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Sample records for calf muscle volume

  1. Calf muscle volume estimates: Implications for Botulinum toxin treatment?

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    Bandholm, Thomas; Sonne-Holm, Stig; Thomsen, Carsten

    2007-01-01

    An optimal botulinum toxin dose may be related to the volume of the targeted muscle. We investigated the suitability of using ultrasound and anthropometry to estimate gastrocnemius and soleus muscle volume. Gastrocnemius and soleus muscle thickness was measured in 11 cadaveric human legs, using u...

  2. Relative strengths of the calf muscles based on MRI volume measurements.

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    Jeng, Clifford L; Thawait, Gaurav K; Kwon, John Y; Machado, Antonio; Boyle, James W; Campbell, John; Carrino, John A

    2012-05-01

    In 1985, Silver et al. published a cadaver study which determined the relative order of strength of the muscles in the calf. Muscle strength, which is proportional to volume, was obtained by dissecting out the individual muscles, weighing them, and then multiplying by the specific gravity. No similar studies have been performed using {\\it in vivo} measurements of muscle volume. Ten normal subjects underwent 3-Tesla MRI's of both lower extremities using non-fat-saturated T2 SPACE sequences. The volume for each muscle was determined by tracing the muscle contour on sequential axial images and then interpolating the volume using imaging software. The results from this study differ from Silver's original article. The lateral head of the gastrocnemius was found to be stronger than the tibialis anterior muscle. The FHL and EDL muscles were both stronger than the peroneus longus. There was no significant difference in strength between the peroneus longus and brevis muscles. This revised order of muscle strengths in the calf based on in vivo MRI findings may assist surgeons in determining the optimal tendons to transfer in order to address muscle weakness and deformity.

  3. Electrically induced short-lasting tetanus of the calf muscles for prevention of deep vein thrombosis.

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    Lindström, B; Korsan-Bengtsen, K; Jonsson, O; Petruson, B; Pettersson, S; Wikstrand, J

    1982-04-01

    Electrical calf muscle stimulation during surgery has been used for the prevention of deep vein thrombosis (DVT) with varied results in several studies. This effect is mainly achieved by the reduction of venous stasis in the legs. Another possible beneficial effect might be an increased fibrinolytic activity of the blood secondary to the muscle contractions. Previously, single electrical impulses have been used for stimulation, giving rise to 'single twitches' in the muscles. In the present study the effect on calf volume of muscle stimulation with groups of impulses giving a short-lasting tetanus was investigated. Changes in calf volume were recorded by strain gauge plethysmography. Optimal values for duration, number and frequency of the impulses within the groups were determined. Stimulation with groups of impulses reduced calf venous volume approximately three times more efficiently than stimulation with single impulses. Calf muscle stimulation did not enhance the increase in fibrinolytic activity of venous blood observed after oesophago- or laryngoscopies under general anaesthesia.

  4. Pseudohypertrophy of the calf muscles in a patient with diabetic neuropathy: a case report

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    Lee, Eun Jin; Lee, Young Hwan; Jung, Kyung Jae; Park, Young Chan; Kim, Ho Kyun; Kim, Ok Dong [School of Medicine, Catholic University of Daegu, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-09-15

    Partial or complete loss of innervation of skeletal muscle leads to muscle weakness and atrophic changes, resulting in decreased muscle volume with fatty replacement. Rarely, enlargement of the affected muscle may occur, related to two processes: true hypertrophy and pseudohypertrophy. We report CT and MR findings of the pseudohypertrophy of calf muscles, especially the soleus and gastrocnemius muscles, in a patient with diabetic neuropathy that showed increased muscle volume with diffuse fatty replacement and the presence of scanty muscle fibers.

  5. Reversal of lower limb edema by calf muscle pump stimulation.

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    Goddard, Ayana A; Pierce, Carolyn S; McLeod, Kenneth J

    2008-01-01

    Peripheral edema (PE) is commonly coupled with heart failure, restrictive cardiomyopathy, nephrotic syndrome, renal failure, and hypoproteinemia. Diuretics and/or limb elevation, although commonly prescribed to treat PE, are often insufficient to remove sufficient fluid to prevent complications. We assessed the ability of the calf muscle pump (CMP) stimulation to reverse PE. Fluid volume was evaluated by air plethysmography in the right legs of 54 adult women (mean age 46.7 +/- 1.5 years) following venous status assessment. Change in calf volume was assessed during 30 minutes of quiet sitting, followed by 30 minutes of sitting with CMP stimulation via micromechanical stimulation of the plantar surface. Leg volume changes demonstrated a bimodal distribution. Leg volume decreased during quiet sitting in 56% of the study group, whereas in 44% of the group, significant lower leg fluid pooling was evident (increase in calf volume of 14.0 +/- 0.3 mL/h). CMP stimulation reversed the fluid pooling in the edematous group (-2.7 +/- 0.1 mL/h) and was able to accelerate fluid removal in the nonedematous group. Approximately two fifths of adult women experience substantial pooling when their lower limbs are maintained in a dependent position. Lower-extremity edema exhibited by these women may primarily be due to inadequate calf muscle tone because exogenous stimulation of the CMP was sufficient to halt and reverse fluid pooling. Whether CMP stimulation would provide a means to treat PE in individuals with edema-related health complications, such as congestive heart failure, merits further investigation.

  6. Blood flow and oxygenation in peritendinous tissue and calf muscle during dynamic exercise in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boushel, R; Langberg, Henning; Green, Stefan Mathias

    2000-01-01

    1. Circulation around tendons may act as a shunt for muscle during exercise. The perfusion and oxygenation of Achilles' peritendinous tissue was measured in parallel with that of calf muscle during exercise to determine (1) whether blood flow is restricted in peritendinous tissue during exercise...... with a rise in leg vascular conductance and microvascular haemoglobin volume, despite elevated systemic vascular resistance. 4. The parallel rise in calf muscle and peritendinous blood flow and fall in O2 saturation during exercise indicate that blood flow is coupled to oxidative metabolism in both tissue...... by dye dilution, arterial pressure by an arterial catheter-transducer, and muscle and peritendinous O2 saturation by spatially resolved spectroscopy (SRS). 3. Calf blood flow rose 20-fold with exercise, reaching 44 +/- 7 ml (100 g)-1 min-1 (mean +/- s.e.m. ) at 9 W, while Achilles' peritendinous flow...

  7. Slow volume changes in calf and thigh during cycle ergometer exercise.

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    Stick, C; Heinemann, W; Witzleb, E

    1990-01-01

    To study the transcapillary fluid movements in the human lower limb in the upright body position and during muscle exercise, the slow changes in thigh and calf volumes were measured by mercury-in-rubber-strain gauge plethysmography. Measurements were carried out on 20 healthy volunteers while sitting, standing and doing cycle ergometer exercise at intensities of 50 and 100-W. A plethysmographic recording of slow extravascular volume changes during muscle exercise was possible because movement artefacts were eliminated by low-pass filtering. While standing and sitting the volumes of both thigh and calf increased due to enhanced transcapillary filtration. While standing the mean rate of increase was 0.13%.min-1 in the calf and 0.09%.min-1 in the thigh. During cycle ergometer exercise at 50 and 100 W, the calf volume decreased with a mean rate of -0.09.min-1. In contrast, the thigh volume did not change significantly during exercise at 50 W and increased at 100 W. Most of the increase occurred during the first half of the experimental period i.e. between min 2 and 12, amounting to +0.6%. Thus, simultaneous measurements revealed opposite changes in the thigh and calf. This demonstrates that the conflicting findings reported in the literature may have occurred because opposite changes can occur in different muscle groups of the working limb at the same time. Lowered venous pressure, increased lymph flow and increased tissue pressure in the contracting muscle are considered to have caused the reduction in calf volume during exercise.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  8. Can Treadmill Perturbations Evoke Stretch Reflexes in the Calf Muscles?

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    Lizeth H Sloot

    Full Text Available Disinhibition of reflexes is a problem amongst spastic patients, for it limits a smooth and efficient execution of motor functions during gait. Treadmill belt accelerations may potentially be used to measure reflexes during walking, i.e. by dorsal flexing the ankle and stretching the calf muscles, while decelerations show the modulation of reflexes during a reduction of sensory feedback. The aim of the current study was to examine if belt accelerations and decelerations of different intensities applied during the stance phase of treadmill walking can evoke reflexes in the gastrocnemius, soleus and tibialis anterior in healthy subjects. Muscle electromyography and joint kinematics were measured in 10 subjects. To determine whether stretch reflexes occurred, we assessed modelled musculo-tendon length and stretch velocity, the amount of muscle activity, as well as the incidence of bursts or depressions in muscle activity with their time delays, and co-contraction between agonist and antagonist muscle. Although the effect on the ankle angle was small with 2.8±1.0°, the perturbations caused clear changes in muscle length and stretch velocity relative to unperturbed walking. Stretched muscles showed an increasing incidence of bursts in muscle activity, which occurred after a reasonable electrophysiological time delay (163-191 ms. Their amplitude was related to the muscle stretch velocity and not related to co-contraction of the antagonist muscle. These effects increased with perturbation intensity. Shortened muscles showed opposite effects, with a depression in muscle activity of the calf muscles. The perturbations only slightly affected the spatio-temporal parameters, indicating that normal walking was retained. Thus, our findings showed that treadmill perturbations can evoke reflexes in the calf muscles and tibialis anterior. This comprehensive study could form the basis for clinical implementation of treadmill perturbations to functionally

  9. Can Treadmill Perturbations Evoke Stretch Reflexes in the Calf Muscles?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sloot, L.H.; van den Noort, J.C.; van der Krogt, M.M.; Bruijn, S.M.; Harlaar, J.

    2015-01-01

    Disinhibition of reflexes is a problem amongst spastic patients, for it limits a smooth and efficient execution of motor functions during gait. Treadmill belt accelerations may potentially be used to measure reflexes during walking, i.e. by dorsal flexing the ankle and stretching the calf muscles,

  10. Assessment of venous muscle pump function by ambulatory calf volume strain gauge plethysmography after surgical treatment of varicose veins: a prospective study of 21 patients.

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    Struckmann, J R

    1987-03-01

    A prospective study of the improvement in leg muscle pump function after radical surgery was performed for treatment of varicose veins. Venous muscle pump function was assessed in 21 patients with primary varicose veins by means of ambulatory strain gauge plethysmography immediately before surgery and 3 months and 60 months after surgical treatment of varicose veins. The physiologic documentation of the operative efficacy was provided by the mean venous reflux, which was reduced by 54% (p less than 0.001), and the mean expelled volume, which was increased by 58% (p less than 0.001). Initially, all patients had improved venous muscle pump function. This improvement was still present 60 months after surgery. At clinical assessment 3 months after surgery, it was noted that 90% of the patients were without residual varicose veins (p less than 0.01). Sixty months after surgery, 71% of the patients were without apparent varicose veins (p less than 0.05). Subjective symptoms had virtually disappeared 3 months after surgery (p less than 0.001) but were found to a variable extent in 80% of the patients at the 60-month control follow-up. It is concluded that ambulatory strain gauge plethysmography may quantitate the effect of surgery in patients with venous valvular incompetence; in addition to measurements of refilling time, it is able to measure the muscle-pump-generated expelled volume because of in-place electrical calibration.

  11. Congenital absence of superficial posterior compartment calf muscles.

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    Tibrewal, Saket; Alyas, Faisal; Vemulapalli, Krishna

    2014-06-01

    Although various congenital abnormalities have been described, congenital absence of calf musculature is extremely rare, with only one report on its complete absence. We are the first to describe a case of congenital absence of muscles of the superficial posterior compartment of the calf presenting in a toddler. The child presented with a history of a painless limp, however no significant difference was found in functional gait analysis. We suggest that such cases should be monitored and parents can be reassured that no immediate treatment is required.

  12. Effect of exercise on calf muscle pump function in patients with chronic venous disease.

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    Yang, D; Vandongen, Y K; Stacey, M C

    1999-03-01

    Musculoskeletal dysfunction may be associated with poor calf muscle pump function in patients with chronic venous ulceration. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of physical exercise on calf muscle pump function. Twenty patients were recruited into a 6-week intensive exercise programme. Calf muscle function and calf muscle pump function were assessed using an isokinetic device and air plethysmography respectively, before and after the exercise programme. There was significant improvement in calf muscle pump function, measured as increased ejection fraction and decreased residual fraction (P venous reflux was not altered (P > 0.05). Calf muscle strength and endurance parameters all increased, but not significantly (P > 0.05). Poor calf muscle pump function in patients with chronic venous ulceration can be improved by physical exercise.

  13. Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma with Calf Muscle Localization

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    Laura Bourdeanu

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Although diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL usually occurs in the lymph nodes, approximately 30–40% of the time it can have an extranodal site of involvement and it can arise in nearly every body site such as intestine, bone, breast, liver, skin, lung, and central nervous system. Muscle involvement of DLBCL is especially uncommon, comprising 0.5% of extranodal NHL. We report a case of a 72-year-old man with extranodal DLBCL of a unique manifestation in the calf muscle, involving predominantly the gastrocnemius muscle. The patient achieved complete response and remained free of local recurrence or metastasis following diagnosis.

  14. [A swollen, painless calf caused by neurogenic muscle (pseudo)-hypertrophy

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    Warrenburg, B.P.C. van de; Zwarts, M.J.; Engelen, B.G.M. van

    2003-01-01

    Neurogenic muscle (pseudo) hypertrophy of the calf was diagnosed in a 60-year-old man, who presented with chronic, painless and unilateral calf enlargement caused by a chronic S1 radiculopathy due to a lumbar disc hernia in the L5-S1 interspace. The differential diagnosis of a swelling of the calf

  15. Avaliação do volume de fluxo venoso da bomba sural por ultra-sonografia Doppler durante cinesioterapia ativa e passiva: um estudo piloto Evaluation of venous flow volume of the calf muscle pump by Doppler ultrasound during active and passive kinesiotherapy: a pilot study

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    Carmindo Carlos Cardoso Campos

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXTO: O fisioterapeuta na unidade hospitalar atua sobre os efeitos da hipoatividade ou inatividade do paciente acamado. Na prática diária, a contração do músculo da panturrilha é difundida entre os profissionais de saúde no ambiente hospitalar, principalmente nos períodos de pré e pós-operatório, como forma de diminuir a estase venosa e os riscos de trombose venosa profunda nos membros inferiores. OBJETIVO: Avaliar o volume de fluxo venoso na bomba sural, através de ultra-sonografia doppler, durante cinesioterapia ativa e passiva (flexão plantar do tornozelo. MÉTODOS: A amostra foi constituída por 30 indivíduos escolhidos aleatoriamente e submetidos a ultra-sonografia doppler da veia poplítea direita, visando mensurar o volume de fluxo sanguíneo em quatro momentos: repouso, compressão manual da panturrilha, movimentação passiva e ativa do tornozelo em flexão plantar. Na análise dos resultados, utilizou-se o teste t, sendo utilizado um valor de p BACKGROUND: In-hospital physical therapists work on the effects of hypoactivity or inactivity of bedridden patients. In daily practice, contraction of the calf muscle is commonly performed by health professionals in hospitals, especially in pre- and post-operative periods as a form of reducing venous stasis and risk of deep venous thrombosis in the lower limbs. OBJECTIVE: To assess venous flow volume at the calf muscle pump using color Doppler ultrasound during active and passive kinesiotherapy (ankle plantar flexion. METHODS: The sample consisted of 30 individuals randomly selected and submitted to color Doppler ultrasound of the right popliteal vein, aiming to measure blood flow volume in four periods: rest, manual calf compression, active and passive ankle movement in plantar flexion. The t test was used for statistical analysis, and p < 0.05 was used as an index of statistical significance. RESULTS: The sample consisted of 16 females and 14 males. Means were as follows: age

  16. Congenital agenesis of the superficial posterior compartment calf muscles in a 13-month-old infant.

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    Kang, Jin Young; Jang, Dae-Hyun

    2014-11-01

    Muscle agenesis may induce cosmetic and functional deficits, particularly if the muscle is an axial limb or a large muscle. Limb muscle agenesis is a rare condition. Here, the authors report the case of a 13-mo-old girl with unilateral atrophic calf and gait abnormality. Magnetic resonance imaging confirmed agenesis of the posterior superficial compartment of the calf. The patient showed an out-toeing calcaneal gait and fibular length discrepancy secondarily during growth. Normal embryology and the differential diagnostic point of foot deformity as well as the clinical implications of calf agenesis are described.

  17. EFFECT OF MUSCLE ENERGY TECHNIQUE ON FLEXIBILITY OF HAMSTRING AND CALF MUSCLES AND SPRINTING PERFORMANCE IN SPRINTERS

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    M. Prasad Naik

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Muscle energy technique is used for restoring normal tone in hypertonic muscles, strengthening weak muscles, preparing muscle for subsequent stretching, one of the main uses of this method is to normalize joint range which may help in increase flexibility and performance in sprinters. The aim of the study is to evaluate the effect of muscle energy technique on flexibility of hamstrings and calf muscles and sprinting performance in sprinters. The objective of the study is to determine the muscle energy technique on hamstrings and calf muscle flexibility and sprinting performance in sprinters by using goniometer and timing of sprinting performance. Method: The study design is an experimental study in which 30 male sprinters were recruited in this study. The study sample included all male healthy sprinters, aged between 15 -30 years. All subjects received warm up, muscle energy technique and cool down exercises daily for a period of 6weeks.The outcome measures are 90°-90°popliteal angle for assessing hamstring flexibility and ROM of ankle joint for calf muscles by universal goniometer and sprinting performance time by using stopwatch. Results: Independent t-test and paired t- test are used to analyse the data. A significant difference was found between pre and post values of hamstring and calf muscle flexibility and sprinting performance after the analysis in this study. Conclusion: This study shows that there was a significant effect of MET on hamstring and calf muscle flexibility and sprinting performance.

  18. Calf muscle strain injuries in sport: a systematic review of risk factors for injury.

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    Green, Brady; Pizzari, Tania

    2017-08-01

    To systematically review the literature to identify risk factors for calf strain injury, and to direct future research into calf muscle injuries. Systematic review DATA SOURCES: Database searches conducted for Medline, CINAHL, EMBASE, AMED, AUSPORT, SportDiscus, PEDro and Cochrane Library. Manual reference checks, ahead of press searches, citation tracking. From inception to June 2016. Studies evaluating and presenting data related to intrinsic or extrinsic risk factors for sustaining future calf injury. Ten studies were obtained for review. Subjects across football, Australian football, rugby union, basketball and triathlon were reported on, representing 5397 athletes and 518 calf/ lower leg muscle injuries. Best evidence synthesis highlights chronological age and previous history of calf strain are the strongest risk factors for future calf muscle injury. Previous lower limb injuries (hamstring, quadriceps, adductor, knee) show some limited evidence for an association. Numerous factors lack evidence of an association, including height, weight, gender and side dominance. Increasing age and previous calf strain injury are the most predictive of future calf injury. The overall paucity of evidence and the trend for studies of a high risk of bias show that further research needs to be undertaken. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  19. No change in calf muscle passive stiffness after botulinum toxin injection in children with cerebral palsy.

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    Alhusaini, Adel A A; Crosbie, Jack; Shepherd, Roberta B; Dean, Catherine M; Scheinberg, Adam

    2011-06-01

    Stiffness and shortening of the calf muscle due to neural or mechanical factors can profoundly affect motor function. The aim of this study was to investigate non-neurally mediated calf-muscle tightness in children with cerebral palsy (CP) before and after botulinum toxin type A (BoNT-A) injection. Sixteen children with spastic CP (seven females, nine males; eight at Gross Motor Function Classification System level I, eight at level II; age range 4-10 y) and calf muscle spasticity were tested before and during the pharmaceutically active phase after injection of BoNT-A. Measures of passive muscle compliance and viscoelastic responses, hysteresis, and the gradient of the torque-angle curve were computed and compared before and after injection. Although there was a slight, but significant increase in ankle range of motion after BoNT-A injection and a small, significant decrease in the torque required to achieve plantigrade and 5° of dorsiflexion, no significant difference in myotendinous stiffness or hysteresis were detected after BoNT-A injection. Despite any effect on neurally mediated responses, the compliance of the calf muscle was not changed and the muscle continued to offer significant resistance to passive motion of the ankle. These findings suggest that additional treatment approaches are required to supplement the effects of BoNT-A injections when managing children with calf muscle spasticity. © The Authors. Developmental Medicine & Child Neurology © 2011 Mac Keith Press.

  20. Calf Muscle Performance Deficits Remain 7 Years After an Achilles Tendon Rupture.

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    Brorsson, Annelie; Grävare Silbernagel, Karin; Olsson, Nicklas; Nilsson Helander, Katarina

    2017-10-01

    Optimizing calf muscle performance seems to play an important role in minimizing impairments and symptoms after an Achilles tendon rupture (ATR). The literature lacks long-term follow-up studies after ATR that describe calf muscle performance over time. The primary aim was to evaluate calf muscle performance and patient-reported outcomes at a mean of 7 years after ATR in patients included in a prospective, randomized controlled trial. A secondary aim was to evaluate whether improvement in calf muscle performance continued after the 2-year follow-up. Cohort study; Level of evidence, 2. Sixty-six subjects (13 women, 53 men) with a mean age of 50 years (SD, 8.5 years) were evaluated at a mean of 7 years (SD, 1 year) years after their ATR. Thirty-four subjects had surgical treatment and 32 had nonsurgical treatment. Patient-reported outcomes were evaluated with Achilles tendon Total Rupture Score (ATRS) and Physical Activity Scale (PAS). Calf muscle performance was evaluated with single-leg standing heel-rise test, concentric strength power heel-rise test, and single-legged hop for distance. Limb Symmetry Index (LSI = injured side/healthy side × 100) was calculated for side-to-side differences. Seven years after ATR, the injured side showed decreased values in all calf muscle performance tests ( P performance did not continue after the 2-year follow-up. Heel-rise height increased significantly ( P = .002) between the 1-year (10.8 cm) and the 7-year (11.5 cm) follow-up assessments. The median ATRS was 96 (of a possible score of 100) and the median PAS was 4 (of a possible score of 6), indicating minor patient-reported symptoms and fairly high physical activity. No significant differences were found in calf muscle performance or patient-reported outcomes between the treatment groups except for the LSI for heel-rise repetitions. Continued deficits in calf muscle endurance and strength remained 7 years after ATR. No continued improvement in calf muscle performance

  1. Tendon Length, Calf Muscle Atrophy, and Strength Deficit After Acute Achilles Tendon Rupture: Long-Term Follow-up of Patients in a Previous Study.

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    Heikkinen, Juuso; Lantto, Iikka; Piilonen, Juuso; Flinkkilä, Tapio; Ohtonen, Pasi; Siira, Pertti; Laine, Vesa; Niinimäki, Jaakko; Pajala, Ari; Leppilahti, Juhana

    2017-09-20

    In this prospective study, we used magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to assess long-term Achilles tendon length, calf muscle volume, and muscle fatty degeneration after surgery for acute Achilles tendon rupture. From 1998 to 2001, 60 patients at our center underwent surgery for acute Achilles tendon rupture followed by early functional postoperative rehabilitation. Fifty-five patients were reexamined after a minimum duration of follow-up of 13 years (mean, 14 years), and 52 of them were included in the present study. Outcome measures included Achilles tendon length, calf muscle volume, and fatty degeneration measured with MRI of both the affected and the uninjured leg. The isokinetic plantar flexion strength of both calves was measured and was correlated with the structural findings. The Achilles tendon was, on average, 12 mm (95% confidence interval [CI] = 8.6 to 15.6 mm; p Achilles tendon length correlated substantially with the strength deficit (ρ = 0.51, p Achilles tendon length is associated with smaller calf muscle volumes and persistent plantar flexion strength deficits after surgical repair of Achilles tendon rupture. Strength deficits and muscle volume deficits are partly compensated for by FHL hypertrophy, but 11% to 13% deficits in soleus and gastrocnemius muscle volumes and 12% to 18% deficits in plantar flexion strength persist even after long-term follow-up. Therapeutic Level II. See Instructions for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.

  2. Mitochondrial dysfunction in calf muscles of patients with combined peripheral arterial disease and diabetes type 2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindegaard Pedersen, Brian; Bækgaard, Niels; Quistorff, Bjørn

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: This study elucidate the effects on muscle mitochondrial function in patients suffering from combined peripheral arterial disease (PAD) and type 2 diabetes (T2D) and the relation to patient symptoms and treatment. METHODS: Near Infra Red Spectroscopy (NIRS) calf muscle exercise tests...... tested applying high resolution oxygraphy on isolated muscle fibers. RESULTS: The NIRS exercise tests showed evidence of mitochondrial dysfunction in the PAD+T2D group by a longer recovery of the deoxygenation resulting from exercise in spite of a higher exercise oxygenation level compared to the PAD...... were conducted on Forty subjects, 15 (PAD), 15 (PAD+T2D) and 10 healthy age matched controls (CTRL) recruited from the vascular outpatient clinic at Gentofte County Hospital, Denmark. Calf muscle biopsies (~ 80 mg) (Gastrocnemius and Anterior tibial muscles) were sampled and mitochondrial function...

  3. Relationship between passive properties of the calf muscles and plantarflexion concentric isokinetic torque characteristics.

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    Gajdosik, Richard L

    2002-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to use a model of aging to examine the relationships between passive properties of the calf muscles and plantarflexion concentric isokinetic torque characteristics. Eighty-one active women 20-84 years of age were tested using a Kin-Com isokinetic dynamometer interfaced with electromyography (EMG). The passive properties were tested by stretching the muscles from relaxed plantarflexion to a maximal dorsiflexion (DF) angle at a rate of 5 degrees.s(-1) (0.087 rad.s(-1)) with minimal raw EMG activity (plantarflexion at four randomly ordered velocities of 30, 60, 120, and 180 degrees.s(-1). Pearson correlation coefficients (Bonferroni adjusted) indicated a hierarchical order of high to moderate positive correlations between four passive properties and the peak and mean concentric torque for all test velocities. Correlation coefficients for the four passive properties ranged from 0.50 to 0.78 ( P<0.001), and the coefficients of determination ( r(2)) from higher to lower were: (1) maximal DF passive resistive torque ( r(2): 0.50-0.62), (2) length extensibility ( r(2): 0.40-0.49), (3) maximal muscle length ( r(2): 0.28-0.41), and (4) passive elastic stiffness in the last half of the full-stretch range of motion ( r(2): 0.25-0.31). The maximal DF passive resistive torque and the length extensibility accounted for 50-62% and 40-49% of the variability in the concentric torque, respectively. The results indicate that the concentrically stronger calf muscles of active women were positively correlated with passively stronger, longer, and stiffer calf muscles, which are characteristics of the calf muscles of younger women. Further studies are needed to examine whether therapeutic interventions, such as stretching and strengthening, can promote adaptations in the calf muscles of older women to attain these more youthful characteristics.

  4. Hip, thigh and calf muscle atrophy and bone loss after 5-week bedrest inactivity.

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    Berg, Hans E; Eiken, Ola; Miklavcic, Lucijan; Mekjavic, Igor B

    2007-02-01

    Unloaded inactivity induces atrophy and functional deconditioning of skeletal muscle, especially in the lower extremities. Information is scarce, however, regarding the effect of unloaded inactivity on muscle size and function about the hip. Regional bone loss has been demonstrated in hips and knees of elderly orthopaedic patients, as quantified by computerized tomography (CT). This method remains to be validated in healthy individuals rendered inactive, including real or simulated weightlessness. In this study, ten healthy males were subjected to 5 weeks of experimental bedrest and five matched individuals served as ambulatory controls. Maximum voluntary isometric hip and knee extension force were measured using the strain gauge technique. Cross-sectional area (CSA) of hip, thigh and calf muscles, and radiological density (RD) of the proximal tibial bone were measured using CT. Bedrest decreased (P muscle strength by 20 (8)% in knee extension, and by 22 (12)% in hip extension. Bedrest induced atrophy (P muscles in the gluteal region, thigh and calf, ranging from 2 to 12%. Atrophy was more pronounced in the knee extensors [9 (4)%] and ankle plantar flexors [12 (3)%] than in the gluteal extensor muscles [2 (2)%]. Bone density of the proximal tibia decreased (P muscle or bone indices (P > 0.05), when examined at similar time intervals. The present findings of a substantial loss in hip extensor strength and a smaller, yet significant atrophy of these muscles, demonstrate that hip muscle deconditioning accompanies losses in thigh and calf muscle mass after bedrest. This suggests that comprehensive quantitative studies on impaired locomotor function after inactivity should include all joints of the lower extremity. Our results also demonstrate that a decreased RD, indicating bone mineral loss, can be shown already after 5 weeks of unloaded bedrest, using a standard CT technique.

  5. Changes in muscle sympathetic nerve activity and calf blood flow during static handgrip exercise.

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    Saito, M; Mano, T; Iwase, S

    1990-01-01

    To test the function of sympathetic vasco-constrictor nerves on blood flow in resting limbs during static muscle contraction, muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) to the leg muscle was recorded from the tibial nerve microneurographically before, during and after 2 min of static handgrip (SHG). Simultaneously, calf blood flow (CBF) was measured by strain gauge plethysmography. An increase in MSNA, a decrease in CBF and an increase in calf vascular resistance (CVR) in the same resting limb occurred concomitantly during SHG. However, the increase in CVR was blunted in the second minute of handgrip when MSNA was still increasing. The results indicated that the decrease of CBF during SHG reflects the increase in MSNA, while the dissociation between MSNA and CVR at the later period of SHG may be related to metabolic change produced by the vasoconstriction.

  6. Effects of Changes in Colored Light on Brain and Calf Muscle Blood Concentration and Oxygenation

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    J. Weinzirl

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Color light therapy is a therapeutic method in complementary medicine. In color therapy, light of two contrasting colors is often applied in a sequential order. The aim of this study was to investigate possible physiological effects, i.e., changes in the blood volume and oxygenation in the brain and calf muscle of healthy subjects who were exposed to red and blue light in sequential order. The hypothesis was that if a subject is first exposed to blue and then red light, the effect of the red light will be enhanced due to the contrastingly different characteristics of the two colors. The same was expected for blue light, if first exposing a subject to red and then to blue light. Twelve healthy volunteers (six male, six female were measured twice on two different days by near-infrared spectroscopy during exposure to colored light. Two sequences of colored light were applied in a controlled, randomized, crossover design: first blue, then red, and vice versa. For the brain and muscle, the results showed no significant differences in blood volume and oxygenation between the two sequences, and a high interindividual physiological variability. Thus, the hypothesis had to be rejected. Comparing these data to results from a previous study, where subjects were exposed to blue and red light without sequential color changes, shows that the results of the current study appear to be similar to those of red light exposure. This may indicate that the exposure to red light was preponderant and thus effects of blue light were outweighed.

  7. On the edema-preventing effect of the calf muscle pump.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stick, C; Grau, H; Witzleb, E

    1989-01-01

    During motionless standing an increased hydrostatic pressure leads to increased transcapillary fluid filtration into the interstitial space of the tissues of the lower extremities. The resulting changes in calf volume were measured using a mercury-in-silastic strain gauge. Following a change in body posture from lying to standing or sitting a two-stage change in calf volume was observed. A fast initial filling of the capacitance vessels was followed by a slow but continuous increase in calf volume during motionless standing and sitting with the legs dependent passively. The mean rates of this slow increase were about 0.17%.min-1 during standing and 0.12%.min-1 during sitting, respectively. During cycle ergometer exercise the plethysmographic recordings were highly influenced by movement artifacts. These artifacts, however, were removed from the recordings by low-pass filtering. As a result the slow volume changes, i.e. changes of the extravascular fluid were selected from the recorded signal. Contrary to the increases during standing and sitting the calf volumes of all 30 subjects decreased during cycle ergometer exercise. The mean decrease during 18 min of cycling (2-20 min) was -1.6% at 50 W work load and -1.9% at 100 W, respectively. This difference was statistically significant (p less than or equal to 0.01). The factors which may counteract the development of an interstitial edema, even during quiet standing and sitting, are discussed in detail. During cycling, however, three factors are most likely to contribute to the observed reduction in calf volume: (1) The decrease in venous pressure, which in turn reduces the effective filtration pressure.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  8. Magnetic resonance imaging findings of injuries to the calf muscle complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koulouris, George; Ting, Amy Y I; Jhamb, Ashu; Connell, David; Kavanagh, Eoin C

    2007-10-01

    The objective was to describe the imaging findings following acute injury to the calf musculature. We retrospectively reviewed 59 MR examinations in patients who sustained injuries to the calf muscle from April 2001 to September 2004 (48 men, 11 women), with an average age of 31 and 47 years respectively (range in men 20-53; range in women 33-63). Attention was directed to the frequency of muscle involvement, the location of the injury within the musculotendinous unit and the extent of the injury. A total of 79 separate sites of strain injury were identified (39 solitary, 20 dual). Of the 39 isolated strains, injury to the gastrocnemius was most common (19 out of 39; 48.7%), preferentially involving the medial head in 18 cases and the lateral head in 1 case. The soleus was also commonly involved (18 out of 39; 46.2%), with 2 cases (5.1%) of distal avulsions of the plantaris. Of the 20 dual injuries, a combination of gastrocnemius injury with soleus injury was the most frequent finding (12 out of 20; 60%). Dual injuries of both heads of the gastrocnemius muscles were demonstrated in 4 cases (20%), with the soleus and tibialis posterior injured in 3 cases (15%). A combination of soleus and flexor hallucis longus injury was seen in 1 case (5%). This retrospective study utilizing MRI demonstrates that the medial head of the gastrocnemius is the most commonly injured muscle of the calf, closely followed by the soleus, the latter finding rarely reported in the sonographic literature. Dual injuries of the calf muscle complex occur much more commonly than previously reported and may be of prognostic significance.

  9. High-voltage pulsed galvanic stimulation: effects of frequency of current on blood flow in the human calf muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heath, M E; Gibbs, S B

    1992-06-01

    1. Twelve healthy subjects received high-voltage pulsed galvanic stimulation (115-475 V d.c.) delivered in separate treatments of 2, 32 and 128 pulses/s for 10 min at the subject's maximum tolerable voltage while calf muscle blood flow was measured by non-invasive Whitney strain-gauge venous occlusion plethysmography. 2. The high-voltage pulsed galvanic stimulation was administered with negative polarity by an intermittent mode of 30 s on, 30 s off. Measurements of calf muscle blood flow were made during each 30 s period when the stimulus was off. The effect of one 30 s maximum isometric contraction of the calf muscles on blood flow was used as a standard for evaluating the effectiveness of high-voltage pulsed galvanic stimulation on calf muscle blood flow. 3. Significant (paired t-tests; P less than 0.05) increases in calf muscle blood flow over the preceding baseline levels occurred for the isometric contraction (322%) and for frequencies of 2 pulses/s (33.5%) and 128 pulses/s (13.36%), but not for a frequency of 32 pulses at which calf muscle blood flow increased in only six of 12 subjects. The mean increases in calf muscle blood flow at 2 and 128 pulses/s represented 11.63% and 4.0%, respectively, of that resulting from the isometric contraction. 4. A clear positive correlation between voltage level and the magnitude of increase in calf muscle blood flow was demonstrated but differed for each frequency used.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  10. Absolute quantification of carnosine in human calf muscle by proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oezdemir, Mahir S [Department of Electronics and Information Systems, MEDISIP, Ghent University-IBBT-IBiTech, De Pintelaan 185 block B, B-9000 Ghent (Belgium); Reyngoudt, Harmen [Department of Radiology, Ghent University Hospital, De Pintelaan 185, Ghent (Belgium); Deene, Yves de [Department of Radiotherapy, Ghent University Hospital, De Pintelaan 185, Ghent (Belgium); Sazak, Hakan S [Department of Statistics, Ege University, 35100 Bornova, Izmir (Turkey); Fieremans, Els [Department of Electronics and Information Systems, MEDISIP, Ghent University-IBBT-IBiTech, De Pintelaan 185 block B, B-9000 Ghent (Belgium); Delputte, Steven [Department of Electronics and Information Systems, MEDISIP, Ghent University-IBBT-IBiTech, De Pintelaan 185 block B, B-9000 Ghent (Belgium); D' Asseler, Yves [Department of Electronics and Information Systems, MEDISIP, Ghent University-IBBT-IBiTech, De Pintelaan 185 block B, B-9000 Ghent (Belgium); Derave, Wim [Department of Movement and Sports Science, Ghent University, Watersportlaan 2, Ghent (Belgium); Lemahieu, Ignace [Department of Electronics and Information Systems, MEDISIP, Ghent University-IBBT-IBiTech, De Pintelaan 185 block B, B-9000 Ghent (Belgium); Achten, Eric [Department of Radiology, Ghent University Hospital, De Pintelaan 185, Ghent (Belgium)

    2007-12-07

    Carnosine has been shown to be present in the skeletal muscle and in the brain of a variety of animals and humans. Despite the various physiological functions assigned to this metabolite, its exact role remains unclear. It has been suggested that carnosine plays a role in buffering in the intracellular physiological pH{sub i} range in skeletal muscle as a result of accepting hydrogen ions released in the development of fatigue during intensive exercise. It is thus postulated that the concentration of carnosine is an indicator for the extent of the buffering capacity. However, the determination of the concentration of this metabolite has only been performed by means of muscle biopsy, which is an invasive procedure. In this paper, we utilized proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ({sup 1}H MRS) in order to perform absolute quantification of carnosine in vivo non-invasively. The method was verified by phantom experiments and in vivo measurements in the calf muscles of athletes and untrained volunteers. The measured mean concentrations in the soleus and the gastrocnemius muscles were found to be 2.81 {+-} 0.57/4.8 {+-} 1.59 mM (mean {+-} SD) for athletes and 2.58 {+-} 0.65/3.3 {+-} 0.32 mM for untrained volunteers, respectively. These values are in agreement with previously reported biopsy-based results. Our results suggest that {sup 1}H MRS can provide an alternative method for non-invasively determining carnosine concentration in human calf muscle in vivo.

  11. Muscle-specific changes in length-force characteristics of the calf muscles in the spastic Han-Wistar rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olesen, Annesofie T; Jensen, Bente R; Uhlendorf, Toni L; Cohen, Randy W; Baan, Guus C; Maas, Huub

    2014-11-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate muscle mechanical properties and mechanical interaction between muscles in the lower hindlimb of the spastic mutant rat. Length-force characteristics of gastrocnemius (GA), soleus (SO), and plantaris (PL) were assessed in anesthetized spastic and normally developed Han-Wistar rats. In addition, the extent of epimuscular myofascial force transmission between synergistic GA, SO, and PL, as well as between the calf muscles and antagonistic tibialis anterior (TA), was investigated. Active length-force curves of spastic GA and PL were narrower with a reduced maximal active force. In contrast, active length-force characteristics of spastic SO were similar to those of controls. In reference position (90° ankle and knee angle), higher resistance to ankle dorsiflexion and increased passive stiffness was found for the spastic calf muscle group. At optimum length, passive stiffness and passive force of spastic GA were decreased, whereas those of spastic SO were increased. No mechanical interaction between the calf muscles and TA was found. As GA was lengthened, force from SO and PL declined despite a constant muscle-tendon unit length of SO and PL. However, the extent of this interaction was not different in spastic rats. In conclusion, the effects of spasticity on length-force characteristics were muscle specific. The changes observed for GA and PL muscles are consistent with the changes in limb mechanics reported for human patients. Our results indicate that altered mechanics in spastic rats cannot be attributed to differences in mechanical interaction, but originate from individual muscular structures. Copyright © 2014 the American Physiological Society.

  12. A 1D pulse wave propagation model of the hemodynamics of calf muscle pump function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keijsers, J M T; Leguy, C A D; Huberts, W; Narracott, A J; Rittweger, J; van de Vosse, F N

    2015-07-01

    The calf muscle pump is a mechanism which increases venous return and thereby compensates for the fluid shift towards the lower body during standing. During a muscle contraction, the embedded deep veins collapse and venous return increases. In the subsequent relaxation phase, muscle perfusion increases due to increased perfusion pressure, as the proximal venous valves temporarily reduce the distal venous pressure (shielding). The superficial and deep veins are connected via perforators, which contain valves allowing flow in the superficial-to-deep direction. The aim of this study is to investigate and quantify the physiological mechanisms of the calf muscle pump, including the effect of venous valves, hydrostatic pressure, and the superficial venous system. Using a one-dimensional pulse wave propagation model, a muscle contraction is simulated by increasing the extravascular pressure in the deep venous segments. The hemodynamics are studied in three different configurations: a single artery-vein configuration with and without valves and a more detailed configuration including a superficial vein. Proximal venous valves increase effective venous return by 53% by preventing reflux. Furthermore, the proximal valves shielding function increases perfusion following contraction. Finally, the superficial system aids in maintaining the perfusion during the contraction phase and reduces the refilling time by 37%. © 2015 The Authors. International Journal for Numerical Methods in Biomedical Engineering published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Short-term resistance training with blood flow restriction enhances microvascular filtration capacity of human calf muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Colin; Vance, Steven; Brown, Maggie

    2010-07-01

    Resistance training increases muscle strength and endurance but may require high intensity and long duration to enhance capillarity. Vascular occlusion during low-load resistance training augments the strength and endurance gains compared with low-load resistance training alone, but in this study we investigated whether it also promotes microvascular filtration capacity, an index of capillarity. Nine healthy males performed short-term low-intensity resistance training of the calf muscles (four sets of 50 heel raises, three times a week for 4 weeks) under restricted (thigh cuff inflated to 150 mmHg on the non-dominant leg) or unrestricted (dominant leg without thigh cuff) blood flow conditions. Before and after resistance training, calf filtration capacity and resting blood flow were assessed by strain gauge plethysmography, and calf muscle strength and fatigue were assessed respectively by maximal voluntary contraction and force decline during electrically evoked ischaemic contractions in both legs. Calf filtration capacity increased by 26% in the restricted leg but did not increase significantly in the unrestricted leg. Calf muscle strength was 18% greater in the restricted leg but unchanged in the unrestricted leg. Calf muscle fatigue and resting blood flow did not change in either leg. Resistance training promoted microvascular filtration capacity, an effect that was somewhat enhanced by blood flow restriction, and could be due to increased capillarization.

  14. The long-term clinical and MRI results following eccentric calf muscle training in chronic Achilles tendinosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaerdin, Anna; Shalabi, Adel [Karolinska University Hospital/Huddinge, Departments of Radiology, Karolinska Institutet, Clintec, Stockholm (Sweden); Movin, Tomas [Karolinska University Hospital/Huddinge, Karolinska Institutet, Departments of Orthopedics, Stockholm (Sweden); Svensson, Leif [Karolinska Institutet, Karolinska University Hospital/Huddinge, Departments of Medical Physics, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2010-05-15

    To evaluate the long-term results following eccentric calf-muscle training in patients with chronic Achilles tendinopathy. A total of 24 patients with chronic Achilles tendinopathy were included in a study evaluating MRI findings and clinical symptoms before and after 3 months of daily eccentric calf-muscle strength training. Median duration of symptoms was 18 months (range 6-120). Four of the patients did not perform the prescribed treatment for different reasons and were followed for 14 months. The resulting 20 treated patients completed 4.2-year (range 29-58 months) follow up. Tendon volume was evaluated by using 3D seed growing technique and signal abnormalities were visually semi-quantitatively graded. Level of pain and performance was categorized using a questionnaire completed by the patient. In the symptomatic treated patients, median intensity level of pain decreased from moderate/severe at time of inclusion to mild at follow up (p < 0.05). Median level of performance increased from severe impairment at time of inclusion to normal at follow up (p < 0.05). 12 out of 20 patients had raised intratendinous signal at time of inclusion compared to 2 out of 20 patients at follow up (p < 0.001). Mean tendon-volume measured 6.7 cm{sup 3} (SD 2.0) at time of inclusion and 6.4 cm{sup 3} (SD 2.0) at follow up (p = 0.18). The four symptomatic non-treated tendons did not improve regarding pain, performance, intratendinous signal or tendon volume. We found decreased pain, improved performance and decreased intratendinous signal both compared to index examination and immediately after the 3 months training regimen in a 4.2-year clinical and MRI follow up, in a group of patients treated with heavy loaded eccentric calf-muscle training for chronic Achilles tendinopathy. The improvements were greater at 4.2-year follow up, despite no further active treatment, than immediately after the treatment. This may indicate a good long-term prognosis for Achilles tendinosis patients

  15. Interstitial and arterial-venous [K+] in human calf muscle during dynamic exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Green, Stefan Mathias; Langberg, Henning; Skovgaard, D

    2000-01-01

    Changes in the concentration of interstitial K+ surrounding skeletal muscle fibres ([K+]I) probably play some role in the regulation of cardiovascular adjustments to muscular activity, as well as in the aetiology of muscle pain and fatigue during high-intensity exercise. However, there is very...... little information on the response of [K+]I to exercise in human skeletal muscle. Five young healthy subjects performed plantar flexion exercise for four 5 min periods at increasing power outputs ( approximately 1-6 W) with 10 min intervening recovery periods, as well as for two 5 min periods......+. Calf muscle pain was assessed using a visual analogue scale. On average, [K+]I was 4.4 mmol l(-1) at rest and increased during minutes 3-5 of incremental exercise by approximately 1-7 mmol l(-1) as a positive function of power output. K+ release also increased as a function of exercise intensity...

  16. The effect of exercise intensity on calf volume and thermoregulatory responses during upper body exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Botoms Lindzi M.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available During upper body exercise the vascular adaptations of the leg have been reported to play an important thermoregulatory role. This study examined the effect of exercise intensity on thermoregulation during upper body exercise. Nine healthy male participants undertook an incremental exercise test on an arm crank ergo meter to determine peak power (Wpeak. The participants performed four experimental trials involving 5 minutes of arm exercise at either 45, 60, 75, or 90% Wpeak (70 rev.min-1 followed by 30 minutes of passive recovery. Aural and skin temperatures, upper arm and calf heat flow were recorded. Calf volume was measured during exercise using plethysmography. During exercise at 45, 60, 75 and 90% Wpeak calf volume decreased (P<0.05 by -0.7±0.8, -1.4±0.9, -1.2±0.6 and -1.6±0.7% respectively. Differences were observed between 45 and 60% Wpeak, and 45 and 90% Wpeak (P<0.05. The results of this study suggest a redistribution of blood from the relatively inactive lower body during arm exercise of intensities up to 60%Wpeak after which point calf volume does not significantly decrease further. Therefore, the redistribution of blood from the inactive lower body does not produce a similar intensity dependent response to visceral blood flow during lower body exercise.

  17. Muscle specific changes in length-force characteristics of the calf muscles in the spastic Han-Wistar rat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Annesofie Thorup; Jensen, Bente Rona; Uhlendorf, Toni L

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate muscle mechanical properties and mechanical interaction between muscles in the lower hindlimb of the spastic mutant rat. Length-force characteristics of gastrocnemius (GA), soleus (SO) and plantaris (PL) were assessed in anesthetized spastic......, the extent of this interaction was not different in the spastic rats. In conclusion, the effects of spasticity on length-force characteristics were muscle specific. The changes seen for GA and PL muscles are consistent with the changes in limb mechanics reported for human patients. Our results indicate...... and normally-developed Han-Wistar rats. In addition, the extent of epimuscular myofascial force transmission between synergistic GA, SO and PL, as well as between the calf muscles and antagonistic tibialis anterior (TA) was investigated. Active length-force characteristics of spastic GA and PL were narrower...

  18. Local and Systemic Changes in Pain Sensitivity After 4 Weeks of Calf Muscle Stretching in a Nonpainful Population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bartholdy, Cecilie; Zangger, Graziella; Hansen, Lisbeth

    2016-01-01

    a week for 4 weeks on the dominant leg. Participants in the control group were instructed not to do any stretching for 4 weeks. Pressure pain threshold (PPT) and temporal summation (TS) of pressure pain were measured on the stretched calf, the contra-lateral calf, and contra-lateral lower arm using...... a computerized cuff algometer. Analyses of variance on the per-protocol population (defined as participants that adhered to the protocol) were used to assess group differences in the changes from baseline. RESULT: Forty healthy volunteers were included, of which 34 participants adhered to the protocol (15...... intervention group/19 control group). No statistically significant group differences in the changes from baseline were found regarding PPT and TS measurements for the stretched calf, the contra-lateral calf, and the arm. CONCLUSION: Four weeks of regular stretching of the calf muscles does not affect pressure...

  19. A novel approach to sonographic examination in a patient with a calf muscle tear: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Carl PC

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Rupture of the distal musculotendinous junction of the medial head of the gastrocnemius, also known as "tennis leg", can be readily examined using a soft tissue ultrasound. Loss of muscle fiber continuity and the occurrence of bloody fluid accumulation can be observed using ultrasound with the patient in the prone position; however, some cases may have normal ultrasound findings in this conventional position. We report a case of a middle-aged man with tennis leg. Ultrasound examination had normal findings during the first two attempts. During the third attempt, with the patient's calf muscles examined in an unconventional knee flexed position, sonographic findings resembling tennis leg were detected. Case presentation A 60-year-old man in good health visited our rehabilitation clinic complaining of left calf muscle pain. On suspicion of a ruptured left medial head gastrocnemius muscle, a soft tissue ultrasound examination was performed. An ultrasound examination revealed symmetrical findings of bilateral calf muscles without evidence of muscle rupture. A roentgenogram of the left lower limb did not reveal any bony lesions. An ultrasound examination one week later also revealed negative sonographic findings. However, he still complained of persistent pain in his left calf area. A different ultrasound examination approach was then performed with the patient lying in the supine position with his knee flexed at 90 degrees. The transducer was then placed pointing upwards to examine the muscles and well-defined anechoic fluid collections with areas of hypoechoic surroundings were observed. Conclusion For patients suffering from calf muscle area pain and suspicion of tennis leg, a soft tissue ultrasound is a simple tool to confirm the diagnosis. However, in the case of negative sonographic findings, we recommend trying a different positional approach to examine the calf muscles by ultrasound before the diagnosis of tennis leg can

  20. Effects of repeated ankle stretching on calf muscle-tendon and ankle biomechanical properties in stroke survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Fan; Ren, Yupeng; Roth, Elliot J; Harvey, Richard; Zhang, Li-Qun

    2011-06-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate changes in active and passive biomechanical properties of the calf muscle-tendon unit induced by controlled ankle stretching in stroke survivors. Ten stroke survivors with ankle spasticity/contracture and ten healthy control subjects received intervention of 60-min ankle stretching. Joint biomechanical properties including resistance torque, stiffness and index of hysteresis were evaluated pre- and post-intervention. Achilles tendon length was measured using ultrasonography. The force output of the triceps surae muscles was characterized via the torque-angle relationship, by stimulating the calf muscles at a controlled intensity across different ankle positions. Compared to healthy controls, the ankle position corresponding to the peak torque of the stroke survivors was shifted towards plantar flexion (Pstretching intervention, especially in dorsiflexion (P=0.013). Stretching significantly improved the force output of the impaired calf muscles in stroke survivors under matched stimulations (Pstretching (Pstretching loosened the ankle joint with increased passive joint range of motion and decreased joint stiffness. At the muscle-tendon level, repeated stretching improved calf muscle force output, which might be associated with decreased muscle fascicle stiffness, increased fascicle length and shortening of the Achilles tendon. The study provided evidence of improvement in muscle tendon properties through stretching intervention. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Ankle-foot orthoses that restrict dorsiflexion improve walking in polio survivors with calf muscle weakness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ploeger, Hilde E; Bus, Sicco A; Brehm, Merel-Anne; Nollet, Frans

    2014-07-01

    In polio survivors with calf muscle weakness, dorsiflexion-restricting ankle-foot orthoses (DR-AFOs) aim to improve gait in order to reduce walking-related problems such as instability or increased energy cost. However, evidence on the efficacy of DR-AFOs in polio survivors is lacking. We investigated the effect of DR-AFOs on gait biomechanics, walking energy cost, speed, and perceived waking ability in this patient group. Sixteen polio survivors with calf muscle weakness underwent 3D-gait analyses to assess gait biomechanics when walking with a DR-AFOs and with shoes only. Ambulant registration of gas-exchange during a 6 min walk test determined walking energy cost, and comfortable gait speed was calculated from the walked distance during this test. Perceived walking ability was assessed using purposely-designed questionnaires. Compared with shoes-only, walking with the DR-AFOs significantly increased forward progression of the center of pressure (CoP) in mid-stance and it reduced ankle dorsiflexion and knee flexion in mid- and terminal stance (p muscle weakness, DR-AFOs improved gait biomechanics, speed, and perceived walking ability, compared to shoes-only. Effects may depend on the shoes-only gait pattern, therefore further study is needed to determine which patients benefit most from the DR-AFO. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Venous capacity, venous refill time and the effectiveness of the calf muscle pump in normal subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barendsen, G J; van den Berg, J W

    1984-03-01

    With strain gauge plethysmography various procedures to assess the competence of the venous system in the lower leg were compared in 10 normal subjects. The reproducibility and ease of use were established, and normal values were obtained. It is concluded, that measurements in the sitting position are preferable to those in the standing position. To measure the venous capacity, the dependency test is the method of choice. Rhythmic exercise to assess the effectiveness of the calf muscle pump can be restricted to five successive contractions. The refill time after exercise is not a suitable parameter to assess the competence of the venous valves.

  3. Assessment of calf volume in Congenital Talipes Equinovarus by computer analysed digital photography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, Simon L; Downing, Martin; Chesney, David J; Maffulli, Nicola

    2012-04-01

    The development of evidence-based approaches to the Congenital Talipes Equinovarus (CTEV) is impaired by the diversity of assessment techniques available, many of which have not been validated. Highly objective evaluation techniques that reflect the deformity and permit comparison between studies may lack the necessary link to functional features that are paramount to the patient, namely pain and mobility. Calf wasting is an acknowledged but little investigated component of the pathology. The rapid evolution of digital photography and computerised analytical techniques has yielded an opportunity to explore their role in the assessment of this common paediatric Orthopaedic pathology. This study presents the use of a cost-effective digital photographic assessment technique of maximal calf circumference and calf volume. These indices reflect the muscular development in the calf and therefore have significance in the functional assessment of CTEV and may represent an index of severity. Subjectivity has been limited by computerisation of the analysis process. The technique could easily be adapted to other volumetric analyses. Copyright © 2011 Royal College of Surgeons of Edinburgh (Scottish charity number SC005317) and Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Muscle shape consistency and muscle volume prediction of thigh muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mersmann, F; Bohm, S; Schroll, A; Boeth, H; Duda, G; Arampatzis, A

    2015-04-01

    The present study investigated the applicability of a muscle volume prediction method using only the muscle length (L(M)), the maximum anatomical cross-sectional area (ACSA(max)), and a muscle-specific shape factor (p) on the quadriceps vastii. L(M), ACSA(max), muscle volume, and p were obtained from magnetic resonance images of the vastus intermedius (VI), lateralis (VL), and medialis (VM) of female (n = 20) and male (n = 17) volleyball athletes. The average p was used to predict muscle volumes (V(p)) using the equation V(p)  = p × ACSA(max)  × L(M). Although there were significant differences in the muscle dimensions between male and female athletes, p was similar and on average 0.582, 0.658, 0.543 for the VI, VL, and VM, respectively. The position of ACSA(max) showed low variability and was at 57%, 60%, and 81% of the thigh length for VI, VL, and VM. Further, there were no significant differences between measured and predicted muscle volumes with root mean square differences of 5-8%. These results suggest that the muscle shape of the quadriceps vastii is independent of muscle dimensions or sex and that the prediction method could be sensitive enough to detect changes in muscle volume related to degeneration, atrophy, or hypertrophy. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Influence of vision and static stretch of the calf muscles on postural sway during quiet standing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagano, Akinori; Yoshioka, Shinsuke; Hay, Dean C; Himeno, Ryutaro; Fukashiro, Senshi

    2006-06-01

    The purpose of this experimental study was to evaluate the effects of vision and stretching of the calf muscles on postural sway during quiet standing. Under pre-stretch conditions, participants stood on a force plate for 30s and the sway of the ground reaction force center of pressure was recorded. The following postural sway variables were calculated off-line: sweep speed, sway speed, standard deviation, maximal mediolateral range, maximal anteroposterior range, mean mediolateral position and mean anteroposterior position. For post-stretch conditions, participants stood quietly on a device that was utilized to impose a static 3 min ankle joint dorsiflexion stretch. Immediately thereafter, participants moved onto the force platform where postural sway parameters were again recorded. Randomized eyes-open and eyes-closed conditions were tested in both cases. Results showed that postural sway significantly increased due to stretch (sweep speed, sway speed, standard deviation, maximal anteroposterior range, mean anteroposterior position), as well as eye closure (sweep speed, sway speed, standard deviation, maximal mediolateral range, maximal anteroposterior range). The interaction between stretch and eye closure was also significant (sweep speed, sway speed, standard deviation, maximal mediolateral range), suggesting that there were only minor increases in postural sway after stretch under the eyes-open condition. It was suggested that stretching of the calf muscles has the effect of increasing postural sway, although this effect can be greatly compensated for when vision is included.

  6. Venous reflux has a limited effect on calf muscle pump dysfunction in post-thrombotic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haenen, J H; Janssen, M C; Brakkee, A J; Van Langen, H; Wollersheim, H; De Boo, T M; Skotnicki, S H; Thien, T

    2000-04-01

    The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the relationship between calf muscle pump dysfunction (CMD) and the presence and location of valvular incompetence. Deep vein obstruction might influence CMD, and so venous outflow resistance (VOR) was measured. VOR and calf muscle pump function were measured in 81 patients, 7-13 years after venographically confirmed lower-extremity deep venous thrombosis. The supine venous pump function test (SVPT) measures CMD, and the VOR measures the presence of venous outflow obstructions, both with the use of strain-gauge plethysmography. Valvular incompetence was measured using duplex scanning in 16 vein segments of one leg. Venous reflux was measured in proximal veins using the Valsalva manoeuvre, and in the distal veins by distal manual compression with sudden release. Abnormal proximal venous reflux was defined as a reflux time of more than 1 s, and abnormal distal venous reflux as a reflux time of more than 0.5 s. No statistically significant relationship was found between the SVPT and either the location or the number of vein segments with reflux. Of the 81 patients, only nine still had an abnormally high VOR, and this VOR showed no relationship with the SVPT. In conclusion, venous reflux has a limited effect on CMD, as measured by the SVPT. The presence of a venous outflow obstruction did not significantly influence the SVPT. Duplex scanning and the SVPT are independent complementary tests for evaluating chronic venous insufficiency.

  7. Changes in extracellular muscle volume affect heart rate and blood pressure responses to static exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baum, K.; Essfeld, D.; Stegemann, J.

    To investigate the effect of μg-induced peripheral extracellular fluid reductions on heart rate and blood pressure during isometric exercise, six healthy male subjects performed three calf ergometer test with different extracellular volumes of working muscles. In all tests, body positions during exercise were identical (supine with the knee joint flexed to 900). After a pre-exercise period of 25 min, during which calf volumes were manipulated, subjects had to counteract an external force of 180 N for 5 min. During the pre-exercise period three different protocols were applied. Test A: Subjects rested in the exercise position; test B: Body position was the same as in A but calf volume was increased by venous congestion (cuffs inflated to 80 mm Hg); test C: Calf volumes were decreased by a negative hydrostatic pressure (calves about 40 cm above heart level with the subjects supine). To clamp the changed calf volumes in tests B and C, cuffs were inflated to 300 mm Hg 5 min before the onset of exercise. This occlusion was maintained until termination of exercise. Compared to tests A and B, the reduced volume of test C led to significant increases in heart rate and blood pressure during exercise. Oxygen uptake did not exceed resting levels in B and C until cuffs were deflated, indicating that exclusively calf muscles contributed to the neurogenic peripheral drive. It is concluded that changes in extracellular muscle volume have to be taken into account when comparing heart rate and blood pressure during lg- and μg- exercise.

  8. Near-Infrared Spectroscopic Measurements of Calf Muscle during Walking at Simulated Reduced Gravity - Preliminary Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellerby, Gwenn E. C.; Lee, Stuart M. C.; Stroud, Leah; Norcross, Jason; Gernhardt, Michael; Soller, Babs R.

