Galleano, Roberto; ZAAIMAN Willem; VIRTUANI Alessandro; PAVANELLO DIEGO; Morabito, Paolo; MINUTO Alessandro; Spena, Angelo; BARTOCCI Simona; Fucci, Raffaele; LEANZA Gianni; FASANARO Daniela; CATENA Mario
2012-01-01
This paper describes the results of an intercomparison of spectroradiometers for global (GNI) and direct (DNI) normal incidence irradiance in the visible (VIS) and near infrared (NIR) spectral regions together with an assessment of the impact these results may have on the estimation of the short circuit current (Isc) calibration of photovoltaic devices and on the spectral mismatch calculation. The intercomparison was conducted in the framework of the European project Apollon with the addition...
Curtis, Tyler E; Roeder, Ryan K
2017-07-06
Advances in photon-counting detectors have enabled quantitative material decomposition using multi-energy or spectral computed tomography (CT). Supervised methods for material decomposition utilize an estimated attenuation for each material of interest at each photon energy level, which must be calibrated based upon calculated or measured values for known compositions. Measurements using a calibration phantom can advantageously account for system-specific noise, but the effect of calibration methods on the material basis matrix and subsequent quantitative material decomposition has not been experimentally investigated. Therefore, the objective of this study was to investigate the influence of the range and number of contrast agent concentrations within a modular calibration phantom on the accuracy of quantitative material decomposition in the image domain. Gadolinium was chosen as a model contrast agent in imaging phantoms, which also contained bone tissue and water as negative controls. The maximum gadolinium concentration (30, 60, and 90 mM) and total number of concentrations (2, 4, and 7) were independently varied to systematically investigate effects of the material basis matrix and scaling factor calibration on the quantitative (root mean squared error, RMSE) and spatial (sensitivity and specificity) accuracy of material decomposition. Images of calibration and sample phantoms were acquired using a commercially available photon-counting spectral micro-CT system with five energy bins selected to normalize photon counts and leverage the contrast agent k-edge. Material decomposition of gadolinium, calcium, and water was performed for each calibration method using a maximum a posteriori estimator. Both the quantitative and spatial accuracy of material decomposition were most improved by using an increased maximum gadolinium concentration (range) in the basis matrix calibration; the effects of using a greater number of concentrations were relatively small in
Spectral calibration for convex grating imaging spectrometer
Zhou, Jiankang; Chen, Xinhua; Ji, Yiqun; Chen, Yuheng; Shen, Weimin
2013-12-01
Spectral calibration of imaging spectrometer plays an important role for acquiring target accurate spectrum. There are two spectral calibration types in essence, the wavelength scanning and characteristic line sampling. Only the calibrated pixel is used for the wavelength scanning methods and he spectral response function (SRF) is constructed by the calibrated pixel itself. The different wavelength can be generated by the monochromator. The SRF is constructed by adjacent pixels of the calibrated one for the characteristic line sampling methods. And the pixels are illuminated by the narrow spectrum line and the center wavelength of the spectral line is exactly known. The calibration result comes from scanning method is precise, but it takes much time and data to deal with. The wavelength scanning method cannot be used in field or space environment. The characteristic line sampling method is simple, but the calibration precision is not easy to confirm. The standard spectroscopic lamp is used to calibrate our manufactured convex grating imaging spectrometer which has Offner concentric structure and can supply high resolution and uniform spectral signal. Gaussian fitting algorithm is used to determine the center position and the Full-Width-Half-Maximum（FWHM）of the characteristic spectrum line. The central wavelengths and FWHMs of spectral pixels are calibrated by cubic polynomial fitting. By setting a fitting error thresh hold and abandoning the maximum deviation point, an optimization calculation is achieved. The integrated calibration experiment equipment for spectral calibration is developed to enhance calibration efficiency. The spectral calibration result comes from spectral lamp method are verified by monochromator wavelength scanning calibration technique. The result shows that spectral calibration uncertainty of FWHM and center wavelength are both less than 0.08nm, or 5.2% of spectral FWHM.
Calibration with near-continuous spectral measurements
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Nielsen, Henrik Aalborg; Rasmussen, Michael; Madsen, Henrik
2001-01-01
In chemometrics traditional calibration in case of spectral measurements express a quantity of interest (e.g. a concentration) as a linear combination of the spectral measurements at a number of wavelengths. Often the spectral measurements are performed at a large number of wavelengths and in thi...... by an example in which the octane number of gasoline is related to near infrared spectral measurements. The performance is found to be much better that for the traditional calibration methods....
GIFTS SM EDU Radiometric and Spectral Calibrations
Tian, J.; Reisse, R. a.; Johnson, D. G.; Gazarik, J. J.
2007-01-01
The Geosynchronous Imaging Fourier Transform Spectrometer (GIFTS) Sensor Module (SM) Engineering Demonstration Unit (EDU) is a high resolution spectral imager designed to measure infrared (IR) radiance using a Fourier transform spectrometer (FTS). The GIFTS instrument gathers measurements across the long-wave IR (LWIR), short/mid-wave IR (SMWIR), and visible spectral bands. The raw interferogram measurements are radiometrically and spectrally calibrated to produce radiance spectra, which are further processed to obtain atmospheric profiles via retrieval algorithms. This paper describes the processing algorithms involved in the calibration. The calibration procedures can be subdivided into three categories: the pre-calibration stage, the calibration stage, and finally, the post-calibration stage. Detailed derivations for each stage are presented in this paper.
Herschel SPIRE FTS Relative Spectral Response Calibration
Fulton, Trevor; Baluteau, Jean-Paul; Benielli, Dominique; Imhof, Peter; Lim, Tanya; Lu, Nanyao; Marchili, Nicola; Naylor, David; Polehampton, Edward; Swinyard, Bruce; Valtchanov, Ivan
2014-01-01
Herschel/SPIRE Fourier transform spectrometer (FTS) observations contain emission from both the Herschel Telescope and the SPIRE Instrument itself, both of which are typically orders of magnitude greater than the emission from the astronomical source, and must be removed in order to recover the source spectrum. The effects of the Herschel Telescope and the SPIRE Instrument are removed during data reduction using relative spectral response calibration curves and emission models. We present the evolution of the methods used to derive the relative spectral response calibration curves for the SPIRE FTS. The relationship between the calibration curves and the ultimate sensitivity of calibrated SPIRE FTS data is discussed and the results from the derivation methods are compared. These comparisons show that the latest derivation methods result in calibration curves that impart a factor of between 2 and 100 less noise to the overall error budget, which results in calibrated spectra for individual observations whose n...
Spectral emissivity of surface blackbody calibrators
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Clausen, Sønnik
2007-01-01
The normal spectral emissivity of commercial infrared calibrators is compared with measurements of anodized aluminum samples and grooved aluminum surfaces coated with Pyromark. Measurements performed by FTIR spectroscopy in the wavelength interval from 2 to 20 mu m and at temperatures between 5...... in emissivity using similar materials can be reduced to 0.5-1% by optimizing the coating process and the surface geometry. Results are discussed and an equation for calculation of the equivalent blackbody surface temperature from FTIR spectra is presented, including reflected ambient radiation. It is in most...... cases necessary to correct temperature calibration results for calibrators calibrated at 8-14 mu m to obtain absolute accuracies of 0.1-1 degrees C in other spectral regions depending on the temperature. Uncertainties are discussed and equations are given for the correction of measured radiation...
Exploration of new multivariate spectral calibration algorithms.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Van Benthem, Mark Hilary; Haaland, David Michael; Melgaard, David Kennett; Martin, Laura Elizabeth; Wehlburg, Christine Marie; Pell, Randy J. (The Dow Chemical Company, Midland, MI); Guenard, Robert D. (Merck & Co. Inc., West Point, PA)
2004-03-01
A variety of multivariate calibration algorithms for quantitative spectral analyses were investigated and compared, and new algorithms were developed in the course of this Laboratory Directed Research and Development project. We were able to demonstrate the ability of the hybrid classical least squares/partial least squares (CLSIPLS) calibration algorithms to maintain calibrations in the presence of spectrometer drift and to transfer calibrations between spectrometers from the same or different manufacturers. These methods were found to be as good or better in prediction ability as the commonly used partial least squares (PLS) method. We also present the theory for an entirely new class of algorithms labeled augmented classical least squares (ACLS) methods. New factor selection methods are developed and described for the ACLS algorithms. These factor selection methods are demonstrated using near-infrared spectra collected from a system of dilute aqueous solutions. The ACLS algorithm is also shown to provide improved ease of use and better prediction ability than PLS when transferring calibrations between near-infrared calibrations from the same manufacturer. Finally, simulations incorporating either ideal or realistic errors in the spectra were used to compare the prediction abilities of the new ACLS algorithm with that of PLS. We found that in the presence of realistic errors with non-uniform spectral error variance across spectral channels or with spectral errors correlated between frequency channels, ACLS methods generally out-performed the more commonly used PLS method. These results demonstrate the need for realistic error structure in simulations when the prediction abilities of various algorithms are compared. The combination of equal or superior prediction ability and the ease of use of the ACLS algorithms make the new ACLS methods the preferred algorithms to use for multivariate spectral calibrations.
Adaptable Multivariate Calibration Models for Spectral Applications
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
THOMAS,EDWARD V.
1999-12-20
Multivariate calibration techniques have been used in a wide variety of spectroscopic situations. In many of these situations spectral variation can be partitioned into meaningful classes. For example, suppose that multiple spectra are obtained from each of a number of different objects wherein the level of the analyte of interest varies within each object over time. In such situations the total spectral variation observed across all measurements has two distinct general sources of variation: intra-object and inter-object. One might want to develop a global multivariate calibration model that predicts the analyte of interest accurately both within and across objects, including new objects not involved in developing the calibration model. However, this goal might be hard to realize if the inter-object spectral variation is complex and difficult to model. If the intra-object spectral variation is consistent across objects, an effective alternative approach might be to develop a generic intra-object model that can be adapted to each object separately. This paper contains recommendations for experimental protocols and data analysis in such situations. The approach is illustrated with an example involving the noninvasive measurement of glucose using near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy. Extensions to calibration maintenance and calibration transfer are discussed.
SIM-Lite Mission Spectral Calibration Sensitivities and Refinements
Zhai, C.; An, X.; Goullioud, R.; Nemati, B.; Shao, M.; Shen, J.; Wehmeier, U.; Wang, X.; Weiler, M.; Werne, T.; Wu, J.
2010-01-01
SIM-Lite missions will perform astrometry at microarcsecond accuracy using star light interferometry. For typical baselines that are shorter than 10 meters, this requires to measure optical path difference (OPD) accurate to tens of picometers calling for highly accurate calibration. A major challenge is to calibrate the star spectral dependency in fringe measurements -- the spectral calibration. Previously, we have developed a spectral calibration and estimation scheme achieving picometer level accuracy. In this paper, we present the improvements regarding the application of this scheme from sensitivity studies. Data from the SIM Spectral Calibration Development Unit (SCDU) test facility shows that the fringe OPD is very sensitive to pointings of both beams from the two arms of the interferometer. This sensitivity coupled with a systematic pointing error provides a mechanism to explain the bias changes in 2007. Improving system alignment can effectively reduce this sensitivity and thus errors due to pointing errors. Modeling this sensitivity can lead to further improvement in data processing. We then investigate the sensitivity to a model parameter, the bandwidth used in the fringe model, which presents an interesting trade between systematic and random errors. Finally we show the mitigation of calibration errors due to system drifts by interpolating instrument calibrations. These improvements enable us to use SCDU data to demonstrate that SIM-Lite missions can meet the 1pm noise floor requirement for detecting earth-like exoplanets.
Spectrophotometer spectral bandwidth calibration with absorption bands crystal standard.
Soares, O D; Costa, J L
1999-04-01
A procedure for calibration of a spectral bandwidth standard for high-resolution spectrophotometers is described. Symmetrical absorption bands for a crystal standard are adopted. The method relies on spectral band shape fitting followed by a convolution with the slit function of the spectrophotometer. A reference spectrophotometer is used to calibrate the spectral bandwidth standard. Bandwidth calibration curves for a minimum spectral transmission factor relative to the spectral bandwidth of the reference spectrophotometer are derived for the absorption bands at the wavelength of the band absorption maximum. The family of these calibration curves characterizes the spectral bandwidth standard. We calibrate the spectral bandwidth of a spectrophotometer with respect to the reference spectrophotometer by determining the spectral transmission factor minimum at every calibrated absorption band of the bandwidth standard for the nominal instrument values of the spectral bandwidth. With reference to the standard spectral bandwidth calibration curves, the relation of the spectral bandwidth to the reference spectrophotometer is determined. We determine the discrepancy in the spectrophotometers' spectral bandwidths by averaging the spectral bandwidth discrepancies relative to the standard calibrated values found at the absorption bands considered. A weighted average of the uncertainties is taken.
Cruzalebes, P; Sacuto, S; Bonneau, D; 10.1051/0004-6361/200913686
2010-01-01
Context. Accurate long-baseline interferometric measurements require careful calibration with reference stars. Small calibrators with high angular diameter accuracy ensure the true visibility uncertainty to be dominated by the measurement errors. Aims. We review some indirect methods for estimating angular diameter, using various types of input data. Each diameter estimate, obtained for the test-case calibrator star lambda Gru, is compared with the value 2.71 mas found in the Bord\\'e calibrator catalogue published in 2002. Methods. Angular size estimations from spectral type, spectral index, in-band magnitude, broadband photometry, and spectrophotometry give close estimates of the angular diameter, with slightly variable uncertainties. Fits on photometry and spectrophotometry need physical atmosphere models with "plausible" stellar parameters. Angular diameter uncertainties were estimated by means of residual bootstrapping confidence intervals. All numerical results and graphical outputs presented in this pap...
Spectral Estimation of NMR Relaxation
Naugler, David G.; Cushley, Robert J.
2000-08-01
In this paper, spectral estimation of NMR relaxation is constructed as an extension of Fourier Transform (FT) theory as it is practiced in NMR or MRI, where multidimensional FT theory is used. nD NMR strives to separate overlapping resonances, so the treatment given here deals primarily with monoexponential decay. In the domain of real error, it is shown how optimal estimation based on prior knowledge can be derived. Assuming small Gaussian error, the estimation variance and bias are derived. Minimum bias and minimum variance are shown to be contradictory experimental design objectives. The analytical continuation of spectral estimation is constructed in an optimal manner. An important property of spectral estimation is that it is phase invariant. Hence, hypercomplex data storage is unnecessary. It is shown that, under reasonable assumptions, spectral estimation is unbiased in the context of complex error and its variance is reduced because the modulus of the whole signal is used. Because of phase invariance, the labor of phasing and any error due to imperfect phase can be avoided. A comparison of spectral estimation with nonlinear least squares (NLS) estimation is made analytically and with numerical examples. Compared to conventional sampling for NLS estimation, spectral estimation would typically provide estimation values of comparable precision in one-quarter to one-tenth of the spectrometer time when S/N is high. When S/N is low, the time saved can be used for signal averaging at the sampled points to give better precision. NLS typically provides one estimate at a time, whereas spectral estimation is inherently parallel. The frequency dimensions of conventional nD FT NMR may be denoted D1, D2, etc. As an extension of nD FT NMR, one can view spectral estimation of NMR relaxation as an extension into the zeroth dimension. In nD NMR, the information content of a spectrum can be extracted as a set of n-tuples (ω1, … ωn), corresponding to the peak maxima
Spectral performance of Square Kilometre Array Antennas - II. Calibration performance
Trott, Cathryn M.; de Lera Acedo, Eloy; Wayth, Randall B.; Fagnoni, Nicolas; Sutinjo, Adrian T.; Wakley, Brett; Punzalan, Chris Ivan B.
2017-09-01
We test the bandpass smoothness performance of two prototype Square Kilometre Array (SKA) SKA1-Low log-periodic dipole antennas, SKALA2 and SKALA3 ('SKA Log-periodic Antenna'), and the current dipole from the Murchison Widefield Array (MWA) precursor telescope. Throughout this paper, we refer to the output complex-valued voltage response of an antenna when connected to a low-noise amplifier, as the dipole bandpass. In Paper I, the bandpass spectral response of the log-periodic antenna being developed for the SKA1-Low was estimated using numerical electromagnetic simulations and analysed using low-order polynomial fittings, and it was compared with the HERA antenna against the delay spectrum metric. In this work, realistic simulations of the SKA1-Low instrument, including frequency-dependent primary beam shapes and array configuration, are used with a weighted least-squares polynomial estimator to assess the ability of a given prototype antenna to perform the SKA Epoch of Reionisation (EoR) statistical experiments. This work complements the ideal estimator tolerances computed for the proposed EoR science experiments in Trott & Wayth, with the realized performance of an optimal and standard estimation (calibration) procedure. With a sufficient sky calibration model at higher frequencies, all antennas have bandpasses that are sufficiently smooth to meet the tolerances described in Trott & Wayth to perform the EoR statistical experiments, and these are primarily limited by an adequate sky calibration model and the thermal noise level in the calibration data. At frequencies of the Cosmic Dawn, which is of principal interest to SKA as one of the first next-generation telescopes capable of accessing higher redshifts, the MWA dipole and SKALA3 antenna have adequate performance, while the SKALA2 design will impede the ability to explore this era.
White light spectral interferometry as a spectrometer calibration tool.
de la Fuente, Raúl
2014-01-01
For this paper, we used a white light interferometer in combination with spectral lamps to perform the wavelength calibration of a dispersive spectrometer. Illuminating the spectrometer with suitable spectral lamps gives the wavelength-pixel number relationship at discrete positions of the spectrometer detector array, and the wavelength-dependent phase difference at the output of the white light interferometer allows for a complete spectral calibration at any point on the detector (i.e., for every wavelength in the spectral range of the spectrometer). The details of this new calibration procedure are discussed, and two practical examples exhibiting the robustness of the method are presented. In addition, certain issues relating to minimizing the number of spectral lines used in the calibration procedure are examined.
Cruzalèbes, P.; Jorissen, A.; Sacuto, S.; Bonneau, D.
2010-06-01
Context. Accurate long-baseline interferometric measurements require careful calibration with reference stars. Small calibrators with high angular diameter accuracy ensure the true visibility uncertainty to be dominated by the measurement errors. Aims: We review some indirect methods for estimating angular diameter, using various types of input data. Each diameter estimate, obtained for the test-case calibrator star λ Gru, is compared with the value 2.71 mas found in the Bordé calibrator catalogue published in 2002. Methods: Angular size estimations from spectral type, spectral index, in-band magnitude, broadband photometry, and spectrophotometry give close estimates of the angular diameter, with slightly variable uncertainties. Fits on photometry and spectrophotometry need physical atmosphere models with “plausible” stellar parameters. Angular diameter uncertainties were estimated by means of residual bootstrapping confidence intervals. All numerical results and graphical outputs presented in this paper were obtained using the routines developed under PV-WAVE®, which compose the modular software suite SPIDAST, created to calibrate and interprete spectroscopic and interferometric measurements, particularly those obtained with VLTI-AMBER. Results: The final angular diameter estimate 2.70 mas of λ Gru, with 68% confidence interval 2.65-2.81 mas, is obtained by fit of the MARCS model on the ISO-SWS 2.38-27.5 μm spectrum, with the stellar parameters Te = 4250 K, log g = 2.0, z = 0.0 dex, M = 1.0 M⊙, and ξ_t = 2.0 km s-1.
NREL Spectral Standards Development and Broadband Radiometric Calibrations
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Myers, D. R.; Andreas, A.; Stoffel, T.; Reda, I.; Wilcox, S.; Gotseff, P.; Kay, B.; Gueymard, C.
2003-05-01
We describe a final version of revisions to current ASTM reference standard spectral distributions used to evaluate photovoltaic device performance. An NREL-developed graphical user interface for working with the SMARTS2 spectral model has been developed and is being tested. A proposed ASTM reference Ultraviolet (UV) spectra for materials durability is presented. Improvements in broadband outdoor radiometer calibration, characterization, and reporting software reduce uncertainties in broadband radiometer calibrations.
Global cross-calibration of Landsat spectral mixture models
de Sousa, Daniel; Small, Christopher
2016-01-01
Data continuity for the Landsat program relies on accurate cross-calibration among sensors. The Landsat 8 OLI has been shown to exhibit superior performance to the sensors on Landsats 4-7 with respect to radiometric calibration, signal to noise, and geolocation. However, improvements to the positioning of the spectral response functions on the OLI have resulted in known biases for commonly used spectral indices because the new band responses integrate absorption features differently from prev...
Spectral calibration in the mid-infrared: Challenges and solutions
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sloan, G. C. [Cornell University, Center for Radiophysics and Space Research, Ithaca, NY 14853-6801 (United States); Herter, T. L.; Houck, J. R. [Cornell University, Astronomy Department, Ithaca, NY 14853-6801 (United States); Charmandaris, V. [Department of Physics and ITCP, University of Crete, GR-71003, Heraklion (Greece); Sheth, K. [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, 520 Edgemont Road, Charlottesville, VA 22903 (United States); Burgdorf, M., E-mail: sloan@isc.astro.cornell.edu [HE Space Operations, Flughafenallee 24, D-28199 Bremen (Germany)
2015-01-01
We present spectra obtained with the Infrared Spectrograph on the Spitzer Space Telescope of 33 K giants and 20 A dwarfs to assess their suitability as spectrophotometric standard stars. The K giants confirm previous findings that the strength of the SiO absorption band at 8 μm increases for both later optical spectral classes and redder (B–V){sub 0} colors, but with considerable scatter. For K giants, the synthetic spectra underpredict the strengths of the molecular bands from SiO and OH. For these reasons, the assumed true spectra for K giants should be based on the assumption that molecular band strengths in the infrared can be predicted accurately from neither optical spectral class or color nor synthetric spectra. The OH bands in K giants grow stronger with cooler stellar temperatures, and they are stronger than predicted by synthetic spectra. As a group, A dwarfs are better behaved and more predictable than the K giants, but they are more likely to show red excesses from debris disks. No suitable A dwarfs were located in parts of the sky continuously observable from Spitzer, and with previous means of estimating the true spectra of K giants ruled out, it was necessary to use models of A dwarfs to calibrate spectra of K giants from observed spectral ratios of the two groups and then use the calibrated K giants as standards for the full database of infrared spectra from Spitzer. We also describe a lingering artifact that affects the spectra of faint blue sources at 24 μm.
Prelaunch spectral calibration of a carbon dioxide spectrometer
Li, Zhigang; Lin, Chao; Li, Chengliang; Wang, Long; Ji, Zhenhua; Xue, Hao; Wei, Yuefeng; Gong, Chenghu; Gao, Minghui; Liu, Lei; Gao, Zhiliang; Zheng, Yuquan
2017-06-01
The carbon dioxide spectrometer (CDS) on board the Chinese Carbon Dioxide Observation Satellite (TanSat) is a high spectral and spatial resolution grating spectrometer with three specific spectral bands dedicated to atmospheric CO2 detection. The CDS’s design and on-ground spectral calibration are presented in this paper. The instrument line shape functions and spectral dispersion were characterized using a tunable diode laser-based testing system for all spectral pixels of the CDS placed in a thermal vacuum chamber.
Absolute spectral radiance responsivity calibration of sun photometers
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Xu Qiuyun; Zheng Xiaobing; Zhang Wei; Wang Xianhua; Li Jianjun; Li Xin [Key Laboratory of Optical Calibration and Characterization, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China); Li Zhengqiang [Laboratoire d' Optique Atmospherique, Universite Lille 1, Villeneuve d' Ascq 59655 (France) and State Key Laboratory of Remote Sensing Science, Institute of Remote Sensing Applications, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101 (China)
2010-03-15
Sun photometers are designed to measure direct solar irradiance and diffused sky radiance for the purpose of atmospheric parameters characterization. A sun photometer is usually calibrated by using a lamp-illuminated integrating sphere source for its band-averaged radiance responsivity, which normally has an uncertainty of 3%-5% at present. Considering the calibration coefficients may also change with time, a regular high precision calibration is important to maintain data quality. In this paper, a tunable-laser-based facility for spectral radiance responsivity calibration has been developed at the Key Laboratory of Optical Calibration and Characterization, Chinese Academy of Sciences. A reference standard radiance radiometer, calibrated against cryogenic radiometer, is used to determine the radiance from a laser-illuminated integrating sphere source. Spectral radiance responsivity of CIMEL CE318-2 sun photometer is calibrated using this new calibration system with a combined standard uncertainty of about 0.8%. As a validation, the derived band-averaged radiance responsivity are compared to that from a Goddard Space Flight Center lamp-based sphere calibration and good agreements (difference <1.4%) are found from 675 to 1020 nm bands.
Absolute spectral radiance responsivity calibration of sun photometers.
Xu, Qiuyun; Zheng, Xiaobing; Li, Zhengqiang; Zhang, Wei; Wang, Xianhua; Li, Jianjun; Li, Xin
2010-03-01
Sun photometers are designed to measure direct solar irradiance and diffused sky radiance for the purpose of atmospheric parameters characterization. A sun photometer is usually calibrated by using a lamp-illuminated integrating sphere source for its band-averaged radiance responsivity, which normally has an uncertainty of 3%-5% at present. Considering the calibration coefficients may also change with time, a regular high precision calibration is important to maintain data quality. In this paper, a tunable-laser-based facility for spectral radiance responsivity calibration has been developed at the Key Laboratory of Optical Calibration and Characterization, Chinese Academy of Sciences. A reference standard radiance radiometer, calibrated against cryogenic radiometer, is used to determine the radiance from a laser-illuminated integrating sphere source. Spectral radiance responsivity of CIMEL CE318-2 sun photometer is calibrated using this new calibration system with a combined standard uncertainty of about 0.8%. As a validation, the derived band-averaged radiance responsivity are compared to that from a Goddard Space Flight Center lamp-based sphere calibration and good agreements (difference <1.4%) are found from 675 to 1020 nm bands.
An Algorithm for In-Flight Spectral Calibration of Imaging Spectrometers
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Gerrit Kuhlmann
2016-12-01
Full Text Available Accurate spectral calibration of satellite and airborne spectrometers is essential for remote sensing applications that rely on accurate knowledge of center wavelength (CW positions and slit function parameters (SFP. We present a new in-flight spectral calibration algorithm that retrieves CWs and SFPs across a wide spectral range by fitting a high-resolution solar spectrum and atmospheric absorbers to in-flight radiance spectra. Using a maximum a posteriori optimal estimation approach, the quality of the fit can be improved with a priori information. The algorithm was tested with synthetic spectra and applied to data from the APEX imaging spectrometer over the spectral range of 385–870 nm. CWs were retrieved with high accuracy (uncertainty <0.05 spectral pixels from Fraunhofer lines below 550 nm and atmospheric absorbers above 650 nm. This enabled a detailed characterization of APEX’s across-track spectral smile and a previously unknown along-track drift. The FWHMs of the slit function were also retrieved with good accuracy (<10% uncertainty for synthetic spectra, while some obvious misfits appear for the APEX spectra that are likely related to radiometric calibration issues. In conclusion, our algorithm significantly improves the in-flight spectral calibration of APEX and similar spectrometers, making them better suited for the retrieval of atmospheric and surface variables relying on accurate calibration.
Spectrally and Radiometrically Stable, Wideband, Onboard Calibration Source
Coles, James B.; Richardson, Brandon S.; Eastwood, Michael L.; Sarture, Charles M.; Quetin, Gregory R.; Porter, Michael D.; Green, Robert O.; Nolte, Scott H.; Hernandez, Marco A.; Knoll, Linley A.
2013-01-01
The Onboard Calibration (OBC) source incorporates a medical/scientific-grade halogen source with a precisely designed fiber coupling system, and a fiber-based intensity-monitoring feedback loop that results in radiometric and spectral stabilities to within less than 0.3 percent over a 15-hour period. The airborne imaging spectrometer systems developed at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory incorporate OBC sources to provide auxiliary in-use system calibration data. The use of the OBC source will provide a significant increase in the quantitative accuracy, reliability, and resulting utility of the spectral data collected from current and future imaging spectrometer instruments.
Herschel SPIRE FTS Spectral Mapping Calibration
Benielli, Dominique; Hopwood, Rosalind; Marín, Ana Belén Griñón; Fulton, Trevor; Imhof, Peter; Lim, Tanya; Lu, Nanyao; Makiwa, Gibion; Marchili, Nicola; Naylor, David; Spencer, Locke; Swinyard, Bruce; Valtchanov, Ivan; van der Wiel, Matthijs
2014-01-01
The Herschel SPIRE Fourier transform spectrometer (FTS) performs spectral imaging in the 447-1546 GHz band. It can observe in three spatial sampling modes: sparse mode, with a single pointing on sky, or intermediate or full modes with 1 and 1/2 beam spacing, respectively. In this paper, we investigate the uncertainty and repeatability for fully sampled FTS mapping observations. The repeatability is characterised using nine observations of the Orion Bar. Metrics are derived based on the ratio of the measured intensity in each observation compared to that in the combined spectral cube from all observations. The mean relative deviation is determined to be within 2%, and the pixel-by-pixel scatter is ~7%. The scatter increases towards the edges of the maps. The uncertainty in the frequency scale is also studied, and the spread in the line centre velocity across the maps is found to be ~15 km/s. Other causes of uncertainty are also discussed including the effect of pointing and the additive uncertainty in the cont...
Spectral unmixing: estimating partial abundances
CSIR Research Space (South Africa)
Debba, Pravesh
2009-01-01
Full Text Available of spectral unmixing 3 End-member spectra and synthetic mixtures 4 Results 5 Conclusions Debba (CSIR) Spectral Unmixing LQM 2009 2 / 22 Background and Research Question If research could be as easy as eating a chocolate cake . . . Figure: Can you guess... the ingredients for this chocolate cake? Debba (CSIR) Spectral Unmixing LQM 2009 3 / 22 Background and Research Question Ingredients Quantity unsweetened chocolate unsweetened cocoa powder boiling water flour baking powder baking soda salt unsalted...
Global cross-calibration of Landsat spectral mixture models
Sousa, Daniel
2016-01-01
Data continuity for the Landsat program relies on accurate cross-calibration among sensors. The Landsat 8 OLI has been shown to exhibit superior performance to the sensors on Landsats 4-7 with respect to radiometric calibration, signal to noise, and geolocation. However, improvements to the positioning of the spectral response functions on the OLI have resulted in known biases for commonly used spectral indices because the new band responses integrate absorption features differently from previous Landsat sensors. The objective of this analysis is to quantify the impact of these changes on linear spectral mixture models that use imagery collected by different Landsat sensors. The 2013 underflight of Landsat 7 and 8 provides an opportunity to cross calibrate the spectral mixing spaces of the ETM+ and OLI sensors using near-simultaneous acquisitions from a wide variety of land cover types worldwide. We use 80,910,343 pairs of OLI and ETM+ spectra to characterize the OLI spectral mixing space and perform a cross-...
Timing calibration and spectral cleaning of LOFAR time series data
Corstanje, A.; Buitink, S.; Enriquez, J. E.; Falcke, H.; Hörandel, J. R.; Krause, M.; Nelles, A.; Rachen, J. P.; Schellart, P.; Scholten, O.; ter Veen, S.; Thoudam, S.; Trinh, T. N. G.
2016-05-01
We describe a method for spectral cleaning and timing calibration of short time series data of the voltage in individual radio interferometer receivers. It makes use of phase differences in fast Fourier transform (FFT) spectra across antenna pairs. For strong, localized terrestrial sources these are stable over time, while being approximately uniform-random for a sum over many sources or for noise. Using only milliseconds-long datasets, the method finds the strongest interfering transmitters, a first-order solution for relative timing calibrations, and faulty data channels. No knowledge of gain response or quiescent noise levels of the receivers is required. With relatively small data volumes, this approach is suitable for use in an online system monitoring setup for interferometric arrays. We have applied the method to our cosmic-ray data collection, a collection of measurements of short pulses from extensive air showers, recorded by the LOFAR radio telescope. Per air shower, we have collected 2 ms of raw time series data for each receiver. The spectral cleaning has a calculated optimal sensitivity corresponding to a power signal-to-noise ratio of 0.08 (or -11 dB) in a spectral window of 25 kHz, for 2 ms of data in 48 antennas. This is well sufficient for our application. Timing calibration across individual antenna pairs has been performed at 0.4 ns precision; for calibration of signal clocks across stations of 48 antennas the precision is 0.1 ns. Monitoring differences in timing calibration per antenna pair over the course of the period 2011 to 2015 shows a precision of 0.08 ns, which is useful for monitoring and correcting drifts in signal path synchronizations. A cross-check method for timing calibration is presented, using a pulse transmitter carried by a drone flying over the array. Timing precision is similar, 0.3 ns, but is limited by transmitter position measurements, while requiring dedicated flights.
Wang, Hongxin; Yoda, Yoshitaka; Dong, Weibing; Huang, Songping D
2013-09-01
The conventional energy calibration for nuclear resonant vibrational spectroscopy (NRVS) is usually long. Meanwhile, taking NRVS samples out of the cryostat increases the chance of sample damage, which makes it impossible to carry out an energy calibration during one NRVS measurement. In this study, by manipulating the 14.4 keV beam through the main measurement chamber without moving out the NRVS sample, two alternative calibration procedures have been proposed and established: (i) an in situ calibration procedure, which measures the main NRVS sample at stage A and the calibration sample at stage B simultaneously, and calibrates the energies for observing extremely small spectral shifts; for example, the 0.3 meV energy shift between the 100%-(57)Fe-enriched [Fe4S4Cl4](=) and 10%-(57)Fe and 90%-(54)Fe labeled [Fe4S4Cl4](=) has been well resolved; (ii) a quick-switching energy calibration procedure, which reduces each calibration time from 3-4 h to about 30 min. Although the quick-switching calibration is not in situ, it is suitable for normal NRVS measurements.
[Modern spectral estimation of ICP-AES].
Zhang, Z; Jia, Q; Liu, S; Guo, L; Chen, H; Zeng, X
2000-06-01
The inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES) and its signal characteristics were discussed using modern spectral estimation technique. The power spectra density (PSD) was calculated using the auto-regression (AR) model of modern spectra estimation. The Levinson-Durbin recursion method was used to estimate the model parameters which were used for the PSD computation. The results obtained with actual ICP-AES spectra and measurements showed that the spectral estimation technique was helpful for the better understanding about spectral composition and signal characteristics.
Angle of arrival estimation using spectral interferometry
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Barber, Z.W.; Harrington, C.; Thiel, C.W.; Babbitt, W.R. [Spectrum Lab, Montana State University, Bozeman, MT 59717 (United States); Krishna Mohan, R., E-mail: krishna@spectrum.montana.ed [Spectrum Lab, Montana State University, Bozeman, MT 59717 (United States)
2010-09-15
We have developed a correlative signal processing concept based on a Mach-Zehnder interferometer and spatial-spectral (S2) materials that enables direct mapping of RF spectral phase as well as power spectral recording. This configuration can be used for precise frequency resolved time delay estimation between signals received by a phased antenna array system that in turn could be utilized to estimate the angle of arrival. We present an analytical theoretical model and a proof-of-principle demonstration of the concept of time difference of arrival estimation with a cryogenically cooled Tm:YAG crystal that operates on microwave signals modulated onto a stabilized optical carrier at 793 nm.
Bathymetry estimations using vicariously calibrated HICO data
Lewis, David; Gould, Richard W.; Weidemann, Alan; Ladner, Sherwin; Lee, Zhongping
2013-06-01
The Hyperspectral Imager for the Coastal Ocean (HICO) is a prototype sensor installed on the International Space Station (ISS) designed to explore the management and capability of a space-borne hyperspectral sensor. The Office of Naval Research (ONR) funded the development and management of HICO. The Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) built and is involved in management of the HICO sensor. Bathymetry information is essential for naval operations in coastal regions. However, bathymetry may not be available in denied areas. HICO has a 100 meter spatial resolution, which makes it more capable for providing information within bays and estuaries than other sensors with coarser resolutions. Furthermore, its contiguous hyperspectral range is well suited to be used as input to the Hyperspectral Optimization Process Exemplar (HOPE) algorithm, which along with other absorption and backscattering values, estimates bottom albedo and water depth. Vicarious calibration uses in situ data to generate new gains and offsets that when applied to the top-of-atmosphere radiance values improves atmospheric correction results and the measurement of normalized water-leaving radiances. In situ remote sensing reflectance data collected in St. Andrews Bay were used to vicariously calibrate a coincident HICO scene. NRL's Automated Processing System (APS) was used to perform atmospheric correction and estimation of remote sensing reflectance (Rrs). The HOPE algorithm used the vicariously calibrated HICO Rrs values to estimate water depth. The results were validated with bathymetry maps from the NOAA National Ocean Service (NOS).
Spectral Reconstruction Based on Svm for Cross Calibration
Gao, H.; Ma, Y.; Liu, W.; He, H.
2017-05-01
Chinese HY-1C/1D satellites will use a 5nm/10nm-resolutional visible-near infrared(VNIR) hyperspectral sensor with the solar calibrator to cross-calibrate with other sensors. The hyperspectral radiance data are composed of average radiance in the sensor's passbands and bear a spectral smoothing effect, a transform from the hyperspectral radiance data to the 1-nm-resolution apparent spectral radiance by spectral reconstruction need to be implemented. In order to solve the problem of noise cumulation and deterioration after several times of iteration by the iterative algorithm, a novel regression method based on SVM is proposed, which can approach arbitrary complex non-linear relationship closely and provide with better generalization capability by learning. In the opinion of system, the relationship between the apparent radiance and equivalent radiance is nonlinear mapping introduced by spectral response function(SRF), SVM transform the low-dimensional non-linear question into high-dimensional linear question though kernel function, obtaining global optimal solution by virtue of quadratic form. The experiment is performed using 6S-simulated spectrums considering the SRF and SNR of the hyperspectral sensor, measured reflectance spectrums of water body and different atmosphere conditions. The contrastive result shows: firstly, the proposed method is with more reconstructed accuracy especially to the high-frequency signal; secondly, while the spectral resolution of the hyperspectral sensor reduces, the proposed method performs better than the iterative method; finally, the root mean square relative error(RMSRE) which is used to evaluate the difference of the reconstructed spectrum and the real spectrum over the whole spectral range is calculated, it decreses by one time at least by proposed method.
Digital Forensics Analysis of Spectral Estimation Methods
Mataracioglu, Tolga
2011-01-01
Steganography is the art and science of writing hidden messages in such a way that no one apart from the intended recipient knows of the existence of the message. In today's world, it is widely used in order to secure the information. In this paper, the traditional spectral estimation methods are introduced. The performance analysis of each method is examined by comparing all of the spectral estimation methods. Finally, from utilizing those performance analyses, a brief pros and cons of the spectral estimation methods are given. Also we give a steganography demo by hiding information into a sound signal and manage to pull out the information (i.e, the true frequency of the information signal) from the sound by means of the spectral estimation methods.
Generalized Line Spectral Estimation via Convex Optimization
Heckel, Reinhard; Soltanolkotabi, Mahdi
2016-01-01
Line spectral estimation is the problem of recovering the frequencies and amplitudes of a mixture of a few sinusoids from equispaced samples. However, in a variety of signal processing problems arising in imaging, radar, and localization we do not have access directly to such equispaced samples. Rather we only observe a severely undersampled version of these observations through linear measurements. This paper is about such generalized line spectral estimation problems. We reformulate these p...
Timing calibration and spectral cleaning of LOFAR time series data
Corstanje, A; Enriquez, J E; Falcke, H; Hörandel, J R; Krause, M; Nelles, A; Rachen, J P; Schellart, P; Scholten, O; ter Veen, S; Thoudam, S; Trinh, T N G
2016-01-01
We describe a method for spectral cleaning and timing calibration of short voltage time series data from individual radio interferometer receivers. It makes use of the phase differences in Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) spectra across antenna pairs. For strong, localized terrestrial sources these are stable over time, while being approximately uniform-random for a sum over many sources or for noise. Using only milliseconds-long datasets, the method finds the strongest interfering transmitters, a first-order solution for relative timing calibrations, and faulty data channels. No knowledge of gain response or quiescent noise levels of the receivers is required. With relatively small data volumes, this approach is suitable for use in an online system monitoring setup for interferometric arrays. We have applied the method to our cosmic-ray data collection, a collection of measurements of short pulses from extensive air showers, recorded by the LOFAR radio telescope. Per air shower, we have collected 2 ms of raw tim...
[Full-field and automatic methodology of spectral calibration for PGP imaging spectrometer].
Sun, Ci; Bayanheshig; Cui, Ji-cheng; Pan, Ming-zhong; Li, Xiao-tian; Tang, Yu-guo
2014-08-01
In order to analyze spectral data quantitatively which is obtained by prism-grating-prism imaging spectrometer, spectral calibration is required in order to determine spectral characteristics of PGP imaging spectrometer, such as the center wavelength of every spectral channel, spectral resolution and spectral bending. A spectral calibration system of full field based on collimated monochromatic light method is designed. Spherical mirror is used to provide collimated light, and a freely sliding and rotating folding mirror is adopted to change the angle of incident light in order to realize full field and automatic calibration of imaging spectrometer. Experiments of spectral calibration have been done for PGP imaging spectrometer to obtain parameters of spectral performance, and accuracy analysis combined with the structural features of the entire spectral calibration system have been done. Analysis results indicate that spectral calibration accuracy of the calibration system reaches 0.1 nm, and the bandwidth accuracy reaches 1.3%. The calibration system has merits of small size, better commonality, high precision and so on, and because of adopting the control of automation, the additional errors which are caused by human are avoided. The calibration system can be used for spectral calibration of other imaging spectrometers whose structures are similar to PGP.
TP89 - SIRZ Decomposition Spectral Estimation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Seetho, Isacc M. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Azevedo, Steve [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Smith, Jerel [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Brown, William D. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Martz, Jr., Harry E. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)
2016-12-08
The primary objective of this test plan is to provide X-ray CT measurements of known materials for the purposes of generating and testing MicroCT and EDS spectral estimates. These estimates are to be used in subsequent Ze/RhoE decomposition analyses of acquired data.
Robust Spectral Estimation of Track Irregularity
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Fu Wenjuan; Chen Chunjun
2005-01-01
Because the existing spectral estimation methods for railway track irregularity analysis are very sensitive to outliers, a robust spectral estimation method is presented to process track irregularity signals. The proposed robust method is verified using 100 groups of clean/contaminated data reflecting he vertical profile irregularity taken from Bejing-Guangzhou railway with a sampling frequency of 33 data every 10 m, and compared with the Auto Regressive (AR) model. The experimental results show that the proposed robust estimation is resistible to noise and insensitive to outliers, and is superior to the AR model in terms of efficiency, stability and reliability.
Image-based spectral transmission estimation using "sensitivity comparison".
Nahavandi, Alireza Mahmoudi; Tehran, Mohammad Amani
2017-01-20
Although digital cameras have been used for spectral reflectance estimation, transmission measurement has rarely been considered in studies. This study presents a method named sensitivity comparison (SC) for spectral transmission estimation. The method needs neither a priori knowledge from the samples nor statistical information of a given reflectance dataset. As with spectrophotometers, the SC method needs one shot for calibration and another shot for measurement. The method exploits the sensitivity of the camera in the absence and presence of transparent colored objects for transmission estimation. 138 Kodak Wratten Gelatin filter transmissions were used for controlling the proposed method. Using modeling of the imaging system in different levels of noise, the performance of the proposed method was compared with a training-based Matrix R method. For checking the performance of the SC method in practice, 33 manmade colored transparent films were used in a conventional three-channel camera. The method generated promising results using different error metrics.
Rank-based camera spectral sensitivity estimation.
Finlayson, Graham; Darrodi, Maryam Mohammadzadeh; Mackiewicz, Michal
2016-04-01
In order to accurately predict a digital camera response to spectral stimuli, the spectral sensitivity functions of its sensor need to be known. These functions can be determined by direct measurement in the lab-a difficult and lengthy procedure-or through simple statistical inference. Statistical inference methods are based on the observation that when a camera responds linearly to spectral stimuli, the device spectral sensitivities are linearly related to the camera rgb response values, and so can be found through regression. However, for rendered images, such as the JPEG images taken by a mobile phone, this assumption of linearity is violated. Even small departures from linearity can negatively impact the accuracy of the recovered spectral sensitivities, when a regression method is used. In our work, we develop a novel camera spectral sensitivity estimation technique that can recover the linear device spectral sensitivities from linear images and the effective linear sensitivities from rendered images. According to our method, the rank order of a pair of responses imposes a constraint on the shape of the underlying spectral sensitivity curve (of the sensor). Technically, each rank-pair splits the space where the underlying sensor might lie in two parts (a feasible region and an infeasible region). By intersecting the feasible regions from all the ranked-pairs, we can find a feasible region of sensor space. Experiments demonstrate that using rank orders delivers equal estimation to the prior art. However, the Rank-based method delivers a step-change in estimation performance when the data is not linear and, for the first time, allows for the estimation of the effective sensitivities of devices that may not even have "raw mode." Experiments validate our method.
Bayesian mixture models for spectral density estimation
Cadonna, Annalisa
2017-01-01
We introduce a novel Bayesian modeling approach to spectral density estimation for multiple time series. Considering first the case of non-stationary timeseries, the log-periodogram of each series is modeled as a mixture of Gaussiandistributions with frequency-dependent weights and mean functions. The implied model for the log-spectral density is a mixture of linear mean functionswith frequency-dependent weights. The mixture weights are built throughsuccessive differences of a logit-normal di...
Automatic online spectral calibration of Fourier-domain OCT for robotic surgery
Liu, Xuan; Balicki, Marcin; Taylor, Russell H.; Kang, Jin U.
2011-03-01
We present a new automatic spectral calibration (ASC) method for spectral Domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT). Our ASC method calibrates the spectral mapping of the spectrometer in SD-OCT, and does not require external calibrating light source or a commercial spectral analyzer. The ASC method simultaneously calibrates the physical pixel spacing of the A-scan in static and dynamic environments. Experimental results show that the proposed ASC method can provide satisfactory calibration for SD-OCT to achieve high axial resolution and high ranging accuracy, without increasing hardware complexity.
Ratheesh, K. M.; Seah, L. K.; Murukeshan, V. M.
2016-11-01
The automatic calibration in Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography (FD-OCT) systems allows for high resolution imaging with precise depth ranging functionality in many complex imaging scenarios, such as microsurgery. However, the accuracy and speed of the existing automatic schemes are limited due to the functional approximations and iterative operations used in their procedures. In this paper, we present a new real-time automatic calibration scheme for swept source-based optical coherence tomography (SS-OCT) systems. The proposed automatic calibration can be performed during scanning operation and does not require an auxiliary interferometer for calibration signal generation and an additional channel for its acquisition. The proposed method makes use of the spectral component corresponding to the sample surface reflection as the calibration signal. The spectral phase function representing the non-linear sweeping characteristic of the frequency-swept laser source is determined from the calibration signal. The phase linearization with improved accuracy is achieved by normalization and rescaling of the obtained phase function. The fractional-time indices corresponding to the equidistantly spaced phase intervals are estimated directly from the resampling function and are used to resample the OCT signals. The proposed approach allows for precise calibration irrespective of the path length variation induced by the non-planar topography of the sample or galvo scanning. The conceived idea was illustrated using an in-house-developed SS-OCT system by considering the specular reflection from a mirror and other test samples. It was shown that the proposed method provides high-performance calibration in terms of axial resolution and sensitivity without increasing computational and hardware complexity.
Scientific and Engineering Studies; Spectral Estimation.
1977-01-01
1111.25 I1tl 1.4 11.6 ,1> S t cientific and Engineering SStudies Compiled 1977 Spectral ,T1 .G Estimation - JUL 1 A A. H. Nuttall PUBLISHED BY NAVAL...malfunc- tioning equipment or human errors In reading or recording, for example. Also, some data values can be missing as a result of equipment being...1973. 9. R. H. Jones, "Autoregressive Spectrum Estimation," Third Conference on Probability and Statistics in Atmospheric Science , Boulder, Colo., 19
Calibration of Herschel SPIRE FTS observations at different spectral resolutions
Marchili, N; Fulton, T; Polehampton, E T; Valtchanov, I; Zaretski, J; Naylor, D A; Griffin, M J; Imhof, P; Lim, T; Lu, N; Makiwa, G; Pearson, C; Spencer, L
2016-01-01
The SPIRE Fourier Transform Spectrometer on board the Herschel Space Observatory had two standard spectral resolution modes for science observations: high resolution (HR) and low resolution (LR), which could also be performed in sequence (H+LR). A comparison of the HR and LR resolution spectra taken in this sequential mode, revealed a systematic discrepancy in the continuum level. Analysing the data at different stages during standard pipeline processing, demonstrates the telescope and instrument emission affect HR and H+LR observations in a systematically different way. The origin of this difference is found to lie in the variation of both the telescope and instrument response functions, while it is triggered by fast variation of the instrument temperatures. As it is not possible to trace the evolution of the response functions through auxiliary housekeeping parameters, the calibration cannot be corrected analytically. Therefore an empirical correction for LR spectra has been developed, which removes the sys...
Estimation of Wind Turbulence Using Spectral Models
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Soltani, Mohsen; Knudsen, Torben; Bak, Thomas
2011-01-01
The production and loading of wind farms are significantly influenced by the turbulence of the flowing wind field. Estimation of turbulence allows us to optimize the performance of the wind farm. Turbulence estimation is; however, highly challenging due to the chaotic behavior of the wind....... In this paper, a method is presented for estimation of the turbulence. The spectral model of the wind is used in order to provide the estimations. The suggested estimation approach is applied to a case study in which the objective is to estimate wind turbulence at desired points using the measurements of wind...... speed outside the wind field. The results show that the method is able to provide estimations which explain more than 50% of the wind turbulence from the distance of about 300 meters....
A Fully Bayesian Method for Jointly Fitting Instrumental Calibration and X-Ray Spectral Models
Xu, Jin; van Dyk, David A.; Kashyap, Vinay L.; Siemiginowska, Aneta; Connors, Alanna; Drake, Jeremy; Meng, Xiao-Li; Ratzlaff, Pete; Yu, Yaming
2014-10-01
Owing to a lack of robust principled methods, systematic instrumental uncertainties have generally been ignored in astrophysical data analysis despite wide recognition of the importance of including them. Ignoring calibration uncertainty can cause bias in the estimation of source model parameters and can lead to underestimation of the variance of these estimates. We previously introduced a pragmatic Bayesian method to address this problem. The method is "pragmatic" in that it introduced an ad hoc technique that simplified computation by neglecting the potential information in the data for narrowing the uncertainty for the calibration product. Following that work, we use a principal component analysis to efficiently represent the uncertainty of the effective area of an X-ray (or γ-ray) telescope. Here, however, we leverage this representation to enable a principled, fully Bayesian method that coherently accounts for the calibration uncertainty in high-energy spectral analysis. In this setting, the method is compared with standard analysis techniques and the pragmatic Bayesian method. The advantage of the fully Bayesian method is that it allows the data to provide information not only for estimation of the source parameters but also for the calibration product—here the effective area, conditional on the adopted spectral model. In this way, it can yield more accurate and efficient estimates of the source parameters along with valid estimates of their uncertainty. Provided that the source spectrum can be accurately described by a parameterized model, this method allows rigorous inference about the effective area by quantifying which possible curves are most consistent with the data.
A fully Bayesian method for jointly fitting instrumental calibration and X-ray spectral models
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Xu, Jin; Yu, Yaming [Department of Statistics, University of California, Irvine, Irvine, CA 92697-1250 (United States); Van Dyk, David A. [Statistics Section, Imperial College London, Huxley Building, South Kensington Campus, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Kashyap, Vinay L.; Siemiginowska, Aneta; Drake, Jeremy; Ratzlaff, Pete [Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Connors, Alanna; Meng, Xiao-Li, E-mail: jinx@uci.edu, E-mail: yamingy@ics.uci.edu, E-mail: dvandyk@imperial.ac.uk, E-mail: vkashyap@cfa.harvard.edu, E-mail: asiemiginowska@cfa.harvard.edu, E-mail: jdrake@cfa.harvard.edu, E-mail: pratzlaff@cfa.harvard.edu, E-mail: meng@stat.harvard.edu [Department of Statistics, Harvard University, 1 Oxford Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)
2014-10-20
Owing to a lack of robust principled methods, systematic instrumental uncertainties have generally been ignored in astrophysical data analysis despite wide recognition of the importance of including them. Ignoring calibration uncertainty can cause bias in the estimation of source model parameters and can lead to underestimation of the variance of these estimates. We previously introduced a pragmatic Bayesian method to address this problem. The method is 'pragmatic' in that it introduced an ad hoc technique that simplified computation by neglecting the potential information in the data for narrowing the uncertainty for the calibration product. Following that work, we use a principal component analysis to efficiently represent the uncertainty of the effective area of an X-ray (or γ-ray) telescope. Here, however, we leverage this representation to enable a principled, fully Bayesian method that coherently accounts for the calibration uncertainty in high-energy spectral analysis. In this setting, the method is compared with standard analysis techniques and the pragmatic Bayesian method. The advantage of the fully Bayesian method is that it allows the data to provide information not only for estimation of the source parameters but also for the calibration product—here the effective area, conditional on the adopted spectral model. In this way, it can yield more accurate and efficient estimates of the source parameters along with valid estimates of their uncertainty. Provided that the source spectrum can be accurately described by a parameterized model, this method allows rigorous inference about the effective area by quantifying which possible curves are most consistent with the data.
Yu, Lei; Lin, Guan-Yu; Chen, Bin
2013-01-01
The present paper studied spectral irradiation responsivities calibration method which can be applied to the far ultraviolet spectrometer for upper atmosphere remote sensing. It is difficult to realize the calibration for far ultraviolet spectrometer for many reasons. Standard instruments for far ultraviolet waveband calibration are few, the degree of the vacuum experiment system is required to be high, the stabilities of the experiment are hardly maintained, and the limitation of the far ultraviolet waveband makes traditional diffuser and the integrating sphere radiance calibration method difficult to be used. To solve these problems, a new absolute spectral irradiance calibration method was studied, which can be applied to the far ultraviolet calibration. We build a corresponding special vacuum experiment system to verify the calibration method. The light source system consists of a calibrated deuterium lamp, a vacuum ultraviolet monochromater and a collimating system. We used the calibrated detector to obtain the irradiance responsivities of it. The three instruments compose the calibration irradiance source. We used the "calibration irradiance source" to illuminate the spectrometer prototype and obtained the spectral irradiance responsivities. It realized the absolute spectral irradiance calibration for the far ultraviolet spectrometer utilizing the calibrated detector. The absolute uncertainty of the calibration is 7.7%. The method is significant for the ground irradiation calibration of the far ultraviolet spectrometer in upper atmosphere remote sensing.
Signal inference with unknown response: calibration uncertainty renormalized estimator
Dorn, Sebastian; Greiner, Maksim; Selig, Marco; Böhm, Vanessa
2014-01-01
The calibration of a measurement device is crucial for every scientific experiment, where a signal has to be inferred from data. We present CURE, the calibration uncertainty renormalized estimator, to reconstruct a signal and simultaneously the instrument's calibration from the same data without knowing the exact calibration, but its covariance structure. The idea of CURE is starting with an assumed calibration to successively include more and more portions of calibration uncertainty into the signal inference equations and to absorb the resulting corrections into renormalized signal (and calibration) solutions. Thereby, the signal inference and calibration problem turns into solving a single system of ordinary differential equations and can be identified with common resummation techniques used in field theories. We verify CURE by applying it to a simplistic toy example and compare it against existent self-calibration schemes, Wiener filter solutions, and Markov Chain Monte Carlo sampling. We conclude that the...
Optimized spectral estimation for nonlinear synchronizing systems.
Sommerlade, Linda; Mader, Malenka; Mader, Wolfgang; Timmer, Jens; Thiel, Marco; Grebogi, Celso; Schelter, Björn
2014-03-01
In many fields of research nonlinear dynamical systems are investigated. When more than one process is measured, besides the distinct properties of the individual processes, their interactions are of interest. Often linear methods such as coherence are used for the analysis. The estimation of coherence can lead to false conclusions when applied without fulfilling several key assumptions. We introduce a data driven method to optimize the choice of the parameters for spectral estimation. Its applicability is demonstrated based on analytical calculations and exemplified in a simulation study. We complete our investigation with an application to nonlinear tremor signals in Parkinson's disease. In particular, we analyze electroencephalogram and electromyogram data.
[VMTBB-Based Spectral Radiometric Calibration of NIR Fiber Coupled Spectrometer].
Zheng, Feng; Liu, Li-ying; Liu, Xiao-xi; Li, Ye; Shi, Xiao-guang; Zhang, Guo-yu; Huan, Ke-wei
2015-09-01
The medium temperature black body (MTBB) is conventional high precision equipment used as spectral radiometric scale in infrared spectral region. However, in near-infrared (NIR) spectral region, there are few papers about spectral radiometric calibration by using MTBB, that is because NIR spectral region is the borderland of its effective spectral region. The main research of this paper is spectral radiometric calibration method by using MTBB in NIR spectral region. Accordingly, this paper is devoted mostly to a discussion of how the calibration precision could be affected by selecting different structural parameters of calibration model. The purpose of this paper is to present the results of research and provide technical reference for improving the traceability in NIR spectral radiometric calibration. In this paper, a NIR fiber coupled spectrometer, whose wavelength range covers from 950 to 1700 nm, has been calibrated by a MTBB with adjustable temperature range from 50 to 1050 °C. Concentrating on calibration process, two key points have been discussed. For one thing, the geometric factors of radiation transfer model of the calibration systems have been compared between traditional structure and fiber direct-coupled structure. Because the fiber direct-coupled model is simple and effective, it has been selected instead of traditional model based on the radiation transfer between two coaxial discs. So, it is an advantaged radiation transfer model for radiometric calibration of fiber coupled spectrometer. For another thing, the relation between calibration accuracy and structural parameters of calibration model has been analyzed intensively. The root cause is scale feature of attribute of calibration data itself, which is the nonlinear structure in scales of spectral data. So, the high precision calibration needs nonlinear calibration model, and the uniform sampling for scale feature is also very important. Selecting sample is an inevitable problem when the
Calibration of Herschel SPIRE FTS observations at different spectral resolutions
Marchili, N.; Hopwood, R.; Fulton, T.; Polehampton, E. T.; Valtchanov, I.; Zaretski, J.; Naylor, D. A.; Griffin, M. J.; Imhof, P.; Lim, T.; Lu, N.; Makiwa, G.; Pearson, C.; Spencer, L.
2017-01-01
The SPIRE Fourier Transform Spectrometer on-board the Herschel Space Observatory had two standard spectral resolution modes for science observations: high resolution (HR) and low resolution (LR), which could also be performed in sequence (H+LR). A comparison of the HR and LR resolution spectra taken in this sequential mode revealed a systematic discrepancy in the continuum level. Analysing the data at different stages during standard pipeline processing demonstrates that the telescope and instrument emission affect HR and H+LR observations in a systematically different way. The origin of this difference is found to lie in the variation of both the telescope and instrument response functions, while it is triggered by fast variation of the instrument temperatures. As it is not possible to trace the evolution of the response functions using housekeeping data from the instrument subsystems, the calibration cannot be corrected analytically. Therefore, an empirical correction for LR spectra has been developed, which removes the systematic noise introduced by the variation of the response functions.
Preliminary evaluation of vector flow and spectral velocity estimation
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Pedersen, Mads Møller; Pihl, Michael Johannes; Haugaard, Per
Spectral estimation is considered as the golden standard in ultrasound velocity estimation. For spectral velocity estimation the blood flow angle is set by the ultrasound operator. Vector flow provides temporal and spatial estimates of the blood flow angle and velocity. A comparison of vector flow...... agrees with the spectral flow angle. The vector velocity estimates agrees with the spectral estimates at PS and ED. From preliminary data it is concluded that vector flow angle estimation can replace the operator-dependent angle correction used for spectral velocity estimation....... estimation and spectral estimates is presented. The variation of the blood flow angle and the effect on the velocity estimate is investigated. The right common carotid arteries of three healthy volunteers were scanned. Real-time spectral and vector flow data were obtained simultaneously from one range gate...
Atmospheric visibility estimation and image contrast calibration
Hermansson, Patrik; Edstam, Klas
2016-10-01
A method, referred to as contrast calibration, has been developed for transforming digital color photos of outdoor scenes from the atmospheric conditions, illumination and visibility, prevailing at the time of capturing the image to a corresponding image for other atmospheric conditions. A photo captured on a hazy day can, for instance, be converted to resemble a photo of the same scene for good visibility conditions. Converting digital color images to specified lightning and transmission conditions is useful for image based assessment of signature suppression solutions. The method uses "calibration objects" which are photographed at about the same time as the scene of interest. The calibration objects, which (indirectly) provide information on visibility and lightning conditions, consist of two flat boards, painted in different grayscale colors, and a commercial, neutral gray, reference card. Atmospheric extinction coefficient and sky intensity can be determined, in three wavelength bands, from image pixel values on the calibration objects and using this information the image can be converted to other atmospheric conditions. The image is transformed in contrast and color. For illustration, contrast calibration is applied to sample images of a scene acquired at different times. It is shown that contrast calibration of the images to the same reference values of extinction coefficient and sky intensity results in images that are more alike than the original images. It is also exemplified how images can be transformed to various other atmospheric weather conditions. Limitations of the method are discussed and possibilities for further development are suggested.
Lee, Shihyan; Meister, Gerhard
2017-01-01
Since Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer Aqua's launch in 2002, the radiometric system gains of the reflective solar bands have been degrading, indicating changes in the systems optical throughput. To estimate the optical throughput degradation, the electronic gain changes were estimated and removed from the measured system gain. The derived optical throughput degradation shows a rate that is much faster in the shorter wavelengths than the longer wavelengths. The wavelength-dependent optical throughput degradation modulated the relative spectral response (RSR) of the bands. In addition, the optical degradation is also scan angle-dependent due to large changes in response versus the scan angle over time. We estimated the modulated RSR as a function of time and scan angles and its impacts on sensor radiometric calibration for the ocean science. Our results show that the calibration bias could be up to 1.8 % for band 8 (412 nm) due to its larger out-of-band response. For the other ocean bands, the calibration biases are much smaller with magnitudes at least one order smaller.
Spectral and Radiometric Calibration using Tunable Lasers Project
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — SIRCUS-based calibration relies on a set of monitoring radiometers and tunable laser sources to provide an absolute radiometric calibration that can approach...
Estimating the Spectral Width of a Narrowband Optical Signal
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Lading, Lars; Skov Jensen, A.
1980-01-01
Methods for estimating the spectral width of a narrowband optical signal are investigated. Spectral analysis and Fourier spectroscopy are compared. Optimum and close-to-optimum estimators are developed under the constraint of having only one photodetector.......Methods for estimating the spectral width of a narrowband optical signal are investigated. Spectral analysis and Fourier spectroscopy are compared. Optimum and close-to-optimum estimators are developed under the constraint of having only one photodetector....
Consequences of Secondary Calibrations on Divergence Time Estimates.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
John J Schenk
Full Text Available Secondary calibrations (calibrations based on the results of previous molecular dating studies are commonly applied in divergence time analyses in groups that lack fossil data; however, the consequences of applying secondary calibrations in a relaxed-clock approach are not fully understood. I tested whether applying the posterior estimate from a primary study as a prior distribution in a secondary study results in consistent age and uncertainty estimates. I compared age estimates from simulations with 100 randomly replicated secondary trees. On average, the 95% credible intervals of node ages for secondary estimates were significantly younger and narrower than primary estimates. The primary and secondary age estimates were significantly different in 97% of the replicates after Bonferroni corrections. Greater error in magnitude was associated with deeper than shallower nodes, but the opposite was found when standardized by median node age, and a significant positive relationship was determined between the number of tips/age of secondary trees and the total amount of error. When two secondary calibrated nodes were analyzed, estimates remained significantly different, and although the minimum and median estimates were associated with less error, maximum age estimates and credible interval widths had greater error. The shape of the prior also influenced error, in which applying a normal, rather than uniform, prior distribution resulted in greater error. Secondary calibrations, in summary, lead to a false impression of precision and the distribution of age estimates shift away from those that would be inferred by the primary analysis. These results suggest that secondary calibrations should not be applied as the only source of calibration in divergence time analyses that test time-dependent hypotheses until the additional error associated with secondary calibrations is more properly modeled to take into account increased uncertainty in age estimates.
