity equations has been used by few authors for single-camera systems. In this paper, a new modification to the collinearity equations for GPS/INS-assisted multicamera systems is introduced. Experimental results using a real dataset demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed method.

  1. Calibration of DEM parameters on shear test experiments using Kriging method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xavier, Bednarek; Sylvain, Martin; Abibatou, Ndiaye; Véronique, Peres; Olivier, Bonnefoy

    2017-06-01

    Calibration of powder mixing simulation using Discrete-Element-Method is still an issue. Achieving good agreement with experimental results is difficult because time-efficient use of DEM involves strong assumptions. This work presents a methodology to calibrate DEM parameters using Efficient Global Optimization (EGO) algorithm based on Kriging interpolation method. Classical shear test experiments are used as calibration experiments. The calibration is made on two parameters - Young modulus and friction coefficient. The determination of the minimal number of grains that has to be used is a critical step. Simulations of a too small amount of grains would indeed not represent the realistic behavior of powder when using huge amout of grains will be strongly time consuming. The optimization goal is the minimization of the objective function which is the distance between simulated and measured behaviors. The EGO algorithm uses the maximization of the Expected Improvement criterion to find next point that has to be simulated. This stochastic criterion handles with the two interpolations made by the Kriging method : prediction of the objective function and estimation of the error made. It is thus able to quantify the improvement in the minimization that new simulations at specified DEM parameters would lead to.

  2. New Method for the Calibration of Multi-Camera Mobile Mapping Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kersting, A. P.; Habib, A.; Rau, J.

    2012-07-01

    Mobile Mapping Systems (MMS) allow for fast and cost-effective collection of geo-spatial information. Such systems integrate a set of imaging sensors and a position and orientation system (POS), which entails GPS and INS units. System calibration is a crucial process to ensure the attainment of the expected accuracy of such systems. It involves the calibration of the individual sensors as well as the calibration of the mounting parameters relating the system components. The mounting parameters of multi-camera MMS include two sets of relative orientation parameters (ROP): the lever arm offsets and the boresight angles relating the cameras and the IMU body frame and the ROP among the cameras (in the absence of GPS/INS data). In this paper, a novel single-step calibration method, which has the ability of estimating these two sets of ROP, is devised. Besides the ability to estimate the ROP among the cameras, the proposed method can use such parameters as prior information in the ISO procedure. The implemented procedure consists of an integrated sensor orientation (ISO) where the GPS/INS-derived position and orientation and the system mounting parameters are directly incorporated in the collinearity equations. The concept of modified collinearity equations has been used by few authors for single-camera systems. In this paper, a new modification to the collinearity equations for GPS/INS-assisted multicamera systems is introduced. Experimental results using a real dataset demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed method.

  3. Research on a high-precision calibration method for tunable lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Na; Li, Zhengying; Gui, Xin; Wang, Fan; Hou, Yarong; Wang, Honghai

    2018-03-01

    Tunable lasers are widely used in the field of optical fiber sensing, but nonlinear tuning exists even for zero external disturbance and limits the accuracy of the demodulation. In this paper, a high-precision calibration method for tunable lasers is proposed. A comb filter is introduced and the real-time output wavelength and scanning rate of the laser are calibrated by linear fitting several time-frequency reference points obtained from it, while the beat signal generated by the auxiliary interferometer is interpolated and frequency multiplied to find more accurate zero crossing points, with these points being used as wavelength counters to resample the comb signal to correct the nonlinear effect, which ensures that the time-frequency reference points of the comb filter are linear. A stability experiment and a strain sensing experiment verify the calibration precision of this method. The experimental result shows that the stability and wavelength resolution of the FBG demodulation can reach 0.088 pm and 0.030 pm, respectively, using a tunable laser calibrated by the proposed method. We have also compared the demodulation accuracy in the presence or absence of the comb filter, with the result showing that the introduction of the comb filter results to a 15-fold wavelength resolution enhancement.

  4. Standard test method for calibration of surface/stress measuring devices

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    1997-01-01

    Return to Contents page 1.1 This test method covers calibration or verification of calibration, or both, of surface-stress measuring devices used to measure stress in annealed and heat-strengthened or tempered glass using polariscopic or refractometry based principles. 1.2 This test method is nondestructive. 1.3 This test method uses transmitted light, and therefore, is applicable to light-transmitting glasses. 1.4 This test method is not applicable to chemically tempered glass. 1.5 Using the procedure described, surface stresses can be measured only on the “tin” side of float glass. 1.6 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

  5. A new detection method used to calibrate Fabry-Perot interferometers in the infrared range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Talvard, M.; Javon, C.; Garcin, M.; Thouvenin, D.

    1993-06-01

    Fabry-Perot interferometers are routinely used in the Tore Supra Tokamak in order to measure the time evolution of the electron temperature of the confined plasmas. Calibration of such interferometers requires the detection of very low DC levels (0.1 nV) with signal-to-noise ratios less than 10 -5 , which is generally not compatible with standard detection methods. A new correlation method to achieve this absolute calibration is proposed. It is based on a proper noise auto-correlation technique combined with an optimized signal filtering involving Fourier analysis. The advantages of the method are detailed and experimentally compared to standard averaging techniques, such as coherent addition and synchronous detection. The method can be used in a more general context every time very small amplitude signals are to be measured

  6. Error Analysis and Calibration Method of a Multiple Field-of-View Navigation System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Shuai; Zhao, Kaichun; You, Zheng; Ouyang, Chenguang; Cao, Yongkui; Wang, Zhenzhou

    2017-03-22

    The Multiple Field-of-view Navigation System (MFNS) is a spacecraft subsystem built to realize the autonomous navigation of the Spacecraft Inside Tiangong Space Station. This paper introduces the basics of the MFNS, including its architecture, mathematical model and analysis, and numerical simulation of system errors. According to the performance requirement of the MFNS, the calibration of both intrinsic and extrinsic parameters of the system is assumed to be essential and pivotal. Hence, a novel method based on the geometrical constraints in object space, called checkerboard-fixed post-processing calibration (CPC), is proposed to solve the problem of simultaneously obtaining the intrinsic parameters of the cameras integrated in the MFNS and the transformation between the MFNS coordinate and the cameras' coordinates. This method utilizes a two-axis turntable and a prior alignment of the coordinates is needed. Theoretical derivation and practical operation of the CPC method are introduced. The calibration experiment results of the MFNS indicate that the extrinsic parameter accuracy of the CPC reaches 0.1° for each Euler angle and 0.6 mm for each position vector component (1σ). A navigation experiment verifies the calibration result and the performance of the MFNS. The MFNS is found to work properly, and the accuracy of the position vector components and Euler angle reaches 1.82 mm and 0.17° (1σ) respectively. The basic mechanism of the MFNS may be utilized as a reference for the design and analysis of multiple-camera systems. Moreover, the calibration method proposed has practical value for its convenience for use and potential for integration into a toolkit.

  7. Least square methods and covariance matrix applied to the relative efficiency calibration of a Ge(Li) detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geraldo, L.P.; Smith, D.L.

    1989-01-01

    The methodology of covariance matrix and square methods have been applied in the relative efficiency calibration for a Ge(Li) detector apllied in the relative efficiency calibration for a Ge(Li) detector. Procedures employed to generate, manipulate and test covariance matrices which serve to properly represent uncertainties of experimental data are discussed. Calibration data fitting using least square methods has been performed for a particular experimental data set. (author) [pt

  8. Comparison of different methods for liquid level adjustment in tank prover calibration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia, D A; Farias, E C; Gabriel, P C; Aquino, M H; Gomes, R S E; Aibe, V Y

    2015-01-01

    The adjustment of the liquid level during the calibration of tank provers with fixed volume is normally done by overfill but it can be done in different ways. In this article four level adjustment techniques are compared: plate, pipette, ruler and overfill adjustment. The adjustment methods using plate and pipette presented good agreement with the tank's nominal volume and lower uncertainty among the tested methods

  9. A fully Bayesian method for jointly fitting instrumental calibration and X-ray spectral models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Jin; Yu, Yaming; Van Dyk, David A.; Kashyap, Vinay L.; Siemiginowska, Aneta; Drake, Jeremy; Ratzlaff, Pete; Connors, Alanna; Meng, Xiao-Li

    2014-01-01

    Owing to a lack of robust principled methods, systematic instrumental uncertainties have generally been ignored in astrophysical data analysis despite wide recognition of the importance of including them. Ignoring calibration uncertainty can cause bias in the estimation of source model parameters and can lead to underestimation of the variance of these estimates. We previously introduced a pragmatic Bayesian method to address this problem. The method is 'pragmatic' in that it introduced an ad hoc technique that simplified computation by neglecting the potential information in the data for narrowing the uncertainty for the calibration product. Following that work, we use a principal component analysis to efficiently represent the uncertainty of the effective area of an X-ray (or γ-ray) telescope. Here, however, we leverage this representation to enable a principled, fully Bayesian method that coherently accounts for the calibration uncertainty in high-energy spectral analysis. In this setting, the method is compared with standard analysis techniques and the pragmatic Bayesian method. The advantage of the fully Bayesian method is that it allows the data to provide information not only for estimation of the source parameters but also for the calibration product—here the effective area, conditional on the adopted spectral model. In this way, it can yield more accurate and efficient estimates of the source parameters along with valid estimates of their uncertainty. Provided that the source spectrum can be accurately described by a parameterized model, this method allows rigorous inference about the effective area by quantifying which possible curves are most consistent with the data.

  10. CREPT-MCNP code for efficiency calibration of HPGe detectors with the representative point method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saegusa, Jun

    2008-01-01

    The representative point method for the efficiency calibration of volume samples has been previously proposed. For smoothly implementing the method, a calculation code named CREPT-MCNP has been developed. The code estimates the position of a representative point which is intrinsic to each shape of volume sample. The self-absorption correction factors are also given to make correction on the efficiencies measured at the representative point with a standard point source. Features of the CREPT-MCNP code are presented.

  11. Development and evaluation of a method of calibrating medical displays based on fixed adaptation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sund, Patrik, E-mail: patrik.sund@vgregion.se; Månsson, Lars Gunnar; Båth, Magnus [Department of Medical Physics and Biomedical Engineering, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Gothenburg SE-41345, Sweden and Department of Radiation Physics, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg SE-41345 (Sweden)

    2015-04-15

    Purpose: The purpose of this work was to develop and evaluate a new method for calibration of medical displays that includes the effect of fixed adaptation and by using equipment and luminance levels typical for a modern radiology department. Methods: Low contrast sinusoidal test patterns were derived at nine luminance levels from 2 to 600 cd/m{sup 2} and used in a two alternative forced choice observer study, where the adaptation level was fixed at the logarithmic average of 35 cd/m{sup 2}. The contrast sensitivity at each luminance level was derived by establishing a linear relationship between the ten pattern contrast levels used at every luminance level and a detectability index (d′) calculated from the fraction of correct responses. A Gaussian function was fitted to the data and normalized to the adaptation level. The corresponding equation was used in a display calibration method that included the grayscale standard display function (GSDF) but compensated for fixed adaptation. In the evaluation study, the contrast of circular objects with a fixed pixel contrast was displayed using both calibration methods and was rated on a five-grade scale. Results were calculated using a visual grading characteristics method. Error estimations in both observer studies were derived using a bootstrap method. Results: The contrast sensitivities for the darkest and brightest patterns compared to the contrast sensitivity at the adaptation luminance were 37% and 56%, respectively. The obtained Gaussian fit corresponded well with similar studies. The evaluation study showed a higher degree of equally distributed contrast throughout the luminance range with the calibration method compensated for fixed adaptation than for the GSDF. The two lowest scores for the GSDF were obtained for the darkest and brightest patterns. These scores were significantly lower than the lowest score obtained for the compensated GSDF. For the GSDF, the scores for all luminance levels were statistically

  12. A calibration method for proposed XRF measurements of arsenic and selenium in nail clippings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gherase, Mihai R; Fleming, David E B

    2011-01-01

    A calibration method for proposed x-ray fluorescence (XRF) measurements of arsenic and selenium in nail clippings is demonstrated. Phantom nail clippings were produced from a whole nail phantom (0.7 mm thickness, 25 x 25 mm 2 area) and contained equal concentrations of arsenic and selenium ranging from 0 to 20 μg g -1 in increments of 5 μg g -1 . The phantom nail clippings were then grouped in samples of five different masses: 20, 40, 60, 80 and 100 mg for each concentration. Experimental x-ray spectra were acquired for each of the sample masses using a portable x-ray tube and a detector unit. Calibration lines (XRF signal in a number of counts versus stoichiometric elemental concentration) were produced for each of the two elements. A semi-empirical relationship between the mass of the nail phantoms (m) and the slope of the calibration line (s) was determined separately for arsenic and selenium. Using this calibration method, one can estimate elemental concentrations and their uncertainties from the XRF spectra of human nail clippings. (note)

  13. Hybrid PSO-ASVR-based method for data fitting in the calibration of infrared radiometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Sen; Li, Chengwei, E-mail: heikuanghit@163.com [School of Electrical Engineering and Automation, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China)

    2016-06-15

    The present paper describes a hybrid particle swarm optimization-adaptive support vector regression (PSO-ASVR)-based method for data fitting in the calibration of infrared radiometer. The proposed hybrid PSO-ASVR-based method is based on PSO in combination with Adaptive Processing and Support Vector Regression (SVR). The optimization technique involves setting parameters in the ASVR fitting procedure, which significantly improves the fitting accuracy. However, its use in the calibration of infrared radiometer has not yet been widely explored. Bearing this in mind, the PSO-ASVR-based method, which is based on the statistical learning theory, is successfully used here to get the relationship between the radiation of a standard source and the response of an infrared radiometer. Main advantages of this method are the flexible adjustment mechanism in data processing and the optimization mechanism in a kernel parameter setting of SVR. Numerical examples and applications to the calibration of infrared radiometer are performed to verify the performance of PSO-ASVR-based method compared to conventional data fitting methods.

  14. Computer aided method for colour calibration and analysis of digital rock photographs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matic Potočnik

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The methods used in geology to determine colour and colour coverage are expensive, time consuming, and/ or subjective. Estimates of colour coverage can only be approximate since they are based on rough comparisonbased measuring etalons and subjective estimation, which is dependent upon the skill and experience of the person performing the estimation. We present a method which accelerates, simplifis, and objectifis these tasks using a computer application. It automatically calibrates the colours of a digital photo, and enables the user to read colour values and coverage, even after returning from fild work. Colour identifiation is based on the Munsell colour system. For the purposes of colour calibration we use the X-Rite ColorChecker Passport colour chart placed onto the photographed scene. Our computer application detects the ColorChecker colour chart, and fids a colour space transformation to calibrate the colour in the photo. The user can then use the application to read colours within selected points or regions of the photo. The results of the computerised colour calibration were compared to the reference values of the ColorChecker chart. The values slightly deviate from the exact values, but the deviation is around the limit of human capability for visual comparison. We have devised an experiment, which compares the precision of the computerised colour analysis and manual colour analysis performed on a variety of rock samples with the help of geology students using Munsell Rock-color Chart. The analysis showed that the precision of manual comparative identifiation on multicoloured samples is somewhat problematic, since the choice of representative colours and observation points for a certain part of a sample are subjective. The computer based method has the edge in verifibility and repeatability of the analysis since the application the original photo to be saved with colour calibration, and tagging of colouranalysed points and regions.

  15. Comparing Single-Point and Multi-point Calibration Methods in Modulated DSC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Buskirk, Caleb Griffith [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-06-14

    Heat capacity measurements for High Density Polyethylene (HDPE) and Ultra-high Molecular Weight Polyethylene (UHMWPE) were performed using Modulated Differential Scanning Calorimetry (mDSC) over a wide temperature range, -70 to 115 °C, with a TA Instruments Q2000 mDSC. The default calibration method for this instrument involves measuring the heat capacity of a sapphire standard at a single temperature near the middle of the temperature range of interest. However, this method often fails for temperature ranges that exceed a 50 °C interval, likely because of drift or non-linearity in the instrument's heat capacity readings over time or over the temperature range. Therefore, in this study a method was developed to calibrate the instrument using multiple temperatures and the same sapphire standard.

  16. Medical color displays and their color calibration: investigations of various calibration methods, tools, and potential improvement in color difference ΔE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roehrig, Hans; Hashmi, Syed F.; Dallas, William J.; Krupinski, Elizabeth A.; Rehm, Kelly; Fan, Jiahua

    2010-08-01

    Our laboratory has investigated the efficacy of a suite of color calibration and monitor profiling packages which employ a variety of color measurement sensors. Each of the methods computes gamma correction tables for the red, green and blue color channels of a monitor that attempt to: a) match a desired luminance range and tone reproduction curve; and b) maintain a target neutral point across the range of grey values. All of the methods examined here produce International Color Consortium (ICC) profiles that describe the color rendering capabilities of the monitor after calibration. Color profiles incorporate a transfer matrix that establishes the relationship between RGB driving levels and the International Commission on Illumination (CIE) XYZ (tristimulus) values of the resulting on-screen color; the matrix is developed by displaying color patches of known RGB values on the monitor and measuring the tristimulus values with a sensor. The number and chromatic distribution of color patches varies across methods and is usually not under user control. In this work we examine the effect of employing differing calibration and profiling methods on rendition of color images. A series of color patches encoded in sRGB color space were presented on the monitor using color-management software that utilized the ICC profile produced by each method. The patches were displayed on the calibrated monitor and measured with a Minolta CS200 colorimeter. Differences in intended and achieved luminance and chromaticity were computed using the CIE DE2000 color-difference metric, in which a value of ΔE = 1 is generally considered to be approximately one just noticeable difference (JND) in color. We observed between one and 17 JND's for individual colors, depending on calibration method and target. As an extension of this fundamental work1, we further improved our calibration method by defining concrete calibration parameters for the display, using the NEC wide gamut puck, and making sure

  17. A Comparative Investigation of the Combined Effects of Pre-Processing, Wavelength Selection, and Regression Methods on Near-Infrared Calibration Model Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Jian; Chen, Yi-Chieh; Morris, A Julian; Thennadil, Suresh N

    2017-07-01

    Near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy is being widely used in various fields ranging from pharmaceutics to the food industry for analyzing chemical and physical properties of the substances concerned. Its advantages over other analytical techniques include available physical interpretation of spectral data, nondestructive nature and high speed of measurements, and little or no need for sample preparation. The successful application of NIR spectroscopy relies on three main aspects: pre-processing of spectral data to eliminate nonlinear variations due to temperature, light scattering effects and many others, selection of those wavelengths that contribute useful information, and identification of suitable calibration models using linear/nonlinear regression . Several methods have been developed for each of these three aspects and many comparative studies of different methods exist for an individual aspect or some combinations. However, there is still a lack of comparative studies for the interactions among these three aspects, which can shed light on what role each aspect plays in the calibration and how to combine various methods of each aspect together to obtain the best calibration model. This paper aims to provide such a comparative study based on four benchmark data sets using three typical pre-processing methods, namely, orthogonal signal correction (OSC), extended multiplicative signal correction (EMSC) and optical path-length estimation and correction (OPLEC); two existing wavelength selection methods, namely, stepwise forward selection (SFS) and genetic algorithm optimization combined with partial least squares regression for spectral data (GAPLSSP); four popular regression methods, namely, partial least squares (PLS), least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (LASSO), least squares support vector machine (LS-SVM), and Gaussian process regression (GPR). The comparative study indicates that, in general, pre-processing of spectral data can play a significant

  18. Importance of Calibration Method in Central Blood Pressure for Cardiac Structural Abnormalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negishi, Kazuaki; Yang, Hong; Wang, Ying; Nolan, Mark T; Negishi, Tomoko; Pathan, Faraz; Marwick, Thomas H; Sharman, James E

    2016-09-01

    Central blood pressure (CBP) independently predicts cardiovascular risk, but calibration methods may affect accuracy of central systolic blood pressure (CSBP). Standard central systolic blood pressure (Stan-CSBP) from peripheral waveforms is usually derived with calibration using brachial SBP and diastolic BP (DBP). However, calibration using oscillometric mean arterial pressure (MAP) and DBP (MAP-CSBP) is purported to provide more accurate representation of true invasive CSBP. This study sought to determine which derived CSBP could more accurately discriminate cardiac structural abnormalities. A total of 349 community-based patients with risk factors (71±5years, 161 males) had CSBP measured by brachial oscillometry (Mobil-O-Graph, IEM GmbH, Stolberg, Germany) using 2 calibration methods: MAP-CSBP and Stan-CSBP. Left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) and left atrial dilatation (LAD) were measured based on standard guidelines. MAP-CSBP was higher than Stan-CSBP (149±20 vs. 128±15mm Hg, P curve analyses, MAP-CSBP significantly better discriminated LVH compared with Stan-CSBP (area under the curve (AUC) 0.66 vs. 0.59, P = 0.0063) and brachial SBP (0.62, P = 0.027). Continuous net reclassification improvement (NRI) (P AUC 0.63 vs. 0.56, P = 0.005) and conventional brachial SBP (0.58, P = 0.006), whereas Stan-CSBP provided no better discrimination than conventional brachial BP (P = 0.09). CSBP is calibration dependent and when oscillometric MAP and DBP are used, the derived CSBP is a better discriminator for cardiac structural abnormalities. © American Journal of Hypertension, Ltd 2016. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Method for assessment of the technical potential of the plant agricultural waste suitable for energy purposes in Bulgaria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Georgiev, V.

    2004-01-01

    A method for assessment of technical potential of quantitatively important plant agriculture waste; straw from wheat and barley; corn stalks; sunflower stalks and heads; tobacco stalks; orchard prunings and vineyard prunings suitable for energy purposes for Bulgarian conditions is developed. Data for assessment of the technical potential for 2002 using this method are presented. A comparison between technical potential of mentioned wastes, final energy consumption in agriculture and all branches of Bulgarian economy for 2002 is made. (author)

  20. An Improved Calibration Method for a Rotating 2D LIDAR System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yadan Zeng

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an improved calibration method of a rotating two-dimensional light detection and ranging (R2D-LIDAR system, which can obtain the 3D scanning map of the surroundings. The proposed R2D-LIDAR system, composed of a 2D LIDAR and a rotating unit, is pervasively used in the field of robotics owing to its low cost and dense scanning data. Nevertheless, the R2D-LIDAR system must be calibrated before building the geometric model because there are assembled deviation and abrasion between the 2D LIDAR and the rotating unit. Hence, the calibration procedures should contain both the adjustment between the two devices and the bias of 2D LIDAR itself. The main purpose of this work is to resolve the 2D LIDAR bias issue with a flat plane based on the Levenberg–Marquardt (LM algorithm. Experimental results for the calibration of the R2D-LIDAR system prove the reliability of this strategy to accurately estimate sensor offsets with the error range from −15 mm to 15 mm for the performance of capturing scans.

  1. An Improved Calibration Method for a Rotating 2D LIDAR System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Yadan; Yu, Heng; Dai, Houde; Song, Shuang; Lin, Mingqiang; Sun, Bo; Jiang, Wei; Meng, Max Q-H

    2018-02-07

    This paper presents an improved calibration method of a rotating two-dimensional light detection and ranging (R2D-LIDAR) system, which can obtain the 3D scanning map of the surroundings. The proposed R2D-LIDAR system, composed of a 2D LIDAR and a rotating unit, is pervasively used in the field of robotics owing to its low cost and dense scanning data. Nevertheless, the R2D-LIDAR system must be calibrated before building the geometric model because there are assembled deviation and abrasion between the 2D LIDAR and the rotating unit. Hence, the calibration procedures should contain both the adjustment between the two devices and the bias of 2D LIDAR itself. The main purpose of this work is to resolve the 2D LIDAR bias issue with a flat plane based on the Levenberg-Marquardt (LM) algorithm. Experimental results for the calibration of the R2D-LIDAR system prove the reliability of this strategy to accurately estimate sensor offsets with the error range from -15 mm to 15 mm for the performance of capturing scans.

  2. Optical Calibration Process Developed for Neural-Network-Based Optical Nondestructive Evaluation Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decker, Arthur J.

    2004-01-01

    A completely optical calibration process has been developed at Glenn for calibrating a neural-network-based nondestructive evaluation (NDE) method. The NDE method itself detects very small changes in the characteristic patterns or vibration mode shapes of vibrating structures as discussed in many references. The mode shapes or characteristic patterns are recorded using television or electronic holography and change when a structure experiences, for example, cracking, debonds, or variations in fastener properties. An artificial neural network can be trained to be very sensitive to changes in the mode shapes, but quantifying or calibrating that sensitivity in a consistent, meaningful, and deliverable manner has been challenging. The standard calibration approach has been difficult to implement, where the response to damage of the trained neural network is compared with the responses of vibration-measurement sensors. In particular, the vibration-measurement sensors are intrusive, insufficiently sensitive, and not numerous enough. In response to these difficulties, a completely optical alternative to the standard calibration approach was proposed and tested successfully. Specifically, the vibration mode to be monitored for structural damage was intentionally contaminated with known amounts of another mode, and the response of the trained neural network was measured as a function of the peak-to-peak amplitude of the contaminating mode. The neural network calibration technique essentially uses the vibration mode shapes of the undamaged structure as standards against which the changed mode shapes are compared. The published response of the network can be made nearly independent of the contaminating mode, if enough vibration modes are used to train the net. The sensitivity of the neural network can be adjusted for the environment in which the test is to be conducted. The response of a neural network trained with measured vibration patterns for use on a vibration isolation

  3. A global calibration method for multiple vision sensors based on multiple targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Zhen; Zhang, Guangjun; Wei, Zhenzhong; Sun, Junhua

    2011-01-01

    The global calibration of multiple vision sensors (MVS) has been widely studied in the last two decades. In this paper, we present a global calibration method for MVS with non-overlapping fields of view (FOVs) using multiple targets (MT). MT is constructed by fixing several targets, called sub-targets, together. The mutual coordinate transformations between sub-targets need not be known. The main procedures of the proposed method are as follows: one vision sensor is selected from MVS to establish the global coordinate frame (GCF). MT is placed in front of the vision sensors for several (at least four) times. Using the constraint that the relative positions of all sub-targets are invariant, the transformation matrix from the coordinate frame of each vision sensor to GCF can be solved. Both synthetic and real experiments are carried out and good result is obtained. The proposed method has been applied to several real measurement systems and shown to be both flexible and accurate. It can serve as an attractive alternative to existing global calibration methods

  4. Calibration of ultra-high frequency (UHF) partial discharge sensors using FDTD method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishak, Asnor Mazuan; Ishak, Mohd Taufiq

    2018-02-01

    Ultra-high frequency (UHF) partial discharge sensors are widely used for conditioning monitoring and defect location in insulation system of high voltage equipment. Designing sensors for specific applications often requires an iterative process of manufacturing, testing and mechanical modifications. This paper demonstrates the use of finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) technique as a tool to predict the frequency response of UHF PD sensors. Using this approach, the design process can be simplified and parametric studies can be conducted in order to assess the influence of component dimensions and material properties on the sensor response. The modelling approach is validated using gigahertz transverse electromagnetic (GTEM) calibration system. The use of a transient excitation source is particularly suitable for modeling using FDTD, which is able to simulate the step response output voltage of the sensor from which the frequency response is obtained using the same post-processing applied to the physical measurement.

  5. Generic precise augmented reality guiding system and its calibration method based on 3D virtual model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Miao; Yang, Shourui; Wang, Zhangying; Huang, Shujun; Liu, Yue; Niu, Zhenqi; Zhang, Xiaoxuan; Zhu, Jigui; Zhang, Zonghua

    2016-05-30

    Augmented reality system can be applied to provide precise guidance for various kinds of manual works. The adaptability and guiding accuracy of such systems are decided by the computational model and the corresponding calibration method. In this paper, a novel type of augmented reality guiding system and the corresponding designing scheme are proposed. Guided by external positioning equipment, the proposed system can achieve high relative indication accuracy in a large working space. Meanwhile, the proposed system is realized with a digital projector and the general back projection model is derived with geometry relationship between digitized 3D model and the projector in free space. The corresponding calibration method is also designed for the proposed system to obtain the parameters of projector. To validate the proposed back projection model, the coordinate data collected by a 3D positioning equipment is used to calculate and optimize the extrinsic parameters. The final projecting indication accuracy of the system is verified with subpixel pattern projecting technique.

  6. Choosing Learning Methods Suitable for Teaching and Learning in Computer Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Estelle; Breed, Marnus; Hauman, Ilette; Homann, Armando

    2013-01-01

    Our aim is to determine which teaching methods students in Computer Science and Information Systems prefer. There are in total 5 different paradigms (behaviorism, cognitivism, constructivism, design-based and humanism) with 32 models between them. Each model is unique and states different learning methods. Recommendations are made on methods that…

  7. The regression-calibration method for fitting generalized linear models with additive measurement error

    OpenAIRE

    James W. Hardin; Henrik Schmeidiche; Raymond J. Carroll

    2003-01-01

    This paper discusses and illustrates the method of regression calibration. This is a straightforward technique for fitting models with additive measurement error. We present this discussion in terms of generalized linear models (GLMs) following the notation defined in Hardin and Carroll (2003). Discussion will include specified measurement error, measurement error estimated by replicate error-prone proxies, and measurement error estimated by instrumental variables. The discussion focuses on s...

  8. Jaws calibration method to get a homogeneous distribution of dose in the junction of hemi fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cenizo de Castro, E.; Garcia Pareja, S.; Moreno Saiz, C.; Hernandez Rodriguez, R.; Bodineau Gil, C.; Martin-Viera Cueto, J. A.

    2011-01-01

    Hemi fields treatments are widely used in radiotherapy. Because the tolerance established for the positioning of each jaw is 1 mm, may be cases of overlap or separation of up to 2 mm. This implies heterogeneity of doses up to 40% in the joint area. This paper presents an accurate method of calibration of the jaws so as to obtain homogeneous dose distributions when using this type of treatment. (Author)

  9. Selection of a suitable method for the preparation of polymeric nanoparticles: multi-criteria decision making approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnamoorthy, Kannan; Mahalingam, Manikandan

    2015-03-01

    The present study is aimed to select the suitable method for preparation of camptothecin loaded polymeric nanoparticles by utilizing the multi-criteria decision making method. Novel approaches of drug delivery by formulation using nanotechnology are revolutionizing the future of medicine. Recent years have witnessed unprecedented growth of research and application in the area of nanotechnology. Nanoparticles have become an important area of research in the field of drug delivery because they have the ability to deliver a wide range of drug to varying areas of body. Despite of extensive research and development, polymeric nanoparticles are frequently used to improve the therapeutic effect of drugs. A number of techniques are available for the preparation of polymeric nanoparticles. The Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) is a method for decision making, which are derived from individual judgements for qualitative factors, using the pair-wise comparison matrix. In AHP, a decision hierarchy is constructed with a goal, criteria and alternatives. The model uses three main criteria 1) Instrument, 2) Process and Output and 3) Cost. In addition, there are eight sub-criteria's as well as eight alternatives. Pair-wise comparison matrixes are used to obtain the overall priority weight and ranking for the selection of suitable method. Nanoprecipitation technique is the most suitable method for the preparation of camptothecin loaded polymeric nanoparticles with the highest overall priority weight of 0.297 CONCLUSION: In particular, the result indicates that the priority weights obtained from AHP could be defined as a multiple output for finding out the most suitable method for preparation of camptothecin loaded polymeric nanoparticles.

  10. A Vision-Based Self-Calibration Method for Robotic Visual Inspection Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Shibin; Ren, Yongjie; Zhu, Jigui; Yang, Shourui; Ye, Shenghua

    2013-01-01

    A vision-based robot self-calibration method is proposed in this paper to evaluate the kinematic parameter errors of a robot using a visual sensor mounted on its end-effector. This approach could be performed in the industrial field without external, expensive apparatus or an elaborate setup. A robot Tool Center Point (TCP) is defined in the structural model of a line-structured laser sensor, and aligned to a reference point fixed in the robot workspace. A mathematical model is established to formulate the misalignment errors with kinematic parameter errors and TCP position errors. Based on the fixed point constraints, the kinematic parameter errors and TCP position errors are identified with an iterative algorithm. Compared to the conventional methods, this proposed method eliminates the need for a robot-based-frame and hand-to-eye calibrations, shortens the error propagation chain, and makes the calibration process more accurate and convenient. A validation experiment is performed on an ABB IRB2400 robot. An optimal configuration on the number and distribution of fixed points in the robot workspace is obtained based on the experimental results. Comparative experiments reveal that there is a significant improvement of the measuring accuracy of the robotic visual inspection system. PMID:24300597

  11. The EURADOS-KIT training course on Monte Carlo methods for the calibration of body counters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breustedt, B.; Broggio, D.; Gomez-Ros, J.M.; Lopez, M.A.; Leone, D.; Poelz, S.; Marzocchi, O.; Shutt, A.