    2008-01-01

    Consideration for lunar and planetary exploration space suit design can be enhanced by investigating the physiologic responses of individual muscles during locomotion in reduced gravity. Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) provides a non-invasive method to study the physiology of individual muscles in ambulatory subjects during reduced gravity simulations. PURPOSE: To investigate calf muscle oxygen saturation (SmO2) and pH during reduced gravity walking at varying treadmill inclines and added mass conditions using NIRS. METHODS: Four male subjects aged 42.3 +/- 1.7 years (mean +/- SE) and weighing 77.9 +/- 2.4 kg walked at a moderate speed (3.2 +/- 0.2 km/h) on a treadmill at inclines of 0, 10, 20, and 30%. Unsuited subjects were attached to a partial gravity simulator which unloaded the subject to simulate body weight plus the additional weight of a space suit (121 kg) in lunar gravity (0.17G). Masses of 0, 11, 23, and 34 kg were added to the subject and then unloaded to maintain constant weight. Spectra were collected from the lateral gastrocnemius (LG), and SmO2 and pH were calculated using previously published methods (Yang et al. 2007 Optics Express ; Soller et al. 2008 J Appl Physiol). The effects of incline and added mass on SmO2 and pH were analyzed through repeated measures ANOVA. RESULTS: SmO2 and pH were both unchanged by added mass (p>0.05), so data from trials at the same incline were averaged. LG SmO2 decreased significantly with increasing incline (p=0.003) from 61.1 +/- 2.0% at 0% incline to 48.7 +/- 2.6% at 30% incline, while pH was unchanged by incline (p=0.12). CONCLUSION: Increasing the incline (and thus work performed) during walking causes the LG to extract more oxygen from the blood supply, presumably to support the increased metabolic cost of uphill walking. The lack of an effect of incline on pH may indicate that, while the intensity of exercise has increased, the LG has not reached a level of work above the anaerobic threshold. In these

  9. Calf muscle oxygen saturation and the effects of supervised exercise training for intermittent claudication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckitt, Tim A; Day, Jude; Morgan, Maria; Lamont, Peter M

    2012-08-01

    The mechanisms underlying the symptomatic improvement witnessed as a result of exercise training in intermittent claudication remain unclear. There is no reproducible evidence to support increased limb blood flow resulting from neovascularization. Changes in oxygenation of active muscles as a result of blood redistribution are hypothesized but unproven. This study sought evidence of improved gastrocnemius oxygenation resulting from exercise training. The study recruited 42 individuals with claudication. After an initial control period of exercise advice, participants undertook a 3-month supervised exercise program. Spatially resolved near-infrared spectroscopy monitored calf muscle oxygen saturation (Sto(2)) during exercise and after a period of cuff-induced ischemia. Comparison was made with 14 individuals undergoing angioplasty for calf claudication. Clinical outcomes of claudication distance and maximum walking distance were measured by treadmill assessment. Significant increases occurred in mean [interquartile range] claudication disease (57 [38-78] to 119 [97-142] meters; P = .01) and maximum walking distance (124 [102-147] to 241 [193-265] meters; P = .02) after supervised exercise but not after the control period. No change occurred in resting Sto(2) at any interval. Angioplasty (27% [21-34] to 19% [13-29]; P = .02) but not exercise training (26% [21-32] vs 23% [20-31]; P > .20) resulted in a reduced Sto(2) desaturation in response to submaximal exercise and an increased hyperemic hemoglobin oxygen recovery rate after ischemia (0.48 [0.39-0.55] to 0.63 [0.52-0.69] s(-1); P = .01). However supervised exercise reduced the Sto(2) recovery half-time by 17% (82 [64-101] to 68 [55-89] seconds; P = .02). Supervised exercise training is not associated with increased gastrocnemius muscle oxygenation during exercise or increased hyperemic hemoglobin flow after a model of ischemia. This suggests that the symptomatic improvement witnessed is not the result of increased

  10. Functional effects of botulinum toxin type-A treatment and subsequent stretching of spastic calf muscles: a study in patients with hereditary spastic paraplegia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Niet, Mark; de Bot, Susanne T; van de Warrenburg, Bart P C; Weerdesteyn, Vivian; Geurts, Alexander C

    2015-02-01

    Although calf muscle spasticity is often treated with botulinum toxin type-A, the effects on balance and gait are ambiguous. Hereditary spastic paraplegia is characterized by progressive spasticity and relatively mild muscle weakness of the lower limbs. It is therefore a good model to evaluate the functional effects of botulinum toxin type-A. Explorative pre-post intervention study. Fifteen subjects with pure hereditary spastic paraplegia. Patients with symptomatic calf muscle spasticity and preserved calf muscle strength received botulinum toxin type-A injections in each triceps surae (Dysport®, 500-750 MU) followed by daily stretching exercises (18 weeks). Before intervention (T0), and 4 (T1) and 18 (T2) weeks thereafter, gait, balance, motor selectivity, calf muscle tone and strength were tested. Mean comfortable gait velocity increased from T0 (0.90 m/s (standard deviation (SD) 0.18)) to T1 (0.98 m/s (SD 0.20)), which effect persisted at T2, whereas balance and other functional measures remained unchanged. Calf muscle tone declined from T0 (median 2; range 1-2) to T1 (median 0; range 0-1), which effect partially persisted at T2 (median 1; range 0-2). Calf muscle strength did not change. Botulinum toxin type-A treatment and subsequent muscle stretching of the calves improved comfortable gait velocity and reduced muscle tone in patients with hereditary spastic paraplegia, while preserving muscle strength. Balance remained unaffected.

  11. Slow passive stretch and release characteristics of the calf muscles of older women with limited dorsiflexion range of motion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gajdosik, Richard L; Vander Linden, Darl W; McNair, Peter J; Riggin, Tammy J; Albertson, Jeff S; Mattick, Danita J; Wegley, Joseph C

    2004-05-01

    Examine the slow passive stretch and release characteristics of the calf muscles of older women with limited dorsiflexion range of motion. A cross-sectional comparative design. The passive stretch and release characteristics of the calf muscles of older women with limited dorsiflexion range of motion have not been studied. Fifteen older women (mean 79 years) with active dorsiflexion dorsiflexion were tested. The right ankle was stretched from plantarflexion to maximal dorsiflexion and released into plantarflexion at 5 degrees /s with minimal surface EMG activity in the soleus, gastrocnemius, and tibialis anterior muscles. Length, passive-elastic stiffness and stored passive-elastic energy were examined. The older women had less maximal passive dorsiflexion, a greater initial stretch angle, and less angular change than the younger women (P dorsiflexion (P dorsiflexion. Older women with limited dorsiflexion range of motion have decreased calf muscle length, passive resistive forces and stored passive-elastic energy that may impact static and dynamic standing balance activities. Greater passive-elastic stiffness within their ambulatory dorsiflexion range of motion may partially compensate for the deficits.

  12. In vivo imaging of the time-dependent apparent diffusional kurtosis in the human calf muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marschar, Anja Maria; Kuder, Tristan Anselm; Stieltjes, Bram; Nagel, Armin Michael; Bachert, Peter; Laun, Frederik Bernd

    2015-06-01

    To evaluate the time dependency of apparent diffusion coefficient Dapp and apparent diffusional kurtosis Kapp in vivo in the human calf. Diffusion-weighted images of five healthy male volunteers were acquired using a 1.5T MR scanner. A stimulated echo sequence with echo planar imaging readout was used with diffusion gradients oriented along the three main axes. Mixing times (TM) of 100, 300, 500, and 700 ms and b-values ranging from 0 to 5600 s/mm(2) were used. Dapp and Kapp were determined. Dapp and Kapp decreased with increasing TM. As an example for absolute values, Dapp of the tibialis anterior drops from 1.18 ± 0.04 μm(2) /ms (TM = 100 ms) to 0.86 ± 0.02 μm(2) /ms (TM = 700 ms) (P = 0.001) and Kapp from 0.38 ± 0.06 to 0.32 ± 0.03 (P = 0.046) for a diffusion weighting along the left-right direction. Kapp was smaller than 0.43 in all muscles and at all TMs. The clearly observed time-dependence of Dapp and Kapp is an indicator of restricted diffusion in muscle tissue and may thus be a promising marker to investigate alterations of the microstructure. Compared to typical kurtosis values in white matter tissue of the brain, the kurtosis in muscle tissue is much smaller, which we attribute to the absence of the almost impermeable myelin sheath. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Improving the spectral resolution and spectral fitting of (1) H MRSI data from human calf muscle by the SPREAD technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Zhengchao; Zhang, Yudong; Liu, Feng; Duan, Yunsuo; Kangarlu, Alayar; Peterson, Bradley S

    2014-11-01

    Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging ((1) H MRSI) has been used for the in vivo measurement of intramyocellular lipids (IMCLs) in human calf muscle for almost two decades, but the low spectral resolution between extramyocellular lipids (EMCLs) and IMCLs, partially caused by the magnetic field inhomogeneity, has hindered the accuracy of spectral fitting. The purpose of this paper was to enhance the spectral resolution of (1) H MRSI data from human calf muscle using the SPREAD (spectral resolution amelioration by deconvolution) technique and to assess the influence of improved spectral resolution on the accuracy of spectral fitting and on in vivo measurement of IMCLs. We acquired MRI and (1) H MRSI data from calf muscles of three healthy volunteers. We reconstructed spectral lineshapes of the (1) H MRSI data based on field maps and used the lineshapes to deconvolve the measured MRS spectra, thereby eliminating the line broadening caused by field inhomogeneities and improving the spectral resolution of the (1) H MRSI data. We employed Monte Carlo (MC) simulations with 200 noise realizations to measure the variations of spectral fitting parameters and used an F-test to evaluate the significance of the differences of the variations between the spectra before SPREAD and after SPREAD. We also used Cramer-Rao lower bounds (CRLBs) to assess the improvements of spectral fitting after SPREAD. The use of SPREAD enhanced the separation between EMCL and IMCL peaks in (1) H MRSI spectra from human calf muscle. MC simulations and F-tests showed that the use of SPREAD significantly reduced the standard deviations of the estimated IMCL peak areas (p < 10(-8) ), and the CRLBs were strongly reduced (by ~37%). Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. A physiological model for interpretation of arterial spin labeling reactive hyperemia of calf muscles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hou-Jen Chen

    Full Text Available To characterize and interpret arterial spin labeling (ASL reactive hyperemia of calf muscles for a better understanding of the microcirculation in peripheral arterial disease (PAD, we present a physiological model incorporating oxygen transport, tissue metabolism, and vascular regulation mechanisms. The model demonstrated distinct effects between arterial stenoses and microvascular dysfunction on reactive hyperemia, and indicated a higher sensitivity of 2-minute thigh cuffing to microvascular dysfunction than 5-minute cuffing. The recorded perfusion responses in PAD patients (n = 9 were better differentiated from the normal subjects (n = 7 using the model-based analysis rather than characterization using the apparent peak and time-to-peak of the responses. The analysis results suggested different amounts of microvascular disease within the patient group. Overall, this work demonstrates a novel analysis method and facilitates understanding of the physiology involved in ASL reactive hyperemia. ASL reactive hyperemia with model-based analysis may be used as a noninvasive microvascular assessment in the presence of arterial stenoses, allowing us to look beyond the macrovascular disease in PAD. A subgroup who will have a poor prognosis after revascularization in the patients with critical limb ischemia may be associated with more severe microvascular diseases, which may potentially be identified using ASL reactive hyperemia.

  15. Near-infrared spectroscopy provides an index of blood flow and vasoconstriction in calf skeletal muscle during lower body negative pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hachiya, T; Blaber, A P; Saito, M

    2008-06-01

    Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) has been used previously for forearm blood flow estimation at rest and during exercise. In this study we applied NIRS to selectively monitor deep calf oxygenated haemoglobin (Hb) responses in order to estimate blood flow changes in the calf muscle during lower body negative pressure (LBNP). The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that changes in calf skeletal muscle oxygenated-Hb, after the removal of superficial tissue responses, were related to blood flow changes during orthostatic stress, and to determine the efficacy of using NIRS measurements as an index of vasoconstriction. Twenty-nine subjects participated in this study. All attempted a graded LBNP trial from baseline (0 mmHg) to -60 mmHg LBNP in 10 mmHg steps at 5-min intervals. Calf blood flow changes were estimated by oxygenated-Hb responses in relation to changes in mercury strain gauge plethysmography and muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA). Calf selective deep oxygenated-Hb decreased continuously from -10 mmHg LBNP. Regression analysis showed that oxygenated-Hb was significantly related to declines in plethysmography evaluations of blood flow [oxygenated-Hb = (-1.57 +/- 0.26) + (1.86 +/- 0.49) plethysmography, r(2) = 0.87 +/- 0.09]. Changes in MSNA (total activity) were also inversely related to oxygenated-Hb (slope calf oxygenated-Hb can be utilized to estimate calf muscle blood flow changes that are most likely caused by vasoconstriction during graded LBNP.

  16. A case of polyarteritis nodosa limited to the right calf muscles, fascia, and skin: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brett Francesca

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Limited polyarteritis nodosa is a rare benign disease that usually responds well to systemic corticosteroid treatment. We report a case limited to calf muscles, fascia, and skin treated with local corticosteroid therapy directed to the affected areas by ultrasound guidance. Case presentation A 36-year-old Caucasian woman presented with a 10-month history of progressive right calf pain and swelling, which were unresponsive to treatment with non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and physiotherapy. An examination revealed a swollen tender right calf with indurated overlying skin. Laboratory investigations showed an erythrocyte sedimentation rate of 24 mm/hour and a C-reactive protein of 15 mg/dl. Full blood count, renal profile, and creatinine kinase level were normal. A full autoantibody screen and hepatitis B and C serology results were negative. A chest X-ray was unremarkable. Magnetic resonance imaging of the right leg revealed increased signal intensity in T2-weighted images and this was suggestive of extensive inflammatory changes of the gastrocnemius muscle and, to a lesser extent, the soleus muscle. There were marked inflammatory changes throughout the gastrocnemius muscle and the subcutaneous tissue circumferentially around the right lower leg. A biopsy of affected skin, muscle, and fascia showed histopathological features consistent with polyarteritis nodosa, including small-vessel vasculitis with fibrinoid changes in the vessel wall and intense perivascular and focal mural chronic inflammatory changes. Our patient declined treatment with oral steroids. She received a course of ultrasound-guided injections of steroid (Depo-Medrone, methylprednisolone in the involved muscle area and commenced maintenance azathioprine with a good response. Conclusions Limited polyarteritis nodosa is rare and affects middle-aged individuals. In most cases, treatment with moderate- to high-dose corticosteroids gives symptomatic relief

  17. The value of near-infrared spectroscopy for the assessment of calf muscle function in venous patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasdekis, Spyros N; Tzemailas, Ioannis; Antonopoulos, Constantine N; Mastoraki, Sotiria; Mantas, George K; Lazaris, Andreas

    2017-03-01

    Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) is a noninvasive technique with the potential to determine the degree of tissue oxygenation. The aim of the current study was to investigate the use of NIRS as a reliable method of detecting calf muscle pump dysfunction in groups of patients with venous disease. Patients with superficial venous insufficiency (SVI) or history of deep venous thrombosis (DVT) were classified according to the comprehensive classification system for chronic venous disorders (clinical class, etiology, anatomy, and pathophysiology) and compared with controls (GROUP variable). A 10-stage evaluation of ambulatory venous function was performed, and corresponding values of calf regional oxygen saturation (crSaO 2 , %) at each phase were recorded (TIME variable). Thereafter, the percentage changes of crSaO 2 values (Δ scores, %) between a given phase and the reference phase were estimated. Differences among groups and phases were evaluated using analysis of variance. Subgroup analysis between C0-C2 and C3-C6 patients was performed. The receiver operating characteristic curve analysis was used to detect the best predictive capability for SVI and DVT. A total of 30 patients with SVI, 31 patients with DVT, and 34 controls were included in the study. A statistically significant effect of TIME (F = 382.4; P patients. The measurement of crSaO 2 using NIRS detected alterations in calf muscle pump oxygenation during exercise and differences in tissue oxygenation among SVI patients, DVT patients, and controls. NIRS may represent a reliable noninvasive tool for the study of calf muscle dysfunction in venous disease and a useful vehicle for generating testable hypotheses in the laboratory setting. Copyright © 2016 Society for Vascular Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Effect of a static calf muscle-tendon unit stretching program on ankle dorsiflexion range of motion of older women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Eric; Bradley, Bruce; Witkowski, Kimberly; McKee, Rose; Telesmanic, Christopher; Chavez, Andre; Kennedy, Karen; Zimmerman, Grenith

    2007-01-01

    While there has been considerable research on stretching, a paucity of research has focused on stretching of the calf muscle-tendon unit (MTU) in older women. Because limited ankle dorsiflexion range of motion (ROM) is associated with gait abnormalities and increases the risk of falls in the elderly, we investigated the effect of static stretching on flexibility of the calf MTU of healthy elderly adults. Twenty healthy female volunteers, 76 to 91 years of age, were recruited from Linda Valley Villa, an independent living center. Subjects performed a static stretching program 5 days a week for 6 weeks. Passive ankle dorsiflexion ROM was taken prior to beginning the stretching program and 3 days after the last stretching day. Mean increase in passive ankle dorsiflexion ROM was 12.3 degrees (SD= 4.4 degrees ) (p dorsiflexion ROM for elderly women.

  19. Reliability of Calf Bioelectrical Impedance Spectroscopy and Magnetic-Resonance-Imaging-Acquired Skeletal Muscle Hydration Measures in Healthy People

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anuradha Sawant

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The purpose of this study was to investigate the test-retest reliability, relative variability, and agreement between calf bioelectrical impedance-spectroscopy (cBIS acquired extracellular fluid (ECF, intracellular fluid (ICF, total water and the ratio of ECF : ICF, magnetic-resonance-imaging (MRI acquired transverse relaxation times (T2, and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC of calf muscles of the same segment in healthy individuals. Methods. Muscle hydration measures were collected in 32 healthy individuals on two occasions and analyzed by a single rater. On both occasions, MRI measures were collected from tibialis anterior (TA, medial (MG, and lateral gastrocnemius (LG and soleus muscles following the cBIS data acquired using XiTRON Hydra 4200 BIS device. The intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC2,1, coefficient of variation (CV, and agreement between MRI and cBIS data were also calculated. Results. ICC2,1 values for cBIS, T2, and ADC ranged from 0.56 to 0.92, 0.96 to 0.99, and 0.05 to 0.56, respectively. Relative variability between measures (CV ranged from 14.6 to 25.6% for the cBIS data and 4.2 to 10.0% for the MRI-acquired data. The ratio of ECF : ICF could significantly predict T2 of TA and soleus muscles. Conclusion. MRI-acquired measures of T2 had the highest test-retest reliability of muscle hydration with the least error and variation on repeated testing. Hence, T2 of a muscle is the most reliable and stable outcome measure for evaluating individual muscle hydration.

  20. Quantitative evaluation for spasticity of calf muscle after botulinum toxin injection in patients with cerebral palsy: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yu-Ching; Lin, I-Ling; Chou, Te-Feng Arthur; Lee, Hsin-Min

    2016-03-12

    Cerebral palsy (CP) is the most common pediatric disease to cause motor disability. Two common symptoms in CP are spasticity and contracture. If this occurred in the ankle plantar flexors of children with CP, it will impair their gait and active daily living profoundly. Most children with CP receive botulinum toxin type A (BoNT-A) injection to reduce muscle tone, but a knowledge gap exists in the understanding of changes of neural and non-neural components of spasticity after injection. The purpose of this study was to determine if our device for quantitative modified Tardieu approach (QMTA) is a valid method to assess spasticity of calf muscles after botulinum toxin injection. In this study, we intended to develop a device for quantitative measurement of spasticity in calf muscles based on the modified Tardieu scale (MTS) and techniques of biomedical engineering. Our QMTA measures the angular displacement and resistance of stretched joint with a device that is light, portable and can be operated similar to conventional approaches for MTS. The static (R2), dynamic (R1) and R2-R1 angles derived from the reactive signals collected by the miniature sensors are used to represent the non-neural and neural components of stretched spastic muscles. Four children with CP were recruited to assess the change in spasticity in their gastrocnemius muscles before and 4 weeks after BoNT-A injection. A simulated ankle model validated the performance of our device in measuring joint displacement and estimating the angle of catch. Data from our participants with CP showed that R2 and R2-R1 improved significantly after BoNT-A administration. It indicates both neural and non-neural components of the spastic gastrocnemius muscles improved at four weeks after BoNT-A injection in children with CP. Our device for QMTA can objectively measure the changes in spasticity of the gastrocnemius muscle in children with cerebral palsy after BoNT-A injection.

  1. The effect of static stretching of the calf muscle-tendon unit on active ankle dorsiflexion range of motion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youdas, James W; Krause, David A; Egan, Kathleen S; Therneau, Terry M; Laskowski, Edward R

    2003-07-01

    Masked randomized trial. To examine the effects of a 6-week program of static stretching of the calf muscle-tendon unit (MTU) on active ankle dorsiflexion range of motion (ADFROM) in healthy subjects. Static stretching of the calf MTU is often prescribed to increase flexibility in patients with shortened connective tissues or to maintain ADFROM in healthy individuals. Presently, physical therapists lack specific information on the optimal dosage of calf MTU stretching necessary to produce improvement in ADFROM. One hundred one adults (63 women, 38 men; mean age +/- SD, 40.0 +/- 10.9 years; range, 21-59) with no visual evidence of gait impairment due to lower-extremity dysfunction participated in the study. Active ADFROM was measured with a universal goniometer. Participants were randomly assigned to group 1, no stretch controls (n = 24), or to 1 of 3 experimental groups carrying out a 6-week program of standing wall stretches once per day: individuals in group 2 stretched for 30 seconds (n = 26); individuals in group 3 stretched for 1 minute (n = 24); individuals in group 4 stretched for 2 minutes (n = 27). After 6 weeks, the results of an analysis of variance found no effect of treatment on active ADFROM. The results of this study show that a 6-week program of once-per-day static stretching for up to 2 minutes is not sufficient to increase active ADFROM in healthy subjects.

  2. Functional effects of botulinum toxin type-A treatment and subsequent stretching of spastic calf muscles: a study in patients with hereditary spastic paraplegia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Niet, M. de; Bot, S.T. de; Warrenburg, B.P.C. van de; Weerdesteijn, V.G.M.; Geurts, A.C.H.

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Although calf muscle spasticity is often treated with botulinum toxin type-A, the effects on balance and gait are ambiguous. Hereditary spastic paraplegia is characterized by progressive spasticity and relatively mild muscle weakness of the lower limbs. It is therefore a good model to

  3. Changes of calf muscle-tendon biomechanical properties induced by passive-stretching and active-movement training in children with cerebral palsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Heng; Wu, Yi-Ning; Hwang, Miriam; Ren, Yupeng; Gao, Fan; Gaebler-Spira, Deborah

    2011-01-01

    Biomechanical properties of calf muscles and Achilles tendon may be altered considerably in children with cerebral palsy (CP), contributing to childhood disability. It is unclear how muscle fascicles and tendon respond to rehabilitation and contribute to improvement of ankle-joint properties. Biomechanical properties of the calf muscle fascicles of both gastrocnemius medialis (GM) and soleus (SOL), including the fascicle length and pennation angle in seven children with CP, were evaluated using ultrasonography combined with biomechanical measurements before and after a 6-wk treatment of passive-stretching and active-movement training. The passive force contributions from the GM and SOL muscles were separated using flexed and extended knee positions, and fascicular stiffness was calculated based on the fascicular force-length relation. Biomechanical properties of the Achilles tendon, including resting length, cross-sectional area, and stiffness, were also evaluated. The 6-wk training induced elongation of muscle fascicles (SOL: 8%, P = 0.018; GM: 3%, P = 0.018), reduced pennation angle (SOL: 10%, P = 0.028; GM: 5%, P = 0.028), reduced fascicular stiffness (SOL: 17%, P = 0.128; GM: 21%, P = 0.018), decreased tendon length (6%, P = 0.018), increased Achilles tendon stiffness (32%, P = 0.018), and increased Young's modulus (20%, P = 0.018). In vivo characterizations of calf muscles and Achilles tendon mechanical properties help us better understand treatment-induced changes of calf muscle-tendon and facilitate development of more effective treatments. PMID:21596920

  4. Gastrocnemius vs. soleus strain: how to differentiate and deal with calf muscle injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryan Dixon, J

    2009-06-01

    Calf strains are common injuries seen in primary care and sports medicine clinics. Differentiating strains of the gastrocnemius or soleus is important for treatment and prognosis. Simple clinical testing can assist in diagnosis and is aided by knowledge of the anatomy and common clinical presentation.

  5. Gastrocnemius vs. soleus strain: how to differentiate and deal with calf muscle injuries

    OpenAIRE

    Bryan Dixon, J.

    2009-01-01

    Calf strains are common injuries seen in primary care and sports medicine clinics. Differentiating strains of the gastrocnemius or soleus is important for treatment and prognosis. Simple clinical testing can assist in diagnosis and is aided by knowledge of the anatomy and common clinical presentation.

  6. Blood flow and oxygenation in peritendinous tissue and calf muscle during dynamic exercise in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boushel, Robert Christopher; Langberg, H; Green, Sara Marie Ehrenreich

    2000-01-01

    , and (2) whether blood flow is coupled to oxidative metabolism. 2. Seven individuals performed dynamic plantar flexion from 1 to 9 W. Radial artery and popliteal venous blood were sampled for O2, peritendinous blood flow was determined by 133Xe-washout, calf blood flow by plethysmography, cardiac output...

  7. The estimation of recovery time of calf muscle oxygen saturation during exercise by using functional near infrared spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansari, M. A.; Shojaeifar, M.; Mohajerani, E.

    2014-08-01

    Several methods of near infrared spectroscopy such as functional near infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) and pulse oximetry have been applied for monitoring of tissue oxygenation or arterial oxygen saturation. Some vascular diseases can be diagnosed through measurements of tissue oxygenation. In this study, the temporal variation of oxygenation of calf muscle after exercise is studied by fNIRS. First, the accuracy of a low-cost fNIRS system is studied by measuring the oxygenation of a lipid phantom. Moreover, in-vivo study is performed to evaluate the precision of this system. Then, the variation of muscle oxygenation of four persons during exercise is measured and also the recovery time after walking/running is measured by this fNIRS system.

  8. Calf Venous Compliance in Supine Posture Equals that Measured with Head-up Tilt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watenpaugh, Donald E.; Ballard, R. E.; Breit, G. A.; Bernauer, E. M.; Blomqvist, C. G.; Hargens, Alan R.

    1995-01-01

    Calf venous compliance is measured conventionally with venous occlusion, where compliance equals calf volume elevation per mmHg thigh occlusion pressure in relaxed legs of supine subjects. Compliance may also be measured during stepwise head-up tilt (HUT) as calf volume elevation per mmHg gravitational venous pressure elevation produced by HUT. Although HUT on a tilt table with a footplate activates calf muscles which could reduce compliance, this muscle activation is relatively small (less than or = 10% of maximal voluntary levels). Therefore, we hypothesized that calf compliance measured with HUT equals that measured with conventional supine venous occlusion. The venous occlusion protocol consisted of 20, 40, 60 and 80 mmHg thigh cuff inflations held for 1, 2, 3 and 4 min, respectively, in 14 supine subjects. One min of cuff deflation to 0 mmHg separated occlusions. Nine other subjects underwent HUT through the following angles held for 30s each: -12 deg., -6 deg., 0 deg., 12 deg., 30 deg., 54 deg., and 90 deg. HUT calf venous pressure data were interpolated from Katkov and Chestukhin; these data correspond to 70-80% of calculated calf venous pressure changes (pgh). Liquid metal-in-silastic strain gauges measured calf volume for both venous occlusion and HUT compliance. Relaxed calf compliance in supine subjects equaled 4.6 +/- 0.4 ml/mmHg (X +/- SE), as measured with venous occlusion. Calf compliance during HUT equaled 4.6 +/- 1.0 ml/mmHg. Therefore, calf compliance in supine, relaxed subjects equals that measured during head-up tilt. We conclude that the minimal calf muscle activation which occurs during HUT does not importantly affect calf compliance.

  9. Time-resolved phosphorous magnetization transfer of the human calf muscle at 3 T and 7 T: A feasibility study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valkovič, Ladislav, E-mail: siegfried.trattnig@meduniwien.ac.at [MR Center of Excellence, Department of Radiology, Medical University Vienna, A-1090 Wien, Lazarettgasse 14 (Austria); Institute of Measurement Science, Department of Imaging Methods, Slovak Academy of Sciences, 841 04 Bratislava, Dúbravska cesta 9 (Slovakia); Chmelík, Marek, E-mail: marek.chmelik@meduniwien.ac.at [MR Center of Excellence, Department of Radiology, Medical University Vienna, A-1090 Wien, Lazarettgasse 14 (Austria); Just Kukurova, Ivica, E-mail: ivica.kukurova@meduniwien.ac.at [MR Center of Excellence, Department of Radiology, Medical University Vienna, A-1090 Wien, Lazarettgasse 14 (Austria); Krššák, Martin, E-mail: martin.krssak@meduniwien.ac.at [Department of Internal Medicine III, Medical University Vienna, A-1090 Wien, Lazarettgasse 14 (Austria); Gruber, Stephan, E-mail: stephan@nmr.at [MR Center of Excellence, Department of Radiology, Medical University Vienna, A-1090 Wien, Lazarettgasse 14 (Austria); Frollo, Ivan, E-mail: umerollo@savba.sk [Institute of Measurement Science, Department of Imaging Methods, Slovak Academy of Sciences, 841 04 Bratislava, Dúbravska cesta 9 (Slovakia); Trattnig, Siegfried, E-mail: siegfried.trattnig@meduniwien.ac.at [MR Center of Excellence, Department of Radiology, Medical University Vienna, A-1090 Wien, Lazarettgasse 14 (Austria); Bogner, Wolfgang, E-mail: wolfgang@nmr.at [MR Center of Excellence, Department of Radiology, Medical University Vienna, A-1090 Wien, Lazarettgasse 14 (Austria)

    2013-05-15

    Phosphorous ({sup 31}P) magnetization transfer (MT) experiments enable the non-invasive investigation of human muscle metabolism in various physiological and pathological conditions. The purpose of our study was to investigate the feasibility of time-resolved MT, and to compare the results of MT experiments at 3 T and 7 T. Six healthy volunteers were examined on a 3 T and a 7 T MR scanner using the same setup and identical measurement protocols. In the calf muscle of all volunteers, four separate MT experiments (each ∼10 min duration) were performed in one session. The forward rate constant of the ATP synthesis reaction (k{sub ATP}) and creatine kinase reaction (k{sub CK}), as well as corresponding metabolic fluxes (F{sub ATP}, F{sub CK}), were estimated. A comparison of these exchange parameters, apparent T{sub 1}s, data quality, quantification precision, and reproducibility was performed. The data quality and reproducibility of the same MT experiments at 7 T was significantly higher (i.e., k{sub ATP} 2.7 times higher and k{sub CK} 3.4 times higher) than at 3 T (p < 0.05). The values for k{sub ATP} (p = 0.35) and k{sub CK} (p = 0.09) at both field strengths were indistinguishable. Even a single MT experiment at 7 T provided better data quality than did a 4 times-longer MT experiment at 3 T. The minimal time-resolution to reliably quantify both F{sub ATP} and F{sub CK} at 7 T was ∼6 min. Our results show that MT experiments at 7 T can be at least 4 times faster than 3 T MT experiments and still provide significantly better quantification. This enables time-resolved MT experiments for the observation of slow metabolic changes in the human calf muscle at 7 T.

  10. Young, Healthy Subjects Can Reduce the Activity of Calf Muscles When Provided with EMG Biofeedback in Upright Stance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, Taian M.; Baudry, Stéphane; Botter, Alberto

    2016-01-01

    Recent evidence suggests the minimization of muscular effort rather than of the size of bodily sway may be the primary, nervous system goal when regulating the human, standing posture. Different programs have been proposed for balance training; none however has been focused on the activation of postural muscles during standing. In this study we investigated the possibility of minimizing the activation of the calf muscles during standing through biofeedback. By providing subjects with an audio signal that varied in amplitude and frequency with the amplitude of surface electromyograms (EMG) recorded from different regions of the gastrocnemius and soleus muscles, we expected them to be able to minimize the level of muscle activation during standing without increasing the excursion of the center of pressure (CoP). CoP data and surface EMG from gastrocnemii, soleus and tibialis anterior muscles were obtained from 10 healthy participants while standing at ease and while standing with EMG biofeedback. Four sensitivities were used to test subjects' responsiveness to the EMG biofeedback. Compared with standing at ease, the two most sensitive feedback conditions induced a decrease in plantar flexor activity (~15%; P < 0.05) and an increase in tibialis anterior EMG (~10%; P < 0.05). Furthermore, CoP mean position significantly shifted backward (~30 mm). In contrast, the use of less sensitive EMG biofeedback resulted in a significant decrease in EMG activity of ankle plantar flexors with a marginal increase in TA activity compared with standing at ease. These changes were not accompanied by greater CoP displacements or significant changes in mean CoP position. Key results revealed subjects were able to keep standing stability while reducing the activity of gastrocnemius and soleus without loading their tibialis anterior muscle when standing with EMG biofeedback. These results may therefore posit the basis for the development of training protocols aimed at assisting subjects in

  11. Young, healthy subjects can reduce the activity of calf muscles when provided with EMG biofeedback in upright stance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taian M. Vieira

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Recent evidence suggests the minimisation of muscular effort rather than of the size of bodily sway may be the primary, nervous system goal when regulating the human, standing posture. Different programs have been proposed for balance training; none however has been focused on the activation of postural muscles during standing. In this study we investigated the possibility of minimising the activation of the calf muscles during standing through biofeedback. By providing subjects with an audio signal that varied in amplitude and frequency with the amplitude of surface electromyograms (EMG recorded from different regions of the gastrocnemius and soleus muscles, we expected them to be able to minimise the level of muscle activation during standing without increasing the excursion of the centre of pressure (CoP. CoP data and surface EMG from gastrocnemii, soleus and tibialis anterior muscles were obtained from ten healthy participants while standing at ease and while standing with EMG biofeedback. Four sensitivities were used to test subjects’ responsiveness to the EMG biofeedback. Compared with standing at ease, the two most sensitive feedback conditions induced a decrease in plantar flexor activity (~15%; P<0.05 and an increase in tibialis anterior EMG (~10%; P<0.05. Furthermore, CoP mean position significantly shifted backward (~30 mm. In contrast, the use of less sensitive EMG biofeedback resulted in a significant decrease in EMG activity of ankle plantar flexors with a marginal increase in TA activity compared with standing at ease. These changes were not accompanied by greater CoP displacements or significant changes in mean CoP position. Key results revealed subjects were able to keep standing stability while reducing the activity of gastrocnemius and soleus without loading their tibialis anterior muscle when standing with EMG biofeedback. These results may therefore posit the basis for the development of training protocols aimed at

  12. Findings in post-poliomyelitis syndrome. Weakness of muscles of the calf as a source of late pain and fatigue of muscles of the thigh after poliomyelitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, J; Fontaine, J D; Mulroy, S

    1995-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify overuse of muscles and other alterations in the mechanics of gait in twenty-one patients who had muscular dysfunction as a late consequence of poliomyelitis. All of the patients had good or normal strength (grade 4 or 5) of the vastus lateralis and zero to fair strength (grade 0 to 3) of the calf, as determined by manual testing. Dynamic electromyography was used, while the patients were walking, to quantify the intensity and duration of contraction of the inferior part of the gluteus maximus, the long head of the biceps femoris, the vastus lateralis, and the soleus muscles. Patterns of contact of the foot with the floor, temporal-spatial parameters, and motion of the knee and ankle were recorded. The principal mechanisms of substitution for a weak calf muscle fell into three groups: overuse of the quadriceps (twelve patients) or a hip extensor (the inferior part of the gluteus maximus in eight patients and the long head of the biceps femoris in four), or both; equinus contracture (twelve patients); and avoidance of loading-response flexion of the knee (five patients). Most patients used more than one method of substitution. These observations support the theory that post-poliomyelitis syndrome results from long-term substitutions for muscular weakness that place increased demands on joints, ligaments, and muscles and that treatment--based on the early identification of overuse of muscles and ligamentous strain--should aim at modification of lifestyle and include use of a brace.

  13. A mechanographic method for measurement of muscle tone in the conscious rat. The calf muscle stretch response in reserpine-induced rigidity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnels, B; Steg, G

    1982-07-01

    A simple mechanographic method for the measurement of muscle tone in awake rats is presented. It utilizes principles corresponding to those in clinical assessment of tone and it has been applied to an animal model of Parkinson's disease: the reserpine-treated rat. The rat was restrained by a plastic cylinder and by metal cuffs at the ankles. The hind feet were repeatedly dorsiflexed by an electromechanical manipulator and the resulting calf muscle tension was indirectly measured with a strain-gauge system. The relative contributions to the stretch response from the different muscle groups acting on the ankle joint in the awake and untreated rat and during reserpine-induced rigidity are described. Very little active tension was found in the untreated rat. After treatment with reserpine, continuous activation of the muscle was found in EMG recordings and there was a sharp increase in the tension recorded during stretch. The static response to the increased isometric stretch was augmented. An additional, tonic response to ramp stretch was elicited at all stretch velocities. There was no evidence for phasic responses to rapid stretch in reserpine-induced rigidity. The amplitude of the myomechanogram was thus found to be independent of the ramp stretch velocity. Subsequent injection of apomorphine abolished the increased stretch response. It is demonstrated that changes in muscle tone could be followed during drug treatment and that the method can be used in investigations of the pathophysiological mechanisms behind the disorders of muscle tone.

  14. Dixon-based MRI for assessment of muscle-fat content in phantoms, healthy volunteers and patients with achillodynia: comparison to visual assessment of calf muscle quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Michael A; Pfirrmann, Christian W A; Espinosa, Norman; Raptis, Dimitri A; Buck, Florian M

    2014-06-01

    To quantify the muscle fat-content (MFC) in phantoms, volunteers and patients with achillodynia using two-point Dixon-based magnetic resonance imaging (2pt-MRIDIXON) in comparison to MR spectroscopy (MRS) and visual assessment of MFC. Two-point Dixon-based MRI was used to measure the MFC of 15 phantoms containing 0-100 % fat-content and calf muscles in 30 patients (13 women; 57 ± 15 years) with achillodynia and in 20 volunteers (10 women; 30 ± 14 years) at 1.5 T. The accuracy of 2pt-MRIDIXON in quantification of MFC was assessed in vitro using phantoms and in vivo using MRS as the standard of reference. Fat-fractions derived from 2pt-MRIDIXON (FFDIXON) and MRS (FFMRS) were related to visual assessment of MFC (Goutallier grades 0-4) and Achilles-tendon quality (grade 0-4). Excellent linear correlation was demonstrated for FFDIXON with phantoms and with FFMRS in patients (p c = 0.997/0.995; p visual-grading showed no difference between both groups (p > 0.05). FFMRS and FFDIXON were significantly higher in subjects with (>grade 1) structural damage of the Achilles-tendon (p = 0.01). Two-point Dixon-based MRI allows for accurate quantification of MFC, outperforming visual assessment of calf muscle fat. Structural damage of the Achilles tendon is associated with a significantly higher MFC. Two-point Dixon-based MRI allows accurate quantification of muscular fat content (MFC). Quantitative analysis outperforms visual analysis in the detection of elevated MFC. Achillodynia results in an increased MFC of the gastrocnemius muscles. Structural damage of the Achilles tendon further increases the MFC.

  15. Dixon-based MRI for assessment of muscle-fat content in phantoms, healthy volunteers and patients with achillodynia: comparison to visual assessment of calf muscle quality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischer, Michael A.; Pfirrmann, Christian W.A.; Buck, Florian M. [University Hospital Balgrist, Radiology, Zurich (Switzerland); Espinosa, Norman [University Hospital Balgrist, Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Zurich (Switzerland); Raptis, Dimitri A. [University Hospital Zurich, Clinic of Visceral and Transplant Surgery, Zurich (Switzerland)

    2014-06-15

    To quantify the muscle fat-content (MFC) in phantoms, volunteers and patients with achillodynia using two-point Dixon-based magnetic resonance imaging (2pt-MRI{sub DIXON}) in comparison to MR spectroscopy (MRS) and visual assessment of MFC. Two-point Dixon-based MRI was used to measure the MFC of 15 phantoms containing 0-100 % fat-content and calf muscles in 30 patients (13 women; 57 ± 15 years) with achillodynia and in 20 volunteers (10 women; 30 ± 14 years) at 1.5 T. The accuracy of 2pt-MRI{sub DIXON} in quantification of MFC was assessed in vitro using phantoms and in vivo using MRS as the standard of reference. Fat-fractions derived from 2pt-MRI{sub DIXON} (FF{sub DIXON}) and MRS (FF{sub MRS}) were related to visual assessment of MFC (Goutallier grades 0-4) and Achilles-tendon quality (grade 0-4). Excellent linear correlation was demonstrated for FF{sub DIXON} with phantoms and with FF{sub MRS} in patients (p{sub c} = 0.997/0.995; p < 0.001). FF{sub DIXON} of the gastrocnemius muscle was significantly higher (p = 0.002) in patients (7.0 % ± 4.7 %) compared with volunteers (3.6 % ± 0.7 %), whereas visual-grading showed no difference between both groups (p > 0.05). FF{sub MRS} and FF{sub DIXON} were significantly higher in subjects with (>grade 1) structural damage of the Achilles-tendon (p = 0.01). Two-point Dixon-based MRI allows for accurate quantification of MFC, outperforming visual assessment of calf muscle fat. Structural damage of the Achilles tendon is associated with a significantly higher MFC. (orig.)

  16. Gene Expression Profiling in Slow-Type Calf Soleus Muscle of 30 Days Space-Flown Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gambara, Guido; Salanova, Michele; Ciciliot, Stefano; Furlan, Sandra; Gutsmann, Martina; Schiffl, Gudrun; Ungethuem, Ute; Volpe, Pompeo; Gunga, Hanns-Christian; Blottner, Dieter

    2017-01-01

    Microgravity exposure as well as chronic disuse are two main causes of skeletal muscle atrophy in animals and humans. The antigravity calf soleus is a reference postural muscle to investigate the mechanism of disuse-induced maladaptation and plasticity of human and rodent (rats or mice) skeletal musculature. Here, we report microgravity-induced global gene expression changes in space-flown mouse skeletal muscle and the identification of yet unknown disuse susceptible transcripts found in soleus (a mainly slow phenotype) but not in extensor digitorum longus (a mainly fast phenotype dorsiflexor as functional counterpart to soleus). Adult C57Bl/N6 male mice (n = 5) flew aboard a biosatellite for 30 days on orbit (BION-M1 mission, 2013), a sex and age-matched cohort were housed in standard vivarium cages (n = 5), or in a replicate flight habitat as ground control (n = 5). Next to disuse atrophy signs (reduced size and myofiber phenotype I to II type shift) as much as 680 differentially expressed genes were found in the space-flown soleus, and only 72 in extensor digitorum longus (only 24 genes in common) compared to ground controls. Altered expression of gene transcripts matched key biological processes (contractile machinery, calcium homeostasis, muscle development, cell metabolism, inflammatory and oxidative stress response). Some transcripts (Fzd9, Casq2, Kcnma1, Ppara, Myf6) were further validated by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR). Besides previous reports on other leg muscle types we put forth for the first time a complete set of microgravity susceptible gene transcripts in soleus of mice as promising new biomarkers or targets for optimization of physical countermeasures and rehabilitation protocols to overcome disuse atrophy conditions in different clinical settings, rehabilitation and spaceflight. PMID:28076365

  17. Gene Expression Profiling in Slow-Type Calf Soleus Muscle of 30 Days Space-Flown Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gambara, Guido; Salanova, Michele; Ciciliot, Stefano; Furlan, Sandra; Gutsmann, Martina; Schiffl, Gudrun; Ungethuem, Ute; Volpe, Pompeo; Gunga, Hanns-Christian; Blottner, Dieter

    2017-01-01

    Microgravity exposure as well as chronic disuse are two main causes of skeletal muscle atrophy in animals and humans. The antigravity calf soleus is a reference postural muscle to investigate the mechanism of disuse-induced maladaptation and plasticity of human and rodent (rats or mice) skeletal musculature. Here, we report microgravity-induced global gene expression changes in space-flown mouse skeletal muscle and the identification of yet unknown disuse susceptible transcripts found in soleus (a mainly slow phenotype) but not in extensor digitorum longus (a mainly fast phenotype dorsiflexor as functional counterpart to soleus). Adult C57Bl/N6 male mice (n = 5) flew aboard a biosatellite for 30 days on orbit (BION-M1 mission, 2013), a sex and age-matched cohort were housed in standard vivarium cages (n = 5), or in a replicate flight habitat as ground control (n = 5). Next to disuse atrophy signs (reduced size and myofiber phenotype I to II type shift) as much as 680 differentially expressed genes were found in the space-flown soleus, and only 72 in extensor digitorum longus (only 24 genes in common) compared to ground controls. Altered expression of gene transcripts matched key biological processes (contractile machinery, calcium homeostasis, muscle development, cell metabolism, inflammatory and oxidative stress response). Some transcripts (Fzd9, Casq2, Kcnma1, Ppara, Myf6) were further validated by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR). Besides previous reports on other leg muscle types we put forth for the first time a complete set of microgravity susceptible gene transcripts in soleus of mice as promising new biomarkers or targets for optimization of physical countermeasures and rehabilitation protocols to overcome disuse atrophy conditions in different clinical settings, rehabilitation and spaceflight.

  18. Gene Expression Profiling in Slow-Type Calf Soleus Muscle of 30 Days Space-Flown Mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guido Gambara

    Full Text Available Microgravity exposure as well as chronic disuse are two main causes of skeletal muscle atrophy in animals and humans. The antigravity calf soleus is a reference postural muscle to investigate the mechanism of disuse-induced maladaptation and plasticity of human and rodent (rats or mice skeletal musculature. Here, we report microgravity-induced global gene expression changes in space-flown mouse skeletal muscle and the identification of yet unknown disuse susceptible transcripts found in soleus (a mainly slow phenotype but not in extensor digitorum longus (a mainly fast phenotype dorsiflexor as functional counterpart to soleus. Adult C57Bl/N6 male mice (n = 5 flew aboard a biosatellite for 30 days on orbit (BION-M1 mission, 2013, a sex and age-matched cohort were housed in standard vivarium cages (n = 5, or in a replicate flight habitat as ground control (n = 5. Next to disuse atrophy signs (reduced size and myofiber phenotype I to II type shift as much as 680 differentially expressed genes were found in the space-flown soleus, and only 72 in extensor digitorum longus (only 24 genes in common compared to ground controls. Altered expression of gene transcripts matched key biological processes (contractile machinery, calcium homeostasis, muscle development, cell metabolism, inflammatory and oxidative stress response. Some transcripts (Fzd9, Casq2, Kcnma1, Ppara, Myf6 were further validated by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR. Besides previous reports on other leg muscle types we put forth for the first time a complete set of microgravity susceptible gene transcripts in soleus of mice as promising new biomarkers or targets for optimization of physical countermeasures and rehabilitation protocols to overcome disuse atrophy conditions in different clinical settings, rehabilitation and spaceflight.

  19. [Diabetic foot syndrome: importance of calf muscles MR spectroscopy in the assessment of limb ischemia and effect of revascularization].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Němcová, Andrea; Dubský, Michal; Jirkovská, Alexandra; Šedivý, Petr; Drobný, Miloslav; Hájek, Milan; Dezortová, Monika; Bém, Robert; Fejfarová, Vladimíra; Pyšná, Anna

    The standard method for assessment of effect of revascularization in patients with diabetic foot (DF) and critical limb ischemia (CLI) is transcutaneous oxygen pressure (TcPO2). Phosphorus magnetic resonance spectroscopy (31P MRS) enables to evaluate oxidative muscle metabolism that could be impaired in patients with diabetes and its complications. The aim of our study was to compare MRS of calf muscle between patients with DF and CLI and healthy controls and to evaluate the contribution of MRS in the assessment of the effect of revascularization. Thirty-four diabetic patients with DF and CLI treated either by autologous cell therapy (ACT; 15 patients) or percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA; 12 patients) in our foot clinic during 2013-2016 and 19 healthy controls were included into the study. TcPO2 measurement was used as a standard method of non-invasive evaluation of limb ischemia. MRS examinations were performed using the whole-body 3T MR system 1 day before and 3 months after the procedure. Subjects were examined in a supine position with the coil fixed under the m. gastrocnemius. MRS parameters were obtained at rest and during the exercise period. Rest MRS parameters of oxidative muscle metabolism such as phosphocreatine (PCr), inorganic phosphate (Pi), phosphodiesters (PDE), adenosine triphosphate (ATP), dynamic MRS parameters such as recovery constant PCr (τPCr) and mitochondrial capacity (Qmax), and pH were compared between patients and healthy controls, and also before and 3 months after revascularization. Patients with CLI had significantly lower PCr/Pi (p lower Qmax and prolonged τPCr (both p muscles in patients with CLI in comparison with healthy controls. We observed an improvement in dynamic MRS parameters in individual cases; this finding should be verified in a large number of patients during longer follow-up.Key words: autologous cell therapy - critical limb ischemia - diabetic foot - MR spectroscopy.

  20. Relative changes with contraction in the central excitability state of the tibialis anterior and calf muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, M A

    1980-01-01

    F responses were recorded from the surface of the tibialis muscle and medial aspect of the soleus muscle in 14 normal subjects. The persistence (that is the fraction of measurable F responses found with a series of supramaximal stimuli) and average F amplitudes (measured peak-to-peak and based on at least five F responses) were determined both at rest and with isometric contraction with the ankle maintained at 90 degrees. Although the persistence at rest was significantly less in the tibialis anterior soleus than the (p less than 0.001), no significant difference was found with the muscles contracted. This was associated with a significant increase in both average F amplitudes and average F amplitude/direct motor response ratios in the tibialis anterior in comparison to the soleus. In four of the subjects, studies were also performed when the H reflex in the soleus muscle was eliminated by thigh compression. Comparable changes in both F response persistence and average F amplitude were found with and without an H reflex. These data indicate that, in contrast to the situation at rest, with isometric contraction the "central excitatory state" of the tibialis anterior is at least as great as in its antagonist antigravity muscles and that this is not due simply to increased large fiber reflex input associated with agonist contraction. PMID:7373321

  1. The classification for "equilibrium triad" sensory loss based on sEMG signals of calf muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hairong Yu; Kairui Guo; Jie Luo; Kai Cao; Nguyen, Hung T; Su, Steven W

    2017-07-01

    Surface Electromyography (sEMG) has been commonly applied for analysing the electrical activities of skeletal muscles. The sensory system of maintaining posture balance includes vision, proprioception and vestibular senses. In this work, an attempt is made to classify whether the body is missing one of the sense during balance control by using sEMG signals. A trial of combination with different features and muscles is also developed. The results demonstrate that the classification accuracy between vision loss and the normal condition is higher than the one between vestibular sense loss and normal condition. When using different features and muscles, the impact on classification results is also different. The outcomes of this study could aid the development of sEMG based classification for the function of sensory systems during human balance movement.

  2. Modified track shoes and their effect on the EMG activity of calf muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greensword, Marlon; Aghazadeh, Fereydoun; Al-Qaisi, Saif

    2012-01-01

    Although track and field spike shoes are crafted for runners, these shoes are not designed for regular walking. With such shoes, runners may eventually encounter serious chronic injuries such as plantar fasciitis, shin splints, achilles tendinitis, chondromalacia, and iliotibial band syndrome. To address this problem, a modified spike shoe was tested and compared to a regular spike shoe. The modification consists of adding a removable heel to the shoe sole in order to reduce the flexion of the foot and properly level the foot for walking. Nine healthy participants performed walking drills at 2 and 3 mph, using the original and the modified shoes. Electromyography (EMG) measurements were used to evaluate muscle activities. Participants also rated their discomfort on a 0-10 scale. Results show that the use of modified shoes resulted in a reduction of 22% and 24.25% EMG activity for the tibialis and gastrocnemius muscles, respectively. Comfort ratings increased by an average of 2.7, 2.6, 3.9, and 4.2 points at the knees, calves, ankles, and feet, respectively.

  3. Successful iliac vein and inferior vena cava stenting ameliorates venous claudication and improves venous outflow, calf muscle pump function, and clinical status in post-thrombotic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delis, Konstantinos T; Bjarnason, Haraldur; Wennberg, Paul W; Rooke, Thom W; Gloviczki, Peter

    2007-01-01

    Stent therapy has been proposed as an effective treatment of chronic iliofemoral (I-F) and inferior vena cava (IVC) thrombosis. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of technically successful stenting in consecutive patients with advanced CVD (CEAP3-6 +/- venous claudication) for chronic obliteration of the I-F (+/-IVC) trunks, on the venous hemodynamics of the limb, the walking capacity, and the clinical status of CVD. These patients had previously failed to improve with conservative treatment entailing compression and/or wound care for at least 12 months. The presence of venous claudication was assessed by > or =3 independent examiners. The CEAP clinical classification was used to determine the severity of CVD. Outflow obstruction [Outflow Fraction at 1- and 4-second (OF1 and OF4) in %], venous reflux [Venous Filling Index (VFI) in mL/100 mL/s], calf muscle pump function [Ejection Fraction (EF) in %] and hypertension [Residual Venous Fraction (RVF) in %], were examined before and after successful venous stenting in 16 patients (23 limbs), 6 females, 10 males, median age 42 years; range, 31-77 yearas, left/right limbs 14/9, using strain gauge plethysmography; 7/16 of these had thrombosis extending to the IVC. Contralateral limbs to those stented without prior I-F +/- IVC thrombosis, nor infrainguinal clots on duplex, were used as control limbs (n = 9). Excluded were patients with stent occlusion or stenoses, peripheral arterial disease (ABI calf muscle pump function (EF), worse CEAP clinical class, and increased RVF (all, P calf muscle pump function (EF) had both improved (P calf muscle pump function (EF), and RVF of the stented limbs did not differ significantly from those of the control; significantly worse (P calf muscle pump function, compounded by a significant clinical improvement of CVD. The significant increase in the amount of venous reflux of the stented limbs indicates that elastic or inelastic compression support of the successfully

  4. Vibration-induced extra torque during electrically-evoked contractions of the human calf muscles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kohn André F

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background High-frequency trains of electrical stimulation applied over the lower limb muscles can generate forces higher than would be expected from a peripheral mechanism (i.e. by direct activation of motor axons. This phenomenon is presumably originated within the central nervous system by synaptic input from Ia afferents to motoneurons and is consistent with the development of plateau potentials. The first objective of this work was to investigate if vibration (sinusoidal or random applied to the Achilles tendon is also able to generate large magnitude extra torques in the triceps surae muscle group. The second objective was to verify if the extra torques that were found were accompanied by increases in motoneuron excitability. Methods Subjects (n = 6 were seated on a chair and the right foot was strapped to a pedal attached to a torque meter. The isometric ankle torque was measured in response to different patterns of coupled electrical (20-Hz, rectangular 1-ms pulses and mechanical stimuli (either 100-Hz sinusoid or gaussian white noise applied to the triceps surae muscle group. In an additional investigation, Mmax and F-waves were elicited at different times before or after the vibratory stimulation. Results The vibratory bursts could generate substantial self-sustained extra torques, either with or without the background 20-Hz electrical stimulation applied simultaneously with the vibration. The extra torque generation was accompanied by increased motoneuron excitability, since an increase in the peak-to-peak amplitude of soleus F waves was observed. The delivery of electrical stimulation following the vibration was essential to keep the maintained extra torques and increased F-waves. Conclusions These results show that vibratory stimuli applied with a background electrical stimulation generate considerable force levels (up to about 50% MVC due to the spinal recruitment of motoneurons. The association of vibration and electrical

  5. 3D-Mapping of Phosphocreatine Concentration in the Human Calf Muscle at 7T: Comparison to 3T

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parasoglou, Prodromos; Xia, Ding; Chang, Gregory; Regatte, Ravinder R.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose The development and implementation of a spectrally selective 3D-Turbo Spin Echo sequence for quantitative mapping of phosphocreatine concentration in different muscles of the lower leg of healthy volunteers both at 3T and 7T. Methods Nine healthy volunteers were recruited, all of whom where scanned at 3T and 7T. Three dimensional phosphocreatine concentration maps were obtained after images were corrected for B1 inhomogeneities, T1 relaxation weighting, and partial volume of fatty tissue in the muscles. Two volunteers performed plantar flexions inside the magnet, and the oxidative capacity of their muscles was estimated. Results Three dimensional phosphocreatine concentration maps were obtained, with full muscle coverage and nominal voxel size of 0.52 mL at both fields. At 7T a 2.7 fold increase of signal-to-noise ratio was achieved compared to 3T. Conclusion Imaging 31P metabolites at 7T allowed for significant increase in SNR compared to imaging at 3T, while quantification of the phosphocreatine concentration remained unaffected. The importance of such an increase in SNR is twofold, first higher resolution images with reduced partial volume effects can be acquired, and second multiple measurements such as dynamic imaging of phosphocreatine post exercise, 31P magnetization transfer, or other 1H measurements, can be acquired in a single imaging session. PMID:23390003

  6. The magnitude of the effect of calf muscles fatigue on postural control during bipedal quiet standing with vision depends on the eye-visual target distance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vuillerme, Nicolas; Burdet, Cyril; Isableu, Brice; Demetz, Sylvain

    2006-10-01

    The purpose of the present experiment was to investigate whether, with vision, the magnitude of the effect of calf muscles fatigue on postural control during bipedal quiet standing depends on the eye-visual target distance. Twelve young university students were asked to stand upright as immobile as possible in three visual conditions (No vision, Vision 1m and Vision 4m) executed in two conditions of No fatigue and Fatigue of the calf muscles. Centre of foot pressure displacements were recorded using a force platform. Similar increased variances of the centre of foot pressure displacements were observed in the fatigue relative to the No fatigue condition for both the No vision and Vision 4m conditions. Interestingly, in the vision 1m condition, fatigue yielded: (1) a similar increased variance of the centre of foot pressure displacements to those observed in the No vision and Vision 4m conditions along the medio-lateral axis and (2) a weaker destabilising effect relative to the No vision and Vision 4m conditions along the antero-posterior axis. These results evidence that the ability to use visual information for postural control during bipedal quiet standing following calf muscles fatigue is dependent on the eye-visual target distance. More largely, in the context of the multisensory control of balance, the present findings suggest that the efficiency of the sensory reweighting of visual sensory cues as the neuro-muscular constraints acting on the subject change is critically linked with the quality of the information the visual system obtains.

  7. Viscoelastic properties of short calf muscle-tendon units of older women: effects of slow and fast passive dorsiflexion stretches in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gajdosik, Richard L; Vander Linden, Darl W; McNair, Peter J; Riggin, Tammy J; Albertson, Jeff S; Mattick, Danita J; Wegley, Joseph C

    2005-10-01

    Changes in connective tissues of the skeletal muscle-tendon unit (MTU) of aging animal muscles have been associated with increased passive viscoelastic properties. This study examined whether similar changes in the viscoelastic properties were present in short calf MTUs of older women in vivo. Fifteen women 68-87 years of age with short calf MTUs, as represented by limited active dorsiflexion (DF) range of motion (ROM) of plantarflexion to maximal DF at the slow velocity of 5 degrees s(-1) (0.087 rad s(-1)) and the fast velocity of 120 degrees s(-1) (2.094 rad s(-1)) with minimal surface electromyogram activity in the soleus, gastrocnemius, and tibialis anterior muscles. Two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) tests for repeated measures (Velocity x Group) indicated that all women showed greater passive torque, average passive elastic stiffness, and total absorbed passive elastic energy for the fast stretch than for the slow stretch (P < 0.001). The older women had greater percent increases for the average passive torque (30%) and total absorbed passive elastic energy (26%) for the fast stretch than the younger women (P < 0.05), who had 17.5 and 13% increases, respectively. The older women had less maximal and average passive torque (Nm) and total absorbed passive elastic energy (degrees Nm), but greater average passive elastic stiffness (Nm degrees (-1)) at both stretch velocities (P < 0.001). The results indicated that short calf MTUs of older women have increased passive viscoelastic properties that could have implications for balance and ambulatory function.

  8. Reactive hyperaemia in the calf of trained and untrained subjects: a study with strain gauge plethysmography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroese, A J

    1977-04-01

    Postischaemic reactive hyperaemia in the calf was investigated by strain gauge plethysmography in three pairs of trained and untrained groups of different ages. Maximal flow and repayment in the trained adults were greater than in corresponding untrained groups. This may be due to training effect on the arterioles and a relatively great muscle volume and vascular bed in athletes. The 58-year-old trained men revealed a postischaemic hyperaemic response of approximately the same magnitude as the 25-year-old athletes. Training in old age may result in less degeneration of vascular smooth muscle as well as striated muscle and may induced a relatively great cardiac stroke volume, factors which probably influence reactive hyperaemia in the calf. Hyperaemia in 13-year-old children of different conditions of training was approximwtely the same. It is concluded that the influence of training state on postischaemic calf flow may be considered when reactive hyperaemia is used as a test of the peripheral circulation.

  9. Pace bowlers in cricket with history of lumbar stress fracture have increased risk of lower limb muscle strains, particularly calf strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orchard, John; Farhart, Patrick; Kountouris, Alex; James, Trefor; Portus, Marc

    2010-01-01

    To assess whether a history of lumbar stress fracture in pace bowlers in cricket is a risk factor for lower limb muscle strains. This was a prospective cohort risk factor study, conducted using injury data from contracted first class pace bowlers in Australia during seasons 1998-1999 to 2008-2009 inclusive. There were 205 pace bowlers, 33 of whom suffered a lumbar stress fracture when playing first class cricket. Risk ratios ([RR] with 95% confidence intervals[CI]) were calculated to compare the seasonal incidence of various injuries between bowlers with a prior history of lumbar stress fracture and those with no history of lumbar stress fracture. Risk of calf strain was strongly associated with prior lumbar stress fracture injury history (RR = 4.1; 95% CI: 2.4-7.1). Risks of both hamstring strain (RR = 1.5; 95% CI: 1.03-2.1) and quadriceps strain (RR = 2.0; 95% CI: 1.1-3.5) were somewhat associated with history of lumbar stress fracture. Risk of groin strain was not associated with history of lumbar stress fracture (RR = 0.7; 95% CI: 0.4-1.1). Other injuries showed little association with prior lumbar stress fracture, although knee cartilage injuries were more likely in the non-stress fracture group. Bony hypertrophy associated with lumbar stress fracture healing may lead to subsequent lumbar nerve root impingement, making lower limb muscle strains more likely to occur. Confounders may be responsible for some of the findings. In particular, bowling speed is likely to be independently correlated with risk of lumbar stress fracture and risk of muscle strain. However, as the relationship between lumbar stress fracture history and calf strain was very strong, and that there is a strong theoretical basis for the connection, it is likely that this is a true association.