Spectral irradiance measurement and actinic radiometer calibration for UV water disinfection
Sperfeld, Peter; Barton, Bettina; Pape, Sven; Towara, Anna-Lena; Eggers, Jutta; Hopfenmüller, Gabriel
2014-12-01
In a joint project, sglux and PTB investigated and developed methods and equipment to measure the spectral and weighted irradiance of high-efficiency UV-C emitters used in water disinfection plants. A calibration facility was set up to calibrate the microbicidal irradiance responsivity of actinic radiometers with respect to the weighted spectral irradiance of specially selected low-pressure mercury and medium-pressure mercury UV lamps. To verify the calibration method and to perform on-site tests, spectral measurements were carried out directly at water disinfection plants in operation. The weighted microbicidal irradiance of the plants was calculated and compared to the measurements of various actinic radiometers.
Zeng, J.; Eppeldauer, G. P.; Hanssen, L. M.; Podobedov, V. B.
2012-06-01
Spectral responsivity calibrations of two different types of pyroelectric radiometers have been made in the infrared region up to 14 μm in power mode using three different calibration facilities at NIST. One pyroelectric radiometer is a temperature-controlled low noise-equivalent-power (NEP) single-element pyroelectric radiometer with an active area of 5 mm in diameter. The other radiometer is a prototype using the same type of pyroeletric detector with dome-input optics, which was designed to increase absorptance and to minimize spectral structures to obtain a constant spectral responsivity. Three calibration facilities at NIST were used to conduct direct and indirect responsivity calibrations tied to absolute scales in the infrared spectral regime. We report the calibration results for the single-element pyroelectric radiometer using a new Infrared Spectral Comparator Facility (IRSCF) for direct calibration. Also, a combined method using the Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrophotometry (FTIS) facility and single wavelength laser tie-points are described to calibrated standard detectors with an indirect approach. For the dome-input pyroelectric radiometer, the results obtained from another direct calibration method using a circular variable filter (CVF) spectrometer and the FTIS are also presented. The inter-comparison of different calibration methods enables us to improve the responsivity uncertainty performed by the different facilities. For both radiometers, consistent results of the spectral power responsivity have been obtained applying different methods from 1.5 μm to 14 μm with responsivity uncertainties between 1 % and 2 % (k = 2). Relevant characterization results, such as spatial uniformity, linearity, and angular dependence of responsivity, are shown. Validation of the spectral responsivity calibrations, uncertainty sources, and improvements for each method will also be discussed.
Doppler calibration method for Spectral Domain OCT spectrometers
D.J. Faber; T.G. van Leeuwen
2009-01-01
We present a calibration method for SD-OCT domain spectrometers based on the M-scan of a moving mirror. This method allows determination of the wavenumber sampling increment which determines the depth axis assigned to the structural image. It also allows wavelength calibration of individual pixels w
DOA estimation and mutual coupling calibration with the SAGE algorithm
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Xiong Kunlai; Liu Zhangmeng; Liu Zheng; Jiang Wenli
2014-01-01
In this paper, a novel algorithm is presented for direction of arrival (DOA) estimation and array self-calibration in the presence of unknown mutual coupling. In order to highlight the relationship between the array output and mutual coupling coefficients, we present a novel model of the array output with the unknown mutual coupling coefficients. Based on this model, we use the space alternating generalized expectation-maximization (SAGE) algorithm to jointly estimate the DOA parameters and the mutual coupling coefficients. Unlike many existing counterparts, our method requires neither calibration sources nor initial calibration information. At the same time, our proposed method inherits the characteristics of good convergence and high estimation precision of the SAGE algorithm. By numerical experiments we demonstrate that our proposed method outperforms the existing method for DOA estimation and mutual coupling calibration.
DOA estimation and mutual coupling calibration with the SAGE algorithm
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Xiong Kunlai
2014-12-01
Full Text Available In this paper, a novel algorithm is presented for direction of arrival (DOA estimation and array self-calibration in the presence of unknown mutual coupling. In order to highlight the relationship between the array output and mutual coupling coefficients, we present a novel model of the array output with the unknown mutual coupling coefficients. Based on this model, we use the space alternating generalized expectation-maximization (SAGE algorithm to jointly estimate the DOA parameters and the mutual coupling coefficients. Unlike many existing counterparts, our method requires neither calibration sources nor initial calibration information. At the same time, our proposed method inherits the characteristics of good convergence and high estimation precision of the SAGE algorithm. By numerical experiments we demonstrate that our proposed method outperforms the existing method for DOA estimation and mutual coupling calibration.
The Cross-Calibration of Swift-BAT and Fermi-GBM via Correlative Spectral Analysis of GRBs
Stamatikos, Michael
2009-01-01
We report on recent inter-calibration studies featuring Swift's Burst Alert Telescope (BAT) and Fermi's Gamma-ray Burst Monitor (GBM) based upon correlated observations of GRBs 080804 and 080810, via their resultant joint spectral analysis. Swift's intrinsic multi-wavelength instrumentation and dynamical response complement Fermi's superior energy range. The addition of BAT's spectral response will (i) facilitate in-orbit GBM detector response calibration, (ii) augment Fermi's low energy sensitivity, (iii) enable ground-based follow-up efforts of Fermi GRBs, and (iv) help identify a subset of GRBs discovered via off-line GBM data analysis, for an annual estimate of ~30 GRBs. The synergy of BAT and GBM augments previous successful joint spectral fit efforts by enabling the study of peak photon energies (Epeak), while leveraging the over eleven energy decades afforded by Fermi's Large Area Telescope (LAT), in conjunction with Swift's X-Ray (XRT) and Ultraviolet-Optical (UVOT) Telescopes, for an unprecedented pr...
Chrien, Thomas; Green, Robert; Chovit, Chris; Faust, Jessica; Johnson, Howell; Basedow, Robert; Zalewski, Edward; Colwell, John
1995-01-01
An experiment to check the spectral and radiometric calibration of two sensors--the airborne visible/infrared imaging spectromenter (AVRIS) and the Hyperspectral digital image collection experiment (HYDICE)--is described.
Camera Calibration with Radial Variance Component Estimation
Mélykuti, B.; Kruck, E. J.
2014-11-01
Camera calibration plays a more and more important role in recent times. Beside real digital aerial survey cameras the photogrammetric market is dominated by a big number of non-metric digital cameras mounted on UAVs or other low-weight flying platforms. The in-flight calibration of those systems has a significant role to enhance the geometric accuracy of survey photos considerably. It is expected to have a better precision of photo measurements in the center of images then along the edges or in the corners. With statistical methods the accuracy of photo measurements in dependency of the distance of points from image center has been analyzed. This test provides a curve for the measurement precision as function of the photo radius. A high number of camera types have been tested with well penetrated point measurements in image space. The result of the tests led to a general consequence to show a functional connection between accuracy and radial distance and to give a method how to check and enhance the geometrical capability of the cameras in respect to these results.
The Relative Spectral Response Calibration of the ISO-SWS
Vandenbussche, B.; Morris, P. W.; Valentijn, E. A.; Beintema, D. A.; Boxhoorn, D. R.; Decin, L.; de Graauw, T.; Feuchtgruber, H.; Heras, A. M.; Lahuis, F.; Lorente, R.; Lutz, D.; Roelfsema, P. R.; Salama, A.; Shipman, R. F.; van Malderen, R.; Wieprecht, E.
2001-01-01
The Relative Spectral Response Function (RSRF) characterises the wavelength dependent response of a spectrometer. The wavelength range of the grating section of the ISO-SWS is covered in 15 spectral bands for each of which the RSRF has to be determined. We discuss how the RSRF was measured during th
Photometric Redshift Estimation Using Spectral Connectivity Analysis
Freeman, P E; Lee, A B; Richards, J W; Schafer, C M
2009-01-01
The development of fast and accurate methods of photometric redshift estimation is a vital step towards being able to fully utilize the data of next-generation surveys within precision cosmology. In this paper we apply a specific approach to spectral connectivity analysis (SCA; Lee & Wasserman 2009) called diffusion map. SCA is a class of non-linear techniques for transforming observed data (e.g., photometric colours for each galaxy, where the data lie on a complex subset of p-dimensional space) to a simpler, more natural coordinate system wherein we apply regression to make redshift predictions. As SCA relies upon eigen-decomposition, our training set size is limited to ~ 10,000 galaxies; we use the Nystrom extension to quickly estimate diffusion coordinates for objects not in the training set. We apply our method to 350,738 SDSS main sample galaxies, 29,816 SDSS luminous red galaxies, and 5,223 galaxies from DEEP2 with CFHTLS ugriz photometry. For all three datasets, we achieve prediction accuracies on ...
Michaelsen, Kelly E; Krishnaswamy, Venkataramanan; Shi, Linxi; Vedantham, Srinivasan; Poplack, Steven P; Karellas, Andrew; Pogue, Brian W; Paulsen, Keith D
2015-12-01
Calibration of a three-dimensional multimodal digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) x-ray and non-fiber based near infrared spectral tomography (NIRST) system is challenging but essential for clinical studies. Phantom imaging results yielded linear contrast recovery of total hemoglobin (HbT) concentration for cylindrical inclusions of 15 mm, 10 mm and 7 mm with a 3.5% decrease in the HbT estimate for each 1 cm increase in inclusion depth. A clinical exam of a patient's breast containing both benign and malignant lesions was successfully imaged, with greater HbT was found in the malignancy relative to the benign abnormality and fibroglandular regions (11 μM vs. 9.5 μM). Tools developed improved imaging system characterization and optimization of signal quality, which will ultimately improve patient selection and subsequent clinical trial results.
Binary Classifier Calibration Using an Ensemble of Linear Trend Estimation
Naeini, Mahdi Pakdaman; Cooper, Gregory F.
2017-01-01
Learning accurate probabilistic models from data is crucial in many practical tasks in data mining. In this paper we present a new non-parametric calibration method called ensemble of linear trend estimation (ELiTE). ELiTE utilizes the recently proposed ℓ1 trend ltering signal approximation method [22] to find the mapping from uncalibrated classification scores to the calibrated probability estimates. ELiTE is designed to address the key limitations of the histogram binning-based calibration methods which are (1) the use of a piecewise constant form of the calibration mapping using bins, and (2) the assumption of independence of predicted probabilities for the instances that are located in different bins. The method post-processes the output of a binary classifier to obtain calibrated probabilities. Thus, it can be applied with many existing classification models. We demonstrate the performance of ELiTE on real datasets for commonly used binary classification models. Experimental results show that the method outperforms several common binary-classifier calibration methods. In particular, ELiTE commonly performs statistically significantly better than the other methods, and never worse. Moreover, it is able to improve the calibration power of classifiers, while retaining their discrimination power. The method is also computationally tractable for large scale datasets, as it is practically O(N log N) time, where N is the number of samples.
New PTB Setup for the Absolute Calibration of the Spectral Responsivity of Radiation Thermometers
Anhalt, K.; Zelenjuk, A.; Taubert, D. R.; Keawprasert, T.; Hartmann, J.
2009-02-01
The paper describes the new experimental setup assembled at the PTB for the absolute spectral responsivity measurement of radiation thermometers. The concept of this setup is to measure the relative spectral responsivity of the radiation thermometer using the conventional monochromator-based spectral comparator facility also used for the calibration of filter radiometers. The absolute spectral responsivity is subsequently measured at one wavelength, supplied by the radiation of a diode laser, using the new setup. The radiation of the diode laser is guided with an optical fiber into an integrating sphere source that is equipped with an aperture of absolutely known area. The spectral radiance of this integrating sphere source is determined via the spectral irradiance measured by a trap detector with an absolutely calibrated spectral responsivity traceable to the primary detector standard of the PTB, the cryogenic radiometer. First results of the spectral responsivity calibration of the radiation thermometer LP3 are presented, and a provisional uncertainty budget of the absolute spectral responsivity is given.
Metallicity Calibration and Photometric Parallax Estimation: II. SDSS photometry
Guctekin, S Tuncel; Karaali, S; Plevne, O; Ak, S; Ak, T; Bostanci, Z F
2016-01-01
We used the updated [Fe/H] abundances of 168 F-G type dwarfs and calibrated them to a third order polynomial in terms of reduced ultraviolet excess, $\\delta_{0.41}$ defined with $ugr$ data in the SDSS. We estimated the $M_g$ absolute magnitudes for the same stars via the re-reduced Hipparcos parallaxes and calibrated the absolute magnitude offsets, $\\Delta M_g$, relative to the intrinsic sequence of Hyades to a third order polynomial in terms of $\\delta_{0.41}$. The ranges of the calibrations are $-218$ mag).
Autoregressive Spectral Estimation and Functional Inference.
1982-06-01
spectral density function . Note that F(O) - 0, F(l) = 1, and (15) F(w) = f(w’) dw’, O<w<l...correlation function p(v) is summable, and its spectral density function f(w) is bounded above and below in the sense that the dynamic range of f(w) (2) DR...l The AR(-n) and MA(-) representations have important implications for spectral 6 analysis since they provide formulas for the spectral density function
WAVELET BASED SPECTRAL CORRELATION METHOD FOR DPSK CHIP RATE ESTIMATION
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Li Yingxiang; Xiao Xianci; Tai Hengming
2004-01-01
A wavelet-based spectral correlation algorithm to detect and estimate BPSK signal chip rate is proposed. Simulation results show that the proposed method can correctly estimate the BPSK signal chip rate, which may be corrupted by the quadratic characteristics of the spectral correlation function, in a low SNR environment.
Efficient, Non-Iterative Estimator for Imaging Contrast Agents With Spectral X-Ray Detectors.
Alvarez, Robert E
2016-04-01
An estimator to image contrast agents and body materials with x-ray spectral measurements is described. The estimator is usable with the three or more basis functions that are required to represent the attenuation coefficient of high atomic number materials. The estimator variance is equal to the Cramèr-Rao lower bound (CRLB) and it is unbiased. Its parameters are computed from measurements of a calibration phantom with the clinical x-ray system and it is non-iterative. The estimator is compared with an iterative maximum likelihood estimator. The estimator first computes a linearized maximum likelihood estimate of the line integrals of the basis set coefficients. Corrections for errors in the initial estimates are computed by interpolation with calibration phantom data. The final estimate is the initial estimate plus the correction. The performance of the estimator is measured using a Monte Carlo simulation. Random photon counting with pulse height analysis data are generated. The mean squared errors of the estimates are compared to the CRLB. The random data are also processed with an iterative maximum likelihood estimator. Previous implementations of iterative estimators required advanced physics instruments not usually available in clinical institutions. The estimator mean squared error is essentially equal to the CRLB. The estimator outputs are close to those of the iterative estimator but the computation time is approximately 180 times shorter. The estimator is efficient and has advantages over alternate approaches such as iterative estimators.
Trott, Cathryn M
2016-01-01
Spectral features introduced by instrumental chromaticity of radio interferometers have the potential to negatively impact the ability to perform Epoch of Reionisation (EoR) and Cosmic Dawn (CD) science using the redshifted neutral hydrogen emission line from the early Universe. We describe instrument calibration choices that influence the spectral characteristics of the science data, and assess their impact on EoR statistical and tomographic experiments. Principally, we consider the intrinsic spectral response of the receiving antennas, embedded within a complete frequency-dependent primary beam response, and frequency-dependent instrument sampling. We assess different options for bandpass calibration. The analysis is applied to the proposed SKA1-Low EoR/CD experiments. We provide tolerances on the smoothness of the SKA station primary beam bandpass, to meet the scientific goals of statistical and tomographic (imaging) EoR programs. Two calibration strategies are tested: (1) fitting of each fine channel inde...
Self Calibrating Flow Estimation in Waste Water Pumping Stations
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Kallesøe, Carsten Skovmose; Knudsen, Torben
2016-01-01
Knowledge about where waste water is flowing in waste water networks is essential to optimize the operation of the network pumping stations. However, installation of flow sensors is expensive and requires regular maintenance. This paper proposes an alternative approach where the pumps and the waste...... water pit are used for estimating both the inflow and the pump flow of the pumping station. Due to the nature of waste water, the waste water pumps are heavily affected by wear and tear. To compensate for the wear of the pumps, the pump parameters, used for the flow estimation, are automatically...... calibrated. This calibration is done based on data batches stored at each pump cycle, hence makes the approach a self calibrating system. The approach is tested on a pumping station operating in a real waste water network....
Spectral Calibration in the Mid-Infrared: Challenges and Solutions
Sloan, G C; Charmandaris, V; Sheth, K; Burgdorf, M; Houck, J R
2014-01-01
We present spectra obtained with the Infrared Spectrograph (IRS) on the Spitzer Space Telescope of 33 K giants and 20 A dwarfs to assess their suitability as spectrophotometric standard stars. The K giants confirm previous findings that the strength of the SiO absorption band at 8 um increases for both later optical spectral classes and redder (B-V)_0 colors, but with considerable scatter. For K giants, the synthetic spectra underpredict the strengths of the molecular bands from SiO and OH. For these reasons, the assumed true spectra for K giants should be based on neither the assumption that molecular band strengths in the infrared can be predicted accurately from optical spectral class or color nor synthetric spectra. The OH bands in K giants grow stronger with cooler stellar temperatures, and they are stronger than predicted by synthetic spectra. As a group, A dwarfs are better behaved and more predictable than the K giants, but they are more likely to show red excesses from debris disks. No suitable A dwa...
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
张玉香; 张广顺; 刘志权; 张立军; 朱顺斌; 戎志国; 邱康睦
2001-01-01
A comprehensive field experiment was made with the support of the project of China Radiometric Calibration Site (CRCS) during June-July 1999. Ground reflectance spectra were measured at Dunhuang Calibration Test Site in the experiment. More than two thousands of spectral curves were acquired in a 20 km × 20 km area. The spectral coverage is from 350 nm to 2500 nm. The measurement values show that reflectance is between 10% and 33% at the VISSWIR spectral region. The standard deviation of reflectance is between 1.0% and 2.0% for the spectral range. Optical characteristics and ground reflectance measurements at the Dunhuang test site, result analysis and error source were described. In addition, a comparison of the reflectance obtained in 1999 with those measured in 1994 and 1996 was also made.
Abundance estimation of spectrally similar minerals
CSIR Research Space (South Africa)
Debba, Pravesh
2009-07-01
Full Text Available CASI-2 hyperspactral imagery us- ing linear spectral mixture models,” Remote Sensing of Environ- ment, vol. 101, pp. 329–341, 2006. [4] J. Settle, “On the effect of variable endmember spectra in the linear mixture model,” IEEE Transactions...
Estimates of Identification Result Disturbances in Parallel Mechanism Calibration
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2006-01-01
General QR decomposition of the observation matrix is used to solve identification functions to evaluate identification results of every parameter in parallel mechanism calibrations. A relationship between measured information and identification results is obtained by analyzing numerous matrix transforms and QR decompositions. When distributions of measurement error are determined, random distributions of identification result disturbances (IRDs) can be obtained from this relationship as a function of measurement errors. Then the ranges of the IRDs can be effectively estimated, even if true parameter values are unknown. An optimization index based on IRD estimate is presented to select measurement configurations to achieve smaller IRDs. Two simulation examples were carried out with different modes and calibration methods. The results show that the method is effective and that the optimization index is useful. Some regular parameter identification problems can be explained by the IRD estimates.
Murakami, Yuri; Ietomi, Kunihiko; Yamaguchi, Masahiro; Ohyama, Nagaaki
2007-10-01
Accurate color image reproduction under arbitrary illumination can be realized if the spectral reflectance functions in a scene are obtained. Although multispectral imaging is one of the promising methods to obtain the reflectance of a scene, it is expected to reduce the number of color channels without significant loss of accuracy. This paper presents what we believe to be a new method for estimating spectral reflectance functions from color image and multipoint spectral measurements based on maximum a posteriori (MAP) estimation. Multipoint spectral measurements are utilized as auxiliary information to improve the accuracy of spectral reflectance estimated from image data. Through simulations, it is confirmed that the proposed method improves the estimation accuracy, particularly when a scene includes subjects that belong to various categories.
Calibrating image plate sensitivity in the 700 to 5000 eV spectral energy range
Haugh, Michael J.; Lee, Joshua; Romano, Edward; Schneider, Marilyn
2013-09-01
sensitivity in the spectral range from 700 to 8000 eV. The sensitivity in this spectral range had not previously been measured and was needed for the NIF application. A calibration at the low energy range was done using a diode source and a band pass filter. X-ray beam is filtered and limited by the applied voltage to provide a spectral band that is about 1/10 of the average spectral energy. The X-ray flux is measured using a photodiode that is traceable to National Institute for Standards and Technology (NIST). The spectrum for each X-ray band is measured using a silicon drifted detector. The photodiode calibration method is described. Measurements were made on SR, TR, and specially coated TR image plates. The measurement results will be presented and the uncertainties in the measurement will be discussed. The results will be compared to other measurements and estimation methods.
Autoregressive Spectral Estimation for Quasi-Periodic Oscillations
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Li Chen; Ti-Pei Li
2005-01-01
Modern methods of spectral estimation based on parametric time-series models are useful tools in power spectral analysis. We apply the autoregressive (AR) model to study quasi-periodic oscillations (QPOs). An empirical formula to estimate the expectation and standard deviation of the noise AR power densities is derived, which can be used to estimate the statistical significance of an apparent QPO peak in an AR spectrum. An iterative adding-noise algorithm in AR spectral analysis is proposed and applied to studying QPOs in the X-ray binary Cir X-1.
Applications of spectral band adjustment factors (SBAF) for cross-calibration
Chander, Gyanesh
2013-01-01
To monitor land surface processes over a wide range of temporal and spatial scales, it is critical to have coordinated observations of the Earth's surface acquired from multiple spaceborne imaging sensors. However, an integrated global observation framework requires an understanding of how land surface processes are seen differently by various sensors. This is particularly true for sensors acquiring data in spectral bands whose relative spectral responses (RSRs) are not similar and thus may produce different results while observing the same target. The intrinsic offsets between two sensors caused by RSR mismatches can be compensated by using a spectral band adjustment factor (SBAF), which takes into account the spectral profile of the target and the RSR of the two sensors. The motivation of this work comes from the need to compensate the spectral response differences of multispectral sensors in order to provide a more accurate cross-calibration between the sensors. In this paper, radiometric cross-calibration of the Landsat 7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) and the Terra Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) sensors was performed using near-simultaneous observations over the Libya 4 pseudoinvariant calibration site in the visible and near-infrared spectral range. The RSR differences of the analogous ETM+ and MODIS spectral bands provide the opportunity to explore, understand, quantify, and compensate for the measurement differences between these two sensors. The cross-calibration was initially performed by comparing the top-of-atmosphere (TOA) reflectances between the two sensors over their lifetimes. The average percent differences in the long-term trends ranged from $-$5% to $+$6%. The RSR compensated ETM+ TOA reflectance (ETM+$^{ast}$) measurements were then found to agree with MODIS TOA reflectance to within 5% for all bands when Earth Observing-1 Hy- erion hyperspectral data were used to produce the SBAFs. These differences were later
Liu, Li; Fu, Qiao-yan; Shi, Ting-ting; Wang, Ai-chun; Zhang, Xue-wen
2014-08-01
Since HJ-1B was launched, 7 sets of blackbody data have been used to calculate onboard calibration coefficients, but the research work on the validation of coefficients is rare. According to the onboard calibration principle, calibration coefficients of HJ-1B thermal infrared channel on Sep 14th, 2009 were calculated with the half-width, moments and look-up table methods. MODIS was selected for the reference sensor, and algorithms of spectral match were improved between the HJ-1B thermal infrared channel and MODIS 31, 32 channels based on the spectral response divergence. The relationship of top of atmosphere (TOA) radiance between the remote sensors was calculated, based on which the surface leaving brightness temperature was calculated by Planck function to validate the brightness temperature calculated through the onboard calibration coefficients. The equivalent brightness temperature calculated by spectral response divergence method is 285.97 K, and the inversion brightness temperature calculated by half-width, moments and look-up table methods is 288.77, 274.52 and 285.97 K respectively. The difference between the inversion brightness temperature and the equivalent brightness temperature is 2.8, -11.46 and 0.02 K, respectively, which demonstrate that onboard calibration coefficients calculated by the look-up table method has better precision and feasibility.
Radiometric Cross-Calibration of the HJ-1B IRS in the Thermal Infrared Spectral Band
Sun, K.
2012-12-01
The natural calamities occur continually, environment pollution and destruction in a severe position on the earth presently, which restricts societal and economic development. The satellite remote sensing technology has an important effect on improving surveillance ability of environment pollution and natural calamities. The radiometric calibration is precondition of quantitative remote sensing; which accuracy decides quality of the retrieval parameters. Since the China Environment Satellite (HJ-1A/B) has been launched successfully on September 6th, 2008, it has made an important role in the economic development of China. The satellite has four infrared bands; and one of it is thermal infrared. With application fields of quantitative remote sensing in china, finding appropriate calibration method becomes more and more important. Many kinds of independent methods can be used to do the absolute radiometric calibration. In this paper, according to the characteristic of thermal infrared channel of HJ-1B thermal infrared multi-spectral camera, the thermal infrared spectral band of HJ-1B IRS was calibrated using cross-calibration methods based on MODIS data. Firstly, the corresponding bands of the two sensors were obtained. Secondly, the MONDTRAN was run to analyze the influences of different spectral response, satellite view zenith angle, atmosphere condition and temperature on the match factor. In the end, their band match factor was calculated in different temperature, considering the dissimilar band response of the match bands. Seven images of Lake Qinghai in different time were chosen as the calibration data. On the basis of radiance of MODIS and match factor, the IRS radiance was calculated. And then the calibration coefficients were obtained by linearly regressing the radiance and the DN value. We compared the result of this cross-calibration with that of the onboard blackbody calibration, which consistency was good.The maximum difference of brightness temperature
Spectral Estimation by the Random DEC Technique
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Brincker, Rune; Jensen, J. Laigaard; Krenk, S.
This paper contains an empirical study of the accuracy of the Random Dec (RDD) technique. Realizations of the response from a single-degree-of-freedom system loaded by white noise are simulated using an ARMA model. The Autocorrelation function is estimated using the RDD technique and the estimated...
Spectral Velocity Estimation in the Transverse Direction
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jensen, Jørgen Arendt
2013-01-01
estimation scheme can reliably find the spectrum at 90, where a traditional estimator yields zero velocity. Measurements have been conducted with the SARUS experimental scanner and a BK 8820e convex array transducer (BK Medical, Herlev, Denmark). A CompuFlow 1000 (Shelley Automation, Inc, Toronto, Canada...
Estimation of Wind Turbulence Using Spectral Models
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Soltani, Mohsen; Knudsen, Torben; Bak, Thomas
2011-01-01
The production and loading of wind farms are significantly influenced by the turbulence of the flowing wind field. Estimation of turbulence allows us to optimize the performance of the wind farm. Turbulence estimation is; however, highly challenging due to the chaotic behavior of the wind. In thi...
Spectral Estimation by the Random Dec Technique
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Brincker, Rune; Jensen, Jacob L.; Krenk, Steen
1990-01-01
This paper contains an empirical study of the accuracy of the Random Dec (RDD) technique. Realizations of the response from a single-degree-of-freedom system loaded by white noise are simulated using an ARMA model. The Autocorrelation function is estimated using the RDD technique and the estimated...
Relative calibration of energy thresholds on multi-bin spectral x-ray detectors
Sjölin, M.; Danielsson, M.
2016-12-01
Accurate and reliable energy calibration of spectral x-ray detectors used in medical imaging is essential for avoiding ring artifacts in the reconstructed images (computed tomography) and for performing accurate material basis decomposition. A simple and accurate method for relative calibration of the energy thresholds on a multi-bin spectral x-ray detector is presented. The method obtains the linear relations between all energy thresholds in a channel by scanning the thresholds with respect to each other during x-ray illumination. The method does not rely on a model of the detector's response function and does not require any identifiable features in the x-ray spectrum. Applying the same method, the offset between the thresholds can be determined also without external stimuli by utilizing the electronic noise as a source. The simplicity and accuracy of the method makes it suitable for implementation in clinical multi-bin spectral x-ray imaging systems.
A model-based approach to the spatial and spectral calibration of NIRSpec onboard JWST
Dorner, B.; Giardino, G.; Ferruit, P.; Alves de Oliveira, C.; Birkmann, S. M.; Böker, T.; De Marchi, G.; Gnata, X.; Köhler, J.; Sirianni, M.; Jakobsen, P.
2016-08-01
Context. The NIRSpec instrument for the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) can be operated in multiobject spectroscopy (MOS), long-slit, and integral field unit (IFU) mode with spectral resolutions from 100 to 2700. Its MOS mode uses about a quarter of a million individually addressable minislits for object selection, covering a field of view of ~9 arcmin2. Aims: The pipeline used to extract wavelength-calibrated spectra from NIRSpec detector images relies heavily on a model of NIRSpec optical geometry. We demonstrate how dedicated calibration data from a small subset of NIRSpec modes and apertures can be used to optimize this parametric model to the necessary levels of fidelity. Methods: Following an iterative procedure, the initial fiducial values of the model parameters are manually adjusted and then automatically optimized, so that the model predicted location of the images and spectral lines from the fixed slits, the IFU, and a small subset of the MOS apertures matches their measured location in the main optical planes of the instrument. Results: The NIRSpec parametric model is able to reproduce the spatial and spectral position of the input spectra with high fidelity. The intrinsic accuracy (1-sigma, rms) of the model, as measured from the extracted calibration spectra, is better than 1/10 of a pixel along the spatial direction and better than 1/20 of a resolution element in the spectral direction for all of the grating-based spectral modes. This is fully consistent with the corresponding allocation in the spatial and spectral calibration budgets of NIRSpec.
Application of variance components estimation to calibrate geoid error models.
Guo, Dong-Mei; Xu, Hou-Ze
2015-01-01
The method of using Global Positioning System-leveling data to obtain orthometric heights has been well studied. A simple formulation for the weighted least squares problem has been presented in an earlier work. This formulation allows one directly employing the errors-in-variables models which completely descript the covariance matrices of the observables. However, an important question that what accuracy level can be achieved has not yet to be satisfactorily solved by this traditional formulation. One of the main reasons for this is the incorrectness of the stochastic models in the adjustment, which in turn allows improving the stochastic models of measurement noises. Therefore the issue of determining the stochastic modeling of observables in the combined adjustment with heterogeneous height types will be a main focus point in this paper. Firstly, the well-known method of variance component estimation is employed to calibrate the errors of heterogeneous height data in a combined least square adjustment of ellipsoidal, orthometric and gravimetric geoid. Specifically, the iterative algorithms of minimum norm quadratic unbiased estimation are used to estimate the variance components for each of heterogeneous observations. Secondly, two different statistical models are presented to illustrate the theory. The first method directly uses the errors-in-variables as a priori covariance matrices and the second method analyzes the biases of variance components and then proposes bias-corrected variance component estimators. Several numerical test results show the capability and effectiveness of the variance components estimation procedure in combined adjustment for calibrating geoid error model.
Chen, Da; Grant, Edward
2012-11-01
When paired with high-powered chemometric analysis, spectrometric methods offer great promise for the high-throughput analysis of complex systems. Effective classification or quantification often relies on signal preprocessing to reduce spectral interference and optimize the apparent performance of a calibration model. However, less frequently addressed by systematic research is the affect of preprocessing on the statistical accuracy of a calibration result. The present work demonstrates the effectiveness of two criteria for validating the performance of signal preprocessing in multivariate models in the important dimensions of bias and precision. To assess the extent of bias, we explore the applicability of the elliptic joint confidence region (EJCR) test and devise a new means to evaluate precision by a bias-corrected root mean square error of prediction. We show how these criteria can effectively gauge the success of signal pretreatments in suppressing spectral interference while providing a straightforward means to determine the optimal level of model complexity. This methodology offers a graphical diagnostic by which to visualize the consequences of pretreatment on complex multivariate models, enabling optimization with greater confidence. To demonstrate the application of the EJCR criterion in this context, we evaluate the validity of representative calibration models using standard pretreatment strategies on three spectral data sets. The results indicate that the proposed methodology facilitates the reliable optimization of a well-validated calibration model, thus improving the capability of spectrophotometric analysis.
Spectral reflectance estimation using a six-color scanner
Tominaga, Shoji; Kohno, Satoshi; Kakinuma, Hirokazu; Nohara, Fuminori; Horiuchi, Takahiko
2009-01-01
A method is proposed for estimating the spectral reflectance function of an object surface by using a six-color scanner. The scanner is regarded as a six-band spectral imaging system, since it captures six color channels in total from two separate scans using two difference lamps. First, we describe the basic characteristics of the imaging systems for a HP color scanner and a multiband camera used for comparison. Second, we describe a computational method for recovering surface-spectral reflectances from the noisy sensor outputs. A LMMSE estimator is presented as an optimal estimator. We discuss the reflectance estimation for non-flat surfaces with shading effect. A solution method is presented for the reliable reflectance estimation. Finally, the performance of the proposed method is examined in detail on experiments using the Macbeth Color Checker and non-flat objects.
Energy calibration of the pixels of spectral X-ray detectors.
Panta, Raj Kumar; Walsh, Michael F; Bell, Stephen T; Anderson, Nigel G; Butler, Anthony P; Butler, Philip H
2015-03-01
The energy information acquired using spectral X-ray detectors allows noninvasive identification and characterization of chemical components of a material. To achieve this, it is important that the energy response of the detector is calibrated. The established techniques for energy calibration are not practical for routine use in pre-clinical or clinical research environment. This is due to the requirements of using monochromatic radiation sources such as synchrotron, radio-isotopes, and prohibitively long time needed to set up the equipment and make measurements. To address these limitations, we have developed an automated technique for calibrating the energy response of the pixels in a spectral X-ray detector that runs with minimal user intervention. This technique uses the X-ray tube voltage (kVp) as a reference energy, which is stepped through an energy range of interest. This technique locates the energy threshold where a pixel transitions from not-counting (off) to counting (on). Similarly, we have developed a technique for calibrating the energy response of individual pixels using X-ray fluorescence generated by metallic targets directly irradiated with polychromatic X-rays, and additionally γ-rays from (241)Am. This technique was used to measure the energy response of individual pixels in CdTe-Medipix3RX by characterizing noise performance, threshold dispersion, gain variation and spectral resolution. The comparison of these two techniques shows the energy difference of 1 keV at 59.5 keV which is less than the spectral resolution of the detector (full-width at half-maximum of 8 keV at 59.5 keV). Both techniques can be used as quality control tools in a pre-clinical multi-energy CT scanner using spectral X-ray detectors.
Spectral estimates for periodic fourth order operators
Badanin, Andrey
2008-01-01
We consider the operator $H={d^4dt^4}+{ddt}p{ddt}+q$ with 1-periodic coefficients on the real line. The spectrum of $H$ is absolutely continuous and consists of intervals separated by gaps. We describe the spectrum of this operator in terms of the Lyapunov function, which is analytic on a two-sheeted Riemann surface. On each sheet the Lyapunov function has the standard properties of the Lyapunov function for the scalar case. We describe the spectrum of $H$ in terms of periodic, antiperiodic eigenvalues, and so-called resonances. We prove that 1) the spectrum of $H$ at high energy has multiplicity two, 2) the asymptotics of the periodic, antiperiodic eigenvalues and of the resonances are determined at high energy, 3) for some specific $p$ the spectrum of $H$ has an infinite number of gaps, 4) the spectrum of $H$ has small spectral band (near the beginner of the spectrum) with multiplicity 4 and its asymptotics are determined as $p\\to 0, q=0$.
Tian, Jialin; Smith, William L.; Gazarik, Michael J.
2008-10-01
The ultimate remote sensing benefits of the high resolution Infrared radiance spectrometers will be realized with their geostationary satellite implementation in the form of imaging spectrometers. This will enable dynamic features of the atmosphere's thermodynamic fields and pollutant and greenhouse gas constituents to be observed for revolutionary improvements in weather forecasts and more accurate air quality and climate predictions. As an important step toward realizing this application objective, the Geostationary Imaging Fourier Transform Spectrometer (GIFTS) Engineering Demonstration Unit (EDU) was successfully developed under the NASA New Millennium Program, 2000-2006. The GIFTS-EDU instrument employs three focal plane arrays (FPAs), which gather measurements across the long-wave IR (LWIR), short/mid-wave IR (SMWIR), and visible spectral bands. The raw GIFTS interferogram measurements are radiometrically and spectrally calibrated to produce radiance spectra, which are further processed to obtain atmospheric profiles via retrieval algorithms. The radiometric calibration is achieved using internal blackbody calibration references at ambient (260 K) and hot (286 K) temperatures. The absolute radiometric performance of the instrument is affected by several factors including the FPA off-axis effect, detector/readout electronics induced nonlinearity distortions, and fore-optics offsets. The GIFTS-EDU, being the very first imaging spectrometer to use ultra-high speed electronics to readout its large area format focal plane array detectors, operating at wavelengths as large as 15 microns, possessed non-linearity's not easily removable in the initial calibration process. In this paper, we introduce a refined calibration technique that utilizes Principle Component (PC) analysis to compensate for instrument distortions and artifacts remaining after the initial radiometric calibration process, thus, further enhance the absolute calibration accuracy. This method is
Calibration procedure of measuring system for vehicle wheel load estimation
Kluziewicz, M.; Maniowski, M.
2016-09-01
The calibration procedure of wheel load measuring system is presented. Designed method allows estimation of selected wheel load components while the vehicle is in motion. Mentioned system is developed to determine friction forces between tire and road surface, basing on measured internal reaction forces in wheel suspension mechanism. Three strain gauge bridges and three-component piezoelectric load cell are responsible for internal force measurement in suspension components, two wire sensors are measuring displacements. External load is calculated via kinematic model of suspension mechanism implemented in Matlab environment. In the described calibration procedure, internal reactions are measured on a test stand while the system is loaded by a force of known direction and value.
Induction Motor Speed Estimation by Using Spectral Current Analysis
2009-01-01
An interesting application for the FFT analysis is related to the induction motor speed estimation based on spectral current analysis. The paper presents the possibility of induction motor speed estimation by using the current harmonics generated because of the rotor slots and of the eccentricity.
A parametric estimation approach to instantaneous spectral imaging.
Oktem, Figen S; Kamalabadi, Farzad; Davila, Joseph M
2014-12-01
Spectral imaging, the simultaneous imaging and spectroscopy of a radiating scene, is a fundamental diagnostic technique in the physical sciences with widespread application. Due to the intrinsic limitation of two-dimensional (2D) detectors in capturing inherently three-dimensional (3D) data, spectral imaging techniques conventionally rely on a spatial or spectral scanning process, which renders them unsuitable for dynamic scenes. In this paper, we present a nonscanning (instantaneous) spectral imaging technique that estimates the physical parameters of interest by combining measurements with a parametric model and solving the resultant inverse problem computationally. The associated inverse problem, which can be viewed as a multiframe semiblind deblurring problem (with shift-variant blur), is formulated as a maximum a posteriori (MAP) estimation problem since in many such experiments prior statistical knowledge of the physical parameters can be well estimated. Subsequently, an efficient dynamic programming algorithm is developed to find the global optimum of the nonconvex MAP problem. Finally, the algorithm and the effectiveness of the spectral imaging technique are illustrated for an application in solar spectral imaging. Numerical simulation results indicate that the physical parameters can be estimated with the same order of accuracy as state-of-the-art slit spectroscopy but with the added benefit of an instantaneous, 2D field-of-view. This technique will be particularly useful for studying the spectra of dynamic scenes encountered in space remote sensing.
Spectral radiance calibrations between 165-300 nm - An interlaboratory comparison
Bridges, J. M.; Ott, W. R.; Pitz, E.; Schulz, A.; Einfeld, D.; Stuck, D.
1977-01-01
The spectral radiance of deuterium lamps calibrated by the Max-Planck-Institut fuer Astronomie (MPI), by the U.S. National Bureau of Standards (NBS), and by the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB) are compared to check the agreement of UV radiometric scales. The NBS group used the optically thin continuum radiation from a wall-stabilized hydrogen arc as its fundamental radiometric standard, while the MPI and PTB groups used the synchrotron radiation facility in DESY. It is found that the spectral radiance scales based upon the DESY synchrotron and the NBS hydrogen arc are consistent, at least for one wavelength relative to another.
Calibration of the Multi-Spectral Solar Telescope Array multilayer mirrors and XUV filters
Allen, Maxwell J.; Willis, Thomas D.; Kankelborg, Charles C.; O'Neal, Ray H.; Martinez-Galarce, Dennis S.; Deforest, Craig E.; Jackson, Lisa; Lindblom, Joakim; Walker, Arthur B. C., Jr.; Barbee, Troy W., Jr.
1993-01-01
The Multi-Spectral Solar Telescope Array (MSSTA), a rocket-borne solar observatory, was successfully flown in May, 1991, obtaining solar images in eight XUV and FUV bands with 12 compact multilayer telescopes. Extensive measurements have recently been carried out on the multilayer telescopes and thin film filters at the Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory. These measurements are the first high spectral resolution calibrations of the MSSTA instruments. Previous measurements and/or calculations of telescope throughputs have been confirmed with greater accuracy. Results are presented on Mo/Si multilayer bandpass changes with time and experimental potassium bromide and tellurium filters.
Zhao, Weiqiang; Liu, Hui; Liu, Jian
2016-11-01
At present day, in the field of lighting the incandescent lamps are phasing out. The solid state lighting products, i.e. LED, and the related market are developing very fast in China for its promising application, due to the energy-saving and the colorful features. For the quality control and the commercial trade purpose, it is highly necessary to measure the optical parameters of LED light sources with a fast, easy and affordable facility. Therefore, more test labs use the spherical spectrometer to measure LED. The quasi- monochrome of LED and the V(lambda) of silicon photodetector mismatch problem is reduced or avoided, because the total spectral radiant flux (TSRF) is measured, and all the optical parameters are calculate from the TSRF. In such a way, the spherical spectrometer calibration requires TSRF standard lamps instead of the traditional total flux standard lamps. National Institute of Metrology China (NIM) has studied and developed the facilities for TSRF measurement and provides related calibration services. This paper shows the TSRF standard lamp calibration procedure using a spherical spectrometer in every-day calibration and its traceable link to the primary SI unit at NIM. The sphere is of 1.5 m diameter, and installed with a spectrometer and a silicon photodetector. It also shows the detail of data process, such as the spectral absorption correction method and the calculation of the result derived from the spectral readings. The TSRF calibration covers the spectra range of 350 nm to 1050 nm, with a measurement uncertainty of 3.6% 1.8% (k=2).
Rogers, Alan E E
2012-01-01
A new method of absolute calibration of sky noise temperature using a three-position switched spectrometer, measurements of antenna and low noise amplifier impedance with a vector network analyzer, and ancillary measurements of the amplifier noise waves is described. The details of the method and its application to accurate wideband measurements of the spectral index of the sky noise are described and compared with other methods.
Calibration and Measurement Uncertainty Estimation of Radiometric Data: Preprint
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Habte, A.; Sengupta, M.; Reda, I.; Andreas, A.; Konings, J.
2014-11-01
Evaluating the performance of photovoltaic cells, modules, and arrays that form large solar deployments relies on accurate measurements of the available solar resource. Therefore, determining the accuracy of these solar radiation measurements provides a better understanding of investment risks. This paper provides guidelines and recommended procedures for estimating the uncertainty in calibrations and measurements by radiometers using methods that follow the International Bureau of Weights and Measures Guide to the Expression of Uncertainty (GUM). Standardized analysis based on these procedures ensures that the uncertainty quoted is well documented.
Spectral density estimation for symmetric stable p-adic processes
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Rachid Sabre
2013-05-01
Full Text Available Applications of p-adic numbers ar beming increasingly important espcially in the field of applied physics. The objective of this work is to study the estimation of the spectral of p-adic stable processes. An estimator formed by a smoothing periodogram is constructed. It is shwon that this estimator is asymptotically unbiased and consistent. Rates of convergences are also examined.
Model calibration criteria for estimating ecological flow characteristics
Vis, Marc; Knight, Rodney; Poole, Sandra; Wolfe, William; Seibert, Jan; Breuer, Lutz; Kraft, Philipp
2016-01-01
Quantification of streamflow characteristics in ungauged catchments remains a challenge. Hydrological modeling is often used to derive flow time series and to calculate streamflow characteristics for subsequent applications that may differ from those envisioned by the modelers. While the estimation of model parameters for ungauged catchments is a challenging research task in itself, it is important to evaluate whether simulated time series preserve critical aspects of the streamflow hydrograph. To address this question, seven calibration objective functions were evaluated for their ability to preserve ecologically relevant streamflow characteristics of the average annual hydrograph using a runoff model, HBV-light, at 27 catchments in the southeastern United States. Calibration trials were repeated 100 times to reduce parameter uncertainty effects on the results, and 12 ecological flow characteristics were computed for comparison. Our results showed that the most suitable calibration strategy varied according to streamflow characteristic. Combined objective functions generally gave the best results, though a clear underprediction bias was observed. The occurrence of low prediction errors for certain combinations of objective function and flow characteristic suggests that (1) incorporating multiple ecological flow characteristics into a single objective function would increase model accuracy, potentially benefitting decision-making processes; and (2) there may be a need to have different objective functions available to address specific applications of the predicted time series.
Time and spectral domain relative entropy: A new approach to multivariate spectral estimation
Ferrante, Augusto; Pavon, Michele
2011-01-01
The concept of spectral relative entropy rate is introduced for jointly stationary Gaussian processes. Using a classical result of Marc Pinsker, we establish a remarkable connection between time and spectral domain relative entropy rate. This naturally leads to a new multivariate spectral estimation technique. The latter may be viewed as an extension of the approach, called THREE, introduced by Byrnes, Georgiou and Lindquist in 2000 which, in turn, followed in the footsteps of the Burg-Jaynes Maximum Entropy Method. Spectral estimation is here recast in the form of a constrained spectrum approximation problem where the distance is equal to the processes relative entropy rate. The corresponding solution entails a complexity upper bound which improves on the one so far available in the multichannel framework. Indeed, it is equal to the one featured by THREE in the scalar case. The solution is computed via a globally convergent matricial Newton-type algorithm. Simulations suggest the effectiveness of the new tec...
Calibration of Ocean Forcing with satellite Flux Estimates (COFFEE)
Barron, Charlie; Jan, Dastugue; Jackie, May; Rowley, Clark; Smith, Scott; Spence, Peter; Gremes-Cordero, Silvia
2016-04-01
Predicting the evolution of ocean temperature in regional ocean models depends on estimates of surface heat fluxes and upper-ocean processes over the forecast period. Within the COFFEE project (Calibration of Ocean Forcing with satellite Flux Estimates, real-time satellite observations are used to estimate shortwave, longwave, sensible, and latent air-sea heat flux corrections to a background estimate from the prior day's regional or global model forecast. These satellite-corrected fluxes are used to prepare a corrected ocean hindcast and to estimate flux error covariances to project the heat flux corrections for a 3-5 day forecast. In this way, satellite remote sensing is applied to not only inform the initial ocean state but also to mitigate errors in surface heat flux and model representations affecting the distribution of heat in the upper ocean. While traditional assimilation of sea surface temperature (SST) observations re-centers ocean models at the start of each forecast cycle, COFFEE endeavors to appropriately partition and reduce among various surface heat flux and ocean dynamics sources. A suite of experiments in the southern California Current demonstrates a range of COFFEE capabilities, showing the impact on forecast error relative to a baseline three-dimensional variational (3DVAR) assimilation using operational global or regional atmospheric forcing. Experiment cases combine different levels of flux calibration with assimilation alternatives. The cases use the original fluxes, apply full satellite corrections during the forecast period, or extend hindcast corrections into the forecast period. Assimilation is either baseline 3DVAR or standard strong-constraint 4DVAR, with work proceeding to add a 4DVAR expanded to include a weak constraint treatment of the surface flux errors. Covariance of flux errors is estimated from the recent time series of forecast and calibrated flux terms. While the California Current examples are shown, the approach is
Compact high-resolution micro-spectrometer on chip: spectral calibration and first spectrum
Diard, Thomas; de la Barrière, Florence; Ferrec, Yann; Guérineau, Nicolas; Rommeluère, Sylvain; Le Coarer, Etienne; Martin, Guillermo
2016-05-01
Compact and hand-held spectrometers may be very interesting for the measurement of spectral signatures of chemicals or objects. To achieve this goal, ONERA and IPAG have developed a new on chip Fourier Transform Spectrometer operating in the visible spectral range with a high spectral resolution (near 2 cm-1), named visible HR SPOC (visible High Resolution Spectrometer On Chip). It is directly inspired from the MICROSPOC infrared spectrometer, studied at ONERA in the past years. This spectrometer is made of a stair-step two-wave interferometer directly glued on a CMOS detector making it a very compact prototype. After calibrating the optical path difference, measurements of experimental spectra are presented.
Yun, Yong-Huan; Li, Hong-Dong; Wood, Leslie R. E.; Fan, Wei; Wang, Jia-Jun; Cao, Dong-Sheng; Xu, Qing-Song; Liang, Yi-Zeng
2013-07-01
Wavelength selection is a critical step for producing better prediction performance when applied to spectral data. Considering the fact that the vibrational and rotational spectra have continuous features of spectral bands, we propose a novel method of wavelength interval selection based on random frog, called interval random frog (iRF). To obtain all the possible continuous intervals, spectra are first divided into intervals by moving window of a fix width over the whole spectra. These overlapping intervals are ranked applying random frog coupled with PLS and the optimal ones are chosen. This method has been applied to two near-infrared spectral datasets displaying higher efficiency in wavelength interval selection than others. The source code of iRF can be freely downloaded for academy research at the website: http://code.google.com/p/multivariate-calibration/downloads/list.
Optimal estimation of spectral reflectance based on metamerism
Chou, Tzren-Ru; Lin, Wei-Ju
2012-01-01
In this paper, we proposed an accurate estimation method for spectral reflectance of objects captured in an image. The spectral reflectance is simply modeled by a linear combination of three basic spectrums of R, G, and B colors respectively, named as spectral reflective bases of objects, which are acquired by solving a linear system based on the principle of color metamerism. Some experiments were performed to evaluate the accuracy of the estimated spectral reflectance of objects. The average mean square error of 24 colors in Macbeth checker between we simulated and the measured is 0.0866, and the maximum is 0.310. In addition, the average color difference of the 24 colors is less than 1.5 under the D65 illuminant. There are 13 colors having their color difference values less than 1, and other 8 colors having the values during the range of 1 and 2. Only three colors are relatively larger, with the differences of 2.558, 4.130 and 2.569, from the colors of No. 2, No. 13, and No. 18 in Macbeth checker respectively. Furthermore, the computational cost of this spectral estimation is very low and suitable for many practical applications in real time.
Cao, Dingcai; Barrionuevo, Pablo A
2015-03-01
great non-linearity, leading to less accurate estimation of photoreceptor excitations. Based on our analyses, we recommend that each spectral watch should be calibrated to measure spectral sensitivity functions and linearization characteristics for each sensor to have an accurate estimation of photoreceptor excitations. The method we provided to estimate photoreceptor excitations from the outputs of spectral watches could be used for chronobiological studies that can tolerate an error in the range of 0.2-0.5 log units. Our method can be easily expanded to incorporate linearization functions to have more accurate estimations.
Energy Calibration of the Pixels of Spectral X-ray Detectors
Panta, Raj Kumar; Bell, Stephen T; Anderson, Nigel G; Butler, Anthony P; Butler, Philip H
2015-01-01
The energy information acquired using spectral X-ray detectors allows noninvasive identification and characterization of chemical components of a material. To achieve this, it is important that the energy response of the detector is calibrated. The established techniques for energy calibration are not practical for routine use in pre-clinical or clinical research environment. This is due to the requirements of using monochromatic radiation sources such as synchrotron, radio-isotopes, and prohibitively long time needed to set up the equipment and make measurements. To address these limitations, we have developed an automated technique for calibrating the energy response of the pixels in a spectral X-ray detector that runs with minimal user intervention. This technique uses the X-ray tube voltage (kVp) as a reference energy, which is stepped through an energy range of interest. This technique locates the energy threshold where a pixel transitions from not-counting (off) to counting (on). Similarly, we have deve...
Baba, S; Shirahata, M; Isobe, N; Usui, F; Ohyama, Y; Onaka, T; Yano, K; Kochi, C
2016-01-01
We perform revised spectral calibrations for the AKARI near-infrared grism to quantitatively correct for the effect of the wavelength-dependent refractive index. The near-infrared grism covering the wavelength range of 2.5--5.0 micron with a spectral resolving power of 120 at 3.6 micron, is found to be contaminated by second-order light at wavelengths longer than 4.9 micron which is especially serious for red objects. First, we present the wavelength calibration considering the refractive index of the grism as a function of the wavelength for the first time. We find that the previous solution is positively shifted by up to 0.01 micron compared with the revised wavelengths at 2.5--5.0 micron. In addition, we demonstrate that second-order contamination occurs even with a perfect order-sorting filter owing to the wavelength dependence of the refractive index. Second, the spectral responses of the system from the first- and second-order light are simultaneously obtained from two types of standard objects with dif...
Indoor calibration of Sky Quality Meters: Linearity, spectral responsivity and uncertainty analysis
Pravettoni, M.; Strepparava, D.; Cereghetti, N.; Klett, S.; Andretta, M.; Steiger, M.
2016-09-01
The indoor calibration of brightness sensors requires extremely low values of irradiance in the most accurate and reproducible way. In this work the testing equipment of an ISO 17025 accredited laboratory for electrical testing, qualification and type approval of solar photovoltaic modules was modified in order to test the linearity of the instruments from few mW/cm2 down to fractions of nW/cm2, corresponding to levels of simulated brightness from 6 to 19 mag/arcsec2. Sixteen Sky Quality Meter (SQM) produced by Unihedron, a Canadian manufacturer, were tested, also assessing the impact of the ageing of their protective glasses on the calibration coefficients and the drift of the instruments. The instruments are in operation on measurement points and observatories at different sites and altitudes in Southern Switzerland, within the framework of OASI, the Environmental Observatory of Southern Switzerland. The authors present the results of the calibration campaign: linearity; brightness calibration, with and without protective glasses; transmittance measurement of the glasses; and spectral responsivity of the devices. A detailed uncertainty analysis is also provided, according to the ISO 17025 standard.
Improvement of spectral calibration for food analysis through multi-model fusion
Tan, Chao; Chen, Hui; Xu, Zehong; Wu, Tong; Wang, Li; Zhu, Wanping
2012-10-01
Near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy will present a more promising tool for quantitative analysis if the predictive ability of the calibration model is further improved. To achieve this goal, a new ensemble calibration method based on uninformative variable elimination (UVE)-partial least square (PLS) is proposed, which is named as ensemble PLS (EPLS), meaning a fusion of multiple PLS models. In this method, different calibration sets are first generated by bootstrap and different PLS models are obtained. Then, the UVE is used to shrink the original variable space into a specific subspace. By repeating this process, a fixed number of candidates PLS member models are obtained. Finally, a smaller part of candidate models are integrated to produce an ensemble model. In order to verify the performance of EPLS, three NIR spectral datasets from food industry were used for illustration. Both full-spectrum PLS and UVEPLS of single models were used as reference. It was found that the proposed method could lead to lower RMSEP (root mean square error of prediction) value than PLS and UVEPLS and such an improvement is statistically significant according to a paired t-test. The results showed that the method is of value to enhance the predictive ability of PLS-based calibration involving complex NIR matrices in food analysis.
Accounting for Calibration Uncertainties in X-ray Analysis: Effective Areas in Spectral Fitting
Lee, Hyunsook; van Dyk, David A; Connors, Alanna; Drake, Jeremy J; Izem, Rima; Meng, Xiao-Li; Min, Shandong; Park, Taeyoung; Ratzlaff, Pete; Siemiginowska, Aneta; Zezas, Andreas
2011-01-01
While considerable advance has been made to account for statistical uncertainties in astronomical analyses, systematic instrumental uncertainties have been generally ignored. This can be crucial to a proper interpretation of analysis results because instrumental calibration uncertainty is a form of systematic uncertainty. Ignoring it can underestimate error bars and introduce bias into the fitted values of model parameters. Accounting for such uncertainties currently requires extensive case-specific simulations if using existing analysis packages. Here we present general statistical methods that incorporate calibration uncertainties into spectral analysis of high-energy data. We first present a method based on multiple imputation that can be applied with any fitting method, but is necessarily approximate. We then describe a more exact Bayesian approach that works in conjunction with a Markov chain Monte Carlo based fitting. We explore methods for improving computational efficiency, and in particular detail a ...
Spectral estimation on a sphere in geophysics and cosmology
Dahlen, F A
2007-01-01
We address the problem of estimating the spherical-harmonic power spectrum of a statistically isotropic scalar signal from noise-contaminated data on a region of the unit sphere. Three different methods of spectral estimation are considered: (i) the spherical analogue of the one-dimensional (1-D) periodogram, (ii) the maximum likelihood method, and (iii) a spherical analogue of the 1-D multitaper method. The periodogram exhibits strong spectral leakage, especially for small regions of area $A\\ll 4\\pi$, and is generally unsuitable for spherical spectral analysis applications, just as it is in 1-D. The maximum likelihood method is particularly useful in the case of nearly-whole-sphere coverage, $A\\approx 4\\pi$, and has been widely used in cosmology to estimate the spectrum of the cosmic microwave background radiation from spacecraft observations. The spherical multitaper method affords easy control over the fundamental trade-off between spectral resolution and variance, and is easily implemented regardless of t...
Blood velocity estimation using ultrasound and spectral iterative adaptive approaches
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Gudmundson, Erik; Jakobsson, Andreas; Jensen, Jørgen Arendt;
2011-01-01
This paper proposes two novel iterative data-adaptive spectral estimation techniques for blood velocity estimation using medical ultrasound scanners. The techniques make no assumption on the sampling pattern of the emissions or the depth samples, allowing for duplex mode transmissions where B......-mode images are interleaved with the Doppler emissions. Furthermore, the techniques are shown, using both simplified and more realistic Field II simulations as well as in vivo data, to outperform current state-of-the-art techniques, allowing for accurate estimation of the blood velocity spectrum using only 30...
Double-pass self-spectral-calibration of a polarization state analyzer.
Zallat, Jihad; Torzynski, Marc; Lallement, Alex
2012-02-01
We present a new method that allows efficient spectral calibration for a polarization state analyzer. The procedure does not require any additional polarization optical element other than the polarization state analyzer itself. It uses a double-pass technique that can be achieved up to a very good precision. The method is illustrated using real measurements done at several wavelengths with a rotating wave plate polarization state analyzer. Alignment of axis as well as true retardation at a specific wavelength are easily obtained by a standard function fitting.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Nieto Solana, Hector; Sandholt, Inge; Aguado, Inmaculada
2011-01-01
Air temperature can be estimated from remote sensing by combining information in thermal infrared and optical wavelengths. The empirical TVX algorithm is based on an estimated linear relationship between observed Land Surface Temperature (LST) and a Spectral Vegetation Index (NDVI). Air temperature...... variation in NDVI of the effective full cover has not been subject for investigation. The present study proposes a novel methodology to estimate NDVImax that uses observed air temperature to calibrate the NDVImax for each vegetation type. To assess the validity of this methodology, we have compared...
Calibration Experiments for a Computer Vision Oyster Volume Estimation System
Chang, G. Andy; Kerns, G. Jay; Lee, D. J.; Stanek, Gary L.
2009-01-01
Calibration is a technique that is commonly used in science and engineering research that requires calibrating measurement tools for obtaining more accurate measurements. It is an important technique in various industries. In many situations, calibration is an application of linear regression, and is a good topic to be included when explaining and…
Calibration Experiments for a Computer Vision Oyster Volume Estimation System
Chang, G. Andy; Kerns, G. Jay; Lee, D. J.; Stanek, Gary L.
2009-01-01
Calibration is a technique that is commonly used in science and engineering research that requires calibrating measurement tools for obtaining more accurate measurements. It is an important technique in various industries. In many situations, calibration is an application of linear regression, and is a good topic to be included when explaining and…
TES Level 1 Algorithms: Interferogram Processing, Geolocation, Radiometric, and Spectral Calibration
Worden, Helen; Beer, Reinhard; Bowman, Kevin W.; Fisher, Brendan; Luo, Mingzhao; Rider, David; Sarkissian, Edwin; Tremblay, Denis; Zong, Jia
2006-01-01
The Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer (TES) on the Earth Observing System (EOS) Aura satellite measures the infrared radiance emitted by the Earth's surface and atmosphere using Fourier transform spectrometry. The measured interferograms are converted into geolocated, calibrated radiance spectra by the L1 (Level 1) processing, and are the inputs to L2 (Level 2) retrievals of atmospheric parameters, such as vertical profiles of trace gas abundance. We describe the algorithmic components of TES Level 1 processing, giving examples of the intermediate results and diagnostics that are necessary for creating TES L1 products. An assessment of noise-equivalent spectral radiance levels and current systematic errors is provided. As an initial validation of our spectral radiances, TES data are compared to the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) (on EOS Aqua), after accounting for spectral resolution differences by applying the AIRS spectral response function to the TES spectra. For the TES L1 nadir data products currently available, the agreement with AIRS is 1 K or better.
Yoo, Yong Shim; Kim, Gun Jung; Park, Seongchong; Lee, Dong-Hoon; Kim, Bong-Hak
2016-12-01
We report on the calibration of the relative spectral responsivity of the reference radiation thermometer, model LP4, which is used for the experimental realisation of the international temperature scale of 1990 above 960 °C at the Korea Research Institute of Standards and Science. The relative spectral responsivity of LP4 is measured by using a monochromatic source consisting of a super-continuum laser and a double-grating monochromator. By monitoring the wavelength of the output beam directly with a calibrated wavelength-meter, we achieved a high-accuracy measurement of spectral responsivity with a maximum wavelength error of less than 3 pm, a narrow spectral bandwidth of less than 0.4 nm, and a high dynamic range over 8 decades. We evaluated the contributions of various uncertainty components of the spectral responsivity measurement to the uncertainty of the temperature scale based on a practical estimation approach, which numerically calculates the maximal effects of the variations of each component. As a result, we evaluate the uncertainty contribution from the spectral responsivity measurement to the temperature scale to be less than 64 mK (k = 1) in a range from 660 °C to 2749 °C for the LP4 with a filter at 650 nm.
In-vivo studies of new vector velocity and adaptive spectral estimators in medical ultrasound
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hansen, Kristoffer Lindskov
2010-01-01
New ultrasound techniques for blood flow estimation have been investigated in-vivo. These are vector velocity estimators (Transverse Oscillation, Synthetic Transmit Aperture, Directional Beamforming and Plane Wave Excitation) and adaptive spectral estimators (Blood spectral Power Capon and Blood ...
Spectral estimation of green leaf area index of oats
Best, R. G.; Harlan, J. C.
1985-01-01
Green leaf area index (LAI) is a measure of vegetative growth and development and is frequently used as an input parameter in yield estimation and evapotranspiration models. Extensive destructive sampling is usually required to achieve accurate estimates of green LAI in natural situations. In this investigation, a statistical modeling approach was used to predict the green LAI of oats from bidirectional reflectance data collected with multiband radiometers. Stepwise multiple regression models based on two sets of spectral reflectance factors accounted for 73 percent and 65 percent of the variance in green LAI of oats. Exponential models of spectral data transformations of greenness, normalized difference, and near-infrared/red ratio accounted for more of the variance in green LAI than the multiple regression models.
Spectral estimation of green leaf area index of oats
Best, R. G.; Harlan, J. C.
1985-01-01
Green leaf area index (LAI) is a measure of vegetative growth and development and is frequently used as an input parameter in yield estimation and evapotranspiration models. Extensive destructive sampling is usually required to achieve accurate estimates of green LAI in natural situations. In this investigation, a statistical modeling approach was used to predict the green LAI of oats from bidirectional reflectance data collected with multiband radiometers. Stepwise multiple regression models based on two sets of spectral reflectance factors accounted for 73 percent and 65 percent of the variance in green LAI of oats. Exponential models of spectral data transformations of greenness, normalized difference, and near-infrared/red ratio accounted for more of the variance in green LAI than the multiple regression models.