    2016-01-01

    Monte Carlo (MC) methods are numerical simulation techniques that can be used to extend the scope of calibrations performed in in vivo monitoring laboratories. These methods allow calibrations to be carried out for a much wider range of body shapes and sizes than would be feasible using physical phantoms. Unfortunately, nowadays, this powerful technique is still used mainly in research institutions only. In 2013, EURADOS and the in vivo monitoring laboratory of Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT) organized a 3-d training course to disseminate knowledge on the application of MC methods for in vivo monitoring. It was intended as a hands-on course centered around an exercise which guided the participants step by step through the calibration process using a simplified version of KIT's equipment. Only introductory lectures on in vivo monitoring and voxel models were given. The course was based on MC codes of the MCNP family, widespread in the community. The strong involvement of the participants and the working atmosphere in the classroom as well as the formal evaluation of the course showed that the approach chosen was appropriate. Participants liked the hands-on approach and the extensive course materials on the exercise. (authors)

  12. A landmark-based method for the geometrical 3D calibration of scanning microscopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ritter, M.

    2007-04-27

    This thesis presents a new strategy and a spatial method for the geometric calibration of 3D measurement devices at the micro-range, based on spatial reference structures with nanometersized landmarks (nanomarkers). The new method was successfully applied for the 3D calibration of scanning probe microscopes (SPM) and confocal laser scanning microscopes (CLSM). Moreover, the spatial method was also used for the photogrammetric self-calibration of scanning electron microscopes (SEM). In order to implement the calibration strategy to all scanning microscopes used, the landmark-based principle of reference points often applied at land survey or at close-range applications has been transferred to the nano- and micro-range in the form of nanomarker. In order to function as a support to the nanomarkers, slope-shaped step pyramids have been developed and fabricated by focused ion beam (FIB) induced metal deposition. These FIB produced 3D microstructures have been sized to embrace most of the measurement volume of the scanning microscopes. Additionally, their special design allows the homogenous distribution of the nanomarkers. The nanomarkers were applied onto the support and the plateaus of the slope-step pyramids by FIB etching (milling) as landmarks with as little as several hundreds of nanometers in diameter. The nanomarkers are either of point-, or ring-shaped design. They are optimized so that they can be spatially measured by SPM and CLSM, and, imaged and photogrammetrically analyzed on the basis of SEM data. The centre of the each nanomarker serves as reference point in the measurement data or images. By applying image processing routines, the image (2D) or object (3D) coordinates of each nanomarker has been determined with subpixel accuracy. The correlative analysis of the SPM, CLSM and photogrammetric SEM measurement data after 3D calibration resulted in mean residues in the measured coordinates of as little as 13 nm. Without the coupling factors the mean

  13. High-accuracy self-calibration method for dual-axis rotation-modulating RLG-INS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Guo; Gao, Chunfeng; Wang, Qi; Wang, Qun; Long, Xingwu

    2017-05-01

    Inertial navigation system has been the core component of both military and civil navigation systems. Dual-axis rotation modulation can completely eliminate the inertial elements constant errors of the three axes to improve the system accuracy. But the error caused by the misalignment angles and the scale factor error cannot be eliminated through dual-axis rotation modulation. And discrete calibration method cannot fulfill requirements of high-accurate calibration of the mechanically dithered ring laser gyroscope navigation system with shock absorbers. This paper has analyzed the effect of calibration error during one modulated period and presented a new systematic self-calibration method for dual-axis rotation-modulating RLG-INS. Procedure for self-calibration of dual-axis rotation-modulating RLG-INS has been designed. The results of self-calibration simulation experiment proved that: this scheme can estimate all the errors in the calibration error model, the calibration precision of the inertial sensors scale factor error is less than 1ppm and the misalignment is less than 5″. These results have validated the systematic self-calibration method and proved its importance for accuracy improvement of dual -axis rotation inertial navigation system with mechanically dithered ring laser gyroscope.

  14. Comparison of the methods for determination of calibration and verification intervals of measuring devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toteva Pavlina

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents different determination and optimisation methods for verification intervals of technical devices for monitoring and measurement based on the requirements of some widely used international standards, e.g. ISO 9001, ISO/IEC 17020, ISO/IEC 17025 etc., maintained by various organizations implementing measuring devices in practice. Comparative analysis of the reviewed methods is conducted in terms of opportunities for assessing the adequacy of interval(s for calibration of measuring devices and their optimisation accepted by an organization – an extension or reduction depending on the obtained results. The advantages and disadvantages of the reviewed methods are discussed, and recommendations for their applicability are provided.

  15. A method for calibration of Soleil-Babinet compensator using a spectrophotometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jun; Chen, Lei; Li, Bo; Shi, Lili; Luo, Ting

    2010-06-01

    A method using a spectrophotometer for calibrating Soleil-Babinet compensator is proposed. It is based on the spectroscopic method which utilizes the relation between transmittance and wavelength to obtain retardation. By placing a multiple order half wave plate behind the Soleil-Babinet compensator, zero-order retardation can be measured, which is difficult to accomplish by spectroscopic method. In the experiment, the retardations of the compensator in the range 0- λ are measured. It is demonstrated that the precision of retardation is 0.45 nm at the position 0 and λ while the maximum error is less than 1 nm between the two positions.

  16. Calibration of shahid's analytical method for adulterated Zn-edta fertilizers by ion chromatography and atomic absorption spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, M.S.A.; Akram, M.; Qazi, M.A.

    2010-01-01

    Chelated zinc fertilizers are usually recommended in calcareous alkaline soils to provide Zn nutrition in order to prevent possible Zn precipitation. In Punjab (Pakistan), Zn EDTA products are being manufactured, and marketed to meet the zinc requirement of various crops grown in Zn deficient soils. Under fertilizer control order, 1973 (amended), their quality has to be monitored by the Agriculture Department, Government of the Punjab. None of the traditional method was found suitable which can separate the mineral fraction from that of chelated adulterated fertilizer except for those methods based on ion chromatography. Calibration of ion chromatography method was carried out by determining the mineral Zn fraction leading to estimate remaining Zn EDTA fraction in fertilizer samples of adulterated nature i.e. mixture of chelated and mineral fraction. In order to achieve the objective atomic absorption spectroscopy was coupled with ion chromatography. The method offers a specific, reliable technique for determination of chelated zinc in fertilizers. In the first step chelation was broken down with concentrated sulphuric acid treatment and total zinc contents were determined by atomic absorption spectroscopy. In second step, non-chelated (mineral) portion of zinc was determined by ion chromatography using cation column and conductivity detector. Chelated zinc was calculated by subtracting non-chelated (mineral) fraction from total zinc contents. (author)

  17. A simple method for plasma total vitamin C analysis suitable for routine clinical laboratory use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robitaille, Line; Hoffer, L John

    2016-04-21

    In-hospital hypovitaminosis C is highly prevalent but almost completely unrecognized. Medical awareness of this potentially important disorder is hindered by the inability of most hospital laboratories to determine plasma vitamin C concentrations. The availability of a simple, reliable method for analyzing plasma vitamin C could increase opportunities for routine plasma vitamin C analysis in clinical medicine. Plasma vitamin C can be analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with electrochemical (EC) or ultraviolet (UV) light detection. We modified existing UV-HPLC methods for plasma total vitamin C analysis (the sum of ascorbic and dehydroascorbic acid) to develop a simple, constant-low-pH sample reduction procedure followed by isocratic reverse-phase HPLC separation using a purely aqueous low-pH non-buffered mobile phase. Although EC-HPLC is widely recommended over UV-HPLC for plasma total vitamin C analysis, the two methods have never been directly compared. We formally compared the simplified UV-HPLC method with EC-HPLC in 80 consecutive clinical samples. The simplified UV-HPLC method was less expensive, easier to set up, required fewer reagents and no pH adjustments, and demonstrated greater sample stability than many existing methods for plasma vitamin C analysis. When compared with the gold-standard EC-HPLC method in 80 consecutive clinical samples exhibiting a wide range of plasma vitamin C concentrations, it performed equivalently. The easy set up, simplicity and sensitivity of the plasma vitamin C analysis method described here could make it practical in a normally equipped hospital laboratory. Unlike any prior UV-HPLC method for plasma total vitamin C analysis, it was rigorously compared with the gold-standard EC-HPLC method and performed equivalently. Adoption of this method could increase the availability of plasma vitamin C analysis in clinical medicine.

  18. Critical assessment of suitable methods used for determination of antibacterial properties at photocatalytic surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krysa, Josef, E-mail: Josef.Krysa@vscht.cz [Institute of Chemical Technology Prague, Department of Water Technology and Environmental Engineering, Technicka 5, CZ-166 28 Prague (Czech Republic); Musilova, Eva [Institute of Chemical Technology Prague, Department of Water Technology and Environmental Engineering, Technicka 5, CZ-166 28 Prague (Czech Republic); Zita, Jiri [Institute of Chemical Technology Prague, Department of Inorganic Technology, Technicka 5, CZ-166 28 Prague (Czech Republic)

    2011-11-15

    Highlights: {yields} Methods for antibacterial activity of irradiated TiO{sub 2} films were critically assessed. {yields} As test bacteria gram negative E. coli and gram positive E. faecalis were employed. {yields} The ISO glass adhesion method is more appropriate than method with bacteria suspension. {yields} Some improvements of the ISO method were suggested. - Abstract: This work describes the development of methods necessary for antibacterial effect evaluation on irradiated TiO{sub 2} layers. Two methods using bacteria suspensions and the glass adhesion method (based on ISO 27447:2009(E)) were critically assessed and compared. As test bacteria gram negative Escherichia coli and gram positive Enterococcus faecalis were employed. The method using 50 cm{sup 3} of bacteria suspension is convenient for testing layers with strong antibacterial effect (prepared from powder photocatalysts). For the evaluation of the antibacterial effect of sol gel layers, the glass adhesion method based on the ISO is more appropriate than the method with 3 cm{sup 3} of bacteria suspension. The reason is that the later does not allow a distinction between the inhibition effect of TiO{sub 2} and UV light itself. Some improvements of the ISO method were suggested, namely the use of gelatinous pills (CCM) of bacteria, using saline solution instead of nutrient broth for bacteria suspension preparation and the application of selective media for bacteria cultivation. Decreasing the light intensity from 0.6 mW cm{sup -2} to 0.2 mW cm{sup -2} (fulfilling the requirements of the ISO) results in almost negligible effect of UV light itself, thus enabling proper testing of the antibacterial properties of TiO{sub 2} thin films.

  19. Critical assessment of suitable methods used for determination of antibacterial properties at photocatalytic surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krysa, Josef; Musilova, Eva; Zita, Jiri

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Methods for antibacterial activity of irradiated TiO 2 films were critically assessed. → As test bacteria gram negative E. coli and gram positive E. faecalis were employed. → The ISO glass adhesion method is more appropriate than method with bacteria suspension. → Some improvements of the ISO method were suggested. - Abstract: This work describes the development of methods necessary for antibacterial effect evaluation on irradiated TiO 2 layers. Two methods using bacteria suspensions and the glass adhesion method (based on ISO 27447:2009(E)) were critically assessed and compared. As test bacteria gram negative Escherichia coli and gram positive Enterococcus faecalis were employed. The method using 50 cm 3 of bacteria suspension is convenient for testing layers with strong antibacterial effect (prepared from powder photocatalysts). For the evaluation of the antibacterial effect of sol gel layers, the glass adhesion method based on the ISO is more appropriate than the method with 3 cm 3 of bacteria suspension. The reason is that the later does not allow a distinction between the inhibition effect of TiO 2 and UV light itself. Some improvements of the ISO method were suggested, namely the use of gelatinous pills (CCM) of bacteria, using saline solution instead of nutrient broth for bacteria suspension preparation and the application of selective media for bacteria cultivation. Decreasing the light intensity from 0.6 mW cm -2 to 0.2 mW cm -2 (fulfilling the requirements of the ISO) results in almost negligible effect of UV light itself, thus enabling proper testing of the antibacterial properties of TiO 2 thin films.

  20. Comparison of Suitability of the Most Common Ancient DNA Quantification Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brzobohatá, Kristýna; Drozdová, Eva; Smutný, Jiří; Zeman, Tomáš; Beňuš, Radoslav

    2017-04-01

    Ancient DNA (aDNA) extracted from historical bones is damaged and fragmented into short segments, present in low quantity, and usually copurified with microbial DNA. A wide range of DNA quantification methods are available. The aim of this study was to compare the five most common DNA quantification methods for aDNA. Quantification methods were tested on DNA extracted from skeletal material originating from an early medieval burial site. The tested methods included ultraviolet (UV) absorbance, real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) based on SYBR ® green detection, real-time qPCR based on a forensic kit, quantification via fluorescent dyes bonded to DNA, and fragmentary analysis. Differences between groups were tested using a paired t-test. Methods that measure total DNA present in the sample (NanoDrop ™ UV spectrophotometer and Qubit ® fluorometer) showed the highest concentrations. Methods based on real-time qPCR underestimated the quantity of aDNA. The most accurate method of aDNA quantification was fragmentary analysis, which also allows DNA quantification of the desired length and is not affected by PCR inhibitors. Methods based on the quantification of the total amount of DNA in samples are unsuitable for ancient samples as they overestimate the amount of DNA presumably due to the presence of microbial DNA. Real-time qPCR methods give undervalued results due to DNA damage and the presence of PCR inhibitors. DNA quantification methods based on fragment analysis show not only the quantity of DNA but also fragment length.

  1. RAPD-PCR – still a suitable Method for Genetically Underexplored Species?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstanze Ursula Behrmann

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Saithe (Pollachius virens is a commercially important fish species; the annual catch quota in the Northeast Atlantic exceeds 100.000 t. Despite that saithe is underexplored from a fish population genetically view. Because saithe is a highly migratory species, which undergoes a long larval drift, the population structure of saithe within the Northeast Atlantic is not fully understood. Models used as a basis for the management plan are based on tagging studies, which have been carried out in the 1960th. But still there are doubts regarding the numbers of stocks living in the Northeast Atlantic. Migration routes are affected by salmon farming, growing steadily from the 1990th. In the last years a hyperstability of the saithe stock in the North Sea had been detected underlining the need to have a closer look on the saithe stocks in the Northeast Atlantic. Random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD - PCR is a DNA fingerprinting technique often used in species identification and population genetic research for species, whose genome has not been sequenced very extensive as being the case for most of the food fishes. We applied RAPD-PCR in a study of saithe populations from the North Atlantic. The suitability of RAPD-PCR was improved by optimisations for enhanced reproducibility. The “classical” protocol for RAPD-PCR was modified by increasing the annealing temperature and shortening the time of annealing, providing a much better reproducibility. Thus, RAPD-PCR was found to be a straightforward and low-cost way, compared to other population genetic tools, to get a first insight into the population structure of less sequenced fish species within a very short time, being useful for preliminary studies or laboratories without large capacities for DNA sequencing.

  2. New reconstruction of the sunspot group numbers since 1739 using direct calibration and "backbone" methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatzistergos, Theodosios; Usoskin, Ilya G.; Kovaltsov, Gennady A.; Krivova, Natalie A.; Solanki, Sami K.

    2017-06-01

    Context. The group sunspot number (GSN) series constitute the longest instrumental astronomical database providing information on solar activity. This database is a compilation of observations by many individual observers, and their inter-calibration has usually been performed using linear rescaling. There are multiple published series that show different long-term trends for solar activity. Aims: We aim at producing a GSN series, with a non-linear non-parametric calibration. The only underlying assumptions are that the differences between the various series are due to different acuity thresholds of the observers, and that the threshold of each observer remains constant throughout the observing period. Methods: We used a daisy chain process with backbone (BB) observers and calibrated all overlapping observers to them. We performed the calibration of each individual observer with a probability distribution function (PDF) matrix constructed considering all daily values for the overlapping period with the BB. The calibration of the BBs was carried out in a similar manner. The final series was constructed by merging different BB series. We modelled the propagation of errors straightforwardly with Monte Carlo simulations. A potential bias due to the selection of BBs was investigated and the effect was shown to lie within the 1σ interval of the produced series. The exact selection of the reference period was shown to have a rather small effect on our calibration as well. Results: The final series extends back to 1739 and includes data from 314 observers. This series suggests moderate activity during the 18th and 19th century, which is significantly lower than the high level of solar activity predicted by other recent reconstructions applying linear regressions. Conclusions: The new series provides a robust reconstruction, based on modern and non-parametric methods, of sunspot group numbers since 1739, and it confirms the existence of the modern grand maximum of solar

  3. Fitness analysis method for magnesium in drinking water with atomic absorption using quadratic curve calibration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esteban Pérez-López

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Because of the importance of quantitative chemical analysis in research, quality control, sales of services and other areas of interest , and the limiting of some instrumental analysis methods for quantification with linear calibration curve, sometimes because the short linear dynamic ranges of the analyte, and sometimes by limiting the technique itself, is that there is a need to investigate a little more about the convenience of using quadratic curves for analytical quantification, which seeks demonstrate that it is a valid calculation model for chemical analysis instruments. To this was taken as an analysis method based on the technique and atomic absorption spectroscopy in particular a determination of magnesium in a sample of drinking water Tacares sector Northern Grecia, employing a nonlinear calibration curve and a curve specific quadratic behavior, which was compared with the test results obtained for the same analysis with a linear calibration curve. The results show that the methodology is valid for the determination referred to, with all confidence, since the concentrations are very similar, and as used hypothesis testing can be considered equal.

  4. In-Flight Calibration Methods for Temperature-Dependent Offsets in the MMS Fluxgate Magnetometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bromund, K. R.; Plaschke, F.; Strangeway, R. J.; Anderson, B. J.; Huang, B. G.; Magnes, W.; Fischer, D.; Nakamura, R.; Leinweber, H. K.; Russell, C. T.; hide

    2016-01-01

    During the first dayside season of the Magnetospheric Multiscale (MMS) mission, the in-flight calibration process for the Fluxgate magnetometers (FGM) implemented an algorithm that selected a constant offset (zero-level) for each sensor on each orbit. This method was generally able to reduce the amplitude of residual spin tone to less than 0.2 nT within the region of interest. However, there are times when the offsets do show significant short-term variations. These variations are most prominent in the nighttime season (phase 1X), when eclipses are accompanied by offset changes as large as 1 nT. Eclipses are followed by a recovery period as long as 12 hours where the offsets continue to change as temperatures stabilize. Understanding and compensating for these changes will become critical during Phase 2 of the mission in 2017, when the nightside will become the focus of MMS science. Although there is no direct correlation between offset and temperature, the offsets are seen for the period of any given week to be well-characterized as function of instrument temperature. Using this property, a new calibration method has been developed that has proven effective in compensating for temperature-dependent offsets during phase 1X of the MMS mission and also promises to further refine calibration quality during the dayside season.

  5. In-Flight Calibration Methods for Temperature-Dependendent Offsets in the MMS Fluxgate Magnetometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bromund, K. R.; Plaschke, F.; Strangeway, R. J.; Anderson, B. J.; Huang, B. G.; Magnes, W.; Fischer, D.; Nakamura, R.; Leinweber, H. K.; Russell, C. T.; Baumjohann, W.; Chutter, M.; Torbert, R. B.; Le, G.; Slavin, J. A.; Kepko, L.

    2016-12-01

    During the first dayside season of the Magnetospheric Multiscale (MMS) mission, the in-flight calibration process for the Fluxgate magnetometers (FGM) implemented an algorithm that selected a constant offset (zero-level) for each sensor on each orbit. This method was generally able to reduce the amplitude of residual spin tone to less than 0.2 nT within the region of interest. However, there are times when the offsets do show significant short-term variations. These variations are most prominent in the nighttime season (phase 1X), when eclipses are accompanied by offset changes as large as 1 nT. Eclipses are followed by a recovery period as long as 12 hours where the offsets continue to change as temperatures stabilize. Understanding and compensating for these changes will become critical during Phase 2 of the mission in 2017, when the nightside will become the focus of MMS science. Although there is no direct correlation between offset and temperature, the offsets are seen — for the period of any given week — to be well-characterized as function of instrument temperature. Using this property, a new calibration method has been developed that has proven effective in compensating for temperature-dependent offsets during phase 1X of the MMS mission and also promises to further refine calibration quality during the dayside season.

  6. Dew Point Calibration System Using a Quartz Crystal Sensor with a Differential Frequency Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ningning Lin

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the influence of temperature on quartz crystal microbalance (QCM sensor response during dew point calibration is investigated. The aim is to present a compensation method to eliminate temperature impact on frequency acquisition. A new sensitive structure is proposed with double QCMs. One is kept in contact with the environment, whereas the other is not exposed to the atmosphere. There is a thermal conductivity silicone pad between each crystal and a refrigeration device to keep a uniform temperature condition. A differential frequency method is described in detail and is applied to calibrate the frequency characteristics of QCM at the dew point of −3.75 °C. It is worth noting that frequency changes of two QCMs were approximately opposite when temperature conditions were changed simultaneously. The results from continuous experiments show that the frequencies of two QCMs as the dew point moment was reached have strong consistency and high repeatability, leading to the conclusion that the sensitive structure can calibrate dew points with high reliability.

  7. Dew Point Calibration System Using a Quartz Crystal Sensor with a Differential Frequency Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Ningning; Meng, Xiaofeng; Nie, Jing

    2016-11-18

    In this paper, the influence of temperature on quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) sensor response during dew point calibration is investigated. The aim is to present a compensation method to eliminate temperature impact on frequency acquisition. A new sensitive structure is proposed with double QCMs. One is kept in contact with the environment, whereas the other is not exposed to the atmosphere. There is a thermal conductivity silicone pad between each crystal and a refrigeration device to keep a uniform temperature condition. A differential frequency method is described in detail and is applied to calibrate the frequency characteristics of QCM at the dew point of -3.75 °C. It is worth noting that frequency changes of two QCMs were approximately opposite when temperature conditions were changed simultaneously. The results from continuous experiments show that the frequencies of two QCMs as the dew point moment was reached have strong consistency and high repeatability, leading to the conclusion that the sensitive structure can calibrate dew points with high reliability.

  8. Research on the method of establishing the total radiation meter calibration device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Jianqiang; Xia, Ming; Xia, Junwen; Zhang, Dong

    2015-10-01

    Pyranometer is an instrument used to measure the solar radiation, according to pyranometer differs as installation state, can be respectively measured total solar radiation, reflected radiation, or with the help of shading device for measuring scattering radiation. Pyranometer uses the principle of thermoelectric effect, inductive element adopts winding plating type multi junction thermopile, its surface is coated with black coating with high absorption rate. Hot junction in the induction surface, while the cold junction is located in the body, the cold and hot junction produce thermoelectric potential. In the linear range, the output signal is proportional to the solar irradiance. Traceability to national meteorological station, as the unit of the national legal metrology organizations, the responsibility is to transfer value of the sun and the earth radiation value about the national meteorological industry. Using the method of comparison, with indoor calibration of solar simulator, at the same location, standard pyranometer and measured pyranometer were alternately measured radiation irradiance, depending on the irradiation sensitivity standard pyranometer were calculated the radiation sensitivity of measured pyranometer. This paper is mainly about the design and calibration method of the pyranometer indoor device. The uncertainty of the calibration result is also evaluated.

  9. A self-calibration method in single-axis rotational inertial navigation system with rotating mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yuanpei; Wang, Lingcao; Li, Kui

    2017-10-01

    Rotary inertial navigation modulation mechanism can greatly improve the inertial navigation system (INS) accuracy through the rotation. Based on the single-axis rotational inertial navigation system (RINS), a self-calibration method is put forward. The whole system is applied with the rotation modulation technique so that whole inertial measurement unit (IMU) of system can rotate around the motor shaft without any external input. In the process of modulation, some important errors can be decoupled. Coupled with the initial position information and attitude information of the system as the reference, the velocity errors and attitude errors in the rotation are used as measurement to perform Kalman filtering to estimate part of important errors of the system after which the errors can be compensated into the system. The simulation results show that the method can complete the self-calibration of the single-axis RINS in 15 minutes and estimate gyro drifts of three-axis, the installation error angle of the IMU and the scale factor error of the gyro on z-axis. The calibration accuracy of optic gyro drifts could be about 0.003°/h (1σ) as well as the scale factor error could be about 1 parts per million (1σ). The errors estimate reaches the system requirements which can effectively improve the longtime navigation accuracy of the vehicle or the boat.

  10. A Quantitative Comparison of Calibration Methods for RGB-D Sensors Using Different Technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Víctor Villena-Martínez

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available RGB-D (Red Green Blue and Depth sensors are devices that can provide color and depth information from a scene at the same time. Recently, they have been widely used in many solutions due to their commercial growth from the entertainment market to many diverse areas (e.g., robotics, CAD, etc.. In the research community, these devices have had good uptake due to their acceptable levelofaccuracyformanyapplicationsandtheirlowcost,butinsomecases,theyworkatthelimitof their sensitivity, near to the minimum feature size that can be perceived. For this reason, calibration processes are critical in order to increase their accuracy and enable them to meet the requirements of such kinds of applications. To the best of our knowledge, there is not a comparative study of calibration algorithms evaluating its results in multiple RGB-D sensors. Specifically, in this paper, a comparison of the three most used calibration methods have been applied to three different RGB-D sensors based on structured light and time-of-flight. The comparison of methods has been carried out by a set of experiments to evaluate the accuracy of depth measurements. Additionally, an object reconstruction application has been used as example of an application for which the sensor works at the limit of its sensitivity. The obtained results of reconstruction have been evaluated through visual inspection and quantitative measurements.

  11. Approach suitable for screening estimation methods for critical properties of heavy compounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zbogar, A.; vidal da Silva Lopes, F.; Kontogeorgis, Georgios

    2006-01-01

    ) is in agreement with their validation via the proposed equation. Similar results have been obtained for other compounds. Both group-contribution methods are of equal accuracy for heavy alkenes and acids, provided that experimental boiling point temperatures are available for the Joback method. If such data...... the very heavy and complex ones, follow the trend suggested by this equation. This equation can be used for testing existing group-contribution estimation methods. It is shown here that direct comparison of the Joback and Constantinou-Gani methods for two families of compounds (alkenes and carboxylic acids......- and diacids, alkenes, cyclo/phenylalkanes, and squalane). This and previous validations verify that this correlation has a much broader application range, up to (T-c/p(c)) ratios of 200, than the data used in its development (compounds with ratios up to 100). it seems that most organic compounds, including...

  12. A method for automating calibration and records management for instrumentation and dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Brien, J.M. Jr.; Rushton, R.O.; Burns, R.E. Jr.

    1993-01-01

    Current industry requirements are becoming more stringent on quality assurance records and documentation for calibration of instruments and dosimetry. A novel method is presented here that will allow a progressive automation scheme to be used in pursuit of that goal. This concept is based on computer-controlled irradiators that can act as stand-alone devices or be interfaced to other components via a computer local area network. In this way, complete systems can be built with modules to create a records management system to meet the needs of small laboratories or large multi-building calibration groups. Different database engines or formats can be used simply by replacing a module. Modules for temperature and pressure monitoring or shipping and receiving can be added, as well as equipment modules for direct IEEE-488 interface to electrometers and other instrumentation

  13. A method for automating calibration and records management for instrumentation and dosimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O`Brien, J.M. Jr.; Rushton, R.O.; Burns, R.E. Jr. [Atlan-Tech, Inc., Roswell, GA (United States)

    1993-12-31

    Current industry requirements are becoming more stringent on quality assurance records and documentation for calibration of instruments and dosimetry. A novel method is presented here that will allow a progressive automation scheme to be used in pursuit of that goal. This concept is based on computer-controlled irradiators that can act as stand-alone devices or be interfaced to other components via a computer local area network. In this way, complete systems can be built with modules to create a records management system to meet the needs of small laboratories or large multi-building calibration groups. Different database engines or formats can be used simply by replacing a module. Modules for temperature and pressure monitoring or shipping and receiving can be added, as well as equipment modules for direct IEEE-488 interface to electrometers and other instrumentation.

  14. Absolute calibration method for fast-streaked, fiber optic light collection, spectroscopy systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnston, Mark D.; Frogget, Brent; Oliver, Bryan Velten; Maron, Yitzhak; Droemer, Darryl W.; Crain, Marlon D.

    2010-01-01

    This report outlines a convenient method to calibrate fast (<1ns resolution) streaked, fiber optic light collection, spectroscopy systems. Such a system is used to collect spectral data on plasmas generated in the A-K gap of electron beam diodes fielded on the RITS-6 accelerator (8-12MV, 140-200kA). On RITS, light is collected through a small diameter (200 micron) optical fiber and recorded on a fast streak camera at the output of 1 meter Czerny-Turner monochromator (F/7 optics). To calibrate such a system, it is necessary to efficiently couple light from a spectral lamp into a 200 micron diameter fiber, split it into its spectral components, with 10 Angstroms or less resolution, and record it on a streak camera with 1ns or less temporal resolution.

  15. A simple method for plasma total vitamin C analysis suitable for routine clinical laboratory use

    OpenAIRE

    Robitaille, Line; Hoffer, L. John

    2016-01-01

    Background In-hospital hypovitaminosis C is highly prevalent but almost completely unrecognized. Medical awareness of this potentially important disorder is hindered by the inability of most hospital laboratories to determine plasma vitamin C concentrations. The availability of a simple, reliable method for analyzing plasma vitamin C could increase opportunities for routine plasma vitamin C analysis in clinical medicine. Methods Plasma vitamin C can be analyzed by high performance liquid chro...

  16. Line-feature-based calibration method of structured light plane parameters for robot hand-eye system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Yuhan; Jing, Fengshui; Tan, Min

    2013-03-01

    For monocular-structured light vision measurement, it is essential to calibrate the structured light plane parameters in addition to the camera intrinsic parameters. A line-feature-based calibration method of structured light plane parameters for a robot hand-eye system is proposed. Structured light stripes are selected as calibrating primitive elements, and the robot moves from one calibrating position to another with constraint in order that two misaligned stripe lines are generated. The images of stripe lines could then be captured by the camera fixed at the robot's end link. During calibration, the equations of two stripe lines in the camera coordinate system are calculated, and then the structured light plane could be determined. As the robot's motion may affect the effectiveness of calibration, so the robot's motion constraints are analyzed. A calibration experiment and two vision measurement experiments are implemented, and the results reveal that the calibration accuracy can meet the precision requirement of robot thick plate welding. Finally, analysis and discussion are provided to illustrate that the method has a high efficiency fit for industrial in-situ calibration.

  17. Suitability of thermoluminescence, chemiluminescence, ESR and viscosity measurements as detection method for the irradiation of medicinal herbs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schuettler, C.; Gebhardt, G.; Stock, A.; Helle, N.; Boegl, K.W.

    1993-01-01

    Chemiluminescence, electron spin resonance, thermoluminescence and viscosity measurements have been investigated for their suitability as detection method for the irradiation of the medicinal herbs anise seeds (anisi fructus), valerian roots (valerianae radix), redberry leaves (uvae ursi folium), birch leaves (betulae folium), greek hay seeds (foenugraeci semen), cayenne pepper (capsici fructus acer), black-aldertee bark (frangulae cortex), fennel fruits (feoniculi fructus), rose hip shells (cynosbati fructus), coltsfoot (farfarae folium), acorus roots (calami rhizoma), chamomile flowers (matricariae flos), caraway (carvi fructus), lavender flowers (lavandulae flos), linseed (lini semen), lime tree flowers (tiliae flos), St. Mary's thistle fruit (cardui mariae herba), lemon balm (melissae folium), java tea (orthosiphonis folium), peppermint (menthae piperitae folium), sage leaves (salviae folium), scouring rush (equiseti herba), senna leaves (sennae folium), plantain herbs (plantaginis lanceolata herba), thyme herbs (thymi herba), juniper berries (juniperi fructus), hawthorne herbs (crataegi folium), wheat starch (amylum tritici) and wormwood (absinthii herba). Depending on the herbs, the methods used were more or less suitable. Chemiluminescence measurements showed the smallest differences between untreated and irradiated samples whereas thermoluminescence measurements on isolated minerals from the vegetable drugs gave better results. In some herbs radiation-specific radicals could be identified by ESR spectroscopy. Viscosity measurement is suitable for some herbs as fast and inexpensive method for screening. (orig.) [de

  18. Suitability of analytical methods to measure solubility for the purpose of nanoregulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tantra, Ratna; Bouwmeester, Hans; Bolea, Eduardo; Rey-Castro, Carlos; David, Calin A; Dogné, Jean-Michel; Jarman, John; Laborda, Francisco; Laloy, Julie; Robinson, Kenneth N; Undas, Anna K; van der Zande, Meike

    2016-01-01

    Solubility is an important physicochemical parameter in nanoregulation. If nanomaterial is completely soluble, then from a risk assessment point of view, its disposal can be treated much in the same way as "ordinary" chemicals, which will simplify testing and characterisation regimes. This review assesses potential techniques for the measurement of nanomaterial solubility and evaluates the performance against a set of analytical criteria (based on satisfying the requirements as governed by the cosmetic regulation as well as the need to quantify the concentration of free (hydrated) ions). Our findings show that no universal method exists. A complementary approach is thus recommended, to comprise an atomic spectrometry-based method in conjunction with an electrochemical (or colorimetric) method. This article shows that although some techniques are more commonly used than others, a huge research gap remains, related with the need to ensure data reliability.