  10. Eyeball muscles' diameters versus volume estimated by numerical image segmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majos, A; Grzelak, P; Młynarczyk, W; Stefańczyk, L

    2007-01-01

    To determine the clinical usefulness of the numerical segmentation image technique (NSI) in estimating the volume of extraocular muscles and to compare this value to widely used measurements of single diameters of the muscles. Forty-five patients underwent magnetic resonance examinations in 1.5-T scanner. SE T1 sequences in transversal and coronal planes were provided and data were sent to a personal computer, where the degree of exophthalmos, horizontal diameter of medial rectus muscles, and vertical diameter of inferior rectus muscles were determined on the basis of two-dimensional images. The quantity estimation of all eye muscles volumes using NSI application in three-dimensional space was carried out with use of level set segmentation algorithm. A strong correlation between the total eye muscle volume and degree of exophthalmos was determined. The usefulness of measuring single diameters for estimating the muscles' enlargement was confirmed. The difference between a single muscle's volume and its width also was confirmed. Estimates of muscle volume correlate with the degree of exophthalmos more accurately than measurements of single diameters. The NSI technique is a clinically useful application, providing objective data calculated individually for each orbit. It allows an objective estimation of the pathologic processes leading to exophthalmos and may be especially helpful in monitoring discrete changes in the muscles volume during treatment.

  11. Pace bowlers in cricket with history of lumbar stress fracture have increased risk of lower limb muscle strains, particularly calf strains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Orchard

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available John Orchard1, Patrick Farhart2, Alex Kountouris3, Trefor James3, Marc Portus31School of Public Health, University of Sydney, Australia; 2Punjab Kings XI team, Indian Premier League, India; 3Cricket Australia, Melbourne, AustraliaObjective: To assess whether a history of lumbar stress fracture in pace bowlers in cricket is a risk factor for lower limb muscle strains.Methods: This was a prospective cohort risk factor study, conducted using injury data from contracted first class pace bowlers in Australia during seasons 1998–1999 to 2008–2009 inclusive. There were 205 pace bowlers, 33 of whom suffered a lumbar stress fracture when playing first class cricket. Risk ratios ([RR] with 95% confidence intervals[CI] were calculated to compare the seasonal incidence of various injuries between bowlers with a prior history of lumbar stress fracture and those with no history of lumbar stress fracture.Results: Risk of calf strain was strongly associated with prior lumbar stress fracture injury history (RR = 4.1; 95% CI: 2.4–7.1. Risks of both hamstring strain (RR = 1.5; 95% CI: 1.03–2.1 and quadriceps strain (RR = 2.0; 95% CI: 1.1–3.5 were somewhat associated with history of lumbar stress fracture. Risk of groin strain was not associated with history of lumbar stress fracture (RR = 0.7; 95% CI: 0.4–1.1. Other injuries showed little association with prior lumbar stress fracture, although knee cartilage injuries were more likely in the non-stress fracture group.Conclusion: Bony hypertrophy associated with lumbar stress fracture healing may lead to subsequent lumbar nerve root impingement, making lower limb muscle strains more likely to occur. Confounders may be responsible for some of the findings. In particular, bowling speed is likely to be independently correlated with risk of lumbar stress fracture and risk of muscle strain. However, as the relationship between lumbar stress fracture history and calf strain was very strong, and that there is a

  12. Bioenergetics of the calf muscle in Friedreich ataxia patients measured by 31P-MRS before and after treatment with recombinant human erythropoietin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolfgang Nachbauer

    Full Text Available Friedreich ataxia (FRDA is caused by a GAA repeat expansion in the FXN gene leading to reduced expression of the mitochondrial protein frataxin. Recombinant human erythropoietin (rhuEPO is suggested to increase frataxin levels, alter mitochondrial function and improve clinical scores in FRDA patients. Aim of the present pilot study was to investigate mitochondrial metabolism of skeletal muscle tissue in FRDA patients and examine effects of rhuEPO administration by phosphorus 31 magnetic resonance spectroscopy (31P MRS. Seven genetically confirmed FRDA patients underwent 31P MRS of the calf muscles using a rest-exercise-recovery protocol before and after receiving 3000 IU of rhuEPO for eight weeks. FRDA patients showed more rapid phosphocreatine (PCr depletion and increased accumulation of inorganic phosphate (Pi during incremental exercise as compared to controls. After maximal exhaustive exercise prolonged regeneration of PCR and slowed decline in Pi can be seen in FRDA. PCr regeneration as hallmark of mitochondrial ATP production revealed correlation to activity of complex II/III of the respiratory chain and to demographic values. PCr and Pi kinetics were not influenced by rhuEPO administration. Our results confirm mitochondrial dysfunction and exercise intolerance due to impaired oxidative phosphorylation in skeletal muscle tissue of FRDA patients. MRS did not show improved mitochondrial bioenergetics after eight weeks of rhuEPO exposition in skeletal muscle tissue of FRDA patients.EU Clinical Trials Register2008-000040-13.

  13. Lower limb muscle volumes in bilateral spastic cerebral palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noble, Jonathan J; Fry, Nicola R; Lewis, Andrew P; Keevil, Stephen F; Gough, Martin; Shortland, Adam P

    2014-04-01

    Muscle weakness is a feature of individuals with spastic cerebral palsy (SCP) but there are few reports in the literature of muscle volume in this group. This study compares muscle volumes in adolescents and young adults with SCP with those of their typically developing (TD) peers. Measurements of the volumes of nine major lower limb muscles in 19 independently ambulant subjects with SCP (mean age 14.2 years (sd 2.7), 11 male, GMFCS I (n=5); GMFCS II (n=14)), 19 TD subjects (mean age 16.5 years (sd 3.0), 11 male) were made using magnetic resonance imaging. Lower limb muscles were smaller in the SCP group (p≤0.023 in all muscles) than the TD group with the exception of the vastii (lateralis+intermedius; p=0.868) and gluteus maximus (p=0.056). Average muscle volume deficit was 27.9%. Muscle volume deficits were significantly greater for distal muscles than proximal muscles (phistory of sarcopenia in adulthood may contribute to the early loss of mobility of adults with SCP. Copyright © 2013 The Japanese Society of Child Neurology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Effects of duration of vitamin C supplementation during the finishing period on postmortem protein degradation, tenderness, and meat color of the longissimus muscle of calf-fed steers consuming a 0.31 or 0.59% sulfur diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pogge, D J; Lonergan, S M; Hansen, S L

    2015-05-01

    High-S (HS) diets have been identified as a causative agent in the development of oxidative stress in cattle, which in postmortem muscle can negatively alter meat quality. Vitamin C (VC) is a potent antioxidant produced endogenously by cattle; however, exogenous supplementation of VC may be useful when HS diets are fed to cattle. The objective of this study was to examine the impact of duration of VC supplementation, for the first 56, 90, or 127 d, during the finishing period on meat color and tenderness of the longissimus thoracis (LT) collected from calf-fed steers consuming a 0.31 or 0.59% S diet. Angus steers ( n= 42) were stratified to pens by initial BW (304 ± 13 kg) and GeneMax marbling score (4.3 ± 0.12), and each pen was randomly assigned to 1 of 7 treatments (6 steers/pen, 1 pen/treatment), including HS (0.59% S, a combination of dried distillers grains plus solubles and sodium sulfate) control (HS CON), HS CON + 10 g VC·steer·(-1)d(-1) for the first 56 d (HS VC56), 90 d (HS VC90), or 127 d (HS VC127), low S (LS; 0.31% S) + 10 g VC·steer·(-1)d(-1) for the first 56 d (LS VC56), 90 d (LS VC90), or 127 d (LS VC127). Steers were harvested (n = 40) and, after a 24-h chill, rib sections (LT) were collected. pH was determined on each rib section before division into 3 sections for determination of 1) 7-d retail display and color and Warner-Bratzler shear force (WBSF), 2) 14-d WBSF determination, and 3) protein degradation and collagen content (2 d postmortem). Data were analyzed by ANOVA as a completely randomized design, with the fixed effect of treatment. Individual feed intake was recorded, and steer was the experimental unit. The HS steers had a greater and lesser percent of the 80- and 76-kDa subunits of calpain-1 (P ≤ 0.05), respectively, and tended to have less (P = 0.08) troponin T degradation (d2), and more (P = 0.02) collagen than LS steers. Increasing days of VC supplementation decreased (P = 0.05) the percentage of the 80 kDa subunit of

  15. Traumatic injuries of thigh and calf muscles in athletes: role and clinical relevance of MR imaging and ultrasound

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hayashi, Daichi; Hamilton, Bruce; Guermazi, Ali; de Villiers, Richard; Crema, Michel D; Roemer, Frank W

    2012-01-01

    .... Common athletic injuries include strain, contusion and avulsion, which are characterised by muscle fibre disruption, intramuscular haemorrhagic dissection, haematoma at the musculotendinous junction...

  16. Quantitative assessment of calf circumference in Duchenne muscular dystrophy patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beenakker, EAC; de Vries, Joeke; Fock, JM; van Tol, M; Brouwer, OF; Maurits, NM; van der Hoeven, JH

    2002-01-01

    Duchenne muscular dystrophy is clinically characterised by progressive muscle weakness and a gradual increase in the size of some affected muscles, especially calf muscles. The extent of calf enlargement is usually determined by subjective visual assessment. The purpose of this study was to

  17. Association between Thigh Muscle Volume and Leg Muscle Power in Older Women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulrich Lindemann

    Full Text Available The construct of sarcopenia is still discussed with regard to best appropriate measures of muscle volume and muscle function. The aim of this post-hoc analysis of a cross-sectional experimental study was to investigate and describe the hierarchy of the association between thigh muscle volume and measurements of functional performance in older women. Thigh muscle volume of 68 independently living older women (mean age 77.6 years was measured via magnetic resonance imaging. Isometric strength was assessed for leg extension in a movement laboratory in sitting position with the knee flexed at 90° and for hand grip. Maximum and habitual gait speed was measured on an electronic walk way. Leg muscle power was measured during single leg push and during sit-to-stand performance. Thigh muscle volume was associated with sit-to-stand performance power (r = 0.628, leg push power (r = 0.550, isometric quadriceps strength (r = 0.442, hand grip strength (r = 0.367, fast gait speed (r = 0.291, habitual gait speed (r = 0.256, body mass index (r = 0.411 and age (r = -0.392. Muscle power showed the highest association with thigh muscle volume in healthy older women. Sit-to-stand performance power showed an even higher association with thigh muscle volume compared to single leg push power.

  18. Association between Thigh Muscle Volume and Leg Muscle Power in Older Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindemann, Ulrich; Mohr, Christian; Machann, Juergen; Blatzonis, Konstantinos; Rapp, Kilian; Becker, Clemens

    2016-01-01

    The construct of sarcopenia is still discussed with regard to best appropriate measures of muscle volume and muscle function. The aim of this post-hoc analysis of a cross-sectional experimental study was to investigate and describe the hierarchy of the association between thigh muscle volume and measurements of functional performance in older women. Thigh muscle volume of 68 independently living older women (mean age 77.6 years) was measured via magnetic resonance imaging. Isometric strength was assessed for leg extension in a movement laboratory in sitting position with the knee flexed at 90° and for hand grip. Maximum and habitual gait speed was measured on an electronic walk way. Leg muscle power was measured during single leg push and during sit-to-stand performance. Thigh muscle volume was associated with sit-to-stand performance power (r = 0.628), leg push power (r = 0.550), isometric quadriceps strength (r = 0.442), hand grip strength (r = 0.367), fast gait speed (r = 0.291), habitual gait speed (r = 0.256), body mass index (r = 0.411) and age (r = -0.392). Muscle power showed the highest association with thigh muscle volume in healthy older women. Sit-to-stand performance power showed an even higher association with thigh muscle volume compared to single leg push power.

  19. Mapping of calf muscle oxygenation and haemoglobin content during dynamic plantar flexion exercise by multi-channel time-resolved near-infrared spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torricelli, Alessandro; Quaresima, Valentina; Pifferi, Antonio; Biscotti, Giovanni; Spinelli, Lorenzo; Taroni, Paola; Ferrari, Marco; Cubeddu, Rinaldo

    2004-03-07

    A compact and fast multi-channel time-resolved near-infrared spectroscopy system for tissue oximetry was developed. It employs semiconductor laser and fibre optics for delivery of optical signals. Photons are collected by eight 1 mm fibres and detected by a multianode photomultiplier. A time-correlated single photon counting board is used for the parallel acquisition of time-resolved reflectance curves. Estimate of the reduced scattering coefficient is achieved by fitting with a standard model of diffusion theory, while the modified Lambert-Beer law is used to assess the absorption coefficient. In vivo measurements were performed on five healthy volunteers to monitor spatial changes in calf muscle (medial and lateral gastrocnemius; MG, LG) oxygen saturation (SmO2) and total haemoglobin concentration (tHb) during dynamic plantar flexion exercise performed at 50% of the maximal voluntary contraction. At rest SmO2 was 73.0 +/- 0.9 and 70.5 +/- 1.7% in MG and LG, respectively (P = 0.045). At the end of the exercise, SmO2 decreased (69.1 +/- 1.8 and 63.8 +/- 2.1% in MG and LG, respectively; P < 0.01). The LG desaturation was greater than the MG desaturation (P < 0.02). These results strengthen the role of time-resolved near-infrared spectroscopy as a powerful tool for investigating the spatial and temporal features of muscle SmO2 and tHb.

  20. Phosphorylation potential in the dominant leg is lower, and [ADPfree] is higher in calf muscles at rest in endurance athletes than in sprinters and in untrained subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoladz, J A; Kulinowski, P; Zapart-Bukowska, J; Grandys, M; Majerczak, J; Korzeniewski, B; Jasiński, A

    2007-12-01

    It has been reported that various types of mammalian muscle fibers differ regarding the content of several metabolites at rest. However, to our knowledge no data have been reported in the literature, concerning the muscle energetic status at rest in high class athletes when considering the dominant and non-dominant leg separately. We have hypothesised that due to higher mechanical loads on the dominant leg in athletes, the metabolic profile in the dominant leg at rest in the calf muscles, characterized by [PCr], [ADP(free)], [AMP(free)] and DeltaG(ATP), will significantly differ among endurance athletes, sprinters and untrained individuals. In this study we determined the DeltaG(ATP) and adenine phosphates concentrations in the dominant and non-dominant legs in untrained subjects (n = 6), sprinters (n = 10) and endurance athletes (n = 7) at rest. The (mean +/- SD) age of the subjects was 23.4 +/- 4.3 years. Muscle metabolites were measured in the calf muscles at rest, by means of (31)P-MRS, using a 4.7 T superconducting magnet (Bruker). When taking into account mean values in the left and right leg, phosphocreatine concentration ([PCr]) and DeltaG(ATP) were significantly lower (psprinters (p = 0.01) and untrained subjects (p = 0.02) (25.91 +/- 2.87 mM; 30.02 +/- 3.12 mM and 30.71 +/- 2.88 mM, respectively). The [ADP(free)] was significantly higher (p = 0.02) in endurance athletes than in sprinters and untrained subjects (p = 0.02) (42.19 +/- 13.44 microM; 27.86 +/- 10.19 microM; 25.35 +/- 10.97 microM, respectively). The DeltaG(ATP) in the dominant leg was significantly lower (p = 0.02) in endurance athletes than in sprinters and untrained subjects (p = 0.01) (-60.53 +/- 2.03 kJ.M(-1); -61.82 +/- 1.05 kJ.M(-1), -62.29 +/- 0.73 kJ.M(-1), respectively). No significant differences were found when comparing [PCr], [ADP(free)], [AMP(free)], [Mg(2+)(free)], DeltaG(ATP) in the dominant leg and the mean values for both legs in sprinters and untrained subjects. Moreover, no

  1. An In Vitro Model of Skeletal Muscle Volume Regulation

    OpenAIRE

    Anna Wibberley; Staunton, Caroline A; Feetham, Claire H.; Vereninov, Alexey A.; Richard Barrett-Jolley

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Hypertonic media causes cells to shrink due to water loss through aquaporin channels. After acute shrinkage, cells either regulate their volume or, alternatively, undergo a number of metabolic changes which ultimately lead to cell death. In many cell types, hypertonic shrinkage is followed by apoptosis. Due to the complex 3D morphology of skeletal muscle and the difficulty in obtaining isolated human tissue, we have begun skeletal muscle volume regulation studies using the human ...

  2. Effect of transcutaneous electrical muscle stimulation on muscle volume in patients with septic shock

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Jesper Brøndum; Møller, Kirsten; Jensen, Claus V

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Intensive care unit admission is associated with muscle wasting and impaired physical function. We investigated the effect of early transcutaneous electrical muscle stimulation on quadriceps muscle volume in patients with septic shock. Design: Randomized interventional study using...... randomization of the quadriceps muscles, transcutaneous electrical muscle stimulation was applied on the intervention side for 7 consecutive days and for 60 mins per day. All patients underwent computed tomographic scans of both thighs immediately before and after the 7-day treatment period. The quadriceps...... sequential organ failure assessment score. Conclusions: We observed a marked decrease in quadriceps volume within the first week of intensive care for septic shock. This loss of muscle mass was unaffected by transcutaneous electrical muscle stimulation applied for 60 mins per day for 7 days....

  3. 3D multimodal spatial fuzzy segmentation of intramuscular connective and adipose tissue from ultrashort TE MR images of calf muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ugarte, Vincent; Sinha, Usha; Malis, Vadim; Csapo, Robert; Sinha, Shantanu

    2017-02-01

    To develop and evaluate an automated algorithm to segment intramuscular adipose (IMAT) and connective (IMCT) tissue from musculoskeletal MRI images acquired with a dual echo Ultrashort TE (UTE) sequence. The dual echo images and calculated structure tensor images are the inputs to the multichannel fuzzy cluster mean (MCFCM) algorithm. Modifications to the basic multichannel fuzzy cluster mean include an adaptive spatial term and bias shading correction. The algorithm was tested on digital phantoms simulating IMAT/IMCT tissue under varying conditions of image noise and bias and on ten subjects with varying amounts of IMAT/IMCT. The MCFCM including the adaptive spatial term and bias shading correction performed better than the original MCFCM and adaptive spatial MCFCM algorithms. IMAT/IMCT was segmented from the unsmoothed simulated phantom data with a mean Dice coefficient of 0.933 ±0.001 when contrast-to-noise (CNR) was 140 and bias was varied between 30% and 65%. The algorithm yielded accurate in vivo segmentations of IMAT/IMCT with a mean Dice coefficient of 0.977 ±0.066. The proposed algorithm is completely automated and yielded accurate segmentation of intramuscular adipose and connective tissue in the digital phantom and in human calf data. Magn Reson Med 77:870-883, 2017. © 2016 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine. © 2016 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

  4. Skeletal muscle volume following dehydration induced by exercise in heat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hackney, Kyle J; Cook, Summer B; Fairchild, Timothy J; Ploutz-Snyder, Lori L

    2012-09-04

    Intracellular skeletal muscle water is redistributed into the extracellular compartment during periods of dehydration, suggesting an associated decline in muscle volume. The purpose of this study was to evaluate skeletal muscle volume in active (knee extensors (KE)) and less active (biceps/triceps brachii, deltoid) musculature following dehydration induced by exercise in heat. Twelve participants (seven men, five women) cycled in the heat under two conditions: (1) dehydration (DHYD) resulting in 3% and 5% losses of estimated total body water (ETBW), which was assessed by changes in body mass, and (2) fluid replacement (FR) where 3% and 5% losses of ETBW were counteracted by intermittent (20 to 30 min) fluid ingestion via a carbohydrate-electrolyte beverage. During both conditions, serum osmolality and skeletal muscle volume (assessed by magnetic resonance imaging) were measured at baseline and at the 3% and 5% ETBW loss measurement points. In DHYD, serum osmolality increased at 3% (p = 0.005) and 5% (p FR decreased serum osmolality at the 5% loss of ETBW time point (p = 0.009). In DHYD, KE muscle volume declined from 1,464 ± 446 ml to 1,406 ± 425 ml (3.9%, p FR prevented the loss of KE muscle volume at 3% (1,430 ± 435 ml, p = 0.074) and 5% (1,431 ± 439 ml, p = 0.156) ETBW loss time points compared to baseline (1,445 ± 436 ml). Following exercise in the heat, the actively contracting muscles lost volume, while replacing lost fluids intermittently during exercise in heat prevented this decline. These results support the use of muscle volume as a marker of water loss.

  5. A near infrared spectroscopy-based test of calf muscle function in patients with peripheral arterial disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Brian Lindegaard; Bækgaard, Niels; Quistorff, Bjørn

    2015-01-01

    Background The study aims to test a new, simple, and reliable apparatus and procedure for the diagnostics and treatment evaluation of peripheral arterial disease (PAD). The test apparatus involves near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) of a main part of the lower leg muscles during isometric flexion...... and two age-matched patients without claudication. Each patient was tested with an isometric ergometer pedal test and a treadmill test applying NIRS measurements of the anterior tibial and the gastrocnemius muscles (GAS). Tests were repeated three times with randomly selected intervals between individual.......92-0.95 (foot-pedal) and 0.70-0.98 (tread mill) and of the anterior tibial muscle was between 0.87-0.96 (foot-pedal) and 0.67-0.79 (tread mill). Conclusion In this study, we contribute a new apparatus and test protocol for peripheral arterial disease (PAD) applying NIRS technique and controlled physical...

  6. Relationships between calf muscle density and muscle strength, mobility and bone status in the stroke survivors with subacute and chronic lower limb hemiparesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacIntyre, N J; Rombough, R; Brouwer, B

    2010-12-01

    To determine the relationship between muscle density and neuromusculoskeletal status in stroke survivors with subacute and chronic hemiparesis. Community-dwelling adults were recruited into one of 3 groups (11 per group): subacute stroke group (SSG, 1 year post-stroke), or age- and gender-matched control group (CG). Muscle density, muscle mass and tibial bone status (cortical density, mass and polar stress-strain index (pSSI)) were measured bilaterally at the tibial 66% site using peripheral quantitative computed tomography. Muscle strength of ankle plantarflexors and knee extensors was assessed using isokinetic dynamometry. Mobility was assessed using the Berg Balance Scale. Univariate regression analyses by group tested whether side-to-side differences in muscle density and measures of neuromusculoskeletal status were related. In the SSG and CG, relationships were observed for muscle density and ankle plantarflexor strength (R²= 0.365 and 0.503). Muscle density related to muscle mass in the CG only (R²= 0.889). Muscle density related to cortical bone density in the SSG (R²= 0.602) and pSSI in the CSG (R²= 0.434). Muscle density may provide insight into the side-to-side changes in muscle and bone strength following hemiparetic stroke.

  7. Leg size and muscle functions associated with leg compliance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Convertino, Victor A.; Doerr, Donald F.; Flores, Jose F.; Hoffler, G. Wyckliffe; Buchanan, Paul

    1988-01-01

    The relationship between the leg compliance and factors related to the size of leg muscle and to physical fitness was investigated in ten healthy subjects. Vascular compliance of the leg, as determined by a mercury strain gauge, was found to be not significantly correlated with any variables associated with physical fitness per se (e.g., peak O2 uptake, calf strength, age, body weight, or body composition. On the other hand, leg compliance correlated with the calf cross-sectional area (CSA) and the calculated calf volume, with the CSA of calf muscle being the most dominant contributing factor (while fat and bone were poor predicators). It is suggested that leg compliance can be lowered by increasing calf muscle mass, thus providing structural support to limit the expansion of leg veins.

  8. Mitogenesis in cultured vascular smooth muscle cells from two rat models of hypertension in response to fetal calf serum and angiotensin II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millar, J A; Harris, E L; Cassie, N J

    1990-01-01

    Hypertension may result from vascular hypertrophy or hyperplasia due to enhanced growth of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs), which has been demonstrated in VSMCs from spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs) compared to Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rats. To determine whether this enhanced mitogenesis is peculiar to SHRs or a general phenomenon in genetic models of hypertension, we have measured indices of cell growth [3H]-thymidine uptake in VSMCs from SHRs and New Zealand genetically hypertensive (GH) rats and controls [WKY and normal Wistar (N) rats] cultured in fetal calf serum (FCS) or angiotensin II (Ang II, 0.1 microM) in either 3% heat-treated FCS or serum-free medium. SHR cell numbers increased faster in response to both mitogens compared to WKY rats. However, GH and N rat responses to FCS were the same. Ang II caused a significant but similar increase in cell numbers in both GH and N rat cells (i.e., Ang II caused hyperplasia in all four strains) but [3H]thymidine uptake was significantly greater in GH rat cells. Ang II increased the total well protein content but not protein normalized on cell number, i.e., no hypertrophic effect of Ang II was seen in these actively dividing cells. We conclude that (a) growth properties of VSMCs from rats with genetic hypertension vary between strains; the differences in growth may reflect strain-specific variation in the activity of intracellular signalling systems subserving mitogenesis; and (b) Ang II causes VSMC hyperplasia.

  9. Predictive Accuracy of Calf Circumference Measurements to Detect Decreased Skeletal Muscle Mass and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism-Defined Malnutrition in Hospitalized Older Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeda, Keisuke; Koga, Takayuki; Nasu, Tomomi; Takaki, Miki; Akagi, Junji

    2017-01-01

    The ability to readily diagnose sarcopenia and malnutrition in a clinical setting is essential. This study is aimed at clarifying the calf circumference (CC) cut-off values for decreased skeletal muscle mass (SMM), according to the Asian Work Group for Sarcopenia's criteria definition of sarcopenia, and those for European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism-defined malnutrition, in hospitalized Japanese patients. The study involved 1,164 patients aged ≥65 years. Predictive CC cut-off values were determined using receiver operating curve (ROC) analyses. The predictive validity of the cut-off values was confirmed against in-hospital mortality. There were 654 females and 510 males (mean age, 83.5 ± 8.2 years). Decreased SMM and malnutrition were observed in 80.4 and 32.8% of all patients, respectively. ROC analyses identified CCs of ≤29 cm (female, area under the curve [AUC] 0.791) and ≤30 cm (male, AUC 0.832) as cut-off values for decreased SMM, and CCs of ≤26 cm (female, AUC 0.798) and ≤28 cm (male, AUC 0.837) for malnutrition. CC cut-off values for SMM and malnutrition were independently correlated with in-hospital mortality. The study determined appropriate cut-off values for CC to identify decreased SMM and malnutrition according to the relevant guidelines. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  10. Traumatic injuries of thigh and calf muscles in athletes: role and clinical relevance of MR imaging and ultrasound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Daichi; Hamilton, Bruce; Guermazi, Ali; de Villiers, Richard; Crema, Michel D; Roemer, Frank W

    2012-12-01

    Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging and ultrasound have become valuable tools for evaluation of traumatic muscle injuries in athletes. Common athletic injuries include strain, contusion and avulsion, which are characterised by muscle fibre disruption, intramuscular haemorrhagic dissection, haematoma at the musculotendinous junction, and perifascial blood or haematoma. MR imaging may allow clinicians to predict the time required before athletes can return to competition and the risk of injury recurrence. Fluid-sensitive MR sequences, e.g., fat-suppressed T2-weighted or proton density-weighted turbo spin echo (TSE), and short-tau inversion recovery (STIR) sequences are suitable for detecting oedematous changes in the musculotendinous unit, and for delineating intramuscular or perifascial fluid collections or haematoma. T1-weighted spin echo sequences are used to visualise atrophy and fatty infiltration and to differentiate between haemorrhage/haematoma and oedema. While ultrasound may play a role as an adjunctive imaging method, it is less accurate than MR images for assessing the extent of the injury and it cannot differentiate between new and old injuries. In this pictorial review, imaging features of lower extremity muscle injuries including strain, contusion and avulsion are reviewed, focusing on MR and ultrasound imaging findings after initial injury and during follow-up, and their relevance in clinical practice is discussed. • MR imaging may allow clinicians to predict time required before athletes can return to competition • Fluid-sensitive MR sequences are suitable for detecting oedematous changes in the muscles • T1-weighted sequences are used to differentiate between haemorrhage/haematoma and oedema. • Ultrasound can also be used but is less accurate than MR imaging for assessing the extent of the injury.

  11. Mapping of calf muscle oxygenation and haemoglobin content during dynamic plantar flexion exercise by multi-channel time-resolved near-infrared spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torricelli, Alessandro [INFM-Dipartimento di Fisica and IFN-CNR, Politecnico di Milano, Piazza Leonardo da Vinci 32, I-20133 Milan (Italy); Quaresima, Valentina [Department of Biomedical Sciences and Technologies, University of L' Aquila, I-67100 L' Aquila (Italy); Pifferi, Antonio [INFM-Dipartimento di Fisica and IFN-CNR, Politecnico di Milano, Piazza Leonardo da Vinci 32, I-20133 Milan (Italy); Biscotti, Giovanni [INFM-Dipartimento di Fisica and IFN-CNR, Politecnico di Milano, Piazza Leonardo da Vinci 32, I-20133 Milan (Italy); Spinelli, Lorenzo [INFM-Dipartimento di Fisica and IFN-CNR, Politecnico di Milano, Piazza Leonardo da Vinci 32, I-20133 Milan (Italy); Taroni, Paola [INFM-Dipartimento di Fisica and IFN-CNR, Politecnico di Milano, Piazza Leonardo da Vinci 32, I-20133 Milan (Italy); Ferrari, Marco [Department of Biomedical Sciences and Technologies, University of L' Aquila, I-67100 L' Aquila (Italy); Cubeddu, Rinaldo [INFM-Dipartimento di Fisica and IFN-CNR, Politecnico di Milano, Piazza Leonardo da Vinci 32, I-20133 Milan (Italy)

    2004-03-07

    A compact and fast multi-channel time-resolved near-infrared spectroscopy system for tissue oximetry was developed. It employs semiconductor laser and fibre optics for delivery of optical signals. Photons are collected by eight 1 mm fibres and detected by a multianode photomultiplier. A time-correlated single photon counting board is used for the parallel acquisition of time-resolved reflectance curves. Estimate of the reduced scattering coefficient is achieved by fitting with a standard model of diffusion theory, while the modified Lambert-Beer law is used to assess the absorption coefficient. In vivo measurements were performed on five healthy volunteers to monitor spatial changes in calf muscle (medial and lateral gastrocnemius; MG, LG) oxygen saturation (SmO{sub 2}) and total haemoglobin concentration (tHb) during dynamic plantar flexion exercise performed at 50% of the maximal voluntary contraction. At rest SmO{sub 2} was 73.0 {+-} 0.9 and 70.5 {+-} 1.7% in MG and LG, respectively (P = 0.045). At the end of the exercise, SmO{sub 2} decreased (69.1 {+-} 1.8 and 63.8 {+-} 2.1% in MG and LG, respectively; P < 0.01). The LG desaturation was greater than the MG desaturation (P < 0.02). These results strengthen the role of time-resolved near-infrared spectroscopy as a powerful tool for investigating the spatial and temporal features of muscle SmO{sub 2} and tHb.

  12. Relationship between muscle volume and muscle torque of the hamstrings after anterior cruciate ligament lesion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konishi, Yu; Kinugasa, Ryuta; Oda, Toshiaki; Tsukazaki, Satoshi; Fukubayashi, Toru

    2012-11-01

    This study was conducted to identify factors other than morphological muscle strength factors that affect injured and uninjured sides of knee flexors with anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) lesions. The study population consisted of 22 patients with ACL lesions. Their hamstring muscle volume was measured on MRI, and muscle torque per muscle volume was calculated as the peak torque of knee flexion divided by hamstring muscle volume. The mean muscle torque per unit volume of hamstrings in patients with ACL rupture was 0.09 ± 0.02 Nm/cm(3) at 60°/s and 0.08 ± 0.01 Nm/cm(3) at 180°/s on the injured side, and 0.11 ± 0.02 Nm/cm(3) at 60°/s and 0.08 ± 0.01 Nm/cm(3) at 180°/s on the uninjured side. The mean muscle torque per unit volume of hamstrings in control subjects was 0.11 ± 0.02 Nm/cm(3) at 60°/s and 0.08 ± 0.03 Nm/cm(3) at 180°/s. One-factor ANOVA analysis found no significant differences between the three groups at either flexion velocity. Neurological dysfunction does not appear to exist in knee flexor muscles after ACL injury, unlike the quadriceps. Since the mechanism of muscle weakness will differ depending on the muscle, it is important for clinicians to take this discrepancy into consideration. II.

  13. Relationship between quadriceps femoris muscle volume and muscle torque after anterior cruciate ligament rupture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konishi, Yu; Oda, Toshiaki; Tsukazaki, Satoshi; Kinugasa, Ryuta; Hirose, Norikazu; Fukubayashi, Toru

    2011-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to obtain evidence to support the hypothesis that motor unit recruitment is reduced in the quadriceps femoris (QF) of patients with ACL rupture. We compared muscle torque per unit volume in the QF from injured and uninjured sides to normal subjects. If high-threshold motor unit recruitment is reduced in patients with ACL rupture, this reduction will theoretically lead to a reduction in muscle torque per unit volume compared to the control group. The subjects included 22 patients with ACL rupture and 22 subjects with no history of knee injury. To identify the muscle torque per unit volume, the isokinetic peak torque was divided by QF volume which was obtained by MRI. Tests revealed that the mean muscle torque per unit volume of the uninjured and injured sides was significantly lower than those of the control group. This study demonstrated that the values of the muscle torque per unit volume of both injured and uninjured sides of patients with ACL rupture were significantly lower than those of the control group, thereby providing indirect evidence of the hindrance of motor unit recruitment in these patients. The results of the present study also indicate that there may be bilateral QF weakness in patients with ACL rupture. Since persistent QF weakness is a significant barrier to effective rehabilitation in patients with ACL injuries, a better understanding of the underlying mechanisms will allow clinicians and scientists to develop more effective therapeutic strategies for patient rehabilitation.

  14. CALF BLOOD-FLOW AND POSTURE - DOPPLER ULTRASOUND MEASUREMENTS DURING AND AFTER EXERCISE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VANLEEUWEN, BE; BARENDSEN, GJ; LUBBERS, J; DEPATER, L

    To investigate the joint effects of body posture and calf muscle pump, the calf blood flow of eight healthy volunteers was measured with pulsed Doppler equipment during and after 3 min of rhythmic exercise on a calf ergometer in the supine, sitting, and standing postures. Muscle contractions

  15. The development of postthrombotic syndrome in relationship to venous reflux and calf muscle pump dysfunction at 2 years after the onset of deep venous thrombosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haenen, José H; Janssen, Mirian C H; Wollersheim, Hub; Van't Hof, Martin A; de Rooij, M J M; van Langen, Herman; Skotnicki, Stefan H; Thien, Theo

    2002-06-01

    Postthrombotic syndrome (PTS) develops in 40% to 60% of patients with deep venous thrombosis. Factors that are important in the development of PTS include venous reflux, deep vein obstruction, and calf muscle pump dysfunction (CMD). Reflux and CMD in relationship to the severity of PTS were evaluated in a 2-year follow-up study of patients with acute deep venous thrombosis. Duplex scanning was used to measure reflux. The supine venous pump function test (SVPT) measures CMD with strain-gauge plethysmography. The base-line examination was performed within 1 to 5 days after diagnosis. The next examinations were scheduled at 3, 6, 12, and 24 months. The study included 86 legs, and the 2-year follow-up period was completed for 70 legs. Significantly more reflux was found in previously thrombosed vein segments, with an odds ratio of 1.8 after 3 months, of 2.1 after 6 months, of 2.5 after 12 months, and of 3.2 after 24 months. Multiple regression results showed that the most important risk factor for early clinical signs of PTS was superficial reflux in months 3, 6, and 12 (P < or =.02). Deep reflux did not have a synergistic relationship with superficial reflux in correlation with the clinical signs of PTS. The SVPT was not able to predict the development of PTS. More reflux develops in previously thrombosed vein segments. As early as after the third month, patients with superficial reflux have an increased risk of development of the first clinical signs of PTS. Within 2 years, the SVPT shows no relationship with clinical signs of PTS.

  16. Calf-raise senior: a new test for assessment of plantar flexor muscle strength in older adults: protocol, validity, and reliability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    André, Helô-Isa; Carnide, Filomena; Borja, Edgar; Ramalho, Fátima; Santos-Rocha, Rita; Veloso, António P

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to develop a new field test protocol with a standardized measurement of strength and power in plantar flexor muscles targeted to functionally independent older adults, the calf-raise senior (CRS) test, and also evaluate its reliability and validity. Forty-one subjects aged 65 years and older of both sexes participated in five different cross-sectional studies: 1) pilot (n=12); 2) inter- and intrarater agreement (n=12); 3) construct (n=41); 4) criterion validity (n=33); and 5) test-retest reliability (n=41). Different motion parameters were compared in order to define a specifically designed protocol for seniors. Two raters evaluated each participant twice, and the results of the same individual were compared between raters and participants to assess the interrater and intrarater agreement. The validity and reliability studies involved three testing sessions that lasted 2 weeks, including a battery of functional fitness tests, CRS test in two occasions, accelerometry, and strength assessments in an isokinetic dynamometer. The CRS test presented an excellent test-retest reliability (intraclass correlation coefficient [ICC] =0.90, standard error of measurement =2.0) and interrater reliability (ICC =0.93-0.96), as well as a good intrarater agreement (ICC =0.79-0.84). Participants with better results in the CRS test were younger and presented higher levels of physical activity and functional fitness. A significant association between test results and all strength parameters (isometric, r=0.87, r(2)=0.75; isokinetic, r=0.86, r(2)=0.74; and rate of force development, r=0.77, r(2)=0.59) was shown. This study was successful in demonstrating that the CRS test can meet the scientific criteria of validity and reliability. The test can be a good indicator of ankle strength in older adults and proved to discriminate significantly between individuals with improved functionality and levels of physical activity.

  17. The Efficacy of Botulinum Toxin Type a Injection in the Hamstring and Calf Muscles With and Without Serial Foot Casting in Gait Improvement in Children With Cerebral Palsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shamsodini A

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: The goal of this study was to compare the efficacy of botulinum toxin type A (BTX-A injection in the hamstring and calf muscles with and without ankle serial casting in the improvement of gait in children with cerebral palsy (CP.Methods : This double-blind prospective clinical trial was performed on 25, 2 to 8-year-old children with hemiplegic or diplegic CP in Tehran, Iran in 2010. The participants were chosen by simple randomized sampling and were matched for age, gross motor function classification system (GMFCS and type of CP and were randomly divided into two groups: children in the first group (13 only received BTX-A injection, but the second group (12 received BTX-A and serial foot casting starting one week after the injection.Results : Comparison of the gross motor function, right and left knee spasticities and passive ROM of both knees between the two groups before and 1, 3, 6 and 12 months after the injections were not statistically significant (P>0.1. Furthermore, comparison of the right and left ankle spasticities and passive ROM before the injections and in1 and 3-month follow-ups did not show a statistically significant difference (P>0.1, but the differences were significant in 6 and 12-month follow-ups (P<0.05.Conclusion: BTX-A injection with serial foot casting vs. BTX-A alone was more effective in decreasing spasticity and improving passive ROM in the ankle of children with CP, but such injections in the hamstrings were not useful in these regards.

  18. Variations in the quality of uncalcified fibrocartilage at the insertions of the extrinsic calf muscles in the foot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frowen, P; Benjamin, M

    1995-01-01

    It has been suggested that fibrocartilage at entheses (tendon-bone junctions) prevents collagen fibres bending at the hard tissue interface. We have investigated this function by exploring the relationship between the presence or amount of fibrocartilage at the attachments of the major extrinsic muscles in the foot, and the extent to which these tendons bend near their entheses during movement. The tendons were taken from each of 5 formalin-fixed dissecting room cadavers and prepared for routine histology, and sections were collected systematically throughout the blocks. Tendons that attached to the tarsus and metatarsus had fibrocartilaginous entheses, but those attached to the phalanges had fibrous entheses. In all tarsal and metatarsal tendons, the fibrocartilage was significantly thicker (P < 0.05) in the deepest part of the enthesis. Here the greatest amount of fibrocartilage was in the Achilles tendon (mean thickness +/- S.E.M.: 1560 +/- 161 microns). There were moderate amounts at the medial cuneiform attachment of tibialis anterior (533 +/- 82 microns), peroneus brevis (472 +/- 64 microns) and tibialis posterior (454 +/- 26 microns), small quantities at the first metatarsal attachment of tibialis anterior (104 +/- 14 microns) and peroneus longus (21 +/- 8 microns), but only traces at the attachments of the flexor and extensor tendons of the phalanges. The differences can be related to variations in the freedom of movement of the tendons near their attachments. This depends on the extent to which the tendons are bound by retinacula and the range of movement of the joint nearest the enthesis. The results suggest that more 'mobile' tendons have more fibrocartilage.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) Images Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 PMID:7649842

  19. Effects of 12-wk eccentric calf muscle training on muscle-tendon glucose uptake and SEMG in patients with chronic Achilles tendon pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Masood, Tahir; Kalliokoski, Kari; Magnusson, S Peter

    2014-01-01

    and Achilles tendon GU. A longitudinal study design with control (n = 10) and patient (n = 10) groups was used. Surface electromyography (SEMG) from four ankle plantar flexors and GU from the same muscles and the Achilles tendon were measured during submaximal intermittent isometric plantar flexion task...

  20. An in vitro model of skeletal muscle volume regulation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Wibberley

    Full Text Available Hypertonic media causes cells to shrink due to water loss through aquaporin channels. After acute shrinkage, cells either regulate their volume or, alternatively, undergo a number of metabolic changes which ultimately lead to cell death. In many cell types, hypertonic shrinkage is followed by apoptosis. Due to the complex 3D morphology of skeletal muscle and the difficulty in obtaining isolated human tissue, we have begun skeletal muscle volume regulation studies using the human skeletal muscle cell line TE671RD. In this study we investigated whether hypertonic challenge of the human skeletal muscle cell line TE671RD triggered cell death or evoked a cell volume recovery response.The cellular volume of TE671RD cells was calculated from the 2D surface area. Cell death was assessed by both the trypan blue live/dead assay and the TUNEL assay.Medium osmolality was increased by addition of up to 200 mM sucrose. Addition of 200 mM sucrose resulted in mean cell shrinkage of 44±1% after 30 mins. At later time points (2 and 4 hrs two separate cell subpopulations with differing mean cell volume became apparent. The first subpopulation (15±2% of the total cell number continued to shrink whereas the second subpopulation had an increased cell volume. Cell death was observed in a small proportion of cells (approximately 6-8%.We have established that a substantial proportion of TE671RD cells respond to hypertonic challenge with RVI, but that these cells are resistant to hypertonicity triggered cell death.

  1. An in vitro model of skeletal muscle volume regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wibberley, Anna; Staunton, Caroline A; Feetham, Claire H; Vereninov, Alexey A; Barrett-Jolley, Richard

    2015-01-01

    Hypertonic media causes cells to shrink due to water loss through aquaporin channels. After acute shrinkage, cells either regulate their volume or, alternatively, undergo a number of metabolic changes which ultimately lead to cell death. In many cell types, hypertonic shrinkage is followed by apoptosis. Due to the complex 3D morphology of skeletal muscle and the difficulty in obtaining isolated human tissue, we have begun skeletal muscle volume regulation studies using the human skeletal muscle cell line TE671RD. In this study we investigated whether hypertonic challenge of the human skeletal muscle cell line TE671RD triggered cell death or evoked a cell volume recovery response. The cellular volume of TE671RD cells was calculated from the 2D surface area. Cell death was assessed by both the trypan blue live/dead assay and the TUNEL assay. Medium osmolality was increased by addition of up to 200 mM sucrose. Addition of 200 mM sucrose resulted in mean cell shrinkage of 44±1% after 30 mins. At later time points (2 and 4 hrs) two separate cell subpopulations with differing mean cell volume became apparent. The first subpopulation (15±2% of the total cell number) continued to shrink whereas the second subpopulation had an increased cell volume. Cell death was observed in a small proportion of cells (approximately 6-8%). We have established that a substantial proportion of TE671RD cells respond to hypertonic challenge with RVI, but that these cells are resistant to hypertonicity triggered cell death.

  2. Effects of 12-wk eccentric calf muscle training on muscle-tendon glucose uptake and SEMG in patients with chronic Achilles tendon pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masood, Tahir; Kalliokoski, Kari; Magnusson, S Peter; Bojsen-Møller, Jens; Finni, Taija

    2014-07-15

    High-load eccentric exercises have been a key component in the conservative management of chronic Achilles tendinopathy. This study investigated the effects of a 12-wk progressive, home-based eccentric rehabilitation program on ankle plantar flexors' glucose uptake (GU) and myoelectric activity and Achilles tendon GU. A longitudinal study design with control (n = 10) and patient (n = 10) groups was used. Surface electromyography (SEMG) from four ankle plantar flexors and GU from the same muscles and the Achilles tendon were measured during submaximal intermittent isometric plantar flexion task. The results indicated that the symptomatic leg was weaker (P effect on the tendon GU. Concerning SEMG, at baseline, soleus showed more relative activity in the symptomatic leg compared with both the asymptomatic and control legs (P effective in decreasing subjective severity of Achilles tendinopathy. It also resulted in redistribution of relative electrical activity, but not metabolic activity, within the triceps surae muscle. Copyright © 2014 the American Physiological Society.

  3. Effects of high and low volume of strength training on muscle strength, muscle volume and lipid profile in postmenopausal women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cleiton Silva Correa

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Changes in lipid profile are considered a risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD, especially in postmenopausal woman who have been associated with age-related loss of muscle mass. The beneficial role of aerobic exercise in the prevention of CVD has been well documented. However, the effect of strength training has not been established. The purpose of this study was to determine the changes of lipoprotein levels after 12 weeks of different volumes of strength training and its correlation with strength and muscle volume in postmenopausal women. The participants were randomized into three groups: low volume (LVST; n = 12, 1 set and high volume of strength training (HVST; n = 11, 3 sets, or control group (n = 12. Training groups performed 12 weeks of supervised strength exercises, 15 maximum repetitions, five times a week, 20 minutes for LVST and 40 minutes for HVST for each training session. Measurements included body composition, strength and muscle volume, as well as blood analysis (glucose, total cholesterol, triglycerides, low-density lipoprotein, and high-density lipoprotein pre- and post-training. The HVST and LVST improved the one-repetition maximum knee extension strength (p < 0.001, maximal dynamic strength (p < 0.001, and muscle volume (p = 0.048. Post-training triglyceride was lower in HVST when compared to LVST and the control group (p = 0.047. Even though they present the same neuromuscular and morphological adaptations in postmenopausal women, the HVST is more effective than LVST in improving the lipid profile of postmenopausal woman, and can be considered as an ideal program of intervention to reverse changes in lipid metabolism commonly found in this group.

  4. Calf respiratory disease and pen microenvironments in naturally ventilated calf barns in winter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lago, A; McGuirk, S M; Bennett, T B; Cook, N B; Nordlund, K V

    2006-10-01

    Relationships between air quality, a variety of environmental risk factors, and calf respiratory health were studied in 13 naturally ventilated calf barns during winter. A minimum of 12 preweaned calves were randomly selected and scored for the presence of respiratory disease in each barn. An air sampling device was used to determine airborne bacteria colony-forming units per cubic meter (cfu/m3) of air in calf pens and central alleys within the barns. Airborne bacteria samples were collected on sheep blood agar (BAP) and eosin methylene blue (EMB) agar plates. Temperature and relative humidity were recorded in each calf pen, the barn alley, and outside the barn. Samples of bedding were collected in each pen and DM was measured. Pen bedding type and a calf nesting score (degree to which the calves could nestle into the bedding) was assigned to each barn. Calf numbers, barn and pen dimensions, ridge, eave, and curtain openings, and exterior wind speed and direction were determined and used to estimate building ventilation rates. Factors that were significantly associated with a reduced prevalence of respiratory disease were reduced pen bacterial counts (log10 cfu/m3) on BAP, presence of a solid barrier between each calf pen, and increased ability to nest. Individual calf pen bacterial counts were significantly different from barn alley bacterial counts on both BAP and EMB. Significant factors associated with reduced calf pen bacterial counts on BAP were increasing pen area, increasing number of open planes of the calf pen, decreasing pen temperature, and wood-particle bedding. Significant factors associated with reduced alley bacterial counts on BAP were increased ventilation changes per hour, increased barn volume per kilogram of calf, reduced pen bacterial counts, and barn type.

  5. Tursiops truncatus calf

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Respiratory development in a captive-born bottlenose dolphin. Tursiops truncatus calf. V.M. Peddemors·. Biology Department, University of Natal, King George V Avenue, Durban, 4001 Republic of South Africa. Received 30 October 1989; accepted 15 May 1990. Changes in calf-mother association are examined and ...

  6. Decreased skeletal muscle pump activity in patients with postural tachycardia syndrome and low peripheral blood flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Julian M; Medow, Marvin S; Montgomery, Leslie D; McLeod, Kenneth

    2004-03-01

    Standing translocates thoracic blood volume into the dependent body. The skeletal muscle pump participates in preventing orthostatic intolerance by enhancing venous return. We investigated the hypothesis that skeletal muscle pump function is impaired in postural tachycardia (POTS) associated with low calf blood flow (low-flow POTS) and depends in general on muscle blood flow. We compared 12 subjects that have low-flow POTS with 10 controls and 7 patients that have POTS and normal calf blood flow using strain-gauge plethysmography to measure peripheral blood flow, venous capacitance, and calf muscle pump function. Blood volume was estimated by dye dilution. We found that calf circumference was reduced in low-flow POTS (32 +/- 1 vs. 39 +/- 3 and 43 +/- 3 cm) and, compared with controls and POTS patients with normal blood flow, is related to the reduced fraction of calf venous capacity emptied during voluntary muscle contraction (ejection fraction, 0.52 +/- 0.07 vs. 0.76 +/- 0.07 and 0.80 +/- 0.06). We found that blood flow was linearly correlated (r(p) = 0.69) with calf circumference (used as a surrogate for muscle mass). Blood volume measurements were 2.2 +/- 0.3 in low-flow POTS vs. 2.6 +/- 0.5 in controls (P = 0.17) and 2.4 +/- 0.7 in normal-flow POTS patients. Decreased calf blood flow may reduce calf size in POTS and thereby impair the upright ejective ability of the skeletal muscle pump and further contribute to overall reduced blood flow and orthostatic intolerance in these patients.

  7. Ultrasound Diagnosis of Calf Injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bright, Jacob Michael; Fields, Karl B; Draper, Ryan

    The medial head of the gastrocnemius is the third most commonly strained muscle in elite athletes after the biceps femoris and rectus femoris. The differential diagnosis of posterior calf injury includes musculoskeletal and nonmusculoskeletal causes. Classically, delineation of these injuries from one another relied primarily on historical features and physical examination findings. The utilization of musculoskeletal ultrasound (sonography) has augmented the diagnosis of these injuries by providing dynamic, real-time confirmation. A review of PubMed, OVID, and MD Consult prior to January 2016 was performed using search terms, including s oleus ultrasound, gastrocnemius ultrasound, and tennis leg. The references of the pertinent articles were further reviewed for other relevant sources. Clinical review. Level 4. There have been few reviews to date of calf injuries and the use of sonography in their diagnosis. Prompt diagnosis utilizing ultrasound allows the clinician to focus management on gastrocnemius injury if present. Two-thirds of calf injuries occur at the junction of the fascia between the medial head of the gastrocnemius and the soleus. Injuries to the lateral head of the gastrocnemius occur in up to 14% of patients in some case series, but injury may occur anywhere from the proximal origin to the mid-belly to the fascial junction with the soleus. Numerous injuries to the posterior compartment can mimic gastrocnemius strain, and musculoskeletal ultrasound can aide in their diagnosis by incorporating real-time imaging into the grading of the injury and visual confirmation of physical examination findings. Acute injury to the posterior compartment of the lower extremity can represent a diagnostic challenge. Medial gastrocnemius strain represents the most common injury of the posterior compartment of the lower extremity. Ultrasound is a useful tool to assist the clinician in determining the specific cause of calf injury, estimate the severity of the injury, and

  8. Forearm Muscle Volumes Can Be Accurately Quantified From High Resolution Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI)

    OpenAIRE

    Eng, Carolyn M.; Abrams, Geoff D.; Smallwood, Laura R.; Lieber, Richard L.; Ward, Samuel R.

    2007-01-01

    Upper extremity musculoskeletal modeling is becoming increasingly sophisticated, creating a growing need for subject-specific muscle size parameters. One method for determining subject-specific muscle volume is magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The purpose of this study was to determine the validity of MRI-derived muscle volumes in the human forearm across a variety of muscle sizes and shapes. Seventeen cadaveric forearms were scanned using a fast spoiled gradient echo pulse sequence with hig...

  9. Evaluation of a simple method for determining muscle volume in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Infantolino, Benjamin W; Challis, John H

    2016-06-14

    The quantification in vivo of muscle volume is important, for example, to understand how muscles change with aging, and respond to rehabilitation. Albracht et al. (2008) suggested that muscle volume can be estimated in vivo from the measurement of muscle cross-sectional area and muscle belly length only. The purpose of this study was to evaluate this proposed relationship for determining muscle volume for both the Vastus Lateralis (VL) and First Dorsal Interosseous (FDI) using ultrasound imaging. The cross-sectional area and length of 22 cadaver FDI and 6 VL muscles in cadavers were imaged using ultrasound, these muscles were then dissected and muscle volumes measured directly using the water displacement technique. Estimated muscle volumes were compared with their direct measurement, and for the VL the percentage root mean square error in the estimation of muscle volume was 5.0%, and the Bland-Altman analysis had all volume estimates within the 95% confidence interval, with no evidence of bias (proportional or constant) in the volume estimates. In contrast, percentage root mean square error for the FDI was 18.8%, with the Bland-Altman analysis showing volume estimates outside of the 95% confidence interval and proportional bias. These results indicate that the simple method proposed by Albracht et al. (2008) for the estimation of muscle volume is appropriate the VL but not the FDI using ultrasound imaging. Morphological disparities likely account for these differences, if accurate and fast measures of the volume of the FDI are required other approaches should be explored. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Effects of strength training and detraining on knee extensor strength, muscle volume and muscle quality in elderly women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correa, Cleiton Silva; Baroni, Bruno Manfredini; Radaelli, Régis; Lanferdini, Fábio Juner; Cunha, Giovani dos Santos; Reischak-Oliveira, Álvaro; Vaz, Marco Aurélio; Pinto, Ronei Silveira

    2013-10-01

    Strength training seems to be an interesting approach to counteract decreases that affect knee extensor strength, muscle mass and muscle quality (force per unit of muscle mass) associated with ageing. However, there is no consensus regarding the changes in muscle mass and their contribution to strength during periods of training and detraining in the elderly. Therefore, this study aimed at verifying the behaviour of knee extensor muscle strength, muscle volume and muscle quality in elderly women in response to a 12-week strength training programme followed by a similar period of detraining. Statistical analysis showed no effect of time on muscle quality. However, strength and muscle volume increased from baseline to post-training (33 and 26 %, respectively). After detraining, the knee extensor strength remained 12 % superior to the baseline values, while the gains in muscle mass were almost completely lost. In conclusion, strength gains and losses due to strength training and detraining, respectively, could not be exclusively associated with muscle mass increases. Training-induced strength gains were partially maintained after 3 months of detraining in elderly subjects.

  11. Forearm Muscle Volumes Can Be Accurately Quantified From High Resolution Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eng, Carolyn M.; Abrams, Geoff D.; Smallwood, Laura R.; Lieber, Richard L.; Ward, Samuel R.

    2007-01-01

    Upper extremity musculoskeletal modeling is becoming increasingly sophisticated, creating a growing need for subject-specific muscle size parameters. One method for determining subject-specific muscle volume is magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The purpose of this study was to determine the validity of MRI-derived muscle volumes in the human forearm across a variety of muscle sizes and shapes. Seventeen cadaveric forearms were scanned using a fast spoiled gradient echo pulse sequence with high isotropic spatial resolution (1 mm3 voxels) on a 3T MR system. Pronator teres (PT), extensor carpi radialis brevis (ECRB), extensor pollicis longus (EPL), flexor carpi ulnaris (FCU), and brachioradialis (BR) muscles were manually segmented allowing volume to be calculated. Forearms were then dissected, muscles isolated, and muscle masses obtained, which allowed computation of muscle volume. Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC2,1) and absolute volume differences were used to compare measurement methods. There was excellent agreement between the anatomical and MRI-derived muscle volumes (ICC = 0.97, relative error = 12.8%) when all 43 muscles were considered together. When individual muscles were considered, there was excellent agreement between measurement methods for PT (ICC = 0.97, relative error = 8.4%), ECRB (ICC = 0.93, relative error = 7.7%), and FCU (ICC = 0.91, relative error = 9.8%), and fair agreement for EPL (ICC = 0.68, relative error = 21.6%) and BR (ICC = 0.93, relative error = 17.2%). Thus, while MRI-based measurements of muscle volume produce relatively small errors in some muscles, muscles with high surface area-to-volume ratios may predispose them to segmentation error, and, therefore, the accuracy of these measurements may be unacceptable. PMID:17521657

  12. Muscle geometry affects accuracy of forearm volume determination by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eng, Carolyn M; Abrams, Geoff D; Smallwood, Laura R; Lieber, Richard L; Ward, Samuel R

    2007-01-01

    Upper extremity musculoskeletal modeling is becoming increasingly sophisticated, creating a growing need for subject-specific muscle size parameters. One method for determining subject-specific muscle volume is magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The purpose of this study was to determine the validity of MRI-derived muscle volumes in the human forearm across a variety of muscle sizes and shapes. Seventeen cadaveric forearms were scanned using a fast-spoiled gradient echo pulse sequence with high isotropic spatial resolution (1mm(3) voxels) on a 3T MR system. Pronator teres (PT), extensor carpi radialis brevis (ECRB), extensor pollicis longus (EPL), flexor carpi ulnaris (FCU), and brachioradialis (BR) muscles were manually segmented allowing volume to be calculated. Forearms were then dissected, muscles isolated, and muscle masses obtained, which allowed computation of muscle volume. Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC(2,1)) and absolute volume differences were used to compare measurement methods. There was excellent agreement between the anatomical and MRI-derived muscle volumes (ICC = 0.97, relative error = 12.8%) when all 43 muscles were considered together. When individual muscles were considered, there was excellent agreement between measurement methods for PT (ICC = 0.97, relative error = 8.4%), ECRB (ICC = 0.93, relative error = 7.7%), and FCU (ICC = 0.91, relative error = 9.8%), and fair agreement for EPL (ICC = 0.68, relative error = 21.6%) and BR (ICC = 0.93, relative error = 17.2%). Thus, while MRI-based measurements of muscle volume produce relatively small errors in some muscles, muscles with high surface area-to-volume ratios may predispose them to segmentation error, and, therefore, the accuracy of these measurements may be unacceptable.

  13. Reference data on muscle volumes of healthy human pelvis and lower extremity muscles: an in vivo magnetic resonance imaging feasibility study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lube, Juliane; Cotofana, Sebastian; Bechmann, Ingo; Milani, Thomas L; Özkurtul, Orkun; Sakai, Tatsuo; Steinke, Hanno; Hammer, Niels

    2016-01-01

    Muscle volumes are of crucial interest when attempting to analyze individual physical performance and disease- or age-related alterations in muscle morphology. However, very little reference data are available in the literature on pelvis and lower extremity muscle volumes originating from healthy and young individuals. Furthermore, it is of interest if representative muscle volumes, covering large anatomical regions, can be obtained using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in a setting similar to the clinical routine. Our objective was therefore to provide encompassing, bilateral, 3-T MRI-based datasets on muscle volumes of the pelvis and the lower limb muscles. T1-weighted 3-T MRI records were obtained bilaterally from six young and healthy participants. Three-dimensional volumes were compiled from 28 muscles and muscle groups of each participant before the muscle volumes were computed. Muscle volumes were obtained from 28 muscles and muscle groups of the pelvis and lower extremity. Volumes were larger in male than in female participants. Volumes of the dominant and non-dominant sides were similar in both genders. The obtained results were in line with volumetric data obtained from smaller anatomical areas, thus extending the available datasets. This study provides an encompassing and feasible approach to obtain data on the muscle volumes of pelvic and limb muscles of healthy, young, and physically active individuals. The respective data form a basis to determine effects of therapeutic approaches, progression of diseases, or technical applications like automated segmentation algorithms applied to different populations.