A model-based approach to the spatial and spectral calibration of NIRSpec onboard JWST
Dorner, Bernhard; Ferruit, Pierre; de Oliveira, Catarina Alves; Birkmann, Stephan M; Böker, Torsten; De Marchi, Guido; Gnata, Xavier; Köhler, Jess; Sirianni, Marco; Jakobsen, Peter
2016-01-01
Context: The NIRSpec instrument for the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) can be operated in multiobject (MOS), long-slit, and integral field (IFU) mode with spectral resolutions from 100 to 2700. Its MOS mode uses about a quarter of a million individually addressable minislits for object selection, covering a field of view of $\\sim$9 $\\mathrm{arcmin}^2$. Aims: The pipeline used to extract wavelength-calibrated spectra from NIRSpec detector images relies heavily on a model of NIRSpec optical geometry. We demonstrate how dedicated calibration data from a small subset of NIRSpec modes and apertures can be used to optimize this parametric model to the necessary levels of fidelity. Methods: Following an iterative procedure, the initial fiducial values of the model parameters are manually adjusted and then automatically optimized, so that the model predicted location of the images and spectral lines from the fixed slits, the IFU, and a small subset of the MOS apertures matches their measured location in the main o...
Constrained Spectral Conditioning for spatial sound level estimation
Spalt, Taylor B.; Brooks, Thomas F.; Fuller, Christopher R.
2016-11-01
Microphone arrays are utilized in aeroacoustic testing to spatially map the sound emitted from an article under study. Whereas a single microphone allows only the total sound level to be estimated at the measurement location, an array permits differentiation between the contributions of distinct components. The accuracy of these spatial sound estimates produced by post-processing the array outputs is continuously being improved. One way of increasing the estimation accuracy is to filter the array outputs before they become inputs to a post-processor. This work presents a constrained method of linear filtering for microphone arrays which minimizes the total signal present on the array channels while preserving the signal from a targeted spatial location. Thus, each single-channel, filtered output for a given targeted location estimates only the signal from that location, even when multiple and/or distributed sources have been measured simultaneously. The method is based on Conditioned Spectral Analysis and modifies the Wiener-Hopf equation in a manner similar to the Generalized Sidelobe Canceller. This modified form of Conditioned Spectral Analysis is embedded within an iterative loop and termed Constrained Spectral Conditioning. Linear constraints are derived which prevent the cancellation of targeted signal due to random statistical error as well as location error in the sensor and/or source positions. The increased spatial mapping accuracy of Constrained Spectral Conditioning is shown for a simulated dataset of point sources which vary in strength. An experimental point source is used to validate the efficacy of the constraints which yield preservation of the targeted signal at the expense of reduced filtering ability. The beamforming results of a cold, supersonic jet demonstrate the qualitative and quantitative improvement obtained when using this technique to map a spatially-distributed, complex, and possibly coherent sound source.
Nonparametric spectral-based estimation of latent structures
Bonhomme, Stéphane; Jochmans, Koen; Robin, Jean-Marc
2014-01-01
We present a constructive identification proof of p-linear decompositions of q-way arrays. The analysis is based on the joint spectral decomposition of a set of matrices. It has applications in the analysis of a variety of latent-structure models, such as q-variate mixtures of p distributions. As such, our results provide a constructive alternative to Allman, Matias and Rhodes [2009]. The identification argument suggests a joint approximate-diagonalization estimator that is easy to implement ...
A globally convergent matricial algorithm for multivariate spectral estimation
Ramponi, Federico; Pavon, Michele
2008-01-01
In this paper, we first describe a matricial Newton-type algorithm designed to solve the multivariable spectrum approximation problem. We then prove its global convergence. Finally, we apply this approximation procedure to multivariate spectral estimation, and test its effectiveness through simulation. Simulation shows that, in the case of short observation records, this method may provide a valid alternative to standard multivariable identification techniques such as MATLAB's PEM and MATLAB's N4SID.
Bohn, Birger; Lohse, Insa
2017-09-01
The properties and performance of charge-coupled device (CCD) array spectroradiometers for the measurement of atmospheric spectral actinic flux densities (280-650 nm) and photolysis frequencies were investigated. These instruments are widely used in atmospheric research and are suitable for aircraft applications because of high time resolutions and high sensitivities in the UV range. The laboratory characterization included instrument-specific properties like the wavelength accuracy, dark signal, dark noise and signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). Spectral sensitivities were derived from measurements with spectral irradiance standards. The calibration procedure is described in detail, and a straightforward method to minimize the influence of stray light on spectral sensitivities is introduced. From instrument dark noise, minimum detection limits ≈ 1 × 1010 cm-2 s-1 nm-1 were derived for spectral actinic flux densities at wavelengths around 300 nm (1 s integration time). As a prerequisite for the determination of stray light under field conditions, atmospheric cutoff wavelengths were defined using radiative transfer calculations as a function of the solar zenith angle (SZA) and total ozone column (TOC). The recommended analysis of field data relies on these cutoff wavelengths and is also described in detail taking data from a research flight on HALO (High Altitude and Long Range Research Aircraft) as an example. An evaluation of field data was performed by ground-based comparisons with a double-monochromator-based, highly sensitive reference spectroradiometer. Spectral actinic flux densities were compared as well as photolysis frequencies j(NO2) and j(O1D), representing UV-A and UV-B ranges, respectively. The spectra expectedly revealed increased daytime levels of stray-light-induced signals and noise below atmospheric cutoff wavelengths. The influence of instrument noise and stray-light-induced noise was found to be insignificant for j(NO2) and rather limited for j(O1D
Zhao, Wei-Ning; Fang, Wei; Sun, Li-Wei; Cui, Li-Hong; Wang, Yu-Peng
2016-09-01
In order to satisfy the requirement of SI-traceable on-orbit absolute radiation calibration transfer with high accuracy for satellite remote sensors, a transfer chain consisting of a fiber coupling monochromator (FBM) and an integrating sphere transfer radiometer (ISTR) was designed in this paper. Depending on the Sun, this chain based on detectors provides precise spectral radiometric calibration and measurement to spectrometers in the reflective solar band (RSB) covering 300-2500 nm with a spectral bandwidth of 0.5-6 nm. It shortens the traditional chain based on lamp source and reduces the calibration uncertainty from 5% to 0.5% by using the cryogenic radiometer in space as a radiometric benchmark and trap detectors as secondary standard. This paper also gives a detailed uncertainty budget with reasonable distribution of each impact factor, including the weak spectral signal measurement with uncertainty of 0.28%. According to the peculiar design and comprehensive uncertainty analysis, it illustrates that the spectral radiance measurement uncertainty of the ISTR system can reach to 0.48%. The result satisfies the requirements of SI-traceable on-orbit calibration and has wider significance for expanding the application of the remote sensing data with high-quality. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 41474161) and the National High-Technology Program of China (Grant No. 2015AA123703).
Bhatt, Megha; Corre, Lucille Le; Sanchez, Juan A; Dunn, Tasha; Izawa, Matthew R M; Li, Jian-Yang; Becker, Kris J; Weller, Lynn
2015-01-01
We present spectral calibration equations for determining mafic silicate composition of near-Earth asteroid (25143) Itokawa from visible/near-infrared spectra measured using the Near Infrared Spectrometer (NIRS), on board the Japanese Hayabusa spacecraft. Itokawa was the target of the Hayabusa sample return mission and has a surface composition similar to LL-type ordinary chondrites. Existing laboratory spectral calibrations use a spectral wavelength range that is wider (0.75-2.5 microns) than that of the NIRS instrument (0.85-2.1 microns) making them unfit for interpreting the Hayabusa spectral data currently archived in the Planetary Data System. We used laboratory measured near-infrared reflectance spectra of ordinary (H, L and LL) chondrites from the study of Dunn et al. (2010), which we resampled to the NIRS wavelength range. Using spectral parameters extracted from these resampled spectra we established a relationship between band parameters and their mafic silicate composition (olivine and low-Ca pyrox...
Breast density estimation from high spectral and spatial resolution MRI.
Li, Hui; Weiss, William A; Medved, Milica; Abe, Hiroyuki; Newstead, Gillian M; Karczmar, Gregory S; Giger, Maryellen L
2016-10-01
A three-dimensional breast density estimation method is presented for high spectral and spatial resolution (HiSS) MR imaging. Twenty-two patients were recruited (under an Institutional Review Board--approved Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act-compliant protocol) for high-risk breast cancer screening. Each patient received standard-of-care clinical digital x-ray mammograms and MR scans, as well as HiSS scans. The algorithm for breast density estimation includes breast mask generating, breast skin removal, and breast percentage density calculation. The inter- and intra-user variabilities of the HiSS-based density estimation were determined using correlation analysis and limits of agreement. Correlation analysis was also performed between the HiSS-based density estimation and radiologists' breast imaging-reporting and data system (BI-RADS) density ratings. A correlation coefficient of 0.91 ([Formula: see text]) was obtained between left and right breast density estimations. An interclass correlation coefficient of 0.99 ([Formula: see text]) indicated high reliability for the inter-user variability of the HiSS-based breast density estimations. A moderate correlation coefficient of 0.55 ([Formula: see text]) was observed between HiSS-based breast density estimations and radiologists' BI-RADS. In summary, an objective density estimation method using HiSS spectral data from breast MRI was developed. The high reproducibility with low inter- and low intra-user variabilities shown in this preliminary study suggest that such a HiSS-based density metric may be potentially beneficial in programs requiring breast density such as in breast cancer risk assessment and monitoring effects of therapy.
Adaptive Spectral Estimation Methods in Color Flow Imaging.
Karabiyik, Yucel; Ekroll, Ingvild Kinn; Eik-Nes, Sturla H; Avdal, Jorgen; Lovstakken, Lasse
2016-11-01
Clutter rejection for color flow imaging (CFI) remains a challenge due to either a limited amount of temporal samples available or nonstationary tissue clutter. This is particularly the case for interleaved CFI and B-mode acquisitions. Low velocity blood signal is attenuated along with the clutter due to the long transition band of the available clutter filters, causing regions of biased mean velocity estimates or signal dropouts. This paper investigates how adaptive spectral estimation methods, Capon and blood iterative adaptive approach (BIAA), can be used to estimate the mean velocity in CFI without prior clutter filtering. The approach is based on confining the clutter signal in a narrow spectral region around the zero Doppler frequency while keeping the spectral side lobes below the blood signal level, allowing for the clutter signal to be removed by thresholding in the frequency domain. The proposed methods are evaluated using computer simulations, flow phantom experiments, and in vivo recordings from the common carotid and jugular vein of healthy volunteers. Capon and BIAA methods could estimate low blood velocities, which are normally attenuated by polynomial regression filters, and may potentially give better estimation of mean velocities for CFI at a higher computational cost. The Capon method decreased the bias by 81% in the transition band of the used polynomial regression filter for small packet size ( N=8 ) and low SNR (5 dB). Flow phantom and in vivo results demonstrate that the Capon method can provide color flow images and flow profiles with lower variance and bias especially in the regions close to the artery walls.
The Radio Spectral Energy Distribution and Star-formation Rate Calibration in Galaxies
Tabatabaei, F. S.; Schinnerer, E.; Krause, M.; Dumas, G.; Meidt, S.; Damas-Segovia, A.; Beck, R.; Murphy, E. J.; Mulcahy, D. D.; Groves, B.; Bolatto, A.; Dale, D.; Galametz, M.; Sandstrom, K.; Boquien, M.; Calzetti, D.; Kennicutt, R. C.; Hunt, L. K.; De Looze, I.; Pellegrini, E. W.
2017-02-01
We study the spectral energy distribution (SED) of the radio continuum (RC) emission from the Key Insight in Nearby Galaxies Emitting in Radio (KINGFISHER) sample of nearby galaxies to understand the energetics and origin of this emission. Effelsberg multi-wavelength observations at 1.4, 4.8, 8.4, and 10.5 GHz combined with archive data allow us, for the first time, to determine the mid-RC (1–10 GHz, MRC) bolometric luminosities and further present calibration relations versus the monochromatic radio luminosities. The 1–10 GHz radio SED is fitted using a Bayesian Markov Chain Monte Carlo technique leading to measurements for the nonthermal spectral index ({S}ν ∼ {ν }-{α {nt}}) and the thermal fraction ({f}{th}) with mean values of {α }{nt}=0.97 +/- 0.16(0.79 +/- 0.15 for the total spectral index) and {f}{th} = (10 ± 9)% at 1.4 GHz. The MRC luminosity changes over ∼3 orders of magnitude in the sample, 4.3× {10}2 {L}ȯ population in galaxies. Comparing the radio and IR SEDs, we find that the FIR-to-MRC ratio could decrease with SFR, due to the amplification of the magnetic fields in star-forming regions. This particularly implies a decrease in the ratio at high redshifts, where mostly luminous/star-forming galaxies are detected.
Perkins, Cara P.; Kerekes, John P.; Gartley, Michael G.
2013-09-01
This work presents a radiometric model of a spatial heterodyne spectrometer (SHS) and a corresponding interferogram-processing algorithm for the calculation of calibrated spectral radiance measurements. The SHS relies on Fourier Transform Spectroscopy (FTS) principles, and shares design similarities with the Michelson Interferometer. The advantages of the SHS design, including the lack of moving parts, high throughput, and instantaneous spectral measurements, make it suitable as a eld-deployable instrument. Operating in the long-wave infrared (LWIR), the imaging SHS design example included provides the capability of performing chemical detection based on re ectance and emissivity properties of surfaces of organic compounds. This LWIR SHS model outputs realistic, interferometric data and serves as a tool to nd optimal SHS design parameters for desired performance requirements and system application. It also assists in the data analysis and system characterization. The interferogram-processing algorithm performs at- elding and phase corrections as well as apodization before recovering the measured spectral radiance from the recorded interferogram via the Inverse Fourier Transform (IFT). The model and processing algorithm demonstrate results comparable to those in the literature with a noise-equivalent change in temperature of 0.35K. Additional experiments show the algorithm's real-time processing capability, indicating the LWIR SHS system presented is feasible.
Hu, Chen; Ho, Luis C; Bai, Jin-Ming; Li, Yan-Rong; Du, Pu; Lu, Kai-Xing
2016-01-01
We propose a method for the flux calibration of reverberation mapping spectra based on accurate measurement of [O III] $\\lambda 5007$ emission by spectral fitting. The method can achieve better accuracy than the traditional method of van Groningen & Wanders (1992), allowing reverberation mapping measurements for object with variability amplitudes as low as $\\sim$ 5%. As a demonstration, we reanalyze the data of the Seyfert 1 galaxy MCG--6-30-15 taken from the 2008 campaign of the Lick AGN Monitoring Project, which previously failed to obtain a time lag for this weakly variable object owing to a relatively large flux calibration uncertainty. We detect a statistically significant rest-frame time lag of $6.38_{-2.69}^{+3.07}$ days between the H$\\beta$ and $V$-band light curves. Combining this lag with FWHM(H$\\beta$) = $1933\\pm81$ $\\rm km~s^{-1}$ and a virial coefficient of $f$ = 0.7, we derive a virial black hole mass of $3.26_{-1.40}^{+1.59}\\times10^6$ $M_{\\odot}$, which agrees well with previous estimates ...
Risk estimation for matrix recovery with spectral regularization
Deledalle, Charles-Alban; Peyré, Gabriel; Fadili, Jalal; Dossal, Charles
2012-01-01
In this paper, we develop an approach to recursively estimate the quadratic risk for matrix recovery problems regularized with spectral functions. Toward this end, in the spirit of the SURE theory, a key step is to compute the (weak) derivative and divergence of a solution with respect to the observations. As such a solution is not available in closed form, but rather through a proximal splitting algorithm, we propose to recursively compute the divergence from the sequence of iterates. A second challenge that we unlocked is the computation of the (weak) derivative of the proximity operator of a spectral function. To show the potential applicability of our approach, we exemplify it on a matrix completion problem to objectively and automatically select the regularization parameter.
Spectral covolatility estimation from noisy observations using local weights
Bibinger, Markus
2011-01-01
We propose localized spectral estimators for the quadratic covariation and the spot covolatility of diffusion processes which are observed discretely with additive observation noise. The eligibility of this approach to lead to an appropriate estimation for time-varying volatilities stems from an asymptotic equivalence of the underlying statistical model to a white noise model with correlation and volatility processes being constant over small intervals. The asymptotic equivalence of the continuous-time and the discrete-time experiments are proved by a construction with linear interpolation in one direction and local means for the other. The new estimator outperforms earlier nonparametric approaches in the considered model. We investigate its finite sample size characteristics in simulations and draw a comparison between the various proposed methods.
A Bayesian Estimator for Linear Calibration Error Effects in Thermal Remote Sensing
Morgan, J A
2005-01-01
The Bayesian Land Surface Temperature estimator previously developed has been extended to include the effects of imperfectly known gain and offset calibration errors. It is possible to treat both gain and offset as nuisance parameters and, by integrating over an uninformative range for their magnitudes, eliminate the dependence of surface temperature and emissivity estimates upon the exact calibration error.
Bromaghin, Jeffrey; Budge, Suzanne M.; Thiemann, Gregory W.; Rode, Karyn D.
2017-01-01
Knowledge of animal diets provides essential insights into their life history and ecology, although diet estimation is challenging and remains an active area of research. Quantitative fatty acid signature analysis (QFASA) has become a popular method of estimating diet composition, especially for marine species. A primary assumption of QFASA is that constants called calibration coefficients, which account for the differential metabolism of individual fatty acids, are known. In practice, however, calibration coefficients are not known, but rather have been estimated in feeding trials with captive animals of a limited number of model species. The impossibility of verifying the accuracy of feeding trial derived calibration coefficients to estimate the diets of wild animals is a foundational problem with QFASA that has generated considerable criticism. We present a new model that allows simultaneous estimation of diet composition and calibration coefficients based only on fatty acid signature samples from wild predators and potential prey. Our model performed almost flawlessly in four tests with constructed examples, estimating both diet proportions and calibration coefficients with essentially no error. We also applied the model to data from Chukchi Sea polar bears, obtaining diet estimates that were more diverse than estimates conditioned on feeding trial calibration coefficients. Our model avoids bias in diet estimates caused by conditioning on inaccurate calibration coefficients, invalidates the primary criticism of QFASA, eliminates the need to conduct feeding trials solely for diet estimation, and consequently expands the utility of fatty acid data to investigate aspects of ecology linked to animal diets.
The spectral calibration of JWST/NIRSpec: results from the recent cryo-vacuum campaign (ISIM-CV3)
Giardino, Giovanna; Luetzgendorf, Nora; Ferruit, Pierre; Dorner, Bernhard; Alves de Oliveira, Catarina; Birkmann, Stephan M.; Boeker, Torsten; Rawle, Tim; Sirianni, Marco
2016-07-01
The NIRSpec instrument of JWST can be operated in multi-object (MOS), long-slit, and integral field mode with spectral resolutions from 100 to 2700. Its MOS mode uses about a quarter of a million individually addressable mini-slits for object selection, covering a field of view of 9 square-arcminute. We have developed a procedure to optimize a parametric model of the instrument that provides the basis for the extraction of wavelength calibrated spectra from NIRSpec data, from any of the apertures and for all the modes. Here, we summarize the steps undertaken to optimize the instrument model parameters using the data acquired during the latest cryo-vacuum campaign of the JWST Integrated Science Instrument Module, recently carried out at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center. The calibrated parametric model is able to reproduce the spatial and spectral position of the input spectra with an intrinsic accuracy (1-sigma, RMS) ~ 1/10 of a pixel in spatial and spectral direction for all the modes. The overall wavelength calibration accuracy (RMS) of the model as measured on the extracted spectra is better than 1/20 of a resolution element for all of the grating-based spectral modes and at the level of 1/14 of a resolution element for the prism. These results are well within the allocations for the model in the overall spatial and spectral calibration budget of NIRSpec.
Calibration Of U-Tube Manometer Using Frequency Estimation
Roshan Elizabeth Daniel; Anitha Mary.X; R. Jegan; RAJASEKARAN, K.
2013-01-01
U-Tube Manometer is used to measure pressure. It is calibrated using the variation in capacitance. In U-tube manometer, the relation between the level of mercury and the capacitance developed across thecopper plates of the manometer is found to be highly non-linear. Due to its non-predictive nature and nonlinear relationship, artificial intelligence techniques are used to calibrate the system. The artificial intelligence technique used here is Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy Inference System (ANFIS). Th...
The Radio Spectral Energy Distribution and Star Formation Rate Calibration in Galaxies
Tabatabaei, F S; Krause, M; Dumas, G; Meidt, S; Beck, R; Damas-Segovia, A; Murphy, E J; Mulcahy, D D; Groves, B; Bolatto, A; Dale, D; Galametz, M; Sandstrom, K; Boquien, M; Calzetti, D; Kennicutt, R C; Hunt, L K; De Looze, I; Pellegrini, E W
2016-01-01
We study the spectral energy distribution (SED) of the radio continuum emission from the KINGFISH sample of nearby galaxies to understand the energetics and origin of this emission. Effelsberg multi-wavelength observations at 1.4GHz, 4.8GHz, 8.5GHz, and 10.5GHz combined with archive data allow us, for the first time, to determine the mid-radio continuum (1-10 GHz, MRC) bolometric luminosities and further present calibration relations vs. the monochromatic radio luminosities. The radio SED is fitted using a Bayesian Marchov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) technique leading to measurements for the nonthermal spectral index (a_nt) and the thermal fraction (fth) with mean values of a_nt~ 0.97 for the 1-10 GHz frequency rang and fth~10% at 1.4GHz. The MRC luminosity changes over ~3 orders of magnitude in the sample. The thermal emission is responsible for ~23% of the MRC on average. We also compare the extinction-corrected diagnostics of star formation rate with the thermal and nonthermal radio tracers and derive the fir...
Object Detection and Tracking-Based Camera Calibration for Normalized Human Height Estimation
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jaehoon Jung
2016-01-01
Full Text Available This paper presents a normalized human height estimation algorithm using an uncalibrated camera. To estimate the normalized human height, the proposed algorithm detects a moving object and performs tracking-based automatic camera calibration. The proposed method consists of three steps: (i moving human detection and tracking, (ii automatic camera calibration, and (iii human height estimation and error correction. The proposed method automatically calibrates camera by detecting moving humans and estimates the human height using error correction. The proposed method can be applied to object-based video surveillance systems and digital forensic.
De Lorenzi Pezzolo, Alessandra
2013-01-01
Unlike most spectroscopic calibrations that are based on the study of well-separated features ascribable to the different components, this laboratory experience is especially designed to exploit spectral features that are nearly overlapping. The investigated system consists of a binary mixture of two commonly occurring minerals, calcite and…
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
D.O. Smallwood
1996-01-01
Full Text Available It is shown that the usual method for estimating the coherence functions (ordinary, partial, and multiple for a general multiple-input! multiple-output problem can be expressed as a modified form of Cholesky decomposition of the cross-spectral density matrix of the input and output records. The results can be equivalently obtained using singular value decomposition (SVD of the cross-spectral density matrix. Using SVD suggests a new form of fractional coherence. The formulation as a SVD problem also suggests a way to order the inputs when a natural physical order of the inputs is absent.
On the interpretation of recharge estimates from steady-state model calibrations.
Anderson, William P; Evans, David G
2007-01-01
Ground water recharge is often estimated through the calibration of ground water flow models. We examine the nature of calibration errors by considering some simple mathematical and numerical calculations. From these calculations, we conclude that calibrating a steady-state ground water flow model to water level extremes yields estimates of recharge that have the same value as the time-varying recharge at the time the water levels are measured. These recharge values, however, are a subdued version of the actual transient recharge signal. In addition, calibrating a steady-state ground water flow model to data collected during periods of rising water levels will produce recharge values that underestimate the actual transient recharge. Similarly, calibrating during periods of falling water levels will overestimate the actual transient recharge. We also demonstrate that average water levels can be used to estimate the actual average recharge rate provided that water level data have been collected for a sufficient amount of time.
Bayesian parameter estimation in spectral quantitative photoacoustic tomography
Pulkkinen, Aki; Cox, Ben T.; Arridge, Simon R.; Kaipio, Jari P.; Tarvainen, Tanja
2016-03-01
Photoacoustic tomography (PAT) is an imaging technique combining strong contrast of optical imaging to high spatial resolution of ultrasound imaging. These strengths are achieved via photoacoustic effect, where a spatial absorption of light pulse is converted into a measurable propagating ultrasound wave. The method is seen as a potential tool for small animal imaging, pre-clinical investigations, study of blood vessels and vasculature, as well as for cancer imaging. The goal in PAT is to form an image of the absorbed optical energy density field via acoustic inverse problem approaches from the measured ultrasound data. Quantitative PAT (QPAT) proceeds from these images and forms quantitative estimates of the optical properties of the target. This optical inverse problem of QPAT is illposed. To alleviate the issue, spectral QPAT (SQPAT) utilizes PAT data formed at multiple optical wavelengths simultaneously with optical parameter models of tissue to form quantitative estimates of the parameters of interest. In this work, the inverse problem of SQPAT is investigated. Light propagation is modelled using the diffusion equation. Optical absorption is described with chromophore concentration weighted sum of known chromophore absorption spectra. Scattering is described by Mie scattering theory with an exponential power law. In the inverse problem, the spatially varying unknown parameters of interest are the chromophore concentrations, the Mie scattering parameters (power law factor and the exponent), and Gruneisen parameter. The inverse problem is approached with a Bayesian method. It is numerically demonstrated, that estimation of all parameters of interest is possible with the approach.
Sensor Pointing Calibration Strategy Using Doppler Centroid Estimates over Stationary Scenes
Recchia, A.; Giudici, D.; Miranda, N.; Monti Guarnieri, A.
2016-08-01
A technique for the calibration of the pointing of a SAR sensor from the Doppler Centroid estimates over still land is presented. The technique is validated over real Sentine-1 data and results of the sensor calibration are provided. Finally a possible application of the technique to geophysical parameters retrieval is described.
Spectral reflectance of Kelantan Estuary with ALOS data to estimate transparency
Syahreza, S.; MatJafri, M. Z.; Lim, H. S.
2012-09-01
The Kelantan estuary, located in the northeastern part of Peninsular Malaysia, is characterized by high levels of suspended sediments. Kuala Besar is the estuary of the river directly opposite South China Sea. Spectral reflectance (Rr) and transparency measurements were carried out in the Kelantan estuary. The objective in this study is to establish empirical relationships between spectral remote sensing reflectance in ALOS satellite imagery and water column transparency, i.e. nephelometric turbidity unit (NTU) and Secchi disc depth (SDD) through these numerous in situ measurements. We detected that remote sensing reflectance are linear and power regression functions against NTU and SDD. The results of this sampling show that the wavelengths range from 500-620 nm is the most suitable band for measuring water column transparency. The calibrated reflectance of ALOS AVNIR-2 bands was also regressed against NTU and SDD field data to derive two empirical equations for water transparency estimation. These equations were calculated using ALOS images data on June 12, 2010. The result obtained indicated that reliable estimates of turbidity and transparency values for the Kelantan Estuary, Malaysia, could be retrieved using this method.
Marasek, K; Nowicki, A
1994-01-01
The performance of three spectral techniques (FFT, AR Burg and ARMA) for maximum frequency estimation of the Doppler spectra is described. Different definitions of fmax were used: frequency at which spectral power decreases down to 0.1 of its maximum value, modified threshold crossing method (MTCM) and novel geometrical method. "Goodness" and efficiency of estimators were determined by calculating the bias and the standard deviation of the estimated maximum frequency of the simulated Doppler spectra with known statistics. The power of analysed signals was assumed to have the exponential distribution function. The SNR ratios were changed over the range from 0 to 20 dB. Different spectrum envelopes were generated. A Gaussian envelope approximated narrow band spectral processes (P. W. Doppler) and rectangular spectra were used to simulate a parabolic flow insonified with C. W. Doppler. The simulated signals were generated out of 3072-point records with sampling frequency of 20 kHz. The AR and ARMA models order selections were done independently according to Akaike Information Criterion (AIC) and Singular Value Decomposition (SVD). It was found that the ARMA model, computed according to SVD criterion, had the best overall performance and produced results with the smallest bias and standard deviation. In general AR(SVD) was better than AR(AIC). The geometrical method of fmax estimation was found to be more accurate than other tested methods, especially for narrow band signals.
Stability Estimates for ℎ- Spectral Element Methods for Elliptic Problems
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Pravir Dutt; Satyendra Tomar; B V Rathish Kumar
2002-11-01
In a series of papers of which this is the first we study how to solve elliptic problems on polygonal domains using spectral methods on parallel computers. To overcome the singularities that arise in a neighborhood of the corners we use a geometrical mesh. With this mesh we seek a solution which minimizes a weighted squared norm of the residuals in the partial differential equation and a fractional Sobolev norm of the residuals in the boundary conditions and enforce continuity by adding a term which measures the jump in the function and its derivatives at inter-element boundaries, in an appropriate fractional Sobolev norm, to the functional being minimized. Since the second derivatives of the actual solution are not square integrable in a neighborhood of the corners we have to multiply the residuals in the partial differential equation by an appropriate power of $r_k$, where $r_k$ measures the distance between the point and the vertex $A_k$ in a sectoral neighborhood of each of these vertices. In each of these sectoral neighborhoods we use a local coordinate system $(_k, _k)$ where $_k = ln r_k$ and $(r_k, _k)$ are polar coordinates with origin at $A_k$, as first proposed by Kondratiev. We then derive differentiability estimates with respect to these new variables and a stability estimate for the functional we minimize. In [6] we will show that we can use the stability estimate to obtain parallel preconditioners and error estimates for the solution of the minimization problem which are nearly optimal as the condition number of the preconditioned system is polylogarithmic in , the number of processors and the number of degrees of freedom in each variable on each element. Moreover if the data is analytic then the error is exponentially small in .
Calibration of Radio Interferometers Using a Sparse DoA Estimation Framework
Brossard, Martin; Pesavento, Marius; Boyer, Rémy; Larzabal, Pascal
2016-01-01
The calibration of modern radio interferometers is a significant challenge, specifically at low frequencies. In this perspective, we propose a novel iterative calibration algorithm, which employs the popular sparse representation framework, in the regime where the propagation conditions bend dissimilarly the directions of the sources. More precisely, our algorithm is designed to estimate the apparent directions of the calibration sources, their powers, the directional and undirectional complex gains of the array elements and their noise powers, with a reasonable computational complexity. Numerical simulations reveal that the proposed scheme is statistically efficient at low SNR and even with additional non-calibration sources at unknown directions.
Caux, E; Castets, A; Coutens, A; Ceccarelli, C; Bacmann, A; Bisshop, S; Bottinelli, S; Comito, C; Helmich, F P; Lefloch, B; Parise, B; Schilke, P; Tielens, A G G M; van Dishoeck, E; Vastel, C; Wakelam, V; Walters, A
2011-01-01
While unbiased surveys observable from ground-based telescopes have previously been obtained towards several high mass protostars, very little exists on low mass protostars. To fill up this gap, we carried out a complete spectral survey of the bands at 3, 2, 1 and 0.8 mm towards the solar type protostar IRAS16293-2422. The observations covered about 200\\,GHz and were obtained with the IRAM-30m and JCMT-15m telescopes. Particular attention was devoted to the inter-calibration of the obtained spectra with previous observations. All the lines detected with more than 3 sigma and free from obvious blending effects were fitted with Gaussians to estimate their basic kinematic properties. More than 4000 lines were detected (with sigma \\geq 3) and identified, yielding a line density of approximatively 20 lines per GHz, comparable to previous surveys in massive hot cores. The vast majority (~2/3) of the lines are weak and due to complex organic molecules. The analysis of the profiles of more than 1000 lines belonging 7...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
A. Kleinert
2014-12-01
Full Text Available The Gimballed Limb Observer for Radiance Imaging of the Atmosphere (GLORIA is an imaging Fourier transform spectrometer that is capable of operating on various high-altitude research aircraft. It measures the atmospheric emission in the thermal infrared spectral region in limb and nadir geometry. GLORIA consists of a classical Michelson interferometer combined with an infrared camera. The infrared detector has a usable area of 128 × 128 pixels, measuring up to 16 384 interferograms simultaneously. Imaging Fourier transform spectrometers impose a number of challenges with respect to instrument calibration and algorithm development. The optical setup with extremely high optical throughput requires the development of new methods and algorithms for spectral and radiometric calibration. Due to the vast amount of data there is a high demand for scientifically intelligent optimisation of the data processing. This paper outlines the characterisation and processing steps required for the generation of radiometrically and spectrally calibrated spectra. Methods for performance optimisation of the processing algorithm are presented. The performance of the data processing and the quality of the calibrated spectra are demonstrated for measurements collected during the first deployments of GLORIA on aircraft.
Investigations on antenna array calibration algorithms for direction-of-arrival estimation
Eberhardt, Michael; Eschlwech, Philipp; Biebl, Erwin
2016-09-01
Direction-of-arrival (DOA) estimation algorithms deliver very precise results based on good and extensive antenna array calibration. The better the array manifold including all disturbances is known, the better the DOA estimation result. A simplification or ideally an omission of the calibration procedure has been a long pursued goal in the history of array signal processing. This paper investigates the practicability of some well known calibration algorithms and gives a deeper insight into existing obstacles. Further analysis on the validity of the common used data model is presented. A new effect in modeling errors is revealed and simulation results substantiate this theory.
MUSIC for Multidimensional Spectral Estimation: Stability and Super-Resolution
Liao, Wenjing
2015-12-01
This paper presents a performance analysis of the MUltiple SIgnal Classification (MUSIC) algorithm applied on $D$ dimensional single-snapshot spectral estimation while $s$ true frequencies are located on the continuum of a bounded domain. Inspired by the matrix pencil form, we construct a D-fold Hankel matrix from the measurements and exploit its Vandermonde decomposition in the noiseless case. MUSIC amounts to identifying a noise subspace, evaluating a noise-space correlation function, and localizing frequencies by searching the $s$ smallest local minima of the noise-space correlation function. In the noiseless case, $(2s)^D$ measurements guarantee an exact reconstruction by MUSIC as the noise-space correlation function vanishes exactly at true frequencies. When noise exists, we provide an explicit estimate on the perturbation of the noise-space correlation function in terms of noise level, dimension $D$, the minimum separation among frequencies, the maximum and minimum amplitudes while frequencies are separated by two Rayleigh Length (RL) at each direction. As a by-product the maximum and minimum non-zero singular values of the multidimensional Vandermonde matrix whose nodes are on the unit sphere are estimated under a gap condition of the nodes. Under the 2-RL separation condition, if noise is i.i.d. gaussian, we show that perturbation of the noise-space correlation function decays like $\\sqrt{\\log(\\#(\\mathbf{N}))/\\#(\\mathbf{N})}$ as the sample size $\\#(\\mathbf{N})$ increases. When the separation among frequencies drops below 2 RL, our numerical experiments show that the noise tolerance of MUSIC obeys a power law with the minimum separation of frequencies.
Vilaplana, José M; Cachorro, Victoria E; Sorribas, Mar; Luccini, Eduardo; de Frutos, Angel M; Berjón, Alberto; de la Morena, Benito
2006-01-01
The calibration of the erythemal irradiance measured by a Yankee Environmental System (YES) UVB-1 biometer is presented using two methods of calibration with a wide range of experimental solar zenith angles (SZAs) and ozone values. The calibration is performed through simultaneous spectral measurements by a calibrated double-monochromator Brewer MK-III spectrophotometer at "El Arenosillo" station, located in southwestern Spain. Because the range of spectral measurements of the Brewer spectrophotometer is 290-363 nm, a previously validated radiative transfer model was used to account for the erythemal contribution between 363 and 400 nm. Both methods are recommended by the World Meteorological Organization and we present and discuss here a wide range of results and features given by modified procedures applied to these two general methods. As is well established, the calibration factor for this type of radiometric system is dependent on atmospheric conditions, the most important of which are the ozone content and the SZA. Although the first method is insensitive to these two factors, we analyze this behavior in terms of the range used for the SZA and the use of two different mathematical approaches for its determination. The second method shows the dependence on SZA and ozone content and, thus, a polynomial as a function of SZA or a matrix including SZA and ozone content were determined as general calibration factors for the UV radiometric system. We must note that the angular responses of the YES radiometer and Brewer spectroradiometer have not been considered, because of the difficulty in correcting them. The results show in detail the advantages and drawbacks (and the corresponding associated error) given by the different approaches used for the determination of these calibration coefficients.
Lee, Okkyun; Kappler, Steffen; Polster, Christoph; Taguchi, Katsuyuki
2016-10-26
Photon counting detector (PCD)-based computed tomography exploits spectral information from a transmitted x-ray spectrum to estimate basis line-integrals. The recorded spectrum, however, is distorted and deviates from the transmitted spectrum due to spectral response effect (SRE). Therefore, the SRE needs to be compensated for when estimating basis lineintegrals. One approach is to incorporate the SRE model with an incident spectrum into the PCD measurement model and the other approach is to perform a calibration process that inherently includes both the SRE and the incident spectrum. A maximum likelihood estimator can be used to the former approach, which guarantees asymptotic optimality; however, a heavy computational burden is a concern. Calibration-based estimators are a form of the latter approach. They can be very efficient; however, a heuristic calibration process needs to be addressed. In this paper, we propose a computationally efficient three-step estimator for the former approach using a low-order polynomial approximation of x-ray transmittance. The low-order polynomial approximation can change the original non-linear estimation method to a two-step linearized approach followed by an iterative bias correction step. We show that the calibration process is required only for the bias correction step and prove that it converges to the unbiased solution under practical assumptions. Extensive simulation studies validate the proposed method and show that the estimation results are comparable to those of the ML estimator while the computational time is reduced substantially.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Pedersen, Mads Møller; Pihl, Michael Johannes; Haugaard, Per
2011-01-01
angles and std were calculated { 52±18 ; 55±23 ; 60±16 }°. Spectral angles { 52 ; 56 ; 52 }° were obtained from the B-mode images. Obtained values are: PSTO { 76±15 ; 89±28 ; 77±7 } cm/s, spectral PS { 77 ; 110 ; 76 } cm/s, EDTO { 10±3 ; 14±8 ; 15±3 } cm/s, spectral ED { 18 ; 13 ; 20 } cm/s, RITO { 0.......87±0.05 ; 0.79±0.21 ; 0.79±0.06 }, and spectral RI { 0.77 ; 0.88 ; 0.73 }. Vector angles are within ±two std of the spectral angle. TO velocity estimates are within ±three std of the spectral estimates. RITO are within ±two std of the spectral estimates. Preliminary data indicates that the TO and spectral...
Estimating the age of Heliconius butterflies from calibrated photographs
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Denise Dalbosco Dell’Aglio
2017-09-01
Full Text Available Mating behaviour and predation avoidance in Heliconius involve visual colour signals; however, there is considerable inter-individual phenotypic variation in the appearance of colours. In particular, the red pigment varies from bright crimson to faded red. It has been thought that this variation is primarily due to pigment fading with age, although this has not been explicitly tested. Previous studies have shown the importance of red patterns in mate choice and that birds and butterflies might perceive these small colour differences. Using digital photography and calibrated colour images, we investigated whether the hue variation in the forewing dorsal red band of Heliconius melpomene rosina corresponds with age. We found that the red hue and age were highly associated, suggesting that red colour can indeed be used as a proxy for age in the study of wild-caught butterflies.
Crowd-Sourced Calibration: The GEDI Strategy for Empirical Biomass Estimation Using Spaceborne Lidar
Dubayah, R.
2015-12-01
The central task in estimating forest biomass from spaceborne sensors is the development of calibration equations that relate observed forest structure to biomass at a variety of spatial scales. Empirical methods generally rely on statistical estimation or machine learning techniques where field-based estimates of biomass at the plot level are associated with post-launch observations of variables such as canopy height and cover. For global-scale mapping the process is complex and leads to a number of questions: How many calibrations are required to capture non-stationarity in the relationships? Where does one calibration begin and another end? Should calibrations be conditioned by biome? Vegetation type? Land-use? Post-launch calibrations lead to further complications, such as the requirement to have sufficient field plot data underneath potentially sparse satellite observations, spatial and temporal mismatches in scale between field plots and pixels, and geolocation uncertainty, both in the plots and the satellite data. The Global Ecosystem Dynamics Investigation (GEDI) is under development by NASA to estimate forest biomass. GEDI will deploy a multi-beam lidar on the International Space Station and provide billions of observations of forest structure per year. Because GEDI uses relatively small footprints, about 25 m diameter, post-launch calibration is exceptionally problematic for the reasons listed earlier. Instead, GEDI will use a kind of "crowd-sourced" calibration strategy where existing lidar observations and the corresponding plot biomass will be assembled from data contributed by the science community. Through a process of continuous updating, calibrations will be refined as more data is ingested. This talk will focus on the GEDI pre-launch calibration strategy and present initial progress on its development, and how it forms the basis for meeting mission biomass requirements.
Spectral Estimation: An Overdetermined Rational Model Equation Approach.
1982-10-01
we obtain the associated power spectral density function Sx(eJw) in which the normalized frequency variable w takes on values in -,n]. This function...coefficients. It therefore follows that these coefficients may be determined from the power spectral density function through the Fourier series coefficient...autocorrelation sequence is equivalent to knowledge of the power spectral density function and vice versa. We belabor this point in order to establish
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Glassey, C.R.; Choy, Y.C.
1977-09-01
The problem of estimation of a physical quantity from a set of measurements is considered. We extend Kalman recursive estimation procedure in two ways. First, we explore how to use the latest observation to retrospectively update estimates of past system states. Second, we show how to apply the retrospective update idea to get interpolation estimates between the epochs of observations. We also show application of these ideas for instrument calibration in nuclear accountability systems.
Witteborn, Fred C.; Cohen, Martin; Bregman, Jesse D.; Wooden, Diane H.; Heere, Karen; Shirley, Eric L.
1999-01-01
Infrared spectra of two celestial objects frequently used as flux standards are calibrated against an absolute laboratory flux standard at a spectral resolving power of 100 to 200. The spectrum of the KI.5 III star alpha Boo is measured from 3 to 30 microns, and that of the C-type asteroid 1 Ceres from 5 to 30 microns. While these "standard" spectra do not have the apparent precision of those based on calculated models, they do not require the assumptions involved in theoretical models of stars and asteroids. Specifically, they provide a model-independent means of calibrating celestial flux in the spectral range from 12 to 30 microns, where accurate absolute photometry is not available. The agreement found between the spectral shapes of alpha Boo and Ceres based on laboratory standards and those based on observed ratios to alpha CMa (Sirius) and alpha Lyr (Vega), flux-calibrated by theoretical modeling of these hot stars, strengthens our confidence in the applicability of the stellar models as primary irradiance standards.
Witteborn, Fred C.; Cohen, Martin; Bregman, Jess D.; Wooden, Diane; Heere, Karen; Shirley, Eric L.
1998-01-01
Infrared spectra of two celestial objects frequently used as flux standards are calibrated against an absolute laboratory flux standard at a spectral resolving power of 100 to 200. The spectrum of the K1.5III star, alpha Boo, is measured from 3 microns to 30 microns and that of the C-type asteroid, 1 Ceres, from 5 microns to 30 microns. While these 'standard' spectra do not have the apparent precision of those based on calculated models, they do not require the assumptions involved in theoretical models of stars and asteroids. Specifically they provide a model-independent means of calibrating celestial flux in the spectral range from 12 microns to 30 microns where accurate absolute photometry is not available. The agreement found between the spectral shapes of alpha Boo and Ceres based on laboratory standards, and those based on observed ratios to alpha CMa (Sirius) and alpha Lyr (Vega), flux calibrated by theoretical modeling of these hot stars strengthens our confidence in the applicability of the stellar models as primary irradiance standards.
Self Calibrating Flow Estimation in Waste Water Pumping Stations
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Kallesøe, Carsten Skovmose; Knudsen, Torben
2016-01-01
Knowledge about where waste water is flowing in waste water networks is essential to optimize the operation of the network pumping stations. However, installation of flow sensors is expensive and requires regular maintenance. This paper proposes an alternative approach where the pumps and the waste...... water pit are used for estimating both the inflow and the pump flow of the pumping station. Due to the nature of waste water, the waste water pumps are heavily affected by wear and tear. To compensate for the wear of the pumps, the pump parameters, used for the flow estimation, are automatically...
An Empirical Calibration of Star Formation Rate Estimators
Rosa-Gonzalez, D; Terlevich, R J
2002-01-01
(Abridged) The observational determination of the behaviour of the star formation rate (SFR) with look-back time or redshift has two main weaknesses: 1- the large uncertainty of the dust/extinction corrections, and 2- that systematic errors may be introduced by the fact that the SFR is estimated using different methods at different redshifts. To assess the possible systematic differences among the different SFR estimators and the role of dust, we have compared SFR estimates using H$\\alpha$, SFR(H$\\alpha$), [OII]$\\lambda$3727\\AA, SFR(OII), UV, SFR(UV) and FIR, SFR(FIR) luminosities of a sample comprising the 31 nearby star forming galaxies having high quality photometric data in the UV, optical and FIR. We review the different "standard" methods for the estimation of the SFR and find that while the standard method provides good agreement between SFR(H$\\alpha$) and SFR(FIR), both SFR(OII) and SFR(UV) are systematically higher than SFR(FIR), irrespective of the extinction law. We show that the excess in the SFR(...
Pan, Guangming; Zhou, Wang
2010-01-01
A consistent kernel estimator of the limiting spectral distribution of general sample covariance matrices was introduced in Jing, Pan, Shao and Zhou (2010). The central limit theorem of the kernel estimator is proved in this paper.
Spectral Estimation of Non-Gaussian Time Series
Fabián, Z. (Zdeněk)
2010-01-01
Based on the concept of the scalar score of a probability distribution, we introduce a concept of a scalar score of time series and propose to characterize a non-Gaussian time series by spectral density of its scalar score.
Pedersen, Mads Møller; Pihl, Michael Johannes; Haugaard, Per; Hansen, Jens Munk; Lindskov Hansen, Kristoffer; Bachmann Nielsen, Michael; Jensen, Jørgen Arendt
2011-03-01
Spectral velocity estimation is considered the gold standard in medical ultrasound. Peak systole (PS), end diastole (ED), and resistive index (RI) are used clinically. Angle correction is performed using a flow angle set manually. With Transverse Oscillation (TO) velocity estimates the flow angle, peak systole (PSTO), end diastole (EDTO), and resistive index (RITO) are estimated. This study investigates if these clinical parameters are estimated equally good using spectral and TO data. The right common carotid arteries of three healthy volunteers were scanned longitudinally. Average TO flow angles and std were calculated { 52+/-18 ; 55+/-23 ; 60+/-16 }°. Spectral angles { 52 ; 56 ; 52 }° were obtained from the B-mode images. Obtained values are: PSTO { 76+/-15 ; 89+/-28 ; 77+/-7 } cm/s, spectral PS { 77 ; 110 ; 76 } cm/s, EDTO { 10+/-3 ; 14+/-8 ; 15+/-3 } cm/s, spectral ED { 18 ; 13 ; 20 } cm/s, RITO { 0.87+/-0.05 ; 0.79+/-0.21 ; 0.79+/-0.06 }, and spectral RI { 0.77 ; 0.88 ; 0.73 }. Vector angles are within +/-two std of the spectral angle. TO velocity estimates are within +/-three std of the spectral estimates. RITO are within +/-two std of the spectral estimates. Preliminary data indicates that the TO and spectral velocity estimates are equally good. With TO there is no manual angle setting and no flow angle limitation. TO velocity estimation can also automatically handle situations where the angle varies over the cardiac cycle. More detailed temporal and spatial vector estimates with diagnostic potential are available with the TO velocity estimation.
A Regression-based User Calibration Framework for Real-time Gaze Estimation
Arar, Nuri Murat; Gao, Hua; Thiran, Jean-Philippe
2016-01-01
Eye movements play a very significant role in human computer interaction (HCI) as they are natural and fast, and contain important cues for human cognitive state and visual attention. Over the last two decades, many techniques have been proposed to accurately estimate the gaze. Among these, video-based remote eye trackers have attracted much interest since they enable non-intrusive gaze estimation. To achieve high estimation accuracies for remote systems, user calibration is inevitable in ord...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Nasir Saleem
2013-06-01
Full Text Available Speech enhancement with Geometric Advent of Spectral subtraction using connected time-frequency regions noise estimation aims to de-noise or reduce background noise from the noisy speech for better quality, pleasantness and improved intelligibility. Numerous enhancement methods are proposed including spectral subtraction, subspace, statistical with different noise estimations. The traditional spectral subtraction techniques are reasonably simple to implement and suffer from musical noise. This study addresses the new approach for speech enhancement which has minimized the insufficiencies in traditional spectral subtraction algorithms using MCRA. This approach with noise estimation has been evolved with PESQ, the ITU-T standard; Frequency weighted segmental SNR and weighted spectral slope. The analysis shows that Geometric approach with time-frequency connected regions has improved results than old-fashioned spectral subtraction algorithms. The normal hearing tests has suggested that new approach has lower audible musical noise.
Biomass estimator for NIR image with a few additional spectral band images taken from light UAS
Pölönen, Ilkka; Salo, Heikki; Saari, Heikki; Kaivosoja, Jere; Pesonen, Liisa; Honkavaara, Eija
2012-05-01
A novel way to produce biomass estimation will offer possibilities for precision farming. Fertilizer prediction maps can be made based on accurate biomass estimation generated by a novel biomass estimator. By using this knowledge, a variable rate amount of fertilizers can be applied during the growing season. The innovation consists of light UAS, a high spatial resolution camera, and VTT's novel spectral camera. A few properly selected spectral wavelengths with NIR images and point clouds extracted by automatic image matching have been used in the estimation. The spectral wavelengths were chosen from green, red, and NIR channels.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jeong Seok Lee
2016-04-01
Full Text Available Fast and accurate energy calibration of photon counting spectral detectors (PCSDs is essential for their biomedical applications to identify and characterize bio-components or contrast agents in tissues. Using the x-ray tube voltage as a reference for energy calibration is known to be an efficient method, but there has been no consideration in the energy calibration of non-convergent behavior of PCSDs. We observed that a single pixel mode (SPM CdTe PCSD based on Medipix-2 shows some non-convergent behaviors in turning off the detector elements when a high enough threshold is applied to the comparator that produces a binary photon count pulse. More specifically, the detector elements are supposed to stop producing photon count pulses once the threshold reaches a point of the highest photon energy determined by the tube voltage. However, as the x-ray exposure time increases, the threshold giving 50% of off pixels also increases without converging to a point. We established a method to take account of the non-convergent behavior in the energy calibration. With the threshold-to-photon energy mapping function established by the proposed method, we could better identify iodine component in a phantom consisting of iodine and other components.
Engelke, Charles W.; Price, Stephan D.; Kraemer, Kathleen E.
2010-12-01
The absolutely calibrated infrared (IR) stellar spectra of standard stars described by Engelke et al. are being extended into the visible and will span a continuous wavelength range from ~0.35 μm to 35.0 μm. This paper, which is a continuation of the series on calibration initiated with Cohen et al., presents the foundation of this extension. We find that due to various irregularities Vega (α Lyr) is not suitable for its traditional role as the primary visible or near-infrared standard star. We therefore define a new zero-point flux that is independent of Vega and, as far as is feasible, uses measured spectral energy distributions (SEDs) and fluxes derived from photometry. The calibrated primary stars now underpinning this zero-point definition are 109 Vir in the visible and Sirius (α CMa) in the infrared. The resulting zero-point SED tests well against solar analog data presented by Rieke et al. while also maintaining an unambiguous link to specific calibration stars, thus providing a pragmatic range of options for any researcher wishing to tie it to a given set of photometry.
Estimation of spectral distribution of sky radiance using a commercial digital camera.
Saito, Masanori; Iwabuchi, Hironobu; Murata, Isao
2016-01-10
Methods for estimating spectral distribution of sky radiance from images captured by a digital camera and for accurately estimating spectral responses of the camera are proposed. Spectral distribution of sky radiance is represented as a polynomial of the wavelength, with coefficients obtained from digital RGB counts by linear transformation. The spectral distribution of radiance as measured is consistent with that obtained by spectrometer and radiative transfer simulation for wavelengths of 430-680 nm, with standard deviation below 1%. Preliminary applications suggest this method is useful for detecting clouds and studying the relation between irradiance at the ground and cloud distribution.
Depth estimation and camera calibration of a focused plenoptic camera for visual odometry
Zeller, Niclas; Quint, Franz; Stilla, Uwe
2016-08-01
This paper presents new and improved methods of depth estimation and camera calibration for visual odometry with a focused plenoptic camera. For depth estimation we adapt an algorithm previously used in structure-from-motion approaches to work with images of a focused plenoptic camera. In the raw image of a plenoptic camera, scene patches are recorded in several micro-images under slightly different angles. This leads to a multi-view stereo-problem. To reduce the complexity, we divide this into multiple binocular stereo problems. For each pixel with sufficient gradient we estimate a virtual (uncalibrated) depth based on local intensity error minimization. The estimated depth is characterized by the variance of the estimate and is subsequently updated with the estimates from other micro-images. Updating is performed in a Kalman-like fashion. The result of depth estimation in a single image of the plenoptic camera is a probabilistic depth map, where each depth pixel consists of an estimated virtual depth and a corresponding variance. Since the resulting image of the plenoptic camera contains two plains: the optical image and the depth map, camera calibration is divided into two separate sub-problems. The optical path is calibrated based on a traditional calibration method. For calibrating the depth map we introduce two novel model based methods, which define the relation of the virtual depth, which has been estimated based on the light-field image, and the metric object distance. These two methods are compared to a well known curve fitting approach. Both model based methods show significant advantages compared to the curve fitting method. For visual odometry we fuse the probabilistic depth map gained from one shot of the plenoptic camera with the depth data gained by finding stereo correspondences between subsequent synthesized intensity images of the plenoptic camera. These images can be synthesized totally focused and thus finding stereo correspondences is enhanced
Joint Sparsity and Frequency Estimation for Spectral Compressive Sensing
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Nielsen, Jesper Kjær; Christensen, Mads Græsbøll; Jensen, Søren Holdt
2014-01-01
Parameter estimation from compressively sensed signals has recently received some attention. We here also consider this problem in the context of frequency sparse signals which are encountered in many application. Existing methods perform the estimation using finite dictionaries or incorporate...
Bachmann, Sebastian; Neufeld, Roman; Dzemski, Martin; Stalke, Dietmar
2016-06-13
New external calibration curves (ECCs) for the estimation of aggregation states of small molecules in solution by DOSY NMR spectroscopy for a range of different common NMR solvents ([D6 ]DMSO, C6 D12 , C6 D6 , CDCl3 , and CD2 Cl2 ) are introduced and applied. ECCs are of avail to estimate molecular weights (MWs) from diffusion coefficients of previously unknown aggregates. This enables a straightforward and elaborate examination of (de)aggregation phenomena in solution.
Cenarro, A Javier; Vazdekis, Alexandre; Gorgas, Javier
2009-01-01
Using the near-infrared spectral stellar library of Cenarro et al. (2001a,b), the behaviours of the Mg I line at 8807 angstrom and nearby TiO bands are analyzed in terms of the effective temperature, surface gravity, and metallicity of the library stars. New spectroscopic indices for both spectral features -namely MgI and sTiO- are defined, and their sensitivities to different signal-to-noise ratios, spectral resolutions, flux calibrations, and sky emission line residuals are characterized. The new two indices exhibit interesting properties. In particular, MgI reveals as a good indicator of the Mg abundance, whereas sTiO is a powerful dwarf-to-giant discriminator for cold spectral types. Empirical fitting polynomials that reproduce the strength of the new indices as a function of the stellar atmospheric parameters are computed, and a FORTRAN routine with the fitting functions predictions is made available. A thorough study of several error sources, non-solar [Mg/Fe] ratios, and their influence on the fitting ...
Employing an Incentive Spirometer to Calibrate Tidal Volumes Estimated from a Smartphone Camera.
Reyes, Bersain A; Reljin, Natasa; Kong, Youngsun; Nam, Yunyoung; Ha, Sangho; Chon, Ki H
2016-03-18
A smartphone-based tidal volume (V(T)) estimator was recently introduced by our research group, where an Android application provides a chest movement signal whose peak-to-peak amplitude is highly correlated with reference V(T) measured by a spirometer. We found a Normalized Root Mean Squared Error (NRMSE) of 14.998% ± 5.171% (mean ± SD) when the smartphone measures were calibrated using spirometer data. However, the availability of a spirometer device for calibration is not realistic outside clinical or research environments. In order to be used by the general population on a daily basis, a simple calibration procedure not relying on specialized devices is required. In this study, we propose taking advantage of the linear correlation between smartphone measurements and V(T) to obtain a calibration model using information computed while the subject breathes through a commercially-available incentive spirometer (IS). Experiments were performed on twelve (N = 12) healthy subjects. In addition to corroborating findings from our previous study using a spirometer for calibration, we found that the calibration procedure using an IS resulted in a fixed bias of -0.051 L and a RMSE of 0.189 ± 0.074 L corresponding to 18.559% ± 6.579% when normalized. Although it has a small underestimation and slightly increased error, the proposed calibration procedure using an IS has the advantages of being simple, fast, and affordable. This study supports the feasibility of developing a portable smartphone-based breathing status monitor that provides information about breathing depth, in addition to the more commonly estimated respiratory rate, on a daily basis.
Employing an Incentive Spirometer to Calibrate Tidal Volumes Estimated from a Smartphone Camera
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Bersain A. Reyes
2016-03-01
Full Text Available A smartphone-based tidal volume (VT estimator was recently introduced by our research group, where an Android application provides a chest movement signal whose peak-to-peak amplitude is highly correlated with reference VT measured by a spirometer. We found a Normalized Root Mean Squared Error (NRMSE of 14.998% ± 5.171% (mean ± SD when the smartphone measures were calibrated using spirometer data. However, the availability of a spirometer device for calibration is not realistic outside clinical or research environments. In order to be used by the general population on a daily basis, a simple calibration procedure not relying on specialized devices is required. In this study, we propose taking advantage of the linear correlation between smartphone measurements and VT to obtain a calibration model using information computed while the subject breathes through a commercially-available incentive spirometer (IS. Experiments were performed on twelve (N = 12 healthy subjects. In addition to corroborating findings from our previous study using a spirometer for calibration, we found that the calibration procedure using an IS resulted in a fixed bias of −0.051 L and a RMSE of 0.189 ± 0.074 L corresponding to 18.559% ± 6.579% when normalized. Although it has a small underestimation and slightly increased error, the proposed calibration procedure using an IS has the advantages of being simple, fast, and affordable. This study supports the feasibility of developing a portable smartphone-based breathing status monitor that provides information about breathing depth, in addition to the more commonly estimated respiratory rate, on a daily basis.
Confidence estimates in simulation of phase noise or spectral density.
Ashby, Neil
2017-02-13
In this paper we apply the method of discrete simulation of power law noise, developed in [1],[3],[4], to the problem of simulating phase noise for a combination of power law noises. We derive analytic expressions for the probability of observing a value of phase noise L(f) or of any of the onesided spectral densities S(f); Sy(f), or Sx(f), for arbitrary superpositions of power law noise.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Rozo, Eduardo; /U. Chicago /Chicago U., KICP; Wu, Hao-Yi; /KIPAC, Menlo Park; Schmidt, Fabian; /Caltech
2011-11-04
When extracting the weak lensing shear signal, one may employ either locally normalized or globally normalized shear estimators. The former is the standard approach when estimating cluster masses, while the latter is the more common method among peak finding efforts. While both approaches have identical signal-to-noise in the weak lensing limit, it is possible that higher order corrections or systematic considerations make one estimator preferable over the other. In this paper, we consider the efficacy of both estimators within the context of stacked weak lensing mass estimation in the Dark Energy Survey (DES). We find that the two estimators have nearly identical statistical precision, even after including higher order corrections, but that these corrections must be incorporated into the analysis to avoid observationally relevant biases in the recovered masses. We also demonstrate that finite bin-width effects may be significant if not properly accounted for, and that the two estimators exhibit different systematics, particularly with respect to contamination of the source catalog by foreground galaxies. Thus, the two estimators may be employed as a systematic cross-check of each other. Stacked weak lensing in the DES should allow for the mean mass of galaxy clusters to be calibrated to {approx}2% precision (statistical only), which can improve the figure of merit of the DES cluster abundance experiment by a factor of {approx}3 relative to the self-calibration expectation. A companion paper investigates how the two types of estimators considered here impact weak lensing peak finding efforts.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
2008-01-01
In this paper,we investigate the Legendre Galerkin spectral approximation of quadratic optimal control problems governed by parabolic equations.A spectral approximation scheme for the parabolic optimal control problem is presented.We obtain a posteriori error estimates of the approximated solutions for both the state and the control.
Optimal error estimates for Fourier spectral approximation of the generalized KdV equation
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Zhen-guo DENG; He-ping MA
2009-01-01
A Fourier spectral method for the generalized Korteweg-de Vrics equation with periodic boundary conditions is analyzed, and a corresponding optimal error esti-mate in L2-norm is obtained. It improves the result presented by Maday and Quarteroni. A modified Fourier pseudospectral method is also presented, with the same convergence properties as the Fourier spectral method.
Dynamic State Estimation and Parameter Calibration of DFIG based on Ensemble Kalman Filter
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Fan, Rui; Huang, Zhenyu; Wang, Shaobu; Diao, Ruisheng; Meng, Da
2015-07-30
With the growing interest in the application of wind energy, doubly fed induction generator (DFIG) plays an essential role in the industry nowadays. To deal with the increasing stochastic variations introduced by intermittent wind resource and responsive loads, dynamic state estimation (DSE) are introduced in any power system associated with DFIGs. However, sometimes this dynamic analysis canould not work because the parameters of DFIGs are not accurate enough. To solve the problem, an ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF) method is proposed for the state estimation and parameter calibration tasks. In this paper, a DFIG is modeled and implemented with the EnKF method. Sensitivity analysis is demonstrated regarding the measurement noise, initial state errors and parameter errors. The results indicate this EnKF method has a robust performance on the state estimation and parameter calibration of DFIGs.
Hardy, C. C.; Queen, L. P.; Heasler, H. P.; Jaworowski, C.
2007-12-01
A thermal infrared remote sensing project was implemented to develop methods for identifying, classifying, and mapping thermal features. This study is directed at geothermal features, with the expectation that new protocols developed here will apply to the wildland fire thermal environment. Airborne multi-spectral digital imagery were acquired over the geothermally active Norris Basin region of Yellowstone National Park, USA. Two image acquisitions were flown, with one acquisition near solar noon and the other at night. Raw data from the five sensors were uncalibrated, so a vicarious calibration procedure was developed to compute reflectance for the visible and NIR bands using an independently calibrated hyperspectral dataset. Calibration of the thermal sensor band utilized a dynamic, in-scene calibration procedure that exploited natural, pseudo-invariant thermal reference targets instrumented with in situ kinetic temperature recorders. The calibrated reflectance and radiant temperature data from each acquisition were processed and analyzed to develop a suite of thermal attributes, including radiant temperatures, a daytime-nighttime temperature difference (DeltaT), albedo, an albedo derivative (one minus albedo), and apparent thermal inertia (ATI). The albedo terms were computed using a published weighed-average albedo algorithm based on ratios of the narrowband red and near-infrared (NIR) reflectances to total solar irradiance for the respective red and NIR bandpasses. The weighing factors for each band were the proportion of total solar irradiance incident on the surface within each segment represented by a respective bandpass. In the absence of verifiable "truth," a step-wise chain of unsupervised classification and multivariate analysis exercises was performed, drawing heavily on "fuzzy truth" to assess the quality, efficiency, and efficacy of classification procedures and results. A final classification synthesizes a "geothermal phenomenology" comprised of
Spectral Estimation Methods Comparison and Performance Analysis on a Steganalysis Application
Mataracioglu, Tolga
2011-01-01
Steganography is the art and science of writing hidden messages in such a way that no one apart from the intended recipient knows of the existence of the message. In today's world, it is widely used in order to secure the information. In this paper, the traditional spectral estimation methods are introduced. The performance analysis of each method is examined by comparing all of the spectral estimation methods. Finally, from utilizing those performance analyses, a brief pros and cons of the spectral estimation methods are given. Also we give a steganography demo by hiding information into a sound signal and manage to pull out the information (i.e, the true frequency of the information signal) from the sound by means of the spectral estimation methods.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Earle Raymond Hunt Jr.