  19. Calibration of EBT2 film by the PDD method with scanner non-uniformity correction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Liyun; Chui, Chen-Shou; Ding, Hueisch-Jy; Hwang, Ing-Ming; Ho, Sheng-Yow

    2012-09-21

    The EBT2 film together with a flatbed scanner is a convenient dosimetry QA tool for verification of clinical radiotherapy treatments. However, it suffers from a relatively high degree of uncertainty and a tedious film calibration process for every new lot of films, including cutting the films into several small pieces, exposing with different doses, restoring them back and selecting the proper region of interest (ROI) for each piece for curve fitting. In this work, we present a percentage depth dose (PDD) method that can accurately calibrate the EBT2 film together with the scanner non-uniformity correction and provide an easy way to perform film dosimetry. All films were scanned before and after the irradiation in one of the two homemade 2 mm thick acrylic frames (one portrait and the other landscape), which was located at a fixed position on the scan bed of an Epson 10 000XL scanner. After the pre-irradiated scan, the film was placed parallel to the beam central axis and sandwiched between six polystyrene plates (5 cm thick each), followed by irradiation of a 20 × 20 cm² 6 MV photon beam. Two different beams on times were used on two different films to deliver a dose to the film ranging from 32 to 320 cGy. After the post-irradiated scan, the net optical densities for a total of 235 points on the beam central axis on the films were auto-extracted and compared with the corresponding depth doses that were calculated through the measurement of a 0.6 cc farmer chamber and the related PDD table to perform the curve fitting. The portrait film location was selected for routine calibration, since the central beam axis on the film is parallel to the scanning direction, where non-uniformity correction is not needed (Ferreira et al 2009 Phys. Med. Biol. 54 1073-85). To perform the scanner non-uniformity calibration, the cross-beam profiles of the film were analysed by referencing the measured profiles from a Profiler™. Finally, to verify our method, the films were

  20. Calibration of EBT2 film by the PDD method with scanner non-uniformity correction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang Liyun; Ding, Hueisch-Jy; Chui, Chen-Shou; Hwang, Ing-Ming; Ho, Sheng-Yow

    2012-01-01

    The EBT2 film together with a flatbed scanner is a convenient dosimetry QA tool for verification of clinical radiotherapy treatments. However, it suffers from a relatively high degree of uncertainty and a tedious film calibration process for every new lot of films, including cutting the films into several small pieces, exposing with different doses, restoring them back and selecting the proper region of interest (ROI) for each piece for curve fitting. In this work, we present a percentage depth dose (PDD) method that can accurately calibrate the EBT2 film together with the scanner non-uniformity correction and provide an easy way to perform film dosimetry. All films were scanned before and after the irradiation in one of the two homemade 2 mm thick acrylic frames (one portrait and the other landscape), which was located at a fixed position on the scan bed of an Epson 10 000XL scanner. After the pre-irradiated scan, the film was placed parallel to the beam central axis and sandwiched between six polystyrene plates (5 cm thick each), followed by irradiation of a 20 × 20 cm 2 6 MV photon beam. Two different beams on times were used on two different films to deliver a dose to the film ranging from 32 to 320 cGy. After the post-irradiated scan, the net optical densities for a total of 235 points on the beam central axis on the films were auto-extracted and compared with the corresponding depth doses that were calculated through the measurement of a 0.6 cc farmer chamber and the related PDD table to perform the curve fitting. The portrait film location was selected for routine calibration, since the central beam axis on the film is parallel to the scanning direction, where non-uniformity correction is not needed (Ferreira et al 2009 Phys. Med. Biol. 54 1073–85). To perform the scanner non-uniformity calibration, the cross-beam profiles of the film were analysed by referencing the measured profiles from a Profiler™. Finally, to verify our method, the films were

  1. Evaluation of DNA Extraction Methods Suitable for PCR-based Detection and Genotyping of Clostridium botulinum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Auricchio, Bruna; Anniballi, Fabrizio; Fiore, Alfonsina

    2013-01-01

    in terms of cost, time, labor, and supplies. Eleven botulinum toxin–producing clostridia strains and 25 samples (10 food, 13 clinical, and 2 environmental samples) naturally contaminated with botulinum toxin–producing clostridia were used to compare 4 DNA extraction procedures: Chelex® 100 matrix, Phenol......Sufficient quality and quantity of extracted DNA is critical to detecting and performing genotyping of Clostridium botulinum by means of PCR-based methods. An ideal extraction method has to optimize DNA yield, minimize DNA degradation, allow multiple samples to be extracted, and be efficient...

  2. Comparison between calibration methods for in vivo monitoring in human body

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mello, J.Q. de; Almeida, A.PF.; Dantas, A.L.A.; Hunt, J.G.; Dantas, B.M.

    2014-01-01

    The determination of photon emitters in the human body through in vivo measurements requires the use of specific techniques to obtain calibration factors which correlate count rates and activities present in the body. In the present work two methods were compared for the measurement of 40 K in whole body geometry with a scintillation detector type NaI(Tl)3x3: (1) experimental, using a BOMAB physical anthropomorphic phantom and (2) mathematical simulation of the phantom and the interaction of the photons with the detector. The results obtained show the equivalence between the methods in the geometry and energy conditions adopted in the experiment. (author)

  3. A Rapid Coordinate Transformation Method Applied in Industrial Robot Calibration Based on Characteristic Line Coincidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Bailing; Zhang, Fumin; Qu, Xinghua; Shi, Xiaojia

    2016-01-01

    Coordinate transformation plays an indispensable role in industrial measurements, including photogrammetry, geodesy, laser 3-D measurement and robotics. The widely applied methods of coordinate transformation are generally based on solving the equations of point clouds. Despite the high accuracy, this might result in no solution due to the use of ill conditioned matrices. In this paper, a novel coordinate transformation method is proposed, not based on the equation solution but based on the geometric transformation. We construct characteristic lines to represent the coordinate systems. According to the space geometry relation, the characteristic line scan is made to coincide by a series of rotations and translations. The transformation matrix can be obtained using matrix transformation theory. Experiments are designed to compare the proposed method with other methods. The results show that the proposed method has the same high accuracy, but the operation is more convenient and flexible. A multi-sensor combined measurement system is also presented to improve the position accuracy of a robot with the calibration of the robot kinematic parameters. Experimental verification shows that the position accuracy of robot manipulator is improved by 45.8% with the proposed method and robot calibration. PMID:26901203

  4. A Rapid Coordinate Transformation Method Applied in Industrial Robot Calibration Based on Characteristic Line Coincidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bailing Liu

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Coordinate transformation plays an indispensable role in industrial measurements, including photogrammetry, geodesy, laser 3-D measurement and robotics. The widely applied methods of coordinate transformation are generally based on solving the equations of point clouds. Despite the high accuracy, this might result in no solution due to the use of ill conditioned matrices. In this paper, a novel coordinate transformation method is proposed, not based on the equation solution but based on the geometric transformation. We construct characteristic lines to represent the coordinate systems. According to the space geometry relation, the characteristic line scan is made to coincide by a series of rotations and translations. The transformation matrix can be obtained using matrix transformation theory. Experiments are designed to compare the proposed method with other methods. The results show that the proposed method has the same high accuracy, but the operation is more convenient and flexible. A multi-sensor combined measurement system is also presented to improve the position accuracy of a robot with the calibration of the robot kinematic parameters. Experimental verification shows that the position accuracy of robot manipulator is improved by 45.8% with the proposed method and robot calibration.

  5. RODDRP - A FORTRAN program for use in control rod calibration by the rod drop method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, W.E.

    1972-01-01

    The different methods to measure reactivity which are applicable to control rod calibration are discussed. They include: 1) the positive period method, 2) the rod drop method, 3) the source-jerk method, 4) the rod oscillation method, and 5) the pulsed neutron method. The instrument setup used at WSU for rod drop measurements is presented. To speed up the analysis of power fall-off trace, a FORTRAN IV program called RODDRP was written to simultaneously solve the in-hour equation and relative neutron flux. The procedure for calculating the worth of the rod that produced the power trace is given. The reactivity for each time relative flux point is obtained. Conclusions about the status of the equipment are made

  6. A New Method to Implement Resampled Uniform PWM Suitable for Distributed Control of Modular Multilevel Converters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huang, Shaojun; Mathe, Laszlo; Teodorescu, Remus

    2013-01-01

    Two existing methods to implement resampling modulation technique for modular multilevel converter (MMC) (the sampling frequency is a multiple of the carrier frequency) are: the software solution (using a microcontroller) and the hardware solution (using FPGA). The former has a certain level...

  7. Suitability of the line intersect method for sampling hardwood logging residues

    Science.gov (United States)

    A. Jeff Martin

    1976-01-01

    The line intersect method of sampling logging residues was tested in Appalachian hardwoods and was found to provide unbiased estimates of the volume of residue in cubic feet per acre. Thirty-two chains of sample line were established on each of sixteen 1-acre plots on cutover areas in a variety of conditions. Estimates from these samples were then compared to actual...

  8. A simple method of DNA extraction from coffee seeds suitable for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SERVER

    2008-02-19

    Feb 19, 2008 ... This makes coffee seed as one of the important material for molecular marker ... homogenised in 10 ml of freshly prepared extraction buffer (200. mM Tris-HCl pH 8.0, .... DNA material for particular molecular analysis. This method will be ... Pharmawati M, Yan G, Sedgley R, Finnegan PM (2004). Chloroplast.

  9. A Novel Frequency Measurement Method Suitable for a Large Frequency Ratio Condition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Wei; XUAN Zong-Qiang; YU Jian-Guo; WANG Hai; ZHOU Hui; LI Zhi-Qi

    2004-01-01

    @@ As for the obstacles to direct comparison between superhigh and lower frequencies, we accomplish the accurate comparison between low and microwave frequencies with the 105 ratios of the operating frequencies on the basis of phase comparison between the signals whose frequencies are related by an arbitrary integer. This method is simple and accurate, and will be widely used as a special frequency comparison approach.

  10. Preservation Methods Differ in Fecal Microbiome Stability, Affecting Suitability for Field Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amir, Amnon; Metcalf, Jessica L.; Amato, Katherine R.; Xu, Zhenjiang Zech; Humphrey, Greg

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Immediate freezing at −20°C or below has been considered the gold standard for microbiome preservation, yet this approach is not feasible for many field studies, ranging from anthropology to wildlife conservation. Here we tested five methods for preserving human and dog fecal specimens for periods of up to 8 weeks, including such types of variation as freeze-thaw cycles and the high temperature fluctuations often encountered under field conditions. We found that three of the methods—95% ethanol, FTA cards, and the OMNIgene Gut kit—can preserve samples sufficiently well at ambient temperatures such that differences at 8 weeks are comparable to differences among technical replicates. However, even the worst methods, including those with no fixative, were able to reveal microbiome differences between species at 8 weeks and between individuals after a week, allowing meta-analyses of samples collected using various methods when the effect of interest is expected to be larger than interindividual variation (although use of a single method within a study is strongly recommended to reduce batch effects). Encouragingly for FTA cards, the differences caused by this method are systematic and can be detrended. As in other studies, we strongly caution against the use of 70% ethanol. The results, spanning 15 individuals and over 1,200 samples, provide our most comprehensive view to date of storage effects on stool and provide a paradigm for the future studies of other sample types that will be required to provide a global view of microbial diversity and its interaction among humans, animals, and the environment. IMPORTANCE Our study, spanning 15 individuals and over 1,200 samples, provides our most comprehensive view to date of storage and stabilization effects on stool. We tested five methods for preserving human and dog fecal specimens for periods of up to 8 weeks, including the types of variation often encountered under field conditions, such as freeze

  11. Modelling a suitable location for Urban Solid Waste Management using AHP method and GIS -A geospatial approach and MCDM Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iqbal, M.; Islam, A.; Hossain, A.; Mustaque, S.

    2016-12-01

    Multi-Criteria Decision Making(MCDM) is advanced analytical method to evaluate appropriate result or decision from multiple criterion environment. Present time in advanced research, MCDM technique is progressive analytical process to evaluate a logical decision from various conflict. In addition, Present day Geospatial approach (e.g. Remote sensing and GIS) also another advanced technical approach in a research to collect, process and analyze various spatial data at a time. GIS and Remote sensing together with the MCDM technique could be the best platform to solve a complex decision making process. These two latest process combined very effectively used in site selection for solid waste management in urban policy. The most popular MCDM technique is Weighted Linear Method (WLC) where Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) is another popular and consistent techniques used in worldwide as dependable decision making. Consequently, the main objective of this study is improving a AHP model as MCDM technique with Geographic Information System (GIS) to select a suitable landfill site for urban solid waste management. Here AHP technique used as a MCDM tool to select the best suitable landfill location for urban solid waste management. To protect the urban environment in a sustainable way municipal waste needs an appropriate landfill site considering environmental, geological, social and technical aspect of the region. A MCDM model generate from five class related which related to environmental, geological, social and technical using AHP method and input the result set in GIS for final model location for urban solid waste management. The final suitable location comes out that 12.2% of the area corresponds to 22.89 km2 considering the total study area. In this study, Keraniganj sub-district of Dhaka district in Bangladesh is consider as study area which is densely populated city currently undergoes an unmanaged waste management system especially the suitable landfill sites for

  12. First in-flight results of Pleiades 1A innovative methods for optical calibration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubik, Philippe; Lebègue, Laurent; Fourest, Sébastien; Delvit, Jean-Marc; de Lussy, Françoise; Greslou, Daniel; Blanchet, Gwendoline

    2017-11-01

    The PLEIADES program is a space Earth Observation system led by France, under the leadership of the French Space Agency (CNES). Since it was successfully launched on December 17th, 2011, Pleiades 1A high resolution optical satellite has been thoroughly tested and validated during the commissioning phase led by CNES. The whole system has been designed to deliver submetric optical images to users whose needs were taken into account very early in the design process. This satellite opens a new era in Europe since its off-nadir viewing capability delivers a worldwide 2- days access, and its great agility will make possible to image numerous targets, strips and stereo coverage from the same orbit. Its imaging capability of more than 450 images of 20 km x 20 km per day can fulfill a broad spectrum of applications for both civilian and defence users. For an earth observing satellite with no on-board calibration source, the commissioning phase is a critical quest of wellcharacterized earth landscapes and ground patterns that have to be imaged by the camera in order to compute or fit the parameters of the viewing models. It may take a long time to get the required scenes with no cloud, whilst atmosphere corrections need simultaneous measurements that are not always possible. The paper focuses on new in-flight calibration methods that were prepared before the launch in the framework of the PLEIADES program : they take advantage of the satellite agility that can deeply relax the operational constraints and may improve calibration accuracy. Many performances of the camera were assessed thanks to a dedicated innovative method that was successfully validated during the commissioning period : Modulation Transfer Function (MTF), refocusing, absolute calibration, line of sight stability were estimated on stars and on the Moon. Detectors normalization and radiometric noise were computed on specific pictures on Earth with a dedicated guidance profile. Geometric viewing frame was

  13. Selection of suitable propagation method for consistent plantlets production in Stevia rebaudiana (Bertoni)

    OpenAIRE

    Khalil, Shahid Akbar; Zamir, Roshan; Ahmad, Nisar

    2014-01-01

    Stevia rebaudiana (Bert.) is an emerging sugar alternative and anti-diabetic plant in Pakistan. That is why people did not know the exact time of propagation. The main objective of the present study was to establish feasible propagation methods for healthy biomass production. In the present study, seed germination, stem cuttings and micropropagation were investigated for higher productivity. Fresh seeds showed better germination (25.51–40%) but lost viability after a few days of storage. In o...

  14. Frequency domain fatigue damage estimation methods suitable for deterministic load spectra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henderson, A.R.; Patel, M.H. [University Coll., Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, London (United Kingdom)

    2000-07-01

    The evaluation of fatigue damage due to load spectra, directly in the frequency domain, is a complex phenomena but with the benefit of significant computation time savings. Various formulae have been suggested but have usually relating to a specific application only. The Dirlik method is the exception and is applicable to general cases of continuous stochastic spectra. This paper describes three approaches for evaluating discrete deterministic load spectra generated by the floating wind turbine model developed the UCL/RAL research project. (Author)

  15. Fuzzy decision approach for selection of most suitable construction method of Green Buildings

    OpenAIRE

    Sunita Bansal; Srijit Biswas; S.K. Singh

    2017-01-01

    A big challenge in sustainable projects is selection of appropriate construction method and is considered to be the decisive factor for its success. Many environment friendly prefabricated elements are entering into the market at an increasing pace. This has increased the workload and inquisitiveness of the stakeholders who will need information about their environmental, technical and esthetic aspects. The use of prefabrication in sustainable construction is advantageous but appropriate deci...

  16. A Suitable Method for DNA Extraction from Bones for Forensic Applications: A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aqeela S. Abuidrees

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Human identification techniques are constantly developing. Before the discovery of DNA, anthropology accompanied with odontology was the most applicable technique for human identification. With the new era of molecular biology and the revolution of DNA and PCR techniques, DNA profiling has become the core of the human forensic identification process. Different types of samples can be exploited in forensic DNA analysis. In some extreme cases, bone samples are the only accessible samples of DNA due to the bad conditions of putrefaction or degradation of other biological materials and tissues. Therefore, an appropriate method should be determined to yield a full and clean profile. A case study is presented here in order to identify human remains and conclude the most appropriate method of DNA extraction from human remains. In addition, this study looks at the best part of the skeletal remains to be considered in the extraction of DNA for the purposes of identification. A suspect admitted that he buried his aborted son six months ago. The remains were recovered and DNA analysis was performed in order to determine any genetic link of the remains to the suspect and the female who delivered the baby. Two extraction methods were compared, the standard organic (phenol:chloroform:isoamyl alcohol and automated extraction using magnetic beads coated with silica (Qiagen EZ1 Advanced XL. Two bone parts, femur and clavicle, were also compared in terms of DNA yield. The efficiency of the two methods of DNA extraction from bones is illustrated quantitatively and qualitatively. Paternity testing was performed and the suspect was excluded from being the alleged father.

  17. Using automatic calibration method for optimizing the performance of Pedotransfer functions of saturated hydraulic conductivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed M. Abdelbaki

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Pedotransfer functions (PTFs are an easy way to predict saturated hydraulic conductivity (Ksat without measurements. This study aims to auto calibrate 22 PTFs. The PTFs were divided into three groups according to its input requirements and the shuffled complex evolution algorithm was used in calibration. The results showed great modification in the performance of the functions compared to the original published functions. For group 1 PTFs, the geometric mean error ratio (GMER and the geometric standard deviation of error ratio (GSDER values were modified from range (1.27–6.09, (5.2–7.01 to (0.91–1.15, (4.88–5.85 respectively. For group 2 PTFs, the GMER and the GSDER values were modified from (0.3–1.55, (5.9–12.38 to (1.00–1.03, (5.5–5.9 respectively. For group 3 PTFs, the GMER and the GSDER values were modified from (0.11–2.06, (5.55–16.42 to (0.82–1.01, (5.1–6.17 respectively. The result showed that the automatic calibration is an efficient and accurate method to enhance the performance of the PTFs.

  18. Primary flow meter for calibrating a sniffer test leak artefact by a pressure rise method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arai, Kenta; Yoshida, Hajime

    2014-10-01

    Sniffer tests are used to locate leaks in equipment during operation. The sensitivity of a sniffer leak detector must be calibrated against a known gas flow to atmospheric pressure generated by a sniffer test leak artefact. We have developed a primary flow meter for calibrating gas flows to atmospheric pressure through the leak artefact. The flow meter is based on a pressure rise method and two chambers are used to measure the pressure rise with small uncertainty even at atmospheric pressure. The calibration range of the flow rate is 5 × 10-7 Pa m3 s-1 to 7 × 10-4 Pa m3 s-1 to atmospheric pressure at 23.0 °C with a minimum uncertainty of 1.4% (k = 2), as well as 4 × 10-8 Pa m3 s-1 to 5 × 10-4 Pa m3 s-1 to a vacuum at 23.0 °C. The long term stability of the flow meter was determined as 0.41% by repeated measurements of the conductance of the leak artefact. In case of the flow rate into a vacuum, the flow meter was successfully linked to the international reference value of CCM.P-K12 by a lab-internal comparison.

  19. Proposed Suitable Methods to Detect Transient Regime Switching to Improve Power Quality with Wavelet Transform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javad Safaee Kuchaksaraee

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The increasing consumption of electrical energy and the use of non-linear loads that create transient regime states in distribution networks is increasing day by day. This is the only reason due to which the analysis of power quality for energy sustainability in power networks has become more important. Transients are often created by energy injection through switching or lightning and make changes in voltage and nominal current. Sudden increase or decrease in voltage or current makes characteristics of the transient regime. This paper shed some lights on the capacitor bank switching, which is one of the main causes for oscillatory transient regime states in the distribution network, using wavelet transform. The identification of the switching current of capacitor bank and the internal fault current of the transformer to prevent the unnecessary outage of the differential relay, it propose a new smart method. The accurate performance of this method is shown by simulation in EMTP and MATLAB (matrix laboratory software.

  20. Single-Case Research Methods: History and Suitability for a Psychological Science in Need of Alternatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurtado-Parrado, Camilo; López-López, Wilson

    2015-09-01

    This paper presents a historical and conceptual analysis of a group of research strategies known as the Single-Case Methods (SCMs). First, we present an overview of the SCMs, their history, and their major proponents. We will argue that the philosophical roots of SCMs can be found in the ideas of authors who recognized the importance of understanding both the generality and individuality of psychological functioning. Second, we will discuss the influence that the natural sciences' attitude toward measurement and experimentation has had on SCMs. Although this influence can be traced back to the early days of experimental psychology, during which incipient forms of SCMs appeared, SCMs reached full development during the subsequent advent of Behavior Analysis (BA). Third, we will show that despite the success of SCMs in BA and other (mainly applied) disciplines, these designs are currently not prominent in psychology. More importantly, they have been neglected as a possible alternative to one of the mainstream approaches in psychology, the Null Hypothesis Significance Testing (NHST), despite serious controversies about the limitations of this prevailing method. Our thesis throughout this section will be that SCMs should be considered as an alternative to NHST because many of the recommendations for improving the use of significance testing (Wilkinson & the TFSI, 1999) are main characteristics of SCMs. The paper finishes with a discussion of a number of the possible reasons why SCMs have been neglected.

  1. The suitability of visual taphonomic methods for digital photographs: An experimental approach with pig carcasses in a tropical climate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribéreau-Gayon, Agathe; Rando, Carolyn; Morgan, Ruth M; Carter, David O

    2018-05-01

    In the context of increased scrutiny of the methods in forensic sciences, it is essential to ensure that the approaches used in forensic taphonomy to measure decomposition and estimate the postmortem interval are underpinned by robust evidence-based data. Digital photographs are an important source of documentation in forensic taphonomic investigations but the suitability of the current approaches for photographs, rather than real-time remains, is poorly studied which can undermine accurate forensic conclusions. The present study aimed to investigate the suitability of 2D colour digital photographs for evaluating decomposition of exposed human analogues (Sus scrofa domesticus) in a tropical savanna environment (Hawaii), using two published scoring methods; Megyesi et al., 2005 and Keough et al., 2017. It was found that there were significant differences between the real-time and photograph decomposition scores when the Megyesi et al. method was used. However, the Keough et al. method applied to photographs reflected real-time decomposition more closely and thus appears more suitable to evaluate pig decomposition from 2D photographs. The findings indicate that the type of scoring method used has a significant impact on the ability to accurately evaluate the decomposition of exposed pig carcasses from photographs. It was further identified that photographic taphonomic analysis can reach high inter-observer reproducibility. These novel findings are of significant importance for the forensic sciences as they highlight the potential for high quality photograph coverage to provide useful complementary information for the forensic taphonomic investigation. New recommendations to develop robust transparent approaches adapted to photographs in forensic taphonomy are suggested based on these findings. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. A three-step calibration method for tri-axial field sensors in a 3D magnetic digital compass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, Xiaoning; Zhao, Ta; Zhou, Zhijian; Cheng, Defu

    2017-01-01

    In a 3D magnetic compass, it is important to calibrate the tri-axial magnetometers and accelerometers so the compass will provide accurate heading and attitude information. Previous researchers have used two methods to calibrate these two field sensors separately, i.e. the classic independent ellipsoid fitting method and the independent dot product invariant method, respectively. Both methods are easy to use, and no highly accurate, external equipment is required. However, self-calibration with ellipsoid fitting has the disadvantage that it interfuses an orthogonal matrix, and the dot product invariant method requires the use of pre-calibrated internal field sensors, which may be unavailable in many cases. In this paper, we have introduced and unified an error model of two tri-axial field sensors. Accordingly, the orthogonal matrix caused by ellipsoid fitting was mathematically proved to be the combination of two sources, the mounting misalignment and the rotation misalignment. Moreover, a new method, which we call optimal resultant vector, was proposed to further calibrate multi-sensor systems on the basis of ellipsoid fitting and dot product invariant methods, establishing a new, three-step calibration method. The superiority of the proposed method over the state-of-the-art approaches were demonstrated by simulations and a 3D compass experiment. (paper)

  3. Standard Test Method for Calibration of Primary Non-Concentrator Terrestrial Photovoltaic Reference Cells Using a Tabular Spectrum

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2010-01-01

    1.1 This test method is intended to be used for calibration and characterization of primary terrestrial photovoltaic reference cells to a desired reference spectral irradiance distribution, such as Tables G173. The recommended physical requirements for these reference cells are described in Specification E1040. Reference cells are principally used in the determination of the electrical performance of photovoltaic devices. 1.2 Primary photovoltaic reference cells are calibrated in natural sunlight using the relative spectral response of the cell, the relative spectral distribution of the sunlight, and a tabulated reference spectral irradiance distribution. 1.3 This test method requires the use of a pyrheliometer that is calibrated according to Test Method E816, which requires the use of a pyrheliometer that is traceable to the World Radiometric Reference (WRR). Therefore, reference cells calibrated according to this test method are traceable to the WRR. 1.4 This test method is a technique that may be used ...

  4. PID Testing Method Suitable for Process Control of Solar Cells Mass Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xianfang Gou

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Voltage bias of several hundred volts which are applied between solar cells and module frames may lead to significant power losses, so-called potential-induced degradation (PID, in normal photovoltaic (PV installations system. Modules and minimodules are used to conduct PID test of solar cells. The test procedure is time consuming and of high cost, which cannot be used as process monitoring method during solar cells fabrication. In this paper, three kinds of test including minimodule, Rsh, and V-Q test are conducted on solar cells or wafers with SiNx of different refractive index. All comparisons between test results of Rsh, V-Q, and minimodule tests have shown equal results. It is shown that Rsh test can be used as quality inspection of solar cells and V-Q test of coated wafer can be used as process control of solar cells.

  5. A novel reliable method of DNA extraction from olive oil suitable for molecular traceability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raieta, Katia; Muccillo, Livio; Colantuoni, Vittorio

    2015-04-01

    Extra virgin olive oil production has a worldwide economic impact. The use of this brand, however, is of great concern to Institutions and private industries because of the increasing number of fraud and adulteration attempts to the market products. Here, we present a novel, reliable and not expensive method for extracting the DNA from commercial virgin and extra virgin olive oils. The DNA is stable overtime and amenable for molecular analyses; in fact, by carrying out simple sequence repeats (SSRs) markers analysis, we characterise the genetic profile of monovarietal olive oils. By comparing the oil-derived pattern with that of the corresponding tree, we can unambiguously identify four cultivars from Samnium, a region of Southern Italy, and distinguish them from reference and more widely used varieties. Through a parentage statistical analysis, we also identify the putative pollinators, establishing an unprecedented and powerful tool for olive oil traceability. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Development of an Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing Method Suitable for Performing During Space Flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorgensen, James H.; Skweres, Joyce A.; Mishra S. K.; McElmeel, M. Letticia; Maher, Louise A.; Mulder, Ross; Lancaster, Michael V.; Pierson, Duane L.

    1997-01-01

    Very little is known regarding the affects of the microgravity environment of space flight upon the action of antimicrobial agents on bacterial pathogens. This study was undertaken to develop a simple method for conducting antibacterial susceptibility tests during a Space Shuttle mission. Specially prepared susceptibility test research cards (bioMerieux Vitek, Hazelwood, MO) were designed to include 6-11 serial two-fold dilutions of 14 antimicrobial agents, including penicillins, cephalosporins, a Beta-lactamase inhibitor, vancomycin, erythromycin, tetracycline, gentamicin, ciprofloxacin, and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole. Minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICS) of the drugs were determined by visual reading of color endpoints in the Vitek research cards made possible by incorporation of a colorimetric growth indicator (alamarBlue(Trademark), Accumed International, Westlake, OH). This study has demonstrated reproducible susceptibility results when testing isolates of Staphylococcus aurezis, Group A Streptococcus, Enterococcusfaecalis, Escherichia coli (beta-lactamase positive and negative strains), Klebsiella pneumoniae, Enterobacter cloacae, and Pseudomoiias aeruginosa. In some instances, the MICs were comparable to those determined using a standard broth microdilution method, while in some cases the unique test media and format yielded slightly different values, that were themselves reproducible. The proposed in-flight experiment will include inoculation of the Vitek cards on the ground prior to launch of the Space Shuttle, storage of inoculated cards at refrigeration temperature aboard the Space Shuttle until experiment initiation, then incubation of the cards for 18-48 h prior to visual interpretation of MICs by the mission's astronauts. Ground-based studies have shown reproducible MICs following storage of inoculated cards for 7 days at 4-8 C to accommodate the mission's time schedule and the astronauts' activities. For comparison, ground-based control

  7. A New Method to Calibrate Attachment Angles of Data Loggers in Swimming Sharks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shizuka Kawatsu

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently, animal-borne accelerometers have been used to record the pitch angle of aquatic animals during swimming. When evaluating pitch angle, it is necessary to consider a discrepancy between the angle of an accelerometer and the long axis of an animal. In this study, we attached accelerometers to 17 free-ranging scalloped hammerhead shark (Sphyrna lewini pups from Kaneohe Bay, Hawaii. Although there are methods to calibrate attachment angles of accelerometers, we confirmed that previous methods were not applicable for hammerhead pups. According to raw data, some sharks ascended with a negative angle, which differs from tank observations of captive sharks. In turn, we developed a new method to account for this discrepancy in swimming sharks by estimating the attachment angle from the relationship between vertical speed (m/s and pitch angle obtained by each accelerometer. The new method can be utilized for field observation of a wide range of species.

  8. Fast method for geometric calibration of detectors and matching testing between two detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pechenova, O.Yu.

    2002-01-01

    A fast method of geometric calibration of detectors has been proposed. The main idea of this method is to determine offsets by fitting the real data distribution by analytic functions which describe the motion of one detector relative to the other one. This method can be applicable to offsets determination for one detector relative to the other detector or for one part of the detector relative to its other part. The detectors should be placed perpendicular to the beam axis. The form of analytic functions depends on the geometry of the experiment and direction of the coordinate axes. The analytic functions have been obtained using the rotation matrices. This method can be applied to the matching testing between two detectors

  9. [The development of a wearable pulse oximeter sensor and study of the calibration method].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xiaoling; Cai, Guiyan

    2009-08-01

    The paper first analyses the principles of measurement of the two-wave oximeter and their limitations in technology. We propose to filter off motion interference from pulse oximeter signal using an algorithm based on the Beer-Lambert law that requires a three-wave probe (660 nm, 850 nm, and 940 nm). Based on the new algorithm, this paper describes the design principle of the circuitry and the software flowchart. Also, we study the calibration method of the pulse oximeter sensor and discuss the results in this paper.

  10. Application of the Monte Carlo method for the efficiency calibration of CsI and NaI detectors for gamma-ray measurements from terrestrial samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baccouche, S.; Al-Azmi, D.; Karunakara, N.; Trabelsi, A.

    2012-01-01

    Gamma-ray measurements in terrestrial/environmental samples require the use of high efficient detectors because of the low level of the radionuclide activity concentrations in the samples; thus scintillators are suitable for this purpose. Two scintillation detectors were studied in this work; CsI(Tl) and NaI(Tl) with identical size for measurement of terrestrial samples for performance study. This work describes a Monte Carlo method for making the full-energy efficiency calibration curves for both detectors using gamma-ray energies associated with the decay of naturally occurring radionuclides 137 Cs (661 keV), 40 K (1460 keV), 238 U ( 214 Bi, 1764 keV) and 232 Th ( 208 Tl, 2614 keV), which are found in terrestrial samples. The magnitude of the coincidence summing effect occurring for the 2614 keV emission of 208 Tl is assessed by simulation. The method provides an efficient tool to make the full-energy efficiency calibration curve for scintillation detectors for any samples geometry and volume in order to determine accurate activity concentrations in terrestrial samples. - Highlights: ► CsI (Tl) and NaI (Tl) detectors were studied for the measurement of terrestrial samples. ► Monte Carlo method was used for efficiency calibration using natural gamma emitting terrestrial radionuclides. ► The coincidence summing effect occurring for the 2614 keV emission of 208 Tl is assessed by simulation.