  14. Comparison of clinical semi-quantitative assessment of muscle fat infiltration with quantitative assessment using chemical shift-based water/fat separation in MR studies of the calf of post-menopausal women

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alizai, Hamza; Nardo, Lorenzo; Karampinos, Dimitrios C.; Joseph, Gabby B.; Yap, Samuel P.; Baum, Thomas; Krug, Roland; Majumdar, Sharmila; Link, Thomas M. [University of California, San Francisco, Musculoskeletal and Quantitative Imaging Research Group, Department of Radiology and Biomedical Imaging, San Francisco, CA (United States)

    2012-07-15

    The goal of this study was to compare the semi-quantitative Goutallier classification for fat infiltration with quantitative fat-fraction derived from a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) chemical shift-based water/fat separation technique. Sixty-two women (age 61 {+-} 6 years), 27 of whom had diabetes, underwent MRI of the calf using a T1-weighted fast spin-echo sequence and a six-echo spoiled gradient-echo sequence at 3 T. Water/fat images and fat fraction maps were reconstructed using the IDEAL algorithm with T2* correction and a multi-peak model for the fat spectrum. Two radiologists scored fat infiltration on the T1-weighted images using the Goutallier classification in six muscle compartments. Spearman correlations between the Goutallier grades and the fat fraction were calculated; in addition, intra-observer and inter-observer agreement were calculated. A significant correlation between the clinical grading and the fat fraction values was found for all muscle compartments (P < 0.0001, R values ranging from 0.79 to 0.88). Goutallier grades 0-4 had a fat fraction ranging from 3.5 to 19%. Intra-observer and inter-observer agreement values of 0.83 and 0.81 were calculated for the semi-quantitative grading. Semi-quantitative grading of intramuscular fat and quantitative fat fraction were significantly correlated and both techniques had excellent reproducibility. However, the clinical grading was found to overestimate muscle fat. (orig.)

  15. Plantar flexor moment arm and muscle volume predict torque-generating capacity in young men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baxter, Josh R; Piazza, Stephen J

    2014-03-01

    Muscle volume is known to correlate with maximal joint torque in humans, but the role of muscle moment arm in determining maximal torque is less clear. Moderate correlations have been reported between maximal isometric knee extensor torque and knee extensor moment arm, but no such observations have been made for the ankle joint. It has been suggested that smaller muscle moment arms may enhance force generation at high rates of joint rotation, but this has not yet been observed for ankle muscles in vivo. The purpose of the present study was to correlate plantar flexor moment arm and plantar flexor muscle volume with maximal plantar flexor torque measured at different rates of plantar flexion. Magnetic resonance imaging was used to quantify the plantar flexor moment arm and muscle volume of the posterior compartment in 20 healthy young men. Maximal plantar flexor torque was measured isometrically and at three plantar flexion speeds using an isokinetic dynamometer. Plantar flexor torque was significantly correlated with muscle volume (0.222 muscle moment arm at each speed (0.323 muscle volume was strongly correlated with body mass and stature, moment arm was not. The slope of the torque-moment arm regression line decreased as the rate of joint rotation increased, indicating that subjects with small moment arms experienced smaller reductions in torque at high speeds. The findings of this study suggest that plantar flexor moment arm is a determinant of joint strength that is at least as important as muscle size.

  16. Estimation of spinopelvic muscles' volumes in young asymptomatic subjects: a quantitative analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amabile, Celia; Moal, Bertrand; Chtara, Oussama Arous; Pillet, Helene; Raya, Jose G; Iannessi, Antoine; Skalli, Wafa; Lafage, Virginie; Bronsard, Nicolas

    2017-04-01

    Muscles have been proved to be a major component in postural regulation during pathological evolution or aging. Particularly, spinopelvic muscles are recruited for compensatory mechanisms such as pelvic retroversion, or knee flexion. Change in muscles' volume could, therefore, be a marker of greater postural degradation. Yet, it is difficult to interpret spinopelvic muscular degradation as there are few reported values for young asymptomatic adults to compare to. The objective was to provide such reference values on spinopelvic muscles. A model predicting the muscular volume from reduced set of MRI segmented images was investigated. A total of 23 asymptomatic subjects younger than 24 years old underwent an MRI acquisition from T12 to the knee. Spinopelvic muscles were segmented to obtain an accurate 3D reconstruction, allowing precise computation of muscle's volume. A model computing the volume of muscular groups from less than six MRI segmented slices was investigated. Baseline values have been reported in tables. For all muscles, invariance was found for the shape factor [ratio of volume over (area times length): SD muscles' values for a reference population have been reported. A new model predicting the muscles' volumes from a reduced set of MRI slices is proposed. While this model still needs to be validated on other populations, the current study appears promising for clinical use to determine, quantitatively, the muscular degradation.

  17. Sensitivity of the amplitude of the single muscle fibre action potential to microscopic volume conduction parameters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alberts, B.A.; Rutten, Wim; Wallinga, W.; Boom, H.B.K.

    1988-01-01

    A microscopic model of volume conduction was applied to examine the sensitivity of the single muscle fibre action potential to variations in parameters of the source and of the volume conductor, such as conduction velocity, intracellular conductivity and intracellular volume fraction. The model

  18. In Vivo Pediatric Shoulder Muscle Volumes and Their Relationship to 3D Strength

    Science.gov (United States)

    Im, Hyun Soo; Alter, Katharine E.; Brochard, Sylvain; Pons, Christelle; Sheehan, Frances T.

    2017-01-01

    In the pediatric shoulder, injury and pathology can disrupt the muscle force balance, resulting in severe functional losses. As little data exists pertaining to in vivo pediatric shoulder muscle function, musculoskeletal data are crucially needed to advance the treatment of pediatric shoulder pathology/injury. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to develop a pediatric database of in vivo volumes for the major shoulder muscles and correlate these volumes to maximum isometric flexion/extension, internal/external rotation, and abduction/adduction joint moments. A methodology was developed to derive 3D shoulder muscle volumes and to divide the deltoid into sub-units with unique torque producing capabilities, based on segmentation of three-dimensional magnetic resonance images. Eleven typically developing children/adolescents (4F/7M, 12.0±3.2years, 150.8±16.7cm, 49.2±16.4kg) participated. Correlation and regression analyses were used to evaluate the relationship between volume and maximum, voluntary, isometric joint torques. The deltoid demonstrated the largest (30.4 ±1.2%) and the supraspinatus the smallest (4.8 ± 0.5%) percent of the total summed volume of all six muscles evaluated. The anterior and posterior deltoid sections were 43.4±3.9% and 56.6±3.9% of the total deltoid volume. The percent volumes were highly consistent across subjects. Individual muscle volumes demonstrated moderate-high correlations with torque values (0.70–0.94, pshoulder muscle volume. Using these data a clear relationship between shoulder volume and the torques they produce was established in all three rotational degrees-of-freedom. This study furthers the understanding of shoulder muscle function and serves as a foundation for evaluating shoulder injury/pathology in the pediatric/adolescent population. PMID:24925254

  19. Vascular responses in forearm and calf to contralateral static exercises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duprez, D A; Essandoh, L K; Vanhoutte, P M; Shepherd, J T

    1989-02-01

    Ten normal subjects performed a 90-s isometric exercise [20, 30, and 40% of maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) of the flexor muscle of the right index finger or quadriceps muscle of the right leg. Contralateral forearm and calf blood flows (strain gauge plethysmography) and arterial blood pressure (auscultation) were measured simultaneously. Each exercise caused a decrease in forearm vascular resistance and a progressive increase in calf resistance. These changes were greatest with the 40% MVC. With finger exercise at 20 and 40% MVC, the percentage decreases in forearm vascular resistance from control were 12.3 and 22.7%, respectively (P less than 0.01). Similar decreases (9.5 and 24.9%, respectively; P less than 0.01) were noted with exercise of the quadriceps muscle. By contrast, the corresponding increases in calf vascular resistance were greater (P less than 0.01) with quadriceps exercise (13.3 and 55.4%, respectively) than with finger exercise (6.0 and 36.0%). Arrest of the circulation to the exercising muscles just before the exercise ended caused an abrupt increase in forearm vascular resistance and a decrease in calf resistance. These studies provide further evidence of the heterogeneity of responses of forearm and calf resistance vessels to certain cardiovascular stimuli.

  20. MRI-Based Assessment of Lower Extremity Muscle Volumes in Patients Before and After ACL Reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norte, Grant E; Knaus, Katherine R; Kuenze, Chris; Handsfield, Geoffrey G; Meyer, Craig H; Blemker, Silvia S; Hart, Joseph M

    2017-03-14

    Study of muscle volumes in patients after anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury and reconstruction (ACL-R) is largely limited to cross-sectional assessment of the thigh musculature, which may inadequately describe post-traumatic and post-surgical muscle function. No studies have prospectively examined the influence of ACL injury and reconstruction on lower extremity muscle volumes. Assess magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) derived lower extremity muscle volumes, and quantify quadriceps strength and activation in patients following ACL injury and reconstruction. Prospective case series. Research laboratory and MRI facility. Patients (or Other Participants): Four patients (2 males, 2 females, age = 27.4 ± 7.4, height = 169.2 ± 8.1 cm, mass = 74.3 ± 18.5 kg) scheduled for ACL-R. 35 muscle volumes were obtained from a bilateral lower extremity MRI before and after ACL-R. Muscle volumes expressed relative to (1) a normative database pre-and-post-surgery, (2) limb symmetry pre-and-post-surgery, and (3) percentage change pre-to-post-surgery. Quadriceps function was quantified by normalized knee extension maximal voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC) torque and central activation ratio (CAR). Involved vastus lateralis and tibialis anterior were consistently smaller than healthy individuals (Zmuscle volumes exceeded 20% asymmetry post-operatively. Involved gracilis and semitendinosus atrophied more than 30% from pre-to-post-surgery. Involved MVIC torque and CAR increased by 12.7% and 12.5% respectively, yet strength remained 33.2% asymmetric post-surgery. Adaptations in lower extremity muscle volumes are present following ACL injury and reconstruction. Anterior thigh and shank muscles were smaller than healthy individuals, and large asymmetries in quadriceps volumes were observed pre- and post-surgery. Selective atrophy of the semitendinosus and gracilis occurred following surgery. Volumetric deficits of the quadriceps musculature may exist despite improvements in

  1. Radiologic measurement of extraocular muscle volumes in patients with Graves' orbitopathy: a review and guideline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bijlsma, Ward R; Mourits, Maarten Ph

    2006-06-01

    To evaluate and compare techniques for extraocular muscle (EOM) volume measurement and to provide guidelines for future measurements. Systematic review. Existing techniques used to measure extraocular muscle volumes on radiologic scans can be divided into manual outlining, computer assisted and automated segmentation. Both computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance (MR) image datasets can be used. On CT scans, one best measures muscle volume using region grow segmentation, accepting an overestimation of true volume by inevitable inclusion of non-muscular tissue. On high resolution MRI scans, single muscles can be outlined manually, but measurements include only part of the muscle due to poor tissue contrast at the orbital apex. Measurement errors can be reduced 3.5% by exact horizontal repositioning. A measured volume change of at least 6-17% is required to demonstrate a significant difference. Currently the best choice for EOM volume measurements on CT images is computer assisted grey value segmentation and on MRI images is manual outlining of individual muscles. Because of the time required and the complexity of the measurements, present EOM volume measurement is as yet only suitable for research purposes.

  2. Volume, intensity, and timing of muscle power potentiation are variable.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaouachi, Anis; Poulos, Nick; Abed, Fathi; Turki, Olfa; Brughelli, Matt; Chamari, Karim; Drinkwater, Eric J; Behm, David G

    2011-10-01

    Whereas muscle potentiation is consistently demonstrated with evoked contractile properties, the potentiation of functional and physiological measures is inconsistent. The objective was to compare a variety of conditioning stimuli volumes and intensities over a 15-min recovery period. Twelve volleyball players were subjected to conditioning stimuli that included 10 repetitions of half squats with 70% of 1-repetition maximum (RM) (10 × 70), 5 × 70, 5 × 85, 3 × 85, 3 × 90, 1 × 90, and control. Jump height, power, velocity, and force were measured at baseline, 1, 3, 5, 10, and 15 min. Data were analysed with a 2-way repeated measure ANOVA and magnitude-based inferences. The ANOVA indicated significant decreases in jump height, power, and velocity during recovery. This should not be interpreted that no potentiation occurred. Each dependent variable reached a peak at a slightly different time: peak jump height (2.8 ± 2.3 min), mean power (3.6 ± 3.01 min), peak power (2.5 ± 1.8 min), and peak velocity (2.5 ± 1.8 min). Magnitude-based inference revealed that both the 5 × 70 and 3 × 85 protocol elicited changes that exceeded 75% likelihood of exceeding the smallest worthwhile change (SWC) for peak power and velocity. The 10 × 70 and the 5 × 70 had a substantial likelihood of potentiating peak velocity and mean power above the SWC, respectively. Magnitude-based inferences revealed that while no protocol had a substantial likelihood of potentiating the peak vertical jump, the 5 × 70 had the most consistent substantial likelihood of increasing the peak of most dependent variables. We were unable to consistently predict if these peaks occurred at 1, 3, or 5 min poststimulation, though declines after 5 min seems probable.

  3. In vivo pediatric shoulder muscle volumes and their relationship to 3D strength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Im, Hyun Soo; Alter, Katharine E; Brochard, Sylvain; Pons, Christelle; Sheehan, Frances T

    2014-08-22

    In the pediatric shoulder, injury and pathology can disrupt the muscle force balance, resulting in severe functional losses. As little data exists pertaining to in vivo pediatric shoulder muscle function, musculoskeletal data are crucially needed to advance the treatment of pediatric shoulder pathology/injury. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to develop a pediatric database of in vivo volumes for the major shoulder muscles and correlate these volumes with maximum isometric flexion/extension, internal/external rotation, and abduction/adduction joint moments. A methodology was developed to derive 3D shoulder muscle volumes and to divide the deltoid into sub-units with unique torque producing capabilities, based on segmentation of three-dimensional magnetic resonance images. Eleven typically developing children/adolescents (4F/7M, 12.0 ± 3.2 years, 150.8 ± 16.7 cm, 49.2 ± 16.4 kg) participated. Correlation and regression analyses were used to evaluate the relationship between volume and maximum, voluntary, isometric joint torques. The deltoid demonstrated the largest (30.4 ± 1.2%) and the supraspinatus the smallest (4.8 ± 0.5%) percent of the total summed volume of all six muscles evaluated. The anterior and posterior deltoid sections were 43.4 ± 3.9% and 56.6 ± 3.9% of the total deltoid volume. The percent volumes were highly consistent across subjects. Individual muscle volumes demonstrated moderate-high correlations with torque values (0.70-0.94, pmuscle volume. Using these data a clear relationship between shoulder volume and the torques they produce was established in all three rotational degrees-of-freedom. This study furthers the understanding of shoulder muscle function and serves as a foundation for evaluating shoulder injury/pathology in the pediatric/adolescent population. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  4. Lean muscle volume of the thigh has a stronger relationship with muscle power than muscle strength in women with knee osteoarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davison, Michael J; Maly, Monica R; Keir, Peter J; Hapuhennedige, Sandani M; Kron, Amie T; Adachi, Jonathan D; Beattie, Karen A

    2017-01-01

    Thigh lean muscle and intramuscular fat have been implicated in the impairment of physical function observed in people with knee osteoarthritis. We investigated the relationships of quadriceps and hamstrings intramuscular fat fraction and lean muscle volume with muscle power and strength, controlling for neuromuscular activation, and physical performance in women with knee OA. Women (n=20) 55years or older with symptomatic, radiographic knee osteoarthritis underwent a 3.0T magnetic resonance imaging scan of the thigh of their most symptomatic knee. Axial fat-separated images were analyzed using software to quantify intramuscular fat and lean muscle volumes of the quadriceps and hamstrings. To quantify strength and power of the knee extensors and flexors, participants performed maximum voluntary isometric contraction and isotonic knee extensions and flexions, respectively. Electromyography of the quadriceps and hamstrings was measured. Participants also completed five physical performance tests. Quadriceps and hamstrings lean muscle volumes were related to isotonic knee extensor (B=0.624; p=0.017) and flexor (B=1.518; p=0.032) power, but not knee extensor (B=0.001; p=0.615) or flexor (B=0.001; p=0.564) isometric strength. Intramuscular fat fractions were not related to isotonic knee extensor or flexor power, nor isometric strength. No relationships were found between intramuscular fat or lean muscle volume and physical performance. Muscle power may be more sensitive than strength to lean muscle mass in women with knee osteoarthritis. Thigh lean muscle mass, but neither intramuscular nor intermuscular fat, is related to knee extensor and flexor power in women with knee osteoarthritis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Intrinsic foot muscle volume in experienced runners with and without chronic plantar fasciitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, R T H; Sze, L K Y; Mok, N W; Ng, G Y F

    2016-09-01

    Plantar fasciitis, a common injury in runners, has been speculated to be associated with weakness of the intrinsic foot muscles. A recent study reported that atrophy of the intrinsic forefoot muscles might contribute to plantar fasciitis by destabilizing the medial longitudinal arch. However, intrinsic foot muscle volume difference between individuals with plantar fasciitis and healthy counterparts remains unknown. This study examined the relationship of intrinsic foot muscle volume and incidence of plantar fasciitis. Case-control study. 20 experienced (≥5 years) runners were recruited. Ten of them had bilateral chronic (≥2 years) plantar fasciitis while the others were healthy characteristics-matched runners. Intrinsic muscle volumes of the participants' right foot were scanned with a 1.5T magnetic resonance system and segmented using established methods. Body-mass normalized intrinsic foot muscle volumes were compared between runners with and without chronic plantar fasciitis. There was significant greater rearfoot intrinsic muscle volume in healthy runners than runners with chronic plantar fasciitis (Cohen's d=1.13; p=0.023). A similar trend was also observed in the total intrinsic foot muscle volume but it did not reach a statistical significance (Cohen's d=0.92; p=0.056). Forefoot volume was similar between runners with and without plantar fasciitis. These results suggest that atrophy of intrinsic foot muscles may be associated with symptoms of plantar fasciitis in runners. These findings may provide useful information in rehabilitation strategies of chronic plantar fasciitis. Copyright © 2015 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Elevated interstitial fluid volume in rat soleus muscles by hindlimb unweighting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kandarian, S C; Boushel, Robert Christopher; Schulte, Lars

    1991-01-01

    ) by tail suspension. Soleus muscles were studied after 28 days and compared with those from five age-matched control (C) rats. Interstitial fluid volume ([3H]inulin space) and maximum tetanic tension (Po) were measured in vitro at 25 degrees C. Soleus muscles atrophied 58% because of unweighting (C = 147...

  7. Pace bowlers in cricket with history of lumbar stress fracture have increased risk of lower limb muscle strains, particularly calf strains

    OpenAIRE

    Orchard, John

    2010-01-01

    John Orchard1, Patrick Farhart2, Alex Kountouris3, Trefor James3, Marc Portus31School of Public Health, University of Sydney, Australia; 2Punjab Kings XI team, Indian Premier League, India; 3Cricket Australia, Melbourne, AustraliaObjective: To assess whether a history of lumbar stress fracture in pace bowlers in cricket is a risk factor for lower limb muscle strains.Methods: This was a prospective cohort risk factor study, conducted using injury data from contracted first class pace bowlers i...

  8. Three-dimensional lateral pterygoid muscle volume: MRI analyses with insertion patterns correlation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melke, Gabriela Sobral de Figueiredo; Costa, André Luiz Ferreira; Lopes, Sérgio Lúcio Pereira de Castro; Fuziy, Acacio; Ferreira-Santos, Rívea Inês

    2016-11-01

    We evaluated lateral pterygoid muscle volume in closed and open mouth positions in association with anterior disc displacement, effusion and abnormal articular disc shape from three-dimensional reformations of MRI. A total of 24 MRI of a sample (15 females, 9 males) aged 19-64 years (37.2 years±11.4) were assessed. Segmentation and volumetric assessment of the total, upper and lower heads of the lateral pterygoid muscle were performed using free software. The upper head of the lateral pterygoid muscle had a smaller volume than the lower head at both sides, in the closed- and open-mouth positions. In the open-mouth position, individuals with a subdivided upper head, where one component was inserted in the articular disc and another in the mandibular head, displayed a significantly larger volume of the upper head compared to individuals who had a single attachment to the articular disc (p=0.0130). The lateral pterygoid muscle has different volumes in the closed- and open-mouth positions. Gender affected muscle volume, specifically the upper head component. Insertion type in the upper head also seemed to affect muscle volume. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  9. Calf Contouring with Endoscopic Fascial Release, Calf Implant, and Structural Fat Grafting

    OpenAIRE

    Ercan Karacaoglu, MD; Richard J. Zienowicz, MD; Iulian Balan, MD

    2013-01-01

    Background: Curved lower legs cause psychological stress for women. In evaluating the shape, if thickness is the main contributing factor of leg aesthetic, then lipoplasty or calf reducing procedures will be the option. If the legs are slender and have no muscle hypertrophy but still have some indentation or bulges on both sides and lack an aesthetic shape what will be the options? The answer to the question is discussed in detail in this article. Methods: Twenty-two patients, operated over a...

  10. Dynamic 31P–MRSI using spiral spectroscopic imaging can map mitochondrial capacity in muscles of the human calf during plantar flexion exercise at 7 T

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valkovič, Ladislav; Chmelík, Marek; Meyerspeer, Martin; Gagoski, Borjan; Rodgers, Christopher T.; Krššák, Martin; Andronesi, Ovidiu C.; Trattnig, Siegfried

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Phosphorus MRSI (31P–MRSI) using a spiral‐trajectory readout at 7 T was developed for high temporal resolution mapping of the mitochondrial capacity of exercising human skeletal muscle. The sensitivity and localization accuracy of the method was investigated in phantoms. In vivo performance was assessed in 12 volunteers, who performed a plantar flexion exercise inside a whole‐body 7 T MR scanner using an MR‐compatible ergometer and a surface coil. In five volunteers the knee was flexed (~60°) to shift the major workload from the gastrocnemii to the soleus muscle. Spiral‐encoded MRSI provided 16–25 times faster mapping with a better point spread function than elliptical phase‐encoded MRSI with the same matrix size. The inevitable trade‐off for the increased temporal resolution was a reduced signal‐to‐noise ratio, but this was acceptable. The phosphocreatine (PCr) depletion caused by exercise at 0° knee angulation was significantly higher in both gastrocnemii than in the soleus (i.e. 64.8 ± 19.6% and 65.9 ± 23.6% in gastrocnemius lateralis and medialis versus 15.3 ± 8.4% in the soleus). Spiral‐encoded 31P–MRSI is a powerful tool for dynamic mapping of exercising muscle oxidative metabolism, including localized assessment of PCr concentrations, pH and maximal oxidative flux with high temporal and spatial resolution. PMID:27862510

  11. Dynamic31P-MRSI using spiral spectroscopic imaging can map mitochondrial capacity in muscles of the human calf during plantar flexion exercise at 7 T.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valkovič, Ladislav; Chmelík, Marek; Meyerspeer, Martin; Gagoski, Borjan; Rodgers, Christopher T; Krššák, Martin; Andronesi, Ovidiu C; Trattnig, Siegfried; Bogner, Wolfgang

    2016-12-01

    Phosphorus MRSI ( 31 P-MRSI) using a spiral-trajectory readout at 7 T was developed for high temporal resolution mapping of the mitochondrial capacity of exercising human skeletal muscle. The sensitivity and localization accuracy of the method was investigated in phantoms. In vivo performance was assessed in 12 volunteers, who performed a plantar flexion exercise inside a whole-body 7 T MR scanner using an MR-compatible ergometer and a surface coil. In five volunteers the knee was flexed (~60°) to shift the major workload from the gastrocnemii to the soleus muscle. Spiral-encoded MRSI provided 16-25 times faster mapping with a better point spread function than elliptical phase-encoded MRSI with the same matrix size. The inevitable trade-off for the increased temporal resolution was a reduced signal-to-noise ratio, but this was acceptable. The phosphocreatine (PCr) depletion caused by exercise at 0° knee angulation was significantly higher in both gastrocnemii than in the soleus (i.e. 64.8 ± 19.6% and 65.9 ± 23.6% in gastrocnemius lateralis and medialis versus 15.3 ± 8.4% in the soleus). Spiral-encoded 31 P-MRSI is a powerful tool for dynamic mapping of exercising muscle oxidative metabolism, including localized assessment of PCr concentrations, pH and maximal oxidative flux with high temporal and spatial resolution. © 2016 The Authors. NMR in Biomedicine Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. CALF BLOOD-FLOW AND POSTURE - DOPPLER ULTRASOUND CALIBRATED BY PLETHYSMOGRAPHY

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VANLEEUWEN, BE; LUBBERS, J; BARENDSEN, GJ; DEPATER, L

    A procedure was developed that enables measurement of rapid variations in calf blood flow during voluntary rhythmic contraction of the calf muscles in supine, sitting, and standing positions. During the exercise, maximum blood velocity is measured by Doppler ultrasound equipment in the popliteal

  13. Muscle volume is related to trabecular and cortical bone architecture in typically developing children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajaj, Deepti; Allerton, Brianne M; Kirby, Joshua T; Miller, Freeman; Rowe, David A; Pohlig, Ryan T; Modlesky, Christopher M

    2015-12-01

    Muscle is strongly related to cortical bone architecture in children; however, the relationship between muscle volume and trabecular bone architecture is poorly studied. The aim of this study was to determine if muscle volume is related to trabecular bone architecture in children and if the relationship is different than the relationship between muscle volume and cortical bone architecture. Forty typically developing children (20 boys and 20 girls; 6 to 12y) were included in the study. Measures of trabecular bone architecture [i.e., apparent trabecular bone volume to total volume (appBV/TV), trabecular number (appTb.N), trabecular thickness (appTb.Th) and trabecular separation (appTb.Sp)] in the distal femur, cortical bone architecture [cortical volume, total volume, section modulus (Z) and polar moment of inertia (J)] in the midfemur, muscle volume in the midthigh and femur length were assessed using magnetic resonance imaging. Total physical activity and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity were assessed using an accelerometer-based activity monitor worn around the waist for four days. Calcium intake was assessed using diet records. Relationships among the measures were tested using multiple linear regression analysis. Muscle volume was moderately-to-strongly related to measures of trabecular bone architecture [appBV/TV (r=0.81), appTb.N (r=0.53), appTb.Th (r=0.67), appTb.Sp (r=-0.71); all parchitecture [cortical volume (r=0.96), total volume (r=0.94), Z (r=0.94) and J (r=0.92; all parchitecture. Sex, physical activity and calcium intake were not related to any measure of bone architecture (p>0.05). Because muscle volume and femur length were strongly related (r=0.91, parchitecture (partial r=0.47 to 0.54; parchitecture in the distal femur of typically developing children. The relationship is weaker than the relationship between muscle volume in the midthigh and cortical bone architecture in the midfemur, but the discrepancy is driven, in large part, by the

  14. Does Flywheel Paradigm Training Improve Muscle Volume and Force? A Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuñez Sanchez, Francisco J; Sáez de Villarreal, Eduardo

    2017-11-01

    Núñez Sanchez, FJ and Sáez de Villarreal, E. Does flywheel paradigm training improve muscle volume and force? A meta-analysis. J Strength Cond Res 31(11): 3177-3186, 2017-Several studies have confirmed the efficacy of flywheel paradigm training for improving or benefiting muscle volume and force. A meta-analysis of 13 studies with a total of 18 effect sizes was performed to analyse the role of various factors on the effectiveness of flywheel paradigm training. The following inclusion criteria were employed for the analysis: (a) randomized studies; (b) high validity and reliability instruments; (c) published in a high quality peer-reviewed journal; (d) healthy participants; (e) studies where the eccentric programme were described; and (f) studies where increases in muscle volume and force were measured before and after training. Increases in muscle volume and force were noted through the use of flywheel systems during short periods of training. The increase in muscle mass appears was not influenced by the existence of eccentric overload during the exercise. The increase in force was significantly higher with the existence of eccentric overload during the exercise. The responses identified in this analysis are essential and should be considered by strength and conditioning professionals regarding the most appropriate dose response trends for flywheel paradigm systems to optimize the increase in muscle volume and force.

  15. Inward Flux of Lactate- through Monocarboxylate Transporters Contributes to Regulatory Volume Increase in Mouse Muscle Fibres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindinger, Michael I.; Leung, Matthew J.; Hawke, Thomas J.

    2013-01-01

    Mouse and rat skeletal muscles are capable of a regulatory volume increase (RVI) after they shrink (volume loss resultant from exposure to solutions of increased osmolarity) and that this RVI occurs mainly by a Na-K-Cl-Cotransporter (NKCC) - dependent mechanism. With high-intensity exercise, increased extracellular osmolarity is accompanied by large increases in extracellular [lactate-]. We hypothesized that large increases in [lactate-] and osmolarity augment the NKCC-dependent RVI response observed with a NaCl (or sucrose) - induced increase in osmolarity alone; a response that is dependent on lactate- influx through monocarboxylate transporters (MCTs). Single mouse muscle fibres were isolated and visualized under light microscopy under varying osmolar conditions. When solution osmolarity was increased by adding NaLac by 30 or 60 mM, fibres lost significantly less volume and regained volume sooner compared to when NaCl was used. Phloretin (MCT1 inhibitor) accentuated the volume loss compared to both NaLac controls, supporting a role for MCT1 in the RVI response in the presence of elevated [lactate-]. Inhibition of MCT4 (with pCMBS) resulted in a volume loss, intermediate to that seen with phloretin and NaLac controls. Bumetanide (NKCC inhibitor), in combination with pCMBS, reduced the magnitude of volume loss, but volume recovery was complete. While combined phloretin-bumetanide also reduced the magnitude of the volume loss, it also largely abolished the cell volume recovery. In conclusion, RVI in skeletal muscle exposed to raised tonicity and [lactate-] is facilitated by inward flux of solute by NKCC- and MCT1-dependent mechanisms. This work demonstrates evidence of a RVI response in skeletal muscle that is facilitated by inward flux of solute by MCT-dependent mechanisms. These findings further expand our understanding of the capacities for skeletal muscle to volume regulate, particularly in instances of raised tonicity and lactate- concentrations, as occurs

  16. Inward flux of lactate⁻ through monocarboxylate transporters contributes to regulatory volume increase in mouse muscle fibres.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael I Lindinger

    Full Text Available Mouse and rat skeletal muscles are capable of a regulatory volume increase (RVI after they shrink (volume loss resultant from exposure to solutions of increased osmolarity and that this RVI occurs mainly by a Na-K-Cl-Cotransporter (NKCC-dependent mechanism. With high-intensity exercise, increased extracellular osmolarity is accompanied by large increases in extracellular [lactate⁻]. We hypothesized that large increases in [lactate⁻] and osmolarity augment the NKCC-dependent RVI response observed with a NaCl (or sucrose-induced increase in osmolarity alone; a response that is dependent on lactate⁻ influx through monocarboxylate transporters (MCTs. Single mouse muscle fibres were isolated and visualized under light microscopy under varying osmolar conditions. When solution osmolarity was increased by adding NaLac by 30 or 60 mM, fibres lost significantly less volume and regained volume sooner compared to when NaCl was used. Phloretin (MCT1 inhibitor accentuated the volume loss compared to both NaLac controls, supporting a role for MCT1 in the RVI response in the presence of elevated [lactate⁻]. Inhibition of MCT4 (with pCMBS resulted in a volume loss, intermediate to that seen with phloretin and NaLac controls. Bumetanide (NKCC inhibitor, in combination with pCMBS, reduced the magnitude of volume loss, but volume recovery was complete. While combined phloretin-bumetanide also reduced the magnitude of the volume loss, it also largely abolished the cell volume recovery. In conclusion, RVI in skeletal muscle exposed to raised tonicity and [lactate⁻] is facilitated by inward flux of solute by NKCC- and MCT1-dependent mechanisms. This work demonstrates evidence of a RVI response in skeletal muscle that is facilitated by inward flux of solute by MCT-dependent mechanisms. These findings further expand our understanding of the capacities for skeletal muscle to volume regulate, particularly in instances of raised tonicity and lactate

  17. The effect of inactivity on reactive hyperaemia in the human calf: a study with strain gauge plethysmography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroese, A J

    1977-02-01

    In order to study the influence of muscular inactivity on reactive hyperaemia, postischaemic blood flow was measued with strain gauge plethysmography in the calf of twenty-nine patients, who had been treated with a plaster cast for a trauma of the lower limb. The contralateral leg served as a comparison. In all but two patients postischaemic maximal flow was lower in the immobilized calf. A negative correlation existed between maximal flow and the duration of immobilization. In the course of 6 weeks after removal of the cast, the difference in maximal flow between both sides became insignificant. Venous volume and venous emptying were not different in the two limbs. The effect of inactivity on reactive hyperaemic response may be explained by an effect of inactivity on the arterioles, muscle atrophy, a decrease in capillarization and in oxidative capacity of the muscle fibres. It is concluded that inactivity and atrophy of the lower limb musculature in patients with peripheral arterial disease may be a contributing factor to the low reactive hyperaemic response in the calf of such patients.

  18. Quantitative assessment of fatty infiltration and muscle volume of the rotator cuff muscles using 3-dimensional 2-point Dixon magnetic resonance imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumura, Noboru; Oguro, Sota; Okuda, Shigeo; Jinzaki, Masahiro; Matsumoto, Morio; Nakamura, Masaya; Nagura, Takeo

    2017-10-01

    In patients with rotator cuff tears, muscle degeneration is known to be a predictor of irreparable tears and poor outcomes after surgical repair. Fatty infiltration and volume of the whole muscles constituting the rotator cuff were quantitatively assessed using 3-dimensional 2-point Dixon magnetic resonance imaging. Ten shoulders with a partial-thickness tear, 10 shoulders with an isolated supraspinatus tear, and 10 shoulders with a massive tear involving supraspinatus and infraspinatus were compared with 10 control shoulders after matching age and sex. With segmentation of muscle boundaries, the fat fraction value and the volume of the whole rotator cuff muscles were computed. After reliabilities were determined, differences in fat fraction, muscle volume, and fat-free muscle volume were evaluated. Intra-rater and inter-rater reliabilities were regarded as excellent for fat fraction and muscle volume. Tendon rupture adversely increased the fat fraction value of the respective rotator cuff muscle (P muscle volume was significantly decreased in the infraspinatus (P = .035) and increased in the teres minor (P = .039). With subtraction of fat volume, a significant decrease of fat-free volume of the supraspinatus muscle became apparent with a massive tear (P = .003). Three-dimensional measurement could evaluate fatty infiltration and muscular volume with excellent reliabilities. The present study showed that chronic rupture of the tendon adversely increases the fat fraction of the respective muscle and indicates that the residual capacity of the rotator cuff muscles might be overestimated in patients with severe fatty infiltration. Copyright © 2017 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Associations Between Individual Lower-Limb Muscle Volumes and 100-m Sprint Time in Male Sprinters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugisaki, Norihide; Kobayashi, Kai; Tsuchie, Hiroyasu; Kanehisa, Hiroaki

    2018-02-13

    To elucidate the relationship between the muscularity of individual lower-limb muscles and 100-m-race time (t 100 ) in young-adult male sprinters. Thirty-one young-adult male sprinters took part in this study (age 19.9 ± 1.4 y, height 173.5 ± 4.6 cm, body mass 67.0 ± 4.9 kg, t 100 10.23-11.71 s). Cross-sectional images from the origin to insertion of 12 lower-limb muscles were obtained with via magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The absolute volume of each muscle, the ratio of total volume of measured muscles to body mass, the ratio of individual muscle volume to body mass, and the ratio between 2 individual muscle volumes were calculated as indices of muscularity using the images. A stepwise multiple-regression analysis was performed to examine the association between the indices and t 100 . A stepwise multiple-regression analysis produced an equation (adjusted R 2  = .234) with the gluteus maximus-to-quadriceps femoris muscle-volume ratio (β = -0.509, P = .003) as the explanatory variable. Individual differences in 100-m-race performance cannot be explained by the muscularity of specific muscles, and 23% of the variability in the performance can be explained by the relative difference between the muscularity of gluteus maximus and quadriceps femoris; faster runners have a greater gluteus maximus relative to quadriceps femoris.

  20. MRT-measurements of muscle volumes of the lower extremities of youths with spastic hemiplegia caused by cerebral palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lampe, Renée; Grassl, Stefan; Mitternacht, Jürgen; Gerdesmeyer, Ludger; Gradinger, Reiner

    2006-09-01

    After long term of studies from our gait lab, the typical muscular dysbalances by all of our patients with cerebral palsy where pointed out. Now we wanted to examine using the MRT, weather the dysbalances of the hemiparetic musculoskeletal system also show up in discrepancies of the muscle volumes. The MRT slices of the lower extremities were segmented. From this cross sections the muscles volumes were derived. These where analyzed particularly with regard to asymmetries between spastic and healthy side. Hemiparetic patients showed reduced volumes of all muscles on the paretic leg in comparison to the healthy side. The muscles of the thigh of the paretic leg were reduced to 84% in the mean over all muscles and in comparison to the healthy leg. The volume of the muscles of the shank was reduced to 72%, significantly more than the muscles of the thigh. Concerning flexor and extensor muscles located at thigh and shank of the paretic leg there was found significantly the same relative deficit of the muscle volume. Examining the muscle volumes of subjects with different neurogene foot deformities, significant differences of the volume reduction of single muscles appeared within the lower leg.

  1. Calf stretching in correct alignment. An important consideration in plantar fasciopathies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silvester, Mark

    2017-01-01

    Stretching of the calf muscles is important in the treatment of plantar fasciopathy. In order to correctly stretch the calf muscles without strain on the plantar fascia the correct alignment of the lower limb should be maintained. A clinical method of achieving this is presented along with a practical guide to assisting the patient to become familiar with correct lower limb alignment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Resistance exercise-induced fluid shifts: change in active muscle size and plasma volume

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ploutz-Snyder, L. L.; Convertino, V. A.; Dudley, G. A.

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that the reduction in plasma volume (PV) induced by resistance exercise reflects fluid loss to the extravascular space and subsequently selective increase in cross-sectional area (CSA) of active but not inactive skeletal muscle. We compared changes in active and inactive muscle CSA and PV after barbell squat exercise. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was used to quantify muscle involvement in exercise and to determine CSA of muscle groups or individual muscles [vasti (VS), adductor (Add), hamstring (Ham), and rectus femoris (RF)]. Muscle involvement in exercise was determined using exercise-induced contrast shift in spin-spin relaxation time (T2)-weighted MR images immediately postexercise. Alterations in muscle size were based on the mean CSA of individual slices. Hematocrit, hemoglobin, and Evans blue dye were used to estimate changes in PV. Muscle CSA and PV data were obtained preexercise and immediately postexercise and 15 and 45 min thereafter. A hierarchy of muscle involvement in exercise was found such that VS > Add > Ham > RF, with the Ham and RF showing essentially no involvement. CSA of the VS and Add muscle groups were increased 10 and 5%, respectively, immediately after exercise in each thigh with no changes in Ham and RF CSA. PV was decreased 22% immediately following exercise. The absolute loss of PV was correlated (r2 = 0.75) with absolute increase in muscle CSA immediately postexercise, supporting the notion that increased muscle size after resistance exercise reflects primarily fluid movement from the vascular space into active but not inactive muscle.

  3. Lymphedema Leads to Fat Deposition in Muscle and Decreased Muscle/Water Volume After Liposuction: A Magnetic Resonance Imaging Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffner, Mattias; Peterson, Pernilla; Månsson, Sven; Brorson, Håkan

    2017-09-28

    Lymphedema leads to adipose tissue deposition. Water-fat magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can quantify and localize fat and water. The presence of excess fat and excess water/muscle in the subfascial compartment of the lymphedematous limb has not been investigated before. The aim of this study was to investigate epifascial and subfascial fat and water contents in patients with chronic lymphedema before and after liposuction. Seven patients with arm lymphedema and six with leg lymphedema were operated on. The limbs were examined with water-fat MRI before liposuction (baseline) and at five time points. Complete reduction of the excess limb volumes was achieved. The excess epifascial fat was evident in the edematous limbs and a drop was seen following surgery. There were differences in excess water at all time points. At 1 year there was a decrease in excess water. Excess subfascial fat was seen in the edematous limbs at all time points. Subfascial excess water/muscle did not show any differences after surgery. However, starting from 3 months there was less subfascial water/muscle compared with baseline. Subfascial fat in the lymphedematous limbs did not change. In contrast, the water in the subfascial compartment was reduced over time, which may represent a decrease of muscle volume after treatment due to less mechanical load after liposuction. Using water-fat MRI-based fat quantification, the fat and water contents may be quantified and localized in the various compartments in lymphedema.

  4. Estimation of changes in volume of individual lower-limb muscles using magnetic resonance imaging (during bed-rest).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belavý, D L; Miokovic, T; Rittweger, J; Felsenberg, D

    2011-01-01

    Muscle size in the lower limb is commonly assessed in neuromuscular research as it correlates with muscle function and some approaches have been assessed for their ability to provide valid estimates of muscle volume. Work to date has not examined the ability of different measurement approaches (such as cross-sectional area (CSA) measures on magnetic resonance (MR) imaging) to accurately track changes in muscle volume as a result of an intervention, such as exercise, injury or disuse. Here we assess whether (a) the percentage change in muscle CSA in 17 lower-limb muscles during 56 days bed-rest, as assessed by five different algorithms, lies within 0.5% of the muscle volume change and (b) the variability of the outcome measure is comparable to that of muscle volume. We find that an approach selecting the MR image with the highest muscle CSA and then a series of CSA measures, the number of which depended upon the muscle considered, immediately distal and proximal, provided an acceptable estimate of the muscle volume change. In the vastii, peroneal, sartorius and anterior tibial muscle groups, accurate results can be attained by increasing the spacing between CSA measures, thus reducing the total number of MR images and hence the measurement time. In the two heads of biceps femoris, semimembranosus and gracilis, it is not possible to reduce the number of CSA measures and the entire muscle volume must be evaluated. Using these approaches one can reduce the number of CSA measures required to estimate changes in muscle volume by ~60%. These findings help to attain more efficient means to track muscle volume changes in interventional studies.

  5. Volume measurements of individual muscles in human quadriceps femoris using atlas-based segmentation approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Troter, Arnaud; Fouré, Alexandre; Guye, Maxime; Confort-Gouny, Sylviane; Mattei, Jean-Pierre; Gondin, Julien; Salort-Campana, Emmanuelle; Bendahan, David

    2016-04-01

    Atlas-based segmentation is a powerful method for automatic structural segmentation of several sub-structures in many organs. However, such an approach has been very scarcely used in the context of muscle segmentation, and so far no study has assessed such a method for the automatic delineation of individual muscles of the quadriceps femoris (QF). In the present study, we have evaluated a fully automated multi-atlas method and a semi-automated single-atlas method for the segmentation and volume quantification of the four muscles of the QF and for the QF as a whole. The study was conducted in 32 young healthy males, using high-resolution magnetic resonance images (MRI) of the thigh. The multi-atlas-based segmentation method was conducted in 25 subjects. Different non-linear registration approaches based on free-form deformable (FFD) and symmetric diffeomorphic normalization algorithms (SyN) were assessed. Optimal parameters of two fusion methods, i.e., STAPLE and STEPS, were determined on the basis of the highest Dice similarity index (DSI) considering manual segmentation (MSeg) as the ground truth. Validation and reproducibility of this pipeline were determined using another MRI dataset recorded in seven healthy male subjects on the basis of additional metrics such as the muscle volume similarity values, intraclass coefficient, and coefficient of variation. Both non-linear registration methods (FFD and SyN) were also evaluated as part of a single-atlas strategy in order to assess longitudinal muscle volume measurements. The multi- and the single-atlas approaches were compared for the segmentation and the volume quantification of the four muscles of the QF and for the QF as a whole. Considering each muscle of the QF, the DSI of the multi-atlas-based approach was high 0.87 ± 0.11 and the best results were obtained with the combination of two deformation fields resulting from the SyN registration method and the STEPS fusion algorithm. The optimal variables for FFD

  6. Calf venous compliance measured by venous occlusion plethysmography: methodological aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skoog, Johan; Zachrisson, Helene; Lindenberger, Marcus; Ekman, Mikael; Ewerman, Lea; Länne, Toste

    2015-02-01

    Calf venous compliance (C calf) is commonly evaluated with venous occlusion plethysmography (VOP) during a standard cuff deflation protocol. However, the technique relies on two not previously validated assumptions concerning thigh cuff pressure (P cuff) transmission and the impact of net fluid filtration (F filt) on C calf. The aim was to validate VOP in the lower limb and to develop a model to correct for F filt during VOP. Strain-gauge technique was used to study calf volume changes in 15 women and 10 age-matched men. A thigh cuff was inflated to 60 mmHg for 4 and 8 min with a subsequent decrease of 1 mmHg s(-1). Intravenous pressure (P iv) was measured simultaneously. C calf was determined with the commonly used equation [Compliance = β 1 + 2β 2 × P cuff] describing the pressure-compliance relationship. A model was developed to identify and correct for F filt. Transmission of P cuff to P iv was 100 %. The decrease in P cuff correlated well with P iv reduction (r = 0.99, P < 0.001). Overall, our model showed that C calf was underestimated when F filt was not accounted for (all P < 0.01). F filt was higher in women (P < 0.01) and showed a more pronounced effect on C calf compared to men (P < 0.05). The impact of F filt was similar during 4- and 8-min VOP. P cuff is an adequate substitute for P iv in the lower limb. F filt is associated with an underestimation of C calf and differences in the effect of F filt during VOP can be accounted for with the correction model. Thus, our model seems to be a valuable tool in future studies of venous wall function.

  7. Gray Whale Calf Production Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Gray whale calf production is estimated from data collected during the northbound migration as whales return to their feeding grounds in the Arctic. Counts of adult...

  8. Microscopic and macroscopic volume conduction in skeletal muscle tissue, applied to simulation of single-fibre action potentials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alberts, B.A.; Rutten, Wim; Wallinga, W.; Boom, H.B.K.

    1988-01-01

    Extracellular action potentials of a single active muscle fibre in a surrounding of passive muscle tissue were calculated, using a microscopic volume conductor model which accounts for the travelling aspect of the source, the structure of skeletal muscle tissue and the electrical properties at the

  9. Determination of equine deep digital flexor muscle volume based on distances between anatomical landmarks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hardeman, L C; van der Meij, B R; Lamers, A A H; van der Kolk, J H; Back, W; Wijnberg, I D

    2014-01-01

    In equine medicine the use of Botox® is experimental. Dosages are determined from human treatment-protocols and limited numbers of equine studies. Determination of target-muscle volume can be helpful to extrapolate human dosages. The aim of the study was to calculate a formula enabling the

  10. Training load does not affect detraining's effect on muscle volume, muscle strength and functional capacity among older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Roie, Evelien; Walker, Simon; Van Driessche, Stijn; Baggen, Remco; Coudyzer, Walter; Bautmans, Ivan; Delecluse, Christophe

    2017-11-01

    Research underlines the potential of low-load resistance exercise in older adults. However, while the effects of detraining from high-load protocols have been established, it is not known whether gains from low-load training would be better/worse maintained. The current study evaluated the effects of 24weeks of detraining that followed 12weeks of high- and low-load resistance exercise in older adults. Fifty-six older adults (68.0±5.0years) were randomly assigned to leg press and leg extension training at either HIGH load (2×10-15 repetitions at 80% of one-repetition maximum (1-RM)), LOW load (1×80-100 repetitions at 20% of 1-RM), or LOW+ load (1×60 repetitions at 20% of 1-RM, immediately followed by 1×10-20 repetitions at 40% 1-RM). All protocols ended with volitional fatigue. The main outcome measures included mid-thigh muscle volume, leg press 1-RM, leg extension isometric and isokinetic strength, and functional performance. Tests were performed at baseline, post-intervention and after 24weeks of detraining. Results show no effect of load on preservation of muscle volume, which returned to baseline after detraining. Training-induced gains in functional capacity and isometric strength were maintained, independent of load. HIGH and LOW+ were more beneficial than LOW for long-lasting gains in training-specific 1-RM. To conclude, gains in muscle volume are reversed after 24weeks of detraining, independent of load. This emphasises the need for long-term resistance exercise adherence. The magnitude of detraining in neuromuscular and functional adaptations was similar between groups. These findings underline the value of low-load resistance exercise in older age. Clinical Trial Registration NCT01707017. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Naturally occurring Tyzzer's disease in a calf.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikegami, T; Shirota, K; Une, Y; Nomura, Y; Wada, Y; Goto, K; Takakura, A; Itoh, T; Fujiwara, K

    1999-05-01

    Naturally occurring Clostridium piliforme infection (Tyzzer's disease) was found in a calf. Light microscopic examination revealed multifocal coagulative necrosis in the liver, catarrhal gastroenteritis, tracheitis and pneumonia, and thymic atrophy. Warthin-Starry staining clearly showed large filamentous bacilli in bundles or criss-cross patterns within the hepatocytes and epithelium and smooth muscle cells of the ileum and cecum. Immunohistochemistry using anti-C. piliforme RT and MSK strain antisera showed positive reaction against the bacilli. Electron microscopic examination revealed bacilli within the hepatocytes that demonstrated a characteristic vegetative form, with peritrichous flagella, and spores. The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) study using the paraffin-embedded liver sections, the 196-bp DNA fragment specific to 16S ribosomal RNA of C. piliforme was amplified. The characteristics of these bacilli are consistent with those of of C. piliforme. The PCR technique using paraffin-embedded sections should be useful for confirming C. piliforme infection in spontaneous cases.

  12. Evoked corticospinal output to the human scalene muscles is altered by lung volume.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, Anna L; Taylor, Janet L; Anand, Ashima; Gandevia, Simon C; Butler, Jane E

    2012-03-15

    Increases in lung volume inhibit the inspiratory output from the medulla, but the effect of lung inflation on the voluntary control of breathing in humans is not known. We tested corticospinal excitability using transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) to evoke a response in the scalene muscles. TMS was delivered at rest at three different lung volumes between functional residual capacity (FRC) and total lung capacity (TLC) during incremental inspiratory and incremental expiratory manoeuvres. Motor evoked potentials (MEPs) in scalenes were ∼50% larger at a high lung volume (FRC+∼90% inspiratory capacity [IC]) compared to lower lung volumes (FRC and FRC+∼40% IC) in both inspiratory and expiratory manoeuvres (plung inflation on the automatic and voluntary control of breathing in humans. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Real-time ultrasound to predict rabbit carcass composition and volume of longissimus dorsi muscle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Severiano José Cruz da Rocha e Silva

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Real-time ultrasonography (RTU was used to measure the longissimus dorsi muscle (LM volume in vivo and to predict the carcass composition of rabbits. For this, 63 New Zealand White × Californian rabbits with 2093±63 g live weight were used. Animals were scanned between the 6th and 7th lumbar vertebrae using an RTU equipment with a 7.5 MHz probe. Measurements of LM volume were obtianed both in vivo and on carcass. Regression equations were used for the prediction of carcass composition and LM volume using the LM volume measured obtained with RTU (LMVU as independent variable. Carcass meat, bone and total dissectible fat weights represented 780, 164 and 56 g/kg of the reference carcass weight, respectively. Regression equations showed a strong relationship between LMVU and the correspondent volume in carcass. Furthermore, LMVU was also useful in predicting the amounts of carcass tissues. It is possible to predict LM volume in the carcass using the LM volume measured in vivo by RTU. The amount of carcass tissues can be predicted by the LM volume measured in vivo by RTU.

  14. Lower limb muscle volume estimation from maximum cross-sectional area and muscle length in cerebral palsy and typically developing individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanmechelen, Inti M; Shortland, Adam P; Noble, Jonathan J

    2018-01-01

    Deficits in muscle volume may be a significant contributor to physical disability in young people with cerebral palsy. However, 3D measurements of muscle volume using MRI or 3D ultrasound may be difficult to make routinely in the clinic. We wished to establish whether accurate estimates of muscle volume could be made from a combination of anatomical cross-sectional area and length measurements in samples of typically developing young people and young people with bilateral cerebral palsy. Lower limb MRI scans were obtained from the lower limbs of 21 individuals with cerebral palsy (14.7±3years, 17 male) and 23 typically developing individuals (16.8±3.3years, 16 male). The volume, length and anatomical cross-sectional area were estimated from six muscles of the left lower limb. Analysis of Covariance demonstrated that the relationship between the length*cross-sectional area and volume was not significantly different depending on the subject group. Linear regression analysis demonstrated that the product of anatomical cross-sectional area and length bore a strong and significant relationship to the measured muscle volume (R2 values between 0.955 and 0.988) with low standard error of the estimates of 4.8 to 8.9%. This study demonstrates that muscle volume may be estimated accurately in typically developing individuals and individuals with cerebral palsy by a combination of anatomical cross-sectional area and muscle length. 2D ultrasound may be a convenient method of making these measurements routinely in the clinic. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Isolated tear of the tendon to the medial head of gastrocnemius presenting as a painless lump in the calf

    OpenAIRE

    Watura, Christopher; Harries, William

    2009-01-01

    We report on a case of isolated tear of the medial head of gastrocnemius tendon. The patient presented with a painless lump in the right calf and denied any prior history of trauma or strain to the leg. A longitudinal split of the tendon was demonstrated at ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). There were no other abnormalities and the gastrocnemius muscle was normal. There are no reports in the literature of isolated gastrocnemius tendon tear. To date the calf muscle complex injur...

  16. Lateral pterygoid muscle volume and migraine in patients with temporomandibular disorders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castro Lopes, Sergio Lucio Pereira [Dept. of Diagnosis and Surgery, Sao Jose dos Campos Dental School, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Ferreira Costa, Andre Luiz [Dept. of Pediatric Dentistry and Orthodontics, University of Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Oliveira Gamba, Thiago; Flores, Isadora Luana [Dept. of ral Diagnosis, School of Dentistry, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Cruz, Adriana Dibo [Dept. of Specific Formation, Area of Radiology, Nova Friburgo Dental School, Fluminense Federal University, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Min, Li Li [Laboratory of Neuroimaging, Dept. of Neurology, Faculty of Medical Sciences, Sao Paulo (Brazil)

    2015-03-15

    Lateral pterygoid muscle (LPM) plays an important role in jaw movement and has been implicated in Temporomandibular disorders (TMDs). Migraine has been described as a common symptom in patients with TMDs and may be related to muscle hyperactivity. This study aimed to compare LPM volume in individuals with and without migraine, using segmentation of the LPM in magnetic resonance (MR) imaging of the TMJ. Twenty patients with migraine and 20 volunteers without migraine underwent a clinical examination of the TMJ, according to the Research Diagnostic Criteria for TMDs. MR imaging was performed and the LPM was segmented using the ITK-SNAP 1.4.1 software, which calculates the volume of each segmented structure in voxels per cubic millimeter. The chi-squared test and the Fisher's exact test were used to relate the TMD variables obtained from the MR images and clinical examinations to the presence of migraine. Logistic binary regression was used to determine the importance of each factor for predicting the presence of a migraine headache. Patients with TMDs and migraine tended to have hypertrophy of the LPM (58.7%). In addition, abnormal mandibular movements (61.2%) and disc displacement (70.0%) were found to be the most common signs in patients with TMDs and migraine. In patients with TMDs and simultaneous migraine, the LPM tends to be hypertrophic. LPM segmentation on MR imaging may be an alternative method to study this muscle in such patients because the hypertrophic LPM is not always palpable.

  17. Changes in thigh muscle volume predict bone mineral density response to lifestyle therapy in frail, obese older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armamento-Villareal, R; Aguirre, L; Napoli, N; Shah, K; Hilton, T; Sinacore, D R; Qualls, C; Villareal, D T

    2014-02-01

    We studied the relationships among strength, muscle mass, and bone mineral density (BMD) with lifestyle change. Lifestyle therapy consisted of exercise, diet, and diet plus exercise. Diet was by caloric restriction to induce and maintain a weight loss of 10 % from baseline body weight. Exercise attenuated weight loss-induced muscle and bone losses. Exercise improved strength despite muscle loss in patients on diet and exercise. Changes in strength did not correlate with changes in BMD. However, changes in thigh muscle volume correlated with, and predicted changes in hip BMD. Losses of hip BMD and lean body mass are major complications of lifestyle therapy in frail, obese older adults; however, the contribution of mechanical strain loss from muscle loss is poorly defined. We determined the effect of changes in thigh muscle volume and muscle strength on BMD in frail, obese older adults undergoing lifestyle therapy aimed at intentional weight loss with or without exercise. One hundred seven obese older adults were randomized to control, diet, exercise, and diet-exercise groups for 1 year. Thigh muscle volume was measured by magnetic resonance imaging, BMD by DXA, knee strength by dynamometry, total strength by one-repetition maximum (1-RM), and bone markers by immunoassay. Thigh muscle volume decreased in the diet group (-6.2 ± 4.8 %) and increased in the exercise group (2.7 ± 3.1 %), while it was not significantly different from the control in the diet-exercise group. Changes in hip BMD followed similar pattern as those in thigh muscle volume. Knee extension and flexion increased in the exercise group (23 ± 20 %; 25 ± 19 %) and diet-exercise group (20 ± 19 %; 20.6 ± 27 %) but were unchanged in the control and diet groups. Changes in thigh muscle volume correlated with changes in hip BMD (r = 0.55, P = BMD (β = 0.12, P = 0.03) in the multiple regression analyses after accounting for demographic factors and changes in weight and physical activity. There were no

  18. Effects of respiratory muscle unloading on leg muscle oxygenation and blood volume during high-intensity exercise in chronic heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borghi-Silva, Audrey; Carrascosa, Cláudia; Oliveira, Cristino Carneiro; Barroco, Adriano C; Berton, Danilo C; Vilaça, Debora; Lira-Filho, Edgar B; Ribeiro, Dirceu; Nery, Luiz Eduardo; Neder, J Alberto

    2008-06-01

    Blood flow requirements of the respiratory muscles (RM) increase markedly during exercise in chronic heart failure (CHF). We reasoned that if the RM could subtract a fraction of the limited cardiac output (QT) from the peripheral muscles, RM unloading would improve locomotor muscle perfusion. Nine patients with CHF (left ventricle ejection fraction = 26 +/- 7%) undertook constant-work rate tests (70-80% peak) receiving proportional assisted ventilation (PAV) or sham ventilation. Relative changes (Delta%) in deoxy-hemoglobyn, oxi-Hb ([O2Hb]), tissue oxygenation index, and total Hb ([HbTOT], an index of local blood volume) in the vastus lateralis were measured by near infrared spectroscopy. In addition, QT was monitored by impedance cardiography and arterial O2 saturation by pulse oximetry (SpO2). There were significant improvements in exercise tolerance (Tlim) with PAV. Blood lactate, leg effort/Tlim and dyspnea/Tlim were lower with PAV compared with sham ventilation (P 0.05). Unloaded breathing, however, was related to enhanced leg muscle oxygenation and local blood volume compared with sham, i.e., higher Delta[O2Hb]% and Delta[HbTOT]%, respectively (P < 0.05). We conclude that RM unloading had beneficial effects on the oxygenation status and blood volume of the exercising muscles at similar systemic O2 delivery in patients with advanced CHF. These data suggest that blood flow was redistributed from respiratory to locomotor muscles during unloaded breathing.

  19. MRI assessment of calf injuries in Australian Football League players: findings that influence return to play.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waterworth, George; Wein, Sara; Gorelik, Alexandra; Rotstein, Andrew H

    2017-03-01

    Calf muscle strains have become increasingly prevalent in recent seasons of the Australian Football League (AFL) and represent a significant cause of time lost from competition. The purpose of this study was to examine the association between MRI features of calf muscle strains and games missed and to thereby identify parameters that are of prognostic value. A retrospective analysis of MRI scans of AFL players with calf strains referred to a musculoskeletal radiology clinic over a 5-year period (2008-2012) was performed. The muscle(s) and muscle component affected, the site and size of strain, and the presence of an intramuscular tendon tear or intermuscular fluid were recorded. These data were cross-referenced with whether a player missed at least one game. Imaging features of prognostic value were thus identified. Sixty-three athletes had MRI scans for calf muscle strains. Soleus strains were more common than strains of other muscles. Players with soleus strains were more likely to miss at least one game if they had multiple muscle involvement (p = 0.017), musculotendinous junction strains (p = 0.046), and deep strains (p = 0.036). In a combined analysis of gastrocnemius and soleus strains, intramuscular tendon tears were observed in a significantly greater proportion of players who missed games (p = 0.010). Amongst AFL players with calf injuries, there is an association between missing at least one game and multiple muscle involvement, musculotendinous junction strains, deep strain location, and intramuscular tendon tears. In this setting, MRI may therefore provide prognostic information to help guide return-to-play decisions.