2010-01-01
Full Text Available Remotely sensed estimates of crop residue cover (fR are required to assess the extent of conservation tillage over large areas; the impact of decay processes on estimates of residue cover is unknown. Changes in wheat straw composition and spectral reflectance were measured during the decay process and their impact on estimates of fR were assessed. Proportions of cellulose and hemicellulose declined, while lignin increased. Spectral features associated with cellulose diminished during decomposition. Narrow-band spectral residue indices robustly estimated fR, while broad-band indices were inconsistent. Advanced multi-spectral sensors or hyperspectral sensors are required to assess fR reliably over diverse agricultural landscapes.
CSIR Research Space (South Africa)
Herselman, PL
2008-09-01
Full Text Available Asymptotically optimal coherent detection techniques yield sub-clutter visibility in heavy-tailed sea clutter. The adaptive linear quadratic detector inherently assumes spectral homogeneity for the reference window of the covariance matrix estimator...
Impact of the calibration period on the conceptual rainfall-runoff model parameter estimates
Todorovic, Andrijana; Plavsic, Jasna
2015-04-01
A conceptual rainfall-runoff model is defined by its structure and parameters, which are commonly inferred through model calibration. Parameter estimates depend on objective function(s), optimisation method, and calibration period. Model calibration over different periods may result in dissimilar parameter estimates, while model efficiency decreases outside calibration period. Problem of model (parameter) transferability, which conditions reliability of hydrologic simulations, has been investigated for decades. In this paper, dependence of the parameter estimates and model performance on calibration period is analysed. The main question that is addressed is: are there any changes in optimised parameters and model efficiency that can be linked to the changes in hydrologic or meteorological variables (flow, precipitation and temperature)? Conceptual, semi-distributed HBV-light model is calibrated over five-year periods shifted by a year (sliding time windows). Length of the calibration periods is selected to enable identification of all parameters. One water year of model warm-up precedes every simulation, which starts with the beginning of a water year. The model is calibrated using the built-in GAP optimisation algorithm. The objective function used for calibration is composed of Nash-Sutcliffe coefficient for flows and logarithms of flows, and volumetric error, all of which participate in the composite objective function with approximately equal weights. Same prior parameter ranges are used in all simulations. The model is calibrated against flows observed at the Slovac stream gauge on the Kolubara River in Serbia (records from 1954 to 2013). There are no trends in precipitation nor in flows, however, there is a statistically significant increasing trend in temperatures at this catchment. Parameter variability across the calibration periods is quantified in terms of standard deviations of normalised parameters, enabling detection of the most variable parameters
Coles, J. B.; Richardson, Brandon S.; Eastwood, Michael L.; Sarture, Charles M.; Quetin, Gregory R.; Hernandez, Marco A.; Kroll, Linley A.; Nolte, Scott H.; Porter, Michael D.; Green, Robert O.
2011-01-01
The quality of the quantitative spectral data collected by an imaging spectrometer instrument is critically dependent upon the accuracy of the spectral and radiometric calibration of the system. In order for the collected spectra to be scientifically useful, the calibration of the instrument must be precisely known not only prior to but during data collection. Thus, in addition to a rigorous in-lab calibration procedure, the airborne instruments designed and built by the NASA/JPL Imaging Spectroscopy Group incorporate an on board calibrator (OBC) system with the instrument to provide auxiliary in-use system calibration data. The output of the OBC source illuminates a target panel on the backside of the foreoptics shutter both before and after data collection. The OBC and in-lab calibration data sets are then used to validate and post-process the collected spectral image data. The resulting accuracy of the spectrometer output data is therefore integrally dependent upon the stability of the OBC source. In this paper we describe the design and application of the latest iteration of this novel device developed at NASA/JPL which integrates a halogen-cycle source with a precisely designed fiber coupling system and a fiber-based intensity monitoring feedback loop. The OBC source in this Airborne Testbed Spectrometer was run over a period of 15 hours while both the radiometric and spectral stabilities of the output were measured and demonstrated stability to within 1% of nominal.
Coles, J. B.; Richardson, Brandon S.; Eastwood, Michael L.; Sarture, Charles M.; Quetin, Gregory R.; Hernandez, Marco A.; Kroll, Linley A.; Nolte, Scott H.; Porter, Michael D.; Green, Robert O.
2011-01-01
The quality of the quantitative spectral data collected by an imaging spectrometer instrument is critically dependent upon the accuracy of the spectral and radiometric calibration of the system. In order for the collected spectra to be scientifically useful, the calibration of the instrument must be precisely known not only prior to but during data collection. Thus, in addition to a rigorous in-lab calibration procedure, the airborne instruments designed and built by the NASA/JPL Imaging Spectroscopy Group incorporate an on board calibrator (OBC) system with the instrument to provide auxiliary in-use system calibration data. The output of the OBC source illuminates a target panel on the backside of the foreoptics shutter both before and after data collection. The OBC and in-lab calibration data sets are then used to validate and post-process the collected spectral image data. The resulting accuracy of the spectrometer output data is therefore integrally dependent upon the stability of the OBC source. In this paper we describe the design and application of the latest iteration of this novel device developed at NASA/JPL which integrates a halogen-cycle source with a precisely designed fiber coupling system and a fiber-based intensity monitoring feedback loop. The OBC source in this Airborne Testbed Spectrometer was run over a period of 15 hours while both the radiometric and spectral stabilities of the output were measured and demonstrated stability to within 1% of nominal.
Mori, Hiroshige; Koshida, Kichiro; Ichikawa, Katsuhiro
2007-08-20
The purpose of present study is, in interventional radiology (IVR), to elucidate the differences between each personal dosimeter, and the dependences and calibrations of area or personal dose by measurement with electronic dosimeters in particular. We compare space dose rate distributions measured by an ionization survey meter with the value measured by personal dosimeter: an optically stimulated luminescence, two fluoroglass, and two electronic dosimeters. Furthermore, with electronic dosimeters, we first measured dose rate, energy, and directional dependences. Secondly, we calibrated the dose rate measured by electronic dosimeters with the results, and estimated these methods with coefficient of determination and Akaike's Information Criterion (AIC). The results, especially in electronic dosimeters, revealed that the dose rate measured fell by energy and directional dependences. In terms of methods of calibration, the method is sufficient for energy dependence, but not for directional dependence, because of the lack of stable calibration. This improvement poses a question for the future. The study suggested that these dependences of the personal dosimeter must be considered when area or personal dose is estimated in IVR.
The pseudo-Thellier palaeointensity method: new calibration and uncertainty estimates
Paterson, Greig A.; Heslop, David; Pan, Yongxin
2016-12-01
Non-heating palaeointensity methods are a vital tool to explore magnetic field strength variations recorded by thermally sensitive materials of both terrestrial and extraterrestrial origin. One such method is the calibrated pseudo-Thellier method in which a specimen's natural remanent magnetization is alternating field demagnetized and replaced with a laboratory induced anhysteretic remanent magnetization (as an analogue of a thermoremanent magnetization, TRM). Using a set of 56 volcanic specimens given laboratory TRMs in fields of 10-130 μT, we refine the calibration of the pseudo-Thellier method and better define the uncertainty associated with its palaeointensity estimates. Our new calibration, obtained from 32 selected specimens, resolves the issue of non-zero intercept, which is theoretically predicted, but not satisfied by any previous calibration. The range of individual specimen calibration factors, however, is relatively large, but consistent with the variability expected for SD magnetite. We explore a number of rock magnetic parameters in an attempt to identify selection thresholds for reducing the calibration scatter, but fail to find a suitable choice. We infer that our careful selection process, which incorporates more statistics then previous studies, may be largely screening out any strong rock magnetic dependence. Some subtle grain size or mineralogical dependencies, however, remain after selection, but cannot be discerned from the scatter expected for grain size variability of SD magnetite. As a consequence of the variability in the calibration factor, the uncertainty associated with pseudo-Thellier results is much larger than previously indicated. The scatter of the calibration is ˜25 per cent of the mean value, which implies that, when combined with the scatter of results typically obtained from a single site, the uncertainty of averaged pseudo-Thellier results will always be >25 per cent. As such, pseudo-Thellier results should be
Spectral Estimation from Undersampled Data: Correlogram and Model-Based Least Squares
Shaghaghi, Mahdi
2012-01-01
This paper studies two spectrum estimation methods for the case that the samples are obtained at a rate lower than the Nyquist rate. The first method is the correlogram method for undersampled data. The algorithm partitions the spectrum into a number of segments and estimates the average power within each spectral segment. We derive the bias and the variance of the spectrum estimator, and show that there is a tradeoff between the accuracy of the estimation and the frequency resolution. The asymptotic behavior of the estimator is also investigated, and it is proved that this spectrum estimator is consistent. A new algorithm for reconstructing signals with sparse spectrum from noisy compressive measurements is also introduced. Such model-based algorithm takes the signal structure into account for estimating the unknown parameters which are the frequencies and the amplitudes of linearly combined sinusoidal signals. A high-resolution spectral estimation method is used to recover the frequencies of the signal elem...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kulisek, J.A., E-mail: Jonathan.Kulisek@pnnl.gov; Schweppe, J.E.; Stave, S.C.; Bernacki, B.E.; Jordan, D.V.; Stewart, T.N.; Seifert, C.E.; Kernan, W.J.
2015-06-01
Helicopter-mounted gamma-ray detectors can provide law enforcement officials the means to quickly and accurately detect, identify, and locate radiological threats over a wide geographical area. The ability to accurately distinguish radiological threat-generated gamma-ray signatures from background gamma radiation in real time is essential in order to realize this potential. This problem is non-trivial, especially in urban environments for which the background may change very rapidly during flight. This exacerbates the challenge of estimating background due to the poor counting statistics inherent in real-time airborne gamma-ray spectroscopy measurements. To address this challenge, we have developed a new technique for real-time estimation of background gamma radiation from aerial measurements without the need for human analyst intervention. The method can be calibrated using radiation transport simulations along with data from previous flights over areas for which the isotopic composition need not be known. Over the examined measured and simulated data sets, the method generated accurate background estimates even in the presence of a strong, {sup 60}Co source. The potential to track large and abrupt changes in background spectral shape and magnitude was demonstrated. The method can be implemented fairly easily in most modern computing languages and environments.
Kulisek, J. A.; Schweppe, J. E.; Stave, S. C.; Bernacki, B. E.; Jordan, D. V.; Stewart, T. N.; Seifert, C. E.; Kernan, W. J.
2015-06-01
Helicopter-mounted gamma-ray detectors can provide law enforcement officials the means to quickly and accurately detect, identify, and locate radiological threats over a wide geographical area. The ability to accurately distinguish radiological threat-generated gamma-ray signatures from background gamma radiation in real time is essential in order to realize this potential. This problem is non-trivial, especially in urban environments for which the background may change very rapidly during flight. This exacerbates the challenge of estimating background due to the poor counting statistics inherent in real-time airborne gamma-ray spectroscopy measurements. To address this challenge, we have developed a new technique for real-time estimation of background gamma radiation from aerial measurements without the need for human analyst intervention. The method can be calibrated using radiation transport simulations along with data from previous flights over areas for which the isotopic composition need not be known. Over the examined measured and simulated data sets, the method generated accurate background estimates even in the presence of a strong, 60Co source. The potential to track large and abrupt changes in background spectral shape and magnitude was demonstrated. The method can be implemented fairly easily in most modern computing languages and environments.
Geometric Parameters Estimation and Calibration in Cone-Beam Micro-CT
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jintao Zhao
2015-09-01
Full Text Available The quality of Computed Tomography (CT images crucially depends on the precise knowledge of the scanner geometry. Therefore, it is necessary to estimate and calibrate the misalignments before image acquisition. In this paper, a Two-Piece-Ball (TPB phantom is used to estimate a set of parameters that describe the geometry of a cone-beam CT system. Only multiple projections of the TPB phantom at one position are required, which can avoid the rotation errors when acquiring multi-angle projections. Also, a corresponding algorithm is derived. The performance of the method is evaluated through simulation and experimental data. The results demonstrated that the proposed method is valid and easy to implement. Furthermore, the experimental results from the Micro-CT system demonstrate the ability to reduce artifacts and improve image quality through geometric parameter calibration.
Estimation of radon concentrations in coal mines using a hybrid technique calibration curve
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Jamil, K.; Ali, S. [PINSTECH, Islamabad (Pakistan). Radiation Physics Division, Environmental Radiation Group
2001-07-01
A calibration curve was generated using Ra-226 activity concentration measured by a HPGe detector-based gamma-ray spectrometer versus alpha-track-density rate due to radon and its progeny on CR-39 track detector. Using the slops of the experimentally determined curve in the units of Becquerel per kilogram (Bq kg{sup -1}) per unit alpha -track-density per hour (cm{sup -2}h{sup -1}), radon concentrations (Bq m{sup -3}) were estimated using coal samples from various coal mines in two provinces of Pakistan, Punjab and Balochistan. Consequently, radon dose rates were computed in the simulated environment of the coal mines. These results provide only a screening method to indicate the radon dose in coal mines, It was shown that the actual measurements of radon concentrations in the coal mines are in agreement with the estimated radon concentrations using the hybrid-technique calibration curve.
Quantum System Identification: Hamiltonian Estimation using Spectral and Bayesian Analysis
Schirmer, S G
2009-01-01
Identifying the Hamiltonian of a quantum system from experimental data is considered. General limits on the identifiability of model parameters with limited experimental resources are investigated, and a specific Bayesian estimation procedure is proposed and evaluated for a model system where a-priori information about the Hamiltonian's structure is available.
Li, Qiang; Wang, Zhongyu; Wang, Zhuoran; Yan, Hu
2015-06-01
A shock tube is usually used to excite the dynamic characteristics of the pressure sensor used in an aircraft. This paper proposes a novel estimation method for determining the dynamic characteristic parameters of the pressure sensor. A preprocessing operation based on Grey Model [GM(1,1)] and bootstrap method (BM) is employed to analyze the output of a calibrated pressure sensor under step excitation. Three sequences, which include the estimated value sequence, upper boundary, and lower boundary, are obtained. The processing methods on filtering and modeling are used to explore the three sequences independently. The optimal estimated, upper boundary, and lower boundary models are then established. The three models are solved, and a group of dynamic characteristic parameters corresponding to the estimated intervals are obtained. A shock tube calibration test consisting of two experiments is performed to validate the performance of the proposed method. The results show that the relative errors of the dynamic characteristic parameters of time and frequency domains do not exceed 9% and 10%, respectively. Moreover, the nominal and estimated values of the parameters fall into the estimated intervals limited by the upper and lower values.
Estimation of radon concentrations in coal mines using a hybrid technique calibration curve.
Jamil, K; Ali, S
2001-01-01
The results of epidemiological studies in various countries show that radon and its progeny cause carcinogenic effects on mine workers. Therefore, it becomes of paramount importance to monitor radon concentrations and consequently determine the radon dose rates in coal mines for the protection of coal miners. A new calibration curve was obtained for radon concentration estimation using hybrid techniques. A calibration curve was generated using 226Ra activity concentration measured by a HPGe detector-based gamma-ray spectrometer versus alpha-track-density rate due to radon and its progeny on CR-39 track detector. Using the slope of the experimentally determined curve in the units of Becqueral per kilogram (Bq kg-1) per unit alpha-track-density per hour (cm-2 h-1), radon concentrations (Bq m-3) were estimated using coal samples from various coal mines in two provinces of Pakistan, Punjab and Balochistan. Consequently, radon dose rates were computed in the simulated environment of the coal mines. Results of these computations may be considered with a caveat that the method developed in this paper provides only a screening method to indicate the radon dose in coal mines. It has been shown that the actual measurements of radon concentrations in the coal mines are in agreement with the estimated radon concentrations using the hybrid-technique calibration curve.
Estimating pole/zero errors in GSN-IRIS/USGS network calibration metadata
Ringler, A.T.; Hutt, C.R.; Aster, R.; Bolton, H.; Gee, L.S.; Storm, T.
2012-01-01
Mapping the digital record of a seismograph into true ground motion requires the correction of the data by some description of the instrument's response. For the Global Seismographic Network (Butler et al., 2004), as well as many other networks, this instrument response is represented as a Laplace domain pole–zero model and published in the Standard for the Exchange of Earthquake Data (SEED) format. This Laplace representation assumes that the seismometer behaves as a linear system, with any abrupt changes described adequately via multiple time-invariant epochs. The SEED format allows for published instrument response errors as well, but these typically have not been estimated or provided to users. We present an iterative three-step method to estimate the instrument response parameters (poles and zeros) and their associated errors using random calibration signals. First, we solve a coarse nonlinear inverse problem using a least-squares grid search to yield a first approximation to the solution. This approach reduces the likelihood of poorly estimated parameters (a local-minimum solution) caused by noise in the calibration records and enhances algorithm convergence. Second, we iteratively solve a nonlinear parameter estimation problem to obtain the least-squares best-fit Laplace pole–zero–gain model. Third, by applying the central limit theorem, we estimate the errors in this pole–zero model by solving the inverse problem at each frequency in a two-thirds octave band centered at each best-fit pole–zero frequency. This procedure yields error estimates of the 99% confidence interval. We demonstrate the method by applying it to a number of recent Incorporated Research Institutions in Seismology/United States Geological Survey (IRIS/USGS) network calibrations (network code IU).
Spectral estimation of global levels of atmospheric pollutants.
Fernández-Macho, Javier
2011-10-01
Underlying levels of atmospheric pollutants, assumed to be governed by smoothing mechanisms due to atmospheric dispersion, can be estimated from global emissions source databases on greenhouse gases and ozone-depleting compounds. However, spatial data may be contaminated with noise or even missing or zero-valued at many locations. Therefore, a problem that arises is how to extract the underlying smooth levels. This paper sets out a structural spatial model that assumes data evolve across a global grid constrained by second-order smoothing restrictions. The frequency-domain approach is particularly suitable for global datasets, reduces the computational burden associated with two-dimensional models and avoids cumbersome zero-inflated skewed distributions. Confidence intervals of the underlying levels are also obtained. An application to the estimation of global levels of atmospheric pollutants from anthropogenic emissions illustrates the technique which may also be useful in the analysis of other environmental datasets of similar characteristics.
Spectral Experts for Estimating Mixtures of Linear Regressions
Chaganty, Arun Tejasvi; Liang, Percy
2013-01-01
Discriminative latent-variable models are typically learned using EM or gradient-based optimization, which suffer from local optima. In this paper, we develop a new computationally efficient and provably consistent estimator for a mixture of linear regressions, a simple instance of a discriminative latent-variable model. Our approach relies on a low-rank linear regression to recover a symmetric tensor, which can be factorized into the parameters using a tensor power method. We prove rates of ...
Compressive and Noncompressive Power Spectral Density Estimation from Periodic Nonuniform Samples
Lexa, Michael A; Thompson, John S
2011-01-01
This paper presents a novel power spectral density estimation technique for bandlimited, wide-sense stationary signals from sub-Nyquist sampled data. The technique employs multi-coset sampling and applies to spectrally sparse and nonsparse power spectra alike. For sparse density functions, we apply compressed sensing theory and the resulting compressive estimates exhibit better tradeoffs among the estimator's resolution, system complexity, and average sampling rate compared to their noncompressive counterparts. Both compressive and noncompressive estimates, however, can be computed at arbitrarily low sampling rates. The estimator does not require signal reconstruction and can be directly obtained from solving either a least squares or a nonnegative least squares problem. The estimates are piecewise constant approximations whose resolutions (width of the piecewise constant segments) are controlled by the periodicity of the multi-coset sampling. The estimates are also statistically consistent. This method is wi...
[Estimation of Hunan forest carbon density based on spectral mixture analysis of MODIS data].
Yan, En-ping; Lin, Hui; Wang, Guang-xing; Chen, Zhen-xiong
2015-11-01
With the fast development of remote sensing technology, combining forest inventory sample plot data and remotely sensed images has become a widely used method to map forest carbon density. However, the existence of mixed pixels often impedes the improvement of forest carbon density mapping, especially when low spatial resolution images such as MODIS are used. In this study, MODIS images and national forest inventory sample plot data were used to conduct the study of estimation for forest carbon density. Linear spectral mixture analysis with and without constraint, and nonlinear spectral mixture analysis were compared to derive the fractions of different land use and land cover (LULC) types. Then sequential Gaussian co-simulation algorithm with and without the fraction images from spectral mixture analyses were employed to estimate forest carbon density of Hunan Province. Results showed that 1) Linear spectral mixture analysis with constraint, leading to a mean RMSE of 0.002, more accurately estimated the fractions of LULC types than linear spectral and nonlinear spectral mixture analyses; 2) Integrating spectral mixture analysis model and sequential Gaussian co-simulation algorithm increased the estimation accuracy of forest carbon density to 81.5% from 74.1%, and decreased the RMSE to 5.18 from 7.26; and 3) The mean value of forest carbon density for the province was 30.06 t · hm(-2), ranging from 0.00 to 67.35 t · hm(-2). This implied that the spectral mixture analysis provided a great potential to increase the estimation accuracy of forest carbon density on regional and global level.
Nonparametric estimate of spectral density functions of sample covariance matrices: A first step
2012-01-01
The density function of the limiting spectral distribution of general sample covariance matrices is usually unknown. We propose to use kernel estimators which are proved to be consistent. A simulation study is also conducted to show the performance of the estimators.
Subjective mood estimation co-varies with spectral power EEG characteristics
Wyczesany, M.; Kaiser, J.; Coenen, A.M.L.
2008-01-01
Co-variation between subjectively estimated mood/activation and EEG characteristics, based on spectral power parameters, was investigated. Subjective estimation of mood was made by using Thayer’s Activation-Deactivation Adjective Checklist, which yielded two dimensions: Energy-Tiredness (with Energy
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Yansong BAO; Wei GAO; Zhiqiang GAO
2009-01-01
Biomass can indicate plant growth status, so it is an important index for plant growth monitoring. This paper focused on the methodology of estimating the winter wheat biomass based on hyperspectral field data, including the LANDSAT TM and EOS MODIS images. In order to develop the method of retrieving the wheat biomass from remote sensed data, routine field measurements were initiated during periods when the LANDSAT satellite passed over the study region. In the course of the experiment, five LANDSAT TM images were acquired respectively at early erecting stage, jointing stage, earring stage, flowering stage and grain-filling stage of the winter wheat, and the wheat biomass was measured at each stage. Based on the TM and MODIS images, spectral indices such as NDVI, RDVI, EVI, MSAVI, SIPI and NDWI were calculated. At the same time, the hyperspectral field data was used to compute the normalized difference in spectral indices, red-edge parameters, spectral absorption, and reflection feature parameters. Then the correlation coefficients between the wheat biomass and spectral parameters of the experiment sites were computed. According to the correlation coefficients, the optimal spectral parameters for estimating the wheat biomass were determined. The bestfitting method was employed to build the relationship models between the wheat biomass and the optimal spectral parameters. Finally, the models were used to estimate the wheat biomass based on the TM and MODIS data. The maximum RMSE of estimated biomass was 66.403 g/m2.
Effect of spectral index distribution on estimating the AGN radio luminosity function
Yuan, Zunli; Zhou, Ming; Mao, Jirong
2016-01-01
In this paper, we scrutinize the effect of spectral index distribution on estimating the AGN (active galactic nucleus) radio luminosity function (RLF) by a Monte Carlo method. We find that the traditional bivariate RLF estimators can cause bias in varying degree. The bias is especially pronounced for the flat-spectrum radio sources whose spectral index distribution is more scattered. We believe that the bias is caused because the $K$-corrections complicate the truncation boundary on the $L-z$ plane of the sample, but the traditional bivariate RLF estimators have difficulty in dealing with this boundary condition properly. We suggest that the spectral index distribution should be incorporated into the RLF analysis process to obtain a robust estimation. This drives the need for a trivariate function of the form $\\Phi(\\alpha,z,L)$ which we show provides an accurate basis for measuring the RLF.
Effect of Spectral Index Distribution on Estimating the AGN Radio Luminosity Function
Yuan, Zunli; Wang, Jiancheng; Zhou, Ming; Mao, Jirong
2016-10-01
In this paper, we scrutinize the effect of spectral index distribution on estimating the active galactic nucleus radio luminosity function (RLF) by a Monte Carlo method. We find that the traditional bivariate RLF estimators can cause bias in varying degrees. The bias is especially pronounced for the flat-spectrum radio sources whose spectral index distribution is more scattered. We believe that the bias is caused because the K-corrections complicate the truncation boundary on the L-z plane of the sample, but the traditional bivariate RLF estimators have difficulty dealing with this boundary condition properly. We suggest that the spectral index distribution should be incorporated into the RLF analysis process to obtain a robust estimation. This drives the need for a trivariate function of the form Φ(α, z, L), which we show provides an accurate basis for measuring the RLF.
Multichannel 2-D Power Spectral Estimation and Applications.
1987-12-01
Nuttall,1976) in 1-D. The success of the ME method in 1-D has led researchers to explore this problem in 2-D. Unfortunately, the simplicity and elegance...the form: P -I T , _ _ (i)] x,,i (3.53)i=1 (S. where i. is the estimated value of the PWM -dimensional data vector x,, and a(’) is the linear...in detail in the next section. C. CODING EXPERIMENTS WITH COLOR IMAGES In this work a color image is represented by its red, green, and blue ( RGB ) com
Spectral velocity estimation using autocorrelation functions for sparse data sets
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
2006-01-01
. The lag corresponds to the difference in pulse number, so that for lag k data from emission i is correlated with i + k. The autocorrelation for lag k can be averaged over N-k pairs of emissions. It is possible to calculate Ry (k) for a sparse set of emissions, as long as all combinations of emissions...... cover all lags in Ry (k). A sparse set of emissions inter-spaced with B-mode emissions can, therefore, be used for estimating Ry (k) The sequence 'v B v v B! gives 2 B-mode emissions (B) for every 3 velocity emissions (v) and is denoted a 3:2 sequence. All combinations on lags are present k='0123........!, if the sequence is continually repeated. The variance on the estimate of Ry (k) is determined by the number of emission pairs for the value of k, and it can be lowered by averaging the RF data over the range gate. Many other sequences can be devised with this property giving 3:3, 3:4, and 5:8 or even random...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Fat’yanov, O. V., E-mail: fatyan1@gps.caltech.edu; Asimow, P. D., E-mail: asimow@gps.caltech.edu [Division of Geological and Planetary Sciences 252-21, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, California 91125 (United States)
2015-10-15
We describe an accurate and precise calibration procedure for multichannel optical pyrometers such as the 6-channel, 3-ns temporal resolution instrument used in the Caltech experimental geophysics laboratory. We begin with a review of calibration sources for shock temperatures in the 3000-30 000 K range. High-power, coiled tungsten halogen standards of spectral irradiance appear to be the only practical alternative to NIST-traceable tungsten ribbon lamps, which are no longer available with large enough calibrated area. However, non-uniform radiance complicates the use of such coiled lamps for reliable and reproducible calibration of pyrometers that employ imaging or relay optics. Careful analysis of documented methods of shock pyrometer calibration to coiled irradiance standard lamps shows that only one technique, not directly applicable in our case, is free of major radiometric errors. We provide a detailed description of the modified Caltech pyrometer instrument and a procedure for its absolute spectral radiance calibration, accurate to ±5%. We employ a designated central area of a 0.7× demagnified image of a coiled-coil tungsten halogen lamp filament, cross-calibrated against a NIST-traceable tungsten ribbon lamp. We give the results of the cross-calibration along with descriptions of the optical arrangement, data acquisition, and processing. We describe a procedure to characterize the difference between the static and dynamic response of amplified photodetectors, allowing time-dependent photodiode correction factors for spectral radiance histories from shock experiments. We validate correct operation of the modified Caltech pyrometer with actual shock temperature experiments on single-crystal NaCl and MgO and obtain very good agreement with the literature data for these substances. We conclude with a summary of the most essential requirements for error-free calibration of a fiber-optic shock-temperature pyrometer using a high-power coiled tungsten halogen
Estimation of seismic spectral acceleration in Peninsular India
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
S T G Raghu Kanth; R N Iyengar
2007-06-01
Peninsular India (PI), which lies south of 24°N latitude, has experienced several devastating earthquakes in the past. However, very few strong motion records are available for developing attenuation relations for ground acceleration, required by engineers to arrive at rational design response spectra for construction sites and cities in PI. Based on a well-known seismological model, the present paper statistically simulates ground motion in PI to arrive at an empirical relation for estimating 5% damped response spectra, as a function of magnitude and source to site distance, covering bedrock and soil conditions. The standard error in the proposed relationship is reported as a function of the frequency, for further use of the results in probabilistic seismic hazard analysis.
Calibration of Full-Waveform ALS Data Based on Robust Incidence Angle Estimation
Abed, F. M.; Mills, J. P.; Miller, P. E.
2011-09-01
Full-waveform airborne laser scanning data has shown its potential to enhance available segmentation and classification approaches through the additional information it can provide. However, this additional information is unable to directly provide a valid physical representation of surface features due to many variables affecting the backscattered energy during travel between the sensor and the target. Effectively, this delivers a mis-match between signals from overlapping flightlines. Therefore direct use of this information is not recommended without the adoption of a comprehensive radiometric calibration strategy that accounts for all these effects. This paper presents a practical and reliable radiometric calibration routine by accounting for all the variables affecting the backscattered energy, including the essential factor of angle of incidence. A new robust incidence angle estimation approach has been developed which has proven capable of delivering a reliable estimation for the scattering direction of the individual echoes. The routine was tested and validated both visually and statistically over various land cover types with simple and challenging surface trends. This proved the validity of this approach to deliver the optimal match between overlapping flightlines after calibration, particularly by adopting a parameter which accounts for the angle of incidence effect.
CALIBRATION OF FULL-WAVEFORM ALS DATA BASED ON ROBUST INCIDENCE ANGLE ESTIMATION
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
F. M. Abed
2012-09-01
Full Text Available Full-waveform airborne laser scanning data has shown its potential to enhance available segmentation and classification approaches through the additional information it can provide. However, this additional information is unable to directly provide a valid physical representation of surface features due to many variables affecting the backscattered energy during travel between the sensor and the target. Effectively, this delivers a mis-match between signals from overlapping flightlines. Therefore direct use of this information is not recommended without the adoption of a comprehensive radiometric calibration strategy that accounts for all these effects. This paper presents a practical and reliable radiometric calibration routine by accounting for all the variables affecting the backscattered energy, including the essential factor of angle of incidence. A new robust incidence angle estimation approach has been developed which has proven capable of delivering a reliable estimation for the scattering direction of the individual echoes. The routine was tested and validated both visually and statistically over various land cover types with simple and challenging surface trends. This proved the validity of this approach to deliver the optimal match between overlapping flightlines after calibration, particularly by adopting a parameter which accounts for the angle of incidence effect.
Schillinger, Dominik
2013-07-01
The method of separation can be used as a non-parametric estimation technique, especially suitable for evolutionary spectral density functions of uniformly modulated and strongly narrow-band stochastic processes. The paper at hand provides a consistent derivation of method of separation based spectrum estimation for the general multi-variate and multi-dimensional case. The validity of the method is demonstrated by benchmark tests with uniformly modulated spectra, for which convergence to the analytical solution is demonstrated. The key advantage of the method of separation is the minimization of spectral dispersion due to optimum time- or space-frequency localization. This is illustrated by the calibration of multi-dimensional and multi-variate geometric imperfection models from strongly narrow-band measurements in I-beams and cylindrical shells. Finally, the application of the method of separation based estimates for the stochastic buckling analysis of the example structures is briefly discussed. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.
Statistical Analysis of the Spectral Density Estimate Obtained via Coifman Scaling Function
2007-01-01
Spectral density built as Fourier transform of covariance sequence of stationary random process is determining the process characteristics and makes for analysis of it’s structure. Thus, one of the main problems in time series analysis is constructing consistent estimates of spectral density via successive, taken after equal periods of time observations of stationary random process. This article is devoted to investigation of problems dealing with application of wavelet anal...
Kaneko, Tak
2008-01-01
Context: Fourier transform (or lag) correlators in radio interferometers can serve as an efficient means of synthesising spectral channels. However aliasing corrupts the edge channels so they usually have to be excluded from the data set. In systems with around 10 channels, the loss in sensitivity can be significant. In addition, the low level of residual aliasing in the remaining channels may cause systematic errors. Moreover, delay errors have been widely reported in implementations of broadband analogue correlators and simulations have shown that delay errors exasperate the effects of aliasing. Aims: We describe a software-based approach that suppresses aliasing by oversampling the cross-correlation function. This method can be applied to interferometers with individually-tracking antennas equipped with a discrete path compensator system. It is based on the well-known property of interferometers where the drift scan response is the Fourier transform of the source's band-limited spectrum. Methods: In this p...
Frehlich, Rod; Meillier, Yannick; Jensen, Michael L.; Balsley, Ben
2003-10-01
Finescale temperature and velocity measurements with multiple vertically spaced cold-wire and hot-wire sensors on the Cooperative Institute for Research in the Environmental Sciences (CIRES) tethered lifting system (TLS) were produced during the Cooperative Atmosphere-Surface Exchange Study-1999 (CASES-99). The various calibration methods are presented as well as algorithms to extract high-resolution estimates of the energy dissipation rate and the temperature structure constant C2T. The instrumentation is capable of measurements of 10-7 m2 s-3 and C2T 10-6 K2 m-2/3.
Kira, Oz; Linker, Raphael; Gitelson, Anatoly
2015-06-01
Leaf pigment content provides valuable insight into the productivity, physiological and phenological status of vegetation. Measurement of spectral reflectance offers a fast, nondestructive method for pigment estimation. A number of methods were used previously for estimation of leaf pigment content, however, spectral bands employed varied widely among the models and data used. Our objective was to find informative spectral bands in three types of models, vegetation indices (VI), neural network (NN) and partial least squares (PLS) regression, for estimating leaf chlorophyll (Chl) and carotenoids (Car) contents of three unrelated tree species and to assess the accuracy of the models using a minimal number of bands. The bands selected by PLS, NN and VIs were in close agreement and did not depend on the data used. The results of the uninformative variable elimination PLS approach, where the reliability parameter was used as an indicator of the information contained in the spectral bands, confirmed the bands selected by the VIs, NN, and PLS models. All three types of models were able to accurately estimate Chl content with coefficient of variation below 12% for all three species with VI showing the best performance. NN and PLS using reflectance in four spectral bands were able to estimate accurately Car content with coefficient of variation below 14%. The quantitative framework presented here offers a new way of estimating foliar pigment content not requiring model re-parameterization for different species. The approach was tested using the spectral bands of the future Sentinel-2 satellite and the results of these simulations showed that accurate pigment estimation from satellite would be possible.
Efficient Spectral Power Estimation on an Arbitrary Frequency Scale
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
F. Zaplata
2015-04-01
Full Text Available The Fast Fourier Transform is a very efficient algorithm for the Fourier spectrum estimation, but has the limitation of a linear frequency scale spectrum, which may not be suitable for every system. For example, audio and speech analysis needs a logarithmic frequency scale due to the characteristic of a human’s ear. The Fast Fourier Transform algorithms are not able to efficiently give the desired results and modified techniques have to be used in this case. In the following text a simple technique using the Goertzel algorithm allowing the evaluation of the power spectra on an arbitrary frequency scale will be introduced. Due to its simplicity the algorithm suffers from imperfections which will be discussed and partially solved in this paper. The implementation into real systems and the impact of quantization errors appeared to be critical and have to be dealt with in special cases. The simple method dealing with the quantization error will also be introduced. Finally, the proposed method will be compared to other methods based on its computational demands and its potential speed.
SU-D-204-01: Dual-Energy Calibration for Breast Density Measurement Using Spectral Mammography
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ding, H; Cho, H; Kumar, N; Sennung, D; Molloi, S [Department of Radiological Sciences, University of California, Irvine, CA (United States)
2015-06-15
Purpose: To investigate the feasibility of minimizing the systematic errors in dual-energy breast density quantification induced by the use of tissue-equivalent plastic phantoms as the calibration basis materials. Methods: Dual-energy calibration using tissue-equivalent plastic phantoms was performed on a spectral mammography system based on scanning multi-slit Si strip photon-counting detectors. The plastic phantom calibration used plastic water and adipose-equivalent phantoms as the basis materials, which have different x-ray attenuation properties compared to water and lipid in actual breast tissue. Two methods were used to convert the dual-energy decomposition measurements in plastic phantom thicknesses into true water and lipid basis. The first method was based entirely on the theoretical x-ray attenuation coefficients of the investigated materials in the mammographic energy range. The conversion matrix was determined from least-squares fitting of the target material using the reported attenuation coefficients of water and lipid. The second method was developed based on experimental calibrations, which measured the low-and high-energy signals of pure water and lipid of known thicknesses. A non-linear rational function was used to correlate the decomposed thicknesses to the known values, so that the conversion coefficients can be determined. Both methods were validated using independent measurements of water and lipid mixture phantoms. The correlation of the dual-energy decomposition measurements and the known values were studied with linear regression analysis. Results: There was an excellent linear correlation between the converted water thicknesses and the known values. The slopes of the linear fits were determined to be 0.63 and 1.03 for the simulation and experimental results, respectively. The non-linear fitting in the experimental approach reduced the root-mean-square (RMS) errors from approximately 3.4 mm to 1.5 mm. Conclusion: The results suggested
Fast Spectral Velocity Estimation Using Adaptive Techniques: In-Vivo Results
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Gran, Fredrik; Jakobsson, Andreas; Udesen, Jesper
2007-01-01
spectral Capon (BPC) method is based on a standard minimum variance technique adapted to account for both averaging over slowtime and depth. The Blood Amplitude and Phase Estimation technique (BAPES) is based on finding a set of matched filters (one for each velocity component of interest) and filtering...... the blood process over slow-time and averaging over depth to find the power spectral density estimate. In this paper, the two adaptive methods are explained, and performance Is assessed in controlled steady How experiments and in-vivo measurements. The three methods were tested on a circulating How rig...
Budiman, Harry; Mulyana, Muhammad Rizky; Zuas, Oman
2017-01-01
Uncertainty estimation for the gravimetric dilution of four calibration gas mixtures [carbon dioxide (CO2), carbon monoxide (CO), and methane (CH4) in helium (He) Balance] have been carried out according to the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) of "Guide to the Expression of Uncertainty in Measurement". The uncertainty of the composition of gas mixtures was evaluated to measure the quality, reliability, and comparability of the prepared calibration gas mixtures. The analytical process for the uncertainty estimation is comprised of four main stages such as specification of measurand, identification, quantification of the relevant uncertainty sources, and combination of the individual uncertainty sources. In this study, important uncertainty sources including weighing, gas cylinder, component gas, certified calibration gas mixture (CCGM) added, and purity of the He balance were examined to estimate the final uncertainty of composition of diluted calibration gas mixtures. The results shows that the uncertainties of gravimetric dilution of the four calibration gas mixtures (CO2, CO, and CH4 in He Balance) were found in the range of 5.974% - 7.256% that were expressed as %relative of expanded uncertainty at 95% of confidence level (k=2). The major contribution of sources uncertainty to the final uncertainty arose from the uncertainty related to the certified calibration gas mixture (CCGM) which was the uncertainty value stated in the CCGM certificate. The verification of calibration gas mixtures composition shows that the gravimetric values of calibration gas mixtures were consistent with the results of measurement using gas chromatography flame ionization detector equipped by methanizer.
Cameriere, R; Pacifici, A; Pacifici, L; Polimeni, A; Federici, F; Cingolani, M; Ferrante, L
2016-01-01
Age estimation from teeth by radiological analysis, in both children and adolescents, has wide applications in several scientific and forensic fields. In 2006, Cameriere et al. proposed a regression method to estimate chronological age in children, according to measurements of open apices of permanent teeth. Although several regression models are used to analyze the relationship between age and dental development, one serious limitation is the unavoidable bias in age estimation when regression models are used. The aim of this paper is to develop a full Bayesian calibration method for age estimation in children according to the sum of open apices, S, of the seven left permanent mandibular teeth. This cross-sectional study included 2630 orthopantomographs (OPGs) from healthy living Italian subjects, aged between 4 and 17 years and with no obvious developmental abnormalities. All radiographs were in digital format and were processed by the ImageJ computer-aided drawing program. The distance between the inner side of the open apex was measured for each tooth. Dental maturity was then evaluated according to the sum of normalized open apices (S). Intra- and inter-observer agreement was satisfactory, according to an intra-class correlation coefficient of S on 50 randomly selected OPGs. Mean absolute errors were 0.72 years (standard deviation 0.60) and 0.73 years (standard deviation 0.61) in boys and girls, respectively. The mean interquartile range (MIQR) of the calibrating distribution was 1.37 years (standard deviation 0.46) and 1.51 years (standard deviation 0.52) in boys and girls, respectively. Estimate bias was βERR=-0.005 and 0.003 for boys and girls, corresponding to a bias of a few days for all individuals in the sample. Neither of the βERR values was significantly different from 0 (p>0.682). In conclusion, the Bayesian calibration method overcomes problems of bias in age estimation when regression models are used, and appears to be suitable for assessing both
Evaluation of spectral coherence estimation methods for endmembers selection in hyperspectral images
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
David Fernandes
2005-08-01
Full Text Available The right endmenbers choice is an important task in the hiperspectral image classification processes. Among several models that use the endmenbers there is the Linear Spectral Mixture (LSM. This model has been extensively used in the fractional abundance images estimation. This work proposes two semi supervised methods for endmenbers selection based in the spectral coherence selection, which is an extension of the correlation coefficient concept. Spectral samples associated to classes are choosed a priori. These candidate samples to endmembers are compared by its relative spectral coherence. A subset of samples with minimum relative coherence will be selected as final endmenbers. AVIRIS (Airborne Visible/InfraRed Imaging Spectrometer images are used to test and compare the proposed methods.
Lazri, Mourad; Ameur, Zohra; Ameur, Soltane; Mohia, Yacine; Brucker, Jean Michel; Testud, Jacques
2013-10-01
The ultimate objective of this paper is the estimation of rainfall over an area in Algeria using data from the SEVIRI radiometer (Spinning Enhanced Visible and Infrared Imager). To achieve this aim, we use a new Convective/Stratiform Rain Area Delineation Technique (CS-RADT). The satellite rainfall retrieval technique is based on various spectral parameters of SEVIRI that express microphysical and optical cloud properties. It uses a multispectral thresholding technique to distinguish between stratiform and convective clouds. This technique (CS-RADT) is applied to the complex situation of the Mediterranean climate of this region. The tests have been conducted during the rainy seasons of 2006/2007 and 2010/2011 where stratiform and convective precipitation is recorded. The developed scheme (CS-RADT) is calibrated by instantaneous meteorological radar data to determine thresholds, and then rain rates are assigned to each cloud type by using radar and rain gauge data. These calibration data are collocated with SEVIRI data in time and space.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Sophie Fabre
2015-02-01
Full Text Available This work aims to compare the performance of new methods to estimate the Soil Moisture Content (SMC of bare soils from their spectral signatures in the reflective domain (0.4–2.5 µm in comparison with widely used spectral indices like Normalized Soil Moisture Index (NSMI and Water Index SOIL (WISOIL. Indeed, these reference spectral indices use wavelengths located in the water vapour absorption bands and their performance are thus very sensitive to the quality of the atmospheric compensation. To reduce these limitations, two new spectral indices are proposed which wavelengths are defined using the determination matrix tool by taking into account the atmospheric transmission: Normalized Index of Nswir domain for Smc estimatiOn from Linear correlation (NINSOL and Normalized Index of Nswir domain for Smc estimatiOn from Non linear correlation (NINSON. These spectral indices are completed by two new methods based on the global shape of the soil spectral signatures. These methods are the Inverse Soil semi-Empirical Reflectance model (ISER, using the inversion of an existing empirical soil model simulating the soil spectral reflectance according to soil moisture content for a given soil class, and the convex envelope model, linking the area between the envelope and the spectral signature to the SMC. All these methods are compared using a reference database built with 32 soil samples and composed of 190 spectral signatures with five or six soil moisture contents. Half of the database is used for the calibration stage and the remaining to evaluate the performance of the SMC estimation methods. The results show that the four new methods lead to similar or better performance than the one obtained by the reference indices. The RMSE is ranging from 3.8% to 6.2% and the coefficient of determination R2 varies between 0.74 and 0.91 with the best performance obtained with the ISER model. In a second step, simulated spectral radiances at the sensor level are
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Dittmann, Jason A.; Irwin, Jonathan M.; Charbonneau, David; Newton, Elisabeth R. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden St., Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)
2016-02-20
The MEarth Project is a photometric survey systematically searching the smallest stars near the Sun for transiting rocky planets. Since 2008, MEarth has taken approximately two million images of 1844 stars suspected to be mid-to-late M dwarfs. We have augmented this survey by taking nightly exposures of photometric standard stars and have utilized this data to photometrically calibrate the MEarth system, identify photometric nights, and obtain an optical magnitude with 1.5% precision for each M dwarf system. Each optical magnitude is an average over many years of data, and therefore should be largely immune to stellar variability and flaring. We combine this with trigonometric distance measurements, spectroscopic metallicity measurements, and 2MASS infrared magnitude measurements in order to derive a color–magnitude–metallicity relation across the mid-to-late M dwarf spectral sequence that can reproduce spectroscopic metallicity determinations to a precision of 0.1 dex. We release optical magnitudes and metallicity estimates for 1567 M dwarfs, many of which did not have an accurate determination of either prior to this work. For an additional 277 stars without a trigonometric parallax, we provide an estimate of the distance, assuming solar neighborhood metallicity. We find that the median metallicity for a volume-limited sample of stars within 20 pc of the Sun is [Fe/H] = −0.03 ± 0.008, and that 29/565 of these stars have a metallicity of [Fe/H] = −0.5 or lower, similar to the low-metallicity distribution of nearby G dwarfs. When combined with the results of ongoing and future planet surveys targeting these objects, the metallicity estimates presented here will be important for assessing the significance of any putative planet–metallicity correlation.
A two dimensional power spectral estimate for some nonstationary processes. M.S. Thesis
Smith, Gregory L.
1989-01-01
A two dimensional estimate for the power spectral density of a nonstationary process is being developed. The estimate will be applied to helicopter noise data which is clearly nonstationary. The acoustic pressure from the isolated main rotor and isolated tail rotor is known to be periodically correlated (PC) and the combined noise from the main and tail rotors is assumed to be correlation autoregressive (CAR). The results of this nonstationary analysis will be compared with the current method of assuming that the data is stationary and analyzing it as such. Another method of analysis is to introduce a random phase shift into the data as shown by Papoulis to produce a time history which can then be accurately modeled as stationary. This method will also be investigated for the helicopter data. A method used to determine the period of a PC process when the period is not know is discussed. The period of a PC process must be known in order to produce an accurate spectral representation for the process. The spectral estimate is developed. The bias and variability of the estimate are also discussed. Finally, the current method for analyzing nonstationary data is compared to that of using a two dimensional spectral representation. In addition, the method of phase shifting the data is examined.
Dutt, Pravir; Tomar, Satyendra
2003-01-01
In this paper we show that the h-p spectral element method developed in [3,8,9] applies to elliptic problems in curvilinear polygons with mixed Neumann and Dirichlet boundary conditions provided that the Babuska-Brezzi inf-sup conditions are satisfied. We establish basic stability estimates for a no
Comparison of Real-Time In Vivo Spectral and Vector Velocity Estimation
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Pedersen, Mads Møller; Pihl, Michael Johannes; Haugaard, Per;
2012-01-01
The purpose of this study is to show whether a newly introduced vector flow method is equal to conventional spectral estimation. Thirty-two common carotid arteries of 16 healthy volunteers were scanned using a BK Medical ProFocus scanner (DK-2730, Herlev, Denmark) and a linear transducer at 5 MHz...
A spectral-unmixing approach to estimate water-mass concentrations in case 2 waters
Burazerovic, D.; Heylen, R.; Raymaekers, D.; Knaeps, E.; Philippart, C.J.M.; Scheunders, P.
2014-01-01
In this work, we study the estimation of water-quality parameters from the water-leaving reflectance by means of spectral unmixing. Our starting point is the provision of an analytic model relating the reflectance of water to its masses/bodies or constituents, as specified by their specific inherent
This study investigated the potential of point scan Raman spectral imaging method for estimation of different ingredients and chemical contaminant concentration in food powder. Food powder sample was prepared by mixing sugar, vanillin, melamine and non-dairy cream at 5 different concentrations in a ...
Calibrated Estimates of the Energy in Major Flares of GRS 1915+105
Punsly, Brian
2013-01-01
We analyze the energetics of the major radio flare of October 8 2005 in GRS 1915+105. The flare is of particular interest because it is one of the most luminous and energetic radio flares from a Galactic black hole that has ever been observed. The motivation is two-fold. One, to learn more about the energetics of this most extreme phenomenon and its relationship to the accretion state. The second is to verify if the calibrated estimates of the energy of major radio flares (based on the peak low frequency optically thin flux) derived from flares in the period 1996-2001 in Punsly & Rodriguez (2013), PR13 hereafter, can be used to estimate plasmoid energy beyond this time period. We find evidence that the calibrated curves are still accurate for this strong flare. Furthermore, the physically important findings of PR13 are supported by the inclusion of this flare: the flare energy is correlated with both the intrinsic bolometric X-ray luminosity, $L_{\\mathrm{bol}}$, $\\sim 1$ hour before ejection and $L_{\\math...
Lamb, Robert
1999-10-01
An approach is described to the calibration of a conceptual rainfall-runoff model, the Probability Distributed Model (PDM), for estimating flood frequencies at gauged sites by continuous flow simulation. A first step was the estimation of routing store parameters by recession curve analysis. Uniform random sampling was then used to search for parameter sets that produced simulations achieving the best fit to observed, hourly flow data over a 2-year period. Goodness of fit was expressed in terms of four objective functions designed to give different degrees of weight to peaks in flow. Flood frequency results were improved, if necessary, by manual adjustment of parameters, with reference to peaks extracted from the entire hourly flow record. Although the primary aim was to reproduce observed peaks, consideration was also given to finding parameter sets capable of generating a realistic overall characterization of the flow regime. Examples are shown where the calibrated model generated simulations that reproduced well the magnitude and frequency distribution of peak flows. Factors affecting the acceptability of these simulations are discussed. For an example catchment, a sensitivity analysis shows that there may be more than one set of parameter values well suited to the simulation of peak flows.
Sampling characteristics and calibration of snorkel counts to estimate stream fish populations
Weaver, D.; Kwak, Thomas J.; Pollock, Kenneth
2014-01-01
Snorkeling is a versatile technique for estimating lotic fish population characteristics; however, few investigators have evaluated its accuracy at population or assemblage levels. We evaluated the accuracy of snorkeling using prepositioned areal electrofishing (PAE) for estimating fish populations in a medium-sized Appalachian Mountain river during fall 2008 and summer 2009. Strip-transect snorkel counts were calibrated with PAE counts in identical locations among macrohabitats, fish species or taxa, and seasons. Mean snorkeling efficiency (i.e., the proportion of individuals counted from the true population) among all taxa and seasons was 14.7% (SE, 2.5%), and the highest efficiencies were for River Chub Nocomis micropogon at 21.1% (SE, 5.9%), Central Stoneroller Campostoma anomalum at 20.3% (SE, 9.6%), and darters (Percidae) at 17.1% (SE, 3.7%), whereas efficiencies were lower for shiners (Notropis spp., Cyprinella spp., Luxilus spp.) at 8.2% (SE, 2.2%) and suckers (Catostomidae) at 6.6% (SE, 3.2%). Macrohabitat type, fish taxon, or sampling season did not significantly explain variance in snorkeling efficiency. Mean snorkeling detection probability (i.e., probability of detecting at least one individual of a taxon) among fish taxa and seasons was 58.4% (SE, 6.1%). We applied the efficiencies from our calibration study to adjust snorkel counts from an intensive snorkeling survey conducted in a nearby reach. Total fish density estimates from strip-transect counts adjusted for snorkeling efficiency were 7,288 fish/ha (SE, 1,564) during summer and 15,805 fish/ha (SE, 4,947) during fall. Precision of fish density estimates is influenced by variation in snorkeling efficiency and sample size and may be increased with additional sampling effort. These results demonstrate the sampling properties and utility of snorkeling to characterize lotic fish assemblages with acceptable efficiency and detection probability, less effort, and no mortality, compared with traditional
Godet, O; Abbey, A F; Osborne, J P; Cusumano, G; Pagani, C; Capalbi, M; Perri, M; Page, K L; Burrows, D N; Campana, S; Hill, J E; Kennea, J A; Moretti, A
2008-01-01
(Abbreviated) We show that the XRT spectral response calibration was complicated by various energy offsets in photon counting (PC) and windowed timing (WT) modes related to the way the CCD is operated in orbit (variation in temperature during observations, contamination by optical light from the sunlit Earth and increase in charge transfer inefficiency). We describe how these effects can be corrected for in the ground processing software. We show that the low-energy response, the redistribution in spectra of absorbed sources, and the modelling of the line profile have been significantly improved since launch by introducing empirical corrections in our code when it was not possible to use a physical description. We note that the increase in CTI became noticeable in June 2006 (i.e. 14 months after launch), but the evidence of a more serious degradation in spectroscopic performance (line broadening and change in the low-energy response) due to large charge traps (i.e. faults in the Si crystal) became more signif...
Spectral Indices to Improve Crop Residue Cover Estimation under Varying Moisture Conditions
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Miguel Quemada
2016-08-01
Full Text Available Crop residues on the soil surface protect the soil against erosion, increase water infiltration and reduce agrochemicals in runoff water. Crop residues and soils are spectrally different in the absorption features associated with cellulose and lignin. Our objectives were to: (1 assess the impact of water on the spectral indices for estimating crop residue cover (fR; (2 evaluate spectral water indices for estimating the relative water content (RWC of crop residues and soils; and (3 propose methods that mitigate the uncertainty caused by variable moisture conditions on estimates of fR. Reflectance spectra of diverse crops and soils were acquired in the laboratory over the 400–2400-nm wavelength region. Using the laboratory data, a linear mixture model simulated the reflectance of scenes with various fR and levels of RWC. Additional reflectance spectra were acquired over agricultural fields with a wide range of crop residue covers and scene moisture conditions. Spectral indices for estimating crop residue cover that were evaluated in this study included the Normalized Difference Tillage Index (NDTI, the Shortwave Infrared Normalized Difference Residue Index (SINDRI and the Cellulose Absorption Index (CAI. Multivariate linear models that used pairs of spectral indices—one for RWC and one for fR—significantly improved estimates of fR using CAI and SINDRI. For NDTI to reliably assess fR, scene RWC should be relatively dry (RWC < 0.25. These techniques provide the tools needed to monitor the spatial and temporal changes in crop residue cover and help determine where additional conservation practices may be required.
Li, Zuchuan; Li, Lin; Song, Kaishan; Cassar, Nicolas
2013-03-01
Through its influence on the structure of pelagic ecosystems, phytoplankton size distribution (pico-, nano-, and micro-plankton) is believed to play a key role in "the biological pump." In this paper, an algorithm is proposed to estimate phytoplankton size fractions (PSF) for micro-, nano-, and pico-plankton (fm, fn, and fp, respectively) from the spectral features of remote-sensing data. From remote-sensing reflectance spectrum (Rrs(λ)), the algorithm constructs four types of spectral features: a normalized Rrs(λ), band ratios, continuum-removed spectra, and spectral curvatures. Using support vector machine recursive feature elimination, the algorithm ranks the constructed spectral features and Rrs(λ) according to their sensitivities to PSF which is then regressed against the sensitive spectral features through support vector regression. The algorithm is validated with (1) simulated Rrs(λ) and PSF, and (2) Rrs(λ) obtained by Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS) and PSF determined from High-Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) pigments. The validation results show the overall effectiveness of the algorithm in estimating PSF, with R2 of (1) 0.938 (fm) for the simulated SeaWiFS data set; and (2) 0.617 (fm), 0.475 (fn), and 0.587 (fp) for the SeaWiFS satellite data set. The validation results also indicate that continuum-removed spectra and spectral curvatures are the dominant spectral features sensitive to PSF with their wavelengths mainly centered on the pigment-absorption domain. Global spatial distributions of fm, fn, and fp were mapped with monthly SeaWiFS images. Overall, their biogeographical distributions are consistent with our current understanding that pico-plankton account for a large proportion of total phytoplankton biomass in oligotrophic regions, nano-plankton in transitional areas, and micro-plankton in high-productivity regions.
Sakamoto, T; Yamaoka, K; Ohno, M; Sato, G; Aptekar, R; Barthelmy, S; Baumgartner, W; Cummings, J; Fenimore, E; Frederiks, D; Gehrels, N; Golenetskii, S; Krimm, H; Markwardt, C; Onda, K; Palmer, D; Parsons, A; Stamatikos, M; Sugita, S; Tashiro, M; Tueller, J; Ukwatta, T
2010-01-01
We report on the spectral cross-calibration results of the Konus-Wind, the Suzaku/WAM, and the Swift/BAT instruments using simultaneously observed gamma-ray bursts (GRBs). This is the first attempt to use simultaneously observed GRBs as a spectral calibration source to understand systematic problems among the instruments. Based on these joint spectral fits, we find that 1) although a constant factor (a normalization factor) agrees within 20% among the instruments, the BAT constant factor shows a systematically smaller value by 10-20% compared to that of Konus-Wind, 2) there is a systematic trend that the low-energy photon index becomes steeper by 0.1-0.2 and Epeak becomes systematically higher by 10-20% when including the BAT data in the joint fits, and 3) the high-energy photon index agrees within 0.2 among the instruments. Our results show that cross-calibration based on joint spectral analysis is an important step to understanding the instrumental effects which could be affecting the scientific results fro...
On-line estimation of myoelectric signal spectral parameters and nonstationarities detection.
D'Alessio, T; Knaflitz, M; Balestra, G; Paggi, S
1993-09-01
In this communication, we present a method for detecting nonstationarities of random time series with an approximately Gaussian distribution of amplitudes. This method is suitable for real time implementation. Here we report some results obtained by applying them to a time series of spectral parameters of surface myoelectric signals, collected during voluntary isometric contractions of human muscles. Moreover, we describe the computerized system that we used to implement our detector of nonstationarity. This system is based on the TMS 320C25 DSP chip and realizes on-line estimation and display of spectral parameters, as well as detection of their nonstationarities, featuring a sampling frequency up to 20 k samples/s. A friendly user interface, fully menu driven, allows the user to select different options during the system's operation by means of hot keys. The accuracy of the system was tested by comparing its estimates with those of an off-line system, previously characterized, which we took as a reference. The estimates of spectral parameters obtained by means of the two systems were always consistent. The on-line stationarity detector was able to recognize rates of variation of the spectral parameters as small as 1%/s during contractions lasting 10-15 s. This sensitivity makes it suitable for clinical application. The set of results herein presented has been selected to highlight the main characteristics of the system.
Radar Estimation of Intense Rainfall Rates through Adaptive Calibration of the Z-R Relation
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Andrea Libertino
2015-10-01
Full Text Available Rainfall intensity estimation from weather radar is still significantly uncertain, due to local anomalies, radar beam attenuation, inappropriate calibration of the radar reflectivity factor (Z to rainfall rate (R relationship, and sampling errors. The aim of this work is to revise the use of the power-law equation commonly adopted to relate radar reflectivity and rainfall rate to increase the estimation quality in the presence of intense rainfall rates. We introduce a quasi real-time procedure for an adaptive in space and time estimation of the Z-R relation. The procedure is applied in a comprehensive case study, which includes 16 severe rainfall events in the north-west of Italy. The study demonstrates that the technique outperforms the classical estimation methods for most of the analysed events. The determination coefficient improves by up to 30% and the bias values for stratiform events decreases by up to 80% of the values obtained with the classical, non-adaptive, Z-R relations. The proposed procedure therefore shows significant potential for operational uses.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Nielsen, Jesper Kjær; Jensen, Tobias Lindstrøm; Jensen, Jesper Rindom;
2016-01-01
time. Additionally, we show via three common examples how the grid size depends on parameters such as the number of data points or the number of sensors in DOA estimation. We also demonstrate that the computation time can potentially be lowered by several orders of magnitude by combining a coarse grid......In many spectral estimation and array processing problems, the process of finding estimates of model parameters often involves the optimisation of a cost function containing multiple peaks and dips. Such non-convex problems are hard to solve using traditional optimisation algorithms developed...
Deciduous Forest Structure Estimated with LIDAR-Optimized Spectral Remote Sensing
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Jason Defibaugh y Chávez
2013-01-01
Full Text Available Coverage and frequency of remotely sensed forest structural information would benefit from single orbital platforms designed to collect sufficient data. We evaluated forest structural information content using single-date Hyperion hyperspectral imagery collected over full-canopy oak-hickory forests in the Ozark National Forest, Arkansas, USA. Hyperion spectral derivatives were used to develop machine learning regression tree rule sets for predicting forest neighborhood percentile heights generated from near-coincident Leica Geosystems ALS50 small footprint light detection and ranging (LIDAR. The most successful spectral predictors of LIDAR-derived forest structure were also tested with basal area measured in situ. Based on the machine learning regression trees developed, Hyperion spectral derivatives were utilized to predict LIDAR forest neighborhood percentile heights with accuracies between 2.1 and 3.7 m RMSE. Understory predictions consistently resulted in the highest accuracy of 2.1 m RMSE. In contrast, hyperspectral prediction of basal area measured in situ was only found to be 6.5 m2/ha RMSE when the average basal area across the study area was ~12 m2/ha. The results suggest, at a spatial resolution of 30 × 30 m, that orbital hyperspectral imagery alone can provide useful structural information related to vegetation height. Rapidly calibrated biophysical remote sensing techniques will facilitate timely assessment of regional forest conditions.
CALIBRATIONS BASED ON NEAR INFRARED SPECTROSCOPIC DATA TO ESTIMATE WOOD-CEMENT PANEL PROPERTIES
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Paulo Ricardo Gherardi Hein
2009-11-01
Full Text Available Some scientific contributions have used near infrared (NIR spectroscopy as a rapid and reliable tool for characterizing engineered wood products. However, to our knowledge, there are no published papers that used this technique in order to evaluate wood-cement panels. The main objective of this paper was to evaluate the ability of NIR spectroscopy to estimate physical and mechanical properties in wood-cement panels. The wood-cement panels were produced using Eucalyptus grandis x E. urophylla, Pinus taeda, and Toona ciliata woods with Portland cement under different manufacturing conditions. Wood-cement panels were characterized by traditional methods, and Partial Least Squares regressions were used to build calibrations. Our cross-validated models for MOR, IB, and TS24h of the panels yielded good coefficients of determination (0.80, 0.82, and 0.91, respectively. Based on the significant absorption bands and regression coefficients of the PLS models, our results indicate that cellulose and aromatic groups in lignin are components that play an important role in the calibrations.
Daniell method for power spectral density estimation in atomic force microscopy
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Labuda, Aleksander [Asylum Research an Oxford Instruments Company, Santa Barbara, California 93117 (United States)
2016-03-15
An alternative method for power spectral density (PSD) estimation—the Daniell method—is revisited and compared to the most prevalent method used in the field of atomic force microscopy for quantifying cantilever thermal motion—the Bartlett method. Both methods are shown to underestimate the Q factor of a simple harmonic oscillator (SHO) by a predictable, and therefore correctable, amount in the absence of spurious deterministic noise sources. However, the Bartlett method is much more prone to spectral leakage which can obscure the thermal spectrum in the presence of deterministic noise. By the significant reduction in spectral leakage, the Daniell method leads to a more accurate representation of the true PSD and enables clear identification and rejection of deterministic noise peaks. This benefit is especially valuable for the development of automated PSD fitting algorithms for robust and accurate estimation of SHO parameters from a thermal spectrum.
Wang, Likun; Han, Yong; Tremblay, Denis; Goldberg, Mitch
2012-01-01
The Cross-track Infrared Sounder (CrIS) on the newly-launched Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership (Suomi NPP) and future Joint Polar Satellite System (JPSS) is a Fourier transform spectrometer that provides soundings of the atmosphere with 1305 spectral channels, over 3 wavelength ranges: LWIR (9.14 - 15.38um); MWIR (5.71 - 8.26um); and SWIR (3.92 - 4.64 um). An accurate spectral and radiometric calibration is fundamental for CrIS radiance Sensor Data Records (SDRs). In this study, thro...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Kott Phillip S.