  11. Automatic calibration method of voxel size for cone-beam 3D-CT scanning system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Min; Wang Xiaolong; Wei Dongbo; Liu Yipeng; Meng Fanyong; Li Xingdong; Liu Wenli

    2014-01-01

    For a cone-beam three-dimensional computed tomography (3D-CT) scanning system, voxel size is an important indicator to guarantee the accuracy of data analysis and feature measurement based on 3D-CT images. Meanwhile, the voxel size changes with the movement of the rotary stage along X-ray direction. In order to realize the automatic calibration of the voxel size, a new and easily-implemented method is proposed. According to this method, several projections of a spherical phantom are captured at different imaging positions and the corresponding voxel size values are calculated by non-linear least-square fitting. Through these interpolation values, a linear equation is obtained that reflects the relationship between the voxel size and the rotary stage translation distance from its nominal zero position. Finally, the linear equation is imported into the calibration module of the 3D-CT scanning system. When the rotary stage is moving along X-ray direction, the accurate value of the voxel size is dynamically exported. The experimental results prove that this method meets the requirements of the actual CT scanning system, and has virtues of easy implementation and high accuracy. (authors)

  12. An incident flux expansion transport theory method suitable for coupling to diffusion theory methods in hexagonal geometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayward, Robert M.; Rahnema, Farzad; Zhang, Dingkang

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► A new hybrid stochastic–deterministic transport theory method to couple with diffusion theory. ► The method is implemented in 2D hexagonal geometry. ► The new method produces excellent results when compared with Monte Carlo reference solutions. ► The method is fast, solving all test cases in less than 12 s. - Abstract: A new hybrid stochastic–deterministic transport theory method, which is designed to couple with diffusion theory, is presented. The new method is an extension of the incident flux response expansion method, and it combines the speed of diffusion theory with the accuracy of transport theory. With ease of use in mind, the new method is derived in such a way that it can be implemented with only minimal modifications to an existing diffusion theory method. A new angular expansion, which is necessary for the diffusion theory coupling, is developed in 2D and 3D. The method is implemented in 2D hexagonal geometry, and an HTTR benchmark problem is used to test its accuracy in a standalone configuration. It is found that the new method produces excellent results (with average relative error in partial current less than 0.033%) when compared with Monte Carlo reference solutions. Furthermore, the method is fast, solving all test cases in less than 12 s

  13. Determination of the scattered radiation at the Neutron Calibration Laboratory of IPEN using the shadow cone method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alvarenga, Tallyson S.; Caldas, Linda V.E. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Freitas, Bruno M. [Coordenacao de Pos-Graduacao e Pesquisa de Engenharia (PEN/COPPE/UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Programa de Engenharia Nuclear; Fonseca, Evaldo S.; Pereira, Walsan W., E-mail: talvarenga@ipen.br, E-mail: lcaldas@ipen.br, E-mail: bfreitas@con.ufrj.br, E-mail: walsan@ird.gov.br, E-mail: evaldo@ird.gov.br [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2017-07-01

    Because of the increase in the demand for the calibration of neutron detectors, there is a need for new calibration services. In this context, the Calibration Laboratory of Instituto de Pesquisas Energéticas e Nucleares (IPEN), São Paulo, which already offers calibration services of radiation detectors with standard X, gamma, beta and alpha beams, has recently projected a new test laboratory for neutron detectors. This work evaluated the contribution of dispersed neutron radiation in this laboratory, using the cone shadow method and a Bonner sphere spectrometer to take the measurements at a distance of 100 cm from the neutron source. The dosimetric quantities H⁎(10) and H⁎(10) were obtained at the laboratory, allowing the calibration of detectors. (author)

  14. Determination of the scattered radiation at the Neutron Calibration Laboratory of IPEN using the shadow cone method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvarenga, Tallyson S.; Caldas, Linda V.E.; Freitas, Bruno M.

    2017-01-01

    Because of the increase in the demand for the calibration of neutron detectors, there is a need for new calibration services. In this context, the Calibration Laboratory of Instituto de Pesquisas Energéticas e Nucleares (IPEN), São Paulo, which already offers calibration services of radiation detectors with standard X, gamma, beta and alpha beams, has recently projected a new test laboratory for neutron detectors. This work evaluated the contribution of dispersed neutron radiation in this laboratory, using the cone shadow method and a Bonner sphere spectrometer to take the measurements at a distance of 100 cm from the neutron source. The dosimetric quantities H⁎(10) and H⁎(10) were obtained at the laboratory, allowing the calibration of detectors. (author)

  15. An improved method to accurately calibrate the gantry angle indicators of the radiotherapy linear accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang Liyun; Ho, S.-Y.; Du, Y.-C.; Lin, C.-M.; Chen Tainsong

    2007-01-01

    The calibration of the gantry angle indicator is an important and basic quality assurance (QA) item for the radiotherapy linear accelerator. In this study, we propose a new and practical method, which uses only the digital level, V-film, and general solid phantoms. By taking the star shot only, we can accurately calculate the true gantry angle according to the geometry of the film setup. The results on our machine showed that the gantry angle was shifted by -0.11 deg. compared with the digital indicator, and the standard deviation was within 0.05 deg. This method can also be used for the simulator. In conclusion, this proposed method could be adopted as an annual QA item for mechanical QA of the accelerator

  16. A method for calibration and test of the time-of-flight detectors for DELPHI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benlloch, J.M.; Castillo, M.V.; Ferrer, A.; Fuster, J.; Higon, E.; Lozano, J.; Salt, J.; Sanchez, E.; Sanchis, E.; Cuevas, J.

    1990-01-01

    We describe a method for calibration and test of large-area TOF counters using cosmic radiation. We applied the method to the time-of-flight system of the DELPHI detector at the LEP e + e - storage ring, made of scintillation (NE110) counters (20x350 cm 2 ). The photomultipliers used (EMI 9902KB) reach an average gain of 5x10 8 at 1700 V and the time resolution achieved is 1.2 ns. Using this method we measured the counter efficiencies as a function of the position; we obtained 135 cm for the effective attenuation length and 40 photoelectrons for a minimum-ionizing particle crossing the center of the counter. (orig.)

  17. A review of neutron scattering correction for the calibration of neutron survey meters using the shadow cone method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Sang In; Kim, Bong Hwan; Kim, Jang Lyul; Lee, Jung Il [Health Physics Team, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-12-15

    The calibration methods of neutron-measuring devices such as the neutron survey meter have advantages and disadvantages. To compare the calibration factors obtained by the shadow cone method and semi-empirical method, 10 neutron survey meters of five different types were used in this study. This experiment was performed at the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI; Daejeon, South Korea), and the calibration neutron fields were constructed using a {sup 252}Californium ({sup 252}Cf) neutron source, which was positioned in the center of the neutron irradiation room. The neutron spectra of the calibration neutron fields were measured by a europium-activated lithium iodide scintillator in combination with KAERI's Bonner sphere system. When the shadow cone method was used, 10 single moderator-based survey meters exhibited a smaller calibration factor by as much as 3.1 - 9.3% than that of the semi-empirical method. This finding indicates that neutron survey meters underestimated the scattered neutrons and attenuated neutrons (i.e., the total scatter corrections). This underestimation of the calibration factor was attributed to the fact that single moderator-based survey meters have an under-ambient dose equivalent response in the thermal or thermal-dominant neutron field. As a result, when the shadow cone method is used for a single moderator-based survey meter, an additional correction and the International Organization for Standardization standard 8529-2 for room-scattered neutrons should be considered.

  18. A review of neutron scattering correction for the calibration of neutron survey meters using the shadow cone method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Sang In; Kim, Bong Hwan; Kim, Jang Lyul; Lee, Jung Il

    2015-01-01

    The calibration methods of neutron-measuring devices such as the neutron survey meter have advantages and disadvantages. To compare the calibration factors obtained by the shadow cone method and semi-empirical method, 10 neutron survey meters of five different types were used in this study. This experiment was performed at the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI; Daejeon, South Korea), and the calibration neutron fields were constructed using a 252 Californium ( 252 Cf) neutron source, which was positioned in the center of the neutron irradiation room. The neutron spectra of the calibration neutron fields were measured by a europium-activated lithium iodide scintillator in combination with KAERI's Bonner sphere system. When the shadow cone method was used, 10 single moderator-based survey meters exhibited a smaller calibration factor by as much as 3.1 - 9.3% than that of the semi-empirical method. This finding indicates that neutron survey meters underestimated the scattered neutrons and attenuated neutrons (i.e., the total scatter corrections). This underestimation of the calibration factor was attributed to the fact that single moderator-based survey meters have an under-ambient dose equivalent response in the thermal or thermal-dominant neutron field. As a result, when the shadow cone method is used for a single moderator-based survey meter, an additional correction and the International Organization for Standardization standard 8529-2 for room-scattered neutrons should be considered

  19. A standardized method for the calibration of thermodynamic data for the prediction of gas chromatographic retention times.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGinitie, Teague M; Ebrahimi-Najafabadi, Heshmatollah; Harynuk, James J

    2014-02-21

    A new method for calibrating thermodynamic data to be used in the prediction of analyte retention times is presented. The method allows thermodynamic data collected on one column to be used in making predictions across columns of the same stationary phase but with varying geometries. This calibration is essential as slight variances in the column inner diameter and stationary phase film thickness between columns or as a column ages will adversely affect the accuracy of predictions. The calibration technique uses a Grob standard mixture along with a Nelder-Mead simplex algorithm and a previously developed model of GC retention times based on a three-parameter thermodynamic model to estimate both inner diameter and stationary phase film thickness. The calibration method is highly successful with the predicted retention times for a set of alkanes, ketones and alcohols having an average error of 1.6s across three columns. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Method for radiometric calibration of an endoscope's camera and light source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rai, Lav; Higgins, William E.

    2008-03-01

    An endoscope is a commonly used instrument for performing minimally invasive visual examination of the tissues inside the body. A physician uses the endoscopic video images to identify tissue abnormalities. The images, however, are highly dependent on the optical properties of the endoscope and its orientation and location with respect to the tissue structure. The analysis of endoscopic video images is, therefore, purely subjective. Studies suggest that the fusion of endoscopic video images (providing color and texture information) with virtual endoscopic views (providing structural information) can be useful for assessing various pathologies for several applications: (1) surgical simulation, training, and pedagogy; (2) the creation of a database for pathologies; and (3) the building of patient-specific models. Such fusion requires both geometric and radiometric alignment of endoscopic video images in the texture space. Inconsistent estimates of texture/color of the tissue surface result in seams when multiple endoscopic video images are combined together. This paper (1) identifies the endoscope-dependent variables to be calibrated for objective and consistent estimation of surface texture/color and (2) presents an integrated set of methods to measure them. Results show that the calibration method can be successfully used to estimate objective color/texture values for simple planar scenes, whereas uncalibrated endoscopes performed very poorly for the same tests.

  1. [A new method of calibration and positioning in quantitative analysis of multicomponents by single marker].

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Bing; Yang, Shi-Yan; Zhang, Yan

    2012-12-01

    This paper aims to establish a new method of calibration and positioning in quantitative analysis of multicomponents by single marker (QAMS), using Shuanghuanglian oral liquid as the research object. Establishing relative correction factors with reference chlorogenic acid to other 11 active components (neochlorogenic acid, cryptochlorogenic acid, cafferic acid, forsythoside A, scutellarin, isochlorogenic acid B, isochlorogenic acid A, isochlorogenic acid C, baicalin and phillyrin wogonoside) in Shuanghuanglian oral liquid by 3 correction methods (multipoint correction, slope correction and quantitative factor correction). At the same time chromatographic peak was positioned by linear regression method. Only one standard uas used to determine the content of 12 components in Shuanghuanglian oral liquid, in stead of needing too many reference substance in quality control. The results showed that within the linear ranges, no significant differences were found in the quantitative results of 12 active constituents in 3 batches of Shuanghuanglian oral liquid determined by 3 correction methods and external standard method (ESM) or standard curve method (SCM). And this method is simpler and quicker than literature methods. The results were accurate and reliable, and had good reproducibility. While the positioning chromatographic peaks by linear regression method was more accurate than relative retention time in literature. The slope and the quantitative factor correction controlling the quality of Chinese traditional medicine is feasible and accurate.

  2. Development of a quality assured calibration method for the PSI radon chamber reference atmosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schuler, C.; Butterweck-Dempewolf, G.; Vezzu, G.

    1997-01-01

    Radon detectors and measuring instruments are calibrated at the PSI Reference Laboratory for Radon Gas Concentration Measurements by exposing them to a calibrated radon reference atmosphere in the PSI radon chamber. A sophisticated and quality assured calibration technique was developed which guarantees the traceability of this radon chamber reference atmosphere to standards of internationally acknowledged primary laboratories. (author) 2 figs., 2 refs

  3. Online Calibration Methods for the DINA Model with Independent Attributes in CD-CAT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ping; Xin, Tao; Wang, Chun; Chang, Hua-Hua

    2012-01-01

    Item replenishing is essential for item bank maintenance in cognitive diagnostic computerized adaptive testing (CD-CAT). In regular CAT, online calibration is commonly used to calibrate the new items continuously. However, until now no reference has publicly become available about online calibration for CD-CAT. Thus, this study investigates the…

  4. The Opinion of Latvian Teachers About the Most Suitable Teaching Methods and Possibilities to Make Lessons Interesting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Porozovs Juris

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Student’s learning motivation and learning outcomes depend on the ability of the teacher to interest students, the chosen teaching methods and proficiency to manage the learning process. Teacher who can successfully choose teaching content, material resources and different teaching methods is able to cause interest about his subject. Teacher who is interested in teaching process himself can help students to learn a subject. The aim of the study was to find out the Latvian teachers' opinion about the disturbing factors affecting the achievement of high learning outcomes for students, the most suitable teaching methods and the possibilities to make lessons interesting. The survey of teachers of different schools in Latvia regarding their students’ learning motivation was carried out. The data from 482 teachers’ answers were analysed. The results of the research showed that the majority of surveyed teachers consider that learning motivation of Latvia students has decreased during the last few years. Teachers point out several factors, which do not allow students to reach high learning outcomes, the most important of them are: the inability of students to link career and success with learning and lack of life goals; inability of students to concentrate attention during lessons; indisposition of students to do homework. The teachers consider laboratory works, discussions, project works, group works and teacher’s presentations and narrative of new material as the most suitable teaching methods. Teachers consider that the most important personality trait of teachers and learning motivation for students to improve their skills is the teacher’s ability to teach the subject in an interesting way. Teachers believe that lessons can be made interesting if modern technologies and teaching methods are used during lessons and when the teacher is able to connect the subject with real life.

  5. A simple method for HPLC retention time prediction: linear calibration using two reference substances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Lei; Jin, Hong-Yu; Tian, Run-Tao; Wang, Ming-Juan; Liu, Li-Na; Ye, Liu-Ping; Zuo, Tian-Tian; Ma, Shuang-Cheng

    2017-01-01

    Analysis of related substances in pharmaceutical chemicals and multi-components in traditional Chinese medicines needs bulk of reference substances to identify the chromatographic peaks accurately. But the reference substances are costly. Thus, the relative retention (RR) method has been widely adopted in pharmacopoeias and literatures for characterizing HPLC behaviors of those reference substances unavailable. The problem is it is difficult to reproduce the RR on different columns due to the error between measured retention time (t R ) and predicted t R in some cases. Therefore, it is useful to develop an alternative and simple method for prediction of t R accurately. In the present study, based on the thermodynamic theory of HPLC, a method named linear calibration using two reference substances (LCTRS) was proposed. The method includes three steps, procedure of two points prediction, procedure of validation by multiple points regression and sequential matching. The t R of compounds on a HPLC column can be calculated by standard retention time and linear relationship. The method was validated in two medicines on 30 columns. It was demonstrated that, LCTRS method is simple, but more accurate and more robust on different HPLC columns than RR method. Hence quality standards using LCTRS method are easy to reproduce in different laboratories with lower cost of reference substances.

  6. Nebulizer calibration using lithium chloride: an accurate, reproducible and user-friendly method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, R J; Reid, D W; Leonard, R F; Johns, D P; Walters, E H

    1998-04-01

    Conventional gravimetric (weight loss) calibration of jet nebulizers overestimates their aerosol output by up to 80% due to unaccounted evaporative loss. We examined two methods of measuring true aerosol output from jet nebulizers. A new adaptation of a widely available clinical assay for lithium (determined by flame photometry, LiCl method) was compared to an existing electrochemical method based on fluoride detection (NaF method). The agreement between the two methods and the repeatability of each method were examined. Ten Mefar jet nebulizers were studied using a Mefar MK3 inhalation dosimeter. There was no significant difference between the two methods (p=0.76) with mean aerosol output of the 10 nebulizers being 7.40 mg x s(-1) (SD 1.06; range 5.86-9.36 mg x s(-1)) for the NaF method and 7.27 mg x s(-1) (SD 0.82; range 5.52-8.26 mg x s(-1)) for the LiCl method. The LiCl method had a coefficient of repeatability of 13 mg x s(-1) compared with 3.7 mg x s(-1) for the NaF method. The LiCl method accurately measured true aerosol output and was considerably easier to use. It was also more repeatable, and hence more precise, than the NaF method. Because the LiCl method uses an assay that is routinely available from hospital biochemistry laboratories, it is easy to use and, thus, can readily be adopted by busy respiratory function departments.

  7. Multivariate analysis method for energy calibration and improved mass assignment in recoil spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El Bouanani, Mohamed; Hult, Mikael; Persson, Leif; Swietlicki, Erik; Andersson, Margaretha; Oestling, Mikael; Lundberg, Nils; Zaring, Carina; Cohen, D.D.; Dytlewski, Nick; Johnston, P.N.; Walker, S.R.; Bubb, I.F.; Whitlow, H.J.

    1994-01-01

    Heavy ion recoil spectrometry is rapidly becoming a well established analysis method, but the associated data analysis processing is still not well developed. The pronounced nonlinear response of silicon detectors for heavy ions leads to serious limitation and complication in mass gating, which is the principal factor in obtaining energy spectra with minimal cross talk between elements. To overcome the above limitation, a simple empirical formula with an associated multiple regression method is proposed for the absolute energy calibration of the time of flight-energy dispersive detector telescope used in recoil spectrometry. A radical improvement in mass assignment was realized, which allows a more accurate and improved depth profiling with the important feature of making the data processing much easier. ((orig.))

  8. Development of a unit suitable for corrosion monitoring in district heating systems. Experiences with the LOCOR-cell test method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Asbjørn; Hilbert, Lisbeth Rischel

    2004-01-01

    A by-pass unit suitable for placement of a number of different probes for corrosion monitoring has been designed. Also measurements of water parameters are allowed in a side stream from the unit. The project is a part of the Nordic Innovation Fund project KORMOF. The by-pass unit has been installed...... in 6 pressurised circulating heating systems and in one cooling system. 7 different corrosion monitoring methods have been used to study corrosion rates and types in dependency of water chemistry. This paper describes the design of the by-pass unit including water analysis methods. It also describes...... the purpose, background and gained results of one of the used monitoring techniques, the crevice corrosion measurements obtained by the LOCOR-Cell„§. The crevice corrosion cell was developed by FORCE Technology in a previous district heating project financed by Nordic Industrial Fund (1)(2). Results from...

  9. A Novel Error Model of Optical Systems and an On-Orbit Calibration Method for Star Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuang Wang

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In order to improve the on-orbit measurement accuracy of star sensors, the effects of image-plane rotary error, image-plane tilt error and distortions of optical systems resulting from the on-orbit thermal environment were studied in this paper. Since these issues will affect the precision of star image point positions, in this paper, a novel measurement error model based on the traditional error model is explored. Due to the orthonormal characteristics of image-plane rotary-tilt errors and the strong nonlinearity among these error parameters, it is difficult to calibrate all the parameters simultaneously. To solve this difficulty, for the new error model, a modified two-step calibration method based on the Extended Kalman Filter (EKF and Least Square Methods (LSM is presented. The former one is used to calibrate the main point drift, focal length error and distortions of optical systems while the latter estimates the image-plane rotary-tilt errors. With this calibration method, the precision of star image point position influenced by the above errors is greatly improved from 15.42% to 1.389%. Finally, the simulation results demonstrate that the presented measurement error model for star sensors has higher precision. Moreover, the proposed two-step method can effectively calibrate model error parameters, and the calibration precision of on-orbit star sensors is also improved obviously.

  10. New methods of data calibration for high power-aperture lidar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Sai; Yang, Guotao; Chang, Qihai; Cheng, Xuewu; Yang, Yong; Gong, Shaohua; Wang, Jihong

    2013-03-25

    For high power-aperture lidar sounding of wide atmospheric dynamic ranges, as in middle-upper atmospheric probing, photomultiplier tubes' (PMT) pulse pile-up effects and signal-induced noise (SIN) complicates the extraction of information from lidar return signal, especially from metal layers' fluorescence signal. Pursuit for sophisticated description of metal layers' characteristics at far range (80~130km) with one PMT of high quantum efficiency (QE) and good SNR, contradicts the requirements for signals of wide linear dynamic range (i.e. from approximate 10(2) to 10(8) counts/s). In this article, Substantial improvements on experimental simulation of Lidar signals affected by PMT are reported to evaluate the PMTs' distortions in our High Power-Aperture Sodium LIDAR system. A new method for pile-up calibration is proposed by taking into account PMT and High Speed Data Acquisition Card as an Integrated Black-Box, as well as a new experimental method for identifying and removing SIN from the raw Lidar signals. Contradiction between the limited linear dynamic range of raw signal (55~80km) and requirements for wider acceptable linearity has been effectively solved, without complicating the current lidar system. Validity of these methods was demonstrated by applying calibrated data to retrieve atmospheric parameters (i.e. atmospheric density, temperature and sodium absolutely number density), in comparison with measurements of TIMED satellite and atmosphere model. Good agreements are obtained between results derived from calibrated signal and reference measurements where differences of atmosphere density, temperature are less than 5% in the stratosphere and less than 10K from 30km to mesosphere, respectively. Additionally, approximate 30% changes are shown in sodium concentration at its peak value. By means of the proposed methods to revert the true signal independent of detectors, authors approach a new balance between maintaining the linearity of adequate signal (20

  11. Method for calibration-free scanned-wavelength modulation spectroscopy for gas sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, Ronald K.; Jeffries, Jay B.; Sun, Kai; Sur, Ritobrata; Chao, Xing

    2018-04-10

    A method of calibration-free scanned-wavelength modulation spectroscopy (WMS) absorption sensing is provided by obtaining absorption lineshape measurements of a gas sample on a sensor using 1f-normalized WMS-2f where an injection current to an injection current-tunable diode laser (TDL) is modulated at a frequency f, where a wavelength modulation and an intensity modulation of the TDL are simultaneously generated, extracting using a numerical lock-in program and a low-pass filter appropriate band-width WMS-nf (n=1, 2, . . . ) signals, where the WMS-nf signals are harmonics of the f, determining a physical property of the gas sample according to ratios of the WMS-nf signals, determining the zero-absorption background using scanned-wavelength WMS, and determining non-absorption losses using at least two of the harmonics, where a need for a non-absorption baseline measurement is removed from measurements in environments where collision broadening has blended transition linewidths, where calibration free WMS measurements without knowledge of the transition linewidth is enabled.

  12. Investigation of e-Linac tube construction method and implementation suitable method for IPM e-Linac

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F ghasemi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The goal of electron linear accelerator project in institute for research in fundamental sciences(IPM is to build its components as many as they can in Iran. This accelerator is a traveling wave type. Investigations show that there are various techniques in forming and connecting the accelerating tube cavities. The shrinking method applied for constructing the accelerating tube is selected based on the one applied for Stanford University’s Mark III accelerator. With success in building an 8-cavity test tube and finding the problems of the method, the construction of the final accelerating tube with 24 cavities has been accomplished. The results show that the obtained frequency of 2996.5 MHz and quality factor of 11200, satisfy the design desired values.

  13. Assay of cortisol with a radioimmunoassay method calibrated by isotope dilution-mass spectrometry. A Nordic collaborative study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lantto, O.; Lindback, B.; Aakvaag, A.; Bjoerkhem, I.; Damkjaer-Nielsen, M.; Pomoell, U.M.; Helsinki University Hospital

    1983-01-01

    A reference method for serum cortisol, based on isotope dilution-mass spectrometry (ID-MS), was compared with a modified commercial RIA method. The modification solely concerned the calibration standards used in the RIA method. These were replaced by a series of human serum samples, in which the concentration of cortisol had been determined by the reference ID-MS method. Samples were selected to cover the whole range of the standard curve. Serum samples from healthy, untreated subjects with cortisol concentrations 270-1134 nmol/l were analysed with the ID-MS calibrated RIA method in four laboratories, one in each of the four Nordic countries. Mean values based on results from all four laboratories were almost identical with the values obtained with the reference method. Serum samples from 11 patients with endocrine disorders with cortisol concentrations 31-916 nmol/l were analysed in three of the four laboratories. In three of the samples significant differences were observed between the values obtained with the ID-MS and the ID-MS calibrated RIA method. The value obtained with the ID-MS calibrated RIA was however always more accurate than the corresponding value obtained with RIA with the use of a commercial calibration standard. (author)

  14. An assessment of the long term suitability of present and proposed methods for the management of uranium mill tailings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-07-01

    Proposals for safe, long-term containment of conventional tailings include 1) storage under water, 2) storage in active, abandoned or specially created underground mines and, 3) storage in open pits, with subsequent flooding or covering with overburden. The underwater proposal can meet most of the requirements of long term containment; however, extensive study of existing tailings deposits in deep water locations will be needed. Underground mines cannot provide sufficient storage capacity, since the tailings bulk during mill operation can occupy twice the volume of the original ore. It is possible to reduce the hazard by reducing the radium and thorium content of the tailings. Proposals for such an undertaking include ore beneficiation with rejection of the relatively innocuous fraction, radium-thorium removal in the mill, and significant changes in both ore processing and treatment of tailings. It is concluded that surface-stored tailings are vulnerable over the long term to dispersion by leaching and water erosion, and that access to a tailings site cannot be prevented, while only a major climatic or seismic event could disturb tailings stored in suitable underwater or underground mine sites. The criteria for determining suitability for each method, however, will need to be identified, tested, and accepted through the normal process of modeling, pilot plant evaluation, monitoring and evaluation. (author)

  15. In situ calibration of inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission and mass spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braymen, Steven D.

    1996-06-11

    A method and apparatus for in situ addition calibration of an inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometer or mass spectrometer using a precision gas metering valve to introduce a volatile calibration gas of an element of interest directly into an aerosol particle stream. The present situ calibration technique is suitable for various remote, on-site sampling systems such as laser ablation or nebulization.

  16. Sediment Core Extrusion Method at Millimeter Resolution Using a Calibrated, Threaded-rod.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwing, Patrick T; Romero, Isabel C; Larson, Rebekka A; O'Malley, Bryan J; Fridrik, Erika E; Goddard, Ethan A; Brooks, Gregg R; Hastings, David W; Rosenheim, Brad E; Hollander, David J; Grant, Guy; Mulhollan, Jim

    2016-08-17

    Aquatic sediment core subsampling is commonly performed at cm or half-cm resolution. Depending on the sedimentation rate and depositional environment, this resolution provides records at the annual to decadal scale, at best. An extrusion method, using a calibrated, threaded-rod is presented here, which allows for millimeter-scale subsampling of aquatic sediment cores of varying diameters. Millimeter scale subsampling allows for sub-annual to monthly analysis of the sedimentary record, an order of magnitude higher than typical sampling schemes. The extruder consists of a 2 m aluminum frame and base, two core tube clamps, a threaded-rod, and a 1 m piston. The sediment core is placed above the piston and clamped to the frame. An acrylic sampling collar is affixed to the upper 5 cm of the core tube and provides a platform from which to extract sub-samples. The piston is rotated around the threaded-rod at calibrated intervals and gently pushes the sediment out the top of the core tube. The sediment is then isolated into the sampling collar and placed into an appropriate sampling vessel (e.g., jar or bag). This method also preserves the unconsolidated samples (i.e., high pore water content) at the surface, providing a consistent sampling volume. This mm scale extrusion method was applied to cores collected in the northern Gulf of Mexico following the Deepwater Horizon submarine oil release. Evidence suggests that it is necessary to sample at the mm scale to fully characterize events that occur on the monthly time-scale for continental slope sediments.

  17. DETERMINATION OF SUITABLE CHEMICAL EXTRACTION METHODS FOR AVAILABLE IRON CONTENT OF THE SOILS FROM EDIRNE PROVINCE IN TURKEY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A ADILOGLU

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to determine the available iron (Fe content of the soils of Edirne Province and the most suitable chemical extraction method. Eight chemical extraction methods (0.005 M DTPA + 0.01 M CaCl2 + 0.1 M TEA; 0.05 M HCl + 0.012 M H2SO4; 1 M NH4OAc (pH: 4.8; 0.01 M EDTA + 1 M NH4OAc; 1 M MgCl2; 0.01 M EDTA + 1 M (NH42CO3; 0.005 M DTPA + 1 M NH4HCO3 and 0.001 M EDDHA methods and six biological indices (dry matter yield, Fe concentration, Fe uptake, relative dry matter yield, relative Fe concentration, relative Fe uptake were compared. Biological indices were determined with Barley (Hordeum vulgare L. grown under greenhouse conditions. At the end of the experiment, the highest correlation coefficients (r were determined to be between the 0.005 M DTPA + 0.01 M CaCl2 + 0.1 M TEA method and the biological indices and between the 0.005 M DTPA + 1 M NH4HCO3 method and the biological indices. The correlation coefficients (r for the 0.005 M DTPA + 0.01 M CaCl2 +0.1 M TEA method were r=0.621**; r=0.823**; r=0.810**; r=0.433**; r=0.558** and r=0.640** and for the 0.005 M DTPA + 1 M NH4HCO3 method r=0.618** ; r=0.520**; r=0.679**; r=0.521**; r=0.492** and r=0.641**, (**:p<0.01 respectively. These extraction methods, among all the methods tested were suggested for the determination of available Fe content of Edirne Province soils.

  18. Two-step calibration method for multi-algorithm score-based face recognition systems by minimizing discrimination loss

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Susyanto, N.; Veldhuis, R.N.J.; Spreeuwers, L.J.; Klaassen, C.A.J.; Fierrez, J.; Li, S.Z.; Ross, A.; Veldhuis, R.; Alonso-Fernandez, F.; Bigun, J.

    2016-01-01

    We propose a new method for combining multi-algorithm score-based face recognition systems, which we call the two-step calibration method. Typically, algorithms for face recognition systems produce dependent scores. The two-step method is based on parametric copulas to handle this dependence. Its

  19. Clustered iterative stochastic ensemble method for multi-modal calibration of subsurface flow models

    KAUST Repository

    Elsheikh, Ahmed H.

    2013-05-01

    A novel multi-modal parameter estimation algorithm is introduced. Parameter estimation is an ill-posed inverse problem that might admit many different solutions. This is attributed to the limited amount of measured data used to constrain the inverse problem. The proposed multi-modal model calibration algorithm uses an iterative stochastic ensemble method (ISEM) for parameter estimation. ISEM employs an ensemble of directional derivatives within a Gauss-Newton iteration for nonlinear parameter estimation. ISEM is augmented with a clustering step based on k-means algorithm to form sub-ensembles. These sub-ensembles are used to explore different parts of the search space. Clusters are updated at regular intervals of the algorithm to allow merging of close clusters approaching the same local minima. Numerical testing demonstrates the potential of the proposed algorithm in dealing with multi-modal nonlinear parameter estimation for subsurface flow models. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.

  20. Calibration of lung counter using a CT model of Torso phantom and Monte Carlo method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Binquan; Ma Jizeng; Yang Duanjie; Liu Liye; Cheng Jianping

    2006-01-01

    Tomography image of a Torso phantom was obtained from CT-Scan. The Torso phantom represents the trunk of an adult man that is 170 cm high and weight of 65 kg. After these images were segmented, cropped, and resized, a 3-dimension voxel phantom was created. The voxel phantom includes more than 2 million voxels, which size was 2.73 mm x 2.73 mm x 3 mm. This model could be used for the calibration of lung counter with Monte Carlo method. On the assumption that radioactive material was homogeneously distributed throughout the lung, counting efficiencies of a HPGe detector in different positions were calculated as Adipose Mass fraction (AMF) was different in the soft tissue in chest. The results showed that counting efficiencies of the lung counter changed up to 67% for 17.5 keV γ ray and 20% for 25 keV γ ray when AMF changed from 0 to 40%. (authors)

  1. Geometric calibration method for multiple-head cone-beam SPECT system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rizo, P.; Grangeat, P.; Guillemaud, R.