  20. MRI assessment of calf injuries in Australian Football League players: findings that influence return to play

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waterworth, George; Wein, Sara; Rotstein, Andrew H. [Victoria House Medical Imaging, Prahran, Victoria (Australia); Gorelik, Alexandra [Royal Melbourne Hospital, University of Melbourne, Melbourne Epicentre, Parkville (Australia)

    2017-03-15

    Calf muscle strains have become increasingly prevalent in recent seasons of the Australian Football League (AFL) and represent a significant cause of time lost from competition. The purpose of this study was to examine the association between MRI features of calf muscle strains and games missed and to thereby identify parameters that are of prognostic value. A retrospective analysis of MRI scans of AFL players with calf strains referred to a musculoskeletal radiology clinic over a 5-year period (2008-2012) was performed. The muscle(s) and muscle component affected, the site and size of strain, and the presence of an intramuscular tendon tear or intermuscular fluid were recorded. These data were cross-referenced with whether a player missed at least one game. Imaging features of prognostic value were thus identified. Sixty-three athletes had MRI scans for calf muscle strains. Soleus strains were more common than strains of other muscles. Players with soleus strains were more likely to miss at least one game if they had multiple muscle involvement (p = 0.017), musculotendinous junction strains (p = 0.046), and deep strains (p = 0.036). In a combined analysis of gastrocnemius and soleus strains, intramuscular tendon tears were observed in a significantly greater proportion of players who missed games (p = 0.010). Amongst AFL players with calf injuries, there is an association between missing at least one game and multiple muscle involvement, musculotendinous junction strains, deep strain location, and intramuscular tendon tears. In this setting, MRI may therefore provide prognostic information to help guide return-to-play decisions. (orig.)

  1. Effects of Volume Training on Strength and Endurance of Back Muscles: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shigaki, Leonardo; Araújo, Cynthia Gobbi Alves; Calderon, Mariane Guizeline; Costa, Thais Karoline Cezar; Aguiar, Andreo Fernando; Costa, Leonardo Oliveira Pena; da Silva, Rubens A

    2017-05-17

    Strength/resistance training volume has historically been supported in the American College of Sports Medicine recommendations. However, for the back muscles, exercise prescription related to the number of sets, such as single vs. multiple, is not well established in the literature. The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of two training volumes on strength and endurance of back extensor muscles in untrained young participants, with regard to a repeated measures design. Randomized controlled trial. Laboratory of functional evaluation and human motor performance. Forty-four untrained young participants (mean age = 21 yrs) were randomized into three groups: single set (SSG, n = 14), multiple sets (MSG, n = 15), and untrained control (CG, n = 15). The SSG and MSG underwent a 10-wk progressive resistance training program (2 days·week-1) using a 45° Roman chair. Back maximal strength (dynamometer) and isometric and dynamic endurance (time-limit, trunk extension-flexion cycles, and electromyography muscle fatigue estimates). The results showed differences between the MSG and control group for isometric endurance time (mean 19.8 seconds, 95% CI 44.1 to 4.8), but without time intervention significance. Significant improvement after training (P endurance (number of repetitions) for both the MSG (+61%) and SSG (+26%) compared to pre-intervention, while the control group reported no benefit. There was no significant (P > 0.05) difference in either strength or electromyography estimates after training. Both multiple and single volume training were efficient in promoting better back endurance during dynamic performance based on mechanical variables (time and number of repetitions).

  2. Assessment of condyle, masseter and temporal muscles volumes in patients with juvenile systemic lupus erythematosus: A cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golin, Sandra Lucia; Sinicato, Nailu Angélica; Valle-Corotti, Karyna; Fuziy, Acácio; Nahas-Scocate, Ana Carla; Appenzeller, Simone; Costa, Andre Luiz Ferreira

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of the corticosteroid therapy for both treatment of juvenile systemic lupus erythematosus and disease activity on two masticatory muscles and condyle of the temporomandibular joint. A total of 21 controls and 48 juvenile systemic lupus erythematosus patients were investigated. Volumes of the temporal and masseter muscles and condyle of the subjects were assessed by using a 3D reconstruction in magnetic resonance imaging. The ITK-SNAP, a medical imaging software, was used for 3D reconstruction. A dental examination with registration of occlusion was performed in subjects. Data were statistically analyzed by means of the Dahlberg's test associated with paired t-test, Fisher's exact test and Chi-square. There was a positive correlation between temporalis muscle and age (p = 0.032), masseter volume (p = 0.029) and condyle volume (p = 0.013). The mean volume measurements of temporal and masseter muscles and condyle were not statistically associated with juvenile systemic lupus erythematosus regarding disease activity and corticosteroid therapy (p > 0.05). There were no significant differences between malocclusion and volume of muscles and condyle. This study suggested that volume of the target structures has no correlation with cumulative corticosteroid dose, disease activity, and malocclusion.

  3. Simulation of propagation along an isolated skeletal muscle fiber in an isotropic volume conductor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henneberg, Kaj-åge; F.A., Roberge

    1997-01-01

    This paper describes a model of the frog skeletal muscle fiber that includes the effects of the transverse tubular system (T system) on propagation. Uniform propagation on an isolated fiber suspended in Ringer's solution or in air is simulated by placing the cylindrical fiber model in a concentric...... three-dimensional isotropic volume conductor. The current through the T system outlets at the sarcolemmal surface is comparable in magnitude to the sarcolemmal current density, but is of opposite polarity. When it is added to the sarcolemmal current, the resulting triphasic waveform has a 100% increase...

  4. EFFECTIVENESS OF PNF STRETCHING AND CYCLIC STRETCHING OF CALF TIGHTNESS ON COLLEGE GOING GIRLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashlesha Sirari

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Flexibility helps with injury prevention, the reduction of soreness following a workout, and a general sense of well-being. There are different stretching techniques and protocols for improvements in calf extensibility and flexibility. The purpose of the study was to investigate the effectiveness of two techniques i.e. CYCLIC and PNF stretching which improves calf flexibility. This study was done to find the effectiveness of calf Cyclic and PNF stretching technique to improve calf flexibility. Methods: 30 subjects with age group 21-22 years were randomly allocated to 2 groups equally. Group 1(n=15 were given CYCLIC and group 2(n=15 were given PNF stretching technique. Plantar flexion was used to measure the calf tightness which was done before and after the treatment. Treatment was given for 7 days and on the 7th day the calf tightness was again measured. Results: The mean difference of the CYCLIC is 4.6 and mean difference of PNF is 4.7 which indicate that CYCLIC and PNF both are effective to improve calf flexibility but PNF is more effective than CYCLIC to improve calf flexibility. Conclusion: The neurophysiological basis of PNF, stating that the excitatory efficient of the neuromuscular spindle or the inhibitory afferent of the Golgi tendon organ (GTO or both are responsible for the effects. During PNF stretch and isometric contraction of stretched agonists for extended period may cause activation of its neuromuscular spindle. The increase in tension created during the isometric contraction of the pre – lengthened agonist contracts concentrically. Both the fascia & the spindle of the agonist adjust to the nearly lengthened position. These impulses travel via causing post synaptic inhibition of the motor neuron to agonist increasing the tension from the GTO. These impulses can override the impulses coming from the neuromuscular spindles arousing the muscle to reflexly resist to the change in length, thus helping in lengthening

  5. Calf Contouring with Endoscopic Fascial Release, Calf Implant, and Structural Fat Grafting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ercan Karacaoglu, MD

    2013-08-01

    Conclusions: A novel endoscopic approach for lower leg contouring is discussed. Endoscopic fasciotomy technique with calf implant and structural fat grafting for improved lower leg aesthetics is a simple, effective, reliable, and predictable technique for calf contouring.

  6. Assessment of the volume of intraorbital structures using the numerical segmentation image technique (NSI): the extraocular muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majos, Agata; Grzelak, Piotr; Młynarczyk, Wojciech; Stefańczyk, Ludomir

    2007-01-01

    In recent years the use of computer systems has allowed numerical analysis of medical images to be introduced and has speeded up the conversion of numerical data into clinically valuable information. The creation of a software application that could almost automatically calculate the volume of anatomical structures imaged by MRI has seemed possible. The aim of our study was to determine the clinical usefulness of an numerical segmentation image technique (NSI) software application in estimating the volume of extraocular muscles. The study group was formed of 45 patients (90 orbits). All the patients underwent MRI examinations of the orbits by a 1.5 T scanner using a head coil. The degree of exophthalmos was determined clinically and radiologically in relation to the interzygomatic line. The quantitative assessment of all eye muscles was carried out using the NSI application, a new software program introduced by the authors. A close correlation between muscle volume and the degree of exophthalmos was revealed and confirmed by statistical analysis (r = 0.543, p = 3.13396E-08) in agreement with other papers. The NSI software program is an application which offers a reliable and precise estimation of eye muscle volume. It is therefore useful in the diagnosis of the pathological processes leading to exophthalmos. It has special clinical value for monitoring discrete volume changes of muscles during treatment.

  7. A new approach to assess the gastrocnemius muscle volume in rodents using ultrasound; comparison with the gastrocnemius muscle index.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tim H J Nijhuis

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The purpose of this study was to determine the reliability and validity of a new non-invasive ultrasound technique to measure gastrocnemius muscle atrophy after nerve denervation in an animal model. METHODS: In sixteen rodents an eight mm sciatic nerve gap was created. In the following 8 weeks, each week, two rodents were euthanized and the gastrocnemius muscle was examined using two different ultrasound systems and two investigators. The standardized ultrasound measurement protocol consisted of identifying pre-defined anatomical landmarks: 1 the fibula, 2 the fibular nerve, and 3 the junction between the most distal point of the semitendinosus muscle and gastrocnemius muscle. Consequently, we measured the muscle thickness as the length of the line between the fibula and the junction between the two muscles, perpendicular to the fibular nerve. After the ultrasound recording, the muscle mass was determined. RESULTS: A steep decline of muscle weight of 24% was observed after one week. In the following weeks, the weight further decreased and then remained stable from 6 weeks onwards, resulting in a maximal muscle weight decrease of 82%. The correlation coefficient was >0.96 between muscle diameter and weight using both ultrasound systems. The inter-rater reliability was excellent for both devices on the operated side (ICC of 0.99 for both ultrasound systems and good for the non-operated site (ICC's: 0.84 & 0.89. The difference between the muscle mass ratio and the muscle thickness ratio was not more than 5% with two outliers of approximately 13%. DISCUSSION: We have developed an innovative, highly reliable technique for quantifying muscle atrophy after nerve injury. This technique allows serial measurements in the same animal over time. This is a significant advantage compared to the conventional technique for quantifying muscle atrophy, which requires sacrificing the animal.

  8. Vibration-related extrusion of capillary blood from the calf musculature depends upon directions of vibration of the leg and of the gravity vector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çakar, Halil Ibrahim; Doğan, Serfiraz; Kara, Sadık; Rittweger, Jörn; Rawer, Rainer; Zange, Jochen

    2017-06-01

    In this study, we investigated the effects of vibration of the whole lower leg on the content and the oxygenation of hemoglobin in the unloaded relaxed lateral gastrocnemius muscle. Vibration was applied orthogonal to and in parallel with leg axis to examine whether the extrusion of blood depends on an alignment of main vessel direction, axis of vibration and gravity. The blood volume in the muscles was altered by horizontal and 30° upright body posture. Fifteen male subjects were exposed to 4 sets of experiments with both vibration directions and both tilt angles applied in permutated order. The absence of voluntary muscular activity and the potential occurrence of compound action potentials by stretch reflexes were monitored using electromyography. Total hemoglobin and tissue saturation index were measured with near infrared spectroscopy. Changes of lower leg circumference were measured with strain gauge system placed around the calf. Vibration caused decrease in tHb and increase in TSI indicating extrusion of predominantly venous blood from the muscle. In 30° tilted position, muscles contained more blood at baseline and vibration ejected more blood from the muscle compared with horizontal posture (p vibration was applied in parallel with the length axis of muscle. It is concluded that the vibration extrudes more blood in 30° head up posture and the vibration applied in parallel with the length axis of the muscle is more effective than orthogonal vibration.

  9. In Vivo MRI Quantification of Individual Muscle and Organ Volumes for Assessment of Anabolic Steroid Growth Effects

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, Ed X.; Tang, Haiying; Tong, Christopher; Heymsfield, Steve B.; Vasselli, Joseph R.

    2007-01-01

    This study aimed to develop a quantitative and in vivo magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) approach to investigate the muscle growth effects of anabolic steroids. A protocol of MRI acquisition on a standard clinical 1.5 Tesla scanner and quantitative image analysis was established and employed to measure the individual muscle and organ volumes in the intact and castrated guinea pigs undergoing a 16-week treatment protocol by two well-documented anabolic steroids, testosterone and nandrolone, via...

  10. Continuous measurement of calf resistivity in hemodialysis patients using bioimpedance analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Fansan; Leonard, Edward F; Carter, Mary; Levin, Nathan W

    2006-01-01

    This study demonstrates a technique to measure electrical resistivity of the calf in hemodialysis (HD) patients during HD treatment. To continuously monitor and calculate resistivity, a model of calf volume based on its geometrical size and measurement of its electrical resistance has been developed. The model makes it possible to continuously estimate reduction of the calf circumference during HD. Seventeen HD patients were studied during HD using a multi-frequency bioimpedance device (Xitron 4200). Circumference of the calf was measured by a measuring tape pre- and post- HD for each treatment. Results showed a high correlation between measurement and calculation circumference in post HD (r(2)=0.985). Further, the value of resistivity normalized by body mass index (BMI) provides information about patients' hydration state in comparison to those in healthy subjects. This technique is useful for identifying the range of optimal hydration states for HD patients.

  11. Validation of Skeletal Muscle Volume as a Nutritional Assessment in Patients With Gastric or Colorectal Cancer Before Radical Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endo, Takayuki; Momoki, Chika; Yamaoka, Minori; Hachino, Saki; Iwatani, Satoshi; Kiyota, Seiji; Tanaka, Hiromu; Habu, Daiki

    2017-10-01

    Recently, some studies have reported the importance of sarcopenia as a prognostic factor in patients with gastrointestinal cancer who have undergone surgery. We aimed to examine skeletal muscle volume for use in nutritional assessment of preoperative patients, and to compare the results with those of other conventional methods of nutritional assessment, such as biochemical or body composition values. This was an open cohort study which examined skeletal muscle volume for use in nutritional assessment of preoperative patients. A total of 121 patients with gastrointestinal cancer who underwent radical surgery were enrolled in this study between June 1, 2008 and December 31, 2012. There were 39 and 82 patients with gastric and colorectal cancer, respectively. The primary outcome of this study was postoperative overall survival. The secondary outcomes were postoperative survival from cancer-related deaths, recurrences of cancer after surgery, postoperative complications, and postoperative hospital inpatient stay (measured in days). Univariate and multivariate analyses were used to identify the relevant factors for postoperative outcomes mentioned above. Skeletal muscle volume was a significant (hazard ratio (HR): 3.34, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.21 - 9.17, P = 0.020) independent prognostic factor for cancer-related deaths in patients with gastric or colorectal cancer who had undergone surgery, and a marginally independent (HR: 2.48, 95% CI: 0.91 - 6.81, P = 0.077) factor that negatively contributed to overall survival in these patients. In contrast, the preoperative skeletal muscle volume was not correlated with the recurrence of cancer, and was not significantly correlated with the occurrence of severe complications after surgery or prolongation of hospitalization. The preoperative skeletal muscle volume was a significant prognostic factor in patients with gastric or colorectal cancers. Therefore, the estimation of skeletal muscle volume may be important for

  12. Strains of the posterior calf musculature ("tennis leg").

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millar, A P

    1979-01-01

    Strains of the posterior calf musculature frequently relate to overuse of the gastrocnemius muscle. The principal sports involved are the slower side-to-side sports. Treatment routine is composed of pain relief, passive stretching, exercises for the antagonists and later the agonists, and quadriceps exercises. In a series of 720 patients, over a 12-year period, this routine has been effective as evidenced by a recurrence of the condition in only 0.7% of the patients. Prevention of the injury is best obtained by regular stretching and strength development routines.

  13. Ramses-GPU: Second order MUSCL-Handcock finite volume fluid solver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kestener, Pierre

    2017-10-01

    RamsesGPU is a reimplementation of RAMSES (ascl:1011.007) which drops the adaptive mesh refinement (AMR) features to optimize 3D uniform grid algorithms for modern graphics processor units (GPU) to provide an efficient software package for astrophysics applications that do not need AMR features but do require a very large number of integration time steps. RamsesGPU provides an very efficient C++/CUDA/MPI software implementation of a second order MUSCL-Handcock finite volume fluid solver for compressible hydrodynamics as a magnetohydrodynamics solver based on the constraint transport technique. Other useful modules includes static gravity, dissipative terms (viscosity, resistivity), and forcing source term for turbulence studies, and special care was taken to enhance parallel input/output performance by using state-of-the-art libraries such as HDF5 and parallel-netcdf.

  14. Lung volume recruitment acutely increases respiratory system compliance in individuals with severe respiratory muscle weakness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molgat-Seon, Yannick; Hannan, Liam M; Dominelli, Paolo B; Peters, Carli M; Fougere, Renee J; McKim, Douglas A; Sheel, A William; Road, Jeremy D

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine whether lung volume recruitment (LVR) acutely increases respiratory system compliance (Crs) in individuals with severe respiratory muscle weakness (RMW). Individuals with RMW resulting from neuromuscular disease or quadriplegia (n=12) and healthy controls (n=12) underwent pulmonary function testing and the measurement of Crs at baseline, immediately after, 1 h after and 2 h after a single standardised session of LVR. The LVR session involved 10 consecutive supramaximal lung inflations with a manual resuscitation bag to the highest tolerable mouth pressure or a maximum of 50 cmH2O. Each LVR inflation was followed by brief breath-hold and a maximal expiration to residual volume. At baseline, individuals with RMW had lower Crs than controls (37±5 cmH2O versus 109±10 mL·cmH2O(-1), p0.05). LVR had no significant effect on measures of pulmonary function at any time point in either group (all p>0.05). During inflations, mean arterial pressure decreased significantly relative to baseline by 10.4±2.8 mmHg and 17.3±3.0 mmHg in individuals with RMW and controls, respectively (both p<0.05). LVR acutely increases Crs in individuals with RMW. However, the high airway pressures during inflations cause reductions in mean arterial pressure that should be considered when applying this technique.

  15. Muscle Volume Increases Following 16 Weeks of Resistive Exercise Training with the Advanced Resistive Exercise Device (ARED) and Free Weights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nash, R. E.; Loehr, J. A.; Lee, S. M. C.; English, K. L.; Evans, H.; Smith, S. A.; Hagan, R. D.

    2009-01-01

    Space flight-induced muscle atrophy, particularly in the postural and locomotorymuscles, may impair task performance during long-duration space missions and planetary exploration. High intensity free weight (FW) resistive exercise training has been shown to prevent atrophy during bed rest, a space flight analog. NASA developed the Advanced Resistive Exercise Device (ARED) to simulate the characteristics of FW exercise (i.e. constant mass, inertial force) and to be used as a countermeasure during International Space Station (ISS) missions. PURPOSE: To compare the efficacy of ARED and FW training to induce hypertrophy in specific muscle groups in ambulatory subjects prior to deploying ARED on the ISS. METHODS: Twenty untrained subjects were assigned to either the ARED (8 males, 3 females) or FW (6 males, 3 females) group and participated in a periodizedtraining protocol consisting of squat (SQ), heel raise (HR), and deadlift(DL) exercises 3 d wk-1 for 16 wks. SQ, HR, and DL muscle strength (1RM) was measured before, after 8 wks, and after 16 wks of training to prescribe exercise and measure strength changes. Muscle volume of the vastigroup (V), hamstring group (H), hip adductor group (ADD), medial gastrocnemius(MG), lateral gastrocnemius(LG), and deep posterior muscles including soleus(DP) was measured using MRI pre-and post-training. Consecutive cross-sectional images (8 mm slices with a 2 mm gap) were analyzed and summed. Anatomical references insured that the same muscle sections were analyzed pre-and post-training. Two-way repeated measures ANOVAs (pvolume between training devices. RESULTS: SQ, HR, and DL 1RM increased in both FW (SQ: 49+/-6%, HR: 12+/-2%, DL: 23+/-4%) and ARED (SQ: 31+/-4%, HR: 18+/-2%, DL: 23+/-3%) groups. Both groups increased muscle volume in the V (FW: 13+/-2%, ARED: 10+/-2%), H (FW: 3+/-1%, ARED: 3+/-1 %), ADD (FW: 15=/-2%, ARED: 10+/-1%), LG (FW: 7+/-2%, ARED: 4+/-1%), MG (FW: 7+/-2%, ARED: 5+/-2%), and DP (FW: 2+/-1%; ARED: 2+/-1%) after

  16. Apoptosis in serum-deprived vascular smooth muscle cells: evidence for cell volume-independent mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orlov, S N; Pchejetski, D; Taurin, S; Thorin-Trescases, N; Maximov, G V; Pshezhetsky, A V; Rubin, A B; Hamet, P

    2004-01-01

    Shrinkage is the earliest hallmark of cells undergoing apoptosis. This study examines the role of this phenomenon in the onset of vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) apoptosis triggered by growth factor withdrawal. In hyperosmotic media, VSMC showed the same amplitude of shrinkage but were more resistant to apoptosis than endothelial, epithelial and immune system cells. As with growth factor withdrawal, apoptosis in hyperosmotically-shrunken VSMC was sharply potentiated by transfection with E1A-adenoviral protein and was suppressed by activation of cAMP signaling as well as by the pan-caspase inhibitor z-VAD.fmk. Both cell shrinkage and apoptosis in VSMC-E1A treated with hyperosmotic medium were potentiated under sustained Na+, K+ pump inhibition with ouabain that was in contrast to inhibition of apoptosis documented in ouabain-treated, serum-deprived cells. After 1-hr incubation in serum-deprived medium, VSMC-E1A volume declined by approximately 15%. Transfer from hypotonic to control medium decreased VSMC-E1A volume by approximately 25% without any induction of apoptosis. Neither swelling in hyposmotic medium nor dissipation of the transmembrane gradient of K+ and major organic osmolytes protected serum-deprived VSMC-E1A from apoptosis. Thus, our results show that similarly to immune system, endothelial and epithelial cells, extensive VSMC shrinkage in hyperosmotic medium leads to the development of apoptosis. In contrast to hyperosmotic medium, the modest cell volume decrease occurring in serum-deprived VSMC does not contribute to triggering of the apoptotic machinery.

  17. Plasma volume substitution does not inhibit plasma noradrenaline and muscle nerve sympathetic responses to insulin-induced hypoglycaemia in healthy humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frandsen, Henrik Lund; Berne, C; Fagius, J

    1989-01-01

    Microelectrode recordings of muscle nerve sympathetic activity and measurements of venous plasma noradrenaline have indicated increased sympathetic outflow during acute hypoglycaemia. Plasma volume reduction during hypoglycaemia, as evidenced by increasing peripheral venous haematocrit might...... of 0.15 IU/kg body weight. Peripheral venous plasma noradrenaline concentrations were identical in experiments without and with plasma volume substitution. Muscle nerve sympathetic activity increased to the same extent during hypoglycaemia with and without plasma volume substitution. It is concluded...... that increased plasma noradrenaline concentrations and enhanced muscle nerve sympathetic activity during insulin-induced hypoglycaemia in man are not consequences of plasma volume reduction....

  18. Test-retest reliability of automated whole body and compartmental muscle volume measurements on a wide bore 3T MR system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Marianna S; Newman, David; Leinhard, Olof Dahlqvist; Kasmai, Bahman; Greenwood, Richard; Malcolm, Paul N; Karlsson, Anette; Rosander, Johannes; Borga, Magnus; Toms, Andoni P

    2014-09-01

    To measure the test-retest reproducibility of an automated system for quantifying whole body and compartmental muscle volumes using wide bore 3 T MRI. Thirty volunteers stratified by body mass index underwent whole body 3 T MRI, two-point Dixon sequences, on two separate occasions. Water-fat separation was performed, with automated segmentation of whole body, torso, upper and lower leg volumes, and manually segmented lower leg muscle volumes. Mean automated total body muscle volume was 19·32 L (SD9·1) and 19·28 L (SD9·12) for first and second acquisitions (Intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) = 1·0, 95% level of agreement -0·32-0·2 L). ICC for all automated test-retest muscle volumes were almost perfect (0·99-1·0) with 95% levels of agreement 1.8-6.6% of mean volume. Automated muscle volume measurements correlate closely with manual quantification (right lower leg: manual 1·68 L (2SD0·6) compared to automated 1·64 L (2SD 0·6), left lower leg: manual 1·69 L (2SD 0·64) compared to automated 1·63 L (SD0·61), correlation coefficients for automated and manual segmentation were 0·94-0·96). Fully automated whole body and compartmental muscle volume quantification can be achieved rapidly on a 3 T wide bore system with very low margins of error, excellent test-retest reliability and excellent correlation to manual segmentation in the lower leg. Sarcopaenia is an important reversible complication of a number of diseases. Manual quantification of muscle volume is time-consuming and expensive. Muscles can be imaged using in and out of phase MRI. Automated atlas-based segmentation can identify muscle groups. Automated muscle volume segmentation is reproducible and can replace manual measurements.

  19. Intensive training and reduced volume increases muscle FXYD1 expression and phosphorylation at rest and during exercise in athletes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomassen, Martin; Gunnarsson, Thomas Gunnar Petursson; Christensen, Peter Møller

    2016-01-01

    -3 times per week and aerobic high-intensity training (4-5 x 3-4 min at 90-95% of peak aerobic power output) 1-2 times per week for seven weeks and reduced the training volume by 70%. Muscle biopsies were obtained before and during a repeated high-intensity exercise protocol and protein expression...... thr17 phosphorylation were also higher (Phigh intensity training with reduced training volume increases expression and phosphorylation levels of FXYD1, which may affect Na(+)/K(+) pump activity and muscle K+ homeostasis during......The present study examined the effect of intensive training in combination with marked reduction in training volume on FXYD1 expression and phosphorylation at rest and during exercise. Eight well-trained cyclist replaced their regular training with speed-endurance training (10-12 x ~30-s sprints) 2...

  20. Quantitative evaluation of masseter muscle volume in different growth patterns and its correlation with facial morphology: Cone beam computed tomography study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukesh Gupta

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This investigation was designed to evaluate the masseter muscle volume in different growth patterns and its correlation with facial morphology using three-dimensional cone beam computed tomography (CBCT, Materials and Methods: Study was conducted using CBCT scans of nonorthodontically treated individuals (n = 32, 19 males and 13 females between the ages of 18–25 years. The masseter muscle volume was calculated using Dolphin 3D software 11.5 version (Essential Dental Products, New Delhi, India. The subjects were grouped according to growth pattern and facial form. Conclusion: CBCT predicts actual muscle volume by calculating number of voxels of scan data and exact geometry of the muscle. The mean masseter muscle volume was 28.73 ± 5.51 cm3 for horizontal growth patterns, 27.30 ± 6.49 cm3 for average growth pattern, and 22.14 ± 3.25 cm3 for vertical growth pattern. The individuals with thin masseter morphology had a longer face in proportion/relation to their facial width with an increase in masseter muscle volume, the facial index decreased, and face appeared to be more rectangular. Euryprosopic facial form showed maximum/highest masseter muscle volume, whereas leptoprosopic facial form showed least muscle volume.

  1. Mitochondrial adaptations to high-volume exercise training are rapidly reversed after a reduction in training volume in human skeletal muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granata, Cesare; Oliveira, Rodrigo S F; Little, Jonathan P; Renner, Kathrin; Bishop, David J

    2016-10-01

    Increased mitochondrial content and respiration have both been reported after exercise training. However, no study has directly compared how different training volumes influence mitochondrial respiration and markers of mitochondrial biogenesis. Ten healthy men performed high-intensity interval cycling during 3 consecutive training phases; 4 wk of normal-volume training (NVT; 3/wk), followed by 20 d of high-volume training (HVT; 2/d) and 2 wk of reduced-volume training (RVT; 5 sessions). Resting biopsy samples (vastus lateralis) were obtained at baseline and after each phase. No mitochondrial parameter changed after NVT. After HVT, mitochondrial respiration and citrate synthase activity (∼40-50%), as well as the protein content of electron transport system (ETS) subunits (∼10-40%), and that of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivator-1α (PGC-1α), NRF1, mitochondrial transcription factor A (TFAM), PHF20, and p53 (∼65-170%) all increased compared to baseline; mitochondrial specific respiration remained unchanged. After RVT, all the mitochondrial parameters measured except citrate synthase activity (∼36% above initial) were not significantly different compared to baseline (all P > 0.05). Our findings demonstrate that training volume is an important determinant of training-induced mitochondrial adaptations and highlight the rapid reversibility of human skeletal muscle to a reduction in training volume.-Granata, C., Oliveira, R. S. F., Little, J. P., Renner, K., Bishop, D. J. Mitochondrial adaptations to high-volume exercise training are rapidly reversed after a reduction in training volume in human skeletal muscle. © FASEB.

  2. Isolated tear of the tendon to the medial head of gastrocnemius presenting as a painless lump in the calf.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watura, Christopher; Harries, William

    2009-01-01

    We report on a case of isolated tear of the medial head of gastrocnemius tendon. The patient presented with a painless lump in the right calf and denied any prior history of trauma or strain to the leg. A longitudinal split of the tendon was demonstrated at ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). There were no other abnormalities and the gastrocnemius muscle was normal. There are no reports in the literature of isolated gastrocnemius tendon tear. To date the calf muscle complex injury described in this area is tearing of the medial head of gastrocnemius muscle, sometimes referred to as "tennis leg". We conclude that an isolated tear of the tendon to the medial head of gastrocnemius should be considered in the differential diagnosis of a lump or swelling in the upper medial area of the calf and we recommend ultrasound or MRI as the investigations of choice.

  3. Use of MRI for volume estimation of tibialis posterior and plantar intrinsic foot muscles in healthy and chronic plantar fasciitis limbs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Ryan; Kent-Braun, Jane A; Hamill, Joseph

    2012-06-01

    Due to complexity of the plantar intrinsic foot muscles, little is known about their muscle architecture in vivo. Chronic plantar fasciitis may be accompanied by muscle atrophy of plantar intrinsic foot muscles and tibialis posterior compromising the dynamic support of the foot prolonging the injury. Magnetic resonance images of the foot may be digitized to quantify muscle architecture. The first purpose of this study was to estimate in vivo the volume and distribution of healthy plantar intrinsic foot muscles. The second purpose was to determine whether chronic plantar fasciitis is accompanied by atrophy of plantar intrinsic foot muscles and tibialis posterior. Magnetic resonance images were taken bilaterally in eight subjects with unilateral plantar fasciitis. Muscle perimeters were digitally outlined and muscle signal intensity thresholds were determined for each image for volume computation. The mean volume of contractile tissue in healthy plantar intrinsic foot muscles was 113.3 cm(3). Forefoot volumes of plantar fasciitis plantar intrinsic foot muscles were 5.2% smaller than healthy feet (P=0.03, ES=0.26), but rearfoot (P=0.26, ES=0.08) and total foot volumes (P=0.07) were similar. No differences were observed in tibialis posterior size. While the total volume of plantar intrinsic foot muscles was similar in healthy and plantar fasciitis feet, atrophy of the forefoot plantar intrinsic foot muscles may contribute to plantar fasciitis by destabilizing the medial longitudinal arch. These results suggest that magnetic resonance imaging measures may be useful in understanding the etiology and rehabilitation of chronic plantar fasciitis. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Dysphagia after definitive radiotherapy for head and neck cancer. Correlation of dose-volume parameters of the pharyngeal constrictor muscles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deantonio, L.; Masini, L. [University Hospital ' Maggiore della Carita' , Novara (Italy). Radiotherapy; Brambilla, M. [University Hospital ' Maggiore della Carita' , Novara (Italy). Medical Physics; Pia, F. [University Hospital ' Maggiore della Carita' , Novara (Italy). Otolaryngology; University of ' Piemonte Orientale' , Novara (Italy). Dept. of Medical Sciences; Krengli, M. [University Hospital ' Maggiore della Carita' , Novara (Italy). Radiotherapy; University of ' Piemonte Orientale' , Novara (Italy). Dept. of Translational Medicine and BRMA

    2013-03-15

    Background: Dysphagia is a complication of head and neck cancer patients undergoing radiotherapy (RT). We analysed frequency and severity of swallowing dysfunction and correlated these findings with dose-volume histograms (DVHs) of the pharyngeal constrictor muscles. Methods: A total of 50 patients treated by radical RT were enrolled. DVHs of constrictor muscles were correlated with acute and late dysphagia and with the items of three quality of life questionnaires. Results: Mean dose to superior and middle constrictor muscles (SCM, MCM), partial volume of SCM and MCM receiving a dose {>=} 50 Gy dose to the whole constrictor muscles {>=} 60 Gy and tumour location were associated to late dysphagia at univariate analysis. Mean dose to the MCM was the only statistically significant predictor of late dysphagia at the multivariable analysis. Conclusion: The study shows a significant relationship between long-term dysphagia and mean doses to SCM, MCM, whole constrictor muscles, and oropharyngeal tumour. This finding suggests a potential advantage in reducing the RT dose to swallowing structures to avoid severe dysphagia. (orig.)

  5. Dynamic DTI (dDTI) shows differing temporal activation patterns in post-exercise skeletal muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rockel, Conrad; Akbari, Alireza; Kumbhare, Dinesh A; Noseworthy, Michael D

    2017-04-01

    To assess post-exercise recovery of human calf muscles using dynamic diffusion tensor imaging (dDTI). DTI data (6 directions, b = 0 and 400 s/mm(2)) were acquired every 35 s from seven healthy men using a 3T MRI, prior to (4 volumes) and immediately following exercise (13 volumes, ~7.5 min). Exercise consisted of 5-min in-bore repetitive dorsiflexion-eversion foot motion with 0.78 kg resistance. Diffusion tensors calculated at each time point produced maps of mean diffusivity (MD), fractional anisotropy (FA), radial diffusivity (RD), and signal at b = 0 s/mm(2) (S0). Region-of-interest (ROI) analysis was performed on five calf muscles: tibialis anterior (ATIB), extensor digitorum longus (EDL) peroneus longus (PER), soleus (SOL), and lateral gastrocnemius (LG). Active muscles (ATIB, EDL, PER) showed significantly elevated initial MD post-exercise, while predicted inactive muscles (SOL, LG) did not (p muscles across the majority of time points (p muscles. These differences are suggested to be related to differences in fiber composition.

  6. Low- and high-volume strength training induces similar neuromuscular improvements in muscle quality in elderly women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radaelli, Regis; Botton, Cíntia E; Wilhelm, Eurico N; Bottaro, Martim; Lacerda, Fabiano; Gaya, Anelise; Moraes, Kelly; Peruzzolo, Amanda; Brown, Lee E; Pinto, Ronei Silveira

    2013-08-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the effects of low- and high-volume strength training on strength, muscle activation and muscle thickness (MT) of the lower- and upper-body, and on muscle quality (MQ) of the lower-body in older women. Twenty apparently healthy elderly women were randomly assigned into two groups: low-volume (LV, n=11) and high-volume (HV, n=9). The LV group performed one-set of each exercise, while the HV group performed three-sets of each exercise, twice weekly for 13 weeks. MQ was measured by echo intensity obtained by ultrasonography (MQEI), strength per unit of muscle mass (MQST), and strength per unit of muscle mass adjusted with an allometric scale (MQAS). Following training, there was a significant increase (p≤0.001) in knee extension 1-RM (31.8±20.5% for LV and 38.3±7.3% for HV) and in elbow flexion 1-RM (25.1±9.5% for LV and 26.6±8.9% for HV) and in isometric maximal strength of the lower-body (p≤0.05) and upper-body (p≤0.001), with no difference between groups. The maximal electromyographic activation for both groups increased significantly (p≤0.05) in the vastus medialis and biceps brachii, with no difference between groups. All MT measurements of the lower- and upper-body increased similarly in both groups (p≤0.001). Similar improvements were also observed in MQEI (p≤0.01), MQST, and MQAS (p≤0.001) for both groups. These results demonstrate that low- and high-volume strength training promote similar increases in neuromuscular adaptations of the lower- and upper-body, and in MQ of the lower-body in elderly women. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Clinical and morphological study of calf enlargement following S-1 radiculopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osvaldo J. M. Nascimento

    1992-09-01

    Full Text Available Calf enlargement following sciatica is a rare condition. It is reported the case of a 28-year-old woman who complained of repeated episodes of lower back pain radiating into the left buttock and foot. One year after the beginning of her symptoms, she noticed enlargement of her left calf. X-ray studies disclosed L5-S1 disk degeneration. EMG showed muscle denervation with normal motor conduction velocity. Open biopsies of the gastrocnemius muscles were performed. The left gastrocnemius muscle showed hypertrophic type 2 fibers in comparison with the right gastrocnemius. Electron microscopy showed mildly increased number of mitochondria in these fibers. A satisfactory explanation for denervation hypertrophy has yet to be provided.

  8. Acute effect of dietary nitrate on forearm muscle oxygenation, blood volume and strength in older adults: A randomized clinical trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Vieira de Oliveira

    Full Text Available Both recovery time of post-exercise muscle oxygenation and muscle strength decline with aging. Although beetroot consumption has been shown to improve muscle oxygenation and exercise performance in adults, these effects in the elderly has not been addressed. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of a beetroot-based gel (BG on muscle O2 saturation, blood volume (tHb and handgrip strength in the elderly in response to handgrip exercise. In a randomized crossover double-blind design, twelve older subjects consumed BG (100 g of beetroot-based gel containing ~ 12 mmol nitrate or PLA (100 g of nitrate-depleted gel nitrate-depleted. The subjects performed a rhythmic handgrip exercise which consisted of a one 1-min set at 30% of the maximal voluntary contraction (MVC of each subject, followed by a 1 min recovery. The muscle oxygenation parameters and tHb were continuously monitored by using near-infrared spectroscopy. MVC was evaluated at baseline, immediately after exercise, and 30 min afterwards. The muscle O2 resaturation rate during exercise recovery was greater in the BG when compared to PLA condition (1.43 ± 0.77 vs 1.02 ± 0.48%.s-1; P < 0.05. Significant increase was observed in tHb during exercise recovery (10.25 ± 5.47 vs 6.72 ± 4.55 μM; P < 0.05 and significant reduction of handgrip strength decline was observed 30 min after exercise in BG (- 0.24 ± 0.18 vs-0.39 ± 0.20 N; P < 0.05. In summary, a single dose of a beetroot-based gel speeds up muscle O2 resaturation, increases blood volume and improves recovery of handgrip strength after handgrip exercise in older adults.

  9. Lung volume recruitment acutely increases respiratory system compliance in individuals with severe respiratory muscle weakness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yannick Molgat-Seon

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to determine whether lung volume recruitment (LVR acutely increases respiratory system compliance (Crs in individuals with severe respiratory muscle weakness (RMW. Individuals with RMW resulting from neuromuscular disease or quadriplegia (n=12 and healthy controls (n=12 underwent pulmonary function testing and the measurement of Crs at baseline, immediately after, 1 h after and 2 h after a single standardised session of LVR. The LVR session involved 10 consecutive supramaximal lung inflations with a manual resuscitation bag to the highest tolerable mouth pressure or a maximum of 50 cmH2O. Each LVR inflation was followed by brief breath-hold and a maximal expiration to residual volume. At baseline, individuals with RMW had lower Crs than controls (37±5 cmH2O versus 109±10 mL·cmH2O−1, p0.05. LVR had no significant effect on measures of pulmonary function at any time point in either group (all p>0.05. During inflations, mean arterial pressure decreased significantly relative to baseline by 10.4±2.8 mmHg and 17.3±3.0 mmHg in individuals with RMW and controls, respectively (both p<0.05. LVR acutely increases Crs in individuals with RMW. However, the high airway pressures during inflations cause reductions in mean arterial pressure that should be considered when applying this technique.

  10. Effect of volume-oriented versus flow-oriented incentive spirometry on chest wall volumes, inspiratory muscle activity, and thoracoabdominal synchrony in the elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lunardi, Adriana C; Porras, Desiderio C; Barbosa, Renata Cc; Paisani, Denise M; Marques da Silva, Cibele C B; Tanaka, Clarice; Carvalho, Celso R F

    2014-03-01

    Aging causes physiological and functional changes that impair pulmonary function. Incentive spirometry is widely used for lung expansion, but the effects of volume-oriented incentive spirometry (VIS) versus flow-oriented incentive spirometry (FIS) on chest wall volumes, inspiratory muscle activity, and thoracoabdominal synchrony in the elderly are poorly understood. We compared VIS and FIS in elderly subjects and healthy adult subjects. Sixteen elderly subjects (9 women, mean ± SD age 70.6 ± 3.9 y, mean ± SD body mass index 23.8 ± 2.5 kg/m(2)) and 16 healthy adults (8 women, mean ± age 25.9 ± 4.3 y, mean ± body mass index 23.6 ± 2.4 kg/m(2)) performed quiet breathing, VIS, and FIS in randomized sequence. Chest wall kinematics (via optoelectronic plethysmography) and inspiratory muscle activity (via surface electromyography) were assessed simultaneously. Synchrony between the superior thorax and abdominal motion was calculated (phase angle). In the elderly subjects both types of incentive spirometry increased chest wall volumes similarly, whereas in the healthy adult subjects VIS increased the chest wall volume more than did FIS. FIS and VIS triggered similar lower thoracoabdominal synchrony in the elderly subjects, whereas in the healthy adults FIS induced lower synchrony than did VIS. FIS required more muscle activity in the elderly subjects to create an increase in chest wall volume. Incentive spirometry performance is influenced by age, and the differences between elderly and healthy adults response should be considered in clinical practice.

  11. A New Approach to Assess the Gastrocnemius Muscle Volume in Rodents Using Ultrasound; Comparison with the Gastrocnemius Muscle Index

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T.H.J. Nijhuis (Tim); S.A.S. de Boer (Siebe); A.L. Wahegaonkar (Abhijeet); A.T. Bishop (Allen); A.Y. Shin (Alexander); S.E.R. Hovius (Steven); R.W. Selles (Ruud)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractIntroduction: The purpose of this study was to determine the reliability and validity of a new non-invasive ultrasound technique to measure gastrocnemius muscle atrophy after nerve denervation in an animal model. Methods: In sixteen rodents an eight mm sciatic nerve gap was created. In

  12. Automatic assessment of volume asymmetries applied to hip abductor muscles in patients with hip arthroplasty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klemt, Christian; Modat, Marc; Pichat, Jonas; Cardoso, M. J.; Henckel, Joahnn; Hart, Alister; Ourselin, Sebastien

    2015-03-01

    Metal-on-metal (MoM) hip arthroplasties have been utilised over the last 15 years to restore hip function for 1.5 million patients worldwide. Althoug widely used, this hip arthroplasty releases metal wear debris which lead to muscle atrophy. The degree of muscle wastage differs across patients ranging from mild to severe. The longterm outcomes for patients with MoM hip arthroplasty are reduced for increasing degrees of muscle atrophy, highlighting the need to automatically segment pathological muscles. The automated segmentation of pathological soft tissues is challenging as these lack distinct boundaries and morphologically differ across subjects. As a result, there is no method reported in the literature which has been successfully applied to automatically segment pathological muscles. We propose the first automated framework to delineate severely atrophied muscles by applying a novel automated segmentation propagation framework to patients with MoM hip arthroplasty. The proposed algorithm was used to automatically quantify muscle wastage in these patients.

  13. Effect of speed endurance training and reduced training volume on running economy and single muscle fiber adaptations in trained runners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skovgaard, Casper; Christiansen, Danny; Christensen, Peter Møller

    2018-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine whether improved running economy with a period of speed endurance training and reduced training volume could be related to adaptations in specific muscle fibers. Twenty trained male (n = 14) and female (n = 6) runners (maximum oxygen consumption (VO2 -max.......05) in ST muscle fibers, and sarcoplasmic reticulum calcium ATPase 1 (SERCA1) was lower (P economy at 60% vVO2 -max (11.6 ± 0.2 km/h) and at v10-km (13.7 ± 0.3 km/h) was ~2% better (P ....3 ± 0.3 vs. 18.9 ± 0.3 km/h) after than before the intervention. Thus, improved running economy with intense training may be related to changes in expression of proteins linked to energy consuming processes in primarily ST muscle fibers....

  14. In Vivo MRI Quantification of Individual Muscle and Organ Volumes for Assessment of Anabolic Steroid Growth Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ed X.; Tang, Haiying; Tong, Christopher; Heymsfield, Steve B.; Vasselli, Joseph R.

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to develop a quantitative and in vivo magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) approach to investigate the muscle growth effects of anabolic steroids. A protocol of MRI acquisition on a standard clinical 1.5 Tesla scanner and quantitative image analysis was established and employed to measure the individual muscle and organ volumes in the intact and castrated guinea pigs undergoing a 16-week treatment protocol by two well-documented anabolic steroids, testosterone and nandrolone, via implanted silastic capsules. High correlations between the in vivo MRI and postmortem dissection measurements were observed for shoulder muscle complex (R = 0.86), masseter (R=0.79), temporalis (R=0.95), neck muscle complex (R=0.58), prostate gland and seminal vesicles (R=0.98), and testis (R=0.96). Furthermore, the longitudinal MRI measurements yielded adequate sensitivity to detect the restoration of growth to or towards normal in castrated guinea pigs by replacing circulating steroid levels to physiological or slightly higher levels, as expected. These results demonstrated that quantitative MRI using a standard clinical scanner provides accurate and sensitive measurement of individual muscles and organs, and this in vivo MRI protocol in conjunction with the castrated guinea pig model constitutes an effective platform to investigate the longitudinal and cross-sectional growth effects of other potential anabolic steroids. The quantitative MRI protocol developed can also be readily adapted for human studies on most clinical MRI scanner to investigate the anabolic steroid growth effects, or monitor the changes in individual muscle and organ volume and geometry following injury, strength training, neuromuscular disorders, and pharmacological or surgical interventions. PMID:18241900

  15. In vivo MRI quantification of individual muscle and organ volumes for assessment of anabolic steroid growth effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ed X; Tang, Haiying; Tong, Christopher; Heymsfield, Steve B; Vasselli, Joseph R

    2008-04-01

    This study aimed to develop a quantitative and in vivo magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) approach to investigate the muscle growth effects of anabolic steroids. A protocol of MRI acquisition on a standard clinical 1.5 T scanner and quantitative image analysis was established and employed to measure the individual muscle and organ volumes in the intact and castrated guinea pigs undergoing a 16-week treatment protocol by two well-documented anabolic steroids, testosterone and nandrolone, via implanted silastic capsules. High correlations between the in vivo MRI and postmortem dissection measurements were observed for shoulder muscle complex (R=0.86), masseter (R=0.79), temporalis (R=0.95), neck muscle complex (R=0.58), prostate gland and seminal vesicles (R=0.98), and testis (R=0.96). Furthermore, the longitudinal MRI measurements yielded adequate sensitivity to detect the restoration of growth to or towards normal in castrated guinea pigs by replacing circulating steroid levels to physiological or slightly higher levels, as expected. These results demonstrated that quantitative MRI using a standard clinical scanner provides accurate and sensitive measurement of individual muscles and organs, and this in vivo MRI protocol in conjunction with the castrated guinea pig model constitutes an effective platform to investigate the longitudinal and cross-sectional growth effects of other potential anabolic steroids. The quantitative MRI protocol developed can also be readily adapted for human studies on most clinical MRI scanner to investigate the anabolic steroid growth effects, or monitor the changes in individual muscle and organ volume and geometry following injury, strength training, neuromuscular disorders, and pharmacological or surgical interventions.

  16. Vibration and pressure wave therapy for calf strains: a proposed treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxena, Amol; St Louis, Marie; Fournier, Magali

    2013-04-01

    Calf (lower leg) strains have a variety of treatment regimens with variable outcomes and return to activity (RTA) time frames. These injuries involve disruption of portions or the entire gastrocnemius-soleus myo-tendinous complex. Conservative treatment initially consists of rest, ice, compression, elevation (RICE). Immediately following calf injury, patients can utilize cryotherapy, massage, passive range of motion, and progressive exercise. In general, Grade I through Grade III calf strains can take up to 6 weeks before the athlete can return to training. It can also involve the loss of more than 50% of muscle integrity. Recently, vibration therapy and radial pressure waves have been utilized to treat muscular strains and other myo-tendinous injuries that involve trigger points. Studies have suggested vibration therapy with rehabilitation can increase muscle strength and flexibility in patients. Segmental vibration therapy (SVT) is treatment to a more focal area. Vibration therapy (VT) is applied directly to the area of injury. VT is a mechanical stimulus that is thought to stimulate the sensory receptors, as well as decrease inflammatory cells and receptors. Therefore, VT could be a valuable tool in treating athlete effectively and decreasing their recovery time. The purpose of this paper is to give the reader baseline knowledge of VT and propose a treatment protocol for calf strains using this technology along with radial pressure waves.

  17. Botulinum toxin a does not decrease calf pain or improve ROM during limb lengthening: a randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Dong Hoon; Ryu, Keun Jung; Shin, Dong Eun; Kim, Hyun Woo

    2014-12-01

    During lower limb lengthening, distraction-induced muscle pain and surrounding joint contractures are frustrating complications for which few effective treatments are available. We evaluated Botulinum Toxin Type A (BtX-A) injection in the calf muscles during human tibial distraction osteogenesis. We hypothesized that it may decrease calf pain and increase ROM of the surrounding joints by reducing muscle stiffness. Between April 2010 and January 2011, we evaluated 36 patients undergoing bilateral tibia lengthening who met prespecified inclusion criteria. All patients underwent stature lengthening with lengthening over a nail or lengthening and then nailing. BtX-A (200 IU) was injected at the calf muscle only in one leg for each patient and the same amount of sterile normal saline was injected into the other leg as a control. Selection of the leg receiving the toxin was randomized. Clinical evaluation included a VAS score for calf pain and measurement of ROM of the knees and ankles and calf circumference, with evaluations performed in a double-blinded manner. Side-to-side differences were analyzed until the end of consolidation phase. Minimum followup was 24 months (mean, 30 months; range, 24-39 months). The distraction rate and the final length gain were similar in the treated and control limbs. A priori power analysis suggested that 34 legs were required to achieve statistical significance of 0.05 with 80% of power to detect a 50% difference in treatment effect between treatment and control groups. There were no differences in calf pain, knee and ankle ROM, and maximal calf circumferences between the two legs at each time point. Local injection of 200 IU BtX-A at the human calf muscle does not appear to reduce calf pain or help enhance ROM of the knee and ankle during tibial lengthening. However, the small sample size provided sufficient power to detect only relatively large clinical effects; future, larger trials will be needed to determine whether smaller

  18. Quantifying fat and lean muscle in the lower legs of women with knee osteoarthritis using two different MRI systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beattie, Karen; Davison, Michael J; Noseworthy, Michael; Adachi, Jonathan D; Maly, Monica R

    2016-06-01

    Decreased muscle mass and increased fat mass are commonly seen in the thighs of individuals with knee osteoarthritis (OA). Despite the role of calf muscles in activities of daily living and knee mechanics, little work has investigated calf changes in knee OA. Unlike the thigh, muscle and fat in the lower leg can be imaged using a peripheral magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scanner. We aimed to assess agreement between subcutaneous fat, intermuscular fat (IMF), intramuscular fat (intraMF), and lean muscle volumes acquired using a peripheral 1.0T as compared to a reference whole-body 3.0T MRI scanner. A calf MRI scan from each scanner was acquired from twenty women >55 years with knee OA. The different tissues were segmented on each of ten axial slices for every participant using SliceOmatic 5.0 (Tomovision, Magog, QC). Tissue volumes were determined for each outcome. Agreement between tissue volumes from the two scanners was assessed using intraclass correlation (ICC(2,1)) coefficients, standard error, and Bland-Altman plots. Agreement between tissue volumes was strong to very strong, with ICCs ranging from 0.842 to 0.991 for all outcomes. However, wide confidence intervals for IMF and intraMF suggest there is less confidence in agreement with segmentation of images from the 1.0T scanner generally underestimating fat volume relative to the 3.0T scanner. The 3.0T's superior between-tissue contrast likely resulted in more accurate segmentation of IMF and intraMF compared to the 1.0T scanner. Comparisons of tissue volume between studies using different scanners/sequences should be interpreted cautiously.

  19. Associations Between Travel Distance, Hospital Volume, and Outcomes Following Radical Cystectomy in Patients With Muscle-invasive Bladder Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Leilei; Taylor, Benjamin L; Mamtani, Ronac; Christodouleas, John P; Guzzo, Thomas J

    2018-01-02

    To explore the associations between travel distance, hospital volume, and outcomes following radical cystectomy (RC) for muscle-invasive bladder cancer (MIBC). The 2006 to 2013 National Cancer Database was queried to identify patients with MIBC who underwent RC. Multivariable regressions alternately including travel distance, hospital volume, and both in the models were used. Travel distances and hospital volumes were categorized by quartiles. Outcomes of interest were overall survival and quality-of-care indicators. A total of 6551 patients were included in the final cohort. When only travel distance or hospital volume was included in the multivariable regression model, fourth quartiles of both variables were associated with improved overall survival. When both travel distance and hospital volume were included in the model, only hospital volume was found to be associated with overall survival. Sensitivity analyses with both travel distance and hospital volume considered as continuous variables showed similar results. Patients who underwent RC in high-volume hospitals were more likely to receive neoadjuvant chemotherapy, have 10 or more lymph nodes removed, but also had higher odds of surgical delay (>3 months) in the full models adjusting for travel distance. This National Cancer Database-based study suggests that the association between longer travel distance and improved overall survival (distance bias effect) after RC for MIBC is mainly mediated by higher hospital volume. The benefits of having RC at high-volume hospitals may outweigh the potential disadvantages of longer travel distance, which further supports the continued regionalization of RC and cancer care for MIBC. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Strength training at high versus low external resistance in older adults: effects on muscle volume, muscle strength, and force-velocity characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Roie, Evelien; Delecluse, Christophe; Coudyzer, Walter; Boonen, Steven; Bautmans, Ivan

    2013-11-01

    Muscle adaptations can be induced by high-resistance exercise. Despite being potentially more suitable for older adults, low-resistance exercise protocols have been less investigated. We compared the effects of high- and low-resistance training on muscle volume, muscle strength, and force-velocity characteristics. Fifty-six older adults were randomly assigned to 12 weeks of leg press and leg extension training at either HIGH (2×10-15 repetitions at 80% of one repetition maximum (1RM)), LOW (1×80-100 repetitions at 20% of 1RM), or LOW+ (1×60 repetitions at 20% of 1RM, followed by 1×10-20 repetitions at 40% of 1RM). All protocols ended with muscle failure. Leg press and leg extension of 1RM were measured at baseline and post intervention and before the first training session in weeks 5 and 9. At baseline and post intervention, muscle volume (MV) was measured by CT-scan. A Biodex dynamometer evaluated knee extensor static peak torque in different knee angles (PT(stat90°), PT(stat120°), PT(stat150°)), dynamic peak torque at different speeds (PT(dyn60°s)(-1), PT(dyn180°s)(-1), PT(dyn240°s)(-1)), and speed of movement at 20% (S20), 40% (S40), and 60% (S60) of PTstat90°. HIGH and LOW+ resulted in greater improvements in 1RM strength than LOW (pmuscle failure may be similarly effective for hypertrophy. High-resistance training led to a higher increase in 1RM strength than low-resistance training (20% of 1RM), but this difference disappeared when using a mixed low-resistance protocol in which the resistance was intensified within a single exercise set (40% of 1RM). Our findings support the need for more research on low-resistance programs in older age, in particular long-term training studies and studies focusing on residual effects after training cessation. © 2013.

  1. Quantitative evaluation of masseter muscle volume in different growth patterns and its correlation with facial morphology: Cone beam computed tomography study

    OpenAIRE

    Mukesh Gupta; P G Makhija

    2016-01-01

    Objective: This investigation was designed to evaluate the masseter muscle volume in different growth patterns and its correlation with facial morphology using three-dimensional cone beam computed tomography (CBCT), Materials and Methods: Study was conducted using CBCT scans of nonorthodontically treated individuals (n = 32, 19 males and 13 females) between the ages of 18–25 years. The masseter muscle volume was calculated using Dolphin 3D software 11.5 version (Essential Dental Products, New...

  2. Bilateral Polydactyly in a Nondescript Calf

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mudasir Bashir Gugjoo

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available A 7 day old non-descript female calf was presented to the Referral Veterinary Polyclinic, Indian Veterinary Research Institute-Izatnagar with a history of limping and unusual appearance of hindlimbs from birth. Physical examination revealed additional digit on the metatarsal regions of both the hind limbs. Radiographic examination confirmed the presence of supernumerary digits unaccompanied by any other congenital malformation. It was diagnosed as Polydactyly type IV. Surgical intervention was done to remove the extra digit in both the hind limbs. This clinical article reports the successful management of bilateral polydactyly in a non-descript calf.

  3. Deltoid muscle volume affects clinical outcome of reverse total shoulder arthroplasty in patients with cuff tear arthropathy or irreparable cuff tears.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jong Pil Yoon

    Full Text Available We aimed to estimate the interrelation between preoperative deltoid muscle status by measuring the 3-dimensional deltoid muscle volume and postoperative functional outcomes after reverse total shoulder arthroplasty(RTSA. Thirty-five patients who underwent RTSA participated in this study. All patients underwent preoperative magnetic resonance imaging(MRI as well as pre- and postoperative radiography and various functional outcome evaluations at least 1 year. The primary outcome parameter was set as age- and sex-matched Constant scores. The 3-dimensional deltoid muscle model was generated using a medical image processing software and in-house code, and the deltoid muscle volume was calculated automatically. Various clinical and radiographic factors comprising the deltoid muscle volume adjusted for body mass index(BMI were analyzed, and their interrelation with the outcome parameters was appraised using a multivariate analysis. As a result, all practical consequences considerably improved following surgery(all p<0.01. Overall, 20 and 15 indicated a higher and a lower practical consequence than the average, respectively, which was assessed by the matched Constant scores. The deltoid muscle volume adjusted for BMI(p = 0.009, absence of a subscapularis complete tear (p = 0.040, and greater change in acromion-deltoid tuberosity distance(p = 0.013 were associated with higher matched Constant scores. Multivariate analysis indicated that the deltoid muscle volume was the single independent prognostic factor for practical consequences(p = 0.011. In conclusion, the preoperative deltoid muscle volume significantly affected the functional outcome following RTSA in patients with cuff tear arthropathy or irreparable cuff tears. Therefore, more attention should be paid to patients with severe atrophied deltoid muscle who are at a high risk for poor practical consequences subsequent to RTSA.

  4. Weight-adjusted lean body mass and calf circumference are protective against obesity-associated insulin resistance and metabolic abnormalities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toshinari Takamura

    2017-07-01

    Interpretation: Weight-adjusted lean body mass and skeletal muscle area are protective against weight-associated insulin resistance and metabolic abnormalities. The calf circumference reflects lean body mass and may be useful as a protective marker against obesity-associated metabolic abnormalities.

  5. Quantifying antimicrobial resistance at veal calf farms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosman, A.B.; Wagenaar, J.A.; Stegeman, A.; Vernooij, H.; Mevius, D.J.

    2012-01-01

    This study was performed to determine a sampling strategy to quantify the prevalence of antimicrobial resistance on veal calf farms, based on the variation in antimicrobial resistance within and between calves on five farms. Faecal samples from 50 healthy calves (10 calves/farm) were collected. From

  6. Intensive training and reduced volume increases muscle FXYD1 expression and phosphorylation at rest and during exercise in athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomassen, Martin; Gunnarsson, Thomas P.; Christensen, Peter M.; Pavlovic, Davor; Shattock, Michael J.