2014-09-01
Full Text Available This article describes a two-step calibration-weighting scheme for a stratified simple random sample of hospital emergency departments. The first step adjusts for unit nonresponse. The second increases the statistical efficiency of most estimators of interest. Both use a measure of emergency-department size and other useful auxiliary variables contained in the sampling frame. Although many survey variables are roughly a linear function of the measure of size, response is better modeled as a function of the log of that measure. Consequently the log of size is a calibration variable in the nonresponse-adjustment step, while the measure of size itself is a calibration variable in the second calibration step. Nonlinear calibration procedures are employed in both steps. We show with 2010 DAWN data that estimating variances as if a one-step calibration weighting routine had been used when there were in fact two steps can, after appropriately adjusting the finite-population correct in some sense, produce standard-error estimates that tend to be slightly conservative.
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M. R. Mobasheri
2013-10-01
Full Text Available Near-surface soil moisture is one of the crucial variables in hydrological processes, which influences the exchange of water and energy fluxes at the land surface/atmosphere interface. Accurate estimate of the spatial and temporal variations of soil moisture is critical for numerous environmental studies. On the other hand, information of distributed soil moisture at large scale with reasonable spatial and temporal resolution is required for improving climatic and hydrologic modeling and prediction. The advent of hyperspectral imagery has allowed examination of continuous spectra not possible with isolated bands in multispectral imagery. In addition to high spectral resolution for individual band analyses, the contiguous narrow bands show characteristics of related absorption features, such as effects of strong absorptions on the band depths of adjacent absorptions. Our objective in this study was to develop a new spectral angle index to estimate soil moisture based on spectral region (350 and 2500 nm. In this paper, using spectral observations made by ASD Spectroradiometer for predicting soil moisture content, two soil indices were also investigated involving the Perpendicular Drought Index (PDI, NMDI (Normalized Multi-band Drought Index indices. Correlation and regression analysis showed a high relationship between PDI and the soil moisture percent (R2 = 0.9537 and NMDI (R2 = 0.9335. Furthermore, we also simulated these data according to the spectral range of some sensors such as MODIS, ASTER, ALI and ETM+. Indices relevant these sensors have high correlation with soil moisture data. Finally, we proposed a new angle index which shows significant relationship between new angle index and the soil moisture percentages (R2 = 0.9432.angle index relevant bands 3, 4, 5, 6, 7 MODIS also showing high accuracy in estimation of soil moisture (R2 = 0.719.
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Pravir Dutt; Satyendra Tomar
2003-11-01
In this paper we show that the ℎ- spectral element method developed in [3,8,9] applies to elliptic problems in curvilinear polygons with mixed Neumann and Dirichlet boundary conditions provided that the Babuska–Brezzi inf-sup conditions are satisfied. We establish basic stability estimates for a non-conforming ℎ- spectral element method which allows for simultaneous mesh refinement and variable polynomial degree. The spectral element functions are non-conforming if the boundary conditions are Dirichlet. For problems with mixed boundary conditions they are continuous only at the vertices of the elements. We obtain a stability estimate when the spectral element functions vanish at the vertices of the elements, which is needed for parallelizing the numerical scheme. Finally, we indicate how the mesh refinement strategy and choice of polynomial degree depends on the regularity of the coefficients of the differential operator, smoothness of the sides of the polygon and the regularity of the data to obtain the maximum accuracy achievable.
Adaptive Parametric Spectral Estimation with Kalman Smoothing for Online Early Seizure Detection
Park, Yun S.; Hochberg, Leigh R.; Eskandar, Emad N.; Cash, Sydney S.; Truccolo, Wilson
2014-01-01
Tracking spectral changes in neural signals, such as local field potentials (LFPs) and scalp or intracranial electroencephalograms (EEG, iEEG), is an important problem in early detection and prediction of seizures. Most approaches have focused on either parametric or nonparametric spectral estimation methods based on moving time windows. Here, we explore an adaptive (time-varying) parametric ARMA approach for tracking spectral changes in neural signals based on the fixed-interval Kalman smoother. We apply the method to seizure detection based on spectral features of intracortical LFPs recorded from a person with pharmacologically intractable focal epilepsy. We also devise and test an approach for real-time tracking of spectra based on the adaptive parametric method with the fixed-interval Kalman smoother. The order of ARMA models is determined via the AIC computed in moving time windows. We quantitatively demonstrate the advantages of using the adaptive parametric estimation method in seizure detection over nonparametric alternatives based exclusively on moving time windows. Overall, the adaptive parametric approach significantly improves the statistical separability of interictal and ictal epochs. PMID:24663686
Delwiche, Stephen R; Graybosch, Robert A
2003-12-01
Use of near-infrared (NIR) diffuse reflectance on ground wheat meal for prediction of protein content is a well-accepted practice. Although protein content has a strong bearing on the suitability of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) for processed foods, wheat quality, as largely influenced by the configuration and conformation of the monomeric and polymeric endosperm storage proteins, is also of great importance to the food industry. The measurement of quality by NIR, however, has been much less successful. The present study examines the effects and trends of applying mathematical transformations (pretreatments) to NIR spectral data before partial least-squares (PLS) regression. Running mean smooths, Savitzky-Golay second derivatives, multiplicative scatter correction, and standard normal variate transformation, with and without detrending, were systematically applied to an extensive set of hard red winter wheat and hard white wheat grown over two seasons. The studied properties were protein content, sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) sedimentation volume, number of hours during grain fill at temperature 32 degrees C. The size of the convolution window used to perform a smooth or second derivative was also examined. The results indicate that for easily modeled properties such as protein content, the importance of pretreatment was lessened, whereas for the more difficult-to-model properties, such as SDS sedimentation volume, wide-window (>20 points) smooth or derivative convolutions were important in maximizing calibration performance. By averaging 30 PLS cross-validation trial statistics (standard error) for each property, we were able to ascertain the inherent modeling ability of each wheat property.
BayesLine: Bayesian Inference for Spectral Estimation of Gravitational Wave Detector Noise
Littenberg, Tyson B
2014-01-01
Gravitational wave data from ground-based detectors is dominated by instrument noise. Signals will be comparatively weak, and our understanding of the noise will influence detection confidence and signal characterization. Mis-modeled noise can produce large systematic biases in both model selection and parameter estimation. Here we introduce a multi-component, variable dimension, parameterized model to describe the Gaussian-noise power spectrum for data from ground-based gravitational wave interferometers. Called BayesLine, the algorithm models the noise power spectral density using cubic splines for smoothly varying broad-band noise and Lorentzians for narrow-band line features in the spectrum. We describe the algorithm and demonstrate its performance on data from the fifth and sixth LIGO science runs. Once fully integrated into LIGO/Virgo data analysis software, BayesLine will produce accurate spectral estimation and provide a means for marginalizing inferences drawn from the data over all plausible noise s...
A spectral-spatial-dynamic hierarchical Bayesian (SSD-HB) model for estimating soybean yield
Kazama, Yoriko; Kujirai, Toshihiro
2014-10-01
A method called a "spectral-spatial-dynamic hierarchical-Bayesian (SSD-HB) model," which can deal with many parameters (such as spectral and weather information all together) by reducing the occurrence of multicollinearity, is proposed. Experiments conducted on soybean yields in Brazil fields with a RapidEye satellite image indicate that the proposed SSD-HB model can predict soybean yield with a higher degree of accuracy than other estimation methods commonly used in remote-sensing applications. In the case of the SSD-HB model, the mean absolute error between estimated yield of the target area and actual yield is 0.28 t/ha, compared to 0.34 t/ha when conventional PLS regression was applied, showing the potential effectiveness of the proposed model.
Kaesmacher, Johannes; Liebl, Hans; Baum, Thomas; Kirschke, Jan Stefan
2017-01-01
Introduction Phantom-based (synchronous and asynchronous) and phantomless (internal tissue calibration based) assessment of bone mineral density (BMD) in routine MDCT (multidetector computed tomography) examinations potentially allows for diagnosis of osteoporosis. Although recent studies investigated the effects of contrast-medium application on phantom-calibrated BMD measurements, it remains uncertain to what extent internal tissue-calibrated BMD measurements are also susceptible to contrast-medium associated density variation. The present study is the first to systemically evaluate BMD variations related to contrast application comparing different calibration techniques. Purpose To compare predicative performance of different calibration techniques for BMD measurements obtained from triphasic contrast-enhanced MDCT. Materials and Methods Bone mineral density was measured on nonenhanced (NE), arterial (AR) and portal-venous (PV) contrast phase MDCT images of 46 patients using synchronous (SYNC) and asynchronous (ASYNC) phantom calibration as well as internal calibration (IC). Quantitative computed tomography (QCT) served as criterion standard. Density variations were analyzed for each contrast phase and calibration technique, and respective linear fitting was performed. Results Both asynchronous calibration-derived BMD values (NE-ASYNC) and values estimated using IC (NE-IC) on NE MDCT images did reasonably well in predicting QCT BMD (root-mean-square deviation, 8.0% and 7.8%, respectively). Average NE-IC BMD was 2.7% lower when compared with QCT (P = 0.017), whereas no difference could be found for NE-ASYNC (P = 0.957). All average BMD estimates derived from contrast-enhanced scans differed significantly from QCT BMD (all P 6.0 mg/mL). All regression fits revealed a consistent linear dependency (R2 range, 0.861–0.963). Overall accuracy and goodness of fit tended to decrease from AR to PV contrast phase. Highest precision and best linear fit could be reached
Melnikov, Yuri B.
2016-09-01
Quadratic form approach allows for new results in the analysis of a class of integral-difference operators in finite domains: non-negativity, spectral estimations, a new property of Legendre polynomials, and establishing links with weighted mean-square deviation functionals and with infinite Jacobi matrices with not-bounded coefficients. Generalisation of integral-difference operators to higher dimensions is provided and application to matter relaxation in a field is considered. A new class of special functions naturally appears.
Multiple calibrator measurements improve accuracy and stability estimates of automated assays.
Akbas, Neval; Budd, Jeffrey R; Klee, George G
2016-01-01
The effects of combining multiple calibrations on assay accuracy (bias) and measurement of calibration stability were investigated for total triiodothyronine (TT3), vitamin B12 and luteinizing hormone (LH) using Beckman Coulter's Access 2 analyzer. Three calibration procedures (CC1, CC2 and CC3) combined 12, 34 and 56 calibrator measurements over 1, 2, and 3 days. Bias was calculated between target values and average measured value over 3 consecutive days after calibration. Using regression analysis of calibrator measurements versus measurement date, calibration stability was determined as the maximum number of days before a calibrator measurement exceeded 5% tolerance limits. Competitive assays (TT3, vitamin B12) had positive time regression slopes, while sandwich assay (LH) had a negative slope. Bias values for TT3 were -2.49%, 1.49%, and -0.50% using CC1, CC2 and CC3 respectively, with calibrator stability of 32, 20, and 30 days. Bias values for vitamin B12 were 2.44%, 0.91%, and -0.50%, with calibrator stability of 4, 9, and 12 days. Bias values for LH were 2.26%, 1.44% and -0.29% with calibrator stability of >43, 39 and 36 days. Measured stability was more consistent across calibration procedures using percent change rather than difference from target: 26 days for TT3, 12 days for B12 and 31 days for LH. Averaging over multiple calibrations produced smaller bias, consistent with improved accuracy. Time regression slopes in percent change were unaffected by number of calibration measurements but calibrator stability measured from the target value was highly affected by the calibrator value at time zero.
Ravichandran, Ramamoorthy; Binukumar, Johnson Pichy; Davis, Cheriyathmanjiyil Antony
2013-10-01
The measured dose in water at reference point in phantom is a primary parameter for planning the treatment monitor units (MU); both in conventional and intensity modulated/image guided treatments. Traceability of dose accuracy therefore still depends mainly on the calibration factor of the ion chamber/dosimeter provided by the accredited Secondary Standard Dosimetry Laboratories (SSDLs), under International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) network of laboratories. The data related to Nd,water calibrations, thermoluminescent dosimetry (TLD) postal dose validation, inter-comparison of different dosimeter/electrometers, and validity of Nd,water calibrations obtained from different calibration laboratories were analyzed to find out the extent of accuracy achievable. Nd,w factors in Gray/Coulomb calibrated at IBA, GmBH, Germany showed a mean variation of about 0.2% increase per year in three Farmer chambers, in three subsequent calibrations. Another ion chamber calibrated in different accredited laboratory (PTW, Germany) showed consistent Nd,w for 9 years period. The Strontium-90 beta check source response indicated long-term stability of the ion chambers within 1% for three chambers. Results of IAEA postal TL "dose intercomparison" for three photon beams, 6 MV (two) and 15 MV (one), agreed well within our reported doses, with mean deviation of 0.03% (SD 0.87%) (n = 9). All the chamber/electrometer calibrated by a single SSDL realized absorbed doses in water within 0.13% standard deviations. However, about 1-2% differences in absorbed dose estimates observed when dosimeters calibrated from different calibration laboratories are compared in solid phantoms. Our data therefore imply that the dosimetry level maintained for clinical use of linear accelerator photon beams are within recommended levels of accuracy, and uncertainties are within reported values.
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R. R. Rogers
2011-02-01
Full Text Available The Cloud-Aerosol Lidar with Orthogonal Polarization (CALIOP instrument on the Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observations (CALIPSO spacecraft has provided global, high-resolution vertical profiles of aerosols and clouds since it became operational on 13 June 2006. On 14 June 2006, the NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC High Spectral Resolution Lidar (HSRL was deployed aboard the NASA Langley B-200 aircraft for the first of a series of 86 underflights of the CALIPSO satellite to provide validation measurements for the CALIOP data products. To better assess the range of conditions under which CALIOP data products are produced, these validation flights were conducted under both daytime and nighttime lighting conditions, in multiple seasons, and over a large range of latitudes and aerosol and cloud conditions. This paper presents a quantitative assessment of the CALIOP 532 nm calibration (through the 532 nm total attenuated backscatter using internally calibrated airborne HSRL underflight data and is the most extensive study of CALIOP 532 nm calibration. Results show that HSRL and CALIOP 532 nm total attenuated backscatter agree on average within 2.7% ± 2.1% (CALIOP lower at night and within 2.9% ± 3.9% (CALIOP lower during the day, demonstrating the accuracy of the CALIOP 532 nm calibration algorithms. Additionally, comparisons with HSRL show consistency of the CALIOP calibration before and after the laser switch in 2009 as well as improvements in the daytime version 3.01 calibration scheme compared with the version 2 calibration scheme. Potential biases and uncertainties in the methodology relevant to validating satellite lidar measurements with an airborne lidar system are discussed and found to be less than 4.5% ± 3.2% for this validation effort with HSRL. Results from this study are also compared with prior assessments of the CALIOP 532 nm attenuated backscatter calibration.
Proper orthogonal decomposition-based spectral higher-order stochastic estimation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Baars, Woutijn J., E-mail: wbaars@unimelb.edu.au [Department of Mechanical Engineering, The University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Victoria 3010 (Australia); Tinney, Charles E. [Center for Aeromechanics Research, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas 78712 (United States)
2014-05-15
A unique routine, capable of identifying both linear and higher-order coherence in multiple-input/output systems, is presented. The technique combines two well-established methods: Proper Orthogonal Decomposition (POD) and Higher-Order Spectra Analysis. The latter of these is based on known methods for characterizing nonlinear systems by way of Volterra series. In that, both linear and higher-order kernels are formed to quantify the spectral (nonlinear) transfer of energy between the system's input and output. This reduces essentially to spectral Linear Stochastic Estimation when only first-order terms are considered, and is therefore presented in the context of stochastic estimation as spectral Higher-Order Stochastic Estimation (HOSE). The trade-off to seeking higher-order transfer kernels is that the increased complexity restricts the analysis to single-input/output systems. Low-dimensional (POD-based) analysis techniques are inserted to alleviate this void as POD coefficients represent the dynamics of the spatial structures (modes) of a multi-degree-of-freedom system. The mathematical framework behind this POD-based HOSE method is first described. The method is then tested in the context of jet aeroacoustics by modeling acoustically efficient large-scale instabilities as combinations of wave packets. The growth, saturation, and decay of these spatially convecting wave packets are shown to couple both linearly and nonlinearly in the near-field to produce waveforms that propagate acoustically to the far-field for different frequency combinations.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ying Li
Full Text Available Vegetation is an important part of ecosystem and estimation of fractional vegetation cover is of significant meaning to monitoring of vegetation growth in a certain region. With Landsat TM images and HJ-1B images as data source, an improved selective endmember linear spectral mixture model (SELSMM was put forward in this research to estimate the fractional vegetation cover in Huangfuchuan watershed in China. We compared the result with the vegetation coverage estimated with linear spectral mixture model (LSMM and conducted accuracy test on the two results with field survey data to study the effectiveness of different models in estimation of vegetation coverage. Results indicated that: (1 the RMSE of the estimation result of SELSMM based on TM images is the lowest, which is 0.044. The RMSEs of the estimation results of LSMM based on TM images, SELSMM based on HJ-1B images and LSMM based on HJ-1B images are respectively 0.052, 0.077 and 0.082, which are all higher than that of SELSMM based on TM images; (2 the R2 of SELSMM based on TM images, LSMM based on TM images, SELSMM based on HJ-1B images and LSMM based on HJ-1B images are respectively 0.668, 0.531, 0.342 and 0.336. Among these models, SELSMM based on TM images has the highest estimation accuracy and also the highest correlation with measured vegetation coverage. Of the two methods tested, SELSMM is superior to LSMM in estimation of vegetation coverage and it is also better at unmixing mixed pixels of TM images than pixels of HJ-1B images. So, the SELSMM based on TM images is comparatively accurate and reliable in the research of regional fractional vegetation cover estimation.
Li, Ying; Wang, Hong; Li, Xiao Bing
2015-01-01
Vegetation is an important part of ecosystem and estimation of fractional vegetation cover is of significant meaning to monitoring of vegetation growth in a certain region. With Landsat TM images and HJ-1B images as data source, an improved selective endmember linear spectral mixture model (SELSMM) was put forward in this research to estimate the fractional vegetation cover in Huangfuchuan watershed in China. We compared the result with the vegetation coverage estimated with linear spectral mixture model (LSMM) and conducted accuracy test on the two results with field survey data to study the effectiveness of different models in estimation of vegetation coverage. Results indicated that: (1) the RMSE of the estimation result of SELSMM based on TM images is the lowest, which is 0.044. The RMSEs of the estimation results of LSMM based on TM images, SELSMM based on HJ-1B images and LSMM based on HJ-1B images are respectively 0.052, 0.077 and 0.082, which are all higher than that of SELSMM based on TM images; (2) the R2 of SELSMM based on TM images, LSMM based on TM images, SELSMM based on HJ-1B images and LSMM based on HJ-1B images are respectively 0.668, 0.531, 0.342 and 0.336. Among these models, SELSMM based on TM images has the highest estimation accuracy and also the highest correlation with measured vegetation coverage. Of the two methods tested, SELSMM is superior to LSMM in estimation of vegetation coverage and it is also better at unmixing mixed pixels of TM images than pixels of HJ-1B images. So, the SELSMM based on TM images is comparatively accurate and reliable in the research of regional fractional vegetation cover estimation.
Error estimate of Taylor's frozen-in flow hypothesis in the spectral domain
Narita, Yasuhito
2017-03-01
The quality of Taylor's frozen-in flow hypothesis can be measured by estimating the amount of the fluctuation energy mapped from the streamwise wavenumbers onto the Doppler-shifted frequencies in the spectral domain. For a random sweeping case with a Gaussian variation of the large-scale flow, the mapping quality is expressed by the error function which depends on the mean flow speed, the sweeping velocity, the frequency bin, and the frequency of interest. Both hydrodynamic and magnetohydrodynamic treatments are presented on the error estimate of Taylor's hypothesis with examples from the solar wind measurements.
Weng, Q.
2007-12-01
Impervious surface is a key indicator of urban environmental quality and urbanization degree. Therefore, estimation and mapping of impervious surfaces in urban areas has attracted more and more attention recently by using remote sensing digital images. In this paper, satellite images with various spectral, spatial, and temporal resolutions are employed to examine the effects of these remote sensing data characteristics on mapping accuracy of urban impervious surfaces. The study area was the city proper of Indianapolis (Marion County), Indiana, United States. Linear spectral mixture analysis was applied to generate high albedo, low albedo, vegetation, and soil fraction images (endmembers) from the satellite images, and impervious surfaces were then estimated by adding high albedo and low albedo fraction images. A comparison of EO-1 ALI (multispectral) and Hyperion (hyperspectral) images indicates that the Hyperion image was more effective in discerning low albedo surface materials, especially the spectral bands in the mid-infrared region. Linear spectral mixing modeling was found more useful for medium spatial resolution images, such as Landsat TM/ETM+ and ASTER images, due to the existence of a large amount of mixed pixels in the urban areas. The model, however, may not be suitable for high spatial resolution images, such as IKONOS images, because of less influence from the mixing pixel. The shadow problem in the high spatial resolution images, caused by tall buildings and large tree crowns, is a challenge in impervious surface extraction. Alternative image processing algorithms such as decision tree classifier may be more appropriate to achieve high mapping accuracy. For mid-latitude cities, seasonal vegetation phenology has a significant effect on the spectral response of terrestrial features, and therefore, image analysis must take into account of this environmental characteristic. Three ASTER images, acquired on April 5, 2004, June 16, 2001, and October 3, 2000
[Vegetation index estimation by chlorophyll content of grassland based on spectral analysis].
Xiao, Han; Chen, Xiu-Wan; Yang, Zhen-Yu; Li, Huai-Yu; Zhu, Han
2014-11-01
Comparing the methods of existing remote sensing research on the estimation of chlorophyll content, the present paper confirms that the vegetation index is one of the most practical and popular research methods. In recent years, the increasingly serious problem of grassland degradation. This paper, firstly, analyzes the measured reflectance spectral curve and its first derivative curve in the grasslands of Songpan, Sichuan and Gongger, Inner Mongolia, conducts correlation analysis between these two spectral curves and chlorophyll content, and finds out the regulation between REP (red edge position) and grassland chlorophyll content, that is, the higher the chlorophyll content is, the higher the REIP (red-edge inflection point) value would be. Then, this paper constructs GCI (grassland chlorophyll index) and selects the most suitable band for retrieval. Finally, this paper calculates the GCI by the use of satellite hyperspectral image, conducts the verification and accuracy analysis of the calculation results compared with chlorophyll content data collected from field of twice experiments. The result shows that for grassland chlorophyll content, GCI has stronger sensitivity than other indices of chlorophyll, and has higher estimation accuracy. GCI is the first proposed to estimate the grassland chlorophyll content, and has wide application potential for the remote sensing retrieval of grassland chlorophyll content. In addition, the grassland chlorophyll content estimation method based on remote sensing retrieval in this paper provides new research ideas for other vegetation biochemical parameters' estimation, vegetation growth status' evaluation and grassland ecological environment change's monitoring.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
LI Ning; SHI Tielin
2007-01-01
Blind source Separation and estimation of the number of sources usually demand that the number of sensors should be greater than or equal to that of the sources, which, however, is very difficult to satisfy for the complex Systems. A new estimating method based on power spectral density (PSD) is presented. When the relation between the number of sensors and that of sources is unknown, the PSD matrix is first obtained by the ratio of PSD of the observation signals, and then the bound of the number of correlated sources with common frequencies can be estimated by comparing every column vector of PSD matrix. The effectiveness of the proposed method is verified by theoretical analysis and experiments, and the influence of noise on the estimation of number of source is simulated.
Behrangi, Ali
In respond to the community demands, combining microwave (MW) and infrared (IR) estimates of precipitation has been an active area of research since past two decades. The anticipated launching of NASA's Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) mission and the increasing number of spectral bands in recently launched geostationary platforms will provide greater opportunities for investigating new approaches to combine multi-source information towards improved global high resolution precipitation retrievals. After years of the communities' efforts the limitations of the existing techniques are: (1) Drawbacks of IR-only techniques to capture warm rainfall and screen out no-rain thin cirrus clouds; (2) Grid-box- only dependency of many algorithms with not much effort to capture the cloud textures whether in local or cloud patch scale; (3) Assumption of indirect relationship between rain rate and cloud-top temperature that force high intensity precipitation to any cold cloud; (4) Neglecting the dynamics and evolution of cloud in time; (5) Inconsistent combination of MW and IR-based precipitation estimations due to the combination strategies and as a result of above described shortcomings. This PhD dissertation attempts to improve the combination of data from Geostationary Earth Orbit (GEO) and Low-Earth Orbit (LEO) satellites in manners that will allow consistent high resolution integration of the more accurate precipitation estimates, directly observed through LEO's PMW sensors, into the short-term cloud evolution process, which can be inferred from GEO images. A set of novel approaches are introduced to cope with the listed limitations and is consist of the following four consecutive components: (1) starting with the GEO part and by using an artificial-neural network based method it is demonstrated that inclusion of multi-spectral data can ameliorate existing problems associated with IR-only precipitating retrievals; (2) through development of Precipitation Estimation
Liu, Xinyu; Yu, Xiaojun; Wang, Nanshuo; Bo, En; Luo, Yuemei; Chen, Si; Cui, Dongyao; Liu, Linbo
2016-03-01
The sample depth reflectivity profile of Fourier domain optical coherence tomography (FD-OCT) is estimated from the inverse Fourier transform of the spectral interference signals (interferograms). As a result, the axial resolution is fundamentally limited by the coherence length of the light source. We demonstrate an axial resolution improvement method by using the autoregressive spectral estimation technique to instead of the inverse Fourier transform to analyze the spectral interferograms, which is named as spectral estimation OCT (SE-OCT). SE-OCT improves the axial resolution by a factor of up to 4.7 compared with the corresponding FD-OCT. Furthermore, SE-OCT provides a complete sidelobe suppression in the point-spread function. Using phantoms such as an air wedge and micro particles, we prove the ability of resolution improvement. To test SE-OCT for real biological tissue, we image the rat cornea and demonstrate that SE-OCT enables clear identification of corneal endothelium anatomical details ex vivo. We also find that the performance of SE-OCT is depended on SNR of the feature object. To evaluate the potential usage and define the application scope of SE-OCT, we further investigate the property of SNR dependence and the artifacts that may be caused. We find SE-OCT may be uniquely suited for viewing high SNR layer structures, such as the epithelium and endothelium in cornea, retina and aorta. Given that SE-OCT can be implemented in the FD-OCT devices easily, the new capabilities provided by SE-OCT are likely to offer immediate improvements to the diagnosis and management of diseases based on OCT imaging.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Heydorn, Kaj; Anglov, Thomas
2002-01-01
Methods recommended by the International Standardization Organisation and Eurachem are not satisfactory for the correct estimation of calibration uncertainty. A novel approach is introduced and tested on actual calibration data for the determination of Pb by ICP-AES. The improved calibration unce...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
François Pimont
2015-06-01
Full Text Available Leaf biomass distribution is a key factor for modeling energy and carbon fluxes in forest canopies and for assessing fire behavior. We propose a new method to estimate 3D leaf bulk density distribution, based on a calibration of indices derived from T-LiDAR. We applied the method to four contrasted plots in a mature Quercus pubescens forest. Leaf bulk densities were measured inside 0.7 m-diameter spheres, referred to as Calibration Volumes. Indices were derived from LiDAR point clouds and calibrated over the Calibration Volume bulk densities. Several indices were proposed and tested to account for noise resulting from mixed pixels and other theoretical considerations. The best index and its calibration parameter were then used to estimate leaf bulk densities at the grid nodes of each plot. These LiDAR-derived bulk density distributions were used to estimate bulk density vertical profiles and loads and above four meters compared well with those assessed by the classical inventory-based approach. Below four meters, the LiDAR-based approach overestimated bulk densities since no distinction was made between wood and leaf returns. The results of our method are promising since they demonstrate the possibility to assess bulk density on small plots at a reasonable operational cost.
The dependence of the estimated luminosities of ULX on spectral models
Devi, A Senorita; Agrawal, V K; Singh, K Y
2007-01-01
Data from {\\it Chandra} observations of thirty nearby galaxies were analyzed and 365 X-ray point sources were chosen whose spectra were not contaminated by excessive diffuse emission and not affected by photon pile up. The spectra of these sources were fitted using two spectral models (an absorbed power-law and a disk blackbody) to ascertain the dependence of estimated parameters on the spectral model used. It was found that the cumulative luminosity function depends on the choice of the spectral model, especially for luminosities $> 10^{40}$ ergs/s. In accordance with previous results, a large number ($\\sim 80$) of the sources have luminosities $> 10^{39}$ ergs/s (Ultra-Luminous X-ray sources) with indistinguishable average spectral parameters (inner disk temperature $\\sim 1$ keV and/or photon index $\\Gamma \\sim 2$) with those of the lower luminosities ones. After considering foreground stars and known background AGN,we identify four sources whose minimum luminosity exceed $10^{40}$ ergs/s, and call them Ext...
Using dark current data to estimate AVIRIS noise covariance and improve spectral analyses
Boardman, Joseph W.
1995-01-01
Starting in 1994, all AVIRIS data distributions include a new product useful for quantification and modeling of the noise in the reported radiance data. The 'postcal' file contains approximately 100 lines of dark current data collected at the end of each data acquisition run. In essence this is a regular spectral-image cube, with 614 samples, 100 lines and 224 channels, collected with a closed shutter. Since there is no incident radiance signal, the recorded DN measure only the DC signal level and the noise in the system. Similar dark current measurements, made at the end of each line are used, with a 100 line moving average, to remove the DC signal offset. Therefore, the pixel-by-pixel fluctuations about the mean of this dark current image provide an excellent model for the additive noise that is present in AVIRIS reported radiance data. The 61,400 dark current spectra can be used to calculate the noise levels in each channel and the noise covariance matrix. Both of these noise parameters should be used to improve spectral processing techniques. Some processing techniques, such as spectral curve fitting, will benefit from a robust estimate of the channel-dependent noise levels. Other techniques, such as automated unmixing and classification, will be improved by the stable and scene-independence noise covariance estimate. Future imaging spectrometry systems should have a similar ability to record dark current data, permitting this noise characterization and modeling.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jonathan Van Beek
2015-08-01
Full Text Available Yield and quality estimations provide vital information to fruit growers, yet require accurate monitoring throughout the growing season. To this end, the temporal dependency of fruit yield and quality estimations through spectral vegetation indices was investigated in irrigated and rainfed pear orchards. Both orchards were monitored throughout three consecutive growing seasons, including spectral measurements (i.e., hyperspectral canopy reflectance measurements as well as yield determination (i.e., total yield and number of fruits per tree and quality assessment (i.e., fruit firmness, total soluble solids and fruit color. The results illustrated a clear association between spectral vegetation indices and both fruit yield and fruit quality (|r| > 0.75; p < 0.001. However, the correlations between vegetation indices and production variables varied throughout the growing season, depending on the phenological stage of fruit development. In the irrigated orchard, index values showed a strong association with production variables near time of harvest (|r| > 0.6; p < 0.001, while in the rainfed orchard, index values acquired during vegetative growth periods presented stronger correlations with fruit parameters (|r| > 0.6; p < 0.001. The improved planning of remote sensing missions during (rainfed orchards and after (irrigated orchards vegetative growth periods could enable growers to more accurately predict production outcomes and improve the production process.
Use of Linear Spectral Mixture Model to Estimate Rice Planted Area Based on MODIS Data
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Lei Wang
2008-06-01
Full Text Available MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer is a key instrument aboard the Terra (EOS AM and Aqua (EOS PM satellites. Linear spectral mixture models are applied to MOIDS data for the sub-pixel classification of land covers. Shaoxing county of Zhejiang Province in China was chosen to be the study site and early rice was selected as the study crop. The derived proportions of land covers from MODIS pixel using linear spectral mixture models were compared with unsupervised classification derived from TM data acquired on the same day, which implies that MODIS data could be used as satellite data source for rice cultivation area estimation, possibly rice growth monitoring and yield forecasting on the regional scale.
[Estimation of rice LAI by using NDVI at different spectral bandwidths].
Wang, Fu-min; Huang, Jing-feng; Tang, Yan-lin; Wang, Xiu-zhen
2007-11-01
The canopy hyperspectral reflectance data of rice at its different development stages were collected from field measurement, and the corresponding NDVIs as well as the correlation coefficients of NDVIs and LAI were computed at extending bandwidth of TM red and near-infrared (NIR) spectra. According to the variation characteristics of best fitted R2 with spectral bandwidth, the optimal bandwidth was determined. The results showed that the correlation coefficients of LAI and ND-VI and the maximum R2 of the best fitted functions at different spectral bandwidths had the same variation trend, i.e., decreased with increasing bandwidth when the bandwidth was less than 60 nm. However, when the bandwidth was beyond 60 nm, the maximum R2 somewhat fluctuated due to the effect of NIR. The analysis of R2 variation with bandwidth indicated that 15 nm was the optimal bandwidth for the estimation of rice LAI by using NDVI.
Use of Linear Spectral Mixture Model to Estimate Rice Planted Area Based on MODIS Data
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
2008-01-01
MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) is a key instrument aboard the Terra (EOS AM) and Aqua (EOS PM) satellites.Linear spectral mixture models are applied to MOIDS data for the sub-pixel classification of land covers.Shaoxing county of Zhcjiang Province in China was chosen to be the study site and early rice was selected as the study crop.The derived proportions of land covers from MODIS pixel using linear spectral mixture models were compared with unsupervised classification derived from TM data acquired on the same day,which implies that MODIS data could be used as satellite data source for rice cultivation area estimation,possibly rice growth monitoring and yield forecasting on the regional scale.
Wilson, S M; Hinch, S G; Eliason, E J; Farrell, A P; Cooke, S J
2013-03-01
This study is the first to calibrate acceleration transmitters with energy expenditure using a vertebrate model species. We quantified the relationship between acoustic accelerometer output and oxygen consumption across a range of swim speeds and water temperatures for Harrison River adult sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka). First, we verified that acceleration transmitters with a sampling frequency of 10 Hz could be used as a proxy for movement in sockeye salmon. Using a mixed effects model, we determined that tailbeat frequency and acceleration were positively correlated (pAcceleration (pspeed while fork length (p=0.051) was negatively related to swim speed. Oxygen consumption and accelerometer output (plinear relationship and were temperature dependent (pspeed was 1.25±0.03 body lengths s(-1) and cost of transport was 3.39±0.17 mg O(2) kg(-1)min(-1), averaged across the three detected fish. Acceleration transmitters can be effectively used to remotely evaluate fine-scale behavior and estimate energy consumption of adult Pacific salmon throughout their homeward spawning migration.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
V. E. Cachorro
Full Text Available We report values of the columnar tropospheric aerosol optical depth at UV wavelengths based on experimental measurements of the direct spectral irradiances carried out by a commercial spectroradiometer (Li1800 of Licor company covering the range from 300–1100 nm at two stations with different climate characteristics in Spain. The first station is located in a rural site in north central Spain with continental climate. The data extend from March to the end of October of 1995. The other station is a coastal site in the Gulf of Cádiz (southwest Spain of maritime climate type. This study is mainly focused on the capability of estimating aerosol optical depth values in the UV region based on the extracted information in the visible and near infrared ranges. A first method has been used based on the Ångström turbidity parameters. However, since this method requires detailed spectral information, a second method has also been used, based on the correlation between wavelengths. A correlation has been established between the experimental aerosol optical depth values at 350 nm and 500 nm wavelengths. Although the type of aerosol seems to be the key factor that determines the quality of these estimations, the evaluation of the associated error is necessary to know the behaviour of these estimations in each area of study.
Key words. Atmospheric composition and structure (aerosols and particles; transmission and scattering of radiation; troposphere – composition and chemistry
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Cachorro, V.E.; Vergaz, R.; Martin, M.J.; Frutos, A.M. de [Grupo de Optica Atmosferica, Univ. de Valladolid (GOA-UVA), Valladolid (Spain); Vilaplana, J.M.; Morena, B. de la [Estacion de Sondeos Atmosfericos ESAT ' ' El Arenosillo' ' , INTA, Huelva (Spain)
2002-04-01
We report values of the columnar tropospheric aerosol optical depth at UV wavelengths based on experimental measurements of the direct spectral irradiances carried out by a commercial spectroradiometer (Li1800 of Licor company) covering the range from 300-1100 nm at two stations with different climate characteristics in Spain. The first station is located in a rural site in north central Spain with continental climate. The data extend from March to the end of October of 1995. The other station is a coastal site in the Gulf of Cadiz (southwest Spain) of maritime climate type. This study is mainly focused on the capability of estimating aerosol optical depth values in the UV region based on the extracted information in the visible and near infrared ranges. A first method has been used based on the Aangstroem turbidity parameters. However, since this method requires detailed spectral information, a second method has also been used, based on the correlation between wavelengths. A correlation has been established between the experimental aerosol optical depth values at 350 nm and 500 nm wavelengths. Although the type of aerosol seems to be the key factor that determines the quality of these estimations, the evaluation of the associated error is necessary to know the behavior of these estimations in each area of study. (orig.)
Hardisky, M.; Klemas, V.
1984-01-01
Spectral radiance data were collected from the ground and from a low altitude aircraft in an attempt to gain some insight into the potential utility of actual Thematic Mapper data for biomass estimation in wetland plant communities. No attempt was made to distinguish individual plant species within brackish marsh plant associations. Rather, it was decided to lump plant species with similar canopy morphologies and then estimate from spectral radiance data the biomass of the group. The rationale for such an approach is that plants with a similar morphology will produce a similar reflecting or absorping surface (i.e., canopy) for incoming electromagnetic radiation. Variations in observed reflectance from different plant communities with a similar canopy morphology are more likely to be a result of biomass differences than a result of differences in canopy architecture. If the hypothesis that plants with a similar morphology exhibit similar reflectance characteristics is true, then biomass can be estimated based on a model for the dominant plant morphology within a plant association and the need for species discrimination has effectively been eliminated.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ahmed A. Siddig
2015-05-01
Full Text Available Herpetologists and conservation biologists frequently use convenient and cost-effective, but less accurate, abundance indices (e.g., number of individuals collected under artificial cover boards or during natural objects surveys in lieu of more accurate, but costly and destructive, population size estimators to detect and monitor size, state, and trends of amphibian populations. Although there are advantages and disadvantages to each approach, reliable use of abundance indices requires that they be calibrated with accurate population estimators. Such calibrations, however, are rare. The red back salamander, Plethodon cinereus, is an ecologically useful indicator species of forest dynamics, and accurate calibration of indices of salamander abundance could increase the reliability of abundance indices used in monitoring programs. We calibrated abundance indices derived from surveys of P. cinereus under artificial cover boards or natural objects with a more accurate estimator of their population size in a New England forest. Average densities/m2 and capture probabilities of P. cinereus under natural objects or cover boards in independent, replicate sites at the Harvard Forest (Petersham, Massachusetts, USA were similar in stands dominated by Tsuga canadensis (eastern hemlock and deciduous hardwood species (predominantly Quercus rubra [red oak] and Acer rubrum [red maple]. The abundance index based on salamanders surveyed under natural objects was significantly associated with density estimates of P. cinereus derived from depletion (removal surveys, but underestimated true density by 50%. In contrast, the abundance index based on cover-board surveys overestimated true density by a factor of 8 and the association between the cover-board index and the density estimates was not statistically significant. We conclude that when calibrated and used appropriately, some abundance indices may provide cost-effective and reliable measures of P. cinereus
Siddig, Ahmed A; Ellison, Aaron M; Jackson, Scott
2015-01-01
Herpetologists and conservation biologists frequently use convenient and cost-effective, but less accurate, abundance indices (e.g., number of individuals collected under artificial cover boards or during natural objects surveys) in lieu of more accurate, but costly and destructive, population size estimators to detect and monitor size, state, and trends of amphibian populations. Although there are advantages and disadvantages to each approach, reliable use of abundance indices requires that they be calibrated with accurate population estimators. Such calibrations, however, are rare. The red back salamander, Plethodon cinereus, is an ecologically useful indicator species of forest dynamics, and accurate calibration of indices of salamander abundance could increase the reliability of abundance indices used in monitoring programs. We calibrated abundance indices derived from surveys of P. cinereus under artificial cover boards or natural objects with a more accurate estimator of their population size in a New England forest. Average densities/m(2) and capture probabilities of P. cinereus under natural objects or cover boards in independent, replicate sites at the Harvard Forest (Petersham, Massachusetts, USA) were similar in stands dominated by Tsuga canadensis (eastern hemlock) and deciduous hardwood species (predominantly Quercus rubra [red oak] and Acer rubrum [red maple]). The abundance index based on salamanders surveyed under natural objects was significantly associated with density estimates of P. cinereus derived from depletion (removal) surveys, but underestimated true density by 50%. In contrast, the abundance index based on cover-board surveys overestimated true density by a factor of 8 and the association between the cover-board index and the density estimates was not statistically significant. We conclude that when calibrated and used appropriately, some abundance indices may provide cost-effective and reliable measures of P. cinereus abundance that
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Panpan Zhao
2016-06-01
Full Text Available The data saturation problem in Landsat imagery is well recognized and is regarded as an important factor resulting in inaccurate forest aboveground biomass (AGB estimation. However, no study has examined the saturation values for different vegetation types such as coniferous and broadleaf forests. The objective of this study is to estimate the saturation values in Landsat imagery for different vegetation types in a subtropical region and to explore approaches to improving forest AGB estimation. Landsat Thematic Mapper imagery, digital elevation model data, and field measurements in Zhejiang province of Eastern China were used. Correlation analysis and scatterplots were first used to examine specific spectral bands and their relationships with AGB. A spherical model was then used to quantitatively estimate the saturation value of AGB for each vegetation type. A stratification of vegetation types and/or slope aspects was used to determine the potential to improve AGB estimation performance by developing a specific AGB estimation model for each category. Stepwise regression analysis based on Landsat spectral signatures and textures using grey-level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM was used to develop AGB estimation models for different scenarios: non-stratification, stratification based on either vegetation types, slope aspects, or the combination of vegetation types and slope aspects. The results indicate that pine forest and mixed forest have the highest AGB saturation values (159 and 152 Mg/ha, respectively, Chinese fir and broadleaf forest have lower saturation values (143 and 123 Mg/ha, respectively, and bamboo forest and shrub have the lowest saturation values (75 and 55 Mg/ha, respectively. The stratification based on either vegetation types or slope aspects provided smaller root mean squared errors (RMSEs than non-stratification. The AGB estimation models based on stratification of both vegetation types and slope aspects provided the most
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Heasler, Patrick G.; Posse, Christian; Hylden, Jeff L.; Anderson, Kevin K.
2007-06-13
This paper presents a nonlinear Bayesian regression algorithm for the purpose of detecting and estimating gas plume content from hyper-spectral data. Remote sensing data, by its very nature, is collected under less controlled conditions than laboratory data. As a result, the physics-based model that is used to describe the relationship between the observed remotesensing spectra, and the terrestrial (or atmospheric) parameters that we desire to estimate, is typically littered with many unknown "nuisance" parameters (parameters that we are not interested in estimating, but also appear in the model). Bayesian methods are well-suited for this context as they automatically incorporate the uncertainties associated with all nuisance parameters into the error estimates of the parameters of interest. The nonlinear Bayesian regression methodology is illustrated on realistic simulated data from a three-layer model for longwave infrared (LWIR) measurements from a passive instrument. This shows that this approach should permit more accurate estimation as well as a more reasonable description of estimate uncertainty.
Segmentation-based and rule-based spectral mixture analysis for estimating urban imperviousness
Li, Miao; Zang, Shuying; Wu, Changshan; Deng, Yingbin
2015-03-01
For detailed estimation of urban imperviousness, numerous image processing methods have been developed, and applied to different urban areas with some success. Most of these methods, however, are global techniques. That is, they have been applied to the entire study area without considering spatial and contextual variations. To address this problem, this paper explores whether two spatio-contextual analysis techniques, namely segmentation-based and rule-based analysis, can improve urban imperviousness estimation. These two spatio-contextual techniques were incorporated to a classic urban imperviousness estimation technique, fully-constrained linear spectral mixture analysis (FCLSMA) method. In particular, image segmentation was applied to divide the image to homogenous segments, and spatially varying endmembers were chosen for each segment. Then an FCLSMA was applied for each segment to estimate the pixel-wise fractional coverage of high-albedo material, low-albedo material, vegetation, and soil. Finally, a rule-based analysis was carried out to estimate the percent impervious surface area (%ISA). The developed technique was applied to a Landsat TM image acquired in Milwaukee River Watershed, an urbanized watershed in Wisconsin, United States. Results indicate that the performance of the developed segmentation-based and rule-based LSMA (S-R-LSMA) outperforms traditional SMA techniques, with a mean average error (MAE) of 5.44% and R2 of 0.88. Further, a comparative analysis shows that, when compared to segmentation, rule-based analysis plays a more essential role in improving the estimation accuracy.
Asymptotic Properties of Spectral Estimates of Second-Order with Missed Observations
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
G. S. Mokaddis
2010-01-01
Full Text Available Problem statement: As a complement of the periodogram study the asymptotic properties of the spectral density using data window for stationary stochastic process are investigated. Some statistical properties of covariance estimation function with missing observations are studied. Approach: The asymptotic normality was discussed. A numerical example was discussed by using computer programming. Results: The study of time series with missed observations and with the modified periodogram had the same results of the study of the classic time series. Conclusion: Modified periodogram with expanded finite Fourier transformation for time series with missed observation has improved the results of the classic time series.
DASC: Robust Dense Descriptor for Multi-Modal and Multi-Spectral Correspondence Estimation.
Kim, Seungryong; Min, Dongbo; Ham, Bumsub; Do, Minh N; Sohn, Kwanghoon
2017-09-01
Establishing dense correspondences between multiple images is a fundamental task in many applications. However, finding a reliable correspondence between multi-modal or multi-spectral images still remains unsolved due to their challenging photometric and geometric variations. In this paper, we propose a novel dense descriptor, called dense adaptive self-correlation (DASC), to estimate dense multi-modal and multi-spectral correspondences. Based on an observation that self-similarity existing within images is robust to imaging modality variations, we define the descriptor with a series of an adaptive self-correlation similarity measure between patches sampled by a randomized receptive field pooling, in which a sampling pattern is obtained using a discriminative learning. The computational redundancy of dense descriptors is dramatically reduced by applying fast edge-aware filtering. Furthermore, in order to address geometric variations including scale and rotation, we propose a geometry-invariant DASC (GI-DASC) descriptor that effectively leverages the DASC through a superpixel-based representation. For a quantitative evaluation of the GI-DASC, we build a novel multi-modal benchmark as varying photometric and geometric conditions. Experimental results demonstrate the outstanding performance of the DASC and GI-DASC in many cases of dense multi-modal and multi-spectral correspondences.
Spectral estimation for long-term evolution transceivers using low-complex filter banks
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Thomas Schlechter
2014-06-01
Full Text Available For mobile user equipments (UEs, a careful power management is essential. Despite this fact, quite an amount of energy is wasted in today's UEs’ analogue (AFEs and digital frontends (DFEs. These are engineered for extracting the wanted signal from a spectral environment defined in the corresponding communication standards with their extremely tough requirements. These requirements define a worst-case scenario still ensuring reliable communication. In a typical receiving process the actual requirements can be considered as less critical. Knowledge about the actual environmental spectral conditions allows to reconfigure both frontends to the actual needs and to save energy. In this paper, the authors present a highly efficient generic spectrum sensing approach, which allows to collect information about the actual spectral environment of an UE. This information can be used to reconfigure both the AFE and DFE, thus endowing them with increased intelligence. A low-complex multiplier free filter bank extended by an efficient power calculation unit will be introduced. They also present simulation results, which illustrate the performance of the spectrum sensing approach and a complexity comparison with different well-known implementations is given. Furthermore, estimates on the chip area and power consumption based on a 65 nm CMOS technology database are provided, considering the Smarti4G chip as a reference.
Knowling, Matthew J.; Werner, Adrian D.
2016-09-01
The ability of groundwater models to inform recharge through calibration is hampered by the correlation between recharge and aquifer parameters such as hydraulic conductivity (K), and the insufficient information content of observation datasets. These factors collectively result in non-uniqueness of parameter estimates. Previous studies that jointly estimate spatially distributed recharge and hydraulic parameters are limited to synthetic test cases and/or do not evaluate the effect of non-uniqueness. The extent to which recharge can be informed by calibration is largely unknown for practical situations, in which complexities such as parameter heterogeneities are inherent. In this study, a systematic investigation of recharge, inferred through model calibration, is undertaken using a series of numerical experiments that include varying degrees of hydraulic parameter information. The analysis involves the use of a synthetic reality, based on a regional-scale, highly parameterised, steady-state groundwater model of Uley South Basin, South Australia. Parameter identifiability is assessed to evaluate the ability of parameters to be estimated uniquely. Results show that a reasonable inference of recharge (average recharge error 100 K values across the 129 km2 study area). The introduction of pumping data into the calibration reduces error in both the average recharge and its spatial variability, whereas submarine groundwater discharge (as a calibration target) reduces average recharge error only. Nonetheless, the estimation of steady-state recharge through inverse modelling may be impractical for real-world settings, limited by the need for unrealistic amounts of hydraulic parameter and groundwater level data. This study provides a useful benchmark for evaluating the extent to which field-scale groundwater models can be used to inform recharge subject to practical data-availability limitations.
Tagade, Piyush; Hariharan, Krishnan S.; Kolake, Subramanya Mayya; Song, Taewon; Oh, Dukjin
2017-03-01
A novel approach for integrating a pseudo-two dimensional electrochemical thermal (P2D-ECT) model and data assimilation algorithm is presented for lithium-ion cell state estimation. This approach refrains from making any simplifications in the P2D-ECT model while making it amenable for online state estimation. Though deterministic, uncertainty in the initial states induces stochasticity in the P2D-ECT model. This stochasticity is resolved by spectrally projecting the stochastic P2D-ECT model on a set of orthogonal multivariate Hermite polynomials. Volume averaging in the stochastic dimensions is proposed for efficient numerical solution of the resultant model. A state estimation framework is developed using a transformation of the orthogonal basis to assimilate the measurables with this system of equations. Effectiveness of the proposed method is first demonstrated by assimilating the cell voltage and temperature data generated using a synthetic test bed. This validated method is used with the experimentally observed cell voltage and temperature data for state estimation at different operating conditions and drive cycle protocols. The results show increased prediction accuracy when the data is assimilated every 30s. High accuracy of the estimated states is exploited to infer temperature dependent behavior of the lithium-ion cell.
Bayesian semiparametric power spectral density estimation in gravitational wave data analysis
Edwards, Matthew C; Christensen, Nelson
2015-01-01
The standard noise model in gravitational wave (GW) data analysis assumes detector noise is stationary and Gaussian distributed, with a known power spectral density (PSD) that is usually estimated using clean off-source data. Real GW data often depart from these assumptions, and misspecified parametric models of the PSD could result in misleading inferences. We propose a Bayesian semiparametric approach to improve this. We use a nonparametric Bernstein polynomial prior on the PSD, with weights attained via a Dirichlet process distribution, and update this using the Whittle likelihood. Posterior samples are obtained using a Metropolis-within-Gibbs sampler. We simultaneously estimate the reconstruction parameters of a rotating core collapse supernova GW burst that has been embedded in simulated Advanced LIGO noise. We also discuss an approach to deal with non-stationary data by breaking longer data streams into smaller and locally stationary components.
Howell, L W
2002-01-01
The method of Maximum Likelihood (ML) is used to estimate the spectral parameters of an assumed broken power law energy spectrum from simulated detector responses. This methodology, which requires the complete specificity of all cosmic-ray detector design parameters, is shown to provide approximately unbiased, minimum variance, and normally distributed spectra information for events detected by an instrument having a wide range of commonly used detector response functions. The ML procedure, coupled with the simulated performance of a proposed space-based detector and its planned life cycle, has proved to be of significant value in the design phase of a new science instrument. The procedure helped make important trade studies in design parameters as a function of the science objectives, which is particularly important for space-based detectors where physical parameters, such as dimension and weight, impose rigorous practical limits to the design envelope. This ML methodology is then generalized to estimate bro...
Singh, Veena D.; Daharwal, Sanjay J.
2017-01-01
Three multivariate calibration spectrophotometric methods were developed for simultaneous estimation of Paracetamol (PARA), Enalapril maleate (ENM) and Hydrochlorothiazide (HCTZ) in tablet dosage form; namely multi-linear regression calibration (MLRC), trilinear regression calibration method (TLRC) and classical least square (CLS) method. The selectivity of the proposed methods were studied by analyzing the laboratory prepared ternary mixture and successfully applied in their combined dosage form. The proposed methods were validated as per ICH guidelines and good accuracy; precision and specificity were confirmed within the concentration range of 5-35 μg mL- 1, 5-40 μg mL- 1 and 5-40 μg mL- 1of PARA, HCTZ and ENM, respectively. The results were statistically compared with reported HPLC method. Thus, the proposed methods can be effectively useful for the routine quality control analysis of these drugs in commercial tablet dosage form.
Reginato, R. J.; Vedder, J. F.; Idso, S. B.; Jackson, R. D.; Blanchard, M. B.; Goettelman, R.
1977-01-01
For several days in March of 1975, reflected solar radiation measurements were obtained from smooth and rough surfaces of wet, drying, and continually dry Avondale loam at Phoenix, Arizona, with pyranometers located 50 cm above the ground surface and a multispectral scanner flown at a 300-m height. The simple summation of the different band radiances measured by the multispectral scanner proved equally as good as the pyranometer data for estimating surface soil water content if the multispectral scanner data were standardized with respect to the intensity of incoming solar radiation or the reflected radiance from a reference surface, such as the continually dry soil. Without this means of standardization, multispectral scanner data are most useful in a spectral band ratioing context. Our results indicated that, for the bands used, no significant information on soil water content could be obtained by band ratioing. Thus the variability in soil water content should insignificantly affect soil-type discrimination based on identification of type-specific spectral signatures. Therefore remote sensing, conducted in the 0.4- to 1.0-micron wavelength region of the solar spectrum, would seem to be much More suited to identifying crop and soil types than to estimating of soil water content.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
W. Gurlit
2005-01-01
Full Text Available Within the framework of the ENVISAT/-SCIAMACHY satellite validation, solar irradiance spectra are absolutely measured at moderate resolution in the UV/visible spectral range (in the UV from 316.7-418 nm and the visible from 400-652 nm at a full width half maximum resolution of 0.55 nm and 1.48 nm, respectively from aboard the azimuth-controlled LPMA/DOAS balloon gondola at around 32 km balloon float altitude. After accounting for the atmospheric extinction due to Rayleigh scattering and gaseous absorption (O3 and NO2, the measured solar spectra are compared with previous observations. Our solar irradiance spectrum perfectly agrees within +0.03% with the re-calibrated Kurucz et al. (1984 solar spectrum (Fontenla et al., 1999, called MODTRAN 3.7 in the visible spectral range (415-650 nm, but it is +2.1% larger in the (370-415 nm wavelength interval, and -4% smaller in the UV-A spectral range (316.7-370 nm, when the Kurucz spectrum is convolved to the spectral resolution of our instrument. Similar comparisons of the SOLSPEC (Thuillier et al., 1997, 1998a, b and SORCE/SIM (Harder et al., 2000 solar spectra with MODTRAN 3.7 confirms our findings with the values being -0.5%, +2%, and -1.4% for SOLSPEC -0.33%, -0.47%, and -6.2% for SORCE/SIM, respectively. Comparison of the SCIAMACHY solar spectrum from channels 1 to 4 (- re-calibrated by the University of Bremen - with MODTRAN 3.7 indicates an agreement within -0.4% in the visible spectral range (415-585 nm, -1.6% within the 370-415 nm, and -5.7% within 325-370 nm wavelength interval, in agreement with the results of the other sensors. In agreement with findings of Skupin et al. (2002 our study emphasizes that the present ESA SCIAMACHY level 1 calibration is systematically +15% larger in the considered wavelength intervals when compared to all available other solar irradiance measurements.
Beyond histograms: Efficiently estimating radial distribution functions via spectral Monte Carlo
Patrone, Paul N.; Rosch, Thomas W.
2017-03-01
Despite more than 40 years of research in condensed-matter physics, state-of-the-art approaches for simulating the radial distribution function (RDF) g(r) still rely on binning pair-separations into a histogram. Such methods suffer from undesirable properties, including subjectivity, high uncertainty, and slow rates of convergence. Moreover, such problems go undetected by the metrics often used to assess RDFs. To address these issues, we propose (I) a spectral Monte Carlo (SMC) quadrature method that yields g(r) as an analytical series expansion and (II) a Sobolev norm that assesses the quality of RDFs by quantifying their fluctuations. Using the latter, we show that, relative to histogram-based approaches, SMC reduces by orders of magnitude both the noise in g(r) and the number of pair separations needed for acceptable convergence. Moreover, SMC reduces subjectivity and yields simple, differentiable formulas for the RDF, which are useful for tasks such as coarse-grained force-field calibration via iterative Boltzmann inversion.
Khalid, Zubair; Sadeghi, Parastoo; Durrani, Salman
2013-01-01
In this paper, we present an optimal filter for the enhancement or estimation of signals on the 2-sphere corrupted by noise, when both the signal and noise are realizations of anisotropic processes on the 2-sphere. The estimation of such a signal in the spatial or spectral domain separately can be shown to be inadequate. Therefore, we develop an optimal filter in the joint spatio-spectral domain by using a framework recently presented in the literature --- the spatially localized spherical harmonic transform --- enabling such processing. Filtering of a signal in the spatio-spectral domain facilitates taking into account anisotropic properties of both the signal and noise processes. The proposed spatio-spectral filtering is optimal under the mean-square error criterion. The capability of the proposed filtering framework is demonstrated with by an example to estimate a signal corrupted by an anisotropic noise process.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Per Lunde
2016-07-01
Full Text Available Acoustic methods used in fish abundance estimation constitute a key part of the analytic assessment that makes the basis for abundance estimation of marine resources. The methods rely on power-budget equations and calibrated systems. Different formulations of power-budget equations and calibration factors have been proposed for use in scientific echo sounder and sonar systems. There are unresolved questions and apparent inconsistencies in prior literature related to this field. A generic (instrument independent and unifying theory is presented that attempts to explain the different power-budget and calibration factor formulations proposed and used in prior literature, and how these are mutually related. Deviations and apparent inconsistencies in this literature appear to be explained and corrected. This also includes different (instrument specific formulations employed in important modern scientific echo sounder systems, and their relationship to the generic theory of abundance estimation. Prior literature is extended to provide more complete power-budget equations for fish abundance estimation and species identification, by accounting for echo integration, electrical termination, and the full range of electrical and acoustical echo sounder parameters. The expressions provide a consistent theoretical basis for improved understanding of conventional methods and instruments used today, also enabling improved sensitivity and error analyses, and correction possibilities.
Uniform calibration of night vision goggles and test sets
Eppeldauer, George P.
2007-10-01
There are orders of magnitude differences between the ~0.1 % (k=2) uncertainty of NIST reference detector calibrations and the uncertainty of night vision (NV) goggle measurements. NIST developed a night vision radiometer calibration facility including NV radiometer transfer standards. The transfer standards, that propagate the radiance responsivity scale to the military primary standards laboratories, are calibrated against a NIST reference radiometer. The reference radiometer has been calibrated on the NIST Spectral Comparator Facility (SCF) for spectral power and irradiance responsivities. Spectral considerations are discussed to lower the uncertainties of the radiance responsivity scale transfer to the test sets and then to the goggles. Since direct determination of the final uncertainties in goggle calibrations and measurements is difficult, models have been made to estimate the most important uncertainty components based on individual spectral measurements of the applied source distributions and radiometer spectral responsivities. It is also shown, that because of source spectral mismatch problems, the goggle measurement uncertainty at applications can be much higher than at calibration. A suggestion is being made to mimic the no-moon (stars only) night sky radiation distribution using several LEDs in the test-sets to decrease the large spectral mismatch errors. A broad-band correction factor has been developed to further decrease calibration uncertainty when the goggles to be used have different spectral responsivities than the standard. Geometrical considerations to optimize the radiance measurement angle and the out-of-target blocking are also discussed to decrease the uncertainty in the radiance responsivity transfer.
Gelleszun, Marlene; Kreye, Phillip; Meon, Günter
2017-10-01
We introduce the developed lexicographic calibration strategy to circumvent the imbalance between sophisticated hydrological models in combination with complex optimisation algorithms. The criteria for the evaluation of the approach were (i) robustness and transferability of the resulting parameters, (ii) goodness-of-fit criteria in calibration and validation and (iii) time-efficiency. An order of preference was determined prior to the calibration and the parameters were separated into groups for a stepwise calibration to reduce the search space. A comparison with the global optimisation method SCE-UA showed that only 6% of the calculation time was needed; the conditions total volume, seasonality and shape of the hydrograph were successfully achieved for the calibration and for the cross-validation periods. Furthermore, the parameter sets obtained by the lexicographic calibration strategy for different time periods were much more similar to each other than the parameters obtained by SCE-UA. Besides the similarities of the parameter sets, the goodness-of-fit criteria for the cross-validation were better for the lexicographic approach and the water balance components were also more similar. Thus, we concluded that the resulting parameters were more representative for the corresponding catchments and therefore more suitable for transferability. Time-efficient approximate methods were used to account for parameter uncertainty, confidence intervals and the stability of the solution in the optimum.
High Precision Spectral Calibration Method of Fourier Interferometric Spectrometer%干涉型光谱仪高精度光谱定标方法
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
林军; 邵俊; 宋超宇; 李运伟; 雷玉飞
2015-01-01
干涉型光谱仪获取光谱的干涉数据信息，数据处理过程中将干涉信息进行一系列光谱复原，最终得到光谱信息数据。光谱定标处理是干涉型光谱仪光谱反演的重要环节，直接决定了光谱信息的可用性和准确度。介绍了干涉型光谱仪光谱定标的基本思路，并在此基础上提出了一种基于总光程差精确解算的光谱定标方法。由于干涉型光谱仪总光程差难以精确测量，而总光程差解算是光谱定标的核心和关键，基于此情况，提出了遍历总光程差，分析光谱漂移，最终确定干涉型光谱仪总光程差的总体思路。定标处理中将所有总光程差可能值带入光谱复原流程，进行光谱复原与分析，最终得到光谱漂移最小的总光程差，即为总光程差解算值。该方法可以精确解算干涉型光谱仪的总光程差，进而对干涉型光谱仪进行高精度光谱定标。同时介绍了详细、完整的光谱定标流程，最终得到干涉型光谱仪各个波段的中心波长值、波数分辨率等。最后设计了典型的干涉型光谱仪主要参数，并生成了该光谱仪的模拟干涉数据，利用该方法对模拟数据进行光谱定标，并对光谱定标结果进行了精度分析和验证，证明该方法波数分辨率定标精度优于0.00025 cm -1。%The Fourier interferometric spectrometer (FIS) acquires the interference data information of the spectrum and during the spectrum data processing ,a series of spectrum reconstruction will be performed on the interference information to obtain the final spectrum information data .The spectral calibration is the key step to spectrum reconstruction of FIS ,which directly deter-mines accuracy and availability of the spectrum results .This paper introduces the basic ideas and calibration accuracy about the spectral calibration for the FIS and puts forward a new spectral calibration method based on calculating the
Delwiche, Stephen R; Reeves, James B
2010-01-01
In multivariate regression analysis of spectroscopy data, spectral preprocessing is often performed to reduce unwanted background information (offsets, sloped baselines) or accentuate absorption features in intrinsically overlapping bands. These procedures, also known as pretreatments, are commonly smoothing operations or derivatives. While such operations are often useful in reducing the number of latent variables of the actual decomposition and lowering residual error, they also run the risk of misleading the practitioner into accepting calibration equations that are poorly adapted to samples outside of the calibration. The current study developed a graphical method to examine this effect on partial least squares (PLS) regression calibrations of near-infrared (NIR) reflection spectra of ground wheat meal with two analytes, protein content and sodium dodecyl sulfate sedimentation (SDS) volume (an indicator of the quantity of the gluten proteins that contribute to strong doughs). These two properties were chosen because of their differing abilities to be modeled by NIR spectroscopy: excellent for protein content, fair for SDS sedimentation volume. To further demonstrate the potential pitfalls of preprocessing, an artificial component, a randomly generated value, was included in PLS regression trials. Savitzky-Golay (digital filter) smoothing, first-derivative, and second-derivative preprocess functions (5 to 25 centrally symmetric convolution points, derived from quadratic polynomials) were applied to PLS calibrations of 1 to 15 factors. The results demonstrated the danger of an over reliance on preprocessing when (1) the number of samples used in a multivariate calibration is low (method has application to the evaluation of other preprocess functions and various types of spectroscopy data.