    1994-01-01

    A method is presented for estimating the geometrical parameters of cone beam systems with multiple heads, each head having its own orientation. In tomography, for each head, the relative position of the rotation axis and f the collimator do not change during the data acquisition. The authors thus can separate the parameters into intrinsic parameters and extrinsic parameters. The intrinsic parameters describe the detection system geometry and the extrinsic parameters the position of the detection system with respect to the rotation axis. Intrinsic parameters must be estimated each time the acquisition geometry is modified. Extrinsic parameters are estimated by minimizing the distances between the measured position of a point source projection and the computed position obtained using the estimated extrinsic parameters. The main advantage of this method is that the extrinsic parameters are only weakly correlated when the intrinsic parameters are known. Thus the authors can use any simple least square error minimization method to perform the estimation of the extrinsic parameters. Giving a fixed value to the distance between the point source and the rotation axis in the estimation process, ensures the coherence of the extrinsic parameters between each head. They show that with this calibration method, the full width at half maximum measured with point sources is very close to the theoretical one, and remains almost unchanged when more than one head is used. Simulation results and reconstructions on a Jaszczak phantom are presented that show the capabilities of this method

  2. Method of preparing a catalyst suitable for steam reformation of hydrocarbons and for methane production. [German patent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Golebiowski, A; Romotowski, T; Hennel, W; Wroblewska-Wroblewska, T; Polanski, A; Janecki, Z; Paluch-Paluch, S

    1977-05-26

    A method of producing a nickel catalyst suitable for steam reformation and methane production is described which forms a permanent bond with the inner surface of an externally heated metal tube, e.g. a heat exchanger tube. To begin with, a metal sponge with good adhesion to the metal tube is produced on the basis of a metallic powder of the metal group which is treated by a conventional calcination process. The metal sponge is then covered with a metal oxide which is not reduced under reformation conditions, e.g. aluminium oxide, by wetting the metal sponge with aluminium nitrate and repeated calcination. Wetting and calcination are repeated twice, and the calcination temperature is lower each time in the range between 400 and 1200/sup 0/C. The activated nickel is there deposited by wetting with a nickel salt solution and subsequent calcination.

  3. A novel method for embedding neonatal murine calvaria in methyl methacrylate suitable for visualizing mineralization, cellular and structural detail.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horn, D A; Garrett, I R

    2004-01-01

    The study of undecalcified bone by histological methods is essential in the field of bone research. Culturing skeletal tissues such as neonatal murine calvaria provides a reliable bridge between assessment of bone formation in vitro and anabolic activity in vivo and contains most of the essential elements of bone for studying bone formation. Neonatal calvarial assay, supported by histological methods, is used to study the anabolic effects of a wide variety of factors and compounds on bone tissue. To optimize visualization and histomorphometric measurements using neonatal calvaria, we developed a method that provides high quality tissue sections suitable for routine and histochemical staining. Undecalcified neonatal mouse calvaria were processed and embedded using a low temperature methyl methacrylate procedure. Various staining methods were performed on deplastisized and floated sections to examine mineralization and to identify cells. The Von Kossa stain counterstained with a modified H & E yielded precise images of unmineralized bone including mineralization sites, and distinct osteoblasts and osteoclasts. Toluidine blue, Ladewig's trichrome, tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase, Goldner, H & E and Villanueva stains also were tested on the undecalcified neonatal calvaria sections.

  4. A Spatially Explicit Method to Assess the Economic Suitability of a Forest Road Network for Timber Harvest in Steep Terrain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leo Gallus Bont

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Despite relatively high road density in the forests of Switzerland, a large percentage of that road network does not fulfill best practice requirements. Before upgrading or rebuilding the road network, harvesting planners must first determine which areas have insufficient access. Traditional assessment methods tend to only report specific values such as road density. However, those values do not identify the exact parcels or areas that are inaccessible. Here, we present a model that assesses the economic suitability of each timbered parcel for wood-harvesting operations, including tree-felling and processing, and off- and on-road transport (hauling, based on the existing road network. The entire wood supply chain from forest (standing trees to a virtual pile at the border of the planning unit was captured. This method was particularly designed for steep terrain and was tested in the Canton of Grisons in Switzerland. Compared with classical approaches, such as the road density concept, which only deliver average values, this new method enables planners to assess the development of a road network in a spatially explicit manner and to easily identify the reason and the location of shortcomings in the road network. Moreover, while other related spatially explicit approaches focus only on harvesting operations, the assessment method proposed here also includes limitations (road standards of the road network.

  5. Suitability of Secondary PEEK Telescopic Crowns on Zirconia Primary Crowns: The Influence of Fabrication Method and Taper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merk, Susanne; Wagner, Christina; Stock, Veronika; Eichberger, Marlis; Schmidlin, Patrick R; Roos, Malgorzata; Stawarczyk, Bogna

    2016-11-08

    This study investigates the retention load (RL) between ZrO₂ primary crowns and secondary polyetheretherketone (PEEK) crowns made by different fabrication methods with three different tapers. Standardized primary ZrO₂ crowns were fabricated with three different tapers: 0°, 1°, and 2° ( n = 10/group). Ten secondary crowns were fabricated (i) milled from breCam BioHPP blanks (PM); (ii) pressed from industrially fabricated PEEK pellets (PP) (BioHPP Pellet); or (iii) pressed from granular PEEK (PG) (BioHPP Granulat). One calibrated operator adjusted all crowns. In total, the RL of 90 secondary crowns were measured in pull-off tests at 50 mm/min, and each specimen was tested 20 times. Two- and one-way ANOVAs followed by a Scheffé's post-hoc test were used for data analysis ( p impact on the results. Within the 2° taper, the fabrication method had no influence on the RL. Within the PM group, the 2° taper showed significantly higher retention load compared with the 1° taper. The taper with 0° was in the same range value as the 1° and 2° tapers. No impact of the taper on the retention value was observed between the PP groups. Within the PG groups, the 0° taper presented significantly lower RL than the 1° taper, whereas the 2° taper showed no differences. The fabrication method of the secondary PEEK crowns and taper angles showed no consistent effect within all tested groups.

  6. Suitability of Secondary PEEK Telescopic Crowns on Zirconia Primary Crowns: The Influence of Fabrication Method and Taper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanne Merk

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the retention load (RL between ZrO2 primary crowns and secondary polyetheretherketone (PEEK crowns made by different fabrication methods with three different tapers. Standardized primary ZrO2 crowns were fabricated with three different tapers: 0°, 1°, and 2° (n = 10/group. Ten secondary crowns were fabricated (i milled from breCam BioHPP blanks (PM; (ii pressed from industrially fabricated PEEK pellets (PP (BioHPP Pellet; or (iii pressed from granular PEEK (PG (BioHPP Granulat. One calibrated operator adjusted all crowns. In total, the RL of 90 secondary crowns were measured in pull-off tests at 50 mm/min, and each specimen was tested 20 times. Two- and one-way ANOVAs followed by a Scheffé’s post-hoc test were used for data analysis (p < 0.05. Within crowns with a 0° taper, the PP group showed significantly higher retention load values compared with the other groups. Among the 1° taper, the PM group presented significantly lower retention loads than the PP group. However, the pressing type had no impact on the results. Within the 2° taper, the fabrication method had no influence on the RL. Within the PM group, the 2° taper showed significantly higher retention load compared with the 1° taper. The taper with 0° was in the same range value as the 1° and 2° tapers. No impact of the taper on the retention value was observed between the PP groups. Within the PG groups, the 0° taper presented significantly lower RL than the 1° taper, whereas the 2° taper showed no differences. The fabrication method of the secondary PEEK crowns and taper angles showed no consistent effect within all tested groups.

  7. In-situ calibration of nuclear-plant platinum resistance thermometers using Johnson noise methods. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blalock, T.V.; Shepard, R.L.

    1983-06-01

    Methods for in situ calibration of reactor plant platinum resistance thermometers using Johnson noise measurements were tested in the laboratory and in two operating reactors: Diablo Canyon and Sequoyah. The Johnson noise methods provide an absolute measurement of the thermometer temperature and can be compared with the dc calibration of the thermometers to confirm their calibration without removing the thermometers from the plant coolant loops. Inaccuracies of less than 0.1% were obtained with these methods for ideal situations where the noise measuring equipment could be connected directly to the installed thermometer terminals. For measurements made at the ends of long extension cables, inaccuracies were 0.5 to 1.0%, at best. Extension cables must be optimized and well characterized electrically to achieve such accuracies. Other factors that affect the accuracy of these methods were evaluated

  8. An innovative method for coordinate measuring machine one-dimensional self-calibration with simplified experimental process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Cheng; Butler, David Lee

    2013-05-01

    In this paper, an innovative method for CMM (Coordinate Measuring Machine) self-calibration is proposed. In contrast to conventional CMM calibration that relies heavily on a high precision reference standard such as a laser interferometer, the proposed calibration method is based on a low-cost artefact which is fabricated with commercially available precision ball bearings. By optimizing the mathematical model and rearranging the data sampling positions, the experimental process and data analysis can be simplified. In mathematical expression, the samples can be minimized by eliminating the redundant equations among those configured by the experimental data array. The section lengths of the artefact are measured at arranged positions, with which an equation set can be configured to determine the measurement errors at the corresponding positions. With the proposed method, the equation set is short of one equation, which can be supplemented by either measuring the total length of the artefact with a higher-precision CMM or calibrating the single point error at the extreme position with a laser interferometer. In this paper, the latter is selected. With spline interpolation, the error compensation curve can be determined. To verify the proposed method, a simple calibration system was set up on a commercial CMM. Experimental results showed that with the error compensation curve uncertainty of the measurement can be reduced to 50%.

  9. Characteristics of infrared thermometers manufactured in Japan and calibration methods for sky radiant emittance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, X.; Horiguchi, I.; Machimura, T.

    1993-01-01

    Infrared thermometers to measure surface temperature have been increasingly adopted in recent years. The characteristics of the IR thermometer, however, are not well known.IR thermometers manufactured in Japan systematically adjust for ambient radiation based on the internal temperature of the thermometer. If, therefore, there is a large difference between the internal temperature of the IR thermometer and the apparent temperature associated with the surrounding radiation, a large error will be induced into the measured surface temperature.The purpose of our research was to determine the characteristics and measurement errors of IR thermometers. Experiments were performed with regard to the following items: (1) Measurement errors related to the internal temperature of the IR thermometer. (2) Linearity of the output signal of the IR thermometer. (3) Response of the output signal to changes in the emissivity setting. (4) Effect of sky radiant emittance on the measured surface temperature. (5) Calibration method for the terrestrial surface.The following is a summary of the results: Measurement error is affected by the internal temperature of the IR thermometer. Measurement accuracy is improved with a controlled internal temperature of 20-30°C. The measurement error becomes larger at emissivity settings under 0.7.The measurement error outdoors was not proportional to the downward longwave radiation, but to the sky radiant temperature measured by the IR thermometer. Calibration for sky radiant emittance was improved by using the difference between sky radiant temperature and air temperature.When the surface temperature measured by the infrared thermometer is plotted against the surface temperature measured by thermocouple, the sky radiant emittance error is obtained from the Y intercept. Additionally, the difference between true temperature and output of the IR thermometer for a reference plate was compared to that obtained for vegetation, and the RMS obtained was

  10. Instrumentation and calibration methods for the multichannel measurement of phase and amplitude in optical tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nissilae, Ilkka; Noponen, Tommi; Kotilahti, Kalle; Katila, Toivo; Lipiaeinen, Lauri; Tarvainen, Tanja; Schweiger, Martin; Arridge, Simon

    2005-01-01

    In this article, we describe the multichannel implementation of an intensity modulated optical tomography system developed at Helsinki University of Technology. The system has two time-multiplexed wavelengths, 16 time-multiplexed source fibers and 16 parallel detection channels. The gain of the photomultiplier tubes (PMTs) is individually adjusted during the measurement sequence to increase the dynamic range of the system by 10 4 . The PMT used has a high quantum efficiency in the near infrared (8% at 800 nm), a fast settling time, and low hysteresis. The gain of the PMT is set so that the dc anode current is below 80 nA, which allows the measurement of phase independently of the intensity. The system allows measurements of amplitude at detected intensities down to 1 fW, which is sufficient for transmittance measurements of the female breast, the forearm, and the brain of early pre-term infants. The mean repeatability of phase and the logarithm of amplitude (ln A) at 100 MHz were found to be 0.08 deg. and 0.004, respectively, in a measurement of a 7 cm phantom with an imaging time of 5 s per source and source optical power of 8 mW. We describe a three-step method of calibrating the phase and amplitude measurements so that the absolute absorption and scatter in tissue may be measured. A phantom with two small cylindrical targets and a second phantom with three rods are measured and reconstructions made from the calibrated data are shown and compared with reconstructions from simulated data

  11. Characterisation methods for the hyperspectral sensor HySpex at DLR's calibration home base

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumgartner, Andreas; Gege, Peter; Köhler, Claas; Lenhard, Karim; Schwarzmaier, Thomas

    2012-09-01

    The German Aerospace Center's (DLR) Remote Sensing Technology Institute (IMF) operates a laboratory for the characterisation of imaging spectrometers. Originally designed as Calibration Home Base (CHB) for the imaging spectrometer APEX, the laboratory can be used to characterise nearly every airborne hyperspectral system. Characterisation methods will be demonstrated exemplarily with HySpex, an airborne imaging spectrometer system from Norsk Elektro Optikks A/S (NEO). Consisting of two separate devices (VNIR-1600 and SWIR-320me) the setup covers the spectral range from 400 nm to 2500 nm. Both airborne sensors have been characterised at NEO. This includes measurement of spectral and spatial resolution and misregistration, polarisation sensitivity, signal to noise ratios and the radiometric response. The same parameters have been examined at the CHB and were used to validate the NEO measurements. Additionally, the line spread functions (LSF) in across and along track direction and the spectral response functions (SRF) for certain detector pixels were measured. The high degree of lab automation allows the determination of the SRFs and LSFs for a large amount of sampling points. Despite this, the measurement of these functions for every detector element would be too time-consuming as typical detectors have 105 elements. But with enough sampling points it is possible to interpolate the attributes of the remaining pixels. The knowledge of these properties for every detector element allows the quantification of spectral and spatial misregistration (smile and keystone) and a better calibration of airborne data. Further laboratory measurements are used to validate the models for the spectral and spatial properties of the imaging spectrometers. Compared to the future German spaceborne hyperspectral Imager EnMAP, the HySpex sensors have the same or higher spectral and spatial resolution. Therefore, airborne data will be used to prepare for and validate the spaceborne system

  12. Features calibration of the dynamic force transducers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sc., M. Yu Prilepko D.; Lysenko, V. G.

    2018-04-01

    The article discusses calibration methods of dynamic forces measuring instruments. The relevance of work is dictated by need to valid definition of the dynamic forces transducers metrological characteristics taking into account their intended application. The aim of this work is choice justification of calibration method, which provides the definition dynamic forces transducers metrological characteristics under simulation operating conditions for determining suitability for using in accordance with its purpose. The following tasks are solved: the mathematical model and the main measurements equation of calibration dynamic forces transducers by load weight, the main budget uncertainty components of calibration are defined. The new method of dynamic forces transducers calibration with use the reference converter “force-deformation” based on the calibrated elastic element and measurement of his deformation by a laser interferometer is offered. The mathematical model and the main measurements equation of the offered method is constructed. It is shown that use of calibration method based on measurements by the laser interferometer of calibrated elastic element deformations allows to exclude or to considerably reduce the uncertainty budget components inherent to method of load weight.

  13. New calibration method for I-scan sensors to enable the precise measurement of pressures delivered by 'pressure garments'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macintyre, Lisa

    2011-11-01

    Accurate measurement of the pressure delivered by medical compression products is highly desirable both in monitoring treatment and in developing new pressure inducing garments or products. There are several complications in measuring pressure at the garment/body interface and at present no ideal pressure measurement tool exists for this purpose. This paper summarises a thorough evaluation of the accuracy and reproducibility of measurements taken following both of Tekscan Inc.'s recommended calibration procedures for I-scan sensors; and presents an improved method for calibrating and using I-scan pressure sensors. The proposed calibration method enables accurate (±2.1 mmHg) measurement of pressures delivered by pressure garments to body parts with a circumference ≥30 cm. This method is too cumbersome for routine clinical use but is very useful, accurate and reproducible for product development or clinical evaluation purposes. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  14. Determination of suitable chemical extraction methods for the available iron content of brown forest soils in Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adiloglu, Aydin

    2006-09-01

    The aim of this research was to determine the available iron (Fe) content of brown forest soils of Edirne Province and the most suitable chemical extraction method. Eight chemical extraction methods (the 0.005 M DTPA + 0.01 M CaCl2 + 0.1 MTEA, 0.05 M HCl + 0.012 M H2SO4, 1 M NH4OAc (pH: 4.8), 0.01 M EDTA + 1 M NH4OAc, 1 M MgCl2, 0.01 M EDTA + 1 M (NH4)2CO3, 0.005 M DTPA + 1 M NH4HCO3, and 0.001 M EDDHA methods) and six biological indices (the dry matter yield, Fe concentration, Fe uptake, relative dry matter yield, relative Fe concentration, and relative Fe uptake) were compared. The biological indices were determined with barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) grown under greenhouse conditions. At the end of the experiment, the highest correlation coefficients (r) were determined to be between the 0.005 M DTPA + 0.01 M CaCl2 + 0.1 M TEA method and the biological indices and between the 0.005 M DTPA + 1 M NH4HCO3 method and the biological indices. The corresponding correlation coefficients (r) for the 0.005 M DTPA + 0.01 M CaCl2 + 0.1 M TEA method and the six biological indices were 0.621**, 0.823**, 0.810** 0.433**, 0.558**, and 0.640**, respectively. For the 0.005 M DTPA + 1 M NH4HCO3 method, these coefficients were equal to 0.618**, 0.520**, 0.679**, 0.521**, 0.492**, and 0.641**, respectively (** indicate the validity of the relationships at p < 0.01) These extraction methods, out of all the methods tested, were suggested for the determination of the available Fe content of the brown forest soils.

  15. Statistical methods for the assessment of prognostic biomarkers(part II): calibration and re-classification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tripepi, Giovanni; Jager, Kitty J.; Dekker, Friedo W.; Zoccali, Carmine

    2010-01-01

    Calibration is the ability of a prognostic model to correctly estimate the probability of a given event across the whole range of prognostic estimates (for example, 30% probability of death, 40% probability of myocardial infarction, etc.). The key difference between calibration and discrimination is

  16. A new technique for the calibration of neutron probes by volumetric method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Encarnacao, F.A.F. da.

    1988-01-01

    Laboratory and field studies were performed for the determination of a calibration curve of a neutron probe in three different kinds of soils: Red Yellow PODZOLIC, LITOLIC and ALLUVIAL, in the last one laboratory studies were done to determine local humidity on the calibration curve parameters. (A.C.A.S.) [pt

  17. Determining the most suitable areas for artificial groundwater recharge via an integrated PROMETHEE II-AHP method in GIS environment (case study: Garabaygan Basin, Iran).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasiri, Hossein; Boloorani, Ali Darvishi; Sabokbar, Hassan Ali Faraji; Jafari, Hamid Reza; Hamzeh, Mohamad; Rafii, Yusef

    2013-01-01

    Flood spreading is a suitable strategy for controlling and benefiting from floods. Selecting suitable areas for flood spreading and directing the floodwater into permeable formations are amongst the most effective strategies in flood spreading projects. Having combined geographic information systems (GIS) and multi-criteria decision analysis approaches, the present study sought to locate the most suitable areas for flood spreading operation in the Garabaygan Basin of Iran. To this end, the data layers relating to the eight effective factors were prepared in GIS environment. This stage was followed by elimination of the exclusionary areas for flood spreading while determining the potentially suitable ones. Having closely examined the potentially suitable areas using the Preference Ranking Organization Method for Enrichment Evaluations (PROMETHEE) II and analytic hierarchy process (AHP) methods, the land suitability map for flood spreading was produced. The PROMETHEE II and AHP were used for ranking all the alternatives and weighting the criteria involved, respectively. The results of the study showed that most suitable areas for the artificial groundwater recharge are located in Quaternary Q(g) and Q(gsc) geologic units and in geomorphological units of pediment and Alluvial fans with slopes not exceeding 3%. Furthermore, significant correspondence between the produced map and the control areas, where the flood spreading projects were successfully performed, provided further evidence for the acceptable efficiency of the integrated PROMETHEE II-AHP method in locating suitable flood spreading areas.

  18. Measurement correction method for force sensor used in dynamic pressure calibration based on artificial neural network optimized by genetic algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Tingwei; Kong, Deren; Shang, Fei; Chen, Jing

    2017-12-01

    We present an optimization algorithm to obtain low-uncertainty dynamic pressure measurements from a force-transducer-based device. In this paper, the advantages and disadvantages of the methods that are commonly used to measure the propellant powder gas pressure, the applicable scope of dynamic pressure calibration devices, and the shortcomings of the traditional comparison calibration method based on the drop-weight device are firstly analysed in detail. Then, a dynamic calibration method for measuring pressure using a force sensor based on a drop-weight device is introduced. This method can effectively save time when many pressure sensors are calibrated simultaneously and extend the life of expensive reference sensors. However, the force sensor is installed between the drop-weight and the hammerhead by transition pieces through the connection mode of bolt fastening, which causes adverse effects such as additional pretightening and inertia forces. To solve these effects, the influence mechanisms of the pretightening force, the inertia force and other influence factors on the force measurement are theoretically analysed. Then a measurement correction method for the force measurement is proposed based on an artificial neural network optimized by a genetic algorithm. The training and testing data sets are obtained from calibration tests, and the selection criteria for the key parameters of the correction model is discussed. The evaluation results for the test data show that the correction model can effectively improve the force measurement accuracy of the force sensor. Compared with the traditional high-accuracy comparison calibration method, the percentage difference of the impact-force-based measurement is less than 0.6% and the relative uncertainty of the corrected force value is 1.95%, which can meet the requirements of engineering applications.

  19. On the suitability of fast and frugal heuristics for designing values clarification methods in patient decision aids: a critical analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pieterse, Arwen H; de Vries, Marieke

    2013-09-01

    Increasingly, patient decision aids and values clarification methods (VCMs) are being developed to support patients in making preference-sensitive health-care decisions. Many VCMs encourage extensive deliberation about options, without solid theoretical or empirical evidence showing that deliberation is advantageous. Research suggests that simple, fast and frugal heuristic decision strategies sometimes result in better judgments and decisions. Durand et al. have developed two fast and frugal heuristic-based VCMs. To critically analyse the suitability of the 'take the best' (TTB) and 'tallying' fast and frugal heuristics in the context of patient decision making. Analysis of the structural similarities between the environments in which the TTB and tallying heuristics have been proven successful and the context of patient decision making and of the potential of these heuristic decision processes to support patient decision making. The specific nature of patient preference-sensitive decision making does not seem to resemble environments in which the TTB and tallying heuristics have proven successful. Encouraging patients to consider less rather than more relevant information potentially even deteriorates their values clarification process. Values clarification methods promoting the use of more intuitive decision strategies may sometimes be more effective. Nevertheless, we strongly recommend further theoretical thinking about the expected value of such heuristics and of other more intuitive decision strategies in this context, as well as empirical assessments of the mechanisms by which inducing such decision strategies may impact the quality and outcome of values clarification. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Online calibration method for condition monitoring of nuclear reactor instrumentations based on electrical signature analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Syaiful Bakhri

    2013-01-01

    Electrical signature analysis currently becomes an alternative in condition monitoring in nuclear power plants not only for stationary components such as sensors, measurement and instrumentation channels, and other components but also for dynamic components such as electric motors, pumps, generator or actuators. In order to guarantee the accuracy, the calibration of monitoring system is a necessary which practically is performed offline, under limited schedules and certain tight procedures. This research aims to introduce online calibration technique for electrical signature condition monitoring in order that the accuracy can be maintained continuously which in turn increases the reactor safety as a whole. The research was performed step by stepin detail from the conventional technique, online calibration using baseline information and online calibration using differential gain adjustment. Online calibration based on differential gain adjustment provides better results than other techniques even tough under extreme gain insertion as well as external disturbances such as supply voltages. (author)

  1. A NOVEL APPROACH TO CAMERA CALIBRATION METHOD FOR SMART PHONES UNDER ROAD ENVIRONMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Lee

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Monocular vision-based lane departure warning system has been increasingly used in advanced driver assistance systems (ADAS. By the use of the lane mark detection and identification, we proposed an automatic and efficient camera calibration method for smart phones. At first, we can detect the lane marker feature in a perspective space and calculate edges of lane markers in image sequences. Second, because of the width of lane marker and road lane is fixed under the standard structural road environment, we can automatically build a transformation matrix between perspective space and 3D space and get a local map in vehicle coordinate system. In order to verify the validity of this method, we installed a smart phone in the ‘Tuzhi’ self-driving car of Wuhan University and recorded more than 100km image data on the road in Wuhan. According to the result, we can calculate the positions of lane markers which are accurate enough for the self-driving car to run smoothly on the road.

  2. A semi-automatic calibration method for seismic arrays applied to an Alaskan array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindquist, K. G.; Tibuleac, I. M.; Hansen, R. A.

    2001-12-01

    Well-calibrated, small (less than 22 km) aperture seismic arrays are of great importance for event location and characterization. We have implemented the crosscorrelation method of Tibuleac and Herrin (Seis. Res. Lett. 1997) as a semi-automatic procedure, applicable to any seismic array. With this we are able to process thousands of phases with several days of computer time on a Sun Blade 1000 workstation. Complicated geology beneath elements and elevation differences amonst the array stations made station corrections necessary. 328 core phases (including PcP, PKiKP, PKP, PKKP) were used in order to determine the static corrections. To demonstrate this application and method, we have analyzed P and PcP arrivals at the ILAR array (Eielson, Alaska) between years 1995-2000. The arrivals were picked by PIDC, for events (mb>4.0) well located by the USGS. We calculated backazimuth and horizontal velocity residuals for all events. We observed large backazimuth residuals for regional and near-regional phases. We are discussing the possibility of a dipping Moho (strike E-W, dip N) beneath the array versus other local structure that would produce the residuals.

  3. a Novel Approach to Camera Calibration Method for Smart Phones Under Road Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Bijun; Zhou, Jian; Ye, Maosheng; Guo, Yuan

    2016-06-01

    Monocular vision-based lane departure warning system has been increasingly used in advanced driver assistance systems (ADAS). By the use of the lane mark detection and identification, we proposed an automatic and efficient camera calibration method for smart phones. At first, we can detect the lane marker feature in a perspective space and calculate edges of lane markers in image sequences. Second, because of the width of lane marker and road lane is fixed under the standard structural road environment, we can automatically build a transformation matrix between perspective space and 3D space and get a local map in vehicle coordinate system. In order to verify the validity of this method, we installed a smart phone in the `Tuzhi' self-driving car of Wuhan University and recorded more than 100km image data on the road in Wuhan. According to the result, we can calculate the positions of lane markers which are accurate enough for the self-driving car to run smoothly on the road.

  4. Calibration curves for on-line leakage detection using radiotracer injection method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayoub Khatooni

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available One of the most important requirements for industrial pipelines is the leakage detection. In this paper, detection of leak and determination of its amount using radioactive tracer injection method has been simulated by Monte Carlo MCNP code. The detector array included two NaI (Tl detectors which were located before and after the considered position, measure emitted gamma from radioactive tracer. After calibration of radiation detectors, the amount of leakage can be calculated based on the count difference of detectors. Also, the effect of material and thickness and diameter of pipe, crystal dimension, types of fluid, activity of tracer and its type (24Na, 82Br, 131I, 99mTc, 113mIn as well as have been investigated on the detectable amount of leakage. According to the results, for example, leakage more than 0.007% in volume of the inlet fluid for iron pipe with outer diameter 4 inch and thickness of 0.5 cm, Petrol as fluid inside pipe, 3 3 inch detector and 24Na with activity of 100 mCi can be detected by this presented method.

  5. Use of eddy-covariance methods to "calibrate" simple estimators of evapotranspiration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumner, David M.; Geurink, Jeffrey S.; Swancar, Amy

    2017-01-01

    Direct measurement of actual evapotranspiration (ET) provides quantification of this large component of the hydrologic budget, but typically requires long periods of record and large instrumentation and labor costs. Simple surrogate methods of estimating ET, if “calibrated” to direct measurements of ET, provide a reliable means to quantify ET. Eddy-covariance measurements of ET were made for 12 years (2004-2015) at an unimproved bahiagrass (Paspalum notatum) pasture in Florida. These measurements were compared to annual rainfall derived from rain gage data and monthly potential ET (PET) obtained from a long-term (since 1995) U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) statewide, 2-kilometer, daily PET product. The annual proportion of ET to rainfall indicates a strong correlation (r2=0.86) to annual rainfall; the ratio increases linearly with decreasing rainfall. Monthly ET rates correlated closely (r2=0.84) to the USGS PET product. The results indicate that simple surrogate methods of estimating actual ET show positive potential in the humid Florida climate given the ready availability of historical rainfall and PET.

  6. Instrumentation calibration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mack, D.A.

    1976-08-01

    Procedures for the calibration of different types of laboratory equipment are described. Provisions for maintaining the integrity of reference and working standards traceable back to a national standard are discussed. Methods of validation and certification methods are included. An appendix lists available publications and services of national standardizing agencies

  7. Evaluating methods to establish habitat suitability criteria: A case study in the upper Delaware River Basin, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galbraith, Heather S.; Blakeslee, Carrie J.; Cole, Jeffrey C.; Talbert, Colin; Maloney, Kelly O.

    2016-01-01

    Defining habitat suitability criteria (HSC) of aquatic biota can be a key component to environmental flow science. HSC can be developed through numerous methods; however, few studies have evaluated the consistency of HSC developed by different methodologies. We directly compared HSC for depth and velocity developed by the Delphi method (expert opinion) and by two primary literature meta-analyses (literature-derived range and interquartile range) to assess whether these independent methods produce analogous criteria for multiple species (rainbow trout, brown trout, American shad, and shallow fast guild) and life stages. We further evaluated how these two independently developed HSC affect calculations of habitat availability under three alternative reservoir management scenarios in the upper Delaware River at a mesohabitat (main channel, stream margins, and flood plain), reach, and basin scale. In general, literature-derived HSC fell within the range of the Delphi HSC, with highest congruence for velocity habitat. Habitat area predicted using the Delphi HSC fell between the habitat area predicted using two literature-derived HSC, both at the basin and the site scale. Predicted habitat increased in shallow regions (stream margins and flood plain) using literature-derived HSC while Delphi-derived HSC predicted increased channel habitat. HSC generally favoured the same reservoir management scenario; however, no favoured reservoir management scenario was the most common outcome when applying the literature range HSC. The differences found in this study lend insight into how different methodologies can shape HSC and their consequences for predicted habitat and water management decisions. Published 2016. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  8. Investigation of the transferability of hydrological models and a method to improve model calibration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Hartmann

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to find a model parameterization such that the hydrological model performs well even under different conditions, appropriate model performance measures have to be determined. A common performance measure is the Nash Sutcliffe efficiency. Usually it is calculated comparing observed and modelled daily values. In this paper a modified version is suggested in order to calibrate a model on different time scales simultaneously (days up to years. A spatially distributed hydrological model based on HBV concept was used. The modelling was applied on the Upper Neckar catchment, a mesoscale river in south western Germany with a basin size of about 4000 km2. The observation period 1961-1990 was divided into four different climatic periods, referred to as "warm", "cold", "wet" and "dry". These sub periods were used to assess the transferability of the model calibration and of the measure of performance. In a first step, the hydrological model was calibrated on a certain period and afterwards applied on the same period. Then, a validation was performed on the climatologically opposite period than the calibration, e.g. the model calibrated on the cold period was applied on the warm period. Optimal parameter sets were identified by an automatic calibration procedure based on Simulated Annealing. The results show, that calibrating a hydrological model that is supposed to handle short as well as long term signals becomes an important task. Especially the objective function has to be chosen very carefully.

  9. Application of the Monte Carlo method for the efficiency calibration of CsI and NaI detectors for gamma-ray measurements from terrestrial samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baccouche, S., E-mail: souad.baccouche@cnstn.rnrt.tn [UR-MDTN, National Center for Nuclear Sciences and Technology, Technopole Sidi Thabet, 2020 Sidi Thabet (Tunisia); Al-Azmi, D., E-mail: ds.alazmi@paaet.edu.kw [Department of Applied Sciences, College of Technological Studies, Public Authority for Applied Education and Training, Shuwaikh, P.O. Box 42325, Code 70654 (Kuwait); Karunakara, N., E-mail: karunakara_n@yahoo.com [University Science Instrumentation Centre, Mangalore University, Mangalagangotri 574199 (India); Trabelsi, A., E-mail: adel.trabelsi@fst.rnu.tn [UR-MDTN, National Center for Nuclear Sciences and Technology, Technopole Sidi Thabet, 2020 Sidi Thabet (Tunisia); UR-UPNHE, Faculty of Sciences of Tunis, El-Manar University, 2092 Tunis (Tunisia)

    2012-01-15

    Gamma-ray measurements in terrestrial/environmental samples require the use of high efficient detectors because of the low level of the radionuclide activity concentrations in the samples; thus scintillators are suitable for this purpose. Two scintillation detectors were studied in this work; CsI(Tl) and NaI(Tl) with identical size for measurement of terrestrial samples for performance study. This work describes a Monte Carlo method for making the full-energy efficiency calibration curves for both detectors using gamma-ray energies associated with the decay of naturally occurring radionuclides {sup 137}Cs (661 keV), {sup 40}K (1460 keV), {sup 238}U ({sup 214}Bi, 1764 keV) and {sup 232}Th ({sup 208}Tl, 2614 keV), which are found in terrestrial samples. The magnitude of the coincidence summing effect occurring for the 2614 keV emission of {sup 208}Tl is assessed by simulation. The method provides an efficient tool to make the full-energy efficiency calibration curve for scintillation detectors for any samples geometry and volume in order to determine accurate activity concentrations in terrestrial samples. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer CsI (Tl) and NaI (Tl) detectors were studied for the measurement of terrestrial samples. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Monte Carlo method was used for efficiency calibration using natural gamma emitting terrestrial radionuclides. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The coincidence summing effect occurring for the 2614 keV emission of {sup 208}Tl is assessed by simulation.