    2016-01-01

    The present study examined the effect of intensive training in combination with marked reduction in training volume on phospholemman (FXYD1) expression and phosphorylation at rest and during exercise. Eight well-trained cyclists replaced their regular training with speed-endurance training (10–12 × ∼30-s sprints) two or three times per week and aerobic high-intensity training (4–5 × 3–4 min at 90–95% of peak aerobic power output) 1–2 times per week for 7 wk and reduced the training volume by 70%. Muscle biopsies were obtained before and during a repeated high-intensity exercise protocol, and protein expression and phosphorylation were determined by Western blot analysis. Expression of FXYD1 (30%), actin (40%), mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) (12%), phospholamban (PLN) (16%), and Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) γ/δ (25%) was higher (P training intervention. In addition, after the intervention, nonspecific FXYD1 phosphorylation was higher (P training with reduced training volume increases expression and phosphorylation levels of FXYD1, which may affect Na+/K+ pump activity and muscle K+ homeostasis during intense exercise. Furthermore, higher expression of CaMKII and PLN, as well as increased phosphorylation of CaMKII Thr-287 may have improved intracellular Ca2+ handling. PMID:26791827

  7. Intensive training and reduced volume increases muscle FXYD1 expression and phosphorylation at rest and during exercise in athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomassen, Martin; Gunnarsson, Thomas P; Christensen, Peter M; Pavlovic, Davor; Shattock, Michael J; Bangsbo, Jens

    2016-04-01

    The present study examined the effect of intensive training in combination with marked reduction in training volume on phospholemman (FXYD1) expression and phosphorylation at rest and during exercise. Eight well-trained cyclists replaced their regular training with speed-endurance training (10-12 × ∼30-s sprints) two or three times per week and aerobic high-intensity training (4-5 × 3-4 min at 90-95% of peak aerobic power output) 1-2 times per week for 7 wk and reduced the training volume by 70%. Muscle biopsies were obtained before and during a repeated high-intensity exercise protocol, and protein expression and phosphorylation were determined by Western blot analysis. Expression of FXYD1 (30%), actin (40%), mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) (12%), phospholamban (PLN) (16%), and Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) γ/δ (25%) was higher (P training intervention. In addition, after the intervention, nonspecific FXYD1 phosphorylation was higher (P intense exercise as well as resting PLN Thr-17 phosphorylation were also higher (P intensity training with reduced training volume increases expression and phosphorylation levels of FXYD1, which may affect Na(+)/K(+) pump activity and muscle K(+) homeostasis during intense exercise. Furthermore, higher expression of CaMKII and PLN, as well as increased phosphorylation of CaMKII Thr-287 may have improved intracellular Ca(2+) handling. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  8. Associations among circulating branched-chain amino acids and tyrosine with muscle volume and glucose metabolism in individuals without diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honda, Tatsuro; Kobayashi, Yoshinao; Togashi, Kenji; Hasegawa, Hiroshi; Iwasa, Motoh; Taguchi, Osamu; Takei, Yoshiyuki; Sumida, Yasuhiro

    2016-05-01

    Amino acid metabolites, including branched-chain amino acids (BCAA) and tyrosine (Tyr), affect glucose metabolism. The effects of BCAA on insulin resistance in patients with diabetes seem to conflict with mechanisms determined in animal models and cultured cells. The aim of this study was to clarify the controversy surrounding the effects of BCAA by investigating the physiological effects of BCAA and Tyr on glucose metabolism in healthy community dwellers. We investigated associations among BCAA and Tyr and metabolic parameters in 78 residents (median age, 52 y) of Mie, Japan, who did not have prediabetes, diabetes, or a body mass index >30 kg/m(2). Muscle volume, serum BCAA, and Tyr levels were higher in men than in women (n = 32 and 46, respectively; all P BCAA positively with muscle volume (regression coefficient/t/p/95% confidence interval, 281.8/3.7/0.0004/129.7-433.8), fasting blood glucose (FBG; 12699.4/3.22/0.0020/4830.9-20567.8), fasting immunoreactive insulin (IRI; 8505.1/2.75/0.0078/2322.5-14687.6), and homeostasis model assessment of β-cell function (HOMA-β; 893.6/2.58/0.0122/201.8-1585.5), and negatively with the HOMA-insulin resistance (HOMA-IR; -9294.1/-2.89/0.0052/-15711.0 to -2877.1). Tyr positively correlated with fasting IRI (26/2.77/0.0072/7.3-44.7). Insulin sensitivity and muscle volume are positively associated with BCAA in individuals without diabetes. In turn, BCAA correlate with increased FBG and fasting IRI levels. Tyr correlated with fasting IRI, but not with insulin sensitivity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Calf exercise-induced vasodilation is blunted in healthy older adults with increased walking performance fatigue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzales, Joaquin U; Defferari, Elizabeth; Fisher, Amy; Shephard, Jordan; Proctor, David N

    2014-09-01

    Vascular aging as measured by central arterial stiffness contributes to slow walking speed in older adults, but the impact of age-related changes in peripheral vascular function on walking performance is unclear. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that calf muscle-specific vasodilator responses are associated with walking performance fatigue in healthy older adults. Forty-five older (60-78yrs) adults performed a fast-paced 400m walk test. Twelve of these adults exhibited fatigue as defined by slowing of walking speed (≥0.02m/s) measured during the first and last 100m segments of the 400m test. Peak calf vascular conductance was measured following 10min of arterial occlusion using strain-gauge plethysmography. Superficial femoral artery (SFA) vascular conductance response to graded plantar-flexion exercise was measured using Doppler ultrasound. No difference was found for peak calf vascular conductance between adults that slowed walking speed and those that maintained walking speed (p>0.05); however, older adults that slowed walking speed had a lower SFA vascular conductance response to calf exercise (at highest workload: slowed group, 2.4±0.9 vs. maintained group, 3.6±0.9ml/kg/min/mmHg; pcalf exercise hemodynamics are associated with walking performance fatigability in older adults. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Mitochondrial Respiration after One Session of Calf Raise Exercise in Patients with Peripheral Vascular Disease and Healthy Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Schaardenburgh, Michel; Wohlwend, Martin; Rognmo, Øivind; Mattsson, Erney J R

    2016-01-01

    Mitochondria are essential for energy production in the muscle cell and for this they are dependent upon a sufficient supply of oxygen by the circulation. Exercise training has shown to be a potent stimulus for physiological adaptations and mitochondria play a central role. Whether changes in mitochondrial respiration are seen after exercise in patients with a reduced circulation is unknown. The aim of the study was to evaluate the time course and whether one session of calf raise exercise stimulates mitochondrial respiration in the calf muscle of patients with peripheral vascular disease. One group of patients with peripheral vascular disease (n = 11) and one group of healthy older adults (n = 11) were included. Patients performed one session of continuous calf raises followed by 5 extra repetitions after initiation of pain. Healthy older adults performed 100 continuous calf raises. Gastrocnemius muscle biopsies were collected at baseline and 15 minutes, one hour, three hours and 24 hours after one session of calf raise exercise. A multi substrate (octanoylcarnitine, malate, adp, glutamate, succinate, FCCP, rotenone) approach was used to analyze mitochondrial respiration in permeabilized fibers. Mixed-linear model for repeated measures was used for statistical analyses. Patients with peripheral vascular disease have a lower baseline respiration supported by complex I and they increase respiration supported by complex II at one hour post-exercise. Healthy older adults increase respiration supported by electron transfer flavoprotein and complex I at one hour and 24 hours post-exercise. Our results indicate a shift towards mitochondrial respiration supported by complex II as being a pathophysiological component of peripheral vascular disease. Furthermore exercise stimulates mitochondrial respiration already after one session of calf raise exercise in patients with peripheral vascular disease and healthy older adults. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01842412.

  11. Restoration of muscle volume and shape induced by electrical stimulation of denervated degenerated muscles: qualitative and quantitative measurement of changes in rectus femoris using computer tomography and image segmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gargiulo, Paolo; Vatnsdal, Brynjar; Ingvarsson, Páll; Knútsdóttir, Sigrún; Gudmundsdóttir, Vilborg; Yngvason, Stefán; Helgason, Thórdur

    2008-08-01

    This study demonstrates in a novel way how volume and shape are restored to denervated degenerated muscles due to a special pattern of electrical stimulation. To this purpose, Spiral Computer Tomography (CT) and special image processing tools were used to develop a method to isolate the rectus femoris from other muscle bellies in the thigh and monitor growth and morphology changes very accurately. During 4 years of electrical stimulation, three-dimensional (3D) reconstructions of the rectus femoris muscles from patients with long-term flaccid paraplegia were made at different points in time. The growth of the muscle and its changes through the time period are seen in the 3D representation and are measured quantitatively. Furthermore, changes in shape are compared with respect to healthy muscles in order to estimate the degree of restoration. The results clearly show a slow but continuing muscle growth induced by electrical stimulation; the increase of volume is accompanied by the return of a quasi-normal muscle shape. This technique allows a unique way of monitoring which provides qualitative and quantitative information on the denervated degenerated muscle behavior otherwise hidden.

  12. Test-retest reliability of automated whole body and compartmental muscle volume measurements on a wide bore 3T MR system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, Marianna S.; Newman, David; Kasmai, Bahman; Greenwood, Richard; Malcolm, Paul N. [Norfolk and Norwich University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Norwich (United Kingdom); Leinhard, Olof Dahlqvist [Linkoeping University, Center for Medical Image Science and Visualization, Linkoeping (Sweden); Linkoeping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Linkoeping (Sweden); Karlsson, Anette; Borga, Magnus [Linkoeping University, Center for Medical Image Science and Visualization, Linkoeping (Sweden); Linkoeping University, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Linkoeping (Sweden); Rosander, Johannes [Advanced MR Analytics AB, Linkoeping (Sweden); Toms, Andoni P. [Norfolk and Norwich University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Norwich (United Kingdom); Radiology Academy, Cotman Centre, Norwich, Norfolk (United Kingdom)

    2014-09-15

    To measure the test-retest reproducibility of an automated system for quantifying whole body and compartmental muscle volumes using wide bore 3 T MRI. Thirty volunteers stratified by body mass index underwent whole body 3 T MRI, two-point Dixon sequences, on two separate occasions. Water-fat separation was performed, with automated segmentation of whole body, torso, upper and lower leg volumes, and manually segmented lower leg muscle volumes. Mean automated total body muscle volume was 19.32 L (SD9.1) and 19.28 L (SD9.12) for first and second acquisitions (Intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) = 1.0, 95 % level of agreement -0.32-0.2 L). ICC for all automated test-retest muscle volumes were almost perfect (0.99-1.0) with 95 % levels of agreement 1.8-6.6 % of mean volume. Automated muscle volume measurements correlate closely with manual quantification (right lower leg: manual 1.68 L (2SD0.6) compared to automated 1.64 L (2SD 0.6), left lower leg: manual 1.69 L (2SD 0.64) compared to automated 1.63 L (SD0.61), correlation coefficients for automated and manual segmentation were 0.94-0.96). Fully automated whole body and compartmental muscle volume quantification can be achieved rapidly on a 3 T wide bore system with very low margins of error, excellent test-retest reliability and excellent correlation to manual segmentation in the lower leg. (orig.)

  13. Lanreotide Reduces Liver Volume, But Might Not Improve Muscle Wasting or Weight Loss, in Patients With Symptomatic Polycystic Liver Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temmerman, Frederik; Ho, Thien Ahn; Vanslembrouck, Ragna; Coudyzer, Walter; Billen, Jaak; Dobbels, Fabienne; van Pelt, Jos; Bammens, Bert; Pirson, Yves; Nevens, Frederik

    2015-12-01

    Polycystic liver disease (PCLD) can induce malnutrition owing to extensive hepatomegaly and patients might require liver transplantation. Six months of treatment with the somatostatin analogue lanreotide (120 mg) reduces liver volume. We investigated the efficacy of a lower dose of lanreotide and its effects on nutritional status. We performed an 18-month prospective study at 2 tertiary medical centers in Belgium from January 2011 through August 2012. Fifty-nine patients with symptomatic PCLD were given lanreotide (90 mg, every 4 weeks) for 6 months. Patients with reductions in liver volume of more than 100 mL (responders, primary end point) continued to receive lanreotide (90 mg) for an additional year (18 months total). Nonresponders were offered increased doses, up to 120 mg lanreotide, until 18 months. Liver volume and body composition were measured by computed tomography at baseline and at months 6 and 18. Patients also were assessed by the PCLD-specific complaint assessment at these time points. Fifty-three patients completed the study; 21 patients (40%) were responders. Nineteen of the responders (90%) continued as responders until 18 months. At this time point, they had a mean reduction in absolute liver volume of 430 ± 92 mL. In nonresponders (n = 32), liver volume increased by a mean volume of 120 ± 42 mL at 6 months. However, no further increase was observed after dose escalation in the 24 patients who continued to the 18-month end point. All subjects had decreased scores on all subscales of the PCLD-specific complaint assessment, including better food intake (P = .04). Subjects did not have a mean change in subcutaneous or visceral fat mass, but did have decreases in mean body weight (2 kg) and total muscle mass (1.06 cm(2)/h(2)). Subjects also had a significant mean reduction in their level of insulin-like growth factor 1, from 19% below the age-adjusted normal range level at baseline to 50% at 18 months (P = .002). In a prospective study, we

  14. A comparison of the effect of age on levator ani and obturator internus muscle cross-sectional areas and volumes in nulliparous women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Vikky C; Murray, Meghan P; Delancey, John O L; Ashton-Miller, James A

    2012-04-01

    Functional tests have demonstrated minimal loss of vaginal closure force with age. So we tested the null hypotheses that age neither affects the maximum cross-sectional area (CSA) nor the volume of the levator muscle. Corresponding hypotheses were also tested in the adjacent obturator internus muscle, which served as a control for the effect of age on appendicular muscle in these women. Magnetic resonance images of 15 healthy younger (aged 21-25 years) and 12 healthy older nulliparous women (aged >63 years) were selected to avoid the confounding effect of childbirth. Models were created from tracing outlines of the levator ani muscle in the coronal plane, and obturator internus in the axial plane using 3D Slicer v. 3.4. Muscle volumes were calculated using Slicer, while CSA was measured using Imageware™ at nine locations. The hypotheses were tested using repeated measures analysis of variance with P obturator internus muscle maximum CSA and volume (24.5% and 28.2%, P obturator internus, the levator ani muscle in healthy nullipara does not show evidence of significant age-related atrophy. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Respiratory muscle activity related to flow and lung volume in preterm infants compared with term infants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hutten, Gerard J.; van Eykern, Leo A.; Latzin, Philipp; Thamrin, Cindy; van Aalderen, Wim M.; Frey, Urs

    2010-01-01

    Infants with chronic lung disease (CLD) have a capacity to maintain functional lung volume despite alterations to their lung mechanics. We hypothesize that they achieve this by altering breathing patterns and dynamic elevation of lung volume, leading to differences in the relationship between

  16. Dose-response relationship between weekly resistance training volume and increases in muscle mass: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoenfeld, Brad J; Ogborn, Dan; Krieger, James W

    2017-06-01

    The purpose of this paper was to systematically review the current literature and elucidate the effects of total weekly resistance training (RT) volume on changes in measures of muscle mass via meta-regression. The final analysis comprised 34 treatment groups from 15 studies. Outcomes for weekly sets as a continuous variable showed a significant effect of volume on changes in muscle size (P = 0.002). Each additional set was associated with an increase in effect size (ES) of 0.023 corresponding to an increase in the percentage gain by 0.37%. Outcomes for weekly sets categorised as lower or higher within each study showed a significant effect of volume on changes in muscle size (P = 0.03); the ES difference between higher and lower volumes was 0.241, which equated to a percentage gain difference of 3.9%. Outcomes for weekly sets as a three-level categorical variable (muscle) showed a trend for an effect of weekly sets (P = 0.074). The findings indicate a graded dose-response relationship whereby increases in RT volume produce greater gains in muscle hypertrophy.

  17. Comparison of collagen profile and tenderness of muscles from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of the study was to compare slaughter value, collagen profile, shear force and sensory quality of muscles originating from carcasses of heifers and single-calf cows of Polish Holstein-Friesian x Limousine crossbreds. Eight heifers (540 days old) and eight single-calf cows (836 days old), which were produced in a ...

  18. Usefulness of two-dimensional time-of-flight MR venography (2D-TOF MRV) for screening of deep vein of the Calf

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyamoto, Akihiko; Sugie, Chikao; Kitase, Masanori; Mizutani, Masaru [Kariya General Hospital, Aichi (Japan)

    2002-06-01

    2D-TOF MRV of the Calf has been thought to be inappropriate for visualizing the Calf veins because of the low flow velocity and volume. We analyze the usefulness of 2D-TOF MRV of the Calf in screening for deep veins in 54 patients. In our study, signals of deep vein were seen in 82.6% of the patients; we conclude that 2D-TOF MRV is noninvasive, concise and useful examination for confirming the flow of deep vein as preoperative assessment of varix. (author)

  19. Low-load high volume resistance exercise stimulates muscle protein synthesis more than high-load low volume resistance exercise in young men.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas A Burd

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: We aimed to determine the effect of resistance exercise intensity (%1 repetition maximum-1RM and volume on muscle protein synthesis, anabolic signaling, and myogenic gene expression. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Fifteen men (21+/-1 years; BMI=24.1+/-0.8 kg/m2 performed 4 sets of unilateral leg extension exercise at different exercise loads and/or volumes: 90% of repetition maximum (1RM until volitional failure (90FAIL, 30% 1RM work-matched to 90%FAIL (30WM, or 30% 1RM performed until volitional failure (30FAIL. Infusion of [ring-13C6] phenylalanine with biopsies was used to measure rates of mixed (MIX, myofibrillar (MYO, and sarcoplasmic (SARC protein synthesis at rest, and 4 h and 24 h after exercise. Exercise at 30WM induced a significant increase above rest in MIX (121% and MYO (87% protein synthesis at 4 h post-exercise and but at 24 h in the MIX only. The increase in the rate of protein synthesis in MIX and MYO at 4 h post-exercise with 90FAIL and 30FAIL was greater than 30WM, with no difference between these conditions; however, MYO remained elevated (199% above rest at 24 h only in 30FAIL. There was a significant increase in AktSer473 at 24h in all conditions (P=0.023 and mTORSer2448 phosphorylation at 4 h post-exercise (P=0.025. Phosporylation of Erk1/2Tyr202/204, p70S6KThr389, and 4E-BP1Thr37/46 increased significantly (P<0.05 only in the 30FAIL condition at 4 h post-exercise, whereas, 4E-BP1Thr37/46 phosphorylation was greater 24 h after exercise than at rest in both 90FAIL (237% and 30FAIL (312% conditions. Pax7 mRNA expression increased at 24 h post-exercise (P=0.02 regardless of condition. The mRNA expression of MyoD and myogenin were consistently elevated in the 30FAIL condition. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These results suggest that low-load high volume resistance exercise is more effective in inducing acute muscle anabolism than high-load low volume or work matched resistance exercise modes.

  20. The Fatted Calf Dessert Menu 2017

    OpenAIRE

    The Fatted Calf

    2017-01-01

    The Fatted Calf was opened in 2010. In 2015 we moved to Church St. Athlone. Run by husband and wife team, Feargal and Fiona O'Donnell, our focus is on finding the best, fresh, seasonal and locally sourced ingredients, that the midlands has to offer. Our food, expertly executed by our head chef, Dee Adamson, is our take on "modern Irish" food, served in a relaxed, comfortable, setting. http://arrow.dit.ie/menus21c/1224/thumbnail.jpg

  1. Calf injuries in professional football: Treat the patient or the scan? - A case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barreira, Paulo; Kassarjian, Ara; Araújo, João Pedro; Ferreira, Ruben; Espregueira Mendes, João

    2016-09-01

    To describe a case of a professional football player with significant imaging findings despite a rather innocuous clinical presentation with gradual onset of calf pain and who was able to continue training and playing with minor medical intervention. To discuss some of the limitations of existing muscle injury grading systems and their potential to cover the full range of injury presentations for calf injuries. Case report. A professional football player was assessed by physical examination, clinical testing and imaging (MRI) after a gradual onset of a calf injury. After returning to training and competition, a follow-up of his symptoms was performed with regular ultrasound imaging assessments. A professional football player (35 years, 1.90 m, 88 kg) male, African, striker, playing in the Professional Arabian Gulf League. The discordance between the clinical presentation and the imaging findings resulted in a challenging situation regarding the decision of whether to allow the player to train and compete. In addition, existing muscle injury grading systems do not seem to cover the full range of injuries seen in clinical practice. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Effect of kinesio tape application on calf pain and ankle range of motion in duathletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merino-Marban, Rafael; Mayorga-Vega, Daniel; Fernandez-Rodriguez, Emilio

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of the kinesio tape immediately after its application and after a duathlon competition on calf pain and the ankle range of motion in duathletes. A sample of 28 duathletes (age 29.11 ± 10.35 years; body height 172.57 ± 6.17 cm; body mass 66.63 ± 9.01 kg; body mass index 22.29 ± 2.00 kg/m(2)) were recruited from the competitors in a duathlon sprint. The Numerical Pain Rating Scale and ankle dorsiflexion range of motion measures were obtained at baseline, immediately after taping and 10 to 15 minutes after ending the duathlon competition. The kinesio tape was applied on the calf of duathletes 20 to 90 minutes before the competition, only on one of their legs (experimental leg) with the other leg acting as a control (control leg) in a randomized order. According to the between-group comparison, no differences were found immediately after the application of the kinesio tape and after the competition in the ankle range of motion and calf pain. However, a significant difference from baseline to immediately after taping was found in the ankle range of motion in the experimental leg. Applying the kinesio tape on the calf seems to immediately increase ankle dorsiflexion range of motion, but not after a duathlon competition. Applying the kinesio tape on the calf does not reduce muscle pain immediately or after a duathlon competition, but it appears to control an increase in pain.

  3. Inter-sport variability of muscle volume distribution identified by segmental bioelectrical impedance analysis in four ball sports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yamada Y

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Yosuke Yamada,1,2 Yoshihisa Masuo,3 Eitaro Nakamura,4 Shingo Oda5 1Laboratory of Sports and Health Science, Kyoto Prefectural University of Medicine, Kyoto, Japan; 2Japan Society for the Promotion of Science, Tokyo, Japan; 3Waseda University Research Institute for Elderly Health, Saitama, Japan; 4Department of Sport Science, Kyoto Iken College of Medicine and Health, Kyoto, Japan; 5Faculty of Health and Well-being, Kansai University, Osaka, Japan Abstract: The aim of this study was to evaluate and quantify differences in muscle distribution in athletes of various ball sports using segmental bioelectrical impedance analysis (SBIA. Participants were 115 male collegiate athletes from four ball sports (baseball, soccer, tennis, and lacrosse. Percent body fat (%BF and lean body mass were measured, and SBIA was used to measure segmental muscle volume (MV in bilateral upper arms, forearms, thighs, and lower legs. We calculated the MV ratios of dominant to nondominant, proximal to distal, and upper to lower limbs. The measurements consisted of a total of 31 variables. Cluster and factor analyses were applied to identify redundant variables. The muscle distribution was significantly different among groups, but the %BF was not. The classification procedures of the discriminant analysis could correctly distinguish 84.3% of the athletes. These results suggest that collegiate ball game athletes have adapted their physique to their sport movements very well, and the SBIA, which is an affordable, noninvasive, easy-to-operate, and fast alternative method in the field, can distinguish ball game athletes according to their specific muscle distribution within a 5-minute measurement. The SBIA could be a useful, affordable, and fast tool for identifying talents for specific sports. Keywords: discriminant analysis, cluster and factor analysis, segmental bioelectrical impedance analysis, baseball, lacrosse

  4. Volume tests for chronic venous insufficiency: an appraisal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peirce, E C; Chiang, K; Schanzer, H

    1991-05-01

    Chronic venous disease is increasingly treated surgically with a variety of experimental procedures. Noninvasive volume tests are commonly used before surgery to select patients and after surgery to assess results. Rapid volume changes are considered to indicate regurgitation. Rigorous statistical validation of tests and the confounding nature of unmeasured arterial inflow are seldom considered. Volume changes were measured in 29 control limbs and 35 limbs with venous disease, with mercury-in-silicone rubber strain gauges, for both exercise and elevation. Normalization for arterial flow permitted calculation of the regurgitation rate. Normal (95% confidence) limits for measured and calculated parameters were determined. Specificity was shown by the percent of normal parameter values for control limbs and sensitivity by the percent of abnormal values for extremities with venous disease. Arterial flow significantly altered volume curves. Normalization increased specificity and sensitivity significantly. Calf exercise tests, even normalized, were too insensitive to be reliable. Elevation tests were significantly more sensitive for determining regurgitation. However, exercise tests were useful and supplied important information about the calf muscle pump. We conclude that, as currently used, many limb volume test procedures are unsuitable but could be improved significantly by normalization to reduce the confounding effect of regional arterial flow and use of an elevation test to measure regurgitation.

  5. Effect of a static calf-stretching exercise on the resistive torque during passive ankle dorsiflexion in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muir, I W; Chesworth, B M; Vandervoort, A A

    1999-02-01

    A within-subject experimental design was used with to measure the effect of calf-stretching exercises on the resistive torque during passive ankle dorsiflexion in a group of 20 healthy men (aged 21 to 40). The purpose of this study was to determine if the performance of calf-stretching exercises would produce a decrease in resistive torque during passive ankle dorsiflexion. Calf-stretching exercises are widely used in sporting, fitness, and rehabilitation settings yet the effects of stretching on the passive mechanics of the ankle joint are not well understood. A KIN-COM isokinetic dynamometer was used to measure the passive resistive torque of the ankle while the joint complex was moved through return cycles from 10 degrees plantarflexion to 10 degrees dorsiflexion at a constant velocity of 6 degrees/s. Each subject's right or left ankle was randomly assigned to either a control or an experimental condition. The latter underwent a total of 4 static stretches, each lasting 30 seconds. The main findings of the study were that the calf-stretching exercises did not produce a significant reduction in the resistive torque during ankle dorsiflexion, as measured by the peak to peak torque at 10 degrees of ankle dorsiflexion or in the center range of the hysteresis loop at 0 degree dorsiflexion. Static calf-stretching exercises of short duration did not reduce the passive resistance of the connective tissue within the surrounding muscle and joint structures in the ankles of healthy young men.

  6. Subject-specific modelling of lower limb muscles in children with cerebral palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberhofer, K; Stott, N S; Mithraratne, K; Anderson, I A

    2010-01-01

    Recent studies suggest that the architecture of spastic muscles in children with cerebral palsy is considerably altered; however, only little is known about the structural changes that occur other than in the gastrocnemius muscle. In the present study, Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) and subject-specific modelling techniques were used to compare the lengths and volumes of six lower limb muscles between children with cerebral palsy and typically developing children. MRI scans of the lower limbs of two children with spastic hemiplegia cerebral palsy, four children with spastic diplegia cerebral palsy (mean age 9.6 years) and a group of typically developing children (mean age 10.2 years) were acquired. Subject-specific models of six lower limb muscles were developed from the MRI data using a technique called Face Fitting. Muscle volumes and muscle lengths were derived from the models and normalised to body mass and segmental lengths, respectively. Normalised muscle volumes in the children with cerebral palsy were smaller than in the control group with the difference being 22% in the calf muscles, 26% in the hamstrings and 22% in the quadriceps, respectively. Only the differences in the hamstrings and the quadriceps were statistically significant (P=0.036, P=0.038). Normalised muscle lengths in the children with cerebral palsy were significantly shorter (Pmuscle in either group. The present results show that lower limb muscles in ambulatory children with cerebral palsy are significantly altered, suggesting an overall mechanical deficit due to predominant muscle atrophy. Further investigations of the underlying causes of the muscle atrophy are required to better define management and treatment strategies for children with cerebral palsy.

  7. Calf Compression Sleeves Change Biomechanics but Not Performance and Physiological Responses in Trail Running.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerhervé, Hugo A; Samozino, Pierre; Descombe, Fabrice; Pinay, Matthieu; Millet, Guillaume Y; Pasqualini, Marion; Rupp, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: The aim of this study was to determine whether calf compression sleeves (CS) affects physiological and biomechanical parameters, exercise performance, and perceived sensations of muscle fatigue, pain and soreness during prolonged (~2 h 30 min) outdoor trail running. Methods: Fourteen healthy trained males took part in a randomized, cross-over study consisting in two identical 24-km trail running sessions (each including one bout of running at constant rate on moderately flat terrain, and one period of all-out running on hilly terrain) wearing either degressive CS (23 ± 2 mmHg) or control sleeves (CON, biomechanics (kinematics, vertical and leg stiffness) were determined at 12 km·h(-1) at the beginning, during, and at the end of both sessions. Exercise-induced Achilles tendon pain and delayed onset calf muscles soreness (DOMS) were assessed using visual analog scales. Results: Muscle oxygenation increased significantly in CS compared to CON at baseline and immediately after exercise (p 6 on a 10-cm scale) with no difference between conditions. However, Achilles tendon pain was significantly lower after the trial in CS than CON (p biomechanics and lower limb muscle functional capabilities toward a more dynamic behavior compared to control session. However, wearing compression sleeves did not affect performance and exercise-induced DOMS, while it minimized Achilles tendon pain immediately after running.

  8. Calf Compression Sleeves Change Biomechanics but Not Performance and Physiological Responses in Trail Running

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo A. Kerhervé

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The aim of this study was to determine whether calf compression sleeves (CS affects physiological and biomechanical parameters, exercise performance, and perceived sensations of muscle fatigue, pain and soreness during prolonged (~2 h 30 min outdoor trail running.Methods: Fourteen healthy trained males took part in a randomized, cross-over study consisting in two identical 24-km trail running sessions (each including one bout of running at constant rate on moderately flat terrain, and one period of all-out running on hilly terrain wearing either degressive CS (23 ± 2 mmHg or control sleeves (CON, <4 mmHg. Running time, heart rate and muscle oxygenation of the medial gastrocnemius muscle (measured using portable near-infrared spectroscopy were monitored continuously. Muscle functional capabilities (power, stiffness were determined using 20 s of maximal hopping before and after both sessions. Running biomechanics (kinematics, vertical and leg stiffness were determined at 12 km·h−1 at the beginning, during, and at the end of both sessions. Exercise-induced Achilles tendon pain and delayed onset calf muscles soreness (DOMS were assessed using visual analog scales.Results: Muscle oxygenation increased significantly in CS compared to CON at baseline and immediately after exercise (p < 0.05, without any difference in deoxygenation kinetics during the run, and without any significant change in run times. Wearing CS was associated with (i higher aerial time and leg stiffness in running at constant rate, (ii with lower ground contact time, higher leg stiffness, and higher vertical stiffness in all-out running, and (iii with lower ground contact time in hopping. Significant DOMS were induced in both CS and CON (>6 on a 10-cm scale with no difference between conditions. However, Achilles tendon pain was significantly lower after the trial in CS than CON (p < 0.05.Discussion: Calf compression did not modify muscle oxygenation during ~2 h 30

  9. Whole-body and segmental muscle volume are associated with ball velocity in high school baseball pitchers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yamada Y

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Yosuke Yamada,1,2 Daichi Yamashita,2,3 Shinji Yamamoto,2,3 Tomoyuki Matsui,4 Kazuya Seo,4 Yoshikazu Azuma,4 Yoshikazu Kida,5 Toru Morihara,5 Misaka Kimura1 1Laboratory of Sports and Health Science, Kyoto Prefectural University of Medicine, Kyoto, Japan; 2Research Fellow, Japan Society for the Promotion of Science, Tokyo, Japan; 3Graduate School of Human and Environmental Studies, Kyoto University, Kyoto, Japan; 4Department of Rehabilitation, Graduate School of Medical Science, Kyoto, Prefectural University of Medicine, Kyoto, Japan; 5Department of Orthopedics, Graduate School of Medical Science, Kyoto Prefectural University of Medicine, Kyoto, Japan Abstract: The aim of the study was to examine the relationship between pitching ball velocity and segmental (trunk, upper arm, forearm, upper leg, and lower leg and whole-body muscle volume (MV in high school baseball pitchers. Forty-seven male high school pitchers (40 right-handers and seven left-handers; age, 16.2 ± 0.7 years; stature, 173.6 ± 4.9 cm; mass, 65.0 ± 6.8 kg, years of baseball experience, 7.5 ± 1.8 years; maximum pitching ball velocity, 119.0 ± 9.0 km/hour participated in the study. Segmental and whole-body MV were measured using segmental bioelectrical impedance analysis. Maximum ball velocity was measured with a sports radar gun. The MV of the dominant arm was significantly larger than the MV of the non-dominant arm (P < 0.001. There was no difference in MV between the dominant and non-dominant legs. Whole-body MV was significantly correlated with ball velocity (r = 0.412, P < 0.01. Trunk MV was not correlated with ball velocity, but the MV for both lower legs, and the dominant upper leg, upper arm, and forearm were significantly correlated with ball velocity (P < 0.05. The results were not affected by age or years of baseball experience. Whole-body and segmental MV are associated with ball velocity in high school baseball pitchers. However, the contribution of the muscle mass

  10. Early versus Delayed Rehabilitation after Acute Muscle Injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bayer, Monika L; Magnusson, S Peter; Kjaer, Michael

    2017-01-01

    In this randomized study involving 50 amateur athletes with severe injury to thigh or calf muscles, a return to full activity was more rapid when the rehabilitation program was started 2 days rather than 9 days after injury.......In this randomized study involving 50 amateur athletes with severe injury to thigh or calf muscles, a return to full activity was more rapid when the rehabilitation program was started 2 days rather than 9 days after injury....

  11. Performance and Health of Group-Housed Calves Kept in Igloo Calf Hutches and Calf Barn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerzy Wójcik*, Renata Pilarczyk, Anna Bilska, Ottfried Weiher1 and Peter Sanftleben1

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Group-reared calves are usually housed in common buildings, such as calf barns of all sorts; however, there are concerns about this practice due to problems such as an increased incidence of diseases and poor performance of the calves. Group calf rearing using igloo hutches may be a solution combining the benefits of individual and group housing systems. The aim of this study was to evaluate group-reared calves housed in Igloo-type hutches compared with those housed in common calf barns. The experiment was carried out on a large private dairy farm located in Vorpommern, Germany. A total of 90 Deutsche-Holstein bull calves were assigned to 2 treatment groups: the calf-barn group, with calves grouped in pens in a building, and the Igloo-hutch group, with calves housed in outdoor enclosures with an access to group igloo-style hutches. Calves entering the 84-day experiment were at an average age of about three weeks, with the mean initial body weight of about 50 kg. The calves housed in the group Igloo hutches attained higher daily weight gains compared to those housed in the calf barn (973 vs 721 g/day, consumed more solid feeds (concentrate, corn grain and maize silage: (1.79 vs 1.59 kg/day, and less milk replacer (5.51 vs 6.19 kg/day, had also a lower incidence of respiratory diseases (1.24 vs 3.57% with a shorter persistence of the illness.

  12. Noninvasive, low-noise, fast imaging of blood volume and deoxygenation changes in muscles using light-emitting diode continuous-wave imager

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yuanqing; Lech, Gwen; Nioka, Shoko; Intes, Xavier; Chance, Britton

    2002-08-01

    This article focuses on optimizing the signal to noise ratio (SNR) of a three-wavelength light-emitting diode (LED) near-infrared continuous-wave (cw) imager and its application to in vivo muscle metabolism measurement. The shot-noise limited SNR is derived and calculated to be 2 x104 for the physiological blood concentrations of muscle. Aiming at shot-noise limited SNR performance and fast imaging, we utilize sample and hold circuits to reduce high-frequency noise. These circuits have also been designed to be parallel integrating, through which SNR of 2 x103 and 2 Hz imaging acquisition rate have been achieved when the probe is placed on a muscle model. The noise corresponds to 2 x10-4 optical density error, which suggests an in vitro resolution of 15. 4 nM blood volume and 46.8 nM deoxygenation changes. A 48 dB digital gain control circuit with 256 steps is employed to enlarge the dynamic range of the imager. We utilize cuff ischemia as a living model demonstration and its results are reported. The instrument is applied during exercise to measure the changes of blood volume and deoxygenation, which provides important information about muscle metabolism. We find that the primary source of noise encountered during exercise experiment is from the random motion of muscle. The results demonstrate that the LED cw imager is ideal for the noninvasive study of muscle metabolism.

  13. Evaluation of lung volumes, vital capacity and respiratory muscle strength after cervical, thoracic and lumbar spinal surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Marcio Aparecido; Vidotto, Milena Carlos; Nascimento, Oliver Augusto; Almeida, Renato; Santoro, Ilka Lopes; Sperandio, Evandro Fornias; Jardim, José Roberto; Gazzotti, Mariana Rodrigues

    2015-01-01

    Studies have shown that physiopathological changes to the respiratory system can occur following thoracic and abdominal surgery. Laminectomy is considered to be a peripheral surgical procedure, but it is possible that thoracic spinal surgery exerts a greater influence on lung function. The aim of this study was to evaluate the pulmonary volumes and maximum respiratory pressures of patients undergoing cervical, thoracic or lumbar spinal surgery. Prospective study in a tertiary-level university hospital. Sixty-three patients undergoing laminectomy due to diagnoses of tumors or herniated discs were evaluated. Vital capacity, tidal volume, minute ventilation and maximum respiratory pressures were evaluated preoperatively and on the first and second postoperative days. Possible associations between the respiratory variables and the duration of the operation, surgical diagnosis and smoking status were investigated. Vital capacity and maximum inspiratory pressure presented reductions on the first postoperative day (20.9% and 91.6%, respectively) for thoracic surgery (P = 0.01), and maximum expiratory pressure showed reductions on the first postoperative day in cervical surgery patients (15.3%; P = 0.004). The incidence of pulmonary complications was 3.6%. There were reductions in vital capacity and maximum respiratory pressures during the postoperative period in patients undergoing laminectomy. Surgery in the thoracic region was associated with greater reductions in vital capacity and maximum inspiratory pressure, compared with cervical and lumbar surgery. Thus, surgical manipulation of the thoracic region appears to have more influence on pulmonary function and respiratory muscle action.

  14. Positive association of vigorous and moderate physical activity volumes with skeletal muscle mass but not bone density or metabolism markers in hemodialysis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morishita, Yoshiyuki; Kubo, Kazuya; Miki, Atushi; Ishibashi, Kenichi; Kusano, Eiji; Nagata, Daisuke

    2014-03-01

    To determine whether vigorous and moderate physical activity volumes are associated with skeletal muscle loss and chronic kidney disease-mineral and bone disorder (CKD-MBD) in hemodialysis (HD) patients. Skeletal muscle index (SMI) was measured using a bioelectrical impedance plethysmograph, and grip strength using a hand dynamometer, in 32 HD patients and 16 healthy controls. In HD patients, bone density was measured using digital image processing, and serum bone metabolism markers were measured as surrogate markers for CKD-MBD. Vigorous and moderate physical activity volumes of HD patients were measured using an activity monitor for 1 week, and associations between vigorous and moderate physical activity volumes and SMI, grip strength, and surrogate markers for CKD-MBD were investigated. SMI of HD patients (4.60 ± 0.98 kg/m(2)) was significantly lower than that of controls (5.55 ± 0.80 kg/m(2), p Grip strength of HD patients (19.9 ± 7.74 kg) was also significantly lower than that of controls (33.0 ± 8.94 kg, p grip strength (β = 0.231, p = 0131) after adjustment for age, sex, and HD duration. They were not associated with bone density (β = 0.106, p = 0.470) or any markers of bone metabolism. Vigorous and moderate physical activity volumes were positively associated with skeletal muscle mass but not skeletal muscle strength or surrogate markers for CKD-MBD.

  15. Effects of pressure- or volume-overload hypertrophy on passive stiffness in isolated adult cardiac muscle cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, S.; Koide, M.; Cooper, G. 4th; Zile, M. R.

    1996-01-01

    It has been hypothesized that the changes in myocardial stiffness induced by chronic hemodynamic overloading are dependent on changes in the passive stiffness of the cardiac muscle cell (cardiocyte). However, no previous studies have examined the passive constitutive properties of cardiocytes isolated from animals with myocardial hypertrophy. Accordingly, changes in relative passive stiffness of cardiocytes isolated from animals with chronic pressure- or volume-overload hypertrophy were determined by examining the effects of anisosmotic stress on cardiocyte size. Anisosmotic stress was produced by altering superfusate osmolarity. Hypertrophied cardiocytes were enzymatically isolated from 16 adult cats with right ventricular (RV) pressure-overload hypertrophy induced by pulmonary artery banding (PAB) and from 6 adult cats with RV volume-overload hypertrophy induced by creating an atrial septal defect (ASD). Left ventricular (LV) cardiocytes from each cat served as nonhypertrophied, normally loaded, same-animal controls. Superfusate osmolarity was decreased from 305 +/- 3 to 135 +/- 5 mosM and increased to 645 +/- 4 mosM. During anisosmotic stress, there were no significant differences between hypertrophied RV and normal LV cardiocytes in pressure overload PAB cats with respect to percent change in cardiocyte area (47 +/- 2% in RV vs. 48 +/- 2% in LV), diameter (46 +/- 3% in RV vs. 48 +/- 2% in LV), or length (2.4 +/- 0.2% in RV vs. 2.0 +/- 0.3% in LV), or sarcomere length (1.5 +/- 0.1% in RV vs. 1.3 +/- 0.3% in LV). Likewise, there were no significant differences in cardiocyte strain between hypertrophied RV and normal LV cardiocytes from ASD cats. In conclusion, chronic pressure-overload hypertrophy and chronic volume-overload hypertrophy did not alter the cardiocyte response to anisosmotic stress. Thus chronic overload hypertrophy did not alter relative passive cardiocyte stiffness.

  16. Effects of phyto-oestrogens on veal calf prostate histology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groot, M.J.

    2006-01-01

    In veal calf production plant-based proteins are frequently included in milk replacer fed to the animals. Since soy products, which are mostly used, are known for their high levels of phyto-oestrogens, the effects of these feeds on the veal calf prostate were examined. Goal was to determine whether

  17. The Economics of Organic Versus Conventional Cow-calf Production

    OpenAIRE

    Gillespie, Jeffrey M.; Nehring, Richard F.

    2012-01-01

    Costs, returns, and profitability of cow-calf farms that are organic or transitioning to organic are compared with those of cow-calf farms that are non-organic. A method of matching samples is used for the comparison. Results suggest higher cost of organic production due to higher unpaid labor, taxes and insurance, and overhead costs.

  18. CalfScience: Extension Education at Many Levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Dale A.; Tellessen, Kathlyn; Sischo, William M.

    2010-01-01

    The issue of antimicrobial resistance in food animal agriculture was addressed by conducting clinical trials to assess alternatives to antimicrobials in dairy calf-raising and developing outreach to three different audiences. Current research was integrated into Extension programs for calf-raisers, animal science and veterinary students, and food…

  19. Correlating 2D histological slice with 3D MRI image volume using smart phone as an interactive tool for muscle study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eresen, Aydin; Li, Peng; Ji, Jim Xiuquan

    2014-01-01

    In muscle dystrophy studies, registration of histological image with MRI image volume enables cross validation of MRI biomarkers using pathological result. However, correlation of 2D histology slice with 3D MRI volume is technically challenging due to the potentially non-orthogonal slice plane and incomplete or distorted histological slice. This paper presents an efficient method to directly perform the 2D-3D registration. The method is unique in that it uses smart phone as a navigation tool for initial alignment followed by an overlap invariant mutual information-based refinement. Experimental results using animal muscle samples images from a 3T MRI and HE stained histological images show that the proposed method is capable of aligning the histological slice with an oblique slice in MR volume.

  20. The periodization of resistance training in soccer players: changes in maximal strength, lower extremity power, body composition, and muscle volume.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barjaste, Amir; Mirzaei, Bahman

    2017-02-22

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of 12-weeks traditional periodized resistance training on some physical capacities of soccer players. Eighteen amateur soccer players with very little experience in resistance training voluntarily participated in this study. Subjects were assigned into two groups; Experimental (EX) group (n: 10) that conducted a traditional linear periodized resistance training program and a control (C) group (n: 8) that did not participate in any resistance training. Periodized resistance training in two mesocycles was used in this study: general or anatomical adaptation phase (6 wk, 65%-75% of 1RM, eleven exercises in each session) and maximal strength phase (6 wk, 85%-95% of 1RM, three to four exercises in each session). One Repetition Maximum (1RM) strength in lower and upper body, Vertical Jump (VJ) height, Body Composition, and Muscle Volume were measured at three different time points; baseline, after general phase, and after maximal strength phase. The average of the increase in 1RM all exercises in general phase was greater than the maximal strength phase, on average 29.38% and 9.67% respectively (P≤0.05). Also, the Percentage of change in VJ height in general phase was greater than the maximal strength phase (11.93% vs 3.97% respectively) (P≤0.05).0 CONCLUSIONS: The results of this study indicated that muscle strength and explosive performance in players with the little experience in resistance training can be significantly improved with the completion of general phase of resistance training periodization using moderate loads.

  1. Isolation of a subgroup two adenovirus from calf with weak calf syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stalber, E; Renshaw, H W; Boro, C; Mattson, D; Frank, F W

    1976-01-01

    A viral agent, designated Id-1, was isolated from the buffy coat of a calf suffering from weak calf syndrome. The virus replicated on bovine salivary gland cells and caused cytopathic effect within four days after infection-Cytopathic effect was characterized by rounding and clumping of cells. Stained preparations of infected monolayers revealed multiple intranuclear inclusions. The agent was found to be resistant to chloroform, ether, trypsin, sodium desoxycholate, oxytetracycline and a pH range of three to nine. The virus was sensitive to 5-iodo-2'-deoxyuridine and to a temperature of 70 degrees C. Cross neutralization tests with Id-1 antiserum and bovine adenovirus type 7 (strain Fujuroi) antiserum resulted in complete neutralilation of both viruses with four or less antibody units of homologous or heterologous antiserum. Images Fig. 1. PMID:187293

  2. Virome of US bovine calf serum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeghi, Mohammadreza; Kapusinszky, Beatrix; Yugo, Danielle M; Phan, Tung Gia; Deng, Xutao; Kanevsky, Isis; Opriessnig, Tanja; Woolums, Amelia R; Hurley, David J; Meng, Xiang-Jin; Delwart, Eric

    2017-03-01

    Using viral metagenomics we analyzed four bovine serum pools assembled from 715 calves in the United States. Two parvoviruses, bovine parvovirus 2 (BPV2) and a previously uncharacterized parvovirus designated as bosavirus (BosaV), were detected in 3 and 4 pools respectively and their complete coding sequences generated. Based on NS1 protein identity, bosavirus qualifies as a member of a new species in the copiparvovirus genus. Also detected were low number of reads matching ungulate tetraparvovirus 2, bovine hepacivirus, and several papillomaviruses. This study further characterizes the diversity of viruses in calf serum with the potential to infect fetuses and through fetal bovine serum contaminate cell cultures. Copyright © 2017 International Alliance for Biological Standardization. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Automatic and quantitative assessment of regional muscle volume by multi-atlas segmentation using whole-body water-fat MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlsson, Anette; Rosander, Johannes; Romu, Thobias; Tallberg, Joakim; Grönqvist, Anders; Borga, Magnus; Dahlqvist Leinhard, Olof

    2015-06-01

    To develop and demonstrate a rapid whole-body magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) method for automatic quantification of total and regional skeletal muscle volume. The method was based on a multi-atlas segmentation of intensity corrected water-fat separated image volumes. Automatic lean muscle tissue segmentations were achieved by nonrigid registration of atlas datasets with 10 different manually segmented muscle groups. Ten subjects scanned at 1.5 T and 3.0 T were used as atlases, initial validation and optimization. Further validation used 11 subjects scanned at 3.0 T. The automated and manual segmentations were compared using intraclass correlation, true positive volume fractions, and delta volumes. For the 1.5 T datasets, the intraclass correlation, true positive volume fractions (mean ± standard deviation, SD), and delta volumes (mean ± SD) were 0.99, 0.91 ± 0.02, -0.10 ± 0.70L (whole body), 0.99, 0.93 ± 0.02, 0.01 ± 0.07L (left anterior thigh), and 0.98, 0.80 ± 0.07, -0.08 ± 0.15L (left abdomen). The corresponding values at 3.0 T were 0.97, 0.92 ± 0.03, -0.17 ± 1.37L (whole body), 0.99, 0.93 ± 0.03, 0.03 ± 0.08L (left anterior thigh), and 0.89, 0.90 ± 0.04, -0.03 ± 0.42L (left abdomen). The validation datasets showed similar results. The method accurately quantified the whole-body skeletal muscle volume and the volume of separate muscle groups independent of field strength and image resolution. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Racial differences in hemoglobin and plasma volume variation: implications for muscle performance and recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sellami, Maha; Chamari, Karim; Zagatto, Alessandro Moura; Kebsi, Wiem; Chaouachi, Anis; Zouhal, Hassane

    2017-04-10

    To examine the effect of race differences on sprint performance, Hemoglobin (Hb), Hematocrit (Ht) and plasma volume (PV) variation in response to repeated sprint exercise. Thirty-six healthy, moderately trained men and women (20.8 ± 0.2 year-old) volunteered to participate in this study. They were allocated to one of the four groups according to their gender and race: Black men's group (BM, n = 9), White men's group (WM, n = 9), Black women's group (BW, n = 9) and White women's group (WW, n = 9). All participants performed the running-based anaerobic sprint test (RAST), which consists of six 35-m sprints with 10 s of recovery in-between. Six venous blood samples were collected to determine Hb, Ht and PV levels at rest, after warm-up, immediately post- and at 5, 15 and 30 min post-RAST. Blood lactate is also sampled during the 3rd minutes of recovery. The best running time was significantly shorter (P = .002) in BW compared to WW. We have observed significantly higher Hb (P = .010) and Ht (P = .004) levels in BW compared to WW during the 5th minute of recovery. During RAST, the PV decreased significantly (P = .007) in WM only. Black groups had lower (P < .05) lactate levels compared to the white subjects. During recovery, PV increase was significantly (P = .003) higher in WW compared to BW during the 5th minute of recovery. This study demonstrated that sprint and repeated sprint performances were different between white and black women. Differences in anaerobic performance between the groups were associated with racial differences in lactate levels and blood count among women's group during recovery time. Hence, it is important to take into account this race-related difference in hematological parameters in responses to intense efforts.

  5. Calf Augmentation and Restoration: Long-Term Results and the Review of the Reported Complications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niechajev, Igor; Krag, Christen

    2017-10-01

    Augmentation or reconstruction of the calves is indicated in patients with thin legs, for bodybuilders, or when there is a defect after an injury or illness. The principle of placing implants under the investing crural fascia was worked out in the 1980s. The senior author (I.N.) introduced many technical modifications and improvements for this operation, among them the new instrument, an inserter for the calf implants. Presented patient material is unique in that the more challenging reconstructive cases almost equal the numbers of the aesthetic cases. During the years 1991 through 2016, 50 patients underwent 60 calf contour corrections. Indications were aesthetic in 23 patients, six were bodybuilders, and 21 underwent lower leg reconstruction because of deformity caused by illness. According to evaluation by the surgeon, excellent-to-good results were obtained in 30 out of 37 followed patients. Patients rated their results as very good (18), good (10), acceptable (7) and bad (2). One 28-year-old professional bodybuilder sustained acute anterior compartment syndrome in one leg. Implants were removed 16 h after surgery, but he developed ischaemia in the anterior compartment leading to the necrosis of muscles. After several surgical operations, including microsurgical transfer of the innervated central caput of the quadriceps femoris muscle, he could resume his bodybuilding activities. Other complications were minor and manageable. Calf augmentation, performed properly, has evolved to be a safe, efficient and aesthetically pleasing operation. The possibility of acute compartment syndrome should be kept in mind. This journal requires that authors assign a level of evidence to each article. For a full description of these Evidence-Based Medicine ratings, please refer to the Table of Contents or the online Instructions to Authors www.springer.com/00266 .

  6. Effects of Low-Intensity Cycle Training with Restricted Leg Blood Flow on Thigh Muscle Volume and VO2MAX in Young Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abe, Takashi; Fujita, Satoshi; Nakajima, Toshiaki; Sakamaki, Mikako; Ozaki, Hayao; Ogasawara, Riki; Sugaya, Masato; Kudo, Maiko; Kurano, Miwa; Yasuda, Tomohiro; Sato, Yoshiaki; Ohshima, Hiroshi; Mukai, Chiaki; Ishii, Naokata

    2010-01-01

    Concurrent improvements in aerobic capacity and muscle hypertrophy in response to a single mode of training have not been reported. We examined the effects of low-intensity cycle exercise training with and without blood flow restriction (BFR) on muscle size and maximum oxygen uptake (VO2max). A group of 19 young men (mean age ± SD: 23.0 ± 1.7 years) were allocated randomly into either a BFR-training group (n=9, BFR-training) or a non-BFR control training group (n=10, CON-training), both of which trained 3 days/wk for 8 wk. Training intensity and duration were 40% of VO2max and 15 min for the BFR-training group and 40% of VO2max and 45 min for the CON-training group. MRI-measured thigh and quadriceps muscle cross-sectional area and muscle volume increased by 3.4-5.1% (P training group. There was no change in muscle size (~0.6%) and strength (~1.4%) in the CON-training group. Significant improvements in VO2max (6.4%) and exercise time until exhaustion (15.4%) were observed in the BFR-training group (p training group (-0.1 and 3. 9%, respectively). The results suggest that low-intensity, short-duration cycling exercise combined with BFR improves both muscle hypertrophy and aerobic capacity concurrently in young men. Key pointsConcurrent improvements in aerobic capacity and muscle hypertrophy in response to a single mode of training have not been reported.In the present study, low-intensity (40% of VO2max) cycle training with BFR can elicit concurrent improvement in muscle hypertrophy and aerobic capacity.

  7. Pharmacodynamics of marbofloxacin for calf pneumonia pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Illambas, Joanna; Potter, Timothy; Cheng, Zhangrui; Rycroft, Andrew; Fishwick, John; Lees, Peter

    2013-06-01

    The pharmacodynamic (PD) properties of the fluoroquinolone, marbofloxacin, were determined for the bovine respiratory tract pathogens Mannheima haemolytica and Pasteurella multocida. For six pathogenic isolates of each organism, three in vitro indices of efficacy and potency were determined, namely, minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) and time-kill curves. Each parameter was determined in two matrices, Mueller Hinton Broth (MHB) and calf serum. For serum, MBC:MIC ratios were 2.7:1 (M. haemolytica) and 2.4:1 (P. multocida). The killing action of marbofloxacin had the characteristics of concentration dependency against M. haemolytica and co-dependency (on time and concentration) against P. multocida. To confirm the characteristics of the time-kill profiles, growth inhibition produced by marbofloxacin was also established ex vivo in three biological fluids, calf serum, exudate and transudate, harvested from a tissue cage model. The in vitro time-kill data were modelled with pharmacokinetic properties of marbofloxacin, established by intramuscular administration in calves at a dose of 2 mg/kg; three levels of activity, namely bacteriostatic, 3 log10 reduction and 4 log10 reduction in bacterial counts were determined. Mean AUC(24h)/MIC values (with percentage coefficients of variation indicating inter-isolate variability) for M. haemolytica, based on serum MICs, were 31.3 (41.6), 57.7 (42.4) and 79.2 (44.6) h, respectively. Corresponding values for MHB were 20.5 (58.0), 40.5 (51.8) and 51.2 (24.30) h, respectively. When allowance was made for binding of marbofloxacin to serum protein, the AUC(24h)/MIC values for serum were similar to those for MHB. Numerical AUC(24h)/MIC values for P. multocida were slightly lower than those obtained for M. haemolytica. These data establish for the first time inter-isolate variability in AUC(24h)/MIC values required for three levels of bacterial kill for two pathogenic species and thereby

  8. Effects of coagulating enzyme types (commercial calf rennet ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effects of coagulating enzyme types (commercial calf rennet, Aspergillus niger var. awamori as recombinant chymosin and rhizomucor miehei as microbial rennet) on the chemical and sensory characteristics of white pickled cheese.

  9. Veal calf performance in response to concentrate diets of different ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Unknown

    sasas.co.za/Sajas.html. 58. Veal calf performance in response to concentrate diets of different rumen degradable protein content. L. Holtshausen. # and C.W. Cruywagen. Dept of Animal Sciences, University of Stellenbosch, Stellenbosch, 7600, ...

  10. Comparison of machine milk out and calf nursing techniques for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Milk yields by machine milk out and calf nursing techniques were estimated monthly from April to August in 24, 3- years-old, two-breed cross cows. Overall, average milk yield estimates were 16 - 18 lb/day by machine milk out and 12.79 lb/day by calf nursing, with a difference of 3.91 lb/day. The two methods were similar ...

  11. Calf health from birth to weaning. III. housing and management of calf pneumonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorenz Ingrid

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Calfhood diseases have a major impact on the economic viability of cattle operations. A three part review series has been developed focusing on calf health from birth to weaning. In this paper, the last of the three part series, we review disease prevention and management with particular reference to pneumonia, focusing primarily on the pre-weaned calf. Pneumonia in recently weaned suckler calves is also considered, where the key risk factors are related to the time of weaning. Weaning of the suckler calf is often combined with additional stressors including a change in nutrition, environmental change, transport and painful husbandry procedures (castration, dehorning. The reduction of the cumulative effects of these multiple stressors around the time of weaning together with vaccination programmes (preconditioning can reduce subsequent morbidity and mortality in the feedlot. In most studies, calves housed individually and calves housed outdoors with shelter, are associated with decreased risk of disease. Even though it poses greater management challenges, successful group housing of calves is possible. Special emphasis should be given to equal age groups and to keeping groups stable once they are formed. The management of pneumonia in calves is reliant on a sound understanding of aetiology, relevant risk factors, and of effective approaches to diagnosis and treatment. Early signs of pneumonia include increased respiratory rate and fever, followed by depression. The single most important factor determining the success of therapy in calves with pneumonia is early onset of treatment, and subsequent adequate duration of treatment. The efficacy and economical viability of vaccination against respiratory disease in calves remains unclear.

  12. Adipose tissue and skeletal muscle blood flow during mental stress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Linde, B.; Hjemdahl, P.; Freyschuss, U.; Juhlin-Dannfelt, A.

    1989-01-01

    Mental stress (a modified Stroop color word conflict test (CWT)) increased adipose tissue blood flow (ATBF; 133Xe clearance) by 70% and reduced adipose tissue vascular resistance (ATR) by 25% in healthy male volunteers. The vasculatures of adipose tissue (abdomen as well as thigh), skeletal muscle of the calf (133Xe clearance), and the entire calf (venous occlusion plethysmography) responded similarly. Arterial epinephrine (Epi) and glycerol levels were approximately doubled by stress. Beta-Blockade by metoprolol (beta 1-selective) or propranolol (nonselective) attenuated CWT-induced tachycardia similarly. Metoprolol attenuated stress-induced vasodilation in the calf and tended to do so in adipose tissue. Propranolol abolished vasodilation in the calf and resulted in vasoconstriction during CWT in adipose tissue. Decreases in ATR, but not in skeletal muscle or calf vascular resistances, were correlated to increases in arterial plasma glycerol (r = -0.42, P less than 0.05), whereas decreases in skeletal muscle and calf vascular resistances, but not in ATR, were correlated to increases in arterial Epi levels (r = -0.69, P less than 0.01; and r = -0.43, P less than 0.05, respectively). The results suggest that mental stress increases nutritive blood flow in adipose tissue and skeletal muscle considerably, both through the elevation of perfusion pressure and via vasodilatation. Withdrawal of vasoconstrictor nerve activity, vascular beta 2-adrenoceptor stimulation by circulating Epi, and metabolic mechanisms (in adipose tissue) may contribute to the vasodilatation.

  13. Most frequent calf diseases in industrial breeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lazić Sava

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available It is possible to conduct an analysis of the incidence of viral diseases in calves if these diseases are divided into two basic groups. One group comprises diseases of respiratory organs which are manifested by symptoms of a respiratory syndrome, and the second group comprises diseases of digestive tract organs in the form of a gastrointestinal syndrome. It is considered that viruses have the dominant role in the complex etiology of the respiratory syndrome, primarily the IBR virus or the Bovine Herpes Virus-1 (BHV-1, followed by the parainfluenza 3 virus (RSV, the Bovine Viral Diahrrea Virus (BVDV, the bovine Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV, but also other viruses, such as adenoviruses, rhinoviruses, coronaviruses, can also influence the appearance of the respiratory syndrome. The respiratory syndrome is rarely caused by a single viral agent, but most frequently by mixed viruses, but also by bacterial infections. Mixed viral infections often have a lethal outcome. Investigations of the etiology of the gastrointestinal syndrome so far indicate that, in addition to bacteria, viruses can also be a significant etiological factor. Rotaviruses, coronaviruses, adenoviruses parvoviruses, herpesviruses (the IBR virus, pestiviruses (BVDV, can be the causes of a gastrointestinal syndrome. It is believed that viruses can be the cause in about 10% cases in the ethiopathogenesis of this syndrome. The paper describes the etiopathogenesis of calf diseases of viral etiology which are most often found in the local conditions of industrial breeding of calves.

  14. ULTRASONOGRAPHIC EVALUATION OF THE RUPTURED MEDIAL HEAD OF GASTROCNEMIUS MUSCLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damir Lukac

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Introduction: Tennis leg, a common injury of the medial head of gastrocnemius muscle in the muscle-tendon junction, is usually reported in men during recreational sports. Sudden pain is the main symptom accompanied by the feeling of rupture in the calf. Clinical examination followed by ultrasound is the standard diagnostic procedure. Objective: The main objectives of this study are to compare clinical and ultrasonographic findings in cases of tennis leg, evaluate the location and type of lesion in the medial head of gastrocnemius muscle, and evaluate the edema volume and the presence of deep vein thrombosis (DVT. Second, the healing process was monitored with ultrasound to distinguish the level of recovery and to record the presence of chronic sequelae. Methods: Eighty-one subjects with clinical symptoms of rupture of the medial head of gastrocnemius muscle participated in the study. A linear probe (7-12 MHz was used for ultrasonographic (US and a Doppler was used to verify the presence of DVT. Results: In 78 of 81 subjects examined, we found obvious US changes (96.3% and three of them had no positive findings. In 67 of them, we diagnosed rupture of the medial head of the gastrocnemius muscle. Most of them had partial rupture (73.13% and the remaining had total rupture (26.87%. The edema (30.84% was found in the space between the aponeurosis of the gastrocnemius and soleus muscles. DVT with the clinical signs of tennis leg was observed in 5 of 81 patients (6.17%. Conclusion: Our findings indicate that ultrasound is very important for early diagnosis of muscle-tendon injuries in the leg. In addition, monitoring the healing process and assessing the chosen treatment showed a high efficiency. Ultrasonography is an effective method to identify and differentiate the sequelae of the injured muscles and vascular complications.