Estimating workload using EEG spectral power and ERPs in the n-back task
Brouwer, Anne-Marie; Hogervorst, Maarten A.; van Erp, Jan B. F.; Heffelaar, Tobias; Zimmerman, Patrick H.; Oostenveld, Robert
2012-08-01
Previous studies indicate that both electroencephalogram (EEG) spectral power (in particular the alpha and theta band) and event-related potentials (ERPs) (in particular the P300) can be used as a measure of mental work or memory load. We compare their ability to estimate workload level in a well-controlled task. In addition, we combine both types of measures in a single classification model to examine whether this results in higher classification accuracy than either one alone. Participants watched a sequence of visually presented letters and indicated whether or not the current letter was the same as the one (n instances) before. Workload was varied by varying n. We developed different classification models using ERP features, frequency power features or a combination (fusion). Training and testing of the models simulated an online workload estimation situation. All our ERP, power and fusion models provide classification accuracies between 80% and 90% when distinguishing between the highest and the lowest workload condition after 2 min. For 32 out of 35 participants, classification was significantly higher than chance level after 2.5 s (or one letter) as estimated by the fusion model. Differences between the models are rather small, though the fusion model performs better than the other models when only short data segments are available for estimating workload.
Estimation of glottal source features from the spectral envelope of the acoustic speech signal
Torres, Juan Felix
Speech communication encompasses diverse types of information, including phonetics, affective state, voice quality, and speaker identity. From a speech production standpoint, the acoustic speech signal can be mainly divided into glottal source and vocal tract components, which play distinct roles in rendering the various types of information it contains. Most deployed speech analysis systems, however, do not explicitly represent these two components as distinct entities, as their joint estimation from the acoustic speech signal becomes an ill-defined blind deconvolution problem. Nevertheless, because of the desire to understand glottal behavior and how it relates to perceived voice quality, there has been continued interest in explicitly estimating the glottal component of the speech signal. To this end, several inverse filtering (IF) algorithms have been proposed, but they are unreliable in practice because of the blind formulation of the separation problem. In an effort to develop a method that can bypass the challenging IF process, this thesis proposes a new glottal source information extraction method that relies on supervised machine learning to transform smoothed spectral representations of speech, which are already used in some of the most widely deployed and successful speech analysis applications, into a set of glottal source features. A transformation method based on Gaussian mixture regression (GMR) is presented and compared to current IF methods in terms of feature similarity, reliability, and speaker discrimination capability on a large speech corpus, and potential representations of the spectral envelope of speech are investigated for their ability represent glottal source variation in a predictable manner. The proposed system was found to produce glottal source features that reasonably matched their IF counterparts in many cases, while being less susceptible to spurious errors. The development of the proposed method entailed a study into the aspects
Seichter, Felicia; Vogt, Josef; Radermacher, Peter; Mizaikoff, Boris
2017-01-25
The calibration of analytical systems is time-consuming and the effort for daily calibration routines should therefore be minimized, while maintaining the analytical accuracy and precision. The 'calibration transfer' approach proposes to combine calibration data already recorded with actual calibrations measurements. However, this strategy was developed for the multivariate, linear analysis of spectroscopic data, and thus, cannot be applied to sensors with a single response channel and/or a non-linear relationship between signal and desired analytical concentration. To fill this gap for a non-linear calibration equation, we assume that the coefficients for the equation, collected over several calibration runs, are normally distributed. Considering that coefficients of an actual calibration are a sample of this distribution, only a few standards are needed for a complete calibration data set. The resulting calibration transfer approach is demonstrated for a fluorescence oxygen sensor and implemented as a hierarchical Bayesian model, combined with a Lagrange Multipliers technique and Monte-Carlo Markov-Chain sampling. The latter provides realistic estimates for coefficients and prediction together with accurate error bounds by simulating known measurement errors and system fluctuations. Performance criteria for validation and optimal selection of a reduced set of calibration samples were developed and lead to a setup which maintains the analytical performance of a full calibration. Strategies for a rapid determination of problems occurring in a daily calibration routine, are proposed, thereby opening the possibility of correcting the problem just in time.
Hosa, Aleksandra; Curtis, Andrew; Wood, Rachel
2016-08-01
A common way to simulate fluid flow in porous media is to use Lattice Boltzmann (LB) methods. Permeability predictions from such flow simulations are controlled by parameters whose settings must be calibrated in order to produce realistic modelling results. Herein we focus on the simplest and most commonly used implementation of the LB method: the single-relaxation-time BGK model. A key parameter in the BGK model is the relaxation time τ which controls flow velocity and has a substantial influence on the permeability calculation. Currently there is no rigorous scheme to calibrate its value for models of real media. We show that the standard method of calibration, by matching the flow profile of the analytic Hagen-Poiseuille pipe-flow model, results in a BGK-LB model that is unable to accurately predict permeability even in simple realistic porous media (herein, Fontainebleau sandstone). In order to reconcile the differences between predicted permeability and experimental data, we propose a method to calibrate τ using an enhanced Transitional Markov Chain Monte Carlo method, which is suitable for parallel computer architectures. We also propose a porosity-dependent τ calibration that provides an excellent fit to experimental data and which creates an empirical model that can be used to choose τ for new samples of known porosity. Our Bayesian framework thus provides robust predictions of permeability of realistic porous media, herein demonstrated on the BGK-LB model, and should therefore replace the standard pipe-flow based methods of calibration for more complex media. The calibration methodology can also be extended to more advanced LB methods.
Wind Speed Estimation and Wake model Re-calibration for Downregulated Offshore Wind Farms
Göçmen Bozkurt, Tuhfe; Giebel, Gregor; Kjølstad Poulsen, Niels; Réthoré, Pierre-Elouan; Mirzaei, Mahmood
2014-05-01
downregulated wake. For this reason, the proposed methodology is to use the clear wind without the wake (downregulated or not) as inputs to the wake model. Then a dynamic wake model can be directly applied to estimate the velocity deficit row by row inside the wind farm and calculate the possible power output on the wind farm scale. Most of the computationally affordable wake models have only been used to acquire long term, statistical information and verified using 10-min averaged data. However for smaller averaging bins or real-time modeling, the dynamics of the flow inside the wind farm such as wind direction variability and wake meandering is much more significant. Therefore GCLarsen wake model, which has been implemented in WindPro and shown to perform also well on offshore in Wake benchmark work package in EERA-DTOC, is re-calibrated and validated for single wake case in Horns Rev-I offshore wind farm.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Nieto Solana, Hector; Sandholt, Inge; Aguado, Inmaculada;
2011-01-01
Air temperature can be estimated from remote sensing by combining information in thermal infrared and optical wavelengths. The empirical TVX algorithm is based on an estimated linear relationship between observed Land Surface Temperature (LST) and a Spectral Vegetation Index (NDVI). Air temperature...... the accuracy of estimates using the new NDVImax and the previous NDVImax that have been proposed in literature with MSG-SEVIRI images in Spain during the year 2005. In addition, a spatio-temporal assessment of residuals has been performed to evaluate the accuracy of retrievals in terms of daily and seasonal...
Xiong, Wei; Skalský, Rastislav; Porter, Cheryl H.; Balkovič, Juraj; Jones, James W.; Yang, Di
2016-09-01
Understanding the interactions between agricultural production and climate is necessary for sound decision-making in climate policy. Gridded and high-resolution crop simulation has emerged as a useful tool for building this understanding. Large uncertainty exists in this utilization, obstructing its capacity as a tool to devise adaptation strategies. Increasing focus has been given to sources of uncertainties for climate scenarios, input-data, and model, but uncertainties due to model parameter or calibration are still unknown. Here, we use publicly available geographical data sets as input to the Environmental Policy Integrated Climate model (EPIC) for simulating global-gridded maize yield. Impacts of climate change are assessed up to the year 2099 under a climate scenario generated by HadEM2-ES under RCP 8.5. We apply five strategies by shifting one specific parameter in each simulation to calibrate the model and understand the effects of calibration. Regionalizing crop phenology or harvest index appears effective to calibrate the model for the globe, but using various values of phenology generates pronounced difference in estimated climate impact. However, projected impacts of climate change on global maize production are consistently negative regardless of the parameter being adjusted. Different values of model parameter result in a modest uncertainty at global level, with difference of the global yield change less than 30% by the 2080s. The uncertainty subjects to decrease if applying model calibration or input data quality control. Calibration has a larger effect at local scales, implying the possible types and locations for adaptation.
Krabbenhoft, David P.; Anderson, Mary P.; Bowser, Carl J.
1990-01-01
A three-dimensional groundwater flow and solute transport model was calibrated to a plume of water described by measurements of δ18O and used to calculate groundwater inflow and outflow rates at a lake in northern Wisconsin. The flow model was calibrated to observed hydraulic gradients and estimated recharge rates. Calibration of the solute transport submodel to the configuration of a stable isotope (18O) plume in the contiguous aquifer on the downgradient side of the lake provides additional data to constrain the model. A good match between observed and simulated temporal variations in plume configuration indicates that the model closely simulated the dynamics of the real system. The model provides information on natural variations of rates of groundwater inflow, lake water outflow, and recharge to the water table. Inflow and outflow estimates compare favorably with estimates derived by the isotope mass balance method (Krabbenhoft et al., this issue). Model simulations agree with field observations that show groundwater inflow rates are more sensitive to seasonal variations in recharge than outflow.
Cui, Qian; Shi, Jiancheng; Xu, Yuanliu
2011-12-01
Water is the basic needs for human society, and the determining factor of stability of ecosystem as well. There are lots of lakes on Tibet Plateau, which will lead to flood and mudslide when the water expands sharply. At present, water area is extracted from TM or SPOT data for their high spatial resolution; however, their temporal resolution is insufficient. MODIS data have high temporal resolution and broad coverage. So it is valuable resource for detecting the change of water area. Because of its low spatial resolution, mixed-pixels are common. In this paper, four spectral libraries are built using MOD09A1 product, based on that, water body is extracted in sub-pixels utilizing Multiple Endmembers Spectral Mixture Analysis (MESMA) using MODIS daily reflectance data MOD09GA. The unmixed result is comparing with contemporaneous TM data and it is proved that this method has high accuracy.
A Robust Fuzzy Neural Network Model for Soil Lead Estimation from Spectral Features
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Rohollah Goodarzi
2015-06-01
Full Text Available Soil lead content is an important parameter in environmental and industrial applications. Chemical analysis, the most commonly method for studying soil samples, are costly, however application of soil spectroscopy presents a more viable alternative. The first step in the method is usually to extract some appropriate spectral features and then regression models are applied to these extracted features. The aim of this paper was to design an accurate and robust regression technique to estimate soil lead contents from laboratory observed spectra. Three appropriate spectral features were selected according to information from other research as well as the spectrum interpretation of field collected soil samples containing lead. These features were then applied to common Multiple Linear Regression (MLR, Partial Least Square Regression (PLSR and Neural Network (NN regression models. Results showed that although NN had adequate accuracy, it produced unstable results (i.e., variation of response in different runs. This problem was addressed with application of a Fuzzy Neural Network (FNN with a least square training strategy. In addition to the stabilized and unique response, the capability of the proposed FNN was proved in terms of regression accuracy where a Ratio of Performance to Deviation (RPD of 8.76 was achieved for test samples.
Ambient noise H/V spectral ratio in site effects estimation in Fateh jang area, Pakistan
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
S.M.Talha Qadri; Bushra Nawaz; S.H.Sajjad; Riaz Ahmad Sheikh
2015-01-01
Local geology or local site effect is a crucial component while conducting seismic risk assessment studies.Investigations made by utilization of ambient noise are an effective tool for local site estimation.The present study is conducted to perform site response analysis at 13 different sites within urban settlements of Fateh jang area (Pakistan).The aim of this study was achieved by utilizing Nakamura method or H/V spectral ratio method.Some important local site parameters,e.g.,the fundamental frequencies f0 of soft sediments,amplitudes A0 of corresponding H/V spectral ratios,and alluvium thicknesses over 13 sites within the study area,were measured and analyzed.The results show that the study area reflects low fundamental frequency f0.The fundamental frequencies of the sediments are highly variable and lie in a range of 0.6-13.0 Hz.Similarly,amplification factors at these sites are in the range of 2.0-4.0.
Aghighi, Hossein; Trinder, John
2013-10-01
Markov random field (MRF) is currently the most common method to find the optimal solution for the classification of image data incorporating contextual visual information. The labeling for a site in MRF is dependent on smoothing parameters. Therefore, this paper deals with the development of a new robust two-step method to determine the smoothing parameter which balances spatial and spectral energies for the purpose of maximizing the classification accuracy. Multispectral images obtained by WorldView-2 satellite were employed in this research. In the first step, a support vector machine (SVM) was used to provide a vector of multi-class probability and a class label for each pixel. Then, the summation of the maximum probability of each pixel and its 8 neighbors is calculated for a dynamic block and this value is assigned to the central pixels of each block. The blocks of each class are sorted and an equal proportion of blocks of each class with the highest probability are selected. Then, the class codes and spectral information of the selected blocks are extracted from the classified map and multispectral image, respectively. This information is used to calculate class label co-occurrence matrices of the blocks (CLCMB), class label co-occurrence matrix (CLCM) and class separability indices. Finally, different smoothing parameters are calculated and the results show that estimated smoothing parameter can produce a more accurate map.
Applications of parametric spectral estimation methods on detection of power system harmonics
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Yilmaz, Ahmet S. [Kahramanmaras Sutcu Imam University, Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Kahramanmaras (Turkey); Alkan, Ahmet; Asyali, Musa H. [Yasar University, Department of Computer Engineering, Izmir (Turkey)
2008-04-15
Harmonics are the major power quality problems in industrial and commercial power systems. Several methods for detection of power system harmonics have been investigated by engineers due to increasing harmonic pollution. Since the non-integer multiple harmonics (inter and sub-harmonics) become wide spread, the importance of harmonic detection has increased for sensitive filtration. This paper suggests parametric spectral estimation methods for the detection of harmonics, inter-harmonics and sub-harmonics. Yule Walker, Burg, Covariance and Modified Covariance methods are applied to generate cases. Not only integer multiple harmonics but also non-integer multiple harmonics are successfully determined in the computer simulations. Further, performances of proposed methods are compared with each other in terms of frequency resolution. (author)
X-ray dual energy spectral parameter optimization for bone Calcium/Phosphorus mass ratio estimation
Sotiropoulou, P. I.; Fountos, G. P.; Martini, N. D.; Koukou, V. N.; Michail, C. M.; Valais, I. G.; Kandarakis, I. S.; Nikiforidis, G. C.
2015-09-01
Calcium (Ca) and Phosphorus (P) bone mass ratio has been identified as an important, yet underutilized, risk factor in osteoporosis diagnosis. The purpose of this simulation study is to investigate the use of effective or mean mass attenuation coefficient in Ca/P mass ratio estimation with the use of a dual-energy method. The investigation was based on the minimization of the accuracy of Ca/P ratio, with respect to the Coefficient of Variation of the ratio. Different set-ups were examined, based on the K-edge filtering technique and single X-ray exposure. The modified X-ray output was attenuated by various Ca/P mass ratios resulting in nine calibration points, while keeping constant the total bone thickness. The simulated data were obtained considering a photon counting energy discriminating detector. The standard deviation of the residuals was used to compare and evaluate the accuracy between the different dual energy set-ups. The optimum mass attenuation coefficient for the Ca/P mass ratio estimation was the effective coefficient in all the examined set-ups. The variation of the residuals between the different set-ups was not significant.
Caux, E.; Kahane, C.; Castets, A.; Coutens, A.; Ceccarelli, C.; Bacmann, A.; Bisschop, S.; Bottinelli, S.; Comito, C.; Helmich, F. P.; Lefloch, B.; Parise, B.; Schilke, P.; Tielens, A. G. G. M.; van Dishoeck, E.; Vastel, C.; Wakelam, V.; Walters, A.
2011-01-01
Context. Unbiased spectral surveys are powerful tools to study the chemistry and the physics of star forming regions, because they can provide a complete census of the molecular content and the observed lines probe the physical structure of the source. Aims: While unbiased surveys at the millimeter
Caux, E.; Kahane, C.; Castets, A.; Coutens, A.; Ceccarelli, C.; Bacmann, A.; Bisschop, S.; Bottinelli, S.; Comito, C.; Helmich, F. P.; Lefloch, B.; Parise, B.; Schilke, P.; Tielens, A. G. G. M.; van Dishoeck, E.; Vastel, C.; Wakelam, V.; Walters, A.
2011-01-01
Context. Unbiased spectral surveys are powerful tools to study the chemistry and the physics of star forming regions, because they can provide a complete census of the molecular content and the observed lines probe the physical structure of the source. Aims. While unbiased surveys at the millimeter
Krezhova, Dora D.; Yanev, Tony K.
2007-04-01
Results from a remote sensing study of the influence of stress factors on the leaf spectral reflectance of wheat and tomato plants contaminated by viruses and pea plants treated with herbicides are presented and discussed. The changes arising in the spectral reflectance characteristics of control and treated plants are estimated through statistical methods as well as through derivative analysis to determine specific reflectance features in the red edge region.
SPECTRAL FEATURE ANALYSIS FOR QUANTITATIVE ESTIMATION OF CYANOBACTERIA CHLOROPHYLL-A
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Y. Lin
2016-06-01
Full Text Available In recent years, lake eutrophication caused a large of Cyanobacteria bloom which not only brought serious ecological disaster but also restricted the sustainable development of regional economy in our country. Chlorophyll-a is a very important environmental factor to monitor water quality, especially for lake eutrophication. Remote sensed technique has been widely utilized in estimating the concentration of chlorophyll-a by different kind of vegetation indices and monitoring its distribution in lakes, rivers or along coastline. For each vegetation index, its quantitative estimation accuracy for different satellite data might change since there might be a discrepancy of spectral resolution and channel center between different satellites. The purpose this paper is to analyze the spectral feature of chlorophyll-a with hyperspectral data (totally 651 bands and use the result to choose the optimal band combination for different satellites. The analysis method developed here in this study could be useful to recognize and monitor cyanobacteria bloom automatically and accrately. In our experiment, the reflectance (from 350nm to 1000nm of wild cyanobacteria in different consistency (from 0 to 1362.11ug/L and the corresponding chlorophyll-a concentration were measured simultaneously. Two kinds of hyperspectral vegetation indices were applied in this study: simple ratio (SR and narrow band normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI, both of which consists of any two bands in the entire 651 narrow bands. Then multivariate statistical analysis was used to construct the linear, power and exponential models. After analyzing the correlation between chlorophyll-a and single band reflectance, SR, NDVI respetively, the optimal spectral index for quantitative estimation of cyanobacteria chlorophyll-a, as well corresponding central wavelength and band width were extracted. Results show that: Under the condition of water disturbance, SR and NDVI are both suitable
Spectral Feature Analysis for Quantitative Estimation of Cyanobacteria Chlorophyll-A
Lin, Yi; Ye, Zhanglin; Zhang, Yugan; Yu, Jie
2016-06-01
In recent years, lake eutrophication caused a large of Cyanobacteria bloom which not only brought serious ecological disaster but also restricted the sustainable development of regional economy in our country. Chlorophyll-a is a very important environmental factor to monitor water quality, especially for lake eutrophication. Remote sensed technique has been widely utilized in estimating the concentration of chlorophyll-a by different kind of vegetation indices and monitoring its distribution in lakes, rivers or along coastline. For each vegetation index, its quantitative estimation accuracy for different satellite data might change since there might be a discrepancy of spectral resolution and channel center between different satellites. The purpose this paper is to analyze the spectral feature of chlorophyll-a with hyperspectral data (totally 651 bands) and use the result to choose the optimal band combination for different satellites. The analysis method developed here in this study could be useful to recognize and monitor cyanobacteria bloom automatically and accrately. In our experiment, the reflectance (from 350nm to 1000nm) of wild cyanobacteria in different consistency (from 0 to 1362.11ug/L) and the corresponding chlorophyll-a concentration were measured simultaneously. Two kinds of hyperspectral vegetation indices were applied in this study: simple ratio (SR) and narrow band normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), both of which consists of any two bands in the entire 651 narrow bands. Then multivariate statistical analysis was used to construct the linear, power and exponential models. After analyzing the correlation between chlorophyll-a and single band reflectance, SR, NDVI respetively, the optimal spectral index for quantitative estimation of cyanobacteria chlorophyll-a, as well corresponding central wavelength and band width were extracted. Results show that: Under the condition of water disturbance, SR and NDVI are both suitable for quantitative
Ali, A. S.; Siddharth, S.; Syed, Z.; Goodall, C. L.; El-Sheimy, N.
2013-03-01
Personal navigation systems intend to provide the navigation information in any environment, indoors and outdoors, and at any time. In outdoor environments, the positioning solution is typically provided by using Global Positioning System (GPS). However, GPS is inaccurate or unavailable in most of indoor environments and therefore other externally-referenced sensing techniques are required. Inertial sensing techniques are used for pedestrian navigation in association with dead reckoning approach. Magnetometers can be used to derive the user's heading by sensing the Earth's magnetic field. In this paper, an efficient and robust maneuvering mode to calibrate low cost magnetometer is recommended for pedestrian navigation applications. Additionally, other maneuvering modes and errors associated with each mode to achieve best estimation for the calibration parameters in the 3D Space are also provided. Also, the effect of using different maneuvering modes (DMM) on the heading estimation for the pedestrian navigation is studied. The results show that the coordinated mode is suitable to perform the calibration process as the unit is rotated in a way to cover the whole 3D space.
Power spectral density of velocity fluctuations estimated from phase Doppler data
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jicha Miroslav
2012-04-01
Full Text Available Laser Doppler Anemometry (LDA and its modifications such as PhaseDoppler Particle Anemometry (P/DPA is point-wise method for optical nonintrusive measurement of particle velocity with high data rate. Conversion of the LDA velocity data from temporal to frequency domain – calculation of power spectral density (PSD of velocity fluctuations, is a non trivial task due to nonequidistant data sampling in time. We briefly discuss possibilities for the PSD estimation and specify limitations caused by seeding density and other factors of the flow and LDA setup. Arbitrary results of LDA measurements are compared with corresponding Hot Wire Anemometry (HWA data in the frequency domain. Slot correlation (SC method implemented in software program Kern by Nobach (2006 is used for the PSD estimation. Influence of several input parameters on resulting PSDs is described. Optimum setup of the software for our data of particle-laden air flow in realistic human airway model is documented. Typical character of the flow is described using PSD plots of velocity fluctuations with comments on specific properties of the flow. Some recommendations for improvements of future experiments to acquire better PSD results are given.
Williams, Craig R; Johnson, Petrina H; Long, Sharron A; Rapley, Luke P; Ritchie, Scott A
2008-11-01
New approaches for control of the dengue vector Aedes aegypti (L.) are being developed, including the potential introduction of life-shortening symbiont bacteria into field populations and the release of transgenic strains with reduced vector competency. With these new approaches comes the need for rapid estimations of existing field population size. Here, we describe the use of simulation modeling with container-inhabiting mosquito simulation (CIMSiM) for estimation of Ae. aegypti pupal crop size in north Queensland, Australia. CIMSiM was calibrated for local conditions by deploying "sentinel key containers" (tire, 2-liter plastic bucket, 0.6-liter pot plant base, and tarpaulin indentation) in which water flux and pupal productivity were studied for 72 d. Iterative adjustment of CIMSiM parameters was used to fit model outputs to match that of sentinel key containers. This calibrated model was then used in a blind field validation, in which breeding container and local meteorological data were used to populate CIMSiM, and model outputs were compared with a field pupal survey. Actual pupae per ha during two 10-d periods in 2007 fell within 95% confidence intervals of simulated pupal crop estimates made by 10 replicate simulations in CIMSiM, thus providing a successful field validation. Although the stochasticity of the field environment can never be wholly simulated, CIMSiM can provide field-validated estimates of pupal crop in a timely manner by using simple container surveys.
Yannopoulou, Nikolitsa
2011-01-01
In order to demonstrate the usefulness of the only one existing method for systematic error estimations in VNA (Vector Network Analyzer) measurements by using complex DERs (Differential Error Regions), we compare one-port VNA measurements after the two well-known calibration techniques: the quick reflection response, that uses only a single S (Short circuit) standard, and the time-consuming full one-port, that uses a triple of SLO standards (Short circuit, matching Load, Open circuit). For both calibration techniques, the comparison concerns: (a) a 3D geometric representation of the difference between VNA readings and measurements, and (b) a number of presentation figures for the DERs and their polar DEIs (Differential Error Intervals) of the reflection coefficient, as well as, the DERs and their rectangular DEIs of the corresponding input impedance. In this paper, we present the application of this method to an AUT (Antenna Under Test) selected to highlight the existence of practical cases in which the time ...
Iwamae, A; Ogawa, H; Sugie, T; Kusama, Y
2011-03-01
The in situ calibration method for the impurity influx monitor (divertor) is experimentally examined. The total reflectance of the optical path from the focal point of the Cassegrain telescope to the first mirror is derived using a micro retroreflector array. An optical fiber with angled physical contact (APC) connectors reduces the return edge reflection. APC fibers and a multimode coupler increase the signal-to-noise ratio by about one order compared to that of triple-branched fibers and enable measurement of the wavelength dependence of the total reflectance of the optical system even after potential deterioration of mirror surfaces reduces reflectance.
Dittmann, Jason A; Charbonneau, David; Newton, Elisabeth R
2015-01-01
The MEarth Project is a photometric survey systematically searching the smallest stars nearest to the Sun for transiting rocky planets. Since 2008, MEarth has taken approximately two million images of 1844 stars suspected to be mid-to-late M dwarfs. We have augmented this survey by taking nightly exposures of photometric standard stars and have utilized this data to photometrically calibrate the $MEarth$ system, identify photometric nights, and obtain an optical magnitude with $1.5\\%$ precision for each M dwarf system. Each optical magnitude is an average over many years of data, and therefore should be largely immune to stellar variability and flaring. We combine this with trigonometric distance measurements, spectroscopic metallicity measurements, and 2MASS infrared magnitude measurements in order to derive a color-magnitude-metallicity relation across the mid-to-late M dwarf spectral sequence that can reproduce spectroscopic metallicity determinations to a precision of 0.1 dex. We release optical magnitude...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hermann, Jörg, E-mail: hermann@lp3.univ-mrs.fr [LP3, CNRS — Aix Marseille University, 163 Av. de Luminy, 13288 Marseille (France); Gerhard, Christoph [Laboratory of Laser and Plasma Technologies, University of Applied Sciences and Arts, Von-Ossietzky-Straße 99, 37085 Göttingen (Germany); Axente, Emanuel [Laser–Surface–Plasma Interactions Laboratory, Lasers Department, National Institute for Lasers, Plasma and Radiation Physics, Măgurele (Romania); Dutouquet, Christophe [Institut National de l' Environnement Industriel et des Risques (INERIS/DRC/CARA/NOVA), Parc Technologique Alata, BP 2, 60550 Verneuil-En-Halatte (France)
2014-10-01
We investigate the characteristic features of plume expansion in air and argon resulting from ultraviolet laser ablation of solid matter in conditions typically applied in material analysis via laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS). Barite crown glass is chosen as a target material for the characteristic emission spectrum suitable for plasma diagnostics. The space-integrated plasma emission spectrum recorded with an echelle spectrometer coupled to a gated detector is compared to the computed spectral radiance of a nonuniform plasma in local thermodynamic equilibrium. In particular, resonance lines of neutral sodium atoms and barium ions are observed to probe gradients of temperature and density within the plume. It is shown that laser ablation in argon leads to an almost uniform plasma whereas gradients of temperature and density are evidenced in ambient air. The discrepancy is attributed to the different physical properties of both gases leading to a stronger vapor–gas energy exchange in the case of air. However, strong gradients occur only in a thin peripheral zone, close to the vapor–gas contact front. The larger plasma core appears almost uniform. The peripheral zone of low temperature mostly contributes to the plasma emission spectrum by absorption and material analysis via calibration-free LIBS in air may ignore the nonuniform character of the plasma if only transitions of small optical thickness are considered. - Highlights: • Investigation of laser ablation plumes by analysis of spectral line shapes • Simulation of emission spectra from nonuniform laser-produced plasma • Plasma is more uniform for ablation in argon. • Plasma nonuniformity mostly affects optically thick lines. • Calibration-free LIBS may ignore gradients if optically thin lines are chosen.
Ma, Yi-Chun; Wang, Che-Wei; Hung, Sih-Hua; Chang, Yan-Zin; Liu, Chia-Reiy; Her, Guor-Rong
2012-09-01
An approach was proposed for the estimation of measurement uncertainty for analytical methods based on one-point calibration. The proposed approach is similar to the popular multiple-point calibration approach. However, the standard deviation of calibration was estimated externally. The approach was applied to the estimation of measurement uncertainty for the quantitative determination of ketamine (K) and norketamine (NK) at a 100 ng/mL threshold concentration in urine. In addition to uncertainty due to calibration, sample analysis was the other major source of uncertainty. To include the variation due to matrix effect and temporal effect in sample analysis, different blank urines were spiked with K and NK and analyzed at equal time intervals within and between batches. The expanded uncertainties (k = 2) were estimated to be 10 and 8 ng/mL for K and NK, respectively.
Santos, C. Almeida; Costa, C. Oliveira; Batista, J.
2016-05-01
The paper describes a kinematic model-based solution to estimate simultaneously the calibration parameters of the vision system and the full-motion (6-DOF) of large civil engineering structures, namely of long deck suspension bridges, from a sequence of stereo images captured by digital cameras. Using an arbitrary number of images and assuming a smooth structure motion, an Iterated Extended Kalman Filter is used to recursively estimate the projection matrices of the cameras and the structure full-motion (displacement and rotation) over time, helping to meet the structure health monitoring fulfilment. Results related to the performance evaluation, obtained by numerical simulation and with real experiments, are reported. The real experiments were carried out in indoor and outdoor environment using a reduced structure model to impose controlled motions. In both cases, the results obtained with a minimum setup comprising only two cameras and four non-coplanar tracking points, showed a high accuracy results for on-line camera calibration and structure full motion estimation.
Rozo, Eduardo; Schmidt, Fabian
2010-01-01
When extracting the weak lensing shear signal, one may employ either locally normalized or globally normalized shear estimators. The former is the standard approach when estimating cluster masses, while the latter is the more common method among peak finding efforts. While both approaches have identical signal-to-noise in the weak lensing limit, it is possible that higher order corrections or systematics considerations make one estimator preferable over the other. In this paper, we consider the efficacy of both estimators within the context of stacked weak lensing mass estimation in the Dark Energy Survey (DES). We find the two estimators have nearly identical statistical precision, even after including higher order corrections, but that these corrections must be incorporated into the analysis to avoid observationally relevant biases in the recovered masses. We also demonstrate that finite bin-width effects may be significant if not properly accounted for, and that the two estimators exhibit different systema...
Rastkhah, E; Zakeri, F; Ghoranneviss, M; Rajabpour, M R; Farshidpour, M R; Mianji, F; Bayat, M
2016-03-01
An in vitro study of the dose responses of human peripheral blood lymphocytes was conducted with the aim of creating calibrated dose-response curves for biodosimetry measuring up to 4 Gy (0.25-4 Gy) of gamma radiation. The cytokinesis-blocked micronucleus (CBMN) assay was employed to obtain the frequencies of micronuclei (MN) per binucleated cell in blood samples from 16 healthy donors (eight males and eight females) in two age ranges of 20-34 and 35-50 years. The data were used to construct the calibration curves for men and women in two age groups, separately. An increase in micronuclei yield with the dose in a linear-quadratic way was observed in all groups. To verify the applicability of the constructed calibration curve, MN yields were measured in peripheral blood lymphocytes of two real overexposed subjects and three irradiated samples with unknown dose, and the results were compared with dose values obtained from measuring dicentric chromosomes. The comparison of the results obtained by the two techniques indicated a good agreement between dose estimates. The average baseline frequency of MN for the 130 healthy non-exposed donors (77 men and 55 women, 20-60 years old divided into four age groups) ranged from 6 to 21 micronuclei per 1000 binucleated cells. Baseline MN frequencies were higher for women and for the older age group. The results presented in this study point out that the CBMN assay is a reliable, easier and valuable alternative method for biological dosimetry.
Applications methods of spectral ratios in the estimation of site effects: Case Damien (Haiti)
Jean, B. J.; ST Fleur, S.
2014-12-01
Measurements of H/V type were carried out on the Damien site with Tromino hardware an « all in one » station which includes both the sensor and the integrated digitizer. A total of 32 measurements of seismic noise have been completed on this site in order to see if lithological site effects are detectable with this H/V method. After checking the H/V curve reliability criteria (length of the window to be analyzed, the number of windows analyzed, standard deviation) and the criteria for clear peaks in H/V (conditions for the amplitude, conditions for stability) found in the SESAME project in 2004, the results of the H/V spectra obtained are generally very consistent and clearly indicate site effects with peak resonance frequencies between 3 and 14 Hz. The presence of these well defined frequency peaks in the H/V spectral ratio indicates that the ground motion can be amplified by geomorphological site effects. Comparative analyzes of these H/V measurements with Grilla and Geopsy software were made in this paper to estimate the amplification magnitude of these effects. Graphical comparisons between the Grilla and Geopsy H/V maps were completed in this study and allow us to identify typical areas and their associated fundamental resonance frequencies.
Damiani, F; Micela, G; Randich, S; Gilmore, G; Drew, J E; Jeffries, R D; Frémat, Y; Alfaro, E J; Bensby, T; Bragaglia, A; Flaccomio, E; Lanzafame, A C; Pancino, E; Recio-Blanco, A; Sacco, G G; Smiljanic, R; Jackson, R J; de Laverny, P; Morbidelli, L; Worley, C C; Hourihane, A; Costado, M T; Jofré, P; Lind, K; Maiorca, E
2014-01-01
We study spectral diagnostics available from optical spectra with R=17000 obtained with the VLT/Giraffe HR15n setup, using observations from the Gaia-ESO Survey, on the gamma Vel young cluster, in order to determine the fundamental parameters of these stars. We define a set of spectroscopic indices, sampling TiO bands, H-alpha core and wings, and many temperature- and gravity-sensitive lines. Combined indices tau (gamma) are also defined as Teff (log g) indicators over a wide spectral-type range. H-alpha emission-line indices are also chromospheric activity or accretion indicators. A metallicity-sensitive index is also defined. These indices enable us to find a clear difference between gravities of main-sequence and pre-main-sequence stars (as well as giant stars): the (gamma,tau) diagram is thus argued to be a promising distance-independent age measurement tool for young clusters. Our indices were quantitatively calibrated by means of photometry and literature reference spectra (from UVES-POP and ELODIE 3.1 ...
Ramponi, Federico; Pavon, Michele
2009-01-01
In this paper, we establish the well-posedness of the generalized moment problems recently studied by Byrnes-Georgiou-Lindquist and coworkers, and by Ferrante-Pavon-Ramponi. We then apply these continuity results to prove almost sure convergence of a sequence of high-resolution spectral estimators indexed by the sample size.
Ammerlaan, B. A. J.; Holzinger, R.; Jedynska, A. D.; Henzing, J. S.
2017-09-01
Equivalent Black Carbon (EBC) and Elemental Carbon (EC) are different mass metrics to quantify the amount of combustion aerosol. Both metrics have their own measurement technique. In state-of-the-art carbon analysers, optical measurements are used to correct for organic carbon that is not evolving because of pyrolysis. These optical measurements are sometimes used to apply the technique of absorption photometers. Here, we use the transmission measurements of our carbon analyser for simultaneous determination of the elemental carbon concentration and the absorption coefficient. We use MAAP data from the CESAR observatory, the Netherlands, to correct for aerosol-filter interactions by linking the attenuation coefficient from the carbon analyser to the absorption coefficient measured by the MAAP. Application of the calibration to an independent data set of MAAP and OC/EC observations for the same location shows that the calibration is applicable to other observation periods. Because of simultaneous measurements of light absorption properties of the aerosol and elemental carbon, variation in the mass absorption efficiency (MAE) can be studied. We further show that the absorption coefficients and MAE in this set-up are determined within a precision of 10% and 12%, respectively. The precisions could be improved to 4% and 8% when the light transmission signal in the carbon analyser is very stable.
基于光谱响应定标的辐射测温方法%Radiation Thermometry Based on Calibration of Spectral Responsivity
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
辛成运; 程晓舫; 张忠政
2012-01-01
True surface temperatures can be determined by measurements of radiation emitted by the object. The non-spectral parameter in the radiation measurement equation is the function of the relative position between the target and the lens, so calibration of space position is necessary for temperature measurement, when emissivity and temperature are measured simultaneously. In the present paper, the non-spectral parameter was included into the undetermined coefficients of emissivity modeled by finite series, which will not affect the solution of true surface temperature. Therefore, radiation thermometry can be accomplished without calibration of space position and normalization of measurement data. And not the true spectral emissivity but the trend of it can be measured. Two special examples were investigated, respectively. The results indicate that when the effective wavelength of each channel is different, multi-wavelength radiation thermometry equations have the unique solution, while the number of the multiband ones may be zero, one, two or even three%辐射测温是通过测量物体发出的辐射来反演温度,辐射测量方程中含有与空间位置相关的非光谱参数,通常需通过辐射标定予以确认.而该研究将非光谱参数归入有限项级数形式的光谱发射率中,这既不会影响多通道测温方程组的封闭性,又不会影响真温求解,从而在无需测量数据归一化的条件下,实现了无需空间位置标定的辐射测温,该方法仅需要标定仪器的绝对光谱响应或相对光谱响应,但不能解得发射率.以两个特例分别对多波长测温方法和多谱段测温方法的求解特性进行了研究.结果表明:对于任意的测量矢量,有效波长不相同的多波长测温唯一解是存在的；而多谱段测温时,存在无解区域,双解直线,甚至可能存在三解直线.
Samimi, Kayvan; Varghese, Tomy
2017-05-01
Ultrasonic attenuation is one of the primary parameters of interest in Quantitative Ultrasound (QUS). Non-invasive monitoring of tissue attenuation can provide valuable diagnostic and prognostic information to the physician. The Reference Phantom Method (RPM) was introduced as a way of mitigating some of the system-related effects and biases to facilitate clinical QUS applications. In this paper, under the assumption of diffuse scattering, a probabilistic model of the backscattered signal spectrum is used to derive a theoretical lower bound on the estimation variance of the attenuation coefficient using the Spectral-Difference RPM. The theoretical lower bound is compared to simulated and experimental attenuation estimation statistics in tissue-mimicking (TM) phantoms. Estimation standard deviation (STD) of the sample attenuation in a region of interest (ROI) of the TM phantom is measured for various combinations of processing parameters, including Radio-Frequency (RF) data block length (i.e., window length) from 3 to 17 mm, RF data block width from 10 to 100 A-lines, and number of RF data blocks per attenuation estimation ROI from 3 to 10. In addition to the Spectral-Difference RPM, local attenuation estimation for simulated and experimental data sets was also performed using a modified implementation of the Spectral Fit Method (SFM). Estimation statistics of the SFM are compared to theoretical variance predictions from the literature.(1) Measured STD curves are observed to lie above the theoretical lower bound curves, thus experimentally verifying the validity of the derived bounds. This theoretical framework benefits tissue characterization efforts by isolating processing parameter ranges that could provide required precision levels in estimation of the ultrasonic attenuation coefficient using Spectral Difference methods.
Buyco, K.; Heaton, T. H.
2016-12-01
Current U.S. seismic code and performance-based design recommendations quantify ground motion intensity using 5%-damped spectral acceleration when estimating the collapse vulnerability of buildings. This intensity measure works well for predicting inter-story drift due to moderate shaking, but other measures have been shown to be better for estimating collapse risk.We propose using highly-damped (>10%) spectral acceleration to assess collapse vulnerability. As damping is increased, the spectral acceleration at a given period T begins to behave like a weighted average of the corresponding lowly-damped (i.e. 5%) spectrum at a range of periods. Weights for periods longer than T increase as damping increases. Using high damping is physically intuitive for two reasons. Firstly, ductile buildings dissipate a large amount of hysteretic energy before collapse and thus behave more like highly-damped systems. Secondly, heavily damaged buildings experience period-lengthening, giving further credence to the weighted-averaging property of highly-damped spectral acceleration.To determine the optimal damping value(s) for this ground motion intensity measure, we conduct incremental dynamic analysis for a suite of ground motions on several different mid-rise steel buildings and select the damping value yielding the lowest dispersion of intensity at the collapse threshold. Spectral acceleration calculated with damping as high as 70% has been shown to be a better indicator of collapse than that with 5% damping.
Homolová, L.; Janoutová, R.; Malenovský, Z.
2016-06-01
In this study we evaluated various spectral inputs for retrieval of forest chlorophyll content (Cab) and leaf area index (LAI) from high spectral and spatial resolution airborne imaging spectroscopy data collected for two forest study sites in the Czech Republic (beech forest at Štítná nad Vláří and spruce forest at Bílý Kříž). The retrieval algorithm was based on a machine learning method - support vector regression (SVR). Performance of the four spectral inputs used to train SVR was evaluated: a) all available hyperspectral bands, b) continuum removal (CR) 645 - 710 nm, c) CR 705 - 780 nm, and d) CR 680 - 800 nm. Spectral inputs and corresponding SVR models were first assessed at the level of spectral databases simulated by combined leaf-canopy radiative transfer models PROSPECT and DART. At this stage, SVR models using all spectral inputs provided good performance (RMSE for Cab trained SVRs on airborne hyperspectral images of the spruce site produced unacceptably overestimated values, only the beech site results were analysed. The best performance for the Cab estimation was found for CR bands in range of 645 - 710 nm, whereas CR bands in range of 680 - 800 nm were the most suitable for LAI retrieval. The CR transformation reduced the across-track bidirectional reflectance effect present in airborne images due to large sensor field of view.
Funamizu, Hideki; Shimoma, Shohei; Yuasa, Tomonori; Aizu, Yoshihisa
2014-10-20
We present the effects of spatiotemporal averaging processes on an estimation of spectral reflectance in color digital holography using speckle illuminations. In this technique, speckle fields emitted from a multimode fiber are used as both a reference wave and a wavefront illuminating an object. The interference patterns of two coherent waves for three wavelengths are recorded as digital holograms on a CCD camera. Speckle fields are changed by vibrating the multimode fiber using a vibrator, and a number of holograms are acquired to average reconstructed images. After performing an averaging process, which we refer to as a temporal averaging process in this study, using images reconstructed from multiple holograms, a spatial averaging process is applied using a smoothing window function. For the estimation of spectral reflectance in reconstructed images, we use the Wiener estimation method. The effects of the averaging processes on color reproducibility are evaluated by a chromaticity diagram, the root-mean-square error, and color differences.
Estimation of spectral reflectance of snow from IRS-1D LISS-III sensor over the Himalayan terrain
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
J Srinivasulu; A V Kulkarni
2004-03-01
Marine and Water Resources Group, Space Applications Centre, Ahmedabad, 380 015, India. The sensor onboard the satellite views the earth as a plain surface and consequently the satellite obtained spectral radiances cannot represent true values over a mountainous terrain. The relative magnitudes of terrain slope and its aspect with respect to the sun's position will determine the amount of direct solar radiation incident on an undulating surface. Estimation of spectral reflectance from satellite data forms an important component in many of the snow and glacier studies. The spectral reflectance of snow is influenced by its various parameters. The changes in snowpack characteristics as a result of various metamorphic processes, with age, can cause variations in its spectral reflectances. Since, the terrain geometry also modifies the amount of reflected radiation from a rugged surface, one has to correct the estimated spectral reflectances for terrain topography so as to use them in deriving the snowpack characteristics accurately. Also, the amounts of melt runoff originating from glaciers having different slopes and orientations will not be the same. Considering these aspects, a model has been developed to estimate the terrain corrected spectral reflectances over the Himalayan terrain using the Linear Imaging Self Scanner-III data of the Indian Remote Sensing Satellite. The model computes spectral reflectances from satellite based radiance measurements and includes the effect of the terrain topography on the incident solar radiation. The terrain slope and its aspect are generated from the digital elevation model of the region. The analysis carried out over the Beas Basin, Himachal Pradesh, India, indicated a variation of 22% in the amount of incident solar radiation for an increase of 10° in terrain slope. Further, the terrain with south-east aspect received maximum amount of solar radiation. The large differences observed between the uncorrected and terrain
Model calibration and parameter estimation for environmental and water resource systems
Sun, Ne-Zheng
2015-01-01
This three-part book provides a comprehensive and systematic introduction to the development of useful models for complex systems. Part 1 covers the classical inverse problem for parameter estimation in both deterministic and statistical frameworks, Part 2 is dedicated to system identification, hyperparameter estimation, and model dimension reduction, and Part 3 considers how to collect data and construct reliable models for prediction and decision-making. For the first time, topics such as multiscale inversion, stochastic field parameterization, level set method, machine learning, global sensitivity analysis, data assimilation, model uncertainty quantification, robust design, and goal-oriented modeling, are systematically described and summarized in a single book from the perspective of model inversion, and elucidated with numerical examples from environmental and water resources modeling. Readers of this book will not only learn basic concepts and methods for simple parameter estimation, but also get famili...
He, Yujie; Zhuang, Qianlai; McGuire, David; Liu, Yaling; Chen, Min
2013-01-01
Model-data fusion is a process in which field observations are used to constrain model parameters. How observations are used to constrain parameters has a direct impact on the carbon cycle dynamics simulated by ecosystem models. In this study, we present an evaluation of several options for the use of observations in modeling regional carbon dynamics and explore the implications of those options. We calibrated the Terrestrial Ecosystem Model on a hierarchy of three vegetation classification levels for the Alaskan boreal forest: species level, plant-functional-type level (PFT level), and biome level, and we examined the differences in simulated carbon dynamics. Species-specific field-based estimates were directly used to parameterize the model for species-level simulations, while weighted averages based on species percent cover were used to generate estimates for PFT- and biome-level model parameterization. We found that calibrated key ecosystem process parameters differed substantially among species and overlapped for species that are categorized into different PFTs. Our analysis of parameter sets suggests that the PFT-level parameterizations primarily reflected the dominant species and that functional information of some species were lost from the PFT-level parameterizations. The biome-level parameterization was primarily representative of the needleleaf PFT and lost information on broadleaf species or PFT function. Our results indicate that PFT-level simulations may be potentially representative of the performance of species-level simulations while biome-level simulations may result in biased estimates. Improved theoretical and empirical justifications for grouping species into PFTs or biomes are needed to adequately represent the dynamics of ecosystem functioning and structure.
Hanazaki, Kaori; Tomozawa, Morihiko; Suzuki, Yutaro; Kinoshita, Gohta; Yamamoto, Masanobu; Irino, Tomohisa; Suzuki, Hitoshi
2017-06-01
Reliable estimates of evolutionary rates of mitochondrial DNA might allow us to build realistic evolutionary scenarios covering broad time scales based on phylogenetic inferences. In the present study, we sought to obtain estimates of evolutionary rates in murine rodents using calibrations against historical biogeographic events. We first assumed that land-bridge-like structures that appeared intermittently at glacial maxima with 100,000-year intervals shaped the divergence patterns of cytochrome b (Cytb) sequences (1140 bp) of the larger Japanese wood mouse Apodemus speciosus. The comparison of sequences from peripheral remote islands that are separated from one another by deep straits allowed us to estimate mitochondrial DNA evolutionary rates (substitutions/site/million years) to be 0.027 to 0.036, with presumed calibrations from 140,000, 250,000, 350,000, and 440,000 years ago. Second, we addressed rapid expansion events inferred from analyses of the Cytb sequences of the lesser Japanese wood mouse A. argenteus. We detected five expansion signals in the dataset and established three categories based on the expansion parameter tau values: 3.9, 5.6-5.7, and 7.8-8.1. Considering that the climate became warmer 15,000, 53,000, and 115,000 years ago after preceding periods of rapid cooling, we calculated evolutionary rates to be 0.114, 0.047, and 0.031, respectively. This preliminary concept of the evolutionary rates on a time scale from 15,000 to 440,000 years ago for the wood mouse should be refined and tested in other species of murine rodents, including mice and rats.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Linna Li
2013-04-01
Full Text Available Chlorophyll-a (Chl-a concentration is considered as a key indicator of the eutrophic status of inland water bodies. Various algorithms have been developed for estimating Chl-a in order to improve the accuracy of predictive models. The objective of this study is to assess the potential of hyperspectral multi-band indices to estimate the Chl-a concentration in Dianshan Lake, which is the largest lake in Shanghai, an international metropolis of China. Based on field spectral measurements and in-situ Chl-a concentration collected on 7–8 September 2010, hyperspectral multi-band indices were calibrated to estimate the Chl-a concentration with optimal wavelengths selected by model tuning. A three-band index accounts for 87.36% (R2 = 0.8736 of the Chl-a variation. A four-band index, which adds a wavelength in the near infrared (NIR region, results in a higher R2 (0.8997 by removing the absorption and backscattering effects of suspended solids. To test the applicability of the proposed indices for routinely monitoring of Chl-a in inland lakes, simulated Hyperion and real HJ-1A satellite data were selected to estimate the Chl-a concentration. The results show that the explanatory powers of these satellite hyperspectral multi-band indices are relatively high with R2 = 0.8559, 0.8945, 0.7969, and 0.8241 for simulated Hyperion and real HJ-1A satellite data, respectively. All of the results provide strong evidence that hyperspectral multi-band indices are promising and applicable to estimate Chl-a in eutrophic inland lakes.
Rasouli, Zolaikha; Ghavami, Raouf
2016-08-01
Vanillin (VA), vanillic acid (VAI) and syringaldehyde (SIA) are important food additives as flavor enhancers. The current study for the first time is devote to the application of partial least square (PLS-1), partial robust M-regression (PRM) and feed forward neural networks (FFNNs) as linear and nonlinear chemometric methods for the simultaneous detection of binary and ternary mixtures of VA, VAI and SIA using data extracted directly from UV-spectra with overlapped peaks of individual analytes. Under the optimum experimental conditions, for each compound a linear calibration was obtained in the concentration range of 0.61-20.99 [LOD = 0.12], 0.67-23.19 [LOD = 0.13] and 0.73-25.12 [LOD = 0.15] μg mL- 1 for VA, VAI and SIA, respectively. Four calibration sets of standard samples were designed by combination of a full and fractional factorial designs with the use of the seven and three levels for each factor for binary and ternary mixtures, respectively. The results of this study reveal that both the methods of PLS-1 and PRM are similar in terms of predict ability each binary mixtures. The resolution of ternary mixture has been accomplished by FFNNs. Multivariate curve resolution-alternating least squares (MCR-ALS) was applied for the description of spectra from the acid-base titration systems each individual compound, i.e. the resolution of the complex overlapping spectra as well as to interpret the extracted spectral and concentration profiles of any pure chemical species identified. Evolving factor analysis (EFA) and singular value decomposition (SVD) were used to distinguish the number of chemical species. Subsequently, their corresponding dissociation constants were derived. Finally, FFNNs has been used to detection active compounds in real and spiked water samples.
Rasouli, Zolaikha; Ghavami, Raouf
2016-08-05
Vanillin (VA), vanillic acid (VAI) and syringaldehyde (SIA) are important food additives as flavor enhancers. The current study for the first time is devote to the application of partial least square (PLS-1), partial robust M-regression (PRM) and feed forward neural networks (FFNNs) as linear and nonlinear chemometric methods for the simultaneous detection of binary and ternary mixtures of VA, VAI and SIA using data extracted directly from UV-spectra with overlapped peaks of individual analytes. Under the optimum experimental conditions, for each compound a linear calibration was obtained in the concentration range of 0.61-20.99 [LOD=0.12], 0.67-23.19 [LOD=0.13] and 0.73-25.12 [LOD=0.15] μgmL(-1) for VA, VAI and SIA, respectively. Four calibration sets of standard samples were designed by combination of a full and fractional factorial designs with the use of the seven and three levels for each factor for binary and ternary mixtures, respectively. The results of this study reveal that both the methods of PLS-1 and PRM are similar in terms of predict ability each binary mixtures. The resolution of ternary mixture has been accomplished by FFNNs. Multivariate curve resolution-alternating least squares (MCR-ALS) was applied for the description of spectra from the acid-base titration systems each individual compound, i.e. the resolution of the complex overlapping spectra as well as to interpret the extracted spectral and concentration profiles of any pure chemical species identified. Evolving factor analysis (EFA) and singular value decomposition (SVD) were used to distinguish the number of chemical species. Subsequently, their corresponding dissociation constants were derived. Finally, FFNNs has been used to detection active compounds in real and spiked water samples. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Malenovsky, Zbynek; Homolova, Lucie; Janoutova, Ruzena; Landier, Lucas; Gastellu-Etchegorry, Jean-Philippe; Berthelot, Beatrice; Huck, Alexis
2016-08-01
In this study we investigated importance of the space- borne instrument Sentinel-2 red edge spectral bands and reconstructed red edge position (REP) for retrieval of the three eco-physiological plant parameters, leaf and canopy chlorophyll content and leaf area index (LAI), in case of maize agricultural fields and beech and spruce forest stands. Sentinel-2 spectral bands and REP of the investigated vegetation canopies were simulated in the Discrete Anisotropic Radiative Transfer (DART) model. Their potential for estimation of the plant parameters was assessed through training support vector regressions (SVR) and examining their P-vector matrices indicating significance of each input. The trained SVR were then applied on Sentinel-2 simulated images and the acquired estimates were cross-compared with results from high spatial resolution airborne retrievals. Results showed that contribution of REP was significant for canopy chlorophyll content, but less significant for leaf chlorophyll content and insignificant for leaf area index estimations. However, the red edge spectral bands contributed strongly to the retrievals of all parameters, especially canopy and leaf chlorophyll content. Application of SVR on Sentinel-2 simulated images demonstrated, in general, an overestimation of leaf chlorophyll content and an underestimation of LAI when compared to the reciprocal airborne estimates. In the follow-up investigation, we will apply the trained SVR algorithms on real Sentinel-2 multispectral images acquired during vegetation seasons 2015 and 2016.
Zooplankton biomass estimated from digitalized images in Antarctic waters: A calibration exercise
HernáNdez-León, Santiago; Montero, Irene
2006-05-01
The direct measurement of zooplankton biomass following the different analytical procedures normally requires the destruction of the samples. The use of conversion factors to estimate biomass from nondestructive methods is still a challenge. The widespread use of image analyzers and optical counters in biological oceanography provides a useful tool to measure the abundance and size spectrum of zooplanktonic organisms in real or quasi-real time. Both methodologies measure the equivalent spherical diameter and/or the body area of organisms. In order to estimate biomass from the highly valuable information generated by the size spectrum of the sample, we measured the relationship between individual body area and individual biomass of the most common species and groups of zooplankton in Antarctic waters. The slope of the regression for each different species and groups of taxa was not significantly different from that obtained by pooling all taxa, thus providing a general relationship for the entire size spectrum of zooplankton. The biomass estimated from the body area spectrum of samples obtained around the Antarctic Peninsula agreed with other measurements of biomass in the region. The proposed conversion factor could provide for rapid estimates of biomass of net-collected zooplankton from imaging devices or optical plankton counters.
Estimation and calibration of the water isotope differential diffusion length in ice core records
van der Wel, G.; Fischer, H.; Oerter, H.; Meyer, H.; Meijer, H. A. J.
2015-01-01
Palaeoclimatic information can be retrieved from the diffusion of the stable water isotope signal during firnification of snow. The diffusion length, a measure for the amount of diffusion a layer has experienced, depends on the firn temperature and the accumulation rate. We show that the estimation
Estimating workload using EEG spectral power and ERPs in the n-back task
Brouwer, A.M.; Hogervorst, M.A.; Erp, J.B.F. van; Heffelaar, T.; Zimmerman, P.H.; Oostenveld, R.
2012-01-01
Binnen een gecontroleerd werklastexperiment schatten we in een gesimuleerde online situatie werklastniveau op basis van EEG spectral power, ERPs en een combinatie hiervan. Dit lukt voor 33 van de 35 proefpersonen met gemiddelden van 80-90% correct.
Use of Linear Spectral Mixture Model to Estimate Rice Planted Area Based on MODIS Data
Lei Wang; Satoshi Uchida
2008-01-01
MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) is a key instrument aboard the Terra (EOS AM) and Aqua (EOS PM) satellites. Linear spectral mixture models are applied to MOIDS data for the sub-pixel classification of land covers. Shaoxing county of Zhejiang Province in China was chosen to be the study site and early rice was selected as the study crop. The derived proportions of land covers from MODIS pixel using linear spectral mixture models were compared with unsupervised classificat...
Eckhard, Timo; Valero, Eva M; Hernández-Andrés, Javier; Heikkinen, Ville
2014-03-01
In this work, we evaluate the conditionally positive definite logarithmic kernel in kernel-based estimation of reflectance spectra. Reflectance spectra are estimated from responses of a 12-channel multispectral imaging system. We demonstrate the performance of the logarithmic kernel in comparison with the linear and Gaussian kernel using simulated and measured camera responses for the Pantone and HKS color charts. Especially, we focus on the estimation model evaluations in case the selection of model parameters is optimized using a cross-validation technique. In experiments, it was found that the Gaussian and logarithmic kernel outperformed the linear kernel in almost all evaluation cases (training set size, response channel number) for both sets. Furthermore, the spectral and color estimation accuracies of the Gaussian and logarithmic kernel were found to be similar in several evaluation cases for real and simulated responses. However, results suggest that for a relatively small training set size, the accuracy of the logarithmic kernel can be markedly lower when compared to the Gaussian kernel. Further it was found from our data that the parameter of the logarithmic kernel could be fixed, which simplified the use of this kernel when compared with the Gaussian kernel.
Yang, Ming; Zhu, X Ronald; Park, Peter C; Titt, Uwe; Mohan, Radhe; Virshup, Gary; Clayton, James E; Dong, Lei
2012-07-07
The purpose of this study was to analyze factors affecting proton stopping-power-ratio (SPR) estimations and range uncertainties in proton therapy planning using the standard stoichiometric calibration. The SPR uncertainties were grouped into five categories according to their origins and then estimated based on previously published reports or measurements. For the first time, the impact of tissue composition variations on SPR estimation was assessed and the uncertainty estimates of each category were determined for low-density (lung), soft, and high-density (bone) tissues. A composite, 95th percentile water-equivalent-thickness uncertainty was calculated from multiple beam directions in 15 patients with various types of cancer undergoing proton therapy. The SPR uncertainties (1σ) were quite different (ranging from 1.6% to 5.0%) in different tissue groups, although the final combined uncertainty (95th percentile) for different treatment sites was fairly consistent at 3.0-3.4%, primarily because soft tissue is the dominant tissue type in the human body. The dominant contributing factor for uncertainties in soft tissues was the degeneracy of Hounsfield numbers in the presence of tissue composition variations. To reduce the overall uncertainties in SPR estimation, the use of dual-energy computed tomography is suggested. The values recommended in this study based on typical treatment sites and a small group of patients roughly agree with the commonly referenced value (3.5%) used for margin design. By using tissue-specific range uncertainties, one could estimate the beam-specific range margin by accounting for different types and amounts of tissues along a beam, which may allow for customization of range uncertainty for each beam direction.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Qiang Guo
2017-06-01
Full Text Available During the early stage of the G satellite of the Fengyun-2 series (FY-2G, severe cold biases up to ~2.3 K occur in its measurements in the 12.0 μm (IR2 band, which demonstrate time- and scene-dependent characteristics. Similar cold biases in water vapor and carbon dioxide absorption bands of other satellites are considered to be caused by either ice contamination (physical method or spectral response function (SRF shift (empirical method. Simulations indicate that this cold bias of FY-2G indeed suffers from equivalent SRF shift as a whole towards the longer wavelength direction. To overcome it, a novel approach combining both physical and empirical methods is proposed. With the possible ice thicknesses tested before launch, the ice contamination effect is alleviated, while the shape of the SRF can be modified in a physical way. The remaining unknown factors for cold bias are removed by shifting the convolved SRF with an ice transmittance spectrum. Two parameters, i.e., the ice thickness (5 μm and the shifted value (+0.15 μm, are estimated by inter-calibration with reference instruments, and the modification coefficient is also calculated (0.9885 for the onboard blackbody calibration. Meanwhile, the updated SRF was released online on 23 March 2016. For the period between July 2015 and December 2016, the monthly biases of the FY-2G IR2 band remain oscillating around zero, the majorities (~89% of which are within ±1.0 K, while its mean monthly absolute bias is around 0.6 K. Nevertheless, the cold bias phenomenon of the IR2 band no longer exists. The combination method can be referred by other corrections for cold biases.
Verhulst, Kristal R.; Karion, Anna; Kim, Jooil; Salameh, Peter K.; Keeling, Ralph F.; Newman, Sally; Miller, John; Sloop, Christopher; Pongetti, Thomas; Rao, Preeti; Wong, Clare; Hopkins, Francesca M.; Yadav, Vineet; Weiss, Ray F.; Duren, Riley M.; Miller, Charles E.
2017-07-01
We report continuous surface observations of carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) from the Los Angeles (LA) Megacity Carbon Project during 2015. We devised a calibration strategy, methods for selection of background air masses, calculation of urban enhancements, and a detailed algorithm for estimating uncertainties in urban-scale CO2 and CH4 measurements. These methods are essential for understanding carbon fluxes from the LA megacity and other complex urban environments globally. We estimate background mole fractions entering LA using observations from four extra-urban sites including two marine sites located south of LA in La Jolla (LJO) and offshore on San Clemente Island (SCI), one continental site located in Victorville (VIC), in the high desert northeast of LA, and one continental/mid-troposphere site located on Mount Wilson (MWO) in the San Gabriel Mountains. We find that a local marine background can be established to within ˜ 1 ppm CO2 and ˜ 10 ppb CH4 using these local measurement sites. Overall, atmospheric carbon dioxide and methane levels are highly variable across Los Angeles. Urban and suburban sites show moderate to large CO2 and CH4 enhancements relative to a marine background estimate. The USC (University of Southern California) site near downtown LA exhibits median hourly enhancements of ˜ 20 ppm CO2 and ˜ 150 ppb CH4 during 2015 as well as ˜ 15 ppm CO2 and ˜ 80 ppb CH4 during mid-afternoon hours (12:00-16:00 LT, local time), which is the typical period of focus for flux inversions. The estimated measurement uncertainty is typically better than 0.1 ppm CO2 and 1 ppb CH4 based on the repeated standard gas measurements from the LA sites during the last 2 years, similar to Andrews et al. (2014). The largest component of the measurement uncertainty is due to the single-point calibration method; however, the uncertainty in the background mole fraction is much larger than the measurement uncertainty. The background uncertainty for the marine
Pittman, Jeremy Joshua; Arnall, Daryl Brian; Interrante, Sindy M; Moffet, Corey A; Butler, Twain J
2015-01-28
Non-destructive biomass estimation of vegetation has been performed via remote sensing as well as physical measurements. An effective method for estimating biomass must have accuracy comparable to the accepted standard of destructive removal. Estimation or measurement of height is commonly employed to create a relationship between height and mass. This study examined several types of ground-based mobile sensing strategies for forage biomass estimation. Forage production experiments consisting of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.), bermudagrass [Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers.], and wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) were employed to examine sensor biomass estimation (laser, ultrasonic, and spectral) as compared to physical measurements (plate meter and meter stick) and the traditional harvest method (clipping). Predictive models were constructed via partial least squares regression and modeled estimates were compared to the physically measured biomass. Least significant difference separated mean estimates were examined to evaluate differences in the physical measurements and sensor estimates for canopy height and biomass. Differences between methods were minimal (average percent error of 11.2% for difference between predicted values versus machine and quadrat harvested biomass values (1.64 and 4.91 t·ha(-1), respectively), except at the lowest measured biomass (average percent error of 89% for harvester and quad harvested biomass 6.4 t·ha(-1)). These data suggest that using mobile sensor-based biomass estimation models could be an effective alternative to the traditional clipping method for rapid, accurate in-field biomass estimation.