  10. Performance of the air2stream model that relates air and stream water temperatures depends on the calibration method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piotrowski, Adam P.; Napiorkowski, Jaroslaw J.

    2018-06-01

    A number of physical or data-driven models have been proposed to evaluate stream water temperatures based on hydrological and meteorological observations. However, physical models require a large amount of information that is frequently unavailable, while data-based models ignore the physical processes. Recently the air2stream model has been proposed as an intermediate alternative that is based on physical heat budget processes, but it is so simplified that the model may be applied like data-driven ones. However, the price for simplicity is the need to calibrate eight parameters that, although have some physical meaning, cannot be measured or evaluated a priori. As a result, applicability and performance of the air2stream model for a particular stream relies on the efficiency of the calibration method. The original air2stream model uses an inefficient 20-year old approach called Particle Swarm Optimization with inertia weight. This study aims at finding an effective and robust calibration method for the air2stream model. Twelve different optimization algorithms are examined on six different streams from northern USA (states of Washington, Oregon and New York), Poland and Switzerland, located in both high mountains, hilly and lowland areas. It is found that the performance of the air2stream model depends significantly on the calibration method. Two algorithms lead to the best results for each considered stream. The air2stream model, calibrated with the chosen optimization methods, performs favorably against classical streamwater temperature models. The MATLAB code of the air2stream model and the chosen calibration procedure (CoBiDE) are available as Supplementary Material on the Journal of Hydrology web page.

  11. Uncertainty Evaluations of the CRCS In-orbit Field Radiometric Calibration Methods for Thermal Infrared Channels of FENGYUN Meteorological Satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Y.; Rong, Z.; Min, M.; Hao, X.; Yang, H.

    2017-12-01

    Meteorological satellites have become an irreplaceable weather and ocean-observing tool in China. These satellites are used to monitor natural disasters and improve the efficiency of many sectors of Chinese national economy. It is impossible to ignore the space-derived data in the fields of meteorology, hydrology, and agriculture, as well as disaster monitoring in China, a large agricultural country. For this reason, China is making a sustained effort to build and enhance its meteorological observing system and application system. The first Chinese polar-orbiting weather satellite was launched in 1988. Since then China has launched 14 meteorological satellites, 7 of which are sun synchronous and 7 of which are geostationary satellites; China will continue its two types of meteorological satellite programs. In order to achieve the in-orbit absolute radiometric calibration of the operational meteorological satellites' thermal infrared channels, China radiometric calibration sites (CRCS) established a set of in-orbit field absolute radiometric calibration methods (FCM) for thermal infrared channels (TIR) and the uncertainty of this method was evaluated and analyzed based on TERRA/AQUA MODIS observations. Comparisons between the MODIS at pupil brightness temperatures (BTs) and the simulated BTs at the top of atmosphere using radiative transfer model (RTM) based on field measurements showed that the accuracy of the current in-orbit field absolute radiometric calibration methods was better than 1.00K (@300K, K=1) in thermal infrared channels. Therefore, the current CRCS field calibration method for TIR channels applied to Chinese metrological satellites was with favorable calibration accuracy: for 10.5-11.5µm channel was better than 0.75K (@300K, K=1) and for 11.5-12.5µm channel was better than 0.85K (@300K, K=1).

  12. A rapid method for selecting suitable animal species for studying pathogen interactions with plasma protein ligands in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naudin, Clément; Schumski, Ariane; Salo-Ahen, Outi M H; Herwald, Heiko; Smeds, Emanuel

    2017-05-01

    Species tropism constitutes a serious problem for developing relevant animal models of infection. Human pathogens can express virulence factors that show specific selectivity to human proteins, while their affinity for orthologs from other species can vary significantly. Suitable animal species must be used to analyse whether virulence factors are potential targets for drug development. We developed an assay that rapidly predicts applicable animal species for studying virulence factors binding plasma proteins. We used two well-characterized Staphylococcus aureus proteins, SSL7 and Efb, to develop an ELISA-based inhibition assay using plasma from different animal species. The interaction between SSL7 and human C5 and the binding of Efb to human fibrinogen and human C3 was studied. Affinity experiments and Western blot analyses were used to validate the assay. Human, monkey and cat plasma interfered with binding of SSL7 to human C5. Binding of Efb to human fibrinogen was blocked in human, monkey, gerbil and pig plasma, while human, monkey, gerbil, rabbit, cat and guinea pig plasma inhibited the binding of Efb to human C3. These results emphasize the importance of choosing correct animal models, and thus, our approach is a rapid and cost-effective method that can be used to prevent unnecessary animal experiments. © 2017 The Authors. Microbial Biotechnology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd and Society for Applied Microbiology.

  13. Calibration of atomic force microscope cantilevers using standard and inverted static methods assisted by FIB-milled spatial markers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slattery, Ashley D; Blanch, Adam J; Quinton, Jamie S; Gibson, Christopher T

    2013-01-01

    Static methods to determine the spring constant of AFM cantilevers have been widely used in the scientific community since the importance of such calibration techniques was established nearly 20 years ago. The most commonly used static techniques involve loading a trial cantilever with a known force by pressing it against a pre-calibrated standard or reference cantilever. These reference cantilever methods have a number of sources of uncertainty, which include the uncertainty in the measured spring constant of the standard cantilever, the exact position of the loading point on the reference cantilever and how closely the spring constant of the trial and reference cantilever match. We present a technique that enables users to minimize these uncertainties by creating spatial markers on reference cantilevers using a focused ion beam (FIB). We demonstrate that by combining FIB spatial markers with an inverted reference cantilever method, AFM cantilevers can be accurately calibrated without the tip of the test cantilever contacting a surface. This work also demonstrates that for V-shaped cantilevers it is possible to determine the precise loading position by AFM imaging the section of the cantilever where the two arms join. Removing tip-to-surface contact in both the reference cantilever method and sensitivity calibration is a significant improvement, since this is an important consideration for AFM users that require the imaging tip to remain in pristine condition before commencing measurements. Uncertainties of between 5 and 10% are routinely achievable with these methods. (paper)

  14. Selection of the most suitable method for the extraction of DNA from foods and feeds for species identification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michaela Nesvadbová

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available High quality and purity of DNA isolated from food and feed is essential for species identification and has unpredictable influences an effect of analysis. In this study, the efficiency of eight different methods for DNA isolation was investigated. For DNA extraction, the raw chicken meet, ham, sausages, tinned lunch meat, pate, tinned feeds for dogs, complete granulated feeds for dogs and chicken flour were used. Kits of several different producers, i.e.: NucleoSpin Food (Marchery-Nagel, Wizard Genomic DNA Purification Kit (Promega, Invisorb Spin Food Kit I (Invitek, Wizard SV Genomic DNA Purification System (Promega, JetQuick Tissue DNA Spin Kit (Genomed, RNA Blue (Top-Bio, JetQuick Blood & Cell Culture Kit (Genomed, QIAamp DNA Mini Kit and QIAamp DNA Blood Mini Kit (Qiagen were employed in the study. Gel agarose electrophoresis for primary verification of DNA quality was performed. The isolates were subsequently assessed for quantity and quality using by spectrophotometer Nanodrop 2000 (Thermo Scientific. To verify of template usability and quality of isolated DNA, the polymerase chain reaction (PCR was used.Differences between isolated DNA from tinned products and meat, ham, sausage, granulated dog feed and chicken flour were found. In tinned food and feed, the DNA was more degraded, DNA content and DNA purity was lower and also PCR amplification was the most difficult. Overall DNA yield and quality have important influence on PCR products amplification. The best results were obtained with NucleoSpin Food and JetQuick Tissue DNA Spin Kit. DNA extracted by these methods proved highest yields, purity and template quality in all foods and feeds and the results of PCR analysis are excellent reproducible. Analyses showed that results depended on different food or feed using and dif­fe­rent isolation system.The results of this work will be utilized to choose the suitable isolating kit for educational course, which is designed for students and

  15. Impacts of calibration strategies and ensemble methods on ensemble flood forecasting over Lanjiang basin, Southeast China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Li; Xu, Yue-Ping

    2017-04-01

    Ensemble flood forecasting driven by numerical weather prediction products is becoming more commonly used in operational flood forecasting applications.In this study, a hydrological ensemble flood forecasting system based on Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) model and quantitative precipitation forecasts from TIGGE dataset is constructed for Lanjiang Basin, Southeast China. The impacts of calibration strategies and ensemble methods on the performance of the system are then evaluated.The hydrological model is optimized by parallel programmed ɛ-NSGAII multi-objective algorithm and two respectively parameterized models are determined to simulate daily flows and peak flows coupled with a modular approach.The results indicatethat the ɛ-NSGAII algorithm permits more efficient optimization and rational determination on parameter setting.It is demonstrated that the multimodel ensemble streamflow mean have better skills than the best singlemodel ensemble mean (ECMWF) and the multimodel ensembles weighted on members and skill scores outperform other multimodel ensembles. For typical flood event, it is proved that the flood can be predicted 3-4 days in advance, but the flows in rising limb can be captured with only 1-2 days ahead due to the flash feature. With respect to peak flows selected by Peaks Over Threshold approach, the ensemble means from either singlemodel or multimodels are generally underestimated as the extreme values are smoothed out by ensemble process.

  16. Research on calibration method of downhole optical fiber temperature measurement and its application in SAGD well

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Zhiwei; Han, Li; Hu, Chengjun; Pan, Yong; Duan, Shengnan; Wang, Ningbo; Li, Shijian; Nuer, Maimaiti

    2017-10-01

    With the development of oil and gas fields, the accuracy and quantity requirements of real-time dynamic monitoring data needed for well dynamic analysis and regulation are increasing. Permanent, distributed downhole optical fiber temperature and pressure monitoring and other online real-time continuous data monitoring has become an important data acquisition and transmission technology in digital oil field and intelligent oil field construction. Considering the requirement of dynamic analysis of steam chamber developing state in SAGD horizontal wells in F oil reservoir in Xinjiang oilfield, it is necessary to carry out real-time and continuous temperature monitoring in horizontal section. Based on the study of the principle of optical fiber temperature measurement, the factors that cause the deviation of optical fiber temperature sensing are analyzed, and the method of fiber temperature calibration is proposed to solve the problem of temperature deviation. Field application in three wells showed that it could attain accurate measurement of downhole temperature by temperature correction. The real-time and continuous downhole distributed fiber temperature sensing technology has higher application value in the reservoir management of SAGD horizontal wells. It also has a reference for similar dynamic monitoring in reservoir production.

  17. A method for the calibration of concave sup 90 Sr+ sup 90 Y ophthalmic applicators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soares, C G [National Inst. of Standards and Technology, Gaithersberg, MD (United States). Ionizing Radiation Div.

    1992-04-01

    At the Amersham Laboratory (Amersham, UK) absorbed-dose rate in tissue at a depth of 7 mg cm{sup -2} from curved ophthalmic applicators is measured with calibrated scintillator probes (Amersham International 1979, Sinclair and Trott 1956). The probes are approximately 3 mm in diameter, 0.5 mm thick and are covered with 7 mg cm{sup -2} of aluminium. They are calibrated using standard sources whose dose rate has been determined using an extrapolation chamber equipped with a 3 mm diameter collecting electrode. Crucial to this technique is the availability of well calibrated sources of nearly the same geometry and dose rate as the source to be calibrated. A technique is presented here which yields accurate measurement of the surface absorbed-dose rate in a very simple and straightforward fashion. (author).

  18. A method for the calibration of concave 90Sr+90Y ophthalmic applicators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soares, C.G.

    1992-01-01

    At the Amersham Laboratory (Amersham, UK) absorbed-dose rate in tissue at a depth of 7 mg cm -2 from curved ophthalmic applicators is measured with calibrated scintillator probes (Amersham International 1979, Sinclair and Trott 1956). The probes are approximately 3 mm in diameter, 0.5 mm thick and are covered with 7 mg cm -2 of aluminium. They are calibrated using standard sources whose dose rate has been determined using an extrapolation chamber equipped with a 3 mm diameter collecting electrode. Crucial to this technique is the availability of well calibrated sources of nearly the same geometry and dose rate as the source to be calibrated. A technique is presented here which yields accurate measurement of the surface absorbed-dose rate in a very simple and straightforward fashion. (author)

  19. Radioligand assays - methods and applications. IV. Uniform regression of hyperbolic and linear radioimmunoassay calibration curves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keilacker, H; Becker, G; Ziegler, M; Gottschling, H D [Zentralinstitut fuer Diabetes, Karlsburg (German Democratic Republic)

    1980-10-01

    In order to handle all types of radioimmunoassay (RIA) calibration curves obtained in the authors' laboratory in the same way, they tried to find a non-linear expression for their regression which allows calibration curves with different degrees of curvature to be fitted. Considering the two boundary cases of the incubation protocol they derived a hyperbolic inverse regression function: x = a/sub 1/y + a/sub 0/ + asub(-1)y/sup -1/, where x is the total concentration of antigen, asub(i) are constants, and y is the specifically bound radioactivity. An RIA evaluation procedure based on this function is described providing a fitted inverse RIA calibration curve and some statistical quality parameters. The latter are of an order which is normal for RIA systems. There is an excellent agreement between fitted and experimentally obtained calibration curves having a different degree of curvature.

  20. An improved method for evaluating ecological suitability of hydropower development by considering water footprint and transportation connectivity in Tibet, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Guannan; Wang, Xuan; Xu, Linyu; Zhang, Jin; Yu, Bing

    2014-01-01

    Ecological suitability evaluation for hydropower development is effective in locating the most suitable area for construction and emphasizes a clear direction for water resources governance. In this paper, water footprints and transportation connectivity were introduced to improve the existing ecological suitability evaluation application for hydropower development by revising the defects of the traditional indicator system. The following conclusions were reached. (1) Tibet was in a state of water use surplus; the prospect of further hydropower development is positive. (2) Chamdo, Lhasa and Nyingchi excelled in water use efficiency, and Ali was placed last. Nakchu was slightly superior to Ali, but it lagged behind the southern regions. Lhasa, Chamdo, Nyingchi, Xigaze and Shannan were suitable for hydropower development, which could further meet local needs and benefit other regions of China. (3) The evaluation results were in accordance with the actual eco-environmental conditions of the built hydropower projects, indicating that current hydropower development planning was basically reasonable.

  1. In-flight calibration of satellite ion composition data using artificial intelligence methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waldemark, J.

    1995-11-01

    The scope of this report is to evaluate some of the cognitive analyzing techniques that are available and that might be useful for calibration, validation and data analysis of a satellite measurement system. As an example, these cognitive techniques are used to perform a post launch calibration of the three-dimensional ion composition, TICS, on the Freja satellite. 17 refs, 28 figs, 6 tabs

  2. A method for an accurate in-flight calibration of AVHRR data for vegetation index calculation

    OpenAIRE

    Asmami , Mbarek; Wald , Lucien

    1992-01-01

    International audience; A significant degradation in the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) responsitivity, on the NOAA satellite series, has occurred since the prelaunch calibration and with time since launch. This affects the index vegetation (NDVI), which is an important source of information for monitoring vegetation conditions on regional and global scales. Many studies have been carried out which use the Viewing Earth calibration approach in order to provide accurate calib...

  3. Calibration of Sn-119 isomer shift using ab initio wave function methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kurian, Reshmi; Filatov, Michael

    2009-01-01

    The isomer shift for the 23.87 keV M1 resonant transition in the Sn-119 nucleus is calibrated with the help of ab initio calculations. The calibration constant alpha(Sn-119) obtained from Hartree-Fock (HF) calculations (alpha(HF)(Sn-119)=(0.081 +/- 0.002)a(0)(-3) mm/s) and from second-order

  4. Topics in the Measurement of Top Quark Events with ATLAS Pixel Detector Optoelectronics, Track Impact Parameter Calibration, Acceptance Correction Methods

    CERN Document Server

    Sandvoss, Stephan Alexander

    2009-01-01

    This thesis presents methods, which can be applied especially to the measurement of top quark events with the ATLAS detector at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) of CERN. Contributions to three fields were made: installation of the detector and its commissioning, data calibration and first physical analysis.

  5. A novel method of calibrating a MEMS inertial reference unit on a turntable under limited working conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Jiazhen; Liang, Shufang; Yang, Yanqiang

    2017-10-01

    Micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS) inertial measurement devices tend to be widely used in inertial navigation systems and have quickly emerged on the market due to their characteristics of low cost, high reliability and small size. Calibration is the most effective way to remove the deterministic error of an inertial reference unit (IRU), which in this paper consists of three orthogonally mounted MEMS gyros. However, common testing methods in the lab cannot predict the corresponding errors precisely when the turntable’s working condition is restricted. In this paper, the turntable can only provide a relatively small rotation angle. Moreover, the errors must be compensated exactly because of the great effect caused by the high angular velocity of the craft. To deal with this question, a new method is proposed to evaluate the MEMS IRU’s performance. In the calibration procedure, a one-axis table that can rotate a limited angle in the form of a sine function is utilized to provide the MEMS IRU’s angular velocity. A new algorithm based on Fourier series is designed to calculate the misalignment and scale factor errors. The proposed method is tested in a set of experiments, and the calibration results are compared to a traditional calibration method performed under normal working conditions to verify their correctness. In addition, a verification test in the given rotation speed is implemented for further demonstration.

  6. An accurate calibration method for high pressure vibrating tube densimeters in the density interval (700 to 1600) kg . m-3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanmamed, Yolanda A.; Dopazo-Paz, Ana; Gonzalez-Salgado, Diego; Troncoso, Jacobo; Romani, Luis

    2009-01-01

    A calibration procedure of vibrating tube densimeters for density measurement of liquids in the intervals (700 to 1600) kg . m -3 , (283.15 to 323.15) K, and (0.1 to 60) MPa is presented. It is based on the modelization of the vibrating tube as a thick-tube clamped at one end (cantilever) whose stress and thermal behaviour follows the ideas proposed in the Forced Path Mechanical Calibration model (FPMC). Model parameters are determined using two calibration fluids with densities certified at atmospheric pressure (dodecane and tetracholoroethylene) and a third one with densities known as a function of pressure (water). It is applied to the Anton Paar 512P densimeter, obtaining density measurements with an expanded uncertainty less than 0.2 kg . m -3 in the working intervals. This accuracy comes from the combination of several factors: densimeter behaves linearly in the working density interval, densities of both calibration fluids cover that interval and they have a very low uncertainty, and the mechanical behaviour of the tube is well characterized by the considered model. The main application of this method is the precise measurement of high density fluids for which most of the calibration procedures are inaccurate.

  7. The extended wedge method: atomic force microscope friction calibration for improved tolerance to instrument misalignments, tip offset, and blunt probes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khare, H S; Burris, D L

    2013-05-01

    One of the major challenges in understanding and controlling friction is the difficulty in bridging the length and time scales of macroscale contacts and those of the single asperity interactions they comprise. While the atomic force microscope (AFM) offers a unique ability to probe tribological surfaces in a wear-free single-asperity contact, instrument calibration challenges have limited the usefulness of this technique for quantitative nanotribological studies. A number of lateral force calibration techniques have been proposed and used, but none has gained universal acceptance due to practical considerations, configuration limitations, or sensitivities to unknowable error sources. This paper describes a simple extension of the classic wedge method of AFM lateral force calibration which: (1) allows simultaneous calibration and measurement on any substrate, thus eliminating prior tip damage and confounding effects of instrument setup adjustments; (2) is insensitive to adhesion, PSD cross-talk, transducer/piezo-tube axis misalignment, and shear-center offset; (3) is applicable to integrated tips and colloidal probes; and (4) is generally applicable to any reciprocating friction coefficient measurement. The method was applied to AFM measurements of polished carbon (99.999% graphite) and single crystal MoS2 to demonstrate the technique. Carbon and single crystal MoS2 had friction coefficients of μ = 0.20 ± 0.04 and μ = 0.006 ± 0.001, respectively, against an integrated Si probe. Against a glass colloidal sphere, MoS2 had a friction coefficient of μ = 0.005 ± 0.001. Generally, the measurement uncertainties ranged from 10%-20% and were driven by the effect of actual frictional variation on the calibration rather than calibration error itself (i.e., due to misalignment, tip-offset, or probe radius).

  8. Thermal power calibrations of the IPR-R1 TRIGA reactor by the calorimetric and the heat balance methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mesquita, Amir Zacarias; Rezende, Hugo Cesar; Souza, Rose Mary Gomes do Prado

    2009-01-01

    Since the first nuclear reactor was built, a number of methodological variations have been evolved for the calibration of the reactor thermal power. Power monitoring of reactors is done by means of neutronic instruments, but its calibration is always done by thermal procedures. The purpose of this paper is to present the results of the thermal power calibration carried out on March 5th, 2009 in the IPR-R1 TRIGA reactor. It was used two procedures: the calorimetric and heat balance methods. The calorimetric procedure was done with the reactor operating at a constant power, with primary cooling system switched off. The rate of temperature rise of the water was recorded. The reactor power is calculate as a function of the temperature-rise rate and the system heat capacity constant. The heat balance procedure consists in the steady-state energy balance of the primary cooling loop of the reactor. For this balance, the inlet and outlet temperatures and the water flow in the primary cooling loop were measured. The heat transferred through the primary loop was added to the heat leakage from the reactor pool. The calorimetric method calibration presented a large uncertainty. The main source of error was the determination of the heat content of the system, due to a large uncertainty in the volume of the water in the system and a lack of homogenization of the water temperature. The heat balance calibration in the primary loop is the standard procedure for calibrating the power of the IPR-R1 TRIGA nuclear reactor. (author))

  9. Radioimmunoassay method suitable for analysis of salivary cortisol in patients with breast cancer in treatment by teletherapy - a preliminary study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souza, Kellen Verena S.; Santos, Jane Lima dos

    2011-01-01

    Determination of salivary cortisol using radioimmunoassay and the relationship between stress levels were investigated before and after of the psychological intervention of 21 patients during teletherapy treatment of breast cancer. The benefits of psychological intervention during cancer treatment has been observed in some studies and evidence show that the patient's emotional state directly influences adherence to treatment, good prognosis and under stress. Thus, in present study 21 patients aged 50-70 years, females in the treatment of breast cancer at the Radiotherapy Service of Santa Casa de Misericordia in Belo Horizonte, were divided randomly into two groups: control (without psychological intervention) and Group TCC (with psychological intervention). Salivary cortisol concentrations are reportedly about 5.10% of those in serum, the levels has been used as an objective marker of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activity and avoided the confounding effects of venepuncture stress on cortisol levels. The assessment of cortisol in saliva has proven a valid and reliable measure of unbound steroid in the circulation. The salivary cortisol measured by radioimmunoassay in control patients and TCC showed no significant differences. The radioimmunoassay method show be suitable for analysis of salivary cortisol because allows measure low detection limits and have high sensibility. The values of TCC group and Control group were higher than reference values, except for one patient of the control group. At the beginning of treatment, both groups were homogeneous for Teletherapy. Both the TCC group as the control group had . 80% of participants in phase with stress. It was observed in the TCC group after radiotherapy showing a reversal 60% of participants without stress. The data show that cognitive-behavioral therapy has benefits for the control of psychological stress and enhance relevance of the psychologist to provide reduction or stress control during

  10. Radioimmunoassay method suitable for analysis of salivary cortisol in patients with breast cancer in treatment by teletherapy - a preliminary study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza, Kellen Verena S. [Departamento de Engenharia Nuclear. Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Pampulha, MG (Brazil); Santos, Jane Lima dos [Departamento de Ciencias Biologicas, Universidade Estadual de Santa Cruz, Ilheus, BA (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    Determination of salivary cortisol using radioimmunoassay and the relationship between stress levels were investigated before and after of the psychological intervention of 21 patients during teletherapy treatment of breast cancer. The benefits of psychological intervention during cancer treatment has been observed in some studies and evidence show that the patient's emotional state directly influences adherence to treatment, good prognosis and under stress. Thus, in present study 21 patients aged 50-70 years, females in the treatment of breast cancer at the Radiotherapy Service of Santa Casa de Misericordia in Belo Horizonte, were divided randomly into two groups: control (without psychological intervention) and Group TCC (with psychological intervention). Salivary cortisol concentrations are reportedly about 5.10% of those in serum, the levels has been used as an objective marker of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activity and avoided the confounding effects of venepuncture stress on cortisol levels. The assessment of cortisol in saliva has proven a valid and reliable measure of unbound steroid in the circulation. The salivary cortisol measured by radioimmunoassay in control patients and TCC showed no significant differences. The radioimmunoassay method show be suitable for analysis of salivary cortisol because allows measure low detection limits and have high sensibility. The values of TCC group and Control group were higher than reference values, except for one patient of the control group. At the beginning of treatment, both groups were homogeneous for Teletherapy. Both the TCC group as the control group had . 80% of participants in phase with stress. It was observed in the TCC group after radiotherapy showing a reversal 60% of participants without stress. The data show that cognitive-behavioral therapy has benefits for the control of psychological stress and enhance relevance of the psychologist to provide reduction or stress control during

  11. Regionalisation of a distributed method for flood quantiles estimation: Revaluation of local calibration hypothesis to enhance the spatial structure of the optimised parameter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odry, Jean; Arnaud, Patrick

    2016-04-01

    here is to develop a SHYREG evaluation scheme focusing on both local and regional performances. Indeed, it is necessary to maintain the accuracy of at site flood quantiles estimation while identifying a configuration leading to a satisfactory spatial pattern of the calibrated parameter. This ability to be regionalised can be appraised by the association of common regionalisation techniques and split sample validation tests on a set of around 1,500 catchments representing the whole diversity of France physiography. Also, the presence of many nested catchments and a size-based split sample validation make possible to assess the relevance of the calibrated parameter spatial structure inside the largest catchments. The application of this multi-objective evaluation leads to the selection of a version of SHYREG more suitable for regionalisation. References: Arnaud, P., Cantet, P., Aubert, Y., 2015. Relevance of an at-site flood frequency analysis method for extreme events based on stochastic simulation of hourly rainfall. Hydrological Sciences Journal: on press. DOI:10.1080/02626667.2014.965174 Aubert, Y., Arnaud, P., Ribstein, P., Fine, J.A., 2014. The SHYREG flow method-application to 1605 basins in metropolitan France. Hydrological Sciences Journal, 59(5): 993-1005. DOI:10.1080/02626667.2014.902061

  12. Joining direct and indirect inverse calibration methods to characterize karst, coastal aquifers

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Filippis, Giovanna; Foglia, Laura; Giudici, Mauro; Mehl, Steffen; Margiotta, Stefano; Negri, Sergio

    2016-04-01

    Parameter estimation is extremely relevant for accurate simulation of groundwater flow. Parameter values for models of large-scale catchments are usually derived from a limited set of field observations, which can rarely be obtained in a straightforward way from field tests or laboratory measurements on samples, due to a number of factors, including measurement errors and inadequate sampling density. Indeed, a wide gap exists between the local scale, at which most of the observations are taken, and the regional or basin scale, at which the planning and management decisions are usually made. For this reason, the use of geologic information and field data is generally made by zoning the parameter fields. However, pure zoning does not perform well in the case of fairly complex aquifers and this is particularly true for karst aquifers. In fact, the support of the hydraulic conductivity measured in the field is normally much smaller than the cell size of the numerical model, so it should be upscaled to a scale consistent with that of the numerical model discretization. Automatic inverse calibration is a valuable procedure to identify model parameter values by conditioning on observed, available data, limiting the subjective evaluations introduced with the trial-and-error technique. Many approaches have been proposed to solve the inverse problem. Generally speaking, inverse methods fall into two groups: direct and indirect methods. Direct methods allow determination of hydraulic conductivities from the groundwater flow equations which relate the conductivity and head fields. Indirect methods, instead, can handle any type of parameters, independently from the mathematical equations that govern the process, and condition parameter values and model construction on measurements of model output quantities, compared with the available observation data, through the minimization of an objective function. Both approaches have pros and cons, depending also on model complexity. For

  13. Field calibration of blowfly-derived DNA against traditional methods for assessing mammal diversity in tropical forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ping-Shin; Gan, Han Ming; Clements, Gopalasamy Reuben; Wilson, John-James

    2016-11-01

    Mammal diversity assessments based on DNA derived from invertebrates have been suggested as alternatives to assessments based on traditional methods; however, no study has field-tested both approaches simultaneously. In Peninsular Malaysia, we calibrated the performance of mammal DNA derived from blowflies (Diptera: Calliphoridae) against traditional methods used to detect species. We first compared five methods (cage trapping, mist netting, hair trapping, scat collection, and blowfly-derived DNA) in a forest reserve with no recent reports of megafauna. Blowfly-derived DNA and mist netting detected the joint highest number of species (n = 6). Only one species was detected by multiple methods. Compared to the other methods, blowfly-derived DNA detected both volant and non-volant species. In another forest reserve, rich in megafauna, we calibrated blowfly-derived DNA against camera traps. Blowfly-derived DNA detected more species (n = 11) than camera traps (n = 9), with only one species detected by both methods. The rarefaction curve indicated that blowfly-derived DNA would continue to detect more species with greater sampling effort. With further calibration, blowfly-derived DNA may join the list of traditional field methods. Areas for further investigation include blowfly feeding and dispersal biology, primer biases, and the assembly of a comprehensive and taxonomically-consistent DNA barcode reference library.

  14. An extended numerical calibration method for an electrochemical probe in thin wavy flow with large amplitude waves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Ki Yong; No, Hee Cheon [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1999-12-31

    The calibrating method for an electrochemical probe, neglecting the effect of the normal velocity on the mass transport, can cause large errors when applied to the measurement of wall shear rates in thin wavy flow with large amplitude waves. An extended calibrating method is developed to consider the contributions of the normal velocity. The inclusion of the turbulence-induced normal velocity term is found to have a negligible effect on the mass transfer coefficient. The contribution of the wave-induced normal velocity can be classified on the dimensionless parameter, V. If V is above a critical value of V, V{sub crit}, the effects of the wave-induced normal velocity become larger with an increase in V. While its effects negligible for inversely. The present inverse method can predict the unknown shear rate more accurately in thin wavy flow with large amplitude waves than the previous method. 18 refs., 8 figs. (Author)

  15. An extended numerical calibration method for an electrochemical probe in thin wavy flow with large amplitude waves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Ki Yong; No, Hee Cheon [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1998-12-31

    The calibrating method for an electrochemical probe, neglecting the effect of the normal velocity on the mass transport, can cause large errors when applied to the measurement of wall shear rates in thin wavy flow with large amplitude waves. An extended calibrating method is developed to consider the contributions of the normal velocity. The inclusion of the turbulence-induced normal velocity term is found to have a negligible effect on the mass transfer coefficient. The contribution of the wave-induced normal velocity can be classified on the dimensionless parameter, V. If V is above a critical value of V, V{sub crit}, the effects of the wave-induced normal velocity become larger with an increase in V. While its effects negligible for inversely. The present inverse method can predict the unknown shear rate more accurately in thin wavy flow with large amplitude waves than the previous method. 18 refs., 8 figs. (Author)

  16. Selection of Suitable DNA Extraction Methods for Genetically Modified Maize 3272, and Development and Evaluation of an Event-Specific Quantitative PCR Method for 3272.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takabatake, Reona; Masubuchi, Tomoko; Futo, Satoshi; Minegishi, Yasutaka; Noguchi, Akio; Kondo, Kazunari; Teshima, Reiko; Kurashima, Takeyo; Mano, Junichi; Kitta, Kazumi

    2016-01-01

    A novel real-time PCR-based analytical method was developed for the event-specific quantification of a genetically modified (GM) maize, 3272. We first attempted to obtain genome DNA from this maize using a DNeasy Plant Maxi kit and a DNeasy Plant Mini kit, which have been widely utilized in our previous studies, but DNA extraction yields from 3272 were markedly lower than those from non-GM maize seeds. However, lowering of DNA extraction yields was not observed with GM quicker or Genomic-tip 20/G. We chose GM quicker for evaluation of the quantitative method. We prepared a standard plasmid for 3272 quantification. The conversion factor (Cf), which is required to calculate the amount of a genetically modified organism (GMO), was experimentally determined for two real-time PCR instruments, the Applied Biosystems 7900HT (the ABI 7900) and the Applied Biosystems 7500 (the ABI7500). The determined Cf values were 0.60 and 0.59 for the ABI 7900 and the ABI 7500, respectively. To evaluate the developed method, a blind test was conducted as part of an interlaboratory study. The trueness and precision were evaluated as the bias and reproducibility of the relative standard deviation (RSDr). The determined values were similar to those in our previous validation studies. The limit of quantitation for the method was estimated to be 0.5% or less, and we concluded that the developed method would be suitable and practical for detection and quantification of 3272.