  15. Low-volume high-intensity interval training reduces hyperglycemia and increases muscle mitochondrial capacity in patients with type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, Jonathan P; Gillen, Jenna B; Percival, Michael E; Safdar, Adeel; Tarnopolsky, Mark A; Punthakee, Zubin; Jung, Mary E; Gibala, Martin J

    2011-12-01

    Low-volume high-intensity interval training (HIT) is emerging as a time-efficient exercise strategy for improving health and fitness. This form of exercise has not been tested in type 2 diabetes and thus we examined the effects of low-volume HIT on glucose regulation and skeletal muscle metabolic capacity in patients with type 2 diabetes. Eight patients with type 2 diabetes (63 ± 8 yr, body mass index 32 ± 6 kg/m(2), Hb(A1C) 6.9 ± 0.7%) volunteered to participate in this study. Participants performed six sessions of HIT (10 × 60-s cycling bouts eliciting ∼90% maximal heart rate, interspersed with 60 s rest) over 2 wk. Before training and from ∼48 to 72 h after the last training bout, glucose regulation was assessed using 24-h continuous glucose monitoring under standardized dietary conditions. Markers of skeletal muscle metabolic capacity were measured in biopsy samples (vastus lateralis) before and after (72 h) training. Average 24-h blood glucose concentration was reduced after training (7.6 ± 1.0 vs. 6.6 ± 0.7 mmol/l) as was the sum of the 3-h postprandial areas under the glucose curve for breakfast, lunch, and dinner (both P Training increased muscle mitochondrial capacity as evidenced by higher citrate synthase maximal activity (∼20%) and protein content of Complex II 70 kDa subunit (∼37%), Complex III Core 2 protein (∼51%), and Complex IV subunit IV (∼68%, all P training (both P volume HIT can rapidly improve glucose control and induce adaptations in skeletal muscle that are linked to improved metabolic health in patients with type 2 diabetes.

  16. Effects of isometric muscle training on residual limb volume, strength, and gait of below-knee amputees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kegel, B; Burgess, E M; Starr, T W; Daly, W K

    1981-10-01

    This study was undertaken to determine if prosthetic suspension capabilities of below-knee amputees could be improved by using biofeedback in a controlled exercise program. Improvements in muscle bulk of four amputees were assessed. Changes in transverse cross-sectional areas and suspension ability of the residual limb were measured. The effect of muscle training on gait and on muscle-use patterns during gait was observed. Marked increases in muscle bulk below the knee and improvement in suspension capabilities were seen in two of the subjects, and somewhat lesser improvements were seen in the remaining two subjects. From these changes, one could modify prosthetic designs to take advantage of the residual limb muscles for suspension. For this reason, training the below-knee amputee to exercise the residual limb musculature should become part of routine physical therapy management. In this study, biofeedback was proven to be a useful tool for the reeducation of the residual limb musculature.

  17. Quantifying antimicrobial resistance at veal calf farms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela B Bosman

    Full Text Available This study was performed to determine a sampling strategy to quantify the prevalence of antimicrobial resistance on veal calf farms, based on the variation in antimicrobial resistance within and between calves on five farms. Faecal samples from 50 healthy calves (10 calves/farm were collected. From each individual sample and one pooled faecal sample per farm, 90 selected Escherichia coli isolates were tested for their resistance against 25 mg/L amoxicillin, 25 mg/L tetracycline, 0.5 mg/L cefotaxime, 0.125 mg/L ciprofloxacin and 8/152 mg/L trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (tmp/s by replica plating. From each faecal sample another 10 selected E. coli isolates were tested for their resistance by broth microdilution as a reference. Logistic regression analysis was performed to compare the odds of testing an isolate resistant between both test methods (replica plating vs. broth microdilution and to evaluate the effect of pooling faecal samples. Bootstrap analysis was used to investigate the precision of the estimated prevalence of resistance to each antimicrobial obtained by several simulated sampling strategies. Replica plating showed similar odds of E. coli isolates tested resistant compared to broth microdilution, except for ciprofloxacin (OR 0.29, p ≤ 0.05. Pooled samples showed in general lower odds of an isolate being resistant compared to individual samples, although these differences were not significant. Bootstrap analysis showed that within each antimicrobial the various compositions of a pooled sample provided consistent estimates for the mean proportion of resistant isolates. Sampling strategies should be based on the variation in resistance among isolates within faecal samples and between faecal samples, which may vary by antimicrobial. In our study, the optimal sampling strategy from the perspective of precision of the estimated levels of resistance and practicality consists of a pooled faecal sample from 20 individual animals, of which

  18. Dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI assessment of hyperemic fractional microvascular blood plasma volume in peripheral arterial disease: initial findings.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bas Versluis

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: The aim of the current study was to describe a method that assesses the hyperemic microvascular blood plasma volume of the calf musculature. The reversibly albumin binding contrast agent gadofosveset was used in dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE MRI to assess the microvascular status in patients with peripheral arterial disease (PAD and healthy controls. In addition, the reproducibility of this method in healthy controls was determined. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Ten PAD patients with intermittent claudication and 10 healthy control subjects were included. Patients underwent contrast-enhanced MR angiography of the peripheral arteries, followed by one DCE MRI examination of the musculature of the calf. Healthy control subjects were examined twice on different days to determine normative values and the interreader and interscan reproducibility of the technique. The MRI protocol comprised dynamic imaging of contrast agent wash-in under reactive hyperemia conditions of the calf musculature. Using pharmacokinetic modeling the hyperemic fractional microvascular blood plasma volume (V(p, unit: % of the anterior tibial, gastrocnemius and soleus muscles was calculated. RESULTS: V(p was significantly lower for all muscle groups in PAD patients (4.3±1.6%, 5.0±3.3% and 6.1±3.6% for anterior tibial, gastrocnemius and soleus muscles, respectively compared to healthy control subjects (9.1±2.0%, 8.9±1.9% and 9.3±2.1%. Differences in V(p between muscle groups were not significant. The coefficient of variation of V(p varied from 10-14% and 11-16% at interscan and interreader level, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Using DCE MRI after contrast-enhanced MR angiography with gadofosveset enables reproducible assessment of hyperemic fractional microvascular blood plasma volume of the calf musculature. V(p was lower in PAD patients than in healthy controls, which reflects a promising functional (hemodynamic biomarker for the

  19. Effects of knee joint angle on global and local strains within human triceps surae muscle: MRI analysis indicating in vivo myofascial force transmission between synergistic muscles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huijing, P.A.J.B.M.; Yaman, A.; Ozturk, C.; Yucesoy, C.A.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose Mechanical interactions between muscles have been shown for in situ conditions. In vivo data for humans is unavailable. Global and local length changes of calf muscles were studied to test the hypothesis that local strains may occur also within muscle for which global strain equals zero.

  20. EFFECTS OF LOW-INTENSITY CYCLE TRAINING WITH RESTRICTED LEG BLOOD FLOW ON THIGH MUSCLE VOLUME AND VO2MAX IN YOUNG MEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takashi Abe

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Concurrent improvements in aerobic capacity and muscle hypertrophy in response to a single mode of training have not been reported. We examined the effects of low-intensity cycle exercise training with and without blood flow restriction (BFR on muscle size and maximum oxygen uptake (VO2max. A group of 19 young men (mean age ± SD: 23.0 ± 1.7 years were allocated randomly into either a BFR-training group (n=9, BFR-training or a non-BFR control training group (n=10, CON-training, both of which trained 3 days/wk for 8 wk. Training intensity and duration were 40% of VO2max and 15 min for the BFR-training group and 40% of VO2max and 45 min for the CON-training group. MRI-measured thigh and quadriceps muscle cross-sectional area and muscle volume increased by 3.4-5.1% (P < 0.01 and isometric knee extension strength tended to increase by 7.7% (p < 0.10 in the BFR-training group. There was no change in muscle size (~0.6% and strength (~1.4% in the CON-training group. Significant improvements in VO2max (6.4% and exercise time until exhaustion (15.4% were observed in the BFR-training group (p < 0.05 but not in the CON-training group (-0.1 and 3. 9%, respectively. The results suggest that low-intensity, short-duration cycling exercise combined with BFR improves both muscle hypertrophy and aerobic capacity concurrently in young men.

  1. A 100-Year Review: Calf nutrition and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kertz, A F; Hill, T M; Quigley, J D; Heinrichs, A J; Linn, J G; Drackley, J K

    2017-12-01

    The first calf paper, published in the May 1919 issue of the Journal of Dairy Science (JDS), described factors affecting birth body weight of different breeds of calves. Other studies were done on nonmilk ingredients, growth charts were developed, and early weaning was followed to conserve milk fed to calves. Calf papers did not report use of statistics to control or record variation or to determine whether treatment means were different. Many experiments were more observational than comparative. Typically fewer than 5 calves, and sometimes 1 or 2 calves, were used per treatment. During the next 20 yr, calf studies increased and included colostrum feeding, milk and milk replacer feeding, minerals and vitamins, and fats and oils. Many concepts fundamental to current knowledge and understanding of digestion, rumen development, and milk replacer formulation were developed during this period. In addition, the concept of using antibiotic growth promoters in dairy calf diets was first evaluated and developed during the 1950s. During the 20-yr period of January 1957 through December 1976, a large number of universities in the United States and 1 in Canada contributed almost 150 papers on a variety of calf-related topics. These topics included genetics, physiology of the calf, review of calf immunity, antibiotic feeding, and milk replacer ingredients. This became the golden era of calf rumen development studies, which also engendered studies of calf starter rations and ingredients. A classic review of management, feeding, and housing studies summarized research related to calf feeding and management systems up to that point with an emphasis on maintaining calf growth and health while reducing labor and feed costs. It was also during this period that metric measurements replaced English units. In the 20-yr period from 1977 to 1996, more than 400 articles on calf nutrition and management were published in JDS. With the growing research interest in calves, a paper outlining

  2. Noninvasive Cu-64-ATSM and PET/CT Assessment of Hypoxia in Rat Skeletal Muscles and Tendons During Muscle Contractions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skovgaard, D.; Kjaer, M.; Madsen, J.

    2009-01-01

    expression of 2 hypoxia-related genes, hypoxia-inducible factor 1 alpha (HIF1 alpha) and carbonic anhydrase III (CAIII). Methods: Two groups of Wistar rats performed 1-leg contractions of the calf muscle by electrostimulation of the sciatic nerve. After 10 min of muscle contractions, Cu-64-ATSM was injected...

  3. Improving Reliability of pQCT-Derived Muscle Area and Density Measures Using a Watershed Algorithm for Muscle and Fat Segmentation

    OpenAIRE

    Wong, Andy Kin On; Hummel, Kayla; Moore, Cameron; Beattie, Karen A.; Shaker, Sami; Craven, B. Catharine; Adachi, Jonathan D.; Papaioannou, Alexandra; Giangregorio, Lora

    2014-01-01

    In peripheral quantitative computed tomography scans of the calf muscles, segmentation of muscles from subcutaneous fat is challenged by muscle fat infiltration. Threshold-based edge detection segmentation by manufacturer software fails when muscle boundaries are not smooth. This study compared the test-retest precision error for muscle-fat segmentation using the threshold-based edge detection method vs manual segmentation guided by the watershed algorithm. Three clinical populations were inv...

  4. Enzootic bovine leukosis in a two-month-old calf.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oguma, Keisuke; Suzuki, Miho; Sentsui, Hiroshi

    2017-04-02

    A two-month-old calf was diagnosed with leukosis on the basis of the clinical sign of enlarged, superficial lymph nodes. Serological and genetic tests for bovine leukemia virus (BLV) were performed because the calf was born from a cow infected with BLV. The serum had a weakly positive BLV antibody, and the BLV provirus was detected within neoplastic cells on performing polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Analysis of the BLV provirus integration site using inverse PCR revealed that the BLV integration site location was identical on all chromosomes in all tumor tissues examined. Thus, the tumor cells monoclonally proliferated following BLV infection. The present study shows that enzootic bovine leukosis can occur in a young animal, as in the two-month-old calf in our study. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. CALFED--An experiment in science and decisionmaking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Kimberly A.; Jacobs, Katharine L.; Luoma, Samuel N.

    2003-01-01

    The CALFED Bay-Delta Program faces a challenging assignment: to develop a collaborative state-federal management plan for the complex river system and involve multiple stakeholders (primarily municipal, agricultural, and environmental entities) whose interests frequently are in direct conflict. Although many resource-management issues involve multiple stakeholders and conflict is integral to their discussion, the CALFED experience is unique because of its shared state and federal roles, the magnitude and significance of stakeholder participation, and the complexity of the scientific issues involved.

  6. Application of Hydrogel in Reconstruction Surgery: Hydrogel/Fat Graft Complex Filler for Volume Reconstruction in Critical Sized Muscle Defects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. F. Lui

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Autogenic fat graft usually suffers from degeneration and volume shrinkage in volume reconstruction applications. How to maintain graft viability and graft volume is an essential consideration in reconstruction therapies. In this presented investigation, a new fat graft transplantation method was developed aiming to improve long term graft viability and volume reconstruction effect by incorporation of hydrogel. The harvested fat graft is dissociated into small fragments and incorporated into a collagen based hydrogel to form a hydrogel/fat graft complex for volume reconstruction purpose. In vitro results indicate that the collagen based hydrogel can significantly improve the survivability of cells inside isolated graft. In a 6-month investigation on artificial created defect model, this hydrogel/fat graft complex filler has demonstrated the ability of promoting fat pad formation inside the targeted defect area. The newly generated fat pad can cover the whole defect and restore its original dimension in 6-month time point. Compared to simple fat transplantation, this hydrogel/fat graft complex system provides much improvement on long term volume restoration effect against degeneration and volume shrinkage. One notable effect is that there is continuous proliferation of adipose tissue throughout the 6-month period. In summary, the hydrogel/fat graft system presented in this investigation demonstrated a better and more significant effect on volume reconstruction in large sized volume defect than simple fat transplantation.

  7. Simple artificial training device for respiratory muscle strength and lung volumes in healthy young male and female subjects: A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leelarungrayub, Jirakrit; Pinkaew, Decha; Yankai, Araya; Chautrakoon, Busaba; Kuntain, Rungtiwa

    2017-10-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficiency of a simple artificial device for respiratory muscle strength training and lung volumes using either combined or non-combined exercise with elastic bands in healthy young participants. Forty healthy young participants (20 male and 20 female) aged 19-24 years old were randomized into two main experiments with four sub-groups; (1) artificial device (n = 10) & standard device (n = 10) training, and (2) artificial device training combined with elastic band (EB) exercise (n = 10) & standard device training combined with EB (n = 10) exercise. Respiratory muscle strength with maximal peak inspiratory pressure (PImax), and lung volumes; tidal volume (TV), inspiratory reserve volume (IRV), expiratory reserve volume (ERV) and vital capacity (VC) were evaluated before and after training once daily for 3 weeks. Moreover, the peak dyspnea score and vital sign parameters were compared between the experimental groups after final training. All parameters had no statistical differences (p > 0.5) between the training devices alone and those combined with EB exercise prior to any experiments. Results from the first experiment showed that training with an artificial device increased all parameters (PImax, VC, IRV, ERV) significantly (p < 0.05), except for TV, when compared to pre training results, which were the same as those in the standard device training group. No statistical difference was shown between these groups after the training period had been performed. Furthermore, results of applying artificial device training combined with EB exercise showed a significant increase in all parameters, except for TV, and they were the same as the increased results in training with the standard device combined with EB exercise. There was no significant difference of data between these groups after the training period. Finally, the results of peak dyspnea score and all vital sign parameters from using the artificial device

  8. GLUT4 expression at the plasma membrane is related to fibre volume in human skeletal muscle fibres

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaster, M; Vach, W; Beck-Nielsen, H

    2002-01-01

    In this study we examined the relationship between GLUT4 expression at the plasma membrane and muscle fibre size in fibre-typed human muscle fibres by immunocytochemistry and morphometry in order to gain further insight into the regulation of GLUT4 expression. At the site of the plasma membrane......, GLUT4 was more abundantly expressed in slow as compared to fast fibres at the same fibre diameter (p GLUT4 expression increased with increasing fibre radius independently of fibre type (p GLUT4 density at the surface of slow fibres of both diabetic and obese was reduced...... compared to control subjects at the same diameter (p GLUT4 expression (p

  9. Sarcopenia Impairs Prognosis of Patients with Hepatocellular Carcinoma: The Role of Liver Functional Reserve and Tumor-Related Factors in Loss of Skeletal Muscle Volume

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenji Imai

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Sarcopenia impairs survival in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC. This study aimed to clarify the factors that contribute to decreased skeletal muscle volume in patients with HCC. The third lumbar vertebra skeletal muscle index (L3 SMI in 351 consecutive patients with HCC was calculated to identify sarcopenia. Sarcopenia was defined as an L3 SMI value ≤ 29.0 cm2/m2 for women and ≤ 36.0 cm2/m2 for men. The factors affecting L3 SMI were analyzed by multiple linear regression analysis and tree-based models. Of the 351 HCC patients, 33 were diagnosed as having sarcopenia and showed poor prognosis compared with non-sarcopenia patients (p = 0.007. However, this significant difference disappeared after the adjustments for age, sex, Child–Pugh score, maximum tumor size, tumor number, and the degree of portal vein invasion by propensity score matching analysis. Multiple linear regression analysis showed that age (p = 0.015 and sex (p < 0.0001 were significantly correlated with a decrease in L3 SMI. Tree-based models revealed that sex (female is the most significant factor that affects L3 SMI. In male patients, L3 SMI was decreased by aging, increased Child–Pugh score (≥56 years, and enlarged tumor size (<56 years. Maintaining liver functional reserve and early diagnosis and therapy for HCC are vital to prevent skeletal muscle depletion and improve the prognosis of patients with HCC.

  10. Plantarflexor muscle function in healthy and chronic Achilles tendon pain subjects evaluated by the use of EMG and PET imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Masood, Tahir; Kalliokoski, Kari; Bojsen-Møller, Jens

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Achilles tendon pathologies may alter the coordinative strategies of synergistic calf muscles. We hypothesized that both surface electromyography and positron emission tomography would reveal differences between symptomatic and asymptomatic legs in Achilles tendinopathy patients and b...

  11. An exercise therapy program can increase oxygenation and blood volume of the erector spinae muscle during exercise in chronic low back pain patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivier, Nicolas; Thevenon, André; Berthoin, Serge; Prieur, Fabrice

    2013-03-01

    To determine whether erector spinae muscle oxygenation (OXY) and blood volume during a progressive isoinertial lifting evaluation (PILE) are modified by an exercise therapy program. Pre- (t1) and post- (t2) exercise therapy experimental design. Hospital. Subjects with chronic low back pain (LBP group) (n=24) and healthy subjects (control group) (n=24) were evaluated. Exercise program. The control group was evaluated once, and the LBP group was evaluated before (t1) the exercise therapy program and 28 days thereafter (t2). The maximal load lifted, total work, and total power were determined using the PILE test. Continuous-wave near-infrared spectroscopy was used to measure OXY and blood volume during the PILE test. The maximal load lifted, total power, and total work were significantly lower in the LBP group (-42%±5%, -46%±6%, and -67%±6% at t1, respectively; Ptherapy program (+20%±3%, +56%±4%, and +61%±5%; Poxygen at the level of the erector spinae muscle, which can be partly restored by an exercise therapy program. Copyright © 2013 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Noncontrast skeletal muscle oximetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Jie; An, Hongyu; Coggan, Andrew R; Zhang, Xiaodong; Bashir, Adil; Muccigrosso, David; Peterson, Linda R; Gropler, Robert J

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to develop a new noncontrast method to directly quantify regional skeletal muscle oxygenation. The feasibility of the method was examined in five healthy volunteers using a 3 T clinical MRI scanner, at rest and during a sustained isometric contraction. The perfusion of skeletal muscle of the calf was measured using an arterial spin labeling method, whereas the oxygen extraction fraction of the muscle was measured using a susceptibility-based MRI technique. In all volunteers, the perfusion in soleus muscle increased significantly from 6.5 ± 2.0 mL (100 g min)(-1) at rest to 47.9 ± 7.7 mL (100 g min)(-1) during exercise (P oxygen extraction fraction did not change significantly, the rate of oxygen consumption increased from 0.43 ± 0.13 to 4.2 ± 1.5 mL (100 g min)(-1) (P muscle but with greater oxygen extraction fraction increase than the soleus muscle. This is the first MR oximetry developed for quantification of regional skeletal muscle oxygenation. A broad range of medical conditions could benefit from these techniques, including cardiology, gerontology, kinesiology, and physical therapy. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Xeroderma pigmentosum group A correcting protein from Calf Thymus.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.P.M. Eker (André); W. Vermeulen (Wim); N. Miura; K. Tanaka (Kiyoji); N.G.J. Jaspers (Nicolaas); J.H.J. Hoeijmakers (Jan); D. Bootsma (Dirk)

    1992-01-01

    textabstractA proteinous factor was purified from calf thymus and HeLa cells, which specifically corrects the excision repair defect of xeroderma pigmentosum complementation group A (XP-A) cells. Recovery of UV-induced unscheduled DNA synthesis after microinjection of XP-A cells was used as a

  14. Cow and calf weight trends on mountain summer range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jon M. Skovlin

    1962-01-01

    Mountain range furnishes the bulk of summer forage for commercial cow-calf operations in northeastern Oregon. Herds maintained on valley range and pasture during winter and spring months are annually trailed to mountain ranges and remain there until calves are ready for fall markets (fig. 1).

  15. commercial calf rennet, Aspergillus niger var. awamori as ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aysegul

    2013-09-11

    Sep 11, 2013 ... 2Department of Food Engineering, Faculty of Agriculture, Harran University, Şanlıurfa, Turkey. ... received wider acceptability on the industrial scale due to ..... Optimization of. Medium Composition for Production of Recombinant Calf Chymosin from Kluyveromyces lactis in Submerged Fermentation.

  16. Total parenteral nutrition in a premature rhinoceros calf.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrmann, V M; Miller, R E

    1991-10-01

    A female black rhinoceros calf developed significant hypoglycemia (blood glucose, 30 mg/dL) and hypothermia (97 degrees F) within 48 hours of birth and refused to nurse. Normal gestation of the black rhinoceros is 15 months, but elongated hoof slippers and low birth weight (30 kg) suggested prematurity in this calf. Clinical symptoms of neonatal sepsis including lassitude and poor sucking continued in spite of the aggressive use of antibiotics, and the calf required mechanical ventilatory support on day 7. Nutritional support including enteral gavage feedings (Pedialyte/4 ounces of SMA [Wyeth Ayerst] with sucraflox) had been instituted and was supplemented with total parenteral nutrition on day 5. Central venous access was obtained via a jugular cutdown. The total parenteral nutrition included appropriate electrolytes and vitamins for the neonatal calf but did not include trace elements. The use of total parenteral nutrition by our zoos for therapeutic purposes is increasing. Experience with total parenteral nutrition in exotic animals such as the black rhinoceros is limited, yet this may be an important therapeutic modality in these animals, particularly those in danger of extinction.

  17. ECONOMIC IMPACT OF CALF MORTALITY ON DAIRY FARMS IN KUWAIT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. RAZZAQUE, M. BEDAIR, S. ABBAS AND T. AL-MUTAWA

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective of this study was to investigate the economic impact of mortality of pre-weaned calves on dairy cattle enterprise in Kuwait. Cost/benefit analysis model was applied to two different situations: in the first situation, a baseline scenario, field survey data without intervention using 1,280 newborn calves was used in first calving season. In the second situation, the intervention scenario (improved management, 665 newborn calves were used in second calving season during the following year. Calving seasons extended for 7 months from September to March. Calf performance studies were conducted from birth to weaning. Economic model was constructed on Microsoft Excel and used to evaluate the impact of calf mortality on calf enterprise. Results showed that gross margins increased from 13 to 35% as a result of implementation of intervention measures during the second calving season over baseline scenario. A significant correlation between increased veterinary expenses and an increase in revenues (r2 = 0.65, P<0.05 was observed. If the intervention measures such as colostrum feeding, nutrition and hygiene had not been implemented, the farms would have lose income from 12 to 51% of the gross revenues. Net income was influenced by costs of feeds, veterinary services and laborers. Discounted cash flow studies on a whole farm basis revealed that the impact of interventions was small (0-3%. Calf mortality could not be isolated from whole farm for assessing its impact on dairy farm economics. Economic studies demonstrated the cost/benefits of using the improved techniques of calf rearing.

  18. Resistance Training with Single vs. Multi-joint Exercises at Equal Total Load Volume: Effects on Body Composition, Cardiorespiratory Fitness, and Muscle Strength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paoli, Antonio; Gentil, Paulo; Moro, Tatiana; Marcolin, Giuseppe; Bianco, Antonino

    2017-01-01

    The present study aimed to compare the effects of equal-volume resistance training performed with single-joint (SJ) or multi-joint exercises (MJ) on VO 2 max, muscle strength and body composition in physically active males. Thirty-six participants were divided in two groups: SJ group ( n = 18, 182.1 ± 5.2, 80.03 ± 2.78 kg, 23.5 ± 2.7 years) exercised with only SJ exercises (e.g., dumbbell fly, knee extension, etc.) and MJ group ( n = 18, 185.3 ± 3.6 cm, 80.69 ± 2.98 kg, 25.5 ± 3.8 years) with only MJ exercises (e.g., bench press, squat, etc.). The total work volume (repetitions × sets × load) was equated between groups. Training was performed three times a week for 8 weeks. Before and after the training period, participants were tested for VO 2 max, body composition, 1 RM on the bench press, knee extension and squat. Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) was used to compare post training values between groups, using baseline values as covariates. According to the results, both groups decreased body fat and increased fat free mass with no difference between them. Whilst both groups significantly increased cardiorespiratory fitness and maximal strength, the improvements in MJ group were higher than for SJ in VO 2 max (5.1 and 12.5% for SJ and MJ), bench press 1 RM (8.1 and 10.9% for SJ and MJ), knee extension 1 RM (12.4 and 18.9% for SJ and MJ) and squat 1 RM (8.3 and 13.8% for SJ and MJ). In conclusion, when total work volume was equated, RT programs involving MJ exercises appear to be more efficient for improving muscle strength and maximal oxygen consumption than programs involving SJ exercises, but no differences were found for body composition.

  19. Resistance Training with Single vs. Multi-joint Exercises at Equal Total Load Volume: Effects on Body Composition, Cardiorespiratory Fitness, and Muscle Strength

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paoli, Antonio; Gentil, Paulo; Moro, Tatiana; Marcolin, Giuseppe; Bianco, Antonino

    2017-01-01

    The present study aimed to compare the effects of equal-volume resistance training performed with single-joint (SJ) or multi-joint exercises (MJ) on VO2max, muscle strength and body composition in physically active males. Thirty-six participants were divided in two groups: SJ group (n = 18, 182.1 ± 5.2, 80.03 ± 2.78 kg, 23.5 ± 2.7 years) exercised with only SJ exercises (e.g., dumbbell fly, knee extension, etc.) and MJ group (n = 18, 185.3 ± 3.6 cm, 80.69 ± 2.98 kg, 25.5 ± 3.8 years) with only MJ exercises (e.g., bench press, squat, etc.). The total work volume (repetitions × sets × load) was equated between groups. Training was performed three times a week for 8 weeks. Before and after the training period, participants were tested for VO2max, body composition, 1 RM on the bench press, knee extension and squat. Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) was used to compare post training values between groups, using baseline values as covariates. According to the results, both groups decreased body fat and increased fat free mass with no difference between them. Whilst both groups significantly increased cardiorespiratory fitness and maximal strength, the improvements in MJ group were higher than for SJ in VO2max (5.1 and 12.5% for SJ and MJ), bench press 1 RM (8.1 and 10.9% for SJ and MJ), knee extension 1 RM (12.4 and 18.9% for SJ and MJ) and squat 1 RM (8.3 and 13.8% for SJ and MJ). In conclusion, when total work volume was equated, RT programs involving MJ exercises appear to be more efficient for improving muscle strength and maximal oxygen consumption than programs involving SJ exercises, but no differences were found for body composition. PMID:29312007

  20. Children and adults minimise activated muscle volume by selecting gait parameters that balance gross mechanical power and work demands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubel, Tatjana Y; Usherwood, James R

    2015-09-01

    Terrestrial locomotion on legs is energetically expensive. Compared with cycling, or with locomotion in swimming or flying animals, walking and running are highly uneconomical. Legged gaits that minimise mechanical work have previously been identified and broadly match walking and running at appropriate speeds. Furthermore, the 'cost of muscle force' approaches are effective in relating locomotion kinetics to metabolic cost. However, few accounts have been made for why animals deviate from either work-minimising or muscle-force-minimising strategies. Also, there is no current mechanistic account for the scaling of locomotion kinetics with animal size and speed. Here, we report measurements of ground reaction forces in walking children and adult humans, and their stance durations during running. We find that many aspects of gait kinetics and kinematics scale with speed and size in a manner that is consistent with minimising muscle activation required for the more demanding between mechanical work and power: spreading the duration of muscle action reduces activation requirements for power, at the cost of greater work demands. Mechanical work is relatively more demanding for larger bipeds--adult humans--accounting for their symmetrical M-shaped vertical force traces in walking, and relatively brief stance durations in running compared with smaller bipeds--children. The gaits of small children, and the greater deviation of their mechanics from work-minimising strategies, may be understood as appropriate for their scale, not merely as immature, incompletely developed and energetically sub-optimal versions of adult gaits. © 2015. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  1. Pengaruh Latihan One-leg-body-weight-calf-raise on a Step Terhadap Kekuatan Otot Tungkai SMP 25 Pekanbaru Yang Mengikuti Ekstrakulikuler Bola Voli

    OpenAIRE

    Putri, Nidya; Slamet; Wijayanti, Ni Putu Nita

    2016-01-01

    The case in the research , kind of this research is experimental research kind. That the strength of leg muscle of smp 25 volleyball team pekanbaru is still adverse. It seen from training that done in the game, when player does a smash.the jump is still adverse. The purpose of this research is to see the effect of one leg body weight calf raise on a step training toward the strength of leg muscle smp 25 pekanbaru. This research kind is ps eudo research to see the effect from training form. po...

  2. A reliable, practical, and economical protocol for inducing diarrhea and severe dehydration in the neonatal calf.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, P G; Constable, P D; Morin, D E; Drackley, J K; Foreman, J H; Thurmon, J C

    1998-01-01

    Fifteen healthy, colostrum-fed, male dairy calves, aged 2 to 7 d were used in a study to develop a diarrhea protocol for neonatal calves that is reliable, practical, and economical. After instrumentation and recording baseline data, diarrhea and dehydration were induced by administering milk replacer [16.5 mL/kg of body weight (BW), PO], sucrose (2 g/kg in a 20% aqueous solution, p.o.), spironolactone and hydrochlorothiazide (1 mg/kg, PO) every 8 h, and furosemide (2 mg/kg, i.m., q6h). Calves were administered sucrose and diuretic agents for 48 h to induce diarrhea and severe dehydration. Clinical changes after 48 h were severe watery diarrhea, severe depression, and marked dehydration (mean, 14% BW loss). Cardiac output, stroke volume, mean central venous pressure, plasma volume, thiocyanate space, blood pH and bicarbonate concentration, base excess, serum chloride concentration, and fetlock temperature were decreased. Plasma lactate concentration, hematocrit, and serum potassium, creatinine, phosphorus, total protein and albumin concentrations were increased. This non-infectious calf diarrhea protocol has a 100% response rate, while providing a consistent and predictable hypovolemic state with diarrhea that reflects most of the clinicopathologic changes observed in osmotic/maldigestive diarrhea caused by infection with rotavirus, coronavirus or cryptosporidia. Limitations of the protocol, when compared to infectious diarrhea models, include failure to induce a severe metabolic acidosis, absence of hyponatremia, renal instead of enteric loss of chloride, renal as well as enteric loss of free water, absence of profound clinical depression and suspected differences in the morphologic and functional effect on intestinal epithelium. Despite these differences, the sucrose/diuretic protocol should be useful in the initial screening of new treatment modalities for calf diarrhea. To confirm their efficacy, the most effective treatment methods should then be examined in

  3. Intermittent calf and foot compression increases lower extremity blood flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eze, A R; Comerota, A J; Cisek, P L; Holland, B S; Kerr, R P; Veeramasuneni, R; Comerota, A J

    1996-08-01

    Although foot compression increases foot skin perfusion and calf compression increases popliteal artery blood flow, these compression techniques have not been evaluated in combination. The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether calf and foot compression applied separately and simultaneously increase popliteal artery blood flow and/or foot skin perfusion, and to assess the relative merits of compression in patients with superficial femoral artery occlusion. Twenty-two legs from 12 normal volunteers with ankle/brachial indices (ABIs) > 0.96, and 10 legs from 7 claudicator patients with angiographically documented superficial femoral artery (SFA) occlusion and patent popliteal arteries with ABIs pressure pump (Art-Assist-AA 1000; ACI Medical Inc., San Marcos, California) were applied to the subject in the sitting position. Skin blood flow of the great toe was measured with a laser doppler (Laserflo model BPM 403A; TSI Inc., St. Paul, Minnesota), and popliteal artery blood flow was measured using duplex ultrasonography (ATL-Ultramark 9; Advanced Tech Laboratory, Bothell, Washington). Foot and calf compression was applied separately and simultaneously at 120 mm Hg pressure, with a 10-second inflation and 20-second deflation cycle. Popliteal artery blood flow and foot skin perfusion were recorded and the mean of 6 cycles calculated. Precompression popliteal artery blood flow (mL/min) for volunteers was 38.86 +/- 3.94, and for patients was 86.30 +/- 14.55 (P = 0.001). Precompression foot skin perfusion (mL/min/ 100/g tissue) for volunteers was 1.67 +/- 0.29, and for patients was 4.00 +/- 0.92 (P = 0.01). With the application of calf, foot, and simultaneous calf and foot compression, the popliteal artery blood flow increased in volunteers by 124%, 54%, and 173%, respectively, and in patients by 76%, 13%, and 50%. Foot skin perfusion increased in volunteers by 260%, 500%, and 328%, respectively, and in patients by 116%, 246%, and 188%. Relative increases in popliteal

  4. Membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis in a calf with nephrotic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trang, N T; Hirai, T; Nabeta, R; Fuke, N; Yamaguchi, R

    2014-01-01

    A 2-month-old Japanese black calf was presented with a history of weight loss, exophthalmos and subcutaneous oedema of the brisket. Urinalysis and serum biochemistry showed proteinuria and hypoproteinaemia suggestive of nephrotic syndrome. Microscopically, lesions in the kidney were characterized by proliferation of mesangial cells and diffuse thickening of the glomerular basement membranes with the appearance of double contours. Immune complex deposits were confirmed by electron microscopy and immunofluorescence using reagents specific for bovine immunoglobulin G, complement factor C3 and bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV). Consequently, the glomerular lesion in this case was diagnosed as membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis. BVDV type 1 was detected in serum by nested reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction. Viral antigen was also identified in the glomeruli by immunofluorescence. These results suggest that BVDV may have been the cause of immune complex glomerulonephritis in this calf. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Randomized Noninferiority Trial of Reduced High-Dose Volume Versus Standard Volume Radiation Therapy for Muscle-Invasive Bladder Cancer: Results of the BC2001 Trial (CRUK/01/004)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huddart, Robert A., E-mail: robert.huddart@icr.ac.uk [Institute of Cancer Research, Royal Marsden NHSFT (National Health Service Foundation Trust) (United Kingdom); Hall, Emma [Institute of Cancer Research (United Kingdom); Hussain, Syed A. [University of Liverpool (United Kingdom); Jenkins, Peter [Gloucestershire Hospitals NHSFT (United Kingdom); Rawlings, Christine [South Devon Healthcare NHSFT (United Kingdom); Tremlett, Jean [Brighton and Sussex University Hospitals (United Kingdom); Crundwell, Malcolm [Royal Devon and Exeter NHSFT (United Kingdom); Adab, Fawzi A. [University Hospital of North Staffordshire NHS Trust (United Kingdom); Sheehan, Denise [Royal Devon and Exeter NHSFT (United Kingdom); Syndikus, Isabel [Clatterbridge Cancer Centre NHSFT (United Kingdom); Hendron, Carey [University of Birmingham (United Kingdom); Lewis, Rebecca; Waters, Rachel [Institute of Cancer Research (United Kingdom); James, Nicholas D. [University of Birmingham (United Kingdom)

    2013-10-01

    Purpose: To test whether reducing radiation dose to uninvolved bladder while maintaining dose to the tumor would reduce side effects without impairing local control in the treatment of muscle-invasive bladder cancer. Methods and Materials: In this phase III multicenter trial, 219 patients were randomized to standard whole-bladder radiation therapy (sRT) or reduced high-dose volume radiation therapy (RHDVRT) that aimed to deliver full radiation dose to the tumor and 80% of maximum dose to the uninvolved bladder. Participants were also randomly assigned to receive radiation therapy alone or radiation therapy plus chemotherapy in a partial 2 × 2 factorial design. The primary endpoints for the radiation therapy volume comparison were late toxicity and time to locoregional recurrence (with a noninferiority margin of 10% at 2 years). Results: Overall incidence of late toxicity was less than predicted, with a cumulative 2-year Radiation Therapy Oncology Group grade 3/4 toxicity rate of 13% (95% confidence interval 8%, 20%) and no statistically significant differences between groups. The difference in 2-year locoregional recurrence free rate (RHDVRT − sRT) was 6.4% (95% confidence interval −7.3%, 16.8%) under an intention to treat analysis and 2.6% (−12.8%, 14.6%) in the “per-protocol” population. Conclusions: In this study RHDVRT did not result in a statistically significant reduction in late side effects compared with sRT, and noninferiority of locoregional control could not be concluded formally. However, overall low rates of clinically significant toxicity combined with low rates of invasive bladder cancer relapse confirm that (chemo)radiation therapy is a valid option for the treatment of muscle-invasive bladder cancer.

  6. Xanthine nephrolithiasis in a galician blond beef calf.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, Marta; Rigueira, Lucas; Suárez, María L; Carbajales, Paloma; Moure, Pablo; Fidalgo, Luis E; Failde, Daniel; Vázquez, Sonia

    2010-07-01

    A six-month-old female Galician Blond beef calf presented signs of apathy, anorexia and weight loss. The analysis of a blood sample confirmed renal failure. Bilateral nephrolithiasis was diagnosed at necropsy. Quantitative analysis revealed the nephroliths to be composed of 100 per cent xanthine. In cattle, xanthinuria has only been described in the Japanese Black breed, but never before in other breeds. Clinical history suggested a naturally occurring xanthinuria.

  7. MRI and localized proton spectroscopy in human leg muscle at 7 Tesla using longitudinal traveling waves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Andrew G; Collins, Christopher M; Versluis, Maarten J; Kan, Hermien E; Smith, Nadine B

    2010-02-01

    Using a small resonant loop to produce a longitudinal traveling wave on a human 7-T system allows MR to be performed over the entire volume of the human leg. We have used this capability to perform localized proton MR spectroscopy of the lipid composition of muscle in volunteers with a coil placed approximately 30 cm away from the region of interest. Spectra with a reasonable signal-to-noise ratio can be acquired in a clinically relevant data acquisition time of less than 5 min using the loop in transmit/receive mode, maintaining the full flexibility to acquire spectra from any part of the calf and/or thigh. If a local receive coil is used in combination with the remote transmit coil, then the signal-to-noise improves significantly, as expected.

  8. Chronic Plantarflexor Stretching During Ankle Immobilization Helps Preserve Calf Girth, Plantarflexion Peak Torque, and Ankle Dorsiflexion Motion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Samantha; Christensen, Bryan; Gange, Kara; Todden, Christopher; Hatterman-Valenti, Harlene; Albrecht, Jay M

    2017-09-27

    Chronic plantarflexor (PF) stretching during ankle immobilization helps preserve calf girth, plantarflexion peak torque, and ankle dorsiflexion (DF) motion. Immobilization can lead to decreases in muscle peak torque, muscle size, and joint ROM. Recurrent static stretching during a period of immobilization may reduce the extent of these losses. To investigate the effects of chronic static stretching on PF peak torque, calf girth, and DF range of motion (ROM) after two weeks of ankle immobilization. Randomized controlled clinical trial. Athletic training facility. Thirty-six healthy college-aged (19.81±2.48) females. Subjects were randomly assigned to one of three groups: control group, immobilized group (IM), and immobilized plus stretching group (IM+S). Each group participated in a familiarization period, a pre-test, and, two weeks later, a post-test. The IM group and IM+S group wore the Aircast FP Walker for two weeks on the left leg. During this time, the IM+S group participated in a stretching program, which consisted of two 10-minute stretching procedures each day for the 14 days. One-way ANOVA was used to determine differences in the change of ankle girth, PF peak torque, and DF ROM between groups with an α level of < 0.05. A significant difference was noted between groups in girth (F2,31 =5.64, P=0.009), DF ROM (F2,31 =26.13, P<0.0001), and PF peak torque (F2,31 =7.74, P=0.002). Post-hoc testing also showed a significance difference between change in calf girth of the control group compared to the IM group (P=0.007) and a significant difference in change of peak torque in the IM+S group and the IM group (P=0.001). Also, a significant difference was shown in DF ROM between the control group and IM+S group (P=0.006), the control group and the IM group (P<0.0001), and the IM+S group and the IM group (P<0.0001). Chronic static stretching during two weeks of immobilization may decrease the loss of calf girth, ankle PF peak torque, and ankle DF ROM.

  9. Capillary ultrastructure and mitochondrial volume density in skeletal muscle in relation to reduced exercise capacity of patients with intermittent claudication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baum, Oliver; Torchetti, Eleonora; Malik, Corinna

    2016-01-01

    Intermittent claudication (IC) is the most commonly reported symptom of peripheral arterial disease (PAD). Impaired limb blood flow is a major casual factor of lower exercise tolerance in PAD, but cannot entirely explain it. We hypothesized that IC is associated with structural changes...... of the capillary-mitochondria interface that could contribute to the reduction of exercise tolerance in IC-patients. Capillary and mitochondrial morphometry were performed after light and transmission electron microscopy using vastus lateralis muscle biopsies of 14 IC-patients and 10 age-matched controls and peak...... power output (PPO) was determined for all participants using an incremental single-leg knee-extension protocol. Capillary density was lower (411±90 mm(-2)versus 506±95 mm(-2); P≤0.05) in the biopsies of the IC patients than in those of the controls. The basement membrane (BM) around capillaries...

  10. Dose-volume-related dysphagia after constrictor muscles definition in head and neck cancer intensity-modulated radiation treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzola, R; Ricchetti, F; Fiorentino, A; Fersino, S; Giaj Levra, N; Naccarato, S; Sicignano, G; Albanese, S; Di Paola, G; Alterio, D; Ruggieri, R; Alongi, F

    2014-12-01

    Dysphagia remains a side effect influencing the quality of life of patients with head and neck cancer (HNC) after radiotherapy. We evaluated the relationship between planned dose involvement and acute and late dysphagia in patients with HNC treated with intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT), after a recontouring of constrictor muscles (PCs) and the cricopharyngeal muscle (CM). Between December 2011 and December 2013, 56 patients with histologically proven HNC were treated with IMRT or volumetric-modulated arc therapy. The PCs and CM were recontoured. Correlations between acute and late toxicity and dosimetric parameters were evaluated. End points were analysed using univariate logistic regression. An increasing risk to develop acute dysphagia was observed when constraints to the middle PCs were not respected [mean dose (Dmean) ≥50 Gy, maximum dose (Dmax) >60 Gy, V50 >70% with a p = 0.05]. The superior PC was not correlated with acute toxicity but only with late dysphagia. The inferior PC was not correlated with dysphagia; for the CM only, Dmax >60 Gy was correlated with acute dysphagia ≥ grade 2. According to our analysis, the superior PC has a major role, being correlated with dysphagia at 3 and 6 months after treatments; the middle PC maintains this correlation only at 3 months from the beginning of radiotherapy, but it does not have influence on late dysphagia. The inferior PC and CM have a minimum impact on swallowing symptoms. We used recent guidelines to define dose constraints of the PCs and CM. Two results emerge in the present analysis: the superior PC influences late dysphagia, while the middle PC influences acute dysphagia.

  11. The effect of electrical stimulation on leg muscle pump activity in spinal cord-injured and able-bodied individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Beekvelt, M C; van Asten, W N; Hopman, M T

    2000-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the difference in: (1) effective muscle pump activity (MPA) between voluntary and electrically (ES) induced contractions in able-bodied subjects (ABS); and (2) ES-induced MPA between spinal cord-injured (SCI) individuals and ABS. MPA was measured as relative volume changes in the calf using strain-gauge plethysmography during repeated muscle contractions in the supine position while venous outflow was impeded by a thigh cuff inflated to a range of pressures. Ten SCI individuals and ten ABS participated in this study. ABS showed no significant difference between voluntary and electrically induced MPA [58.1 (18.4)% versus 67.7 (8.7)%, respectively]. SCI individuals showed a significantly lower ES-induced MPA than ABS [21.5 (15.9)% versus 67.7 (8.7)%, respectively]. The low MPA in SCI individuals may be explained by: (1) extensive leg muscle atrophy and/or (2) an "atrophic" vascular system in the legs. The electrical current level seemed to influence MPA (43 mA, 21.5% versus 60 mA, 30.8%) for SCI individuals, whereas no influence of muscle contraction rate on MPA was observed in ABS. The results of this study demonstrate that although ES-induced leg muscle contractions result in adequate MPA in ABS, it leads to significantly less effective MPA in SCI individuals.

  12. Influence of protein nutrition and virginiamycin supplementation on feedlot growth performance and digestive function of calf-fed Holstein steers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salinas-Chavira, J; Barreras, A; Plascencia, A; Montano, M F; Navarrete, J D; Torrentera, N; Zinn, R A

    2016-10-01

    Two experiments were conducted to examine the influence of protein and virginiamycin (VM) supplementation on feedlot growth performance, digestion, and metabolizable AA (MAA) supply of calf-fed Holstein steers. Growth performance and dietary energetics were evaluated in 120 Holstein steers (127 ± 9 kg). During the initial 112-d feeding period, a steam-flaked corn-based diet was balanced to meet either 100% (MAB) or 87% (UREA) of MAA requirements. Diets were supplemented with or without 22.5 mg/kg VM in a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement. Subsequently (d 112 to 308), all steers received the UREA diet with or without VM. During the initial 112-d, MAB increased ADG, G:F, and dietary NE ( dietary NE were not different ( > 0.10) across initial supplementation treatments. Overall (d 1 to 308), MAB did not affect ADG ( > 0.10) but enhanced G:F efficiency ( = 0.03) and dietary NE ( = 0.05). During the initial 112-d period and through the remainder of the experiment, VM increased G:F ( dietary NE ( 0.10) on ruminal digestion of OM, NDF, starch, microbial efficiency, or total tract digestion of OM and NDF. The MAB increased indispensable AA flow to the small intestine ( 0.10) total tract N digestion. Extrapolating from AA supplies in the metabolism study, MAB satisfied indispensable AA requirements during the initial 112-d period, whereas the UREA diet met 73.5% and 79.2% of methionine and lysine requirements, respectively. During the subsequent periods (d 112 to 308) indispensable AA supplies exceeded theoretical requirements. We conclude that enhancements in energy utilization when diets are balanced to meet MAA requirements of calf-fed Holstein steers during the initial 112-d feedlot period remain appreciable throughout time on feed. Virginiamycin enhanced efficiency of energy utilization throughout the feedlot growing-finishing period.

  13. Resistance Training with Single vs. Multi-joint Exercises at Equal Total Load Volume: Effects on Body Composition, Cardiorespiratory Fitness, and Muscle Strength

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Paoli

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to compare the effects of equal-volume resistance training performed with single-joint (SJ or multi-joint exercises (MJ on VO2max, muscle strength and body composition in physically active males. Thirty-six participants were divided in two groups: SJ group (n = 18, 182.1 ± 5.2, 80.03 ± 2.78 kg, 23.5 ± 2.7 years exercised with only SJ exercises (e.g., dumbbell fly, knee extension, etc. and MJ group (n = 18, 185.3 ± 3.6 cm, 80.69 ± 2.98 kg, 25.5 ± 3.8 years with only MJ exercises (e.g., bench press, squat, etc.. The total work volume (repetitions × sets × load was equated between groups. Training was performed three times a week for 8 weeks. Before and after the training period, participants were tested for VO2max, body composition, 1 RM on the bench press, knee extension and squat. Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA was used to compare post training values between groups, using baseline values as covariates. According to the results, both groups decreased body fat and increased fat free mass with no difference between them. Whilst both groups significantly increased cardiorespiratory fitness and maximal strength, the improvements in MJ group were higher than for SJ in VO2max (5.1 and 12.5% for SJ and MJ, bench press 1 RM (8.1 and 10.9% for SJ and MJ, knee extension 1 RM (12.4 and 18.9% for SJ and MJ and squat 1 RM (8.3 and 13.8% for SJ and MJ. In conclusion, when total work volume was equated, RT programs involving MJ exercises appear to be more efficient for improving muscle strength and maximal oxygen consumption than programs involving SJ exercises, but no differences were found for body composition.

  14. Kick-Start Your Fitness; A Rockette shows you how to relieve tension and keep your muscles limber. Ready, two, three, four...(Upfront; What to Know Now; Holiday Workout)(Traci Reszetylo)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jordan, Adrienne

    2017-01-01

    ... long. 2 COSTUME CHANGE (Lunchtime workout) CALF STRETCH: Place both hands on a wall or counter. Place your right leg forward with your knee bent; stretch back your left leg, keeping your full foot on the floor. Alternate legs. This limbers up your calf muscles and is beneficial before and after walking or running. 3 POSTSHOW (Evening at home) SHOULDE...

  15. Decreased insulin action on muscle glucose transport after eccentric contractions in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asp, S; Richter, Erik

    1996-01-01

    We have recently shown that eccentric contractions (Ecc) of rat calf muscles cause muscle damage and decreased glycogen and glucose transporter GLUT-4 protein content in the white (WG) and red gastrocnemius (RG) but not in the soleus (S) (S. Asp, S. Kristiansen, and E. A. Richter. J. Appl. Physio...

  16. Assessment of passive muscle elongation using Diffusion Tensor MRI : Correlation between fiber length and diffusion coefficients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mazzoli, Valentina; Oudeman, Jos; Nicolay, Klaas; Maas, Mario; Verdonschot, Nico; Sprengers, Andre M.; Nederveen, Aart J.; Froeling, Martijn; Strijkers, Gustav J.

    2016-01-01

    In this study we investigated the changes in fiber length and diffusion parameters as a consequence of passive lengthening and stretching of the calf muscles. We hypothesized that changes in radial diffusivity (RD) are caused by changes in the muscle fiber cross sectional area (CSA) as a consequence

  17. Assessment of passive muscle elongation using Diffusion Tensor MRI: Correlation between fiber length and diffusion coefficients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mazzoli, V.; Oudeman, J.; Nicolay, K.; Maas, Mario; Verdonschot, N.J.; Sprengers, A.M.J.; Nederveen, A.J.; Froeling, M.; Strijkers, G.J.

    2016-01-01

    In this study we investigated the changes in fiber length and diffusion parameters as a consequence of passive lengthening and stretching of the calf muscles. We hypothesized that changes in radial diffusivity (RD) are caused by changes in the muscle fiber cross sectional area (CSA) as a consequence

  18. Your Muscles

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Should You Go to School? Breast Cancer Your Muscles KidsHealth > For Kids > Your Muscles Print A A ... and skeletal (say: SKEL-uh-tul) muscle. Smooth Muscles Smooth muscles — sometimes also called involuntary muscles — are ...

  19. Evidence of epimeletic behavior involving a Pontoporia blainvillei calf (Cetacea, Pontoporiidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio José Tonello Júnior

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available The present paper constitutes the second record of epimeletic behavior for the toninha, Pontoporia blainvillei. A toninha calf carcass was recovered at Enseada Beach, São Francisco do Sul, southern Brazil (26o13’S - 48o31’W on October 9, 2001. Its total length indicated that it was a neonate or a premature calf. The calf had many parallel scratches on it, which were freshly made and produced by adult teeth. There were scratches on the fin, flukes and flippers, and the position and size of the marks demonstrated the intention of the adult to rescue the calf. The anterior region of the body showed net marks, suggesting that the calf had been accidentally entangled. The epimeletic behavior evidenced by the tooth marks could have occurred during the entanglement and/or after its liberation, and we suggest that the causa mortis of the calf was drowning.

  20. Calf management practices and associations with herd-level morbidity and mortality on beef cow-calf operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, C F; Fick, L J; Pajor, E A; Barkema, H W; Jelinski, M D; Windeyer, M C

    2016-03-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate calf management practices on beef cow-calf operations and determine associations with herd-level morbidity and mortality of pre-weaned calves. A 40-question survey about management practices, morbidity and mortality was administered to cow-calf producers by distributing paper surveys and by circulating an online link through various media. A total of 267 producers completed the survey. Data were analyzed with descriptive statistics and multivariable linear regression models. Average herd-level treatment risk for pre-weaning calf diarrhea (PCD) and bovine respiratory disease (BRD) were 4.9% and 3.0%, respectively. Average herd-level mortality within the first 24 h of life (stillbirth), from 1 to 7 days and 7 days to weaning were 2.3%, 1.1%, and 1.4%, respectively. Operations that never intervened at parturition had 4.7% higher PCD than those that occasionally did. On operations using small elastrator bands for castration, PCD was 1.9% higher than those using other methods. For every increase of 100 cows in herd size, BRD decreased by 1.1%. The association between BRD and PCD varied by when calving season began. Operations that used off-farm, frozen colostrum had a 1.1% increase in stillbirths. Operations that verified a calf had suckled had 0.7% lower mortality from 1 to 7 days of age. Those that intervened when colostrum was abnormal or that used small elastrator bands for castration had 1.9% and 1.4% higher mortality during the 1st week of life, respectively, compared with other operations. Mortality from 7 days to weaning was lower by 0.7% when calving season started in April compared with January or February and was higher by 1.0% for each additional week of calving season. Operations that intervened with colostrum consumption for assisted calvings had lower mortality from 7 days to weaning by 0.8% compared with those that did not. For every 1.0% increase in BRD, mortality from 7 days to weaning increased by 1

  1. Bilateral calf chronic compartment syndrome in an elderly male: a case report.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Siau, Keith

    2009-01-01

    Leg pain is a common presentation to the outpatient department. Bilateral calf chronic compartment syndrome is a rare cause of bilateral calf pain. Although this condition has been well documented in young athletes, it has rarely been reported in the elderly. We present the case of a 68-year-old male bodybuilder with bilateral calf chronic compartment syndrome, describe the presentation and evaluation of the condition, and provide a review of the literature herewith.

  2. Analysis of the influence factors on dystocia, stillbirth and calf birth weight in Holstein Friesian cows

    OpenAIRE

    Maschurek, Nancy

    2017-01-01

    Within the past ten years many studies that deal with causes of increased dystocia and calf losses have been published. Despite the knowledge high numbers of dystocia and perinatal mortality are common in dairy herds. The calf birth weight is an important factor for pathologic parturitions, particulary in Holstein heifers. It was the objective of this study to identify risk factors of dystocia and calf death at or during birth on a large dairy farm in Germany (2132 cows, 11520 kg milk yiel...

  3. Deoxygenation and the blood volume signals in the flexor carpi ulnaris and radialis muscles obtained during the execution of the Mirallas's test of judo athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verdaguer-Codina, Joan; Mirallas, Jaume A.

    1996-12-01

    The technique of execution of any movement in Judo is extremely important. The coaches want tests and tools easy to use and cheaper, to evaluate the progress of a judoist in the tatame. In this paper we present a test developed by Mirallas, which has his name 'Test of Mirallas' to evaluate the maximal power capacity of the judoist. The near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) signals were obtained to have a measurement of the metabolic work of the flexor carpi ulnaris and radialis muscles, during the execution of the ippon-seoi-nage movement, allowing this measurement to assess by NIRS the maximal oxygen uptake. Also obtained were tympanic, skin forehead, and biceps brachii temperatures during the test time and recovery phase to study the effects of ambient conditions and the post-exercise oxygen consumption. The deoxygenation and blood volume signals obtained gave different results, demonstrating the hypothesis of the coaches that some judoist do the execution of the ippon-seoi-nage movement correctly and the rest didn't. The heart rate frequency obtained in the group of judoist was between 190-207 bpm, and in the minute five of post-exercise was 114-137 bpm; the time employed in the MIrallas's test were from 7 feet 14 inches to 13 feet 49 inches, and the total of movements were from 199 to 409. The data obtained in the skin forehead, and skin biceps brachii confirms previous works that the oxygen consumption remains after exercise in the muscle studied. According to the results, the test developed by Mirallas is a good tool to evaluate the performance of judoist any time, giving better results compared with standard tests.

  4. A case of cranium bifidum with meningocele in Ayrshire calf.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kisipan, Mosiany Letura; Orenge, Caleb Oburu; Gacheru, David Njogu; Ngure, Raphael Muchangi

    2017-01-13

    Congenital cranial bone defects predispose to herniation of meninges, sometimes with brain tissue involvement, to form a cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)-filled cyst in the head. Such defects mainly results from focal failure of neural tube closure during fetal development and has been reported in various species of domestic mammals. A one week old Ayrshire calf with a fluctuant swelling on parieto-occipital region of the head was referred to the faculty. The calf was always lying on lateral recumbency and exhibited resistance to deep palpation around the swelling and neck flexion. Embedded to the midline of the dorso-caudal surface of the cyst's wall was a hard longitudinally oriented structure. The case was diagnosed as meningocele by means of radiographic examination. As the likelihood to full recovery was greatly reduced due to the negative impact already meted on brain tissue by intracranial pressure, the calf was euthanized on grounds of animal welfare and the diagnosis confirmed by anatomopathological findings which also revealed a circular bone defect in parieto-occipital region of the skull vault and a flattened bony structure embedded to the cyst's wall. Anatomopathological findings confirmed the diagnosis as cranial bifidum with meningocele at the parieto-occipital region of the skull vault. The presence of a bony structure embedded to the wall of meningeal sac was rather unusual and could not be sufficiently explained. It was however thought to, most likely, represent a part of interparietal bone that failed to get incorporated into squamous part of occipital bone as a result of the defect. The report also highlights challenges that work against timely delivery of urgent veterinary interventions in rural set ups of Africa and rest of the developing world, often leaving veterinarians with animal welfare consideration as main determinant of intervention measures.

  5. Chondrocyte Morphology in Stiff and Soft Agarose Gels and the Influence of Fetal Calf Serum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karim, Asima; Hall, Andrew C

    2017-05-01

    Changes to chondrocyte volume/morphology may have deleterious effects on extracellular matrix (ECM) metabolism potentially leading to cartilage deterioration and osteoarthritis (OA). The factors controlling chondrocyte properties are poorly understood, however, pericellular matrix (PCM) weakening may be involved. We have studied the density, volume, morphology, and clustering of cultured bovine articular chondrocytes within stiff (2% w/v) and soft (0.2% w/v) three-dimensional agarose gels. Gels with encapsulated chondrocytes were cultured in Dulbecco's Modified Eagle's Medium (DMEM; fetal calf serum (FCS) 1-10%;380 mOsm) for up to 7 days. Chondrocytes were fluorescently labeled after 1, 3, and 7 days with 5-chloromethylfluorescein-diacetate (CMFDA) and propidium iodide (PI) or 1,5-bis{[2-(di-methylamino)ethyl]amino}-4,8-dihydroxyanthracene-9,10-dione (DRAQ5) to identify cytoplasmic space or DNA and imaged by confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). Chondrocyte density, volume, morphology, and clustering were quantified using Volocity™ software. In stiff gels after 7 d with 10% FCS, chondrocyte density remained unaffected and morphology was relatively normal with occasional cytoplasmic processes. However, in soft gels by day 1, chondrocyte volume increased (P = 0.0058) and by day 7, density increased (P = 0.0080), along with the percentage of chondrocytes of abnormal morphology (P gels. FCS exacerbated changes to density (P gel strength. Reduced gel stiffness and/or increased FCS concentrations promoted chondrocyte proliferation and clustering, increased cell volume, and stimulated abnormal morphology, producing similar changes to those occurring in OA. The increased penetration of factors in FCS into soft gels may be important in the development of these abnormal chondrocyte properties. J. Cell. Physiol. 232: 1041-1052, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Intrinsic and extrinsic risk factors for muscle strains in Australian football.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orchard, J W

    2001-01-01

    Muscle strains are common injuries in Australian football and other sports involving sprinting. Between 1992 and 1999, 83,503 player-matches in the Australian Football League were analyzed for risk of muscle strain injuries using logistic regression analysis. There were 672 hamstring, 163 quadriceps, and 140 calf muscle strain injuries. All three types of muscle strains were associated with significant risk factors. For all injuries, the strongest risk factor was a recent history of that same injury and the next strongest risk factor was a past history of the same injury. History of one type of muscle strain increased the risk for certain types of other muscle strains. Age was a risk factor for hamstring and calf muscle strains (even when adjusted for injury history) but was not a risk factor for quadriceps muscle strains. Quadriceps muscle injuries were more common in shorter players and were more likely when there had been less rainfall at the match venue in the previous week. Quadriceps muscle injuries were significantly more common in the dominant kicking leg, whereas hamstring and calf muscle injuries showed no difference in frequency between the dominant and nondominant legs.