Hirose, Misa; Akaho, Rina; Maita, Chikashi; Sugawara, Mai; Tsumura, Norimichi
2016-06-01
In this paper, the spectral sensitivities of a mosaic five-band camera were optimized using a numerical skin phantom to perform the separation of chromophore densities, shading and surface reflection. To simulate the numerical skin phantom, the spectral reflectance of skin was first calculated by Monte Carlo simulation of photon migration for different concentrations of melanin, blood and oxygen saturation levels. The melanin and hemoglobin concentration distributions used in the numerical skin phantom were obtained from actual skin images by independent component analysis. The calculated components were assigned as concentration distributions. The spectral sensitivities of the camera were then optimized using a nonlinear technique to estimate the spectral reflectance for skin separation. In this optimization, the spectral sensitivities were assumed to be normally distributed, and the sensor arrangement was identical to that of a conventional mosaic five-band camera. Our findings demonstrated that spectral estimation could be significantly improved by optimizing the spectral sensitivities.
Estimation of site-dependent spectral decay parameter from seismic array data
Park, Seon Jeong; Lee, Jung Mo; Baag, Chang-Eob; Choi, Hoseon; Noh, Myunghyun
2016-04-01
The kappa (κ), attenuation of acceleration amplitude at high frequencies, is one of the most important parameters in ground motion evaluation and seismic hazard analysis at sites. κ simply indicates the high frequency decay of the acceleration spectrum in log-linear space. The decay trend can be considered as linear for frequencies higher than a specific frequency, fe which is starting point of the linear regression at the acceleration spectrum. The κ has been investigated using the data from seismic arrays in the south-eastern part of Korea in which nuclear facilities such as power plant and radiological waste depository are located. The seismic array consists of 20 seismic stations and it was operated from October in 2010 through March in 2013. A classical method by Anderson and Hough (1984) and a standard procedure recently suggested by Ktenidou et al. (2013) were applied for computation of κ. There have been just a few studies on spectral attenuation characteristics for Korean Peninsula so far and even those studies utilized small amount of earthquake events whose frequency range was lower than 25 Hz. In this study, the available frequency range is up to 60 Hz based on the sampling rate of 200 and instrument response. This allows us to use a large range of frequencies for κ computations. It is outstanding advantage that we couldn't obtain from earlier κ studies in Korea. In addition, we investigate the regional κ characteristics through calculating the κ using data of 20 seismic stations which are highly extensive seismic array. It allows us to find the more specific attenuation characteristics of high frequencies in study area. Distance and magnitude dependence of κ has also been investigated. Before calculating the κ, the corner frequency (f_c) has been checked so that the fe can lie to the right of fc to exclude source effects in the computation. Manually picked fe is generally in the range of 10 to 25 Hz. The resulting κR is 9.2e-06 and κ0 is 0
Sanford, Ward E.
2016-11-01
The trend of decreasing permeability with depth was estimated in the fractured-rock terrain of the upper Potomac River basin in the eastern USA using model calibration on 200 water-level observations in wells and 12 base-flow observations in subwatersheds. Results indicate that permeability at the 1-10 km scale (for groundwater flowpaths) decreases by several orders of magnitude within the top 100 m of land surface. This depth range represents the transition from the weathered, fractured regolith into unweathered bedrock. This rate of decline is substantially greater than has been observed by previous investigators that have plotted in situ wellbore measurements versus depth. The difference is that regional water levels give information on kilometer-scale connectivity of the regolith and adjacent fracture networks, whereas in situ measurements give information on near-hole fractures and fracture networks. The approach taken was to calibrate model layer-to-layer ratios of hydraulic conductivity (LLKs) for each major rock type. Most rock types gave optimal LLK values of 40-60, where each layer was twice a thick as the one overlying it. Previous estimates of permeability with depth from deeper data showed less of a decline at modeling results. There was less certainty in the modeling results deeper than 200 m and for certain rock types where fewer water-level observations were available. The results have implications for improved understanding of watershed-scale groundwater flow and transport, such as for the timing of the migration of pollutants from the water table to streams.
Sanford, Ward E.
2017-03-01
The trend of decreasing permeability with depth was estimated in the fractured-rock terrain of the upper Potomac River basin in the eastern USA using model calibration on 200 water-level observations in wells and 12 base-flow observations in subwatersheds. Results indicate that permeability at the 1-10 km scale (for groundwater flowpaths) decreases by several orders of magnitude within the top 100 m of land surface. This depth range represents the transition from the weathered, fractured regolith into unweathered bedrock. This rate of decline is substantially greater than has been observed by previous investigators that have plotted in situ wellbore measurements versus depth. The difference is that regional water levels give information on kilometer-scale connectivity of the regolith and adjacent fracture networks, whereas in situ measurements give information on near-hole fractures and fracture networks. The approach taken was to calibrate model layer-to-layer ratios of hydraulic conductivity (LLKs) for each major rock type. Most rock types gave optimal LLK values of 40-60, where each layer was twice a thick as the one overlying it. Previous estimates of permeability with depth from deeper data showed less of a decline at modeling results. There was less certainty in the modeling results deeper than 200 m and for certain rock types where fewer water-level observations were available. The results have implications for improved understanding of watershed-scale groundwater flow and transport, such as for the timing of the migration of pollutants from the water table to streams.
Diederich, M.; Ryzhkov, A.; Simmer, C.; Mühlbauer, K.
2011-12-01
The amplitude a of radar wave reflected by meteorological targets can be misjudged due to several factors. At X band wavelength, attenuation of the radar beam by hydro meteors reduces the signal strength enough to be a significant source of error for quantitative precipitation estimation. Depending on the surrounding orography, the radar beam may be partially blocked when scanning at low elevation angles, and the knowledge of the exact amount of signal loss through beam blockage becomes necessary. The phase shift between the radar signals at horizontal and vertical polarizations is affected by the hydrometeors that the beam travels through, but remains unaffected by variations in signal strength. This has allowed for several ways of compensating for the attenuation of the signal, and for consistency checks between these variables. In this study, we make use of several weather radars and gauge network measuring in the same area to examine the effectiveness of several methods of attenuation and beam blockage corrections. The methods include consistency checks of radar reflectivity and specific differential phase, calculation of beam blockage using a topography map, estimating attenuation using differential propagation phase, and the ZPHI method proposed by Testud et al. in 2000. Results show the high effectiveness of differential phase in estimating attenuation, and potential of the ZPHI method to compensate attenuation, beam blockage, and calibration errors.
Silva, Felipe O; Hemerly, Elder M; Leite Filho, Waldemar C
2017-02-23
This paper presents the second part of a study aiming at the error state selection in Kalman filters applied to the stationary self-alignment and calibration (SSAC) problem of strapdown inertial navigation systems (SINS). The observability properties of the system are systematically investigated, and the number of unobservable modes is established. Through the analytical manipulation of the full SINS error model, the unobservable modes of the system are determined, and the SSAC error states (except the velocity errors) are proven to be individually unobservable. The estimability of the system is determined through the examination of the major diagonal terms of the covariance matrix and their eigenvalues/eigenvectors. Filter order reduction based on observability analysis is shown to be inadequate, and several misconceptions regarding SSAC observability and estimability deficiencies are removed. As the main contributions of this paper, we demonstrate that, except for the position errors, all error states can be minimally estimated in the SSAC problem and, hence, should not be removed from the filter. Corroborating the conclusions of the first part of this study, a 12-state Kalman filter is found to be the optimal error state selection for SSAC purposes. Results from simulated and experimental tests support the outlined conclusions.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Felipe O. Silva
2017-02-01
Full Text Available This paper presents the second part of a study aiming at the error state selection in Kalman filters applied to the stationary self-alignment and calibration (SSAC problem of strapdown inertial navigation systems (SINS. The observability properties of the system are systematically investigated, and the number of unobservable modes is established. Through the analytical manipulation of the full SINS error model, the unobservable modes of the system are determined, and the SSAC error states (except the velocity errors are proven to be individually unobservable. The estimability of the system is determined through the examination of the major diagonal terms of the covariance matrix and their eigenvalues/eigenvectors. Filter order reduction based on observability analysis is shown to be inadequate, and several misconceptions regarding SSAC observability and estimability deficiencies are removed. As the main contributions of this paper, we demonstrate that, except for the position errors, all error states can be minimally estimated in the SSAC problem and, hence, should not be removed from the filter. Corroborating the conclusions of the first part of this study, a 12-state Kalman filter is found to be the optimal error state selection for SSAC purposes. Results from simulated and experimental tests support the outlined conclusions.
On the spectral theory and dispersive estimates for a discrete Schrödinger equation in one dimension
Pelinovsky, D. E.; Stefanov, A.
2008-11-01
Based on the recent work [Komech et al., "Dispersive estimates for 1D discrete Schrödinger and Klein-Gordon equations," Appl. Anal. 85, 1487 (2006)] for compact potentials, we develop the spectral theory for the one-dimensional discrete Schrödinger operator, Hϕ =(-Δ+V)ϕ=-(ϕn +1+ϕn -1-2ϕn)+Vnϕn. We show that under appropriate decay conditions on the general potential (and a nonresonance condition at the spectral edges), the spectrum of H consists of finitely many eigenvalues of finite multiplicities and the essential (absolutely continuous) spectrum, while the resolvent satisfies the limiting absorption principle and the Puiseux expansions near the edges. These properties imply the dispersive estimates ||eitHPa.c.(H)||lσ2→l-σ2≲t-3/2 for any fixed σ >5/2 and any t >0, where Pa.c.(H) denotes the spectral projection to the absolutely continuous spectrum of H. In addition, based on the scattering theory for the discrete Jost solutions and the previous results by Stefanov and Kevrekidis ["Asymptotic behaviour of small solutions for the discrete nonlinear Schrödinger and Klein-Gordon equations," Nonlinearity 18, 1841 (2005)], we find new dispersive estimates ||eitH Pa.c.(H)||l1→l∞≲t-1/3, which are sharp for the discrete Schrödinger operators even for V =0.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Tagesson, Torbern (Dept. of Physical Geography and Ecosystem Analysis, Lund Univ., Lund (SE))
2006-08-15
The Forsmark and the Laxemar investigation areas are examined by the Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co. for a possible construction of a deep repository for nuclear waste. In the case of a future leakage of waste, the radioactive isotopes could end up in the ecosystems above the repository. The fate of the radionuclides and their possible radiological impacts are then highly determined by ecosystem carbon cycling. An important part of the carbon cycling is the soil carbon effluxes, and in the investigation areas soil carbon effluxes have been examined with the closed chamber technique. This paper is divided into two parts. Firstly, there were problems with the equipment measuring the soil carbon dioxide efflux, and the first part is a description of the problem, how it was corrected and its possible causes. The second part is a manual in how to analyse data and calculate annual estimates of soil carbon efflux. The field measurement by the EGM-4 is just an occasional estimate of the soil carbon efflux at a certain spot and at a certain point in time. To make an interpretation of the measurements, it is essential to analyse the data and to temporally extrapolate them. It is necessary to prepare the raw data for the analysis. The problems with the EGM-4 doing the measurements at the Forsmark and the Laxemar investigation area makes it necessary to correct the data taken up by this EGM-4. The data should also be separated into soil respiration and gross primary production (GPP). Soil carbon dioxide effluxes should be changed to soil carbon effluxes. Soil carbon effluxes are strongly controlled by abiotic factors; temperature is the main factor to influence soil respiration and photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) and air temperature are the main factors to influence GPP. Regression with soil respiration against temperature and with GPP against PAR or temperature can therefore be done. These equations can then be used on datasets with temperature and PAR
Spectral ratio method for measuring emissivity
Watson, K.
1992-01-01
The spectral ratio method is based on the concept that although the spectral radiances are very sensitive to small changes in temperature the ratios are not. Only an approximate estimate of temperature is required thus, for example, we can determine the emissivity ratio to an accuracy of 1% with a temperature estimate that is only accurate to 12.5 K. Selecting the maximum value of the channel brightness temperatures is an unbiased estimate. Laboratory and field spectral data are easily converted into spectral ratio plots. The ratio method is limited by system signal:noise and spectral band-width. The images can appear quite noisy because ratios enhance high frequencies and may require spatial filtering. Atmospheric effects tend to rescale the ratios and require using an atmospheric model or a calibration site. ?? 1992.
Gitterman, Y.; Hofstetter, R.
2014-03-01
Three large-scale on-surface explosions were conducted by the Geophysical Institute of Israel (GII) at the Sayarim Military Range, Negev desert, Israel: about 82 tons of strong high explosives in August 2009, and two explosions of about 10 and 100 tons of ANFO explosives in January 2011. It was a collaborative effort between Israel, CTBTO, USA and several European countries, with the main goal to provide fully controlled ground truth (GT0) infrasound sources, monitored by extensive observations, for calibration of International Monitoring System (IMS) infrasound stations in Europe, Middle East and Asia. In all shots, the explosives were assembled like a pyramid/hemisphere on dry desert alluvium, with a complicated explosion design, different from the ideal homogenous hemisphere used in similar experiments in the past. Strong boosters and an upward charge detonation scheme were applied to provide more energy radiated to the atmosphere. Under these conditions the evaluation of the actual explosion yield, an important source parameter, is crucial for the GT0 calibration experiment. Audio-visual, air-shock and acoustic records were utilized for interpretation of observed unique blast effects, and for determination of blast wave parameters suited for yield estimation and the associated relationships. High-pressure gauges were deployed at 100-600 m to record air-blast properties, evaluate the efficiency of the charge design and energy generation, and provide a reliable estimation of the charge yield. The yield estimators, based on empirical scaled relations for well-known basic air-blast parameters—the peak pressure, impulse and positive phase duration, as well as on the crater dimensions and seismic magnitudes, were analyzed. A novel empirical scaled relationship for the little-known secondary shock delay was developed, consistent for broad ranges of ANFO charges and distances, which facilitates using this stable and reliable air-blast parameter as a new potential
Error Estimate for a Fully Discrete Spectral Scheme for Korteweg-de Vries-Kawahara Equation
Koley, U
2011-01-01
We are concerned with the convergence of spectral method for the numerical solution of the initial-boundary value problem associated to the Korteweg-de Vries-Kawahara equation (in short Kawahara equation), which is a transport equation perturbed by dispersive terms of 3rd and 5th order. This equation appears in several fluid dynamics problems. It describes the evolution of small but finite amplitude long waves in various problems in fluid dynamics. These equations are discretized in space by the standard Fourier- Galerkin spectral method and in time by the explicit leap-frog scheme. For the resulting fully discrete, conditionally stable scheme we prove an L2-error bound of spectral accuracy in space and of second-order accuracy in time.
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Siddig, Ahmed A; Ellison, Aaron M; Jackson, Scott
2015-01-01
.... Such calibrations, however, are rare. The red back salamander, Plethodon cinereus, is an ecologically useful indicator species of forest dynamics, and accurate calibration of indices of salamander abundance could increase the reliability...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
L. Homolová
2016-06-01
Full Text Available In this study we evaluated various spectral inputs for retrieval of forest chlorophyll content (Cab and leaf area index (LAI from high spectral and spatial resolution airborne imaging spectroscopy data collected for two forest study sites in the Czech Republic (beech forest at Štítná nad Vláří and spruce forest at Bílý Kříž. The retrieval algorithm was based on a machine learning method – support vector regression (SVR. Performance of the four spectral inputs used to train SVR was evaluated: a all available hyperspectral bands, b continuum removal (CR 645 – 710 nm, c CR 705 – 780 nm, and d CR 680 – 800 nm. Spectral inputs and corresponding SVR models were first assessed at the level of spectral databases simulated by combined leaf-canopy radiative transfer models PROSPECT and DART. At this stage, SVR models using all spectral inputs provided good performance (RMSE for Cab −2 and for LAI < 1.5, with consistently better performance for beech over spruce site. Since application of trained SVRs on airborne hyperspectral images of the spruce site produced unacceptably overestimated values, only the beech site results were analysed. The best performance for the Cab estimation was found for CR bands in range of 645 – 710 nm, whereas CR bands in range of 680 – 800 nm were the most suitable for LAI retrieval. The CR transformation reduced the across-track bidirectional reflectance effect present in airborne images due to large sensor field of view.
Baghi, Quentin; Bergé, Joël; Christophe, Bruno; Touboul, Pierre; Rodrigues, Manuel
2016-01-01
We present a Gaussian regression method for time series with missing data and stationary residuals of unknown power spectral density (PSD). The missing data are efficiently estimated by their conditional expectation as in universal Kriging, based on the circulant approximation of the complete data covariance. After initialization with an autoregessive fit of the noise, a few iterations of estimation/reconstruction steps are performed until convergence of the regression and PSD estimates, in a way similar to the expectation-conditional-maximization algorithm. The estimation can be performed for an arbitrary PSD provided that it is sufficiently smooth. The algorithm is developed in the framework of the MICROSCOPE space mission whose goal is to test the weak equivalence principle (WEP) with a precision of $10^{-15}$. We show by numerical simulations that the developed method allows us to meet three major requirements: to maintain the targeted precision of the WEP test in spite of the loss of data, to calculate a...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gil Libarona, Maria Agustina [Laboratorio de Analisis de Trazas, Departamento de Quimica Inorganica, Analitica y Quimica Fisica, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Pabellon 2, Ciudad Universitaria (1428) Buenos Aires (Argentina); In-tilde on, Fernando Alberto [Laboratorio de Analisis de Trazas, Departamento de Quimica Inorganica, Analitica y Quimica Fisica, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Pabellon 2, Ciudad Universitaria (1428) Buenos Aires (Argentina)]. E-mail: finon@qi.fcen.uba.ar
2005-04-22
A critical evaluation of chemical and spectral considerations for the simultaneous spectrophotometric determination of calcium and magnesium in groundwater samples with methylthymol blue (MTB) using a calibration set composed by synthetic standards is presented. The method is based upon the spectral changes observed in MTB spectra in the visible region (400-700 nm) when concentrations of calcium and magnesium are varied. First-order multivariate calibration models were built using net analyte pre-processing followed by classical least-squared regression (NAP/CLS) method. The concentration of MTB, the pH of the solution at which the reaction is carried out and the spectral range were optimised. Based on theoretical concentration distribution plots, discussion of experimental effect of each chemical variable is provided. Through a suitable chemical and spectral optimisation and based on a factorial central composite design, we succeeded in obtaining excellent prediction results using a calibration set composed only by eight synthetic solutions in the analytical concentration range of 0-200 and 0-100 mg L{sup -1} for Ca{sup 2+} and Mg{sup 2+}, respectively. The developed methodology was applied to real groundwater samples from Great Buenos Aires area, with no pre-treatment except filtration of turbid samples, showing a very good agreement with the well-known flame atomic absorption spectrometry technique, which was used as reference method. Critical performance comparison with previous work is provided.
Calorimetric calibration of head coil SAR estimates displayed on a clinical MR scanner
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gorny, Krzysztof R; Bernstein, Matt A; Felmlee, Joel P; Ward, Heidi A; McGee, Kiaran P; Lanners, Diana M [Department of Radiology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN 55905 (United States); Lee, Kendall H [Department of Neurosurgery, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN 5505 (United States)
2008-05-21
Calorimetric measurements were performed to determine the average specific absorption rates (SAR) resulting from MRI head examinations. The data were compared with average head coil SAR estimates displayed by the MR scanner in order to refine the imaging protocols used in imaging patients with implanted deep brain stimulators (DBS). The experiments were performed using transmit-receive (TR) head coil on clinical 1.5 T General Electric MR scanners running 11.0 M4 revision software. The average applied SAR was derived from temperature increases measured inside a head phantom, due to deposition of RF energy during MRI scanning with a spin echo imaging sequence. The measurements were repeated for varied levels of RF transmit gain (TG) and analyzed with a range of entered patient weights. The measurements demonstrate that the ratio of the actual average head SAR to the scanner-displayed value (coil correction factor) decreases for decreasing TG or for increasing patient weight and may vary between 0.3 and 2.1. An additional retrospective patient study, however, shows that not all combinations of TG and patient weight are encountered clinically and, instead, TG generally increases with the patient weight. As a result, a much narrower range of coil correction factors (e.g., typically 0.5-1.0) will be encountered in practice. The calorimetric method described in this work could aid the physicians and technologists in refinement of the model-dependent SAR estimates displayed by the MR scanner, and in selection of imaging parameters for MR head examinations within allowable SAR safety levels.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kulisek, Jonathan A.; Schweppe, John E.; Stave, Sean C.; Bernacki, Bruce E.; Jordan, David V.; Stewart, Trevor N.; Seifert, Carolyn E.; Kernan, Warnick J.
2015-06-01
Helicopter-mounted gamma-ray detectors can provide law enforcement officials the means to quickly and accurately detect, identify, and locate radiological threats over a wide geographical area. The ability to accurately distinguish radiological threat-generated gamma-ray signatures from background gamma radiation in real time is essential in order to realize this potential. This problem is non-trivial, especially in urban environments for which the background may change very rapidly during flight. This exacerbates the challenge of estimating background due to the poor counting statistics inherent in real-time airborne gamma-ray spectroscopy measurements. To address this, we have developed a new technique for real-time estimation of background gamma radiation from aerial measurements. This method is built upon on the noise-adjusted singular value decomposition (NASVD) technique that was previously developed for estimating the potassium (K), uranium (U), and thorium (T) concentrations in soil post-flight. The method can be calibrated using K, U, and T spectra determined from radiation transport simulations along with basis functions, which may be determined empirically by applying maximum likelihood estimation (MLE) to previously measured airborne gamma-ray spectra. The method was applied to both measured and simulated airborne gamma-ray spectra, with and without man-made radiological source injections. Compared to schemes based on simple averaging, this technique was less sensitive to background contamination from the injected man-made sources and may be particularly useful when the gamma-ray background frequently changes during the course of the flight.
Stability Estimates for h-p Spectral Element Methods for Elliptic Problems
Dutt, Pravir; Tomar, Satyendra; Kumar, B.V. Rathish
2002-01-01
In a series of papers of which this is the first we study how to solve elliptic problems on polygonal domains using spectral methods on parallel computers. To overcome the singularities that arise in a neighborhood of the corners we use a geometrical mesh. With this mesh we seek a solution which min
Spectrally-Corrected Estimation for High-Dimensional Markowitz Mean-Variance Optimization
Z. Bai (Zhidong); H. Li (Hua); M.J. McAleer (Michael); W-K. Wong (Wing-Keung)
2016-01-01
textabstractThis paper considers the portfolio problem for high dimensional data when the dimension and size are both large. We analyze the traditional Markowitz mean-variance (MV) portfolio by large dimension matrix theory, and find the spectral distribution of the sample covariance is the main
Spectrally-Corrected Estimation for High-Dimensional Markowitz Mean-Variance Optimization
Z. Bai (Zhidong); H. Li (Hua); M.J. McAleer (Michael); W-K. Wong (Wing-Keung)
2016-01-01
textabstractThis paper considers the portfolio problem for high dimensional data when the dimension and size are both large. We analyze the traditional Markowitz mean-variance (MV) portfolio by large dimension matrix theory, and find the spectral distribution of the sample covariance is the main fac
Stability Estimates for h-p Spectral Element Methods for Elliptic Problems
Dutt, Pravir; Tomar, S.K.; Kumar, B.V. Rathish
2002-01-01
In a series of papers of which this is the first we study how to solve elliptic problems on polygonal domains using spectral methods on parallel computers. To overcome the singularities that arise in a neighborhood of the corners we use a geometrical mesh. With this mesh we seek a solution which
Sharma, Dharmendar Kumar; Irfanullah, Mir; Basu, Santanu Kumar; Madhu, Sheri; De, Suman; Jadhav, Sameer; Ravikanth, Mangalampalli; Chowdhury, Arindam
2017-03-01
While fluorescence microscopy has become an essential tool amongst chemists and biologists for the detection of various analyte within cellular environments, non-uniform spatial distribution of sensors within cells often restricts extraction of reliable information on relative abundance of analytes in different subcellular regions. As an alternative to existing sensing methodologies such as ratiometric or FRET imaging, where relative proportion of analyte with respect to the sensor can be obtained within cells, we propose a methodology using spectrally-resolved fluorescence microscopy, via which both the relative abundance of sensor as well as their relative proportion with respect to the analyte can be simultaneously extracted for local subcellular regions. This method is exemplified using a BODIPY sensor, capable of detecting mercury ions within cellular environments, characterized by spectral blue-shift and concurrent enhancement of emission intensity. Spectral emission envelopes collected from sub-microscopic regions allowed us to compare the shift in transition energies as well as integrated emission intensities within various intracellular regions. Construction of a 2D scatter plot using spectral shifts and emission intensities, which depend on the relative amount of analyte with respect to sensor and the approximate local amounts of the probe, respectively, enabled qualitative extraction of relative abundance of analyte in various local regions within a single cell as well as amongst different cells. Although the comparisons remain semi-quantitative, this approach involving analysis of multiple spectral parameters opens up an alternative way to extract spatial distribution of analyte in heterogeneous systems. The proposed method would be especially relevant for fluorescent probes that undergo relatively nominal shift in transition energies compared to their emission bandwidths, which often restricts their usage for quantitative ratiometric imaging in
Saad, David A.; Schwarz, Gregory; Robertson, Dale M.; Booth, Nathaniel
2011-01-01
Stream-loading information was compiled from federal, state, and local agencies, and selected universities as part of an effort to develop regional SPAtially Referenced Regressions On Watershed attributes (SPARROW) models to help describe the distribution, sources, and transport of nutrients in streams throughout much of the United States. After screening, 2,739 sites, sampled by 73 agencies, were identified as having suitable data for calculating long-term mean annual nutrient loads required for SPARROW model calibration. These sites had a wide range in nutrient concentrations, loads, and yields, and environmental characteristics in their basins. An analysis of the accuracy in load estimates relative to site attributes indicated that accuracy in loads improve with increases in the number of observations, the proportion of uncensored data, and the variability in flow on observation days, whereas accuracy declines with increases in the root mean square error of the water-quality model, the flow-bias ratio, the number of days between samples, the variability in daily streamflow for the prediction period, and if the load estimate has been detrended. Based on compiled data, all areas of the country had recent declines in the number of sites with sufficient water-quality data to compute accurate annual loads and support regional modeling analyses. These declines were caused by decreases in the number of sites being sampled and data not being entered in readily accessible databases.
Chatterjee, Nilanjan; Chen, Yi-Hau; Maas, Paige; Carroll, Raymond J
2016-03-01
Information from various public and private data sources of extremely large sample sizes are now increasingly available for research purposes. Statistical methods are needed for utilizing information from such big data sources while analyzing data from individual studies that may collect more detailed information required for addressing specific hypotheses of interest. In this article, we consider the problem of building regression models based on individual-level data from an "internal" study while utilizing summary-level information, such as information on parameters for reduced models, from an "external" big data source. We identify a set of very general constraints that link internal and external models. These constraints are used to develop a framework for semiparametric maximum likelihood inference that allows the distribution of covariates to be estimated using either the internal sample or an external reference sample. We develop extensions for handling complex stratified sampling designs, such as case-control sampling, for the internal study. Asymptotic theory and variance estimators are developed for each case. We use simulation studies and a real data application to assess the performance of the proposed methods in contrast to the generalized regression (GR) calibration methodology that is popular in the sample survey literature.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Niemi, A. [Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm (Sweden); Kontio, K.; Kuusela-Lahtinen, A.; Vaittinen, T. [VTT Communities and Infrastructure, Espoo (Finland)
1999-03-01
This study looks at heterogeneity in hydraulic conductivity at Romuvaara site. It concentrates on the average rock outside the deterministic fracture zones, especially in the deeper parts of the bedrock. A large number of stochastic fracture networks is generated based on geometrical data on fracture geometry from the site. The hydraulic properties of the fractures are determined by calibrating the networks against well test data. The calibration is done by starting from an initial estimate for fracture transmissivity distribution based on 2 m interval flow meter data, simulating the 10 m constant head injection test behaviour in a number of fracture network realisations and comparing the simulated well tests statistics to the measured ones. A large number of possible combinations of mean and standard deviation of fracture transmissivities are tested and the goodness-of-fit between the measured and simulated results determined by means of the bootstrapping method. As the result, a range of acceptable fracture transmissivity distribution parameters is obtained. In the accepted range, the mean of log transmissivity varies between -13.9 and -15.3 and standard deviation between 4.0 and 3.2, with increase in standard deviation compensating for decrease in mean. The effect of spatial autocorrelation was not simulated. The variogram analysis did, however, give indications that an autocorrelation range of the order of 10 m might be realistic for the present data. Based on the calibrated fracture networks, equivalent continuum conductivities of the calibrated 30 m x 30 m x 30 m conductivity blocks were determined. For each realisation, three sets of simulations was carried out with the main gradient in x, y and z directions, respectively. Based on these results the components of conductivity tensor were determined. Such data can be used e.g. for stochastic continuum type Monte Carlo simulations with larger scale models. The hydraulic conductivities in the direction of the
Rutten, M J M; Bovenhuis, H; van Arendonk, J A M
2010-10-01
Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy is a suitable method to determine bovine milk fat composition. However, the determination of fat composition by gas chromatography, required for calibration of the infrared prediction model, is expensive and labor intensive. It has recently been shown that the number of calibration samples is strongly related to the model's validation r(2) (i.e., accuracy of prediction). However, the effect of the number of calibration samples used, and therefore validation r(2), on the estimated genetic parameters of data predicted using the model needs to be established. To this end, 235 calibration data subsets of different sizes were sampled: n=100, n=250, n=500, and n=1,000 calibration samples. Subsequently, these data subsets were used to calibrate fat composition prediction models for 2 specific fatty acids: C16:0 and C18u (where u=unsaturated). Next, genetic parameters were estimated on predicted fat composition data for these fatty acids. Strong relationships between the number of calibration samples and validation r(2), as well as strong genetic correlations were found. However, the use of n=100 calibration samples resulted in a broad range of validation r(2) values and genetic correlations. Subsequent increases of the number of calibration samples resulted in narrowing patterns for validation r(2) as well as genetic correlations. The use of n=1,000 calibration samples resulted in estimated genetic correlations varying within a range of 0.10 around the average, which seems acceptable. Genetic analyses for the human health-related fatty acids C14:0, C16:0, and C18u, and the ratio of saturated fatty acids to unsaturated fatty acids showed that replacing observations on fat composition determined by gas chromatography by predictions based on infrared spectra reduced the potential genetic gain to 98, 86, 96, and 99% for the 4 fatty acid traits, respectively, in dairy breeding schemes where progeny testing is practiced. We conclude that
Optical Density Analysis of X-Rays Utilizing Calibration Tooling to Estimate Thickness of Parts
Grau, David
2012-01-01
This process is designed to estimate the thickness change of a material through data analysis of a digitized version of an x-ray (or a digital x-ray) containing the material (with the thickness in question) and various tooling. Using this process, it is possible to estimate a material's thickness change in a region of the material or part that is thinner than the rest of the reference thickness. However, that same principle process can be used to determine the thickness change of material using a thinner region to determine thickening, or it can be used to develop contour plots of an entire part. Proper tooling must be used. An x-ray film with an S-shaped characteristic curve or a digital x-ray device with a product resulting in like characteristics is necessary. If a film exists with linear characteristics, this type of film would be ideal; however, at the time of this reporting, no such film has been known. Machined components (with known fractional thicknesses) of a like material (similar density) to that of the material to be measured are necessary. The machined components should have machined through-holes. For ease of use and better accuracy, the throughholes should be a size larger than 0.125 in. (.3 mm). Standard components for this use are known as penetrameters or image quality indicators. Also needed is standard x-ray equipment, if film is used in place of digital equipment, or x-ray digitization equipment with proven conversion properties. Typical x-ray digitization equipment is commonly used in the medical industry, and creates digital images of x-rays in DICOM format. It is recommended to scan the image in a 16-bit format. However, 12-bit and 8-bit resolutions are acceptable. Finally, x-ray analysis software that allows accurate digital image density calculations, such as Image-J freeware, is needed. The actual procedure requires the test article to be placed on the raw x-ray, ensuring the region of interest is aligned for perpendicular x-ray exposure
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
张智海; 高玲肖; 郭媛君; 王伟; 莫祥霞
2012-01-01
数字微镜光谱仪在应用中编码矩阵的选取至关重要.最佳的理论编码矩阵H矩阵存在非循环、编码复杂、双光路系统实现困难的问题而得不到广泛应用;而最佳实用S矩阵较H矩阵信噪比提高优势略逊.为此本文针对数字微镜光谱仪设计了一种互补S编码矩阵,介绍了其构造、实现过程以及对杂散光和暗电流噪声的削弱作用,通过对其噪声改善程度理论的分析,说明该算法结合了H矩阵与S矩阵的优点,达到了理论与实用的双优.经实验验证,该算法较S矩阵编码模板信噪比提高了2.05倍.%The present research describes the development of an improved cross-calibration method of on-orbit satellite sensor. The EO-1/Hyperion was taken as the referenced sensor and HJ-1A/HSI was taken as the uncalibrated sensor. The differences between the bands configurations were removed by the precise spectral response matching using the deconvolution method, which significantly reduced the radiometric calibration uncertainty of HSI sensor. The calibration coefficients of HSI for all 115 bands were acquired. The uncertainties of calibration coefficient from band 1 to band 60 stably lie in 5%~8%, and for all the other bands excerpt for the oxygen absorption which lies in at 760 run and the water vapor absorption which lies in at 940 nm, the uncertainties of calibration coefficients are changed from 7% to 18%, which increased as the wavelength increased. Contrasted Compared with the traditional spectral matching method, the method proposed can improve the calibration accuracy by about 50%, which can meet the demand of the quantitive application for hyperspectral remote sensing data. It demonstrated the good precision and reliability of the method. It solved the spectral matching problem when the band configuration is big enough so that the cross calibration accuracy is too low and is difficult to apply in hyperspectral sensor cross-calibration, and provides a new
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Bernd Lennartz
2012-11-01
Full Text Available Kettle holes, small inland water bodies usually less than 1 ha in size, are subjected to pollution, drainage, and structural alteration by intensive land use practices. This study presents the analysis of spectral signatures from kettle holes based on in situ water sampling and reflectance measurements in application for chlorophyll estimation. Water samples and surface reflectance from kettle holes were collected from 6 ponds in 15 field campaigns (5 in 2007 and 10 in 2008, resulting in a total of 80 spectral datasets. We assessed the existing semi-empirical algorithms to determine chlorophyll content for different types of kettle holes using seasonal and cross-seasonal volume reflectance and derivative spectra. Based on this analysis and optical properties of water leaving reflectance from kettle holes, the following typology of the remote signal interpretation was proposed: Submerged vegetation, Phytoplankton dominated and Mixed type.
Giono, G.; Katsukawa, Y.; Ishikawa, R.; Narukage, N.; Bando, T.; Kano, R.; Suematsu, Y.; Winebarger, A.; Kobayashi, K.; Auchere, F.
2015-01-01
The Chromospheric Lyman-Alpha SpectroPolarimeter is a sounding rocket experiment design to measure for the first time the polarization signal of the Lyman-Alpha line (121.6nm), emitted in the solar upper-chromosphere and transition region. This instrument aims to detect the Hanle effect's signature hidden in the Ly-alpha polarization, as a tool to probe the chromospheric magnetic field. Hence, an unprecedented polarization accuracy is needed ((is) less than 10 (exp -3). Nevertheless, spatial and spectral resolutions are also crucial to observe chhromospheric feature such as spicules, and to have precise measurement of the Ly-alpha line core and wings. Hence, this poster will present how the telescope and the spectrograph were separately aligned, and their combined spatial and spectral resolutions.
Numerical estimation of the total phase shift in complex spectral OCT in vivo imaging
Cyganek, Marta; Wojtkowski, Maciej; Targowski, Piotr; Kowalczyk, Andrzej
2004-07-01
Complex Spectral Optical Tomography (CSOCT) in comparison to ordinary SOCT produces images free of parasitic mirror terms which results in double extension of the measurement range. This technique, however, requires the exact knowledge about the values of the introduced phase shifts in consecutive measurements. Involuntary object movements, which shift the phase from one measurement to another are always present in in vivo experiments. This introduces residual ghosts in cross-sectional images. Here we present a new method of data analysis, which allows determining the real phase shifts introduced during the measurement, and which helps to reduce the ghost effect. Two-dimensional cross-sectional in vivo images of human eye and skin obtained with the aid of this improved complex spectral OCT technique are shown. The method is free of polychromatic phase error originating from the wavelength dependence of the phase shift introduced by the reference mirror translation.
Reconstructing Spectral Scenes Using Statistical Estimation to Enhance Space Situational Awareness
2006-12-01
Francis Schmitt, and Hans Brettel. “Multispectral color image capture using a liquid crystal tunable filter”. Opt. Eng., 41(10):2532–2548, 2002. 25. Hecht ... Eugene . Optics. Addison Wesley, San Fransisco, CA, 2002. 26. Jerkatis, Kenneth J. “AEOS Spectral Imaging Sensor Design Documents”. 27. Jorgensen...Kira, John L. Africano, Eugene G. Stansbery, Paul W. Kervin, Kris M. Hamada, and Paul F. Sydney. “Determining the material type of man-made orbiting
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Su Xiaoxing, E-mail: xxsu@bjtu.edu.c [School of Electronic and Information Engineering, Beijing Jiaotong University, Beijing 100044 (China); Li Jianbao; Wang Yuesheng [Institute of Engineering Mechanics, Beijing Jiaotong University, Beijing 100044 (China)
2010-05-15
If the energy bands of a phononic crystal are calculated by the finite difference time domain (FDTD) method combined with the fast Fourier transform (FFT), good estimation of the eigenfrequencies can only be ensured by the postprocessing of sufficiently long time series generated by a large number of FDTD iterations. In this paper, a postprocessing method based on the high-resolution spectral estimation via the Yule-Walker method is proposed to overcome this difficulty. Numerical simulation results for three-dimensional acoustic and two-dimensional elastic systems show that, compared with the classic FFT-based postprocessing method, the proposed method can give much better estimation of the eigenfrequencies when the FDTD is run with relatively few iterations.
Kirby, Jon F.
2014-09-01
The effective elastic thickness (Te) is a geometric measure of the flexural rigidity of the lithosphere, which describes the resistance to bending under the application of applied, vertical loads. As such, it is likely that its magnitude has a major role in governing the tectonic evolution of both continental and oceanic plates. Of the several ways to estimate Te, one has gained popularity in the 40 years since its development because it only requires gravity and topography data, both of which are now readily available and provide excellent coverage over the Earth and even the rocky planets and moons of the solar system. This method, the ‘inverse spectral method’, develops measures of the relationship between observed gravity and topography data in the spatial frequency (wavenumber) domain, namely the admittance and coherence. The observed measures are subsequently inverted against the predictions of thin, elastic plate models, giving estimates of Te and other lithospheric parameters. This article provides a review of inverse spectral methodology and the studies that have used it. It is not, however, concerned with the geological or geodynamic significance or interpretation of Te, nor does it discuss and compare Te results from different methods in different provinces. Since the three main aspects of the subject are thin elastic plate flexure, spectral analysis, and inversion methods, the article broadly follows developments in these. The review also covers synthetic plate modelling, and concludes with a summary of the controversy currently surrounding inverse spectral methods, whether or not the large Te values returned in cratonic regions are artefacts of the method, or genuine observations.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jeremy Joshua Pittman
2015-01-01
Full Text Available Non-destructive biomass estimation of vegetation has been performed via remote sensing as well as physical measurements. An effective method for estimating biomass must have accuracy comparable to the accepted standard of destructive removal. Estimation or measurement of height is commonly employed to create a relationship between height and mass. This study examined several types of ground-based mobile sensing strategies for forage biomass estimation. Forage production experiments consisting of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L., bermudagrass [Cynodon dactylon (L. Pers.], and wheat (Triticum aestivum L. were employed to examine sensor biomass estimation (laser, ultrasonic, and spectral as compared to physical measurements (plate meter and meter stick and the traditional harvest method (clipping. Predictive models were constructed via partial least squares regression and modeled estimates were compared to the physically measured biomass. Least significant difference separated mean estimates were examined to evaluate differences in the physical measurements and sensor estimates for canopy height and biomass. Differences between methods were minimal (average percent error of 11.2% for difference between predicted values versus machine and quadrat harvested biomass values (1.64 and 4.91 t·ha−1, respectively, except at the lowest measured biomass (average percent error of 89% for harvester and quad harvested biomass < 0.79 t·ha−1 and greatest measured biomass (average percent error of 18% for harvester and quad harvested biomass >6.4 t·ha−1. These data suggest that using mobile sensor-based biomass estimation models could be an effective alternative to the traditional clipping method for rapid, accurate in-field biomass estimation.
Pittman, Jeremy Joshua; Arnall, Daryl Brian; Interrante, Sindy M.; Moffet, Corey A.; Butler, Twain J.
2015-01-01
Non-destructive biomass estimation of vegetation has been performed via remote sensing as well as physical measurements. An effective method for estimating biomass must have accuracy comparable to the accepted standard of destructive removal. Estimation or measurement of height is commonly employed to create a relationship between height and mass. This study examined several types of ground-based mobile sensing strategies for forage biomass estimation. Forage production experiments consisting of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.), bermudagrass [Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers.], and wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) were employed to examine sensor biomass estimation (laser, ultrasonic, and spectral) as compared to physical measurements (plate meter and meter stick) and the traditional harvest method (clipping). Predictive models were constructed via partial least squares regression and modeled estimates were compared to the physically measured biomass. Least significant difference separated mean estimates were examined to evaluate differences in the physical measurements and sensor estimates for canopy height and biomass. Differences between methods were minimal (average percent error of 11.2% for difference between predicted values versus machine and quadrat harvested biomass values (1.64 and 4.91 t·ha−1, respectively), except at the lowest measured biomass (average percent error of 89% for harvester and quad harvested biomass biomass (average percent error of 18% for harvester and quad harvested biomass >6.4 t·ha−1). These data suggest that using mobile sensor-based biomass estimation models could be an effective alternative to the traditional clipping method for rapid, accurate in-field biomass estimation. PMID:25635415
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Oliveira, P.M.C.; Santana, P.C. [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Departamento de Anatomia e Imagem; Lacerda, M.A.S.; Silva, T.A. da, E-mail: pmco@cdtn.br [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)
2014-07-01
Dosimetry laboratories around the world try to achieve metrology consistency between the X-rays beams for therapy and diagnostic detectors calibration. One of the parameters to characterize X-ray beam is the practical peak voltage (PPV) assessment. In this work were evaluated the PPV and spectral peak voltage in the potential constant X-ray equipment, that result in a mean difference of 1.4 %. (author)
Koh, Dong Hee; Bhatti, Parveen; Coble, Joseph B.; Stewart, Patricia A.; Lu, Wei; Shu, Xiao Ou; Ji, Bu Tian; Xue, Shouzheng; Locke, Sarah J.; Portengen, Lutzen; Yang, Gong; Chow, Wong Ho; Gao, Yu Tang; Rothman, Nathaniel; Vermeulen, Roel; Friesen, Melissa C.
2014-01-01
The epidemiologic evidence for the carcinogenicity of lead is inconsistent and requires improved exposure assessment to estimate risk. We evaluated historical occupational lead exposure for a population-based cohort of women (n=74,942) by calibrating a job-exposure matrix (JEM) with lead fume
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
M. Wei
2012-09-01
Full Text Available Despite the tremendous progress that has been made in data assimilation (DA methodology, observing systems that reduce observation errors, and model improvements that reduce background errors, the analyses produced by the best available DA systems are still different from the truth. Analysis error and error covariance are important since they describe the accuracy of the analyses, and are directly related to the future forecast errors, i.e., the forecast quality. In addition, analysis error covariance is critically important in building an efficient ensemble forecast system (EFS.
Estimating analysis error covariance in an ensemble-based Kalman filter DA is straightforward, but it is challenging in variational DA systems, which have been in operation at most NWP (Numerical Weather Prediction centers. In this study, we use the Lanczos method in the NCEP (the National Centers for Environmental Prediction Gridpoint Statistical Interpolation (GSI DA system to look into other important aspects and properties of this method that were not exploited before. We apply this method to estimate the observation impact signals (OIS, which are directly related to the analysis error variances. It is found that the smallest eigenvalue of the transformed Hessian matrix converges to one as the number of minimization iterations increases. When more observations are assimilated, the convergence becomes slower and more eigenvectors are needed to retrieve the observation impacts. It is also found that the OIS over data-rich regions can be represented by the eigenvectors with dominant eigenvalues.
Since only a limited number of eigenvectors can be computed due to computational expense, the OIS is severely underestimated, and the analysis error variance is consequently overestimated. It is found that the mean OIS values for temperature and wind components at typical model levels are increased by about 1.5 times when the number of eigenvectors is doubled
Vasquez, R. P.; Klein, J. D.; Barton, J. J.; Grunthaner, F. J.
1981-01-01
A comparison is made between maximum-entropy spectral estimation and traditional methods of deconvolution used in electron spectroscopy. The maximum-entropy method is found to have higher resolution-enhancement capabilities and, if the broadening function is known, can be used with no adjustable parameters with a high degree of reliability. The method and its use in practice are briefly described, and a criterion is given for choosing the optimal order for the prediction filter based on the prediction-error power sequence. The method is demonstrated on a test case and applied to X-ray photoelectron spectra.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Alchimov, A.B.; Drobot, S.I.; Drokov, V.G.; Zarubin, V.P.; Kazmirov, A.D.; Skodaev, Y.D.; Podrezov, A.M. [Applied Physics Institute of Irkutsk State University, Irkutsk (Russian Federation)
1997-12-31
The comparison of different spectral methods of analysis for wear diagnostics of aircraft engines has been carried out. It is shown that known techniques of determination of metals content in aviation oils with the use the spectrometers MFS (Russia) and MOA (USA) give a low accuracy of measurements. As an alternative the method of wear diagnostics on the base of a scintillation spectrometer is suggested. This method possess far better metrological properties in comparison with those on the base of the spectrometer MFS and MOA. (orig.) 6 refs.
Medawar, Samer
2012-01-01
This thesis deals with the characterization, modeling and calibration of pipeline analog-digital converters (ADC)s. The integral nonlinearity (INL) is characterized, modeled and the model is used to design a post-correction block in order to compensate the imperfections of the ADC. The INL model is divided into: a dynamic term designed by the low code frequency (LCF) component depending on the output code k and the frequency under test m, and a static term known as high code frequency (HCF) c...
Fauziana, F.; Danoedoro, P.; Heru Murti, S.
2016-11-01
Remote sensing has been utilized especially for agriculture yield estimation. Tea yield is effected by biology characteristic including crown density. The challenge of tea yield estimation uses multispectral remote sensing data is the presence of object beside tea. This mixed pixel problem can disturb spectrally to recognize tea tree, so it is necessary to use pixel approach. The aims of this research are (1) to determine fraction of tea and non-tea; (2) to estimate crown density percentage based on tea Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI); (3) to estimate tea yield based on crown density. SPOT-7 was utilized for this application. Linear Spectral Mixture Analysis (LSMA) has applied to determination fraction percentage each pixel. Each pure endmember was read the NDVI value. NDVI of tea tree has sensitivity with crown density. Counting tea NDVI was applied for NDVI mixed pixel. Linear regression analysis has applied for estimating crown density and tea yield. The results of this research are SPOT -7 which can recognize tea, tree shade, impervious and soil each pixel with accuracy 99,84%. Although it produced high accuracy, it has overestimate at certain tea estate because of the attendance of impervious. Regression analysis of crown density and NDVI showed coeffisien determination 52%. This model result 4-100% crown density percentage, where crown density 4-55% were located beside tea tree or pruned-tea block. Regression analysis of crown density and tea yield relation showed coeffisien determination 45%. This model produced 161,34-1296,8 kg/ha. Each this model resulted Root Mean Square Error (RMSE) 14,27% and 551,52 kg/ha.
Lepot, Mathieu; Torres, Andres; Hofer, Thomas; Caradot, Nicolas; Gruber, Günter; Aubin, Jean-Baptiste; Bertrand-Krajewski, Jean-Luc
2016-09-15
UV/Vis spectrophotometers have been used for one decade to monitor water quality in various locations: sewers, rivers, wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs), tap water networks, etc. Resulting equivalent concentrations of interest can be estimated by three ways: i) by manufacturer global calibration; ii) by local calibration based on the provided global calibration and grab sampling; iii) by advanced calibration looking for relations between UV/Vis spectra and corresponding concentrations from grab sampling. However, no study has compared the applied methods so far. This collaborative work presents a comparison between five different methods. A Linear Regression (LR), Support Vector Machine (SVM), EVOlutionary algorithm method (EVO) and Partial Least Squares (PLS) have been applied on various data sets (sewers, rivers, WWTPs under dry, wet and all weather conditions) and for three water quality parameters: TSS, COD total and dissolved. Two criteria (r(2) and Root Mean Square Error RMSE) have been calculated - on calibration and verification data subsets - to evaluate accuracy and robustness of the applied methods. Values of criteria have then been statistically analysed for all and separated data sets. Non-consistent outcomes come through this study. According to the Kruskal-Wallis test and RMSEs, PLS and SVM seem to be the best methods. According to uncertainties in laboratory analysis and ranking of methods, LR and EVO appear more robust and sustainable for concentration estimations. Conclusions are mostly independent of water matrices, weather conditions or concentrations investigated.
Saad, D.A.; Schwarz, G.E.; Robertson, D.M.; Booth, N.L.
2011-01-01
Stream-loading information was compiled from federal, state, and local agencies, and selected universities as part of an effort to develop regional SPAtially Referenced Regressions On Watershed attributes (SPARROW) models to help describe the distribution, sources, and transport of nutrients in streams throughout much of the United States. After screening, 2,739 sites, sampled by 73 agencies, were identified as having suitable data for calculating long-term mean annual nutrient loads required for SPARROW model calibration. These sites had a wide range in nutrient concentrations, loads, and yields, and environmental characteristics in their basins. An analysis of the accuracy in load estimates relative to site attributes indicated that accuracy in loads improve with increases in the number of observations, the proportion of uncensored data, and the variability in flow on observation days, whereas accuracy declines with increases in the root mean square error of the water-quality model, the flow-bias ratio, the number of days between samples, the variability in daily streamflow for the prediction period, and if the load estimate has been detrended. Based on compiled data, all areas of the country had recent declines in the number of sites with sufficient water-quality data to compute accurate annual loads and support regional modeling analyses. These declines were caused by decreases in the number of sites being sampled and data not being entered in readily accessible databases. ?? 2011 American Water Resources Association. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.
Clearness index estimation for spectral composition of direct and global solar radiations
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Rahoma, U.A. [National Research Inst. of Astronomy and Geophysics, Helwan, Cairo (Egypt)
2001-07-01
Measurements of cloudless direct, global, and diffuse solar radiations, taken over a one year period at Helwan, are analyzed in terms of global index and diffuse fraction for clear-sky conditions. The dependence of the diffuse fraction on the global index was represented by a polynomial. These results support the use of routine instantaneous surface meteorological data to calculate global and diffuse radiations on a horizontal surface in the absence of any other radiation measurements. The spectral composition of the global solar-radiation was found to be 4.3% UV band, 32.5% band range 250-630 nm, 13.74% red band, 52.75% infrared band and 29.7% diffuse solar-radiation. The spectral distribution of direct solar-radiation ratio of the extraterrestrial solar radiation was found to be: 0.69% green and blue band, 47.5% yellow and orange band 45% red band, and 52.7% infra-red band. (author)
Lisimenka, Aliaksandr; Kubicki, Adam
2017-02-01
A new spectral analysis technique is proposed for rhythmic bedform quantification, based on the 2D Fourier transform involving the calculation of a set of low-order spectral moments. The approach provides a tool for efficient quantification of bedform length and height as well as spatial crest-line alignment. Contrary to the conventional method, it not only describes the most energetic component of an undulating seabed surface but also retrieves information on its secondary structure without application of any band-pass filter of which the upper and lower cut-off frequencies are a priori unknown. Validation is based on bathymetric data collected in the main Vistula River mouth area (Przekop Wisły), Poland. This revealed two generations (distinct groups) of dunes which are migrating seawards along distinct paths, probably related to the hydrological regime of the river. The data enable the identification of dune divergence and convergence zones. The approach proved successful in the parameterisation of topographic roughness, an essential aspect in numerical modelling studies.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Baba, H.; Kanayama, K.; Endo, N.; Koromohara, K.; Takayama, H. [Kitami Institute of Technology, Hokkaido (Japan)
1996-10-27
Use of global insolation for estimating the corresponding spectral distribution is proposed. Measurements of global insolation spectrum throughout a year were compiled for clear days and cloudy days, ranked by 100W/m{sup 2}, for the clarification of spectral distribution. Global insolation quantity for a clear day was subject mainly to sun elevation. The global insolation spectral distribution with the sun elevation not lower than 15{degree} was similar to Bird`s model. Under the cloudy sky, energy density was lower in the region of wavelengths longer than the peak wavelength of 0.46{mu}m, and the distribution curve was sharper than that under the clear sky. Values given by Bird`s model were larger than measured values in the wavelength range of 0.6-1.8{mu}m, which was attributed to absorption by vapor. From the standard spectral distribution charts for the clear sky and cloudy sky, and from the dimensionless spectral distributions obtained by dividing them by the peak values, spectral distributions could be estimated of insolation quantities for the clear sky, cloudy sky, etc. As for the characteristics of spectral solar radiation on a tilt surface obtained from Bird`s model, they agreed with actually measured values at an angle of inclination of 60{degree} or smaller. 6 refs., 10 figs., 1 tab.
Scalar and vector Slepian functions, spherical signal estimation and spectral analysis
Simons, Frederik J
2013-01-01
It is a well-known fact that mathematical functions that are timelimited (or spacelimited) cannot be simultaneously bandlimited (in frequency). Yet the finite precision of measurement and computation unavoidably bandlimits our observation and modeling scientific data, and we often only have access to, or are only interested in, a study area that is temporally or spatially bounded. In the geosciences we may be interested in spectrally modeling a time series defined only on a certain interval, or we may want to characterize a specific geographical area observed using an effectively bandlimited measurement device. It is clear that analyzing and representing scientific data of this kind will be facilitated if a basis of functions can be found that are "spatiospectrally" concentrated, i.e. "localized" in both domains at the same time. Here, we give a theoretical overview of one particular approach to this "concentration" problem, as originally proposed for time series by Slepian and coworkers, in the 1960s. We sho...
Milman, Emanuel
2012-01-01
We obtain a new proof of Bobkov's lower bound on the first positive eigenvalue of the (negative) Neumann Laplacian (or equivalently, the Cheeger constant) on a bounded convex domain $K$ in Euclidean space. Our proof avoids employing the localization method or any of its geometric extensions. Instead, we deduce the lower bound by invoking a spectral transference principle for log-concave measures, comparing the uniform measure on $K$ with an appropriately scaled Gaussian measure which is conditioned on $K$. The crux of the argument is to establish a good overlap between these two measures (in say the relative-entropy or total-variation distances), which boils down to obtaining sharp lower bounds on the free energy of the conditioned Gaussian measure.
Campaign for vicarious calibration of SumbandilaSat in Argentina
CSIR Research Space (South Africa)
Vhengani, LM
2011-07-01
Full Text Available to estimate Top-Of-Atmosphere (TOA) spectral radiance. A vicarious calibration field campaign was executed in Argentina to support monitoring of the radiometric response of the multispectral imager aboard SumbandilaSat. Results obtained using two Radiative...
Heat kernel estimates and spectral properties of a pseudorelativistic operator with magnetic field
Jakubassa-Amundsen, D. H.
2008-03-01
Based on the Mehler heat kernel of the Schrödinger operator for a free electron in a constant magnetic field, an estimate for the kernel of EA=∣α(p-eA)+βm∣ is derived, where EA represents the kinetic energy of a Dirac electron within the pseudorelativistic no-pair Brown-Ravenhall model. This estimate is used to provide the bottom of the essential spectrum for the two-particle Brown-Ravenhall operator, describing the motion of the electrons in a central Coulomb field and a constant magnetic field, if the central charge is restricted to Z ⩽86.
Hull Girder Fatigue Damage Estimations of a Large Container Vessel by Spectral Analysis
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Andersen, Ingrid Marie Vincent; Jensen, Jørgen Juncher
2013-01-01
This paper deals with fatigue damage estimation from the analysis of full-scale stress measurements in the hull of a large container vessel (9,400 TEU) covering several months of operation. For onboard decision support and hull monitoring sys-tems, there is a need for a fast reliable method...
Uncertainty in eddy covariance flux estimates resulting from spectral attenuation [Chapter 4
W. J. Massman; R. Clement
2004-01-01
Surface exchange fluxes measured by eddy covariance tend to be underestimated as a result of limitations in sensor design, signal processing methods, and finite flux-averaging periods. But, careful system design, modern instrumentation, and appropriate data processing algorithms can minimize these losses, which, if not too large, can be estimated and corrected using...
Fusion of spectral and electrochemical sensor data for estimating soil macronutrients
Rapid and efficient quantification of plant-available soil phosphorus (P) and potassium (K) is needed to support variable-rate fertilization strategies. Two methods that have been used for estimating these soil macronutrients are diffuse reflectance spectroscopy in visible and near-infrared (VNIR) w...
Ignatova, Irina; French, Andrew S; Immonen, Esa-Ville; Frolov, Roman; Weckström, Matti
2014-06-01
Shannon's seminal approach to estimating information capacity is widely used to quantify information processing by biological systems. However, the Shannon information theory, which is based on power spectrum estimation, necessarily contains two sources of error: time delay bias error and random error. These errors are particularly important for systems with relatively large time delay values and for responses of limited duration, as is often the case in experimental work. The window function type and size chosen, as well as the values of inherent delays cause changes in both the delay bias and random errors, with possibly strong effect on the estimates of system properties. Here, we investigated the properties of these errors using white-noise simulations and analysis of experimental photoreceptor responses to naturalistic and white-noise light contrasts. Photoreceptors were used from several insect species, each characterized by different visual performance, behavior, and ecology. We show that the effect of random error on the spectral estimates of photoreceptor performance (gain, coherence, signal-to-noise ratio, Shannon information rate) is opposite to that of the time delay bias error: the former overestimates information rate, while the latter underestimates it. We propose a new algorithm for reducing the impact of time delay bias error and random error, based on discovering, and then using that size of window, at which the absolute values of these errors are equal and opposite, thus cancelling each other, allowing minimally biased measurement of neural coding.
SDSS/SEGUE spectral feature analysis for stellar atmospheric parameter estimation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Li, Xiangru; Lu, Yu; Yang, Tan; Wang, Yongjun [School of Mathematical Sciences, South China Normal University, Guangzhou 510631 (China); Wu, Q. M. Jonathan [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Windsor, Windsor, Ontario N9B 3P4 (Canada); Luo, Ali; Zhao, Yongheng; Zuo, Fang, E-mail: xiangru.li@gmail.com [National Astronomical Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China)
2014-08-01
Large-scale and deep sky survey missions are rapidly collecting a large amount of stellar spectra, which necessitate the estimation of atmospheric parameters directly from spectra and make it feasible to statistically investigate latent principles in a large data set. We present a technique for estimating parameters T{sub eff}, log g, and [Fe/H] from stellar spectra. With this technique, we first extract features from stellar spectra using the LASSO algorithm; then, the parameters are estimated from the extracted features using the support vector regression. On a subsample of 20,000 stellar spectra from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) with reference parameters provided by the SDSS/SEGUE Spectroscopic Parameter Pipeline, estimation consistency are 0.007458 dex for log T{sub eff} (101.609921 K for T{sub eff}), 0.189557 dex for log g, and 0.182060 for [Fe/H], where the consistency is evaluated by mean absolute error. Prominent characteristics of the proposed scheme are sparseness, locality, and physical interpretability. In this work, each spectrum consists of 3821 fluxes, and 10, 19, and 14 typical wavelength positions are detected, respectively, for estimating T{sub eff}, log g, and [Fe/H]. It is shown that the positions are related to typical lines of stellar spectra. This characteristic is important in investigating physical indications from analysis results. Then, stellar spectra can be described by the individual fluxes on the detected positions (PD) or local integration of fluxes near them (LI). The aforementioned consistency is the result based on features described by LI. If features are described by PD, consistency is 0.009092 dex for log T{sub eff} (124.545075 K for T{sub eff}), 0.198928 dex for log g, and 0.206814 dex for [Fe/H].
SDSS/SEGUE Spectral Feature Analysis for Stellar Atmospheric Parameter Estimation
Li, Xiangru; Wu, Q. M. Jonathan; Luo, Ali; Zhao, Yongheng; Lu, Yu; Zuo, Fang; Yang, Tan; Wang, Yongjun
2014-08-01
Large-scale and deep sky survey missions are rapidly collecting a large amount of stellar spectra, which necessitate the estimation of atmospheric parameters directly from spectra and make it feasible to statistically investigate latent principles in a large data set. We present a technique for estimating parameters T eff, log g, and [Fe/H] from stellar spectra. With this technique, we first extract features from stellar spectra using the LASSO algorithm; then, the parameters are estimated from the extracted features using the support vector regression. On a subsample of 20,000 stellar spectra from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) with reference parameters provided by the SDSS/SEGUE Spectroscopic Parameter Pipeline, estimation consistency are 0.007458 dex for log T eff (101.609921 K for T eff), 0.189557 dex for log g, and 0.182060 for [Fe/H], where the consistency is evaluated by mean absolute error. Prominent characteristics of the proposed scheme are sparseness, locality, and physical interpretability. In this work, each spectrum consists of 3821 fluxes, and 10, 19, and 14 typical wavelength positions are detected, respectively, for estimating T eff, log g, and [Fe/H]. It is shown that the positions are related to typical lines of stellar spectra. This characteristic is important in investigating physical indications from analysis results. Then, stellar spectra can be described by the individual fluxes on the detected positions (PD) or local integration of fluxes near them (LI). The aforementioned consistency is the result based on features described by LI. If features are described by PD, consistency is 0.009092 dex for log T eff (124.545075 K for T eff), 0.198928 dex for log g, and 0.206814 dex for [Fe/H].
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
LI Qijun
2016-06-01
Full Text Available Using high accuracy match points extracted between the multi-spectral images that obtained at the same time,a position model of the CCD chips of the ZY-3 multi-spectral camera was proposed. Relative interior orientation relationship parameters were calculated and accurate band-to-band automatic registration of ZY-3 multi-spectral image was achieved based on the position model. The experimental result indicates that the band-to-band automatic registration accuracy of ZY-3 multi-spectral image is better than 0.3 pixels with the proposed method.
Cuesta, E; Lozano, R L; Miguel, E G San; Casas-Ruiz, M; Bolívar, J P
2016-12-01
This paper relates the calibration of a low background gas-flow proportional counter. This calibration has been used to determine low activity of (234)Th in coastal water samples. Two methods were used to prepare calibration samples: Evaporation and Electrodeposition. First method was rejected due to the lack of reproducibility because the different geometry adopted by the drops of tracer once dried on the disk. On the contrary, through the second method, similar efficiencies were obtained in all detectors with an average of 0.401±0.004. In this paper, the whole procedure to obtain (234)Th activity in dissolution as well as in particulate matter has been detailed, and all the algorithms needed to calculate activities and efficiencies are shown. Finally, two experiments have been designed in order to validate the calibration of the beta counter and the method to determine (234)Th in coastal waters with high concentration of particulate matter.
Characterization of uncertainty and sensitivity of model parameters is an essential and often overlooked facet of hydrological modeling. This paper introduces an algorithm called MOESHA that combines input parameter sensitivity analyses with a genetic algorithm calibration routin...
Simultaneous estimation of noise variance and number of peaks in Bayesian spectral deconvolution
Tokuda, Satoru; Okada, Masato
2016-01-01
Heuristic identification of peaks from noisy complex spectra often leads to misunderstanding physical and chemical properties of matter. In this paper, we propose a framework based on Bayesian inference, which enables us to separate multi-peak spectra into single peaks statistically and is constructed in two steps. The first step is estimating both noise variance and number of peaks as hyperparameters based on Bayes free energy, which generally is not analytically tractable. The second step is fitting the parameters of each peak function to the given spectrum by calculating the posterior density, which has a problem of local minima and saddles since multi-peak models are nonlinear and hierarchical. Our framework enables escaping from local minima or saddles by using the exchange Monte Carlo method and calculates Bayes free energy. We discuss a simulation demonstrating how efficient our framework is and show that estimating both noise variance and number of peaks prevents overfitting, overpenalizing, and misun...