  17. Calibration method for a in vivo measurement system using mathematical simulation of the radiation source and the detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunt, John

    1998-01-01

    A Monte Carlo program which uses a voxel phantom has been developed to simulate in vivo measurement systems for calibration purposes. The calibration method presented here employs a mathematical phantom, produced in the form of volume elements (voxels), obtained through Magnetic Resonance Images of the human body. The calibration method uses the Monte Carlo technique to simulate the tissue contamination, the transport of the photons through the tissues and the detection of the radiation. The program simulates the transport and detection of photons between 0.035 and 2 MeV and uses, for the body representation, a voxel phantom with a format of 871 slices each of 277 x 148 picture elements. The Monte Carlo code was applied to the calibration of in vivo systems and to estimate differences in counting efficiencies between homogeneous and non-homogeneous radionuclide distributions in the lung. Calculations show a factor of 20 between deposition of 241 Am at the back compared with the front of the lung. The program was also used to estimate the 137 Cs body burden of an internally contaminated individual, counted with an 8 x 4 Nal (TI) detector and an 241 Am body burden of an internally contaminated individual, who was counted using a planar germanium detector. (author)

  18. Fitness of the analysis method of magnesium in drinking water using atomic absorption with quadratic calibration curve

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez-Lopez, Esteban

    2014-01-01

    The quantitative chemical analysis has been importance in research. Also, aspects like: quality control, sales of services and other areas of interest. Some instrumental analysis methods for quantification with linear calibration curve have presented limitations, because the short liner dynamic ranges of the analyte, or sometimes, by limiting the technique itself. The need has been to investigate a little more about the convenience of using quadratic calibration curves for analytical quantification, with which it has seeked demonstrate that has been a valid calculation model for chemical analysis instruments. An analysis base method is used on the technique of atomic absorption spectroscopy and in particular a determination of magnesium in a drinking water sample of the Tacares sector North of Grecia. A nonlinear calibration curve was used and specifically a curve with quadratic behavior. The same was compared with the test results obtained for the equal analysis with a linear calibration curve. The results have showed that the methodology has been valid for the determination referred with all confidence, since the concentrations have been very similar and, according to the used hypothesis testing, can be considered equal. (author) [es

  19. Linear model correction: A method for transferring a near-infrared multivariate calibration model without standard samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yan; Cai, Wensheng; Shao, Xueguang

    2016-12-01

    Calibration transfer is essential for practical applications of near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy because the measurements of the spectra may be performed on different instruments and the difference between the instruments must be corrected. For most of calibration transfer methods, standard samples are necessary to construct the transfer model using the spectra of the samples measured on two instruments, named as master and slave instrument, respectively. In this work, a method named as linear model correction (LMC) is proposed for calibration transfer without standard samples. The method is based on the fact that, for the samples with similar physical and chemical properties, the spectra measured on different instruments are linearly correlated. The fact makes the coefficients of the linear models constructed by the spectra measured on different instruments are similar in profile. Therefore, by using the constrained optimization method, the coefficients of the master model can be transferred into that of the slave model with a few spectra measured on slave instrument. Two NIR datasets of corn and plant leaf samples measured with different instruments are used to test the performance of the method. The results show that, for both the datasets, the spectra can be correctly predicted using the transferred partial least squares (PLS) models. Because standard samples are not necessary in the method, it may be more useful in practical uses.

  20. A Novel Nonintrusive Method to Resolve the Thermal Dome Effect of Pyranometers: Radiometric Calibration and Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji. Q.; Tsay, S.-C.; Lau, K. M.; Hansell, R. A.; Butler, J. J.; Cooper, J. W.

    2011-01-01

    Traditionally the calibration equation for pyranometers assumes that the measured solar irradiance is solely proportional to the thermopile s output voltage; therefore, only a single calibration factor is derived. This causes additional measurement uncertainties because it does not capture sufficient information to correctly account for a pyranometer s thermal effect. In our updated calibration equation, temperatures from the pyranometer's dome and case are incorporated to describe the instrument's thermal behavior, and a new set of calibration constants are determined, thereby reducing measurement uncertainties. In this paper, we demonstrate why a pyranometer's uncertainty using the traditional calibration equation is always larger than a few percent, but with the new approach can become much less than 1% after the thermal issue is resolved. The highlighted calibration results are based on NIST traceable light sources under controlled laboratory conditions. The significance of the new approach lends itself to not only avoiding the uncertainty caused by a pyranometer's thermal effect but also the opportunity to better isolate and characterize other instrumental artifacts, such as angular response and nonlinearity of the thermopile, to further reduce additional uncertainties. We also discuss some of the implications, including an example of how the thermal issue can potentially impact climate studies by evaluating aerosol s direct radiative effect using field measurements with and without considering the pyranometer s thermal effect. The results of radiative transfer model simulation show that a pyranometer s thermal effect on solar irradiance measurements at the surface can be translated into a significant alteration of the calculated distribution of solar energy inside the column atmosphere.

  1. Comparing calibration methods of electron beams using plane-parallel chambers with absorbed-dose to water based protocols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stewart, K.J.; Seuntjens, J.P.

    2002-01-01

    Recent absorbed-dose-based protocols allow for two methods of calibrating electron beams using plane-parallel chambers, one using the N D,w Co for a plane-parallel chamber, and the other relying on cross-calibration of the plane-parallel chamber in a high-energy electron beam against a cylindrical chamber which has an N D,w Co factor. The second method is recommended as it avoids problems associated with the P wall correction factors at 60 Co for plane-parallel chambers which are used in the determination of the beam quality conversion factors. In this article we investigate the consistency of these two methods for the PTW Roos, Scanditronics NACP02, and PTW Markus chambers. We processed our data using both the AAPM TG-51 and the IAEA TRS-398 protocols. Wall correction factors in 60 Co beams and absorbed-dose beam quality conversion factors for 20 MeV electrons were derived for these chambers by cross-calibration against a cylindrical ionization chamber. Systematic differences of up to 1.6% were found between our values of P wall and those from the Monte Carlo calculations underlying AAPM TG-51, and up to 0.6% when comparing with the IAEA TRS-398 protocol. The differences in P wall translate directly into differences in the beam quality conversion factors in the respective protocols. The relatively large spread in the experimental data of P wall , and consequently the absorbed-dose beam quality conversion factor, confirms the importance of the cross-calibration technique when using plane-parallel chambers for calibrating clinical electron beams. We confirmed that for well-guarded plane-parallel chambers, the fluence perturbation correction factor at d max is not significantly different from the value at d ref . For the PTW Markus chamber the variation in the latter factor is consistent with published fits relating it to average energy at depth

  2. Analysis and development of the method for calculating calibration of the working plank in the cold tube roller rolling mills

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. V. Pilipenko

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Analysis and development of the existing method of calculation of the calibrated profile of the working strips mills CTRR roller cold rolling pipe to ensure the required distribution of energy-power parameters along the cone. In presented paper, which has for aim the development of existing method for calculating the profile of calibrated working plank in the cold tube roller rolling mills, the analysis had been made and it was proposed to use Besier-lines while building the the profile of the plank working surface. It was established that the use of Besier spline-curve for calculating the calibration of supporting planks creates the possibility to calculate the parameters proceeding from reduction over the external diameter. The proposed method for calculating deformation parameters in CTRR mills is the result of development of existing method and as such shows the scientific novelty. Comparison of the plots for distribution of the force parameters of the CTRR process along the cone of deformation presents as evidence the advantage of the method to be proposed. The decrease of reduction value at the end of deformation zone favors the manufacture of tubes with lesser wall thickness deviation (especially longitudinal one, caused with waviness induced by the cold pilgering process. Joined the further development of the method of calculating the deformation parameters CTRR. It is proposed for the calculation of the calibration work surface support bracket mills CTRR to use a spline Bezier. The practical significance of the proposed method consists in the fact that calculation of all zones of the plank by means of one dependence allows simplifying the process of manufacturing the latter in machines with programmed numerical control. In this case the change of reduction parameters over the thickness of the wall will not exert the considerable influence on the character of the force parameters (the character and not the value distribution along the

  3. Ceramic material suitable for repair of a space vehicle component in a microgravity and vacuum environment, method of making same, and method of repairing a space vehicle component

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riedell, James A. (Inventor); Easler, Timothy E. (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    A precursor of a ceramic adhesive suitable for use in a vacuum, thermal, and microgravity environment. The precursor of the ceramic adhesive includes a silicon-based, preceramic polymer and at least one ceramic powder selected from the group consisting of aluminum oxide, aluminum nitride, boron carbide, boron oxide, boron nitride, hafnium boride, hafnium carbide, hafnium oxide, lithium aluminate, molybdenum silicide, niobium carbide, niobium nitride, silicon boride, silicon carbide, silicon oxide, silicon nitride, tin oxide, tantalum boride, tantalum carbide, tantalum oxide, tantalum nitride, titanium boride, titanium carbide, titanium oxide, titanium nitride, yttrium oxide, zirconium diboride, zirconium carbide, zirconium oxide, and zirconium silicate. Methods of forming the ceramic adhesive and of repairing a substrate in a vacuum and microgravity environment are also disclosed, as is a substrate repaired with the ceramic adhesive.

  4. Calibration of the pressure sensitivity of microphones by a free-field method at frequencies up to 80 khz.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuckerwar, Allan J; Herring, G C; Elbing, Brian R

    2006-01-01

    A free-field (FF) substitution method for calibrating the pressure sensitivity of microphones at frequencies up to 80 kHz is demonstrated with both grazing and normal-incidence geometries. The substitution-based method, as opposed to a simultaneous method, avoids problems associated with the nonuniformity of the sound field and, as applied here, uses a 1/4-in. air-condenser pressure microphone as a known reference. Best results were obtained with a centrifugal fan, which is used as a random, broadband sound source. A broadband source minimizes reflection-related interferences that can plague FF measurements. Calibrations were performed on 1/4-in. FF air-condenser, electret, and microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) microphones in an anechoic chamber. The uncertainty of this FF method is estimated by comparing the pressure sensitivity of an air-condenser FF microphone, as derived from the FF measurement, with that of an electrostatic actuator calibration. The root-mean-square difference is found to be +/- 0.3 dB over the range 1-80 kHz, and the combined standard uncertainty of the FF method, including other significant contributions, is +/- 0.41 dB.

  5. Method and apparatus of a portable imaging-based measurement with self calibration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Tzyy-Shuh [Ann Arbor, MI; Huang, Hsun-Hau [Ann Arbor, MI

    2012-07-31

    A portable imaging-based measurement device is developed to perform 2D projection based measurements on an object that is difficult or dangerous to access. This device is equipped with self calibration capability and built-in operating procedures to ensure proper imaging based measurement.

  6. Solving the robot-world, hand-eye(s) calibration problem with iterative methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robot-world, hand-eye calibration is the problem of determining the transformation between the robot end effector and a camera, as well as the transformation between the robot base and the world coordinate system. This relationship has been modeled as AX = ZB, where X and Z are unknown homogeneous ...

  7. A novel plane method to the calibration of the thermal camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xunsi; Huang, Wei; Nie, Qiu-hua; Xu, Tiefeng; Dai, Shixun; Shen, Xiang; Cheng, Weihai

    2009-07-01

    This paper provides an up-to-date review of research efforts in thermal camera and target object recognition techniques based on two-dimensional (2D) images in the infrared (IR) spectra (8-12μm). From the geometric point of view, a special target plate was constructed with a radiation source of lamp excited that allows all of these devices to be calibrated geometrically along a radiance-based approach. The calibration theory and actual experimental procedures were described, then an automated measurement of the circle targets by image centroid algorithm. The key parameters of IR camera were calibrated out with 3 inner and 6 outer of Tsai model in thermal imaging. The subsequent data processing and analysis were then outlined. The 3D model from the successful calibration of a representative sample of the infrared array camera was presented and discussed. They provide much new and easy way to the geometric characteristics of these imagers that can be used in car-night-vision, medical, industrial, military, and environmental applications.

  8. Apparatus for measuring resistance change only in a cell analyzer and method for calibrating it

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Robert A.

    1980-01-01

    The disclosure relates to resistance only monitoring and calibration in an electrical cell analyzer. Sample and sheath fluid flows of different salinities are utilized, the sample flow being diameter modulated to produce a selected pattern which is compared to the resistance measured across the flows.

  9. A remarkable systemic error in calibration methods of γ spectrometer used for determining activity of 238U

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Su Qiong; Cheng Jianping; Diao Lijun; Li Guiqun

    2006-01-01

    A remarkable systemic error which was unknown in past long time has been indicated. The error appears in the calibration methods of determining activity of 238 U is used with γ-spectrometer with high resolution. When the γ-ray of 92.6 keV as the characteristic radiation from 238 U is used to determine the activity of 238 U in natural environment samples, the disturbing radiation produced by external excitation (or called outer sourcing X-ray radiation) is the main problem. Because the X-ray intensity is changed with many indefinite factors, it is advised that the calibration methods should be put away. As the influence of the systemic errors has been left in some past research papers, the authors suggest that the data from those papers should be cited carefully and if possible the data ought to be re-determined. (authors)

  10. A Physically Motivated and Empirically Calibrated Method to Measure the Effective Temperature, Metallicity, and Ti Abundance of M Dwarfs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veyette, Mark J.; Muirhead, Philip S.; Mann, Andrew W.; Brewer, John M.; Allard, France; Homeier, Derek

    2017-12-01

    The ability to perform detailed chemical analysis of Sun-like F-, G-, and K-type stars is a powerful tool with many applications, including studying the chemical evolution of the Galaxy and constraining planet formation theories. Unfortunately, complications in modeling cooler stellar atmospheres hinders similar analyses of M dwarf stars. Empirically calibrated methods to measure M dwarf metallicity from moderate-resolution spectra are currently limited to measuring overall metallicity and rely on astrophysical abundance correlations in stellar populations. We present a new, empirical calibration of synthetic M dwarf spectra that can be used to infer effective temperature, Fe abundance, and Ti abundance. We obtained high-resolution (R ˜ 25,000), Y-band (˜1 μm) spectra of 29 M dwarfs with NIRSPEC on Keck II. Using the PHOENIX stellar atmosphere modeling code (version 15.5), we generated a grid of synthetic spectra covering a range of temperatures, metallicities, and alpha-enhancements. From our observed and synthetic spectra, we measured the equivalent widths of multiple Fe I and Ti I lines and a temperature-sensitive index based on the FeH band head. We used abundances measured from widely separated solar-type companions to empirically calibrate transformations to the observed indices and equivalent widths that force agreement with the models. Our calibration achieves precisions in T eff, [Fe/H], and [Ti/Fe] of 60 K, 0.1 dex, and 0.05 dex, respectively, and is calibrated for 3200 K < T eff < 4100 K, -0.7 < [Fe/H] < +0.3, and -0.05 < [Ti/Fe] < +0.3. This work is a step toward detailed chemical analysis of M dwarfs at a precision similar to what has been achieved for FGK stars.

  11. A method of camera calibration in the measurement process with reference mark for approaching observation space target

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hua; Zeng, Luan

    2017-11-01

    Binocular stereoscopic vision can be used for space-based space targets near observation. In order to solve the problem that the traditional binocular vision system cannot work normally after interference, an online calibration method of binocular stereo measuring camera with self-reference is proposed. The method uses an auxiliary optical imaging device to insert the image of the standard reference object into the edge of the main optical path and image with the target on the same focal plane, which is equivalent to a standard reference in the binocular imaging optical system; When the position of the system and the imaging device parameters are disturbed, the image of the standard reference will change accordingly in the imaging plane, and the position of the standard reference object does not change. The camera's external parameters can be re-calibrated by the visual relationship of the standard reference object. The experimental results show that the maximum mean square error of the same object can be reduced from the original 72.88mm to 1.65mm when the right camera is deflected by 0.4 degrees and the left camera is high and low with 0.2° rotation. This method can realize the online calibration of binocular stereoscopic vision measurement system, which can effectively improve the anti - jamming ability of the system.

  12. New calibration method using low cost MEM IMUs to verify the performance of UAV-borne MMS payloads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, Kai-Wei; Tsai, Meng-Lun; Naser, El-Sheimy; Habib, Ayman; Chu, Chien-Hsun

    2015-03-19

    Spatial information plays a critical role in remote sensing and mapping applications such as environment surveying and disaster monitoring. An Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV)-borne mobile mapping system (MMS) can accomplish rapid spatial information acquisition under limited sky conditions with better mobility and flexibility than other means. This study proposes a long endurance Direct Geo-referencing (DG)-based fixed-wing UAV photogrammetric platform and two DG modules that each use different commercial Micro-Electro Mechanical Systems' (MEMS) tactical grade Inertial Measurement Units (IMUs). Furthermore, this study develops a novel kinematic calibration method which includes lever arms, boresight angles and camera shutter delay to improve positioning accuracy. The new calibration method is then compared with the traditional calibration approach. The results show that the accuracy of the DG can be significantly improved by flying at a lower altitude using the new higher specification hardware. The new proposed method improves the accuracy of DG by about 20%. The preliminary results show that two-dimensional (2D) horizontal DG positioning accuracy is around 5.8 m at a flight height of 300 m using the newly designed tactical grade integrated Positioning and Orientation System (POS). The positioning accuracy in three-dimensions (3D) is less than 8 m.

  13. New Calibration Method Using Low Cost MEM IMUs to Verify the Performance of UAV-Borne MMS Payloads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai-Wei Chiang

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Spatial information plays a critical role in remote sensing and mapping applications such as environment surveying and disaster monitoring. An Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV-borne mobile mapping system (MMS can accomplish rapid spatial information acquisition under limited sky conditions with better mobility and flexibility than other means. This study proposes a long endurance Direct Geo-referencing (DG-based fixed-wing UAV photogrammetric platform and two DG modules that each use different commercial Micro-Electro Mechanical Systems’ (MEMS tactical grade Inertial Measurement Units (IMUs. Furthermore, this study develops a novel kinematic calibration method which includes lever arms, boresight angles and camera shutter delay to improve positioning accuracy. The new calibration method is then compared with the traditional calibration approach. The results show that the accuracy of the DG can be significantly improved by flying at a lower altitude using the new higher specification hardware. The new proposed method improves the accuracy of DG by about 20%. The preliminary results show that two-dimensional (2D horizontal DG positioning accuracy is around 5.8 m at a flight height of 300 m using the newly designed tactical grade integrated Positioning and Orientation System (POS. The positioning accuracy in three-dimensions (3D is less than 8 m.

  14. Development of an on-site calibration method for a current transformer testing system and its application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Jae Kap; Lee, Sang Hwa; Kwon, Sung Won; Park, Young Tae

    2008-01-01

    The ratio error and phase displacement of a current transformer (CT) are measured by using a CT testing system, which consists of a current source, a standard CT, a CT under test, a CT comparator and a CT burden. Methods for on-site calibration of the components in CT testing systems in industry have been developed recently, which do not require any component to be detached from the systems. The method utilizes several travelling transfer standards: standard CTs, non-reactive standard resistors, a calculable wide-ratio error CT and non-reactive shunt resistors. The travelling standard CT is used for absolute evaluation of a current source and a standard CT of industry. The non-reactive standard resistors and the calculable wide-ratio error CT are used to evaluate the linearity of the errors in the CT comparator. The shunt resistors are used to evaluate the CT burden of industry. The on-site calibration method using these travelling transfer standards has been successfully applied to calibration of CT testing systems in industries

  15. Error Analysis and Calibration Method of a Multiple Field-of-View Navigation System

    OpenAIRE

    Shi, Shuai; Zhao, Kaichun; You, Zheng; Ouyang, Chenguang; Cao, Yongkui; Wang, Zhenzhou

    2017-01-01

    The Multiple Field-of-view Navigation System (MFNS) is a spacecraft subsystem built to realize the autonomous navigation of the Spacecraft Inside Tiangong Space Station. This paper introduces the basics of the MFNS, including its architecture, mathematical model and analysis, and numerical simulation of system errors. According to the performance requirement of the MFNS, the calibration of both intrinsic and extrinsic parameters of the system is assumed to be essential and pivotal. Hence, a n...

  16. Method of making composition suitable for use as inert electrode having good electrical conductivity and mechanical properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, S.P.; Rapp, R.A.

    1986-04-22

    An improved inert electrode composition is suitable for use as an inert electrode in the production of metals such as aluminum by the electrolytic reduction of metal oxide or metal salt dissolved in a molten salt bath. The composition comprises one or more metals or metal alloys and metal compounds which may include oxides of the metals comprising the alloy. The alloy and metal compounds are interwoven in a network which provides improved electrical conductivity and mechanical strength while preserving the level of chemical inertness necessary for such an electrode to function satisfactorily. 8 figs.

  17. SU-F-BRA-09: New Efficient Method for Xoft Axxent Electronic Brachytherapy Source Calibration by Pre-Characterizing Surface Applicators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pai, S [iCAD Inc., Los Gatos, CA (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: The objective is to improve the efficiency and efficacy of Xoft™ Axxent™ electronic brachytherapy (EBT) calibration of the source & surface applicator using AAPM TG-61 formalism. Methods: Current method of Xoft EBT source calibration involves determination of absolute dose rate of the source in each of the four conical surface applicators using in-air chamber measurements & TG61 formalism. We propose a simplified TG-61 calibration methodology involving initial characterization of surface cone applicators. This is accomplished by calibrating dose rates for all 4 surface applicator sets (for 10 sources) which establishes the “applicator output ratios” with respect to the selected reference applicator (20 mm applicator). After the initial time, Xoft™ Axxent™ source TG61 Calibration is carried out only in the reference applicator. Using the established applicator output ratios, dose rates for other applicators will be calculated. Results: 200 sources & 8 surface applicator sets were calibrated cumulatively using a Standard Imaging A20 ion-chamber in accordance with manufacturer-recommended protocols. Dose rates of 10, 20, 35 & 50mm applicators were normalized to the reference (20mm) applicator. The data in Figure 1 indicates that the normalized dose rate variation for each applicator for all 200 sources is better than ±3%. The average output ratios are 1.11, 1.02 and 0.49 for the 10 mm,35 mm and 50 mm applicators, respectively, which are in good agreement with the manufacturer’s published output ratios of 1.13, 1.02 and 0.49. Conclusion: Our measurements successfully demonstrate the accuracy of a new calibration method using a single surface applicator for Xoft EBT sources and deriving the dose rates of other applicators. The accuracy of the calibration is improved as this method minimizes the source position variation inside the applicator during individual source calibrations. The new method significantly reduces the calibration time to less

  18. 4SM: A Novel Self-Calibrated Algebraic Ratio Method for Satellite-Derived Bathymetry and Water Column Correction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morel, Yann G; Favoretto, Fabio

    2017-07-21

    All empirical water column correction methods have consistently been reported to require existing depth sounding data for the purpose of calibrating a simple depth retrieval model; they yield poor results over very bright or very dark bottoms. In contrast, we set out to (i) use only the relative radiance data in the image along with published data, and several new assumptions; (ii) in order to specify and operate the simplified radiative transfer equation (RTE); (iii) for the purpose of retrieving both the satellite derived bathymetry (SDB) and the water column corrected spectral reflectance over shallow seabeds. Sea truth regressions show that SDB depths retrieved by the method only need tide correction. Therefore it shall be demonstrated that, under such new assumptions, there is no need for (i) formal atmospheric correction; (ii) conversion of relative radiance into calibrated reflectance; or (iii) existing depth sounding data, to specify the simplified RTE and produce both SDB and spectral water column corrected radiance ready for bottom typing. Moreover, the use of the panchromatic band for that purpose is introduced. Altogether, we named this process the Self-Calibrated Supervised Spectral Shallow-sea Modeler (4SM). This approach requires a trained practitioner, though, to produce its results within hours of downloading the raw image. The ideal raw image should be a "near-nadir" view, exhibit homogeneous atmosphere and water column, include some coverage of optically deep waters and bare land, and lend itself to quality removal of haze, atmospheric adjacency effect, and sun/sky glint.

  19. Least-squares calibration method based on a universal phase and height mapping formula in Fourier transform profilometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wen, Yongfu; Cheng, Haobo; Gao, Ya; Zhang, Huijing; Feng, Yunpeng; Pan, Baozhu

    2011-01-01

    In Fourier transform profilometry (FTP), we perform a strict theoretical analysis of the phase–height mapping relationship and give a universal calculation formula in which the constraints on the experimental setup are removed. In that case, the projector and camera can be located arbitrarily to get better information on fringes, which makes the system easy to manipulate and improves the speed of measurement. As the relationship between the phase and height distribution depends on system parameters (such as the relative position of the projector and camera) which are difficult to obtain, we propose a least-squares calibration approach for FTP, which can avoid measuring the system parameters directly. Both the simulation and experimental results prove that the 3D shape of the tested objects can be reconstructed exactly by using the calculation formula and calibration method, and that the system has better universality

  20. A primary method for the complex calibration of a hydrophone from 1 Hz to 2 kHz

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slater, W. H.; E Crocker, S.; Baker, S. R.

    2018-02-01

    A primary calibration method is demonstrated to obtain the magnitude and phase of the complex sensitivity for a hydrophone at frequencies between 1 Hz and 2 kHz. The measurement is performed in a coupler reciprocity chamber (‘coupler’) a closed test chamber where time harmonic oscillations in pressure can be achieved and the reciprocity conditions required for a primary calibration can be realized. Relevant theory is reviewed and the reciprocity parameter updated for the complex measurement. Systematic errors and corrections for magnitude are reviewed and more added for phase. The combined expanded uncertainties of the magnitude and phase of the complex sensitivity at 1 Hz were 0.1 dB re 1 V μ Pa-1 and  ± 1\\circ , respectively. Complex sensitivity, sensitivity magnitude, and phase measurements are presented on an example primary reference hydrophone.

  1. Sparse calibration of subsurface flow models using nonlinear orthogonal matching pursuit and an iterative stochastic ensemble method

    KAUST Repository

    Elsheikh, Ahmed H.

    2013-06-01

    We introduce a nonlinear orthogonal matching pursuit (NOMP) for sparse calibration of subsurface flow models. Sparse calibration is a challenging problem as the unknowns are both the non-zero components of the solution and their associated weights. NOMP is a greedy algorithm that discovers at each iteration the most correlated basis function with the residual from a large pool of basis functions. The discovered basis (aka support) is augmented across the nonlinear iterations. Once a set of basis functions are selected, the solution is obtained by applying Tikhonov regularization. The proposed algorithm relies on stochastically approximated gradient using an iterative stochastic ensemble method (ISEM). In the current study, the search space is parameterized using an overcomplete dictionary of basis functions built using the K-SVD algorithm. The proposed algorithm is the first ensemble based algorithm that tackels the sparse nonlinear parameter estimation problem. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

  2. A method for in situ absolute DD yield calibration of neutron time-of-flight detectors on OMEGA using CR-39-based proton detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waugh, C. J., E-mail: cjwaugh@mit.edu; Zylstra, A. B.; Frenje, J. A.; Séguin, F. H.; Petrasso, R. D. [Plasma Science and Fusion Center, MIT, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States); Rosenberg, M. J.; Glebov, V. Yu.; Sangster, T. C.; Stoeckl, C. [Laboratory for Laser Energetics, Rochester, New York 14623 (United States)

    2015-05-15

    Neutron time of flight (nTOF) detectors are used routinely to measure the absolute DD neutron yield at OMEGA. To check the DD yield calibration of these detectors, originally calibrated using indium activation systems, which in turn were cross-calibrated to NOVA nTOF detectors in the early 1990s, a direct in situ calibration method using CR-39 range filter proton detectors has been successfully developed. By measuring DD neutron and proton yields from a series of exploding pusher implosions at OMEGA, a yield calibration coefficient of 1.09 ± 0.02 (relative to the previous coefficient) was determined for the 3m nTOF detector. In addition, comparison of these and other shots indicates that significant reduction in charged particle flux anisotropies is achieved when bang time occurs significantly (on the order of 500 ps) after the trailing edge of the laser pulse. This is an important observation as the main source of the yield calibration error is due to particle anisotropies caused by field effects. The results indicate that the CR-39-nTOF in situ calibration method can serve as a valuable technique for calibrating and reducing the uncertainty in the DD absolute yield calibration of nTOF detector systems on OMEGA, the National Ignition Facility, and laser megajoule.

  3. A method for in situ absolute DD yield calibration of neutron time-of-flight detectors on OMEGA using CR-39-based proton detectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waugh, C J; Rosenberg, M J; Zylstra, A B; Frenje, J A; Séguin, F H; Petrasso, R D; Glebov, V Yu; Sangster, T C; Stoeckl, C

    2015-05-01

    Neutron time of flight (nTOF) detectors are used routinely to measure the absolute DD neutron yield at OMEGA. To check the DD yield calibration of these detectors, originally calibrated using indium activation systems, which in turn were cross-calibrated to NOVA nTOF detectors in the early 1990s, a direct in situ calibration method using CR-39 range filter proton detectors has been successfully developed. By measuring DD neutron and proton yields from a series of exploding pusher implosions at OMEGA, a yield calibration coefficient of 1.09 ± 0.02 (relative to the previous coefficient) was determined for the 3m nTOF detector. In addition, comparison of these and other shots indicates that significant reduction in charged particle flux anisotropies is achieved when bang time occurs significantly (on the order of 500 ps) after the trailing edge of the laser pulse. This is an important observation as the main source of the yield calibration error is due to particle anisotropies caused by field effects. The results indicate that the CR-39-nTOF in situ calibration method can serve as a valuable technique for calibrating and reducing the uncertainty in the DD absolute yield calibration of nTOF detector systems on OMEGA, the National Ignition Facility, and laser megajoule.

  4. A method for in situ absolute DD yield calibration of neutron time-of-flight detectors on OMEGA using CR-39-based proton detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waugh, C. J.; Zylstra, A. B.; Frenje, J. A.; Séguin, F. H.; Petrasso, R. D.; Rosenberg, M. J.; Glebov, V. Yu.; Sangster, T. C.; Stoeckl, C.

    2015-01-01

    Neutron time of flight (nTOF) detectors are used routinely to measure the absolute DD neutron yield at OMEGA. To check the DD yield calibration of these detectors, originally calibrated using indium activation systems, which in turn were cross-calibrated to NOVA nTOF detectors in the early 1990s, a direct in situ calibration method using CR-39 range filter proton detectors has been successfully developed. By measuring DD neutron and proton yields from a series of exploding pusher implosions at OMEGA, a yield calibration coefficient of 1.09 ± 0.02 (relative to the previous coefficient) was determined for the 3m nTOF detector. In addition, comparison of these and other shots indicates that significant reduction in charged particle flux anisotropies is achieved when bang time occurs significantly (on the order of 500 ps) after the trailing edge of the laser pulse. This is an important observation as the main source of the yield calibration error is due to particle anisotropies caused by field effects. The results indicate that the CR-39-nTOF in situ calibration method can serve as a valuable technique for calibrating and reducing the uncertainty in the DD absolute yield calibration of nTOF detector systems on OMEGA, the National Ignition Facility, and laser megajoule

  5. The Use of Color Sensors for Spectrographic Calibration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Neil B.

    2018-04-01

    The wavelength calibration of spectrographs is an essential but challenging task in many disciplines. Calibration is traditionally accomplished by imaging the spectrum of a light source containing features that are known to appear at certain wavelengths and mapping them to their location on the sensor. This is typically required in conjunction with each scientific observation to account for mechanical and optical variations of the instrument over time, which may span years for certain projects. The method presented here investigates the usage of color itself instead of spectral features to calibrate a spectrograph. The primary advantage of such a calibration is that any broad-spectrum light source such as the sky or an incandescent bulb is suitable. This method allows for calibration using the full optical pathway of the instrument instead of incorporating separate calibration equipment that may introduce errors. This paper focuses on the potential for color calibration in the field of radial velocity astronomy, in which instruments must be finely calibrated for long periods of time to detect tiny Doppler wavelength shifts. This method is not restricted to radial velocity, however, and may find application in any field requiring calibrated spectrometers such as sea water analysis, cellular biology, chemistry, atmospheric studies, and so on. This paper demonstrates that color sensors have the potential to provide calibration with greatly reduced complexity.