Speaker height estimation from speech: Fusing spectral regression and statistical acoustic models.
Hansen, John H L; Williams, Keri; Bořil, Hynek
2015-08-01
Estimating speaker height can assist in voice forensic analysis and provide additional side knowledge to benefit automatic speaker identification or acoustic model selection for automatic speech recognition. In this study, a statistical approach to height estimation that incorporates acoustic models within a non-uniform height bin width Gaussian mixture model structure as well as a formant analysis approach that employs linear regression on selected phones are presented. The accuracy and trade-offs of these systems are explored by examining the consistency of the results, location, and causes of error as well a combined fusion of the two systems using data from the TIMIT corpus. Open set testing is also presented using the Multi-session Audio Research Project corpus and publicly available YouTube audio to examine the effect of channel mismatch between training and testing data and provide a realistic open domain testing scenario. The proposed algorithms achieve a highly competitive performance to previously published literature. Although the different data partitioning in the literature and this study may prevent performance comparisons in absolute terms, the mean average error of 4.89 cm for males and 4.55 cm for females provided by the proposed algorithm on TIMIT utterances containing selected phones suggest a considerable estimation error decrease compared to past efforts.
Illumination estimation from specular highlight in a multi-spectral image.
An, Dongsheng; Suo, Jinli; Wang, Haoqian; Dai, Qionghai
2015-06-29
The reflection spectrum of an object characterizes its surface material, but for non-Lambertian scenes, the recorded spectrum often deviates owing to specular contamination. To compensate for this deviation, the illumination spectrum is required, and it can be estimated from specularity. However, existing illumination-estimation methods often degenerate in challenging cases, especially when only weak specularity exists. By adopting the dichromatic reflection model, which formulates a specular-influenced image as a linear combination of diffuse and specular components, this paper explores two individual priors and one mutual prior upon these two components: (i) The chromaticity of a specular component is identical over all the pixels. (ii) The diffuse component of a specular-contaminated pixel can be reconstructed using its specular-free counterpart describing the same material. (iii) The spectrum of illumination usually has low correlation with that of diffuse reflection. A general optimization framework is proposed to estimate the illumination spectrum from the specular component robustly and accurately. The results of both simulation and real experiments demonstrate the robustness and accuracy of our method.
Simultaneous Estimation of Noise Variance and Number of Peaks in Bayesian Spectral Deconvolution
Tokuda, Satoru; Nagata, Kenji; Okada, Masato
2017-02-01
The heuristic identification of peaks from noisy complex spectra often leads to misunderstanding of the physical and chemical properties of matter. In this paper, we propose a framework based on Bayesian inference, which enables us to separate multipeak spectra into single peaks statistically and consists of two steps. The first step is estimating both the noise variance and the number of peaks as hyperparameters based on Bayes free energy, which generally is not analytically tractable. The second step is fitting the parameters of each peak function to the given spectrum by calculating the posterior density, which has a problem of local minima and saddles since multipeak models are nonlinear and hierarchical. Our framework enables the escape from local minima or saddles by using the exchange Monte Carlo method and calculates Bayes free energy via the multiple histogram method. We discuss a simulation demonstrating how efficient our framework is and show that estimating both the noise variance and the number of peaks prevents overfitting, overpenalizing, and misunderstanding the precision of parameter estimation.
Calibration of the Microwave Limb Sounder on the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite
Jarnot, R. F.; Cofield, R. E.; Waters, J. W.; Flower, D. A.; Peckham, G. E.
1996-01-01
The Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) is a three-radiometer, passive, limb emission instrument onboard the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite (UARS). Radiometric, spectral and field-of-view calibrations of the MLS instrument are described in this paper. In-orbit noise performance, gain stability, spectral baseline and dynamic range are described, as well as use of in-flight data for validation and refinement of prelaunch calibrations. Estimated systematic scaling uncertainties (3 sigma) on calibrated limb radiances from prelaunch calibrations are 2.6% in bands 1 through 3, 3.4% in band 4, and 6% in band 5. The observed systematic errors in band 6 are about 15%, consistent with prelaunch calibration uncertainties. Random uncertainties on individual limb radiance measurements are very close to the levels predicted from measured radiometer noise temperature, with negligible contribution from noise and drifts on the regular in-flight gain calibration measurements.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bartholomeus, Harm; Schaepman-Strub, Gabriela; Blok, Daan
2012-01-01
yields a good prediction model for K and a moderate model for pH. Using these models, soil properties are determined for a larger number of samples, and soil properties are related to plant species composition. This analysis shows that variation of soil properties is large within vegetation classes...... will significantly impact the global carbon cycle. We explore the potential of soil spectroscopy to estimate soil carbon properties and investigate the relation between soil properties and vegetation composition. Soil samples are collected in Siberia, and vegetation descriptions are made at each sample point. First...
Belghith, Akram; Bowd, Christopher; Weinreb, Robert N; Zangwill, Linda M
2014-03-18
Glaucoma is an ocular disease characterized by distinctive changes in the optic nerve head (ONH) and visual field. Glaucoma can strike without symptoms and causes blindness if it remains without treatment. Therefore, early disease detection is important so that treatment can be initiated and blindness prevented. In this context, important advances in technology for non-invasive imaging of the eye have been made providing quantitative tools to measure structural changes in ONH topography, an essential element for glaucoma detection and monitoring. 3D spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT), an optical imaging technique, has been commonly used to discriminate glaucomatous from healthy subjects. In this paper, we present a new framework for detection of glaucoma progression using 3D SD-OCT images. In contrast to previous works that the retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness measurement provided by commercially available spectral-domain optical coherence tomograph, we consider the whole 3D volume for change detection. To integrate a priori knowledge and in particular the spatial voxel dependency in the change detection map, we propose the use of the Markov Random Field to handle a such dependency. To accommodate the presence of false positive detection, the estimated change detection map is then used to classify a 3D SDOCT image into the "non-progressing" and "progressing" glaucoma classes, based on a fuzzy logic classifier. We compared the diagnostic performance of the proposed framework to existing methods of progression detection.
Belghith, Akram; Bowd, Christopher; Weinreb, Robert N.; Zangwill, Linda M.
2014-03-01
Glaucoma is an ocular disease characterized by distinctive changes in the optic nerve head (ONH) and visual field. Glaucoma can strike without symptoms and causes blindness if it remains without treatment. Therefore, early disease detection is important so that treatment can be initiated and blindness prevented. In this context, important advances in technology for non-invasive imaging of the eye have been made providing quantitative tools to measure structural changes in ONH topography, an essential element for glaucoma detection and monitoring. 3D spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT), an optical imaging technique, has been commonly used to discriminate glaucomatous from healthy subjects. In this paper, we present a new framework for detection of glaucoma progression using 3D SD-OCT images. In contrast to previous works that the retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness measurement provided by commercially available spectral-domain optical coherence tomograph, we consider the whole 3D volume for change detection. To integrate a priori knowledge and in particular the spatial voxel dependency in the change detection map, we propose the use of the Markov Random Field to handle a such dependency. To accommodate the presence of false positive detection, the estimated change detection map is then used to classify a 3D SDOCT image into the "non-progressing" and "progressing" glaucoma classes, based on a fuzzy logic classifier. We compared the diagnostic performance of the proposed framework to existing methods of progression detection.
The X-ray Power Spectral Density Function and Black Hole Mass Estimate for the Seyfert AGN IC 4329a
Markowitz, A
2009-01-01
We present the X-ray broadband power spectral density function (PSD) of the X-ray-luminous Seyfert IC 4329a, constructed from light curves obtained via Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer monitoring and an XMM-Newton observation. Modeling the 3-10 keV PSD using a broken power-law PSD shape, a break in power-law slope is significantly detected at a temporal frequency of 2.5(+2.5,-1.7) * 10^-6 Hz, which corresponds to a PSD break time scale T_b of 4.6(+10.1,-2.3) days. Using the relation between T_b, black hole mass M_BH, and bolometric luminosity as quantified by McHardy and coworkers, we infer a black hole mass estimate of M_BH = 1.3(+1.0,-0.3) * 10^8 solar masses and an accretion rate relative to Eddington of 0.21(+0.06,-0.10) for this source. Our estimate of M_BH is consistent with other estimates, including that derived by the relation between M_BH and stellar velocity dispersion. We also present PSDs for the 10-20 and 20-40 keV bands; they lack sufficient temporal frequency coverage to reveal a significant break,...
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Zina Mitraka
2015-04-01
Full Text Available The study of urban climate requires frequent and accurate monitoring of land surface temperature (LST, at the local scale. Since currently, no space-borne sensor provides frequent thermal infrared imagery at high spatial resolution, the scientific community has focused on synergistic methods for retrieving LST that can be suitable for urban studies. Synergistic methods that combine the spatial structure of visible and near-infrared observations with the more frequent, but low-resolution surface temperature patterns derived by thermal infrared imagery provide excellent means for obtaining frequent LST estimates at the local scale in cities. In this study, a new approach based on spatial-spectral unmixing techniques was developed for improving the spatial resolution of thermal infrared observations and the subsequent LST estimation. The method was applied to an urban area in Crete, Greece, for the time period of one year. The results were evaluated against independent high-resolution LST datasets and found to be very promising, with RMSE less than 2 K in all cases. The developed approach has therefore a high potential to be operationally used in the near future, exploiting the Copernicus Sentinel (2 and 3 observations, to provide high spatio-temporal resolution LST estimates in cities.
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W. Choi
2010-11-01
Full Text Available In this study the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL height (z_{i} over complex, forested terrain is estimated based on the power spectra and the integral length scale of horizontal winds obtained from a three-axis sonic anemometer during the BEARPEX (Biosphere Effects on Aerosol and Photochemistry Experiment. The z_{i} values estimated with this technique showed very good agreement with observations obtained from balloon tether sonde (2007 and rawinsonde (2009 measurements under unstable conditions (z/L < 0 at the coniferous forest in the California Sierra Nevada. The behavior of the nocturnal boundary layer height (h and power spectra of lateral winds and temperature under stable conditions (z/L > 0 is also presented. The nocturnal boundary layer height is found to be fairly well predicted by a recent interpolation formula proposed by Zilitinkevich et al. (2007, although it was observed to only vary from 60–80 m during the experiment. Finally, significant directional wind shear was observed during both day and night with winds backing from the prevailing west-southwesterlies in the ABL (anabatic cross-valley circulation to consistent southerlies in a layer ~1 km thick just above the ABL before veering to the prevailing westerlies further aloft. We show that this is consistent with the forcing of a thermal wind driven by the regional temperature gradient directed due east in the lower troposphere.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
W. Choi
2011-07-01
Full Text Available The atmospheric boundary layer (ABL height (z_{i} over complex, forested terrain is estimated based on the power spectra and the integral length scale of cross-stream winds obtained from a three-axis sonic anemometer during the two summers of the BEARPEX (Biosphere Effects on Aerosol and Photochemistry Experiment. The z_{i} values estimated with this technique show very good agreement with observations obtained from balloon tether sondes (2007 and rawinsondes (2009 under unstable conditions (z/L < 0 at the coniferous forest in the California Sierra Nevada. On the other hand, the low frequency behavior of the streamwise upslope winds did not exhibit significant variations and was therefore not useful in predicting boundary layer height. The behavior of the nocturnal boundary layer height (h with respect to the power spectra of the v-wind component and temperature under stable conditions (z/L > 0 is also presented. The nocturnal boundary layer height is found to be fairly well predicted by a recent interpolation formula proposed by Zilitinkevich et al. (2007, although it was observed to only vary from 60–80 m during the 2009 experiment in which it was measured. Finally, significant directional wind shear was observed during both day and night soundings. The winds were found to be consistently backing from the prevailing west-southwesterlies within the ABL (the anabatic cross-valley circulation to southerlies in a layer ~1–2 km thick just above the ABL before veering to the prevailing westerlies further aloft. This shear pattern is shown to be consistent with the forcing of a thermal wind driven by the regional temperature gradient directed east-southeast in the lower troposphere.
Zygielbaum, A. I.; Arkebauer, T. J.; Walter-Shea, E.
2014-12-01
Previously, we reported that reflectance increased across the whole PAR spectrum when plants were subjected to water stress. This effect was shown to exist in maize grown under greenhouse conditions and under field conditions. Greenhouse experiments showed that, in addition to leaf water content, the effect was strongly correlated with incident light intensity. Further, through the use of an integrating sphere, we demonstrated that the change in reflectance was due to a change in absorption rather than in a change scattering or other optical path effect. Time lapse microscopy showed lightening between leaf veins analogous to effects measured by researchers observing cross sections of stressed C4 plants. To further refine our study, additional leaf level and canopy level studies were undertaken. Excised leaf sections were separately exposed to red and white light in the laboratory as the leaf dried. Increasing reflectance and transmittance were observed for the section exposed to white light, while little change was observed under red light. Each of these observations can be explained by chloroplast avoidance movement, a photoprotective response causing chloroplasts to aggregate along cell walls effectively hiding chlorophyll from observation. Chloroplast movement, for example, is driven by blue light; explaining the lack of observed change under red light. Estimation of biophysical parameters, such as chlorophyll content and greenness, are affected by the difference between the "apparent" chlorophyll content and the actual chlorophyll content of leaves and canopies. Up to 30% changes in the VARI remote sensing index have been observed morning to afternoon in field-grown maize. Ten percent changes in chlorophyll estimates have been observed in greenhouse maize. We will report on further research and on the extension of our work to include the impact of chloroplast avoidance on remote sensing of C3 plants, specifically soybean, at leaf and canopy levels.
RSR Calculator, a tool for the Calibration / Validation activities
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C. Durán-Alarcón
2014-12-01
Full Text Available The calibration/validation of remote sensing products is a key step that needs to be done before its use in different kinds of environmental applications and to ensure the success of remote sensing missions. In order to compare the measurements from remote sensors on spacecrafts and airborne platforms with in-situ data, it is necessary to perform a spectral comparison process that takes into account the relative spectral response of the sensors. This technical note presents the RSR Calculator, a new tool to estimate, through numerical convolution, the values corresponding to each spectral range of a given sensor. RSR Calculator is useful for several applications ranging from the convolution of spectral signatures of laboratory or field measurements to the parameter estimation for the calibration of sensors, such as extraterrestrial solar irradiance (ESUN or atmospheric transmissivity (τ per spectral band. RSR Calculator is a useful tool that allows the processing of spectral data and that it can be successfully applied in the calibration/validation remote sensing process of the optical domain.
Horne, D. J.; Martens, K.
2009-04-01
Although qualitative statements have been made about general climatic conditions in southern Africa during the Pleistocene, there are few quantifiable palaeoclimatic data based on field evidence, especially regarding whether the area was wetter or drier during the Last Glacial Maximum. Such information is critical in validating models of climate change, both in spatial and temporal dimensions. As an essential preliminary step towards palaeoclimate reconstructions using fossil ostracods from cored lake sediment sequences, we have calibrated a training set of living ostracod species' distributions against a modern climate dataset and other available environmental data. The modern ostracod dataset is based on the collections in the Royal Belgian Institute of Natural Sciences in Brussels, which constitutes the most diverse and comprehensive collection of southern African nonmarine ostracods available anywhere in the world. To date, c. 150 nominal species have been described from southern Africa (Martens, 2001) out of c. 450 species in the total Afrotropical area (Martens et al., 2008). Here we discuss the potential value and limitations of the training set for the estimation of past climatic parameters including air temperature (July and January means, maxima and minima, Mean Annual Air Temperature), precipitation, water conductivity and pH. The next step will be to apply the Mutual Ostracod Temperature Range method (Horne, 2007; Horne & Mezquita, 2008) to the palaeoclimatic analysis of fossil ostracod assemblages from sequences recording the Last Glacial Maximum in southern Africa. Ultimately this work will contribute to the development of a glacier-climate modelling project based on evidence of former niche glaciation of the Drakensberg Escarpment. Horne, D. J. 2007. A Mutual Temperature Range method for Quaternary palaeoclimatic analysis using European nonmarine Ostracoda. Quaternary Science Reviews, 26, 1398-1415. Horne, D. J. & Mezquita, F. 2008. Palaeoclimatic
Yong, Bin; Ren, Liliang; Hong, Yang; Gourley, Jonathan; Tian, Yudong; Huffman, George J.; Chen, Xi; Wang, Weiguang; Wen, Yixin
2013-01-01
The TRMM Multi-satellite Precipitation Analysis (TMPA) system underwent a crucial upgrade in early 2009 to include a climatological calibration algorithm (CCA) to its realtime product 3B42RT, and this algorithm will continue to be applied in the future Global Precipitation Measurement era constellation precipitation products. In this study, efforts are focused on the comparison and validation of the Version 6 3B42RT estimates before and after the climatological calibration is applied. The evaluation is accomplished using independent rain gauge networks located within the high-latitude Laohahe basin and the low-latitude Mishui basin, both in China. The analyses indicate the CCA can effectively reduce the systematic errors over the low-latitude Mishui basin but misrepresent the intensity distribution pattern of medium-high rain rates. This behavior could adversely affect TMPA's hydrological applications, especially for extreme events (e.g., floods and landslides). Results also show that the CCA tends to perform slightly worse, in particular, during summer and winter, over the high-latitude Laohahe basin. This is possibly due to the simplified calibration-processing scheme in the CCA that directly applies the climatological calibrators developed within 40 degrees latitude to the latitude belts of 40 degrees N-50 degrees N. Caution should therefore be exercised when using the calibrated 3B42RT for heavy rainfall-related flood forecasting (or landslide warning) over high-latitude regions, as the employment of the smooth-fill scheme in the CCA bias correction could homogenize the varying rainstorm characteristics. Finally, this study highlights that accurate detection and estimation of snow at high latitudes is still a challenging task for the future development of satellite precipitation retrievals.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
李宜展; 潘耀忠; 朱秀芳; 李玉婷; 顾建宇
2013-01-01
estimator in different overall classification accuracy and sampling ratios. The simulated images were produced by adding different amounts of errors into the classification map of real remote sensing data. These errors fall into two categories. One is the errors within patches, which result from the similarity of spectral information. The other is the errors located around the boundary of different land cover types, because of the misclassification of mixed pixels. According to the distribution rule of remote sensing classification error and heterogeneity, we calculated the error possibility for each pixel, and then altered the class label of error pixels. There were four different images we simulated by a procedure of IDL 7.0 to represent various overall accuracy levels of classification in practical cases. Then, two evaluation criteria were adopted, with average absolute relative bias, indicating the accuracy of estimation, and coefficient of variance, representing the stability of estimation. The results suggest that: (1) Confusion matrix calibration and regression can provide more accurate and stable estimates than simple expansion estimator does, which means that the simulated images, also the remote sensing classification map in practical cases, play an positive role in estimation, especially in improving the stability degree. (2) In the experiments with different overall classification accuracy and sampling ratio, the two evaluation criteria value of simple regression estimator and ratio estimator are extremely close, and they all show higher accuracy and stability compared with confusion matrix calibration methods, which indicates that regression methods have more advantages to some degree. In addition, confusion matrix calibration methods are more sensitive to classification accuracy than that of regression methods. The reason is that confusion matrix calibration methods are interested in not only the amount of pixels which are classified correctly, but also the
de Asis, Alejandro M.; Omasa, Kenji
Soil conservation planning often requires estimates of soil erosion at a catchment or regional scale. Predictive models such as Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE) and its subsequent Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation (RUSLE) are useful tools to generate the quantitative estimates necessary for designing sound conservation measures. However, large-scale soil erosion model-factor parameterization and quantification is difficult due to the costs, labor and time involved. Among the soil erosion parameters, the vegetative cover or C factor has been one of the most difficult to estimate over broad geographic areas. The C factor represents the effects of vegetation canopy and ground covers in reducing soil loss. Traditional methods for the extraction of vegetation information from remote sensing data such as classification techniques and vegetation indices were found to be inaccurate. Thus, this study presents a new approach based on Spectral Mixture Analysis (SMA) of Landsat ETM data to map the C factor for use in the modeling of soil erosion. A desirable feature of SMA is that it estimates the fractional abundance of ground cover and bare soils simultaneously, which is appropriate for soil erosion analysis. Hence, we estimated the C factor by utilizing the results of SMA on a pixel-by-pixel basis. We specifically used a linear SMA (LSMA) model and performed a minimum noise fraction (MNF) transformation and pixel purity index (PPI) on Landsat ETM image to derive the proportion of ground cover (vegetation and non-photosynthetic materials) and bare soil within a pixel. The end-members were selected based on the purest pixels found using PPI with reference to very high-resolution QuickBird image and actual field data. Results showed that the C factor value estimated using LSMA correlated strongly with the values measured in the field. The correlation coefficient ( r) obtained was 0.94. A comparative analysis between NDVI- and LSMA-derived C factors also proved that the
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W. H. Davies
2014-06-01
Full Text Available A method has been developed to estimate Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD, Fine Mode Fraction (FMF and Single Scattering Albedo (SSA over land surfaces using simulated Sentinel-3 data. The method uses inversion of a coupled surface/atmosphere radiative transfer model, and includes a general physical model of angular surface reflectance. An iterative process is used to determine the optimum value of the aerosol properties providing the best fit of the corrected reflectance values for a number of view angles and wavelengths with those provided by the physical model. A method of estimating AOD using only angular retrieval has previously been demonstrated on data from the ENVISAT and PROBA-1 satellite instruments, and is extended here to the synergistic spectral and angular sampling of Sentinel-3 and the additional aerosol properties. The method is tested using hyperspectral, multi-angle Compact High Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (CHRIS images. The values obtained from these CHRIS observations are validated using ground based sun-photometer measurements. Results from 22 image sets using the synergistic retrieval and improved aerosol models show an RMSE of 0.06 in AOD, reduced to 0.03 over vegetated targets.
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I. Bazan
2012-01-01
Full Text Available To achieve a precise noninvasive temperature estimation, inside patient tissues, would open promising research fields, because its clinic results would provide early-diagnosis tools. In fact, detecting changes of thermal origin in ultrasonic echo spectra could be useful as an early complementary indicator of infections, inflammations, or cancer. But the effective clinic applications to diagnosis of thermometry ultrasonic techniques, proposed previously, require additional research. Before their implementations with ultrasonic probes and real-time electronic and processing systems, rigorous analyses must be still made over transient echotraces acquired from well-controlled biological and computational phantoms, to improve resolutions and evaluate clinic limitations. It must be based on computing improved signal-processing algorithms emulating tissues responses. Some related parameters in echo-traces reflected by semiregular scattering tissues must be carefully quantified to get a precise processing protocols definition. In this paper, approaches for non-invasive spectral ultrasonic detection are analyzed. Extensions of author's innovations for ultrasonic thermometry are shown and applied to computationally modeled echotraces from scattered biological phantoms, attaining high resolution (better than 0.1°C. Computer methods are provided for viability evaluation of thermal estimation from echoes with distinct noise levels, difficult to be interpreted, and its effectiveness is evaluated as possible diagnosis tool in scattered tissues like liver.
Modern hyperspectral sensors permit reflectance measurements of crop canopies in hundreds of narrow spectral wavebands. While these sensors describe plant canopy reflectance in greater detail than multispectral sensors, they also suffer from issues with data redundancy and spectral autocorrelation. ...
Comparison between Calibration Procedure and Econometric Estimation%校准方法与计量经济方法的比较
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
周焯华; 张宗益; 欧阳
2001-01-01
The two methods of estimating parameter in computable general equilibrium(CGE) model are introduced and compared：the calibration procedure and econometric estimation． The conclusions are：the estimation of parameter in CGE model must use the calibration procedure coupled with the econometric estimation method;the elasticity of output with respect to labor input，the marginal expenditure share for households and price elasticity of export demand are estimated by econometric estimation method;and other parameters of the CGE model can be get by calibration procedure．%介绍了可计算的一般均衡(CGE)模型中确定参数的两种主要方法：校准方法与计量经济方法，并对两种方法进行了比较，分别论述它们的优缺点。得到的结论是在CGE模型中进行参数估计时采用“校准”方法和计量经济学方法相结合：对于刻画行为人的行为并对结果有重要影响的参数(如各种弹性)采用计量经济学方法来估计，其他的参数则利用所构造的社会核算矩阵(SAM)通过校准方法而得到。
Sun, Wenchao; Ishidaira, Hiroshi; Bastola, Satish; Yu, Jingshan
2015-05-01
Lacking observation data for calibration constrains applications of hydrological models to estimate daily time series of streamflow. Recent improvements in remote sensing enable detection of river water-surface width from satellite observations, making possible the tracking of streamflow from space. In this study, a method calibrating hydrological models using river width derived from remote sensing is demonstrated through application to the ungauged Irrawaddy Basin in Myanmar. Generalized likelihood uncertainty estimation (GLUE) is selected as a tool for automatic calibration and uncertainty analysis. Of 50,000 randomly generated parameter sets, 997 are identified as behavioral, based on comparing model simulation with satellite observations. The uncertainty band of streamflow simulation can span most of 10-year average monthly observed streamflow for moderate and high flow conditions. Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency is 95.7% for the simulated streamflow at the 50% quantile. These results indicate that application to the target basin is generally successful. Beyond evaluating the method in a basin lacking streamflow data, difficulties and possible solutions for applications in the real world are addressed to promote future use of the proposed method in more ungauged basins. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
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Yangfan Deng
2014-03-01
Full Text Available The effective elastic thickness (Te represents the thickness of the elastic layer or the flexural rigidity of the lithosphere, the equivalent of which can be calculated from the spectral analysis of gravity and topographic data. Studies of Te have profound influence on intracontinental deformation, and coupling of the tectonic blocks. In this paper, we use the multitaper spectral estimation method to calculate the coherence between Bouguer gravity and topography data, and to obtain the Te map of South China. Through the process of correction, we discuss the relationships of Te versus heat flow, and Te versus seismicity. The results show that Te distribution of South China is affected by three factors: the original age, which controls the basic feature; the Mesozoic evolution, which affects the Te distribution; and the neotectonic movement, which shaped the final distribution. The crust age has a positive correlation with the first-order Te distribution; thus the Yangtze Craton has a relatively higher Te (about 50 km whereas the Te in Cathaysia block is only 10–20 km. By analysis and comparison among the tectonic models of South China, the Te distribution can be well explained using the flat-subduction model. As is typical with neotectonics, the region with a higher heat flow is related with a lower Te. The seismicity does not have a clear relationship with Te, but the strong seismicity could cause a low Te. Seismogenic layer (Ts has a similar trend as Te in the craton, whereas in other areas the relationship is complex.
Zygielbaum, A. I.; Arkebauer, T. J.; Walter-Shea, E.
2013-12-01
Vegetation photoprotective responses impact the reflected spectra in the visible or photosynthetically active (PAR) spectral region. Earlier, we presented a case that the increasing PAR reflectance which accompanies increasing water stress was due to one such response, chloroplast avoidance movement. This increasing reflectance has been reported in published papers for several decades and dismissed as operator error or a result of changes in leaf turgor or optical pathway. We showed, however, that such changes in the PAR region, which occurred with no significant change in chlorophyll content, were caused by decreasing absorption, not changes in light scatter. Further, we demonstrated that the changes in reflectance were correlated with changes in ambient light (downwelling radiance). To further refine the case that chloroplast movement is the basis of these observations, excised leaves were exposed separately to either red light or white light illumination of equal photon flux densities. The transmittance observed as these leaves dried increased in the leaves exposed to white light and remained constant in the leaves exposed to red light. Since chloroplast movement is driven by blue light, our conjecture is strengthened. We have also observed distinct morning vs. afternoon differences in reflectance spectra of greenhouse-grown plants; indices derived from these spectra also vary diurnally--leading us to coin the phase 'apparent chlorophyll'. All observations previously reported were the result of greenhouse experiments. We report herein on observations of leaf and canopy reflectances under field conditions and on the impact the increasing reflectance has on estimation of chlorophyll content using spectral indices. We also present evidence that increasing reflectance which is concomitant with increasing plant stress may not correlate with stress indications using the photochemical reflectance index (PRI) and discuss the implications of that observation.
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J. Bohlin
2012-07-01
Full Text Available The recent development in software for automatic photogrammetric processing of multispectral aerial imagery, and the growing nation-wide availability of Digital Elevation Model (DEM data, are about to revolutionize data capture for forest management planning in Scandinavia. Using only already available aerial imagery and ALS-assessed DEM data, raster estimates of the forest variables mean tree height, basal area, total stem volume, and species-specific stem volumes were produced and evaluated. The study was conducted at a coniferous hemi-boreal test site in southern Sweden (lat. 58° N, long. 13° E. Digital aerial images from the Zeiss/Intergraph Digital Mapping Camera system were used to produce 3D point-cloud data with spectral information. Metrics were calculated for 696 field plots (10 m radius from point-cloud data and used in k-MSN to estimate forest variables. For these stands, the tree height ranged from 1.4 to 33.0 m (18.1 m mean, stem volume from 0 to 829 m3 ha-1 (249 m3 ha-1 mean and basal area from 0 to 62.2 m2 ha-1 (26.1 m2 ha-1 mean, with mean stand size of 2.8 ha. Estimates made using digital aerial images corresponding to the standard acquisition of the Swedish National Land Survey (Lantmäteriet showed RMSEs (in percent of the surveyed stand mean of 7.5% for tree height, 11.4% for basal area, 13.2% for total stem volume, 90.6% for pine stem volume, 26.4 for spruce stem volume, and 72.6% for deciduous stem volume. The results imply that photogrammetric matching of digital aerial images has significant potential for operational use in forestry.
Coluzzi, Rosa; Lasaponara, Rosa; Montesano, Tiziana; Lanorte, Antonio; de Santis, Fortunato
2010-05-01
Satellite data can help monitoring the dynamics of vegetation in burned and unburned areas. Several methods can be used to perform such kind of analysis. This paper is focused on the use of different satellite-based parameters for fire recovery monitoring. In particular, time series of single spectral channels and vegetation indices from SPOT-VEGETATION have investigated. The test areas is the Mediterranean ecosystems of Southern Italy. For this study we considered: 1) the most widely used index to follow the process of recovery after fire: normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) obtained from the visible (Red) and near infrared (NIR) by using the following formula NDVI = (NIR_Red)/(NIR + Red), 2) moisture index MSI obtained from the near infrared and Mir for characterization of leaf and canopy water content. 3) NDWI obtained from the near infrared and Mir as in the case of MSI, but with the normalization (as the NDVI) to reduce the atmospheric effects. All analysis for this work was performed on ten-daily normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) image composites (S10) from the SPOT- VEGETATION (VGT) sensor. The final data set consisted of 279 ten-daily, 1 km resolution NDVI S1O composites for the period 1 April 1998 to 31 December 2005 with additional surface reflectance values in the blue (B; 0.43-0.47,um), red (R; 0.61-0.68,um), near-infrared (NIR; 0.78-0.89,um) and shortwave-infrared (SWIR; 1.58-1.75,um) spectral bands, and information on the viewing geometry and pixel status. Preprocessing of the data was performed by the Vlaamse Instelling voor Technologisch Onderzoek (VITO) in the framework of the Global Vegetation Monitoring (GLOVEG) preprocessing chain. It consisted of the Simplified Method for Atmospheric Correction (SMAC) and compositing at ten-day intervals based on the Maximum Value Compositing (MVC) criterion. All the satellite time series were analysed using the Detrended Fluctuation Analysis (DFA) to estimate post fire vegetation recovery
Cerasoli, S.; Silva, J. M.; Carvalhais, N.; Correia, A.; Costa e Silva, F.; Pereira, J. S.
2013-12-01
The Light Use Efficiency (LUE) concept is usually applied to retrieve Gross Primary Productivity (GPP) estimates in models integrating spectral indexes, namely Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and Photochemical Reflectance Index (PRI), considered proxies of biophysical properties of vegetation. The integration of spectral measurements into LUE models can increase the robustness of GPP estimates by optimizing particular parameters of the model. NDVI and PRI are frequently obtained by broad band sensors on remote platforms at low spatial resolution (e.g. MODIS). In highly heterogeneous ecosystems such spectral information may not be representative of the dynamic response of the ecosystem to climate variables. In Mediterranean oak woodlands different plant functional types (PFT): trees canopy, shrubs and herbaceous layer, contribute to the overall Gross Primary Productivity (GPP). In situ spectral measurements can provide useful information on each PFT and its temporal variability. The objectives of this study were: i) to analyze the temporal variability of NDVI, PRI and others spectral indices for the three PFT, their response to climate variables and their relationship with biophysical properties of vegetation; ii) to optimize a LUE model integrating selected spectral indexes in which the contribution of each PFT to the overall GPP is estimated individually; iii) to compare the performance of disaggregated GPP estimates and lumped GPP estimates, evaluated against eddy covariance measurements. Ground measurements of vegetation reflectance were performed in a cork oak woodland located in Coruche, Portugal (39°8'N, 8°19'W) where carbon and water fluxes are continuously measured by eddy covariance. Between April 2011 and June 2013 reflectance measurements of the herbaceous layer, shrubs and trees canopy were acquired with a FieldSpec3 spectroradiometer (ASD Inc.) which provided data in the range of 350-2500nm. Measurements were repeated approximately on
Calibrating ground-based microwave radiometers: Uncertainty and drifts
Küchler, N.; Turner, D. D.; Löhnert, U.; Crewell, S.
2016-04-01
The quality of microwave radiometer (MWR) calibrations, including both the absolute radiometric accuracy and the spectral consistency, determines the accuracy of geophysical retrievals. The Microwave Radiometer Calibration Experiment (MiRaCalE) was conducted to evaluate the performance of MWR calibration techniques, especially of the so-called Tipping Curve Calibrations (TCC) and Liquid Nitrogen Calibrations (LN2cal), by repeatedly calibrating a fourth-generation Humidity and Temperature Profiler (HATPRO-G4) that measures downwelling radiance between 20 GHz and 60 GHz. MiRaCalE revealed two major points to improve MWR calibrations: (i) the necessary repetition frequency for MWR calibration techniques to correct drifts, which ensures stable long-term measurements; and (ii) the spectral consistency of control measurements of a well known reference is useful to estimate calibration accuracy. Besides, we determined the accuracy of the HATPRO's liquid nitrogen-cooled blackbody's temperature. TCCs and LN2cals were found to agree within 0.5 K when observing the liquid nitrogen-cooled blackbody with a physical temperature of 77 K. This agreement of two different calibration techniques suggests that the brightness temperature of the LN2 cooled blackbody is accurate within at least 0.5 K, which is a significant reduction of the uncertainties that have been assumed to vary between 0.6 K and 1.5 K when calibrating the HATPRO-G4. The error propagation of both techniques was found to behave almost linearly, leading to maximum uncertainties of 0.7 K when observing a scene that is associated with a brightness temperature of 15 K.
Video rate spectral imaging using a coded aperture snapshot spectral imager.
Wagadarikar, Ashwin A; Pitsianis, Nikos P; Sun, Xiaobai; Brady, David J
2009-04-13
We have previously reported on coded aperture snapshot spectral imagers (CASSI) that can capture a full frame spectral image in a snapshot. Here we describe the use of CASSI for spectral imaging of a dynamic scene at video rate. We describe significant advances in the design of the optical system, system calibration procedures and reconstruction method. The new optical system uses a double Amici prism to achieve an in-line, direct view configuration, resulting in a substantial improvement in image quality. We describe NeAREst, an algorithm for estimating the instantaneous three-dimensional spatio-spectral data cube from CASSI's two-dimensional array of encoded and compressed measurements. We utilize CASSI's snapshot ability to demonstrate a spectral image video of multi-colored candles with live flames captured at 30 frames per second.
Adaptive Spectral Doppler Estimation
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Gran, Fredrik; Jakobsson, Andreas; Jensen, Jørgen Arendt
2009-01-01
of matched filters (one for each veloc- ity component of interest) and filtering the blood process over slow-time and averaging over depth to find the PSD. The methods are tested using various experiments and simulations. First, controlled flow-rig experiments with steady laminar flow are carried out....... Simulations in Field II for pul- sating flow resembling the femoral artery are also analyzed. The simulations are followed by in vivo measurement on the common carotid artery. In all simulations and experiments it was concluded that the adaptive methods display superior per- formance for short observation...
Adaptive ARMA Spectral Estimation,
1981-01-01
will here ing acrix ", is exoonentiaLly diagonal. A ,aper restrict our interests to two such posslbillties now in *reparaticn will detail :his solucion ...and G. Jenkins, TIME SERIES ANALYSIS: FORECASTING AM4 CONTROL (revised edition). San Francisco: Holden-Day, 1976. Normalized Frequency (81 M. Kaveb
Transverse Spectral Velocity Estimation
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jensen, Jørgen Arendt
2014-01-01
A transverse oscillation (TO)-based method for calculating the velocity spectrum for fully transverse flow is described. Current methods yield the mean velocity at one position, whereas the new method reveals the transverse velocity spectrum as a function of time at one spatial location. A convex...
Myrhaug, Dag; Wang, Hong; Holmedal, Lars Erik
2016-04-01
The Stokes drift represents an important transport component of ocean circulation models. Locally it is responsible for transport of e.g. contaminated ballast water from ships, oil spills, plankton and larvae. It also plays an important role in mixing processes across the interphase between the atmosphere and the ocean. The Stokes drift is the mean Lagrangian velocity obtained from the water particle trajectory in the wave propagation direction; it is maximum at the surface, decreasing rapidly with the depth below the surface. The total mean mass transport is obtained by integrating the Stokes drift over the water depth; this is also referred to as the volume Stokes transport. The paper provides a simple analytical method which can be used to give estimates of the Stokes drift in moderate intermediate water depth based on short-term variation of wave conditions. This is achieved by using a joint distribution of individual wave heights and wave periods together with an explicit solution of the wave dispersion equation. The mean values of the surface Stokes drift and the volume Stokes transport for individual random waves within a sea state are presented, and the effects of water depth and spectral bandwidth parameter are discussed. Furthermore, example of results corresponding to typical field conditions are presented to demonstrate the application of the method, including the Stokes drift profile in the water column beneath the surface. Thus, the present analytical method can be used to estimate the Stokes drift in moderate intermediate water depth for random waves within a sea state based on available wave statistics.
Theoretical model atmosphere spectra used for the calibration of infrared instruments
Decin, L
2007-01-01
One of the key ingredients in establishing the relation between input signal and output flux from a spectrometer is accurate determination of the spectrophotometric calibration. In the case of spectrometers onboard satellites, the accuracy of this part of the calibration pedigree is ultimately linked to the accuracy of the set of reference SEDs that the spectrophotometric calibration is built on. In this paper, we deal with the spectrophotometric calibration of infrared (IR) spectrometers onboard satellites in the 2 to 200 micron range. We aim at comparing the different reference SEDs used for the IR spectrophotometric calibration. The emphasis is on the reference SEDs of stellar standards with spectral type later than A0, with special focus on the theoretical model atmosphere spectra. Using the MARCS model atmosphere code, spectral reference SEDs were constructed for a set of IR stellar standards (A dwarfs, solar analogs, G9-M0 giants). A detailed error analysis was performed to estimate proper uncertainties...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Armin eWalter
2012-11-01
Full Text Available Brain-state-dependent stimulation combines brain-computer interfaces (BCI and cortical stimulation into one paradigm that allows the online decoding for example of movement intention from brain signals while simultaneously applying stimulation. If the BCI decoding is performed by spectral features, stimulation after-effects such as artefacts and evoked activity present a challenge for a successful implementation of brain-state-dependent stimulation because they can impair the detection of targeted brain states. Therefore, efficient and robust methods are needed to minimize the influence of the stimulation-induced effects on spectral estimation without violating the real-time constraints of the BCI.In this work, we compared 4 methods for spectral estimation with autoregressive (AR models in the presence of pulsed cortical stimulation. Using combined EEG-TMS as well as combined ECoG and epidural electrical stimulation, 3 patients performed a motor task using a sensorimotor-rhythm BCI. Three stimulation paradigms were varied between sessions: (1 no stimulation, (2 single stimulation pulses applied independently (open-loop or (3 coupled to the BCI output (closed-loop such that stimulation was given only while an intention to move was detected using neural data.We found that removing the stimulation after-effects by linear interpolation can introduce a bias in the estimation of the spectral power of the sensorimotor rhythm, leading to an overestimation of decoding performance in the closed-loop setting. We propose the use of the Burg algorithm for segmented data to deal with stimulation after-effects. This work shows that the combination of BCIs controlled with spectral features and cortical stimulation in a closed-loop fashion is possible when the influence of stimulation after-effects on spectral estimation is minimized.
D'Odorico, Petra; Guanter, Luis; Schaepman, Michael E; Schläpfer, Daniel
2011-08-20
Accurate spectral calibration of airborne and spaceborne imaging spectrometers is essential for proper preprocessing and scientific exploitation of high spectral resolution measurements of the land and atmosphere. A systematic performance assessment of onboard and scene-based methods for in-flight monitoring of instrument spectral calibration is presented for the first time in this paper. Onboard and ground imaging data were collected at several flight altitudes using the Airborne Prism Experiment (APEX) imaging spectrometer. APEX is equipped with an in-flight characterization (IFC) facility allowing the evaluation of radiometric, spectral, and geometric system properties, both in-flight and on-ground for the full field of view. Atmospheric and onboard filter spectral features present in at-sensor radiances are compared with the same features in reference transmittances convolved to varying instrument spectral configurations. A spectrum-matching algorithm, taking advantage of the high sensitivity of measurements around sharp spectral features toward spectrometer spectral performance, is used to retrieve channel center wavelength and bandwidth parameters. Results showed good agreement between spectral parameters estimated using onboard IFC and ground imaging data. The average difference between estimates obtained using the O(2) and H(2)O features and those obtained using the corresponding filter features amounted to about 0.3 nm (0.05 of a spectral pixel). A deviation from the nominal laboratory instrument spectral calibration and an altitude-dependent performance was additionally identified. The relatively good agreement between estimates obtained by the two approaches in similar spectral windows suggests they can be used in a complementary fashion: while the method relying on atmospheric features can be applied without the need for dedicated calibration acquisitions, the IFC allows assessment at user-selectable wavelength positions by custom filters as well as for
ASD FieldSpec Calibration Setup and Techniques
Olive, Dan
2001-01-01
This paper describes the Analytical Spectral Devices (ASD) Fieldspec Calibration Setup and Techniques. The topics include: 1) ASD Fieldspec FR Spectroradiometer; 2) Components of Calibration; 3) Equipment list; 4) Spectral Setup; 5) Spectral Calibration; 6) Radiometric and Linearity Setup; 7) Radiometric setup; 8) Datadets Required; 9) Data files; and 10) Field of View Measurement. This paper is in viewgraph form.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Melo M, B.; Ferreira F, T. C.; Duarte V, K.; Da Silva, T. A. [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear / CNEN, Av. Pte. Antonio Carlos 6627, 31270-901 Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais (Brazil); Ribeiro de C, T. P., E-mail: bmm@cdtn.br [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Departamento de Engenharia Nuclear, Programa de Pos-graduacao em Ciencias e Tecnicas, Av. Pte. Antonio Carlos 6627, 31270-901 Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais (Brazil)
2016-10-15
In previous work, the computational modeling of the Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear in vivo counter for estimation of {sup 18}F-FGD activity incorporated into workers brains was validated. Here, we studied the calibration factor (Cf) for seven distinct voxelized computational phantoms including the reference models from ICRP 110. Computational simulations were also carried out to study the effect of increasing the distance between the detector and the brain up to 100 cm. The degree of correlation among geometric and anatomical parameters of the computational models and the calibration factors were also evaluated. The morphological diversity of the computational phantoms resulted Cf variations greater than 38% (39.8 ± 0.2 to 64.6 ± 0.5 Bq.CPS{sup -1}). Despite the variations, Cf has been reduced by the increasing distance, although the remarkable decrease in counting efficiency makes prohibitive this geometry. These findings suggest that head anatomic parameters can be used to improve Cf estimation. (Author)
Odry, Jean; Arnaud, Patrick
2016-04-01
The SHYREG method (Aubert et al., 2014) associates a stochastic rainfall generator and a rainfall-runoff model to produce rainfall and flood quantiles on a 1 km2 mesh covering the whole French territory. The rainfall generator is based on the description of rainy events by descriptive variables following probability distributions and is characterised by a high stability. This stochastic generator is fully regionalised, and the rainfall-runoff transformation is calibrated with a single parameter. Thanks to the stability of the approach, calibration can be performed against only flood quantiles associated with observated frequencies which can be extracted from relatively short time series. The aggregation of SHYREG flood quantiles to the catchment scale is performed using an areal reduction factor technique unique on the whole territory. Past studies demonstrated the accuracy of SHYREG flood quantiles estimation for catchments where flow data are available (Arnaud et al., 2015). Nevertheless, the parameter of the rainfall-runoff model is independently calibrated for each target catchment. As a consequence, this parameter plays a corrective role and compensates approximations and modelling errors which makes difficult to identify its proper spatial pattern. It is an inherent objective of the SHYREG approach to be completely regionalised in order to provide a complete and accurate flood quantiles database throughout France. Consequently, it appears necessary to identify the model configuration in which the calibrated parameter could be regionalised with acceptable performances. The revaluation of some of the method hypothesis is a necessary step before the regionalisation. Especially the inclusion or the modification of the spatial variability of imposed parameters (like production and transfer reservoir size, base flow addition and quantiles aggregation function) should lead to more realistic values of the only calibrated parameter. The objective of the work presented
Usry, J. W.; Whitlock, C. H.
1981-01-01
Management of water resources such as a reservoir requires using analytical models which describe such parameters as the suspended sediment field. To select or develop an appropriate model requires making many measurements to describe the distribution of this parameter in the water column. One potential method for making those measurements expeditiously is to measure light transmission or turbidity and relate that parameter to total suspended solids concentrations. An instrument which may be used for this purpose was calibrated by generating curves of transmission measurements plotted against measured values of total suspended solids concentrations and beam attenuation coefficients. Results of these experiments indicate that field measurements made with this instrument using curves generated in this study should correlate with total suspended solids concentrations and beam attenuation coefficients in the water column within 20 percent.
Yamazaki, T; Nishimura, Y; Yamazaki, I; Hirano, M; Matsuura, K; Shimada, K; Mimuro, M
1994-10-10
Energy migration processes in allophycocyanin-B trimer with a linker polypeptide were analyzed using the principal multi-component spectral estimation (PMSE) method, which does not require assumption of component number, decay function, or the spectral band shape. We determined the number of spectral components showing independent kinetic behavior by the eigen-value of an auto-correlation matrix, and further the spectra of the components and their rise and decay curves. Two decay components were resolved at 20 degrees C: one corresponded to the decay of one type of beta-84 chromophore, and the other to the decay from the thermally equilibrated state between another type of beta-84 chromophore and the alpha-allophycocyanin B chromophore. An additional slow decay process was resolved at -196 degrees C. We also compared the component spectra obtained using the PMSE method with the decay-associated spectra obtained using the global analysis.
Hoffman, Ross N.; Ardizzone, Joseph V.; Leidner, S. Mark; Smith, Deborah K.; Atlas, Robert M.
2013-04-01
The cross-calibrated, multi-platform (CCMP) ocean surface wind project [Atlas et al., 2011] generates high-quality, high-resolution, vector winds over the world's oceans beginning with the 1987 launch of the SSM/I F08, using Remote Sensing Systems (RSS) microwave satellite wind retrievals, as well as in situ observations from ships and buoys. The variational analysis method [VAM, Hoffman et al., 2003] is at the center of the CCMP project's analysis procedures for combining observations of the wind. The VAM was developed as a smoothing spline and so implicitly defines the background error covariance by means of several constraints with adjustable weights, and does not provide an explicit estimate of the analysis error. Here we report on our research to develop uncertainty estimates for wind speed for the VAM inputs and outputs, i.e., for the background (B), the observations (O) and the analysis (A) wind speed, based on the Desroziers et al. [2005] diagnostics (DD hereafter). The DD are applied to the CCMP ocean surface wind data sets to estimate wind speed errors of the ECMWF background, the microwave satellite observations and the resulting CCMP analysis. The DD confirm that the ECMWF operational surface wind speed error standard deviations vary with latitude in the range 0.7-1.5 m/s and that the cross-calibrated Remote Sensing Systems (RSS) wind speed retrievals standard deviations are in the range 0.5-0.8 m/s. Further the estimated CCMP analysis wind speed standard deviations are in the range 0.2-0.4 m/s. The results suggests the need to revise the parameterization of the errors due to the FGAT (first guess at the appropriate time) procedure. Errors for wind speeds S. M. Leidner, J. C. Jusem, D. K. Smith, and D. Gombos, A cross-calibrated, multi-platform ocean surface wind velocity product for meteorological and oceanographic applications, Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc., 92, 157-174, 2011, doi:10.1175/2010BAMS2946.1. Desroziers, G., L. Berre, B. Chapnik, and P. Poli
SCIAMACHY Level 1 data: calibration concept and in-flight calibration
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
G. Lichtenberg
2006-01-01
Full Text Available The calibration of SCIAMACHY was thoroughly checked since the instrument was launched on-board ENVISAT in February 2002. While SCIAMACHY's functional performance is excellent since launch, a number of technical difficulties have appeared, that required adjustments to the calibration. The problems can be separated into three types: (1 Those caused by the instrument and/or platform environment. Among these are the high water content in the satellite structure and/or MLI layer. This results in the deposition of ice on the detectors in channels 7 and 8 which seriously affects the retrievals in the IR, mostly because of the continuous change of the slit function caused by scattering of the light through the ice layer. Additionally a light leak in channel 7 severely hampers any retrieval from this channel. (2 Problems due to errors in the on-ground calibration and/or data processing affecting for example the radiometric calibration. A new approach based on a mixture of on-ground and in-flight data is shortly described here. (3 Problems caused by principal limitations of the calibration concept, e.g. the possible appearance of spectral structures after the polarisation correction due to unavoidable errors in the determination of atmospheric polarisation. In this paper we give a complete overview of the calibration and problems that still have to be solved. We will also give an indication of the effect of calibration problems on retrievals where possible. Since the operational processing chain is currently being updated and no newly processed data are available at this point in time, for some calibration issues only a rough estimate of the effect on Level 2 products can be given. However, it is the intention of this paper to serve as a future reference for detailed studies into specific calibration issues.
Pandya, Shwetang N; Peterson, Byron J; Sano, Ryuichi; Mukai, Kiyofumi; Drapiko, Evgeny A; Alekseyev, Andrey G; Akiyama, Tsuyoshi; Itomi, Muneji; Watanabe, Takashi
2014-05-01
A thin metal foil is used as a broad band radiation absorber for the InfraRed imaging Video Bolometer (IRVB), which is a vital diagnostic for studying three-dimensional radiation structures from high temperature plasmas in the Large Helical Device. The two-dimensional (2D) heat diffusion equation of the foil needs to be solved numerically to estimate the radiation falling on the foil through a pinhole geometry. The thermal, physical, and optical properties of the metal foil are among the inputs to the code besides the spatiotemporal variation of temperature, for reliable estimation of the exhaust power from the plasma illuminating the foil. The foil being very thin and of considerable size, non-uniformities in these properties need to be determined by suitable calibration procedures. The graphite spray used for increasing the surface emissivity also contributes to a change in the thermal properties. This paper discusses the application of the thermographic technique for determining the spatial variation of the effective in-plane thermal diffusivity of the thin metal foil and graphite composite. The paper also discusses the advantages of this technique in the light of limitations and drawbacks presented by other calibration techniques being practiced currently. The technique is initially applied to a material of known thickness and thermal properties for validation and finally to thin foils of gold and platinum both with two different thicknesses. It is observed that the effect of the graphite layer on the estimation of the thermal diffusivity becomes more pronounced for thinner foils and the measured values are approximately 2.5-3 times lower than the literature values. It is also observed that the percentage reduction in thermal diffusivity due to the coating is lower for high thermal diffusivity materials such as gold. This fact may also explain, albeit partially, the higher sensitivity of the platinum foil as compared to gold.
Lau, Kristen C.; Kwon, Young Joon; Aziz, Moez Karim; Acciavatti, Raymond J.; Maidment, Andrew D. A.
2016-04-01
Dual-energy contrast-enhanced digital mammography (DE CE-DM) uses an iodinated contrast agent to image the perfusion and vasculature of the breast. DE images are obtained by a weighted logarithmic subtraction of the high-energy (HE) and low-energy (LE) image pairs. We hypothesized that the optimal DE subtraction weighting factor is thickness-dependent, and developed a method for determining breast tissue composition and thickness in DE CE-DM. Phantoms were constructed using uniform blocks of 100% glandular-equivalent and 100% adipose-equivalent material. The thickness of the phantoms ranged from 3 to 8 cm, in 1 cm increments. For a given thickness, the glandular-adipose composition of the phantom was varied using different combinations of blocks. The logarithmic LE and logarithmic HE signal intensities were measured; they decrease linearly with increasing glandularity for a given thickness. The signals decrease with increasing phantom thickness and the x-ray signal decreases linearly with thickness for a given glandularity. As the thickness increases, the attenuation difference per additional glandular block decreases, indicating beam hardening. From the calibration mapping, we have demonstrated that we can predict percent glandular tissue and thickness when given two distinct signal intensities. Our results facilitate the subtraction of tissue at the boundaries of the breast, and aid in discriminating between contrast agent uptake in glandular tissue and subtraction artifacts.
Al-Hadyan, Khaled; Elewisy, Sara; Moftah, Belal; Shoukri, Mohamed; Alzahrany, Awad; Alsbeih, Ghazi
2014-12-01
In cases of public or occupational radiation overexposure and eventual radiological accidents, it is important to provide dose assessment, medical triage, diagnoses and treatment to victims. Cytogenetic bio-dosimetry based on scoring of dicentric chromosomal aberrations assay (DCA) is the "gold standard" biotechnology technique for estimating medically relevant radiation doses. Under the auspices of the National Science, Technology and Innovation Plan in Saudi Arabia, we have set up a biodosimetry laboratory and produced a national standard dose-response calibration curve for DCA, pre-required to estimate the doses received. For this, the basic cytogenetic DCA technique needed to be established. Peripheral blood lymphocytes were collected from four healthy volunteers and irradiated with radiation doses between 0 and 5 Gy of 320 keV X-rays. Then, lymphocytes were PHA stimulated, Colcemid division arrested and stained cytogenetic slides were prepared. The Metafer4 system (MetaSystem) was used for automatic and manually assisted metaphase finding and scoring of dicentric chromosomes. Results were fit to the linear-quadratic dose-effect model according to the IAEA EPR-Biodosimetry-2011 report. The resulting manually assisted dose-response calibration curve (Y = 0.0017 + 0.026 × D + 0.081 × D(2)) was in the range of those described in other populations. Although the automated scoring over-and-under estimates DCA at low (2 Gy) doses, respectively, it showed potential for use in triage mode to segregate between victims with potential risk to develop acute radiotoxicity syndromes. In conclusion, we have successfully established the first biodosimetry laboratory in the region and have produced a preliminary national dose-response calibration curve. The laboratory can now contribute to the national preparedness plan in response to eventual radiation emergencies in addition to providing information for decision makers and public health officials who assess the
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Szi-Wen Chen
Full Text Available In this paper, a reweighted ℓ1-minimization based Compressed Sensing (CS algorithm incorporating the Integral Pulse Frequency Modulation (IPFM model for spectral estimation of HRV is introduced. Knowing as a novel sensing/sampling paradigm, the theory of CS asserts certain signals that are considered sparse or compressible can be possibly reconstructed from substantially fewer measurements than those required by traditional methods. Our study aims to employ a novel reweighted ℓ1-minimization CS method for deriving the spectrum of the modulating signal of IPFM model from incomplete RR measurements for HRV assessments. To evaluate the performance of HRV spectral estimation, a quantitative measure, referred to as the Percent Error Power (PEP that measures the percentage of difference between the true spectrum and the spectrum derived from the incomplete RR dataset, was used. We studied the performance of spectral reconstruction from incomplete simulated and real HRV signals by experimentally truncating a number of RR data accordingly in the top portion, in the bottom portion, and in a random order from the original RR column vector. As a result, for up to 20% data truncation/loss the proposed reweighted ℓ1-minimization CS method produced, on average, 2.34%, 2.27%, and 4.55% PEP in the top, bottom, and random data-truncation cases, respectively, on Autoregressive (AR model derived simulated HRV signals. Similarly, for up to 20% data loss the proposed method produced 5.15%, 4.33%, and 0.39% PEP in the top, bottom, and random data-truncation cases, respectively, on a real HRV database drawn from PhysioNet. Moreover, results generated by a number of intensive numerical experiments all indicated that the reweighted ℓ1-minimization CS method always achieved the most accurate and high-fidelity HRV spectral estimates in every aspect, compared with the ℓ1-minimization based method and Lomb's method used for estimating the spectrum of HRV from
Fenyvesi, A
2015-01-01
Spectral yield of p+Be neutrons emitted by thick (stopping) beryllium target bombarded by 16 MeV protons was estimated via extrapolation of literature data. The spectrum was validated via multi-foil activation method and irradiation of 2N2222 transistors. The hardness parameter (NIEL scaling factor) for displacement damage in bulk silicon was calculated and measured and kappa = 1.26 +- 0.1 was obtained.
Trofimov, Vyacheslav A.; Peskov, Nikolay V.; Kirillov, Dmitry A.
2012-10-01
One of the problems arising in Time-Domain THz spectroscopy for the problem of security is the developing the criteria for assessment of probability for the detection and identification of the explosive and drugs. We analyze the efficiency of using the correlation function and another functional (more exactly, spectral norm) for this aim. These criteria are applied to spectral lines dynamics. For increasing the reliability of the assessment we subtract the averaged value of THz signal during time of analysis of the signal: it means deleting the constant from this part of the signal. Because of this, we can increase the contrast of assessment. We compare application of the Fourier-Gabor transform with unbounded (for example, Gaussian) window, which slides along the signal, for finding the spectral lines dynamics with application of the Fourier transform in short time interval (FTST), in which the Fourier transform is applied to parts of the signals, for the same aim. These methods are close each to other. Nevertheless, they differ by series of frequencies which they use. It is important for practice that the optimal window shape depends on chosen method for obtaining the spectral dynamics. The probability enhancements if we can find the train of pulses with different frequencies, which follow sequentially. We show that there is possibility to get pure spectral lines dynamics even under the condition of distorted spectrum of the substance response on the action of the THz pulse.
FY2008 Calibration Systems Final Report
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Cannon, Bret D.; Myers, Tanya L.; Broocks, Bryan T.
2009-01-01
The Calibrations project has been exploring alternative technologies for calibration of passive sensors in the infrared (IR) spectral region. In particular, we have investigated using quantum cascade lasers (QCLs) because these devices offer several advantages over conventional blackbodies such as reductions in size and weight while providing a spectral source in the IR with high output power. These devices can provide a rapid, multi-level radiance scheme to fit any nonlinear behavior as well as a spectral calibration that includes the fore-optics, which is currently not available for on-board calibration systems.
Siddig, Ahmed A.; Ellison, Aaron M.; Scott Jackson
2015-01-01
Herpetologists and conservation biologists frequently use convenient and cost-effective, but less accurate, abundance indices (e.g., number of individuals collected under artificial cover boards or during natural objects surveys) in lieu of more accurate, but costly and destructive, population size estimators to detect and monitor size, state, and trends of amphibian populations. Although there are advantages and disadvantages to each approach, reliable use of abundance indices requires that ...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Tanja M Schuster
Full Text Available The buckwheat family Polygonaceae is a diverse group of plants and is a good model for investigating biogeography, breeding systems, coevolution with symbionts such as ants and fungi, functional trait evolution, hybridization, invasiveness, morphological plasticity, pollen morphology and wood anatomy. The main goal of this study was to obtain age estimates for Polygonaceae by calibrating a Bayesian phylogenetic analysis, using a relaxed molecular clock with fossil data. Based on the age estimates, we also develop hypotheses about the historical biogeography of the Southern Hemisphere group Muehlenbeckia. We are interested in addressing whether vicariance or dispersal could account for the diversification of Muehlenbeckia, which has a "Gondwanan" distribution. Eighty-one species of Polygonaceae were analysed with MrBayes to infer species relationships. One nuclear (nrITS and three chloroplast markers (the trnL-trnF spacer region, matK and ndhF genes were used. The molecular data were also analysed with Beast to estimate divergence times. Seven calibration points including fossil pollen and a leaf fossil of Muehlenbeckia were used to infer node ages. Results of the Beast analyses indicate an age of 110.9 (exponential/lognormal priors/118.7 (uniform priors million years (Myr with an uncertainty interval of (90.7-125.0 Myr for the stem age of Polygonaceae. This age is older than previously thought (Maastrichtian, approximately 65.5-70.6 Myr. The estimated divergence time for Muehlenbeckia is 41.0/41.6 (39.6-47.8 Myr and its crown clade is 20.5/22.3 (14.2-33.5 Myr old. Because the breakup of Gondwana occurred from 95-30 Myr ago, diversification of Muehlenbeckia is best explained by oceanic long-distance and maybe stepping-stone dispersal rather than vicariance. This study is the first to give age estimates for clades of Polygonaceae and functions as a jumping-off point for future studies on the historical biogeography of the family.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Habermehl M. A.
2012-04-01
Full Text Available Groundwater contains dissolved He, and its concentration increases with the residence time of the groundwater. Thus, if the 4He accumulation rate is constant, the dissolved 4He concentration in ground-water is equivalent to the residence time. Since accumulation mechanisms are not easily separated in the field, we estimate the total He accumulation rate during the half-life of 36Cl (3.01 × 105 years. We estimated the 4He accumulation rate, calibrated using both cosmogenic and subsurface-produced 36Cl, in the Great Artesian Basin (GAB, Australia, and the subsurface-produced 36Cl increase at the Äspö Hard Rock Laboratory, Sweden. 4He accumulation rates range from (1.9±0.3 × 10−11 to (15±6 × 10−11 ccSTP·cm−3·y−1 in GAB and (1.8 ±0.7 × 10−8 ccSTP·cm−3·y−1 at Äspö. We confirmed a ground-water flow with a residence time of 0.7-1.06 Ma in GAB and stagnant groundwater with the long residence time of 4.5 Ma at Äspö. Therefore, the groundwater residence time can be deduced from the dissolved 4He concentration and the 4He accumulation rate calibrated by 36Cl, provided that 4He accumulation, groundwater flow, and other geo-environmental conditions have remained unchanged for the required amount of geological time.
Finkenbiner, C. E.; Avery, W. A.; Franz, T. E.; Munoz-Arriola, F.; Rosolem, R.
2014-12-01
Despite its critical importance to global food security, approximately 60% of water used for agriculture is wasted each year through inadequate water conservation, losses in distribution, and inefficient irrigation. Therefore, in order to coordinate a strategy to accomplish the agricultural demands in the future we must maintain a stable global food and water trade while increasing crop yield and efficiency. This research aims to improve the operability of the novel cosmic-ray neutron method used for estimating field scale soil moisture. The sensor works by passively counting the above ground low-energy neutrons which correlates to the amount of water in the measurement volume (a circle with radius of ~300 m and vertical depth of ~30 cm). Because the sensor responds to different forms of water (sources of hydrogen), estimates of background water in the mineral soil and soil organic matter must be accounted in order to minimize measurement error. Here we compared field-scale estimates of soil mineral water and soil organic matter with readily available global datasets. Using the newly compiled 1 km resolution Global Soil Dataset (GSDE), we investigate the correlation between (1) soil mineral water and clay content and (2) in-situ soil organic material. Preliminary results of in-situ samples from forty study sites around the globe suggest the GSDE dataset has sufficiently low bias and uncertainty (~ within 0.01 g/g of water equivalent) to better isolate the soil moisture signal from the neutron count information. Incorporation of this dataset will allow for real-time soil moisture mapping of hundreds of center-pivots using the mobile cosmic-ray sensor without the need of time-consuming in-situ soil sampling. The incorporation of this novel technique for soil moisture management has the potential to increase the efficiency of irrigation water use.
Quantitative measurement of speech sound distortions with the aid of minimum variance spectral es