  6. In situ calibration of acoustic emission transducers by time reversal method

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kober, Jan; Převorovský, Zdeněk; Chlada, Milan

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 240, April (2016), s. 50-56 ISSN 0924-4247 Institutional support: RVO:61388998 Keywords : time reversed acoustic s * calibration * in situ * acoustic emission Subject RIV: BI - Acoustic s Impact factor: 2.499, year: 2016 http://ac.els-cdn.com/S0924424716300334/1-s2.0-S0924424716300334-main.pdf?_tid=0acf4736-ef6d-11e5-b826-00000aacb362&acdnat=1458568911_1c21eda9762b905a684ff939463ef3fe

  7. Importance of the metrological network for calibration of neutron logging methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rysavy, F.

    1995-01-01

    The calibration characteristics of neutron logging instrumentation are discussed. The principles of the rock, plastics, and water models are briefly outlined. Indian limestone of 9% porosity is the primary standard in the neutron logging metrology network, from which secondary standards employed during certification measurements are derived. It is recommended that rock blocks should be used as national standards, and each secondary institution should possess a set of polyethylene cylinders, one of which would serve as the main standard for the institution in question. (J.B.)

  8. A new method for calibrating the current gain of 1013 Ω amplifiers in thermal ionization mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guiqin; Zeng, Yuling; Xu, Jifeng; Liu, Wengui

    2018-03-09

    We report a new method for calibrating the current gain of 10 13 Ω amplifiers in both positive and negative mode used in thermal ionisation mass spectrometry (TIMS). This method uses any isotopic standard or sample to calibrate the gain factor as long as it can produce a stable current signal. It is simpler and more flexible than that recommended by Thermo-Fisher (the manufacture of the TIMS). In these analyses, the gains of five 10 13 Ω amplifiers were assessed. The precision of gain factors was better than 100 ppm (2 RSD) in a day, and the long term reproducibility was better than 300 ppm (2 RSD) within 2 - 8 months. After a gain was calibrated, the ratio accuracy and precision in the positive mode for 87 Sr/ 88 Sr of NIST 987 Sr and 143 Nd/ 144 Nd of La Jolla Nd were 0.710242 ± 60 (2 SD, n = 14) and 0.511842 ± 10 (2 SD, n = 22), respectively, at intensities of 88 Sr 0.3 V and 142 Nd 0.4 V, while in the negative mode for 187 Os/ 188 Os of Merck Os was 0.120229± 34 (2 SD, n = 23) at an intensity of 187 OsO 3 0.01 mV. In addition, a difference in the gain factors between the negative mode TIMS (NTIMS) and positive mode TIMS (PTIMS) has been recognized. The values of the gain factor for NTIMS and PTIMS show a deviation of 0.54% on the Triton and 0.31% on the Triton Plus TIMS in this study; therefore, gain calibration should be carried out on both NTIMS and PTIMS. Moreover, a bias of ~ 1.5×10 -5 between H and L Faraday cups for the same 10 13 Ω amplifier has been detected, hinting that the efficiency of different Faraday cups may affect the gain factors, which can be eliminated through the new method of "cross-calibration" discribed in this study. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  9. Calibration of Ge(Li) semiconductor detector by method using agar volume source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yanase, Nobuyuki; Kasai, Atsushi

    1979-12-01

    The Ge(Li) semiconductor detector was calibrated for measurements of environmental samples. The radioisotopes used for standard sources are 22 Na, 51 Cr, 56 Co, 57 Co, 133 Ba, 137 Cs, 144 Ce and 241 Am. These are mixed with hot agar aqueous solution and fixed uniformly in a cylindrical plastic case in cooling. The agar volume source is advantageous in handling over the fluid aqueous source. The prepared cylindrical standard sources are in diameters 6 and 8 cm and thicknesses 1, 5, 10, 20, 30 and 40 mm (only for 8 cm diameter). The radioactivities of prepared standard sources are between 0.03 μCi and 0.2 μCi. It takes only a week to make the calibration except data processing. The obtained full energy peak efficiency curves include 5 - 10% error due to preparation of agar source, reference radioactivity data of purchased standard solutions, reference data of branching ratio of gamma-ray and sum effect. The efficiency curves, however, are sufficient for quantitative analysis of environmental samples. (author)

  10. The calibration method for personal dosimetry system in photon and neutron radiation fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trousil, J; Plichta, J [CSOD, Prague (Czech Republic); Nikodemova, D [SOD, Bratislava (Slovakia)

    1996-12-31

    The type testing of dosimetry system was performed with standard photon radiation fields within the energy range 15 keV to 1.25 MeV and electron radiation fields within the range 0.2 MeV to 3 MeV. For type testing of neutron dosimeters {sup 252}Cf and {sup 241}Am-Be radionuclide neutron sources was used, as well as a 14 MeV neutron generator. The neutron sources moderated by various moderating and absorbing materials was also used. The routine calibration of individual photon dosemeters was carried out using a {sup 137}Cs calibration source in the air kerma quality in the dose range 0.2 mGy to 6 Gy. The type testing of neutron dosemeters was performed in collaboration with Nueherberg laboratory on neutron generator with neutron energies -.57; 1.0;; 5.3 and 15.1 MeV. The fading and angular dependence testing was also included in the tests of both dosemeter systems. (J.K.).

  11. Validation of early GOES-16 ABI on-orbit geometrical calibration accuracy using SNO method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Fangfang; Shao, Xi; Wu, Xiangqian; Kondratovich, Vladimir; Li, Zhengping

    2017-09-01

    The Advanced Baseline Imager (ABI) onboard the GOES-16 satellite, which was launched on 19 November 2016, is the first next-generation geostationary weather instrument in the west hemisphere. It has 16 spectral solar reflective and emissive bands located in three focal plane modules (FPM): one visible and near infrared (VNIR) FPM, one midwave infrared (MWIR), and one longwave infrared (LWIR) FPM. All the ABI bands are geometeorically calibrated with new techniques of Kalman filtering and Global Positioning System (GPS) to determine the accurate spacecraft attitude and orbit configuration to meet the challenging image navigation and registration (INR) requirements of ABI data. This study is to validate the ABI navigation and band-to-band registration (BBR) accuracies using the spectrally matched pixels of the Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership (SNPP) Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) M-band data and the ABI images from the Simultaneous Nadir Observation (SNO) images. The preliminary results showed that during the ABI post-launch product test (PLPT) period, the ABI BBR errors at the y-direction (along the VIIRS track direction) is smaller than at the x-direction (along the VIIRS scan direction). Variations in the ABI BBR calibration residuals and navigation difference to VIIRS can be observed. Note that ABI is not operational yet and the data is experimental and still under testing. Effort is still ongoing to improve the ABI data quality.

  12. A new method for calibrating perceptual salience across dimensions in infants: the case of color vs. luminance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaldy, Zsuzsa; Blaser, Erik A; Leslie, Alan M

    2006-09-01

    We report a new method for calibrating differences in perceptual salience across feature dimensions, in infants. The problem of inter-dimensional salience arises in many areas of infant studies, but a general method for addressing the problem has not previously been described. Our method is based on a preferential looking paradigm, adapted to determine the relative salience of two stimuli. We report here on the case of stimuli differing in color and luminance, though the method has wider potential. We were able to determine on a psychophysical curve the point at which a color contrast was equally salient to infants as a given luminance contrast. We then used these calibrated, 'iso-salient' stimuli in an object memory study. Results showed that 6.5-month-old infants noticed a color, but not a luminance, change while tracking an occluded object. Our method should have numerous applications in the study of bottom-up effects on infant attention and visual working memory.

  13. Calibration methods of plane-parallel ionization chambers used in electron dosimetry; Metodos de calibracao de camaras de ionizacao de placas paralelas para dosimetria de feixes de eletrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bulla, Roseli Tadeu

    1999-07-01

    The use of linear accelerators in radiotherapy is of great importance in Medicine, and according to international recommendations the electron beam dosimetry has to be performed using plane-parallel ionization chambers, previously calibrated in standard gamma radiation fields at accredited laboratories. In this work, calibration methods of plane-parallel ionization chambers used in dosimetry procedures of high energy electron beams of clinical accelerators were presented, tested and intercompared. The experiments were carried out using gamma radiation beams of {sup 60} Co at the Calibration Laboratory of Clinical Dosemeters at IPEN and electron beams od 4 to 16 MeV at the Radiotherapy Department of Hospital Israelita Albert Einstein, Sao Paulo. A method was chosen to be established at IPEN. Proposals of the calibration procedure, calibration certificate and data sheets are presented. (author)

  14. Effects of calibration methods on quantitative material decomposition in photon-counting spectral computed tomography using a maximum a posteriori estimator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis, Tyler E; Roeder, Ryan K

    2017-10-01

    Advances in photon-counting detectors have enabled quantitative material decomposition using multi-energy or spectral computed tomography (CT). Supervised methods for material decomposition utilize an estimated attenuation for each material of interest at each photon energy level, which must be calibrated based upon calculated or measured values for known compositions. Measurements using a calibration phantom can advantageously account for system-specific noise, but the effect of calibration methods on the material basis matrix and subsequent quantitative material decomposition has not been experimentally investigated. Therefore, the objective of this study was to investigate the influence of the range and number of contrast agent concentrations within a modular calibration phantom on the accuracy of quantitative material decomposition in the image domain. Gadolinium was chosen as a model contrast agent in imaging phantoms, which also contained bone tissue and water as negative controls. The maximum gadolinium concentration (30, 60, and 90 mM) and total number of concentrations (2, 4, and 7) were independently varied to systematically investigate effects of the material basis matrix and scaling factor calibration on the quantitative (root mean squared error, RMSE) and spatial (sensitivity and specificity) accuracy of material decomposition. Images of calibration and sample phantoms were acquired using a commercially available photon-counting spectral micro-CT system with five energy bins selected to normalize photon counts and leverage the contrast agent k-edge. Material decomposition of gadolinium, calcium, and water was performed for each calibration method using a maximum a posteriori estimator. Both the quantitative and spatial accuracy of material decomposition were most improved by using an increased maximum gadolinium concentration (range) in the basis matrix calibration; the effects of using a greater number of concentrations were relatively small in

  15. Method of evaluation of wild common tench, Tinca tinca (L., female suitability for artificial reproduction during the spawning season

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dariusz Kucharczyk

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the suitability of females for artificial reproduction of common tench based on an analysis of the size and percentage share of oocytes sampled in vivo. The females were collected from natural waters (lakes during the spawning season, After catching, the selected fish were transported to the hatchery, where the fish were kept under controlled conditions and oocytes were collected from all females. It was found that sampled oocytes were different in size and developmental stages. Oocytes were classified into 3 groups: small, medium and large. The diameter intervals for each group were 0.18-0.22 mm, 0.48-0.57 mm and 0.95-1.01 mm, respectively. Analysis of the percentage of the largest oocytes showed that their numbers decreased in time from over 40% on Day 1 to slightly over 10% on Day 10. A positive correlation was found between the percentage of the largest oocytes in the cathetered egg sample and the weight of the stripped eggs during artificial reproduction. The percentage of the largest oocytes (diameter 0.95-1.01 mm might be used as an indicator of the possibility of reproducing wild tench. No statistical differences were observed in latency time and embryo survival of females showing different quantities of the largest oocytes.

  16. Spray-Freeze Drying: a Suitable Method for Aerosol Delivery of Antibodies in the Presence of Trehalose and Cyclodextrins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pouya, Maryam Amini; Daneshmand, Behnaz; Aghababaie, Shabnam; Faghihi, Homa; Vatanara, Alireza

    2018-05-08

    We aimed to prepare spray-freeze-dried powder of IgG considering physicochemical stability and aerodynamic aspects. Spray-freeze drying (SFD) exposes proteins to various stresses which should be compensated by suitable stabilizers. The competence of cyclodextrins (CDs), namely beta-cyclodextrin (βCD) and hydroxypropyl βCD (HPβCD), at very low concentrations, was investigated in the presence of separate mannitol- and trehalose-based formulations. Spray-freeze-dried preparations were quantified in terms of monomer recovery and conformation by size exclusion chromatography (SEC-HPLC) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, respectively. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and X-ray diffractometry (XRD) were employed to identify the thermal characteristics of powders. Particle morphology was visualized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Aerodynamic behavior of powders was checked through an Anderson cascade impactor (ACI). Although all formulations protected antibody from aggregation during the SFD process (aggregation < 1%), mannitol-containing ones failed upon the storage (19.54% in the worst case). Trehalose-HPβCD incomparably preserved the formulation with fine particle fraction (FPF) of 51.29%. Crystallization of mannitol resulted in IgG destabilization upon storage. Although employed concentration of CDs is too low (less than 50:1 molar ratio to protein), they successfully served as stabilizing agents in SFD with perfect improvement in aerosol functionality. Graphical Abstract ᅟ.

  17. A comparative study of laser induced breakdown spectroscopy analysis for element concentrations in aluminum alloy using artificial neural networks and calibration methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inakollu, Prasanthi; Philip, Thomas; Rai, Awadhesh K.; Yueh Fangyu; Singh, Jagdish P.

    2009-01-01

    A comparative study of analysis methods (traditional calibration method and artificial neural networks (ANN) prediction method) for laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) data of different Al alloy samples was performed. In the calibration method, the intensity of the analyte lines obtained from different samples are plotted against their concentration to form calibration curves for different elements from which the concentrations of unknown elements were deduced by comparing its LIBS signal with the calibration curves. Using ANN, an artificial neural network model is trained with a set of input data of known composition samples. The trained neural network is then used to predict the elemental concentration from the test spectra. The present results reveal that artificial neural networks are capable of predicting values better than traditional method in most cases

  18. A comparative study of amplitude calibrations for the East Asia VLBI Network: A priori and template spectrum methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Ilje; Jung, Taehyun; Zhao, Guang-Yao; Akiyama, Kazunori; Sawada-Satoh, Satoko; Kino, Motoki; Byun, Do-Young; Sohn, Bong Won; Shibata, Katsunori M.; Hirota, Tomoya; Niinuma, Kotaro; Yonekura, Yoshinori; Fujisawa, Kenta; Oyama, Tomoaki

    2017-12-01

    We present the results of a comparative study of amplitude calibrations for the East Asia VLBI Network (EAVN) at 22 and 43 GHz using two different methods of an "a priori" and a "template spectrum", particularly on lower declination sources. Using observational data sets of early EAVN observations, we investigated the elevation-dependence of the gain values at seven stations of the KaVA (KVN and VERA Array) and three additional telescopes in Japan (Takahagi 32 m, Yamaguchi 32 m, and Nobeyama 45 m). By comparing the independently obtained gain values based on these two methods, we found that the gain values from each method were consistent within 10% at elevations higher than 10°. We also found that the total flux densities of two images produced from the different amplitude calibrations were in agreement within 10% at both 22 and 43 GHz. By using the template spectrum method, furthermore, the additional radio telescopes can participate in KaVA (i.e., EAVN), giving a notable sensitivity increase. Therefore, our results will constrain the detailed conditions in order to measure the VLBI amplitude reliably using EAVN, and discuss the potential of possible expansion to telescopes comprising EAVN.

  19. Laser's calibration of an AOTF-based spectral colorimeter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emelianov, Sergey P.; Khrustalev, Vladimir N.; Kochin, Leonid B.; Polosin, Lev L.

    2003-06-01

    The paper is devoted to expedients of AOTF spectral colorimeters calibration. The spectrometer method of color values measuring with reference to spectral colorimeters on AOTF surveyed. The theoretical exposition of spectrometer data processing expedients is offered. The justified source of radiation choice, suitable for calibration of spectral colorimeters is carried out. The experimental results for different acousto-optical mediums and modes of interaction are submitted.

  20. A Measuring System for Well Logging Attitude and a Method of Sensor Calibration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Ren

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes an approach for measuring the azimuth angle and tilt angle of underground drilling tools with a MEMS three-axis accelerometer and a three-axis fluxgate sensor. A mathematical model of well logging attitude angle is deduced based on combining space coordinate transformations and algebraic equations. In addition, a system implementation plan of the inclinometer is given in this paper, which features low cost, small volume and integration. Aiming at the sensor and assembly errors, this paper analyses the sources of errors, and establishes two mathematical models of errors and calculates related parameters to achieve sensor calibration. The results show that this scheme can obtain a stable and high precision azimuth angle and tilt angle of drilling tools, with the deviation of the former less than ±1.4° and the deviation of the latter less than ±0.1°.

  1. A measuring system for well logging attitude and a method of sensor calibration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Yong; Wang, Yangdong; Wang, Mijian; Wu, Sheng; Wei, Biao

    2014-05-23

    This paper proposes an approach for measuring the azimuth angle and tilt angle of underground drilling tools with a MEMS three-axis accelerometer and a three-axis fluxgate sensor. A mathematical model of well logging attitude angle is deduced based on combining space coordinate transformations and algebraic equations. In addition, a system implementation plan of the inclinometer is given in this paper, which features low cost, small volume and integration. Aiming at the sensor and assembly errors, this paper analyses the sources of errors, and establishes two mathematical models of errors and calculates related parameters to achieve sensor calibration. The results show that this scheme can obtain a stable and high precision azimuth angle and tilt angle of drilling tools, with the deviation of the former less than ±1.4° and the deviation of the latter less than ±0.1°.

  2. Amorphous silicon EPID calibration for dosimetric applications: comparison of a method based on Monte Carlo prediction of response with existing techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parent, L; Fielding, A L; Dance, D R; Seco, J; Evans, P M

    2007-01-01

    For EPID dosimetry, the calibration should ensure that all pixels have a similar response to a given irradiation. A calibration method (MC), using an analytical fit of a Monte Carlo simulated flood field EPID image to correct for the flood field image pixel intensity shape, was proposed. It was compared with the standard flood field calibration (FF), with the use of a water slab placed in the beam to flatten the flood field (WS) and with a multiple field calibration where the EPID was irradiated with a fixed 10 x 10 field for 16 different positions (MF). The EPID was used in its normal configuration (clinical setup) and with an additional 3 mm copper slab (modified setup). Beam asymmetry measured with a diode array was taken into account in MC and WS methods. For both setups, the MC method provided pixel sensitivity values within 3% of those obtained with the MF and WS methods (mean difference 2 ) and IMRT fields to within 3% of that obtained with WS and MF calibrations while differences with images calibrated with the FF method for fields larger than 10 x 10 cm 2 were up to 8%. MC, WS and MF methods all provided a major improvement on the FF method. Advantages and drawbacks of each method were reviewed

  3. Simplified method for creating a density-absorbed dose calibration curve for the low dose range from Gafchromic EBT3 film

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatsuhiro Gotanda

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Radiochromic film dosimeters have a disadvantage in comparison with an ionization chamber in that the dosimetry process is time-consuming for creating a density-absorbed dose calibration curve. The purpose of this study was the development of a simplified method of creating a density-absorbed dose calibration curve from radiochromic film within a short time. This simplified method was performed using Gafchromic EBT3 film with a low energy dependence and step-shaped Al filter. The simplified method was compared with the standard method. The density-absorbed dose calibration curves created using the simplified and standard methods exhibited approximately similar straight lines, and the gradients of the density-absorbed dose calibration curves were −32.336 and −33.746, respectively. The simplified method can obtain calibration curves within a much shorter time compared to the standard method. It is considered that the simplified method for EBT3 film offers a more time-efficient means of determining the density-absorbed dose calibration curve within a low absorbed dose range such as the diagnostic range.

  4. Assessing future suitability of tree species under climate change by multiple methods: a case study in southern Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helge Walentowski

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available We compared results derived using three different approaches to assess the suitability of common tree species on the Franconian Plateau in southern Germany under projected warmer and drier climate conditions in the period 2061-2080. The study area is currently a relatively warm and dry region of Germany. We calculated species distribution models (SDMs using information on species’ climate envelopes to predict regional species spectra under 63 different climate change scenarios. We complemented this with fine-scale ecological niche analysis using data from 51 vegetation surveys in seven forest reserves in the study area, and tree-ring analysis (TRA from local populations of five tree species to quantify their sensitivity to climatic extreme years. The SDMs showed that predicted future climate change in the region remains within the climate envelope of certain species (e.g. Quercus petraea, whilst for e.g. Fagus sylvatica, future climate conditions in one third of the scenarios are too warm and dry. This was confirmed by the TRA: sensitivity to drought periods is lower for Q. petraea than for F. sylvatica. The niche analysis shows that the local ecological niches of Quercus robur and Fraxinus excelsior are mainly characterized by soils providing favorable water supply than by climate, and Pinus sylvestris (planted is strongly influenced by light availability. The best adapted species for a warmer and potentially drier climate in the study region are Acer campestre, Sorbus torminalis, S. aria, Ulmus minor, and Tilia platyphyllos, which should therefore play a more prominent role in future climate-resilient mixed forest ecosystems.

  5. Three Different Ways of Calibrating Burger's Contact Model for Viscoelastic Model of Asphalt Mixtures by Discrete Element Method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feng, Huan; Pettinari, Matteo; Stang, Henrik

    2016-01-01

    modulus. Three different approaches have been used and compared for calibrating the Burger's contact model. Values of the dynamic modulus and phase angle of asphalt mixtures were predicted by conducting DE simulation under dynamic strain control loading. The excellent agreement between the predicted......In this paper the viscoelastic behavior of asphalt mixture was investigated by employing a three-dimensional discrete element method. Combined with Burger's model, three contact models were used for the construction of constitutive asphalt mixture model with viscoelastic properties...

  6. Joint test rig for tests and calibration of different methods of two-phase mass flow measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    John, H.; Erbacher, F.; Wanner, E.

    1975-01-01

    On behalf of the Federal Ministry of Research and Technology, the Institute of Reactor Components (IRB) has begun building a test rig which will be used for testing and calibrating the methods of measuring non-steady state two-phase mass flows developed by various research agencies. The test rig is designed for the generation of steam-water mixtures of any mixing ratio and a maximum pressure of 160 data. Depending on the mixing ratio, the mass flow will reach a maximum level of 10 to 20 t/h. The conceptual design phase of the test rig has largely been finished, the component ordering phase has begun. (orig.) [de

  7. A formulation of tissue- and water-equivalent materials using the stoichiometric analysis method for CT-number calibration in radiotherapy treatment planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yohannes, Indra; Kolditz, Daniel; Langner, Oliver; Kalender, Willi A.

    2012-03-01

    Tissue- and water-equivalent materials (TEMs) are widely used in quality assurance and calibration procedures, both in radiodiagnostics and radiotherapy. In radiotherapy, particularly, the TEMs are often used for computed tomography (CT) number calibration in treatment planning systems. However, currently available TEMs may not be very accurate in the determination of the calibration curves due to their limitation in mimicking radiation characteristics of the corresponding real tissues in both low- and high-energy ranges. Therefore, we are proposing a new formulation of TEMs using a stoichiometric analysis method to obtain TEMs for the calibration purposes. We combined the stoichiometric calibration and the basic data method to compose base materials to develop TEMs matching standard real tissues from ICRU Report 44 and 46. First, the CT numbers of six materials with known elemental compositions were measured to get constants for the stoichiometric calibration. The results of the stoichiometric calibration were used together with the basic data method to formulate new TEMs. These new TEMs were scanned to validate their CT numbers. The electron density and the stopping power calibration curves were also generated. The absolute differences of the measured CT numbers of the new TEMs were less than 4 HU for the soft tissues and less than 22 HU for the bone compared to the ICRU real tissues. Furthermore, the calculated relative electron density and electron and proton stopping powers of the new TEMs differed by less than 2% from the corresponding ICRU real tissues. The new TEMs which were formulated using the proposed technique increase the simplicity of the calibration process and preserve the accuracy of the stoichiometric calibration simultaneously.

  8. Experimental Evaluation of Suitability of Selected Multi-Criteria Decision-Making Methods for Large-Scale Agent-Based Simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tučník, Petr; Bureš, Vladimír

    2016-01-01

    Multi-criteria decision-making (MCDM) can be formally implemented by various methods. This study compares suitability of four selected MCDM methods, namely WPM, TOPSIS, VIKOR, and PROMETHEE, for future applications in agent-based computational economic (ACE) models of larger scale (i.e., over 10 000 agents in one geographical region). These four MCDM methods were selected according to their appropriateness for computational processing in ACE applications. Tests of the selected methods were conducted on four hardware configurations. For each method, 100 tests were performed, which represented one testing iteration. With four testing iterations conducted on each hardware setting and separated testing of all configurations with the-server parameter de/activated, altogether, 12800 data points were collected and consequently analyzed. An illustrational decision-making scenario was used which allows the mutual comparison of all of the selected decision making methods. Our test results suggest that although all methods are convenient and can be used in practice, the VIKOR method accomplished the tests with the best results and thus can be recommended as the most suitable for simulations of large-scale agent-based models.

  9. On the suitability of fast and frugal heuristics for designing values clarification methods in patient decision aids : A critical analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pieterse, A.H.; de Vries, M.

    2013-01-01

    Background  Increasingly, patient decision aids and values clarification methods (VCMs) are being developed to support patients in making preference-sensitive health-care decisions. Many VCMs encourage extensive deliberation about options, without solid theoretical or empirical evidence showing that

  10. Relative Suitability Evaluation of Two Methods of Particle-Size Analysis for Selected Soils of Sudan Savanna of Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    B. A. Lawal; B. R. Singh; G. A. Babaji; P. A. Tsado

    2013-01-01

    The two widely used methods base on the sedimentation principle (Bouyoucos hydrometer and International pipette) for particle-size analysis were comparatively evaluated on soils collected from various locations in Sudan savanna of Nigeria particularly from Sokoto and Zamfara States. The hydrometer method under-estimated the silt and over-estimated the clay content. Also, the hydrometer reading proved difficult and tended to submerge when floated for clay reading in the suspension of very sand...

  11. Preparation of the new certified reference material Virginia Tobacco Leaves (CTA-VTL-2) and development of suitable methods for checking the homogeneity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dybczynski, R.; Polkowska-Motrenko, H.; Samczynski, Z.; Szopa, Z.

    1994-01-01

    The aim of this project in the long run has been reparation of a new biological reference material: Tobacco leaves of the 'Virginia' type and its certification for the content of possibly great number of trace elements. Further aims have been: development of the suitable methods for checking the homogeneity with the special emphasis on homogeneity of small samples and the critical analysis of the performance of various analytical techniques

  12. Outdoor Terrestrial Model Ecosystems are suitable to detect pesticide effects on soil fauna: design and method development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholz-Starke, B; Nikolakis, A; Leicher, T; Lechelt-Kunze, C; Heimbach, F; Theissen, B; Toschki, A; Ratte, H T; Schäffer, A; Ross-Nickoll, M

    2011-11-01

    . Based on the results of this study using a toxic reference insecticide, the methodology seems to be suitable for use in the regulatory context of the assessment of pesticides once protection goals, data requirements and the conceptual framework are defined.

  13. A rapid method for the extraction and analysis of carotenoids and other hydrophobic substances suitable for systems biology studies with photosynthetic bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bóna-Lovász, Judit; Bóna, Aron; Ederer, Michael; Sawodny, Oliver; Ghosh, Robin

    2013-10-11

    A simple, rapid, and inexpensive extraction method for carotenoids and other non-polar compounds present in phototrophic bacteria has been developed. The method, which has been extensively tested on the phototrophic purple non-sulphur bacterium Rhodospirillum rubrum, is suitable for extracting large numbers of samples, which is common in systems biology studies, and yields material suitable for subsequent analysis using HPLC and mass spectroscopy. The procedure is particularly suitable for carotenoids and other terpenoids, including quinones, bacteriochlorophyll a and bacteriopheophytin a, and is also useful for the analysis of polar phospholipids. The extraction procedure requires only a single step extraction with a hexane/methanol/water mixture, followed by HPLC using a Spherisorb C18 column, with a mobile phase consisting of acetone-water and a non-linear gradient of 50%-100% acetone. The method was employed for examining the carotenoid composition observed during microaerophilic growth of R. rubrum strains, and was able to determine 18 carotenoids, 4 isoprenoid-quinones, bacteriochlorophyll a and bacteriopheophytin a as well as four different phosphatidylglycerol species of different acyl chain compositions. The analytical procedure was used to examine the dynamics of carotenoid biosynthesis in the major and minor pathways operating simultaneously in a carotenoid biosynthesis mutant of R. rubrum.

  14. A Rapid Method for the Extraction and Analysis of Carotenoids and Other Hydrophobic Substances Suitable for Systems Biology Studies with Photosynthetic Bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliver Sawodny

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available A simple, rapid, and inexpensive extraction method for carotenoids and other non-polar compounds present in phototrophic bacteria has been developed. The method, which has been extensively tested on the phototrophic purple non-sulphur bacterium Rhodospirillum rubrum, is suitable for extracting large numbers of samples, which is common in systems biology studies, and yields material suitable for subsequent analysis using HPLC and mass spectroscopy. The procedure is particularly suitable for carotenoids and other terpenoids, including quinones, bacteriochlorophyll a and bacteriopheophytin a, and is also useful for the analysis of polar phospholipids. The extraction procedure requires only a single step extraction with a hexane/methanol/water mixture, followed by HPLC using a Spherisorb C18 column, with a mobile phase consisting of acetone-water and a non-linear gradient of 50%–100% acetone. The method was employed for examining the carotenoid composition observed during microaerophilic growth of R. rubrum strains, and was able to determine 18 carotenoids, 4 isoprenoid-quinones, bacteriochlorophyll a and bacteriopheophytin a as well as four different phosphatidylglycerol species of different acyl chain compositions. The analytical procedure was used to examine the dynamics of carotenoid biosynthesis in the major and minor pathways operating simultaneously in a carotenoid biosynthesis mutant of R. rubrum.

  15. Calibration method of liquid zone controller using the ex-core detector signal of CANDU 6 reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, D.H.; Lee, E.K.; Shin, H.C.; Bae, S.M.; Hong, S.Y.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► We developed a new LZC calibration method and measurement system. ► Photo-neutron effect, reactor core size, and detector position were evaluated and tested. ► We applied the new method and system to Wolsong NPP Unit 1. ► The LZC calibration test was well completed, and the requirement of the test was satisfied. - Abstract: The Phase-B test (low-power reactor physics test) is one of the commissioning tests for Canada Deuterium Uranium (CANDU) reactors that ensures the safe and reliable operation of the core during the design lifetime. The Phase-B test, which includes the approach to the first criticality at low reactor powers, is performed to verify the feasibility of the reactor’s physics design and to ensure the integrity of the control and protection facilities. The commissioning testing of pressurized heavy water moderated reactors (PHWRs) is usually performed only once (at the initial commissioning after construction). The large-scale facilities of the Wolsong nuclear power plant (NPP) Unit 1 have been gradually improved since May 2009 to extend its lifetime. The refurbishment was completed in April 2011 – then this NPP has been in operation again. We discusses the new methodology and measurement system that uses an ex-core detector signal for liquid zone controller (LZC) calibration of the Phase-B test instead of conventional methods. The inverse kinetic equation in the reactivity calculator is modified to treat the 17 delayed neutron groups including 11 photo-neutron fractions. The signal acquisition resolution of the reactivity calculator was enhanced and installed reactivity calculating module by each channel. The ex-core detector was confirmed to be applicable to a large reactor core, such as the CANDU 6 by comparison with the in-core flux detector signal. A preliminary test was performed in Wolsong NPP Unit 2 to verify the robustness of the reactivity calculator. This test convincingly demonstrated that the reactivity calculator

  16. 4SM: A Novel Self-Calibrated Algebraic Ratio Method for Satellite-Derived Bathymetry and Water Column Correction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yann G. Morel

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available All empirical water column correction methods have consistently been reported to require existing depth sounding data for the purpose of calibrating a simple depth retrieval model; they yield poor results over very bright or very dark bottoms. In contrast, we set out to (i use only the relative radiance data in the image along with published data, and several new assumptions; (ii in order to specify and operate the simplified radiative transfer equation (RTE; (iii for the purpose of retrieving both the satellite derived bathymetry (SDB and the water column corrected spectral reflectance over shallow seabeds. Sea truth regressions show that SDB depths retrieved by the method only need tide correction. Therefore it shall be demonstrated that, under such new assumptions, there is no need for (i formal atmospheric correction; (ii conversion of relative radiance into calibrated reflectance; or (iii existing depth sounding data, to specify the simplified RTE and produce both SDB and spectral water column corrected radiance ready for bottom typing. Moreover, the use of the panchromatic band for that purpose is introduced. Altogether, we named this process the Self-Calibrated Supervised Spectral Shallow-sea Modeler (4SM. This approach requires a trained practitioner, though, to produce its results within hours of downloading the raw image. The ideal raw image should be a “near-nadir” view, exhibit homogeneous atmosphere and water column, include some coverage of optically deep waters and bare land, and lend itself to quality removal of haze, atmospheric adjacency effect, and sun/sky glint.

  17. Improving the Ar I and II branching ratio calibration method: Monte Carlo simulations of effects from photon scattering/reflecting in hollow cathodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawler, J. E.; Den Hartog, E. A.

    2018-03-01

    The Ar I and II branching ratio calibration method is discussed with the goal of improving the technique. This method of establishing a relative radiometric calibration is important in ongoing research to improve atomic transition probabilities for quantitative spectroscopy in astrophysics and other fields. Specific suggestions are presented along with Monte Carlo simulations of wavelength dependent effects from scattering/reflecting of photons in a hollow cathode.