  7. Factors influencing dairy calf and replacement heifer mortality in France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raboisson, D; Maigne, E; Sans, P; Allaire, G; Cahuzac, E

    2014-01-01

    Herd-level risk factors for dairy calf and heifer mortality in France were identified by calculating herd-level variables (including mortality risk or rate) using the National Bovine Identification Database (2005 and 2006). Eleven dairy production areas representing different livestock systems were also included. Statistical analyses were based on a probit model (mortality risk or rate=0 or >0) and a linear model (mortality risk or rate >0) corrected by the sample bias Heckman method. The same associations were reported for 2005 and 2006. The mortality risks or rates for calves and heifers were positively associated with the proportion of purchased cows or being a Milk Control Program member and negatively associated with adhering to the Good Breeding Practices charter and having an autumn calving peak. The associations between mortality and the breeds or the production areas were positive or negative, depending on the classes of animal. Mortality and having a beef herd in addition to the dairy herd were negatively associated for noncrossed birth to 2-d-old calves, noncrossed 3-d- to 1-mo-old calves, and 3-d- to 1-mo-old heifers. Having a beef herd probably provides specific know-how related to newborn and young calf management that makes it easier to attain low mortality in pure-breed dairy calves. The proportion of males born was positively associated with mortality for the birth to 2-d-old calves (all classes) and for the 3-d- to 1-mo-old beef-crossed calves, but negatively for all classes of heifers. This indicates that heifer management was improved when the availability of newborn heifers decreased, resulting in low mortality. This lower mortality is apparent for all classes of heifers present on the farm during the year when the proportion of males was low, and demonstrates an anticipatory effect. In conclusion, this study shows that the presence of a beef herd in addition to the dairy herd within a farm is associated with decreased dairy calf mortality. It

  8. Short communication: Antioxidant activity of calf milk replacers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soberon, M A; Liu, R H; Cherney, D J R

    2012-05-01

    A calf milk replacer (CMR) is designed to replace whole, saleable milk as a lower cost nutrient source for calves while striving to nourish a newborn calf, reduce calf mortality, strengthen immunity, and increase animal life span and productivity. Antioxidants (AO) can enhance immune defense by reducing oxidative damage, but CMR are traditionally not formulated for AO activity. The objective of this study was to compare total AO activities of bovine milk and 6 CMR (A to F) that vary in the amount and source of fat and protein. Calf milk replacers were donated by Milk Products LLC (Chilton, WI). Milk was obtained from the Cornell Dairy Research Farm bulk tank, representing milk produced within 24h by 455 cows. Milk replacers were mixed to 150 g/L with 40°C purified water. All samples were extracted in triplicate. Following hexane lipid extraction, both milk and CMR samples were extracted 5 times with ethyl acetate and then evaporated and reconstituted with 70% methanol:water. Samples were assessed for total AO activity using the peroxyl radical scavenging capacity assay where each sample was diluted to 5 descending concentrations, plated in triplicate. Ascorbic and gallic acids were standards for each plate. Type of protein (soy) had a positive effect on AO activity for CMR A, which exhibited the highest total AO activity. Natural bovine milk had the second highest AO activity. Many factors may explain the difference in AO activity between natural milk and formulated CMR, including fat, vitamin, and mineral contents, enzymatic AO, phenolics, flavonoids, fatty acid profile, and AA composition. When comparing AO activity of CMR, it is important to consider the diversity in feeding recommendations, which will alter the vitamin and mineral content, thus influencing AO activity. The opportunity exists to enhance AO activity of CMR to more closely mimic that of bovine milk. Future research is warranted to compare a broader range of CMR using methods that account for

  9. Calf form bovine leukosis with lameness in a Holstein heifer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tawfeeq, Mohammad Monir; Miura, Saori; Nakanishi, Yuuki; Sugimoto, Kazuya; Kobayashi, Yoshiyasu; Furuoka, Hidefumi; Inokuma, Hisashi

    2012-09-01

    A 12-month-old Holstein heifer with anorexia, lameness, and enlargement of peripheral lymph nodes was suspected of having bovine leukosis. Although lymphocytosis was not observed, cytology of fine needle aspirate from a superficial cervical node, and increased serum lactate dehydrogenase and thymidine kinase activities, strongly suggested lymphosarcoma. Increased numbers of mononuclear cells as well as mitotic cells were observed in synovial fluid collected from swollen joints. Pathological examination confirmed B-cell calf form bovine leukosis and joint swelling related to neoplastic cell infiltration. Both interleukin-2 receptor and thymidine kinase 1 genes were highly expressed in cells from superficial cervical lymph node aspirate.

  10. Linguine sign in musculoskeletal imaging: calf silicone implant rupture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duryea, Dennis; Petscavage-Thomas, Jonelle [Milton S. Hershey Medical Center, Department of Radiology, H066, 500 University Drive, P.O. Box 850, Hershey, PA (United States); Frauenhoffer, Elizabeth E. [Milton S. Hershey Medical Center, Department of Pathology, 500 University Drive, P.O. Box 850, Hershey, PA (United States); Walker, Eric A. [Milton S. Hershey Medical Center, Department of Radiology, H066, 500 University Drive, P.O. Box 850, Hershey, PA (United States); Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Bethesda, MD, 20814 (United States)

    2015-08-15

    Imaging findings of breast silicone implant rupture are well described in the literature. On MRI, the linguine sign indicates intracapsular rupture, while the presence of silicone particles outside the fibrous capsule indicates extracapsular rupture. The linguine sign is described as the thin, wavy hypodense wall of the implant within the hyperintense silicone on T2-weighted images indicative of rupture of the implant within the naturally formed fibrous capsule. Hyperintense T2 signal outside of the fibrous capsule is indicative of an extracapsular rupture with silicone granuloma formation. We present a rare case of a patient with a silicone calf implant rupture and discuss the MRI findings associated with this condition. (orig.)

  11. Physiological calf responses to increased chromium supply in summer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yari, M; Nikkhah, A; Alikhani, M; Khorvash, M; Rahmani, H; Ghorbani, G R

    2010-09-01

    The primary objective was to determine pre- and postweaning calf physiological responses to increased Cr supply under high ambient temperatures. In a randomized complete block design, 24 neonate Holstein calves (BW=41.5+/-1.9 kg) were grouped based on sex and randomly assigned to 3 treatments within each group. Treatments included either no supplemental Cr (control), 0.02 mg of supplemental Cr/kg of BW0.75, or 0.04 mg of supplemental Cr/kg of BW0.75. The average temperature-humidity index was 77 during the study. Chromium was provided as a commercial product in whole milk for preweaning calves and in a starter concentrate for postweaning calves. Calves were weaned at 1 kg of daily calf starter intake lasting for 6 consecutive days. A glucose tolerance test was conducted on d 25 postweaning. Treatments had no effects on preweaning dry matter intake, feed conversion ratio, average daily gain, and weaning age. Chromium decreased dry matter intake in postweaning calves; however, it did not affect growth and feed conversion ratio. Chromium lowered respiration rate at wk 5 without affecting fecal score and rectal temperature. Preweaning serum cortisol concentrations were altered by a 3-way interaction of Cr dose with calf sex and age. Preweaning serum glucose showed week-dependent increases by Cr. Serum insulin, urea, albumin, total protein, triiodothyronine, and thyroxin concentrations through weaning were not affected. The increasing Cr doses caused quadratic declines in serum thyroxin on d 21 postweaning, whereas blood triiodothyronine declined only with the higher Cr dose. Serum NEFA remained unchanged, but BHBA decreased by Cr in male calves on d 21 postweaning. The glucose tolerance test revealed linear reductions in area under insulin curve between 0 to 90 and 0 to 120 min after glucose infusion, suggesting improvements in peripheral insulin efficiency. Sex-dependent responses to Cr were observed for serum total protein and albumin concentrations at 21 d

  12. Computed tomographic examination of muscle volume, cross-section and density in patients with dysgnathia; Computertomographische Untersuchung von Muskelvolumen, -querschnitt und -dichte bei Dysgnathiepatienten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gedrange, T.; Haase, I.; Haase, J.; Harzer, W. [Poliklinik fuer Kieferorthopaedie des Univ. Carl Gustav Carus an der Technischen Univ. Dresden (Germany); Hietschold, V.; Laniado, M. [Inst. und Poliklinik fuer Radiologische Diagnostik des Univ. Carl Gustav Carus an der Technischen Univ. Dresden (Germany)

    2005-02-01

    Purpose: the individual jaw position is determined by the masticatory muscle among other factors. Before surgical treatment of malocclusions, thorough evaluation of the muscles is required to estimate the relapse risk. Materials and methods: by means of computer tomography, lateral radiographs of the skull and denture models, the relationships between morphological parameters of the masticatory muscles and the jaw bone were analyzed. Furthermore, possible causes for the extent of the malocclusion are described. Results: a patient group with deep overbite was found to have significantly higher muscle densities (measured in Hounsfield units [HU]) in the medial pterygoideus muscle (59.89{+-}3.91 HU to 48.94{+-}4.14 HU, p<0.01), masseter muscle, and genioglossus muscle (p<0.05) in comparison to open bite patients. Significant differences of the muscle cross-section were measured in the masseter muscle between patients with retroclined maxillary incisors and with an open bite (5.4{+-}0.7 cm{sup 2} to 3.8{+-}0.4 cm{sup 2}, p<0.05). Conclusion: the results show a correlation between different jaw positions and masticatory muscles. They also suggest that the function of each muscle may be different. Additional examinations of the muscle structures are required for verification of the influence of the masticatory muscles on facial morphology. (orig.)

  13. Intraoperative evaluation of revascularization effect on ischemic muscle hemodynamics using near-infrared diffuse optical spectroscopies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Guoqiang; Shang, Yu; Zhao, Youquan; Cheng, Ran; Dong, Lixin; Saha, Sibu P.

    2011-02-01

    Arterial revascularization in patients with peripheral arterial disease (PAD) reestablishes large arterial blood supply to the ischemic muscles in lower extremities via bypass grafts or percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA). Currently no gold standard is available for assessment of revascularization effects in lower extremity muscles. This study tests a novel near-infrared diffuse correlation spectroscopy flow-oximeter for monitoring of blood flow and oxygenation changes in medial gastrocnemius (calf) muscles during arterial revascularization. Twelve limbs with PAD undergoing revascularization were measured using a sterilized fiber-optic probe taped on top of the calf muscle. The optical measurement demonstrated sensitivity to dynamic physiological events, such as arterial clamping/releasing during bypass graft and balloon inflation/deflation during PTA. Significant elevations in calf muscle blood flow were observed after revascularization in patients with bypass graft (+48.1 +/- 17.5%) and patients with PTA (+43.2 +/- 11.0%), whereas acute post-revascularization effects in muscle oxygenation were not evident. The decoupling of flow and oxygenation after revascularization emphasizes the need for simultaneous measurement of both parameters. The acute elevations/improvements in calf muscle blood flow were associated with significant improvements in symptoms and functions. In total, the investigation corroborates potential of the optical methods for objectively assessing the success of arterial revascularization.

  14. What is the blood flow to resting human muscle?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elia, M; Kurpad, A

    1993-05-01

    1. An investigation was carried out in five healthy lean adults to assess whether forearm and calf plethysmography largely reflect muscle blood flow as measured by 133Xe and whether there is substantial variability in the blood flow to muscles located at different sites in the body. 2. Blood flow to forearm and calf flexors and extensors, biceps, triceps and quadriceps was assessed using the 133Xe clearance technique. Blood flow to forearm skin and subcutaneous adipose tissue was also measured using the 133Xe clearance technique, whereas blood flow to the forearm and calf was measured using strain gauge plethysmography. 3. The mean blood flow to different muscles ranged from 1.4 +/- 0.6 (gastrocnemius) to 1.8 +/- 0.7 (forearm extensor) ml min-1 100 g-1 muscle (1.4 +/- 0.6 and 1.9 +/- 0.8 ml min-1 100 ml-1 muscle, respectively) but there were no significant differences between them. Forearm and calf blood flows (2.7 +/- 0.3 and 3.0 +/- 0.7 ml min-1 100 ml-1 limb tissue, respectively) were about 50% to more than 100% greater (P muscles within them (1.7 +/- 0.5 and 1.4 +/- 0.5 ml min-1 100 g-1 muscle, respectively, or 1.8 +/- 0.6 and 1.5 +/- 0.5 ml min-1 100 ml-1 muscle, respectively). In contrast, the blood flows to 100 g of forearm skin (9.1 +/- 2.6 ml min-1 100 g-1) and adipose tissue (3.8 +/- 1.1 ml min-1 100 g-1) were higher than the blood flow to 100 g of forearm (P < 0.01 and not significant, respectively).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  15. Effects of knee joint angle on global and local strains within human triceps surae muscle: MRI analysis indicating in vivo myofascial force transmission between synergistic muscles

    OpenAIRE

    Huijing, Peter A.; Yaman, Alper; Ozturk, Cengizhan; Yucesoy, Can A.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose Mechanical interactions between muscles have been shown for in situ conditions. In vivo data for humans is unavailable. Global and local length changes of calf muscles were studied to test the hypothesis that local strains may occur also within muscle for which global strain equals zero. Methods For determination of globally induced strain in m. gastrocnemius in dissected human cadavers several knee joint angles were imposed, while keeping ankle joint angle constant and measuring its ...

  16. Muscle size explains low passive skeletal muscle force in heart failure patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panizzolo, Fausto Antonio; Maiorana, Andrew J; Naylor, Louise H; Dembo, Lawrence G; Lloyd, David G; Green, Daniel J; Rubenson, Jonas

    2016-01-01

    Alterations in skeletal muscle function and architecture have been linked to the compromised exercise capacity characterizing chronic heart failure (CHF). However, how passive skeletal muscle force is affected in CHF is not clear. Understanding passive force characteristics in CHF can help further elucidate the extent to which altered contractile properties and/or architecture might affect muscle and locomotor function. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate passive force in a single muscle for which non-invasive measures of muscle size and estimates of fiber force are possible, the soleus (SOL), both in CHF patients and age- and physical activity-matched control participants. Passive SOL muscle force and size were obtained by means of a novel approach combining experimental data (dynamometry, electromyography, ultrasound imaging) with a musculoskeletal model. We found reduced passive SOL forces (∼30%) (at the same relative levels of muscle stretch) in CHF vs. healthy individuals. This difference was eliminated when force was normalized by physiological cross sectional area, indicating that reduced force output may be most strongly associated with muscle size. Nevertheless, passive force was significantly higher in CHF at a given absolute muscle length (non length-normalized) and likely explained by the shorter muscle slack lengths and optimal muscle lengths measured in CHF compared to the control participants. This later factor may lead to altered performance of the SOL in functional tasks such gait. These findings suggest introducing exercise rehabilitation targeting muscle hypertrophy and, specifically for the calf muscles, exercise that promotes muscle lengthening.

  17. Thigh and calf blood flows after isometric contraction in untrained and trained subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitamura, K; Shimaoka, M; Matsui, H; Miyamura, M

    1983-01-01

    The present study was undertaken to examine whether or not there were any differences between untrained and trained subjects in the changes of blood flow in the ipsilateral and contralateral lower limbs after isometric exercise. Blood flow of the thigh and calf in both right and left legs were measured simultaneously before and after isometric contraction with mercury-in-silastic strain gauge venous occlusion plethysmography. In the present study, the main pattern of blood flow responses in the active and non-active limbs was strikingly similar in all subjects: a significant fall in blood flow immediately after isometric contraction at a force of about 50% of maximal muscle strength for 15 sec was observed in the non-active lower limbs. Peak blood flow of the exercised thigh in the trained group was significantly higher than that in the untrained ones. From these results, it was suggested that higher blood flow after isometric exercise in the trained subjects may be due to the improvement of degree of vasodilation in the lower limb as a result of physical training.

  18. Human calf muscular metabolism study with a home-made ergometer using 31P NMR spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peynsaert, J.; Achten, E.; Claeys, E. [Ghent University Hospital (Belgium); Rousseaux, M. [Ghent University Hospital (Belgium). Dept. of Sport Medicine

    1995-12-01

    Phosphorus-31 NMR measurements were performed to examine the variations in the concentration of phosphate metabolites in calf muscle during exercise. Therefore, volunteers, installed in the supine position, were asked to push repetitively on the pedal of a home-made ergometer. The produced work and the changes in phosphorus containing metabolites were measured continuously. Correlations were made between the inorganic phosphate/phosphocreatine ratio and the cumulative work and between the intracellular pH and the cumulative work. The exercise protocol could be changed interactively with respect to the imposed initial pressure, the maximum pressure, the pressure increase per level and the time a certain level was held. The whole experiment could be graphically followed on-line. In the first stadium, the in vitro reproducibility of the ergometer was tested for different protocols. These tests revealed that, though the deviation in produced work was markedly the highest at high working pressures, the relative error never exceeded 3%. Consequently, the ex vitro reproducibility of the data was examined with the equipment placed in the scanner. Generally, same conclusions could be derived. In a next stage, the work will be synchronized with the biochemical data. Extreme precautions will be taken to examine each volunteer every time under the same physical and psychological conditions.

  19. The Effect of Early Feeding of Soybean and Fishmeal Based Calf S ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Based on growth performimce and cost, it was concluded that early feeding of calves Withsoyb,eq.'!-fishmeal bas.eg ... have reached the target weaning weight, nor- mally about 60 - 70 kg. Calves may require more than 12 weeks ... calf from birth to weaning, costing 75,000 to. 100,000 Tanzanian shillings per calf. Such high.

  20. What do calves choose to eat and how do preferences affect calf behaviour and welfare?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Webb, L.E.; Engel, B.; Berends, H.; Reenen, van C.G.; Gerrits, W.J.J.; Boer, de I.J.M.; Bokkers, E.A.M.

    2014-01-01

    Calves raised for milk or meat are fed diets that differ from feral-herd calf diets and are based on the nutritional requirements of the ‘average calf’. These diets may not meet the dietary preferences of each individual calf. This study explored diet preferences in calves with free dietary choice,

  1. Effects of different flooring options in outside pens of hutches on dairy calf growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Growth rates of dairy calves may vary due to many different factors, including housing. The objective of this study was to determine if calf growth was affected by different flooring options in the outside penned area of a calf hutch. For this study, 33 hutches were blocked in groups of 3 by locatio...

  2. Examining dolphin hydrodynamics provides clues to calf-loss during tuna fishing

    OpenAIRE

    Moore, Pete

    2004-01-01

    A combination of mathematical modeling and direct observation of the swimming behavior of dolphin mother-calf pairs has shown how the calf can gain much of the energy required for swimming if it is positioned correctly relative to the mother, a situation that may be disrupted during the chases that result from tuna-fishing practices.

  3. Weighted Mean of Signal Intensity for Unbiased Fiber Tracking of Skeletal Muscles: Development of a New Method and Comparison With Other Correction Techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giraudo, Chiara; Motyka, Stanislav; Weber, Michael; Resinger, Christoph; Thorsten, Feiweier; Traxler, Hannes; Trattnig, Siegfried; Bogner, Wolfgang

    2017-08-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the origin of random image artifacts in stimulated echo acquisition mode diffusion tensor imaging (STEAM-DTI), assess the role of averaging, develop an automated artifact postprocessing correction method using weighted mean of signal intensities (WMSIs), and compare it with other correction techniques. Institutional review board approval and written informed consent were obtained. The right calf and thigh of 10 volunteers were scanned on a 3 T magnetic resonance imaging scanner using a STEAM-DTI sequence.Artifacts (ie, signal loss) in STEAM-based DTI, presumably caused by involuntary muscle contractions, were investigated in volunteers and ex vivo (ie, human cadaver calf and turkey leg using the same DTI parameters as for the volunteers). An automated postprocessing artifact correction method based on the WMSI was developed and compared with previous approaches (ie, iteratively reweighted linear least squares and informed robust estimation of tensors by outlier rejection [iRESTORE]). Diffusion tensor imaging and fiber tracking metrics, using different averages and artifact corrections, were compared for region of interest- and mask-based analyses. One-way repeated measures analysis of variance with Greenhouse-Geisser correction and Bonferroni post hoc tests were used to evaluate differences among all tested conditions. Qualitative assessment (ie, images quality) for native and corrected images was performed using the paired t test. Randomly localized and shaped artifacts affected all volunteer data sets. Artifact burden during voluntary muscle contractions increased on average from 23.1% to 77.5% but were absent ex vivo. Diffusion tensor imaging metrics (mean diffusivity, fractional anisotropy, radial diffusivity, and axial diffusivity) had a heterogeneous behavior, but in the range reported by literature. Fiber track metrics (number, length, and volume) significantly improved in both calves and thighs after artifact

  4. Fat Replacement of Paraspinal Muscles with Aging in Healthy Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahlqvist, Julia R; Vissing, Christoffer R; Hedermann, Gitte; Thomsen, Carsten; Vissing, John

    2017-03-01

    The aims of this study were to investigate the age-related changes in fatty replacement and cross-sectional area (CSA) of cervical, thoracic, and lumbar paraspinal muscles versus leg muscles in healthy adults and to test for association between muscle fat fraction and lifestyle factors. Fifty-three healthy adults (24-76 yr) were included. Dixon magnetic resonance imaging technique was used to determine CSA and to quantify the fat fraction of paraspinal and leg muscles. Muscle CSA and fat fractions were tested for association with age and muscle strength. The fat fractions were also tested for association with sex, body mass index (BMI), physical activity, and lower back pain. Both paraspinal and leg fat fractions correlated directly with age (P muscles. The age-related increase in fat fraction was higher in paraspinal muscles than leg muscles (P muscles did not correlate with age. Knee extension strength correlated with fat fraction (P muscle strength of hip muscles, thigh muscles, and anterior calf muscles correlated with CSA (P muscles were more susceptible to age-related changes than leg muscles. Further, men had significantly lower fat fractions in lumbar paraspinal muscles, and BMI was positively associated with thigh, but not paraspinal, fat fraction.

  5. Inhibition of the expression of pathology in dystrophic mouse leg muscles by immobilization.

    OpenAIRE

    Loermans, H.; Wirtz, P.

    1983-01-01

    Normal and dystrophic calf muscles of young mice of the Bar Harbor strain Re 129 were immobilized with the foot in an extended position. Two weeks after treatment the muscles were examined morphologically. Immobilization resulted in the inhibition of fibre necrosis and, consequently, of regeneration. In the contralateral leg these processes progressed unhampered and gave rise to typical dystrophic features. As a result of treatment there was some muscle fibre atrophy. The results clearly indi...

  6. α-Tocopherol and β-carotene concentrations in feed, colostrum, cow and calf serum in Swedish dairy herds with high or low calf mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torsein, Maria; Lindberg, Ann; Svensson, Catarina; Jensen, Sören Krogh; Berg, Charlotte; Waller, Karin Persson

    2018-02-01

    A study of herd-level risk factors for calf mortality in large Swedish dairy herds showed low serum concentrations of α-tocopherol and β-carotene in 1-7 day old calves to be more common in high mortality herds. Therefore, we aimed to investigate if calf mortality risk at herd level is associated with concentrations of α-tocopherol and/or β-carotene at individual level in feed, colostrum, cow and calf serum, while controlling for herd level covariates. Inclusion criteria were affiliation to the Swedish official milk recording scheme, herd size of ≥ 120 milking cows/year, calf mortality risk (day 1-90) of at least 6% (high mortality; HM) or less than 1% (low mortality; LM) and located within one of two regions in southern Sweden. This cross-sectional study was performed in 2010 in 19 (n HM  = 9; n LM  = 10) dairy herds. Questionnaires were used to collect information about feed and routines for colostrum feeding. Feed (n = 57), colostrum (n = 162), cow serum (n = 189) and calf serum samples (n = 187) were collected and analysed for α-tocopherol and β-carotene. Other analyses e.g. total serum protein, fat content, and total solids in colostrum were also performed. Linear regression models with vitamin concentrations in feed, colostrum, cow and calf serum as outcome were performed. Calves in HM herds had lower concentrations of α-tocopherol in serum than calves in LM herds, but the effect depended on total protein status in serum of the calf (P = 0.036). Calves from herds that fed transition milk for 3 days or more had higher α-tocopherol concentrations in serum than calves from herds feeding transition milk up to 2 days (P = 0.013). Fat percentage in colostrum was positively associated with α-tocopherol (P cow serum (P = 0.001). High calf mortality risks were associated with lower concentrations of α-tocopherol in calf serum for calves with failure of passive transfer. Feeding transition milk longer was associated with higher

  7. Energy metabolism and thermoregulation in the newborn calf.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermorel, M; Dardillat, C; Vernet, J; Saido; Demigne, C

    1983-01-01

    About half of calf losses occur during the first two days of life. Mortality rate is increased by difficult parturition and adverse climatic conditions. However, thermoregulatory mechanisms are operative at birth, these including the metabolism of brown adipose tissue, shivering and physical activity. Thermoregulation is just as effective in twin as in single calves provided that calving conditions are good. Heat production of Charolais and Salers calves was lower than that of Friesian; the difference came from a lower basal metabolic rate rather from a better thermic insulation. In dystocial calves, blood pH at birth was very low, lactataemia was two or three times higher than in eutocial calves, mobilization of body lipids was reduced and plasma thyroïd hormone level were low, which can explain the lower heat production and the drop in rectal temperature. The physiological responses of calves born by caesarean parturition depend on the delay incurred during surgical removal.

  8. Genetic analysis of calf and heifer losses in Danish Holstein

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fuerst-Walti, B; Sørensen, Morten Kargo

    2010-01-01

    calving was higher than the stillbirth rate. Genetic and phenotypic variation seemed to be sufficiently high to genetically improve the trait calf and heifer mortality. Hence, a routine genetic evaluation would be valuable for monitoring and for selecting fitter animals in the Danish Holstein cattle......Mortality in dairy cattle is not only relevant with regard to economic losses but also to animal health and welfare. Thus, the aim of this investigation was to explore the genetic background of postnatal mortality in calves and replacement heifers in different age groups until first calving...... first calving or a maximum age of 1,200 d if no calving was reported, and the full period P5=d 1 until the day before first calving or a maximum age of 1,200 d if no calving was reported. Records of animals slaughtered or exported within a defined period were set to missing for this and following...

  9. Influence of environmental health in the cow-calf dyad system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thayná Barcelos Fernandes

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Health factors influence the cow-calf dyad system in the postpartum period until the first suckling. The use of maternity paddock is a recommended management to facilitate the monitoring of parturient cows and calves. However, side effects occur due to environmental health conditions of maternity paddock that can affect the behaviour of the cow and result in the separation of calf from the mother, undermining sucking and the formation of the cow-calf dyad. To improve the understanding of this complex and dynamic system we built a conceptual model using the technique of causal loop diagram, Figure 1. By hypothesis, the environmental variables that act in maternity paddock influence the variable "Sources of pathogens in maternity". Those sources present a positive effect (in the same direction in the infection process of the calf and cow. Thus, a recommended practice is exposing the parturient cow to pathogens in maternity for sufficient period to stimulate their immune system and build disease resistance. That process contributes to improve the quality of colostrum that will be consumed by the calf during the first hours postpartum which has the function of increasing calf immunity, minimizing the occurrence of infections. In the model, sanitary environmental factors work in two Balance feedback loops (B1 and B2. The B1 cycle refers to the production of a healthy cow with a low level of infection by means of the variables: “Vaccine”, "Stimulation of cow immune system" and "Health resistance" with delay. The variable "Cow infection" has a negative influence (in the opposite direction in the "Maternal behaviour", thus the more infected the cow, the less investment will occur in maternal behaviour. The B2 cycle refers to the calf’s health condition, which is positively influenced by “Calf infection” which, in turn, has positive influence, contributing to the increase of "Calf diseases". The increase in “Calf diseases” generates an

  10. Wild reindeer calf recruitment variations; biology or methodology?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eigil Reimers

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The two field methods, ground counts and aerial photography, currently used for calculating population estimates and calf recruitment for Norwegian wild reindeer (Rangifer tarandus produce different results. Using population count data by both methods from the same years in various areas, I systematically compare estimates of sex and age components and decipher reasons for the discrepancies found in previous estimates made by each method. Data for aerial photography counts were found in the literature, while original data is presented for ground counts. Calf recruitment (calves/100 females and the proportion of adult males (males 1+ years/100 animals 1+ years in herds of reindeer in Norefjell-Reinsjøfjell (1993-98, Rondane North (1995-97 and Setesdal-Ryfylke (1995, 1998 were recorded from ground counts of post calving groups in June-July. The estimates for number of calves per 100 females 1+ years were lower and more variable than number of calves per 100 females 2+ years. A variable number of yearling females in the groups and difficulties in correctly sexing yearlings are contributing factors. The estimates for number of calves/100 females 1+ years were higher than calves/100 animals 1+ years due to the inclusion of young males in the latter. Among animals 1+ years in the post-calving groups, males (mostly yearling males composed from 4.7 to 27.9 %. Nevertheless, both calculation methods for calf recruitment were consistently higher for ground count data than when using counts from air photographs, confirming that the two methods do not produce comparable results. Explanations for this discrepancy are (1 that calves may be easier to overlook on air photographs than in ground composition counts and (2 that the yearling male components in the post calving groups are unaccounted for when using air photographs. June recruitment rates (calves/100 females 1+ years in Rondane North were also estimated from composition counts recorded from ground

  11. Experimental human muscle damage: morphological changes in relation to other indices of damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, D A; Newham, D J; Round, J M; Tolfree, S E

    1986-06-01

    The effects of eccentric exercise have been examined in human calf and biceps muscles. Release of muscle creatine kinase and uptake of technetium pyrophosphate have been followed for up to 20 days after the exercise and the results are related to the morphological changes seen in needle biopsy samples. The response to exercise was variable, all subjects developing pain and tenderness in the exercised muscles after 1-2 days and this was followed, in most subjects, by a large increase in plasma creatine kinase 4-6 days after the exercise. This was paralleled by an increased uptake of technetium pyrophosphate into the exercised muscle. Biopsies of the affected muscles showed little or no change in the first 7 days after the exercise but later degenerating fibres were seen, as well as infiltration by mononuclear cells and eventually, by 20 days, signs of regeneration. Very extensive changes were seen in the calf muscle of one subject; changes in the biceps were qualitatively similar but not so severe. In the severely affected calf muscle type II fibres were preferentially damaged. Mononuclear cell infiltration both between and within degenerating fibres was maximal well after the time of peak plasma creatine kinase and it is likely that in eccentrically exercised muscle infiltrating mononuclear cells act to scavenge cellular debris rather than to cause damage to the muscle.

  12. The influence of gastric distension and the duodenal infusate on the pattern of stomach (abomasal) emptying in the preruminant calf.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, F R; Watson, D J

    1976-07-01

    1. In the conscious calf it is possible to use duodenal re-entrant cannulae to measure the output of a gastric test meal directly from the proximal cannula placed near the pylorus. At the same time the duodenum can be isolated from the stomach and maintained under constant stimulus by a continual infusion at regulated pressure, volume and temperature into the distal cannula. 2. Under these experimental conditions the pattern of gastric emptying is exponential in form. Thus direct recording of gastric emptying validates indirect methods, such as the serial test meal, where volume markers are used. It appears likely that the exponential pattern of gastric emptying is common to man, dog, cat and calf. 3. When the isolated duodenum was infused with water, the exponential pattern of gastric emptying was maintained even when the volume of meal instilled was increased substantially from 1 to 41. 4. Distension of the stomach by larger test meals did not affect the relative rate of emptying so that the half-time of emptying of all meals was about the same. 5. When the isolated duodenum was infused with 0-06 M-HCl gastric emptying of the smaller meals was almost completely inhibited. The inhibition of gastric evacuation was accompanied by inhibition of the gastric e.m.g. 6. Infusion of the duodenum with acid also produced marked, but not complete, inhibition of emptying the larger test meals but the distension produced by the larger meals appeared to partially overcome the inhibitory effect of the acid duodenal infusate so that a small efflux occurred from the stomach. This small efflux was usually associated with some slight degree of gastric e.m.g. activity. 7. We are still investigating the mechanisms whereby the duodenum affects gastric emptying, but it is clearly demonstrable from our present results that the inhibitory effects of acid duodenal infusate are sufficiently powerful to overcome the forces, both physical and reflex, which normally aid gastric evacuation.

  13. Calf serum constituent fractions influence polyethylene wear and microbial growth in knee simulator testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandt, Jan-M; Charron, Kory; Zhao, Lin; MacDonald, Steven J; Medley, John B

    2012-06-01

    Calf serum lubricants consisting of various polypeptide constituent fractions are routinely used in knee wear simulators as part of the standardized test protocol. Three calf sera (bovine, new-born and alpha) were diluted as per the recommendation of ISO 14243-3 and used in displacement-controlled knee wear simulators to investigate their effects on polyethylene wear. Biochemical analyses included measuring total polypeptide degradation, electrophoretic profiles and low-molecular weight polypeptide concentrations to elucidate their involvement in the wear process. The effects of the various calf sera constituent fractions on microbial growth were also explored. The polyethylene wear rates and the results from the biochemical analyses for the three calf serum lubricants were all found to be statistically significantly different from each other. The lubricant derived from the alpha-calf serum was closest in constituent fractions to human synovial fluid. It also showed the lowest polyethylene wear rate (14.38 +/- 0.85 mm3/million cycles) and the lowest amount of polypeptide degradation (7.77 +/- 3.87%). Furthermore, the alpha-calf serum lubricant was associated with the least amount of change in the electrophoretic profile, the least change in low-molecular weight polypeptide concentration, and the lowest microbial growth in the presence of sodium azide (a microbial inhibitor conventionally used in implant wear testing). Replacing sodium azide with a broad spectrum antibiotic-antimycotic eradicated the microbial growth. Some speculation was entertained regarding the effect of alpha-calf serum on colloid-mediated boundary lubrication. Based on the results, it was recommended that ISO 14243-3 be modified to include guidelines on calf serum constituent fractions that would favour using alpha-calf serum in order to improve the fidelity of the simulation in knee implant wear testing.

  14. Muscle atrophy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muscle wasting; Wasting; Atrophy of the muscles ... There are two types of muscle atrophy: disuse and neurogenic. Disuse atrophy is caused by not using the muscles enough . This type of atrophy can often be ...

  15. Muscle Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Your muscles help you move and help your body work. Different types of muscles have different jobs. There are many problems that can affect muscles. Muscle disorders can cause weakness, pain or even ...

  16. Muscle Cramps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muscle cramps are sudden, involuntary contractions or spasms in one or more of your muscles. They often occur after exercise or at night, ... to several minutes. It is a very common muscle problem. Muscle cramps can be caused by nerves ...

  17. A comparison of human jaw muscle cross-sectional area and volume in long- and short-face subjects, using MRI

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boom, H.P.W.; van Spronsen, P.H.; van Ginkel, F.C.; van Schijndel, R.A.; Castelijns, J.A.; Tuinzing, D.B.

    2008-01-01

    Objective In humans, the vertical craniofacial dimensions vary significantly with the size of the jaw muscles, which are regarded as important controlling factors of craniofacial growth. The functional relevance of the maximum cross-sectional area (CSA), indicating maximum muscle strength, is

  18. A comparison of human jaw muscle cross-sectional area and volume in long- and short-face subjects, using MRI

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Spronsena, P. H.; van Ginkel, F. C.; van Schijndel, R. A.; Castelijns, J. A.; Tuinzing, D. B.

    Objective: In humans, the vertical craniofacial dimensions vary significantly with the size of the jaw muscles, which are regarded as important controlling factors of craniofacial growth. The functional relevance of the maximum cross-sectional area (CSA), indicating maximum muscle strength, is

  19. A comparison of human jaw muscle cross-sectional area and volume in long- and short-face subjects, using MRI

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boom, H.P.; van Spronsen, P.H.; van Ginkel, F.C.; van Schijndel, R.A.; Castelijns, J.A.; Tuinzing, D.B.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: In humans, the vertical craniofacial dimensions vary significantly with the size of the jaw muscles, which are regarded as important controlling factors of craniofacial growth. The functional relevance of the maximum cross-sectional area (CSA), indicating maximum muscle strength, is

  20. Mid-arm and calf circumferences are stronger mortality predictors than body mass index for patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ho SC

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Shu-Chuan Ho,1,2 Jiun-Yi Wang,3,4 Han-Pin Kuo,5 Chien-Da Huang,5 Kang-Yun Lee,2,6 Hsiao-Chi Chuang,1,2 Po-Hao Feng,2,6 Tzu-Tao Chen,2,* Min-Fang Hsu7,* 1School of Respiratory Therapy, College of Medicine, 2Division of Pulmonary Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, Shuang Ho Hospital, Taipei Medical University, New Taipei City, 3Department of Healthcare Administration, Asia University, Wufeng, 4Department of Medical Research, China Medical University Hospital, China Medical University, Taichung, 5Department of Thoracic Medicine, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Chang Gung University College of Medicine, 6Department of Internal Medicine, School of Medicine, College of Medicine, Taipei Medical University, 7Department of Nursing, Yuanpei University of Medical Technology, Hsinchu City, Taiwan *These authors contributed equally to this work Background: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD is currently the third most common cause of death in the world. Patients with COPD experience airflow obstruction, weight loss, skeletal muscle dysfunction, and comorbidities. Anthropometric indicators are risk factors for mortality in geriatric assessment. Purpose: This study examined and compared the associations of anthropometric indicators, such as low body mass index (BMI, low mid-arm circumference (MAC, and low calf circumference (CC, with the prediction of a 3-year follow-up mortality risk in patients with COPD. Methods: We recruited nonhospitalized patients with COPD without acute conditions from a general hospital in Taiwan. The BMI, MAC, and CC of all patients were measured, and they were followed for 3 years through telephone interviews and chart reviews. The Kaplan–Meier survival curves stratified by BMI, MAC, and CC were analyzed. Variables univariately associated with survival were entered into a multivariate Cox regression model. The Bayesian information criterion was used to compare the predictive ability of the three anthropometric

  1. Unknotting night-time muscle cramp: a survey of patient experience, help-seeking behaviour and perceived treatment effectiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blyton Fiona

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Night-time calf cramping affects approximately 1 in 3 adults. The aim of this study was to explore the experience of night-time calf cramp; if and where people seek treatment advice; and perceived treatment effectiveness. Methods 80 adults who experienced night-time calf cramp at least once per week were recruited from the Hunter region, NSW, Australia through newspaper, radio and television advertisements. All participants completed a pilot-tested survey about muscle cramp. Quantitative data were analysed with independent-sample t-tests, Chi square tests and Fisher's tests. Qualitative data were transcribed and sorted into categories to identify themes. Results Median recalled age of first night-time calf cramp was 50 years. Most participants recalled being awoken from sleep by cramping, and experiencing cramping of either calf muscle, calf-muscle soreness in the days following cramp and cramping during day-time. Despite current therapies, mean usual pain intensity was 66 mm on a 100 mm visual analogue scale. Participants described their cramps as being 'unbearable', 'unmanageable' and 'cruel'. One participant stated that 'sometimes I just wish I could cut my legs open' and another reported 'getting about 2 h sleep a night due to cramps'. Most participants had sought advice about their night-time calf cramps from a health professional. Participants identified 49 different interventions used to prevent night-time calf cramp. Of all treatment ratings, 68% described the intervention used to prevent cramp as being 'useless' or of 'a little help'. Of 14 participants who provided additional information regarding their use of quinine, eight had a current prescription of quinine for muscle cramp at the time of the survey. None had been asked by their prescribing doctor to stop using quinine. Conclusion Night time calf cramps typically woke sufferers from sleep, affected either leg and caused ongoing pain. Most participants

  2. Feasibility of measuring thermoregulation during RF heating of the human calf muscle using MR based methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonis, Frank F J; Petersen, Esben T; Lagendijk, Jan J W; van den Berg, Cornelis A T

    2016-04-01

    One of the main safety concerns in MR is heating of the subject due to radiofrequency (RF) exposure. Recently was shown that local peak temperatures can reach dangerous values and the most prominent parameter for accurate temperature estimations is thermoregulation. Therefore, the goal of this research is testing the feasibility of measuring thermoregulation in vivo using MR methods. The calves of 13 volunteers were scanned at 3 tesla. A Proton Resonance Frequency Shift method was used for temperature measurement. Arterial Spin Labeling and phase contrast scans were used for perfusion and flow measurements respectively. The calves were monitored during extreme RF exposure (20 W/kg, 16 min) and after physical exercise. Temperature increases due to RF absorption (range of the 90th percentile of all volunteers: 1.1-2.5°C) matched with the reference skin temperature changes. Increases in perfusion and flow were defined on the whole leg and normalized to baseline. Perfusion showed a significant increase due to RF heating (ratio compared with baseline: 1.28 ± 0.37; P thermoregulation, which will become essential when new safety guidelines are based on thermal dose. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Inhibition of the expression of pathology in dystrophic mouse leg muscles by immobilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loermans, H; Wirtz, P

    1983-04-01

    Normal and dystrophic calf muscles of young mice of the Bar Harbor strain Re 129 were immobilized with the foot in an extended position. Two weeks after treatment the muscles were examined morphologically. Immobilization resulted in the inhibition of fibre necrosis and, consequently, of regeneration. In the contralateral leg these processes progressed unhampered and gave rise to typical dystrophic features. As a result of treatment there was some muscle fibre atrophy. The results clearly indicate that injury of muscle fibres is of a true "myogenic" nature, and that mechanical, i.e. contractive, activity is an important factor inducing damage to the sarcolemma of dystrophic muscle fibres.

  4. Morphology of a fossil elephant calf (Archidiskodon, Elephantidae) from the Oldowan Muhkai IIa site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mashchenko, E N; Amirkhanov, Kh A; Ozherelyev, D V

    2015-11-01

    The skull and lower jaw morphology of a calf of Archidiskodon sp. from the Oldowan (Early Paleolithic) Muhkai IIa site (Akushinskii raion, Dagestan) is described. The Muhkai IIa site is dated more than 1.5 Ma. This is the first record of the skull and lower jaw of calf of this species from the northern Caucasus. A skull fragment and lower jaw with functioning teeth of the DP2/DP3 generation are preserved. The calf is at most 8-10 months of individual age. The finely plicate enamel and formation of a complete enamel loop on DP3 are evidence that the calf belongs to Archidiskodon rather than to the European Elephas lineage.

  5. Evaluation of techniques for assessing neonatal caribou calf mortality in the Porcupine Caribou Herd

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report discusses the evaluation of techniques for assessing neonatal caribou calf mortality in the Porcupine caribou herd in Arctic National Wildlife Refuge....

  6. Use of foot orthoses and calf stretching for individuals with medial tibial stress syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loudon, Janice K; Dolphino, Martin R

    2010-02-01

    Use of orthotics and calf stretching may alleviate symptoms in runners with medial tibial stress syndrome (MTSS). The objective of this study was to determine which patients with MTSS have a positive response to off-the-shelf foot orthoses and calf stretching based on selected clinical tests to establish a clinical prediction rule. This prospective cohort/predictive validity study enrolled 23 women and men aged 22 to 44 years with symptoms of MTSS. Interventions included off-the-shelf basic foot orthotics and calf stretching. Fifteen of the 23 runners had a 50% reduction of pain in 3 weeks of intervention. Duration was a significant factor that differentiated groups. Although an initial treatment for runners with MTSS may include off-the-shelf orthotics and calf stretching, this regimen should be only one component of an individualized rehabilitation program.

  7. a note on tntensive weaner calf production fro]ii dairy cows

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    tion. Naudd (1964) reported that out cf a total of 9l dairy herds investigated in the Republic of South Africa. only 3l e; of the herds suckled calves. ln 869oof the cases only one calf per cow was suckled. This differs conl- pletely from the practice in Britain where more than one calf per cow is raised in 90eo of the cases (Jobst.

  8. Calf health from birth to weaning. I. General aspects of disease prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorenz Ingrid

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Calfhood diseases have a major impact on the economic viability of cattle operations. This is the first in a three part review series on calf health from birth to weaning, focusing on preventive measures. The review considers both pre- and periparturient management factors influencing calf health, colostrum management in beef and dairy calves and further nutrition and weaning in dairy calves.

  9. Acoustic Behavior of North Atlantic Right Whale (Eubalaena glacialis) Mother-Calf Pairs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-30

    1 DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A. Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. Acoustic Behavior of North Atlantic Right Whale ...LONG-TERM GOALS The long-term goal of this project is to quantify the behavior of mother-calf pairs from the North Atlantic right whale ...The primary objectives of this project are to: 1) determine the visual detectability of right whale mother-calf pairs from surface observations

  10. Little Smoky Woodland Caribou Calf Survival Enhancement Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirkby G. Smith

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The Little Smoky woodland caribou (Rangifer tarandus herd is a boreal ecotype located in west central Alberta, Canada. This herd has declined steadily over the past decade and is currently thought to number approximately 80 animals. Factors contributing to the herds' decline appear related to elevated predator-caused mortality rates resulting from industrial caused landscape change. At current rates of decline, the herd is at risk of extirpation. A calf survival enhancement project was initiated in the first half of 2006 as a means of enhancing recruitment while other longer-term approaches were implemented. A total of 10 pregnant females were captured in early March and held in captivity until all calves were at least 3 weeks old. Before release, calves were radiocollared with expandable drop-off collars. Following release, survival of mother and offspring were tracked at intervals until the fall rut. Survival of penned calves was compared to "wild-born" calves at heel of non captive radiocollared females. This approach is compared to other techniques designed to increase recruitment in caribou.

  11. Probing the binding mode of psoralen to calf thymus DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xiaoyue; Zhang, Guowen; Wang, Langhong

    2014-06-01

    The binding properties between psoralen (PSO) and calf thymus DNA (ctDNA) were predicted by molecular docking, and then determined with the use of UV-vis absorption, fluorescence, circular dichroism (CD) and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, coupled with DNA melting and viscosity measurements. The data matrix obtained from UV-vis spectra was resolved by multivariate curve resolution-alternating least squares (MCR-ALS) approach. The pure spectra and the equilibrium concentration profiles for PSO, ctDNA and PSO-ctDNA complex extracted from the highly overlapping composite response were obtained simultaneously to evaluate the PSO-ctDNA interaction. The intercalation mode of PSO binding to ctDNA was supported by the results from the melting studies, viscosity measurements, iodide quenching and fluorescence polarization experiments, competitive binding investigations and CD analysis. The molecular docking prediction showed that the specific binding most likely occurred between PSO and adenine bases of ctDNA. FT-IR spectra studies further confirmed that PSO preferentially bound to adenine bases, and this binding decreased right-handed helicity of ctDNA and enhanced the degree of base stacking with the preservation of native B-conformation. The calculated thermodynamic parameters indicated that hydrogen bonds and van der Waals forces played a major role in the binding process. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Maternal signature whistle use aids mother-calf reunions in a bottlenose dolphin, Tursiops truncatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Stephanie L; Guarino, Emily; Keaton, Loriel; Erb, Linda; Jaakkola, Kelly

    2016-05-01

    Individual vocal signatures play an important role in parent-offspring recognition in many animals. One species that uses signature calls to accurately facilitate individual recognition is the bottlenose dolphin. Female dolphins and their calves will use their highly individualised signature whistles to identify and maintain contact with one another. Previous studies have shown high signature whistle rates of both mothers and calves during forced separations. In more natural settings, it appears that the calf vocalises more frequently to initiate reunions with its mother. However, little is known about the mechanisms a female dolphin may employ when there is strong motivation for her to reunite with her calf. In this study, we conducted a series of experimental trials in which we asked a female dolphin to retrieve either her wandering calf or a series of inanimate objects (control). Our results show that she used her vocal signature to actively recruit her calf, and produced no such signal when asked to retrieve the objects. This is the first study to clearly manipulate a dolphin's motivation to retrieve her calf with experimental controls. The results highlight that signature whistles are not only used in broadcasting individual identity, but that maternal signature whistle use is important in facilitating mother-calf reunions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Perosomus elumbis in a Holstein calf infected with bovine viral diarrhea virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karakaya, E; Alpay, G; Yilmazbas-Mecitoglu, G; Alasonyalilar-Demirer, A; Akgül, B; Inan-Ozturkoglu, S; Ozyigit, M O; Seyrek-Intas, D; Seyrek-Intas, K; Yesilbag, K; Gumen, A; Keskin, A

    2013-01-01

    The detection of bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) in a female Holstein calf presented with perosomus elumbis, a congenital anomaly, is reported here. A cow with dystocia was evaluated and an abnormal dead calf was detected during vaginal examination. The calf was retrieved via caesarean section and exhibited abnormalities characteristic of PE, such as vertebral and pelvic malformations. These abnormalities were further confirmed using radiographic and necropsy examinations. At necropsy cerebellar hypoplasia was an additional finding, which is a typical lesion associated with bovine virus diarrhea (BVD). Several tissue samples from the calf were tested for the presence of antigens of BVDV and bovine herpesvirus-1 (BHV-1) by ELISA. In addition, sera samples from the dam and calf were tested for the presence of antibodies against BVDV, BHV-1, and bluetongue disease virus (BTV) using a virus neutralization assay. Results indicated that the calf was congenitally infected with BVDV, whereas there was no evidence for the presence of BHV-1 and BTV. In the dam's serum no antibodies against BVDV, BHV-1, and BTV were detected. Even though the etiology of perosomus elumbis is unknown, BVDV, which causes fetal anomalies at early gestation in cows, may have been a contributing factor in this case.

  14. 31P magnetic resonance spectroscopy of skeletal muscle in patients with fibromyalgia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Søren; Jensen, K E; Thomsen, C

    1992-01-01

    31Phosphorous nuclear magnetic resonance (31P NMR) spectroscopy of painful calf muscle was performed in 12 patients with fibromyalgia (FS) and 7 healthy subjects during rest, aerobic and anaerobic exercising conditions, and postexercise recovery. Ratios of inorganic phosphate and creatinine...

  15. Decreased muscle GLUT-4 and contraction-induced glucose transport after eccentric contractions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristiansen, S; Asp, Svend; Richter, Erik

    1996-01-01

    Eccentric exercise causes muscle damage and decreased muscle glycogen and glucose transporter isoform (GLUT-4) protein content. We investigated whether the contraction-induced increase in skeletal muscle glucose transport and muscle performance is affected by prior eccentric contractions. The calf...... contractions. EC rats had a significantly lower total GLUT-4 protein content in the white gastrocnemius (GW) muscle (55%) and red gastrocnemius (GR) muscle (34%) compared with muscle from the CT, ST, and CC rats. In contrast, GLUT-1 protein content was approximately twofold higher in the GW muscle in EC rats...... than in CT rats. In the GW and GR muscle, prior eccentric exercise decreased contraction-induced stimulation of glucose transport compared with CT, ST, and CC rats despite no difference in tension development and oxygen uptake among the groups. There was no change in total GLUT-4 content and glucose...

  16. MRI appearance of muscle denervation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamath, S. [University Hospital of Wales, Department of Radiology, Cardiff (United Kingdom); Venkatanarasimha, N.; Walsh, M.A.; Hughes, P.M. [Derriford Hospital, Department of Radiology, Plymouth (United Kingdom)

    2008-05-15

    Muscle denervation results from a variety of causes including trauma, neoplasia, neuropathies, infections, autoimmune processes and vasculitis. Traditionally, the diagnosis of muscle denervation was based on clinical examination and electromyography. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) offers a distinct advantage over electromyography, not only in diagnosing muscle denervation, but also in determining its aetiology. MRI demonstrates characteristic signal intensity patterns depending on the stage of muscle denervation. The acute and subacutely denervated muscle shows a high signal intensity pattern on fluid sensitive sequences and normal signal intensity on T1-weighted MRI images. In chronic denervation, muscle atrophy and fatty infiltration demonstrate high signal changes on T1-weighted sequences in association with volume loss. The purpose of this review is to summarise the MRI appearance of denervated muscle, with special emphasis on the signal intensity patterns in acute and subacute muscle denervation. (orig.)

  17. Muscle Deoxygenation Causes Muscle Fatigue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murthy, G.; Hargens, A. R.; Lehman, S.; Rempel, D.

    1999-01-01

    Muscle fatigue is a common musculoskeletal disorder in the work place, and may be a harbinger for more disabling cumulative trauma disorders. Although the cause of fatigue is multifactorial, reduced blood flow and muscle oxygenation may be the primary factor in causing muscle fatigue during low intensity muscle exertion. Muscle fatigue is defined as a reduction in muscle force production, and also occurs among astronauts who are subjected to postural constraints while performing lengthy, repetitive tasks. The objectives of this research are to: 1) develop an objective tool to study the role of decreased muscle oxygenation on muscle force production, and 2) to evaluate muscle fatigue during prolonged glovebox work.

  18. Visual laterality of calf-mother interactions in wild whales.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karina Karenina

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Behavioral laterality is known for a variety of vertebrate and invertebrate animals. Laterality in social interactions has been described for a wide range of species including humans. Although evidence and theoretical predictions indicate that in social species the degree of population level laterality is greater than in solitary ones, the origin of these unilateral biases is not fully understood. It is especially poorly studied in the wild animals. Little is known about the role, which laterality in social interactions plays in natural populations. A number of brain characteristics make cetaceans most suitable for investigation of lateralization in social contacts. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Observations were made on wild beluga whales (Delphinapterus leucas in the greatest breeding aggregation in the White Sea. Here we show that young calves (in 29 individually identified and in over a hundred of individually not recognized mother-calf pairs swim and rest significantly longer on a mother's right side. Further observations along with the data from other cetaceans indicate that found laterality is a result of the calves' preference to observe their mothers with the left eye, i.e., to analyze the information on a socially significant object in the right brain hemisphere. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Data from our and previous work on cetacean laterality suggest that basic brain lateralizations are expressed in the same way in cetaceans and other vertebrates. While the information on social partners and novel objects is analyzed in the right brain hemisphere, the control of feeding behavior is performed by the left brain hemisphere. Continuous unilateral visual contacts of calves to mothers with the left eye may influence social development of the young by activation of the contralateral (right brain hemisphere, indicating a possible mechanism on how behavioral lateralization may influence species life and welfare. This hypothesis is

  19. Muscle disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myopathic changes; Myopathy; Muscle problem ... Blood tests sometimes show abnormally high muscle enzymes. If a muscle disorder might also affect other family members, genetic testing may be done. When someone has symptoms and signs ...

  20. Characteristic of muscle involvement evaluated by CT scans in early stages of progressive muscular dystrophy; Comparison between Duchenne and Fukuyama types

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arai, Yumi (Tokyo Women' s Medical Coll. (Japan))

    1993-10-01

    Muscle CT scans were performed in order to compare the characteristic distribution of progressive muscle involvement in the early stages of Duchenne type (DMD) and Fukuyama type muscular dystrophy (FCMD). Muscle images at the levels of the 3rd lumbar vertebra, thigh and calf were assessed by visual inspection, and mean CT numbers calculated for individual muscles were statistically analysed. On visual inspection, intramuscular low density areas and muscular atrophy were observed in the muscles of older patients with either disease. These changes were, however, more extensive at thigh level in DMD, and at calf level in FCMD. Nevertheless, the mean CT numbers of muscles in which only slight changes were grossly visible on CT scans displayed progressive decreases with increasing age. Moreover, a significant negative relationship was recognizable between age and mean CT number in almost all muscles examined. Comparison of the slopes of the regression lines revealed that the so-called selective pattern of muscle involvement characteristic of the symptomatic stage had already partially manifested in the preclinical or early stages of both diseases. In FCMD, the rates of decrease in CT numbers were extremely rapid for calf muscles as compared with those in DMD, indicating that this is one reason for FCMD patients never becoming ambulatory. However, for almost all of the other muscles, the CT numbers in FCMD decreased in parallel with the corresponding CT numbers in DMD; thus, these diseases displayed a similarity in the pattern of muscle involvement, despite their different pathogenetic mechanisms and inheritance patterns. (author).

  1. Dairy calf management-A comparison of practices and producer attitudes among conventional and organic herds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pempek, J A; Schuenemann, G M; Holder, E; Habing, G G

    2017-10-01

    Dairy calves are at high risk for morbidity and mortality early in life. Understanding producer attitudes is important for implementation of best management practices to improve calf health. The objectives of this study were to evaluate usage frequency and producer attitudes on key calf management practices between conventional and organic dairy operations. A cross-sectional survey was mailed to conventional and organic dairy producers in Ohio and Michigan that included questions on cow-calf separation, colostrum management, and vaccination use. The overall survey response rate was 49% (727/1,488); 449 and 172 conventional and organic producer respondents, respectively, were included in the final analysis. Binary, cumulative, and multinomial logistic regression models were used to test differences within and between herd types for management practices and producer attitudes. The majority of conventional (64%, 279/439) producers reported separating the calf from the dam 30 min to 6 h after birth. More organic (34%, 56/166) than conventional (18%, 80/439) producers reported separation 6 to 12 h after birth, and organic producers were more likely to agree time before separation is beneficial. Few conventional (10%, 44/448) and organic (3%, 5/171) producers reported measuring colostrum quality. Most conventional producers (68%, 304/448) hand-fed the first feeding of colostrum, whereas the majority of organic producers (38%, 69/171) allowed calves to nurse colostrum. Last, 44% (188/430) of conventional producers reported vaccinating their calves for respiratory disease, compared with 14% (22/162) of organic producers; organic producers were more likely to perceive vaccines as ineffective and harmful to calf health. Thus, the usage frequency and perceived risks and benefits of calf management practices vary considerably between conventional and organic dairy producers. These findings provide helpful information to understand decision making at the herd level regarding

  2. Anaesthetic management of a 10-month-old white rhinoceros (Ceratotherium simum calf for emergency exploratory celiotomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gareth E. Zeiler

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available A 10-month-old, 580 kg, hand-reared white rhinoceros (Ceratotherium simum calf was presented for emergency exploratory celiotomy. Anaesthesia was safely induced with three successive intravenous (IV boluses of diazepam (10 mg and ketamine (100 mg until the trachea could be intubated. Anaesthesia was adequately maintained with isoflurane-inoxygen (mean end-tidal isoflurane concentration of 1.1% ± 0.2% on a circle anaesthetic machine with carbon dioxide absorption and an intravenous infusion of ketamine and medetomidine at a mean rate of 0.02 mg/kg/min and 0.02 µg/kg/min, respectively. Mean values recorded during anaesthesia and surgery were heart rate (56.9 ± 11 beats/min, mean arterial blood pressure (6.16 kPa ± 1.75 kPa, end-tidal carbon dioxide concentration (6.23 kPa ± 0.30 kPa. Abdominal gas distension contributed to hypoventilation that resulted in hypercapnoea, confirmed by arterial blood gas analysis (PaCO2 14.69 kPa, which required controlled ventilation for correction. Blood volume was maintained with the intravenous infusion of a balanced electrolyte solution at 10 mL/kg/h and blood pressure supported with a continuous infusion of dobutamine and phenylephrine. Duration of anaesthesia was 3.5 h. It was concluded that anaesthesia was safely induced in a compromised white rhinoceros calf with a combination of diazepam and ketamine. A constant-rate infusion of medetomidine and ketamine allowed for a reduction in the dose of isoflurane required during maintenance of anaesthesia and improved intra-operative blood pressure management.

  3. [Overuse injury syndromes of the calf and foot] ].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smerdelj, M; Madjarević, M; Oremus, K

    2001-12-01

    The lower leg, foot and ankle form a functional unit of the locomotor system with an important static and dynamic function. Injury or loss of function of any muscle group of the lower leg and the foot influences normal gait or impedes standing. Increased or frequent loads on the muscle group may lead to pain syndromes known as overuse syndromes or overuse injuries. Athletes and certain professions involving standing or walking for a long time are especially susceptible to increased muscle strains. This article describes and clarifies the causes and the development of the pain syndromes in the lower leg, foot and ankle associated with certain professions or sports. The description of anatomical relationships and functions of individual muscle groups is here to clarify the occurrence of overuse injuries which may involve the muscle itself, the tendon, or the point of their attachment to the bone. The article describes observations and experiences from everyday clinical practice, but it also summarises results described in recent publications. The focus is also put on the therapy, which is usually conservative. Particular mention is given to new non-invasive surgical techniques. The article describes the most common overuse injuries of the lower leg such as shin splints, tibialis posterior syndrome, chronic anterior compartment syndrome, overuse injury of the Achilles tendon, enthesitis of the tendo Achilles, retrocalcanear bursitis and rupture of the Achilles tendon. In the foot area the most frequent overuse syndromes are the plantar fasciitis, tibialis posterior tendinitis, tendinitis of the long flexor of the toe, toe extensor tendinitis, and also anterior and posterior impingement syndromes of the ankle.

  4. Role of Muscle Mass and Muscle Quality in the Association Between Diabetes and Gait Speed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volpato, Stefano; Bianchi, Lara; Lauretani, Fulvio; Lauretani, Fabrizio; Bandinelli, Stefania; Guralnik, Jack M.; Zuliani, Giovanni; Ferrucci, Luigi

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Older people with type 2 diabetes are at high risk of mobility disability. We investigated the association of diabetes with lower-limb muscle mass and muscle quality to verify whether diabetes-related muscle impairments mediate the association between diabetes and low walking speed. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS We performed a cross-sectional analysis of 835 participants (65 years old and older) enrolled in the InCHIANTI (Invecchiare in Chianti, aging in the Chianti area) population-based study. Total, muscular, and fat cross-sectional areas of the calf and relative muscle density were measured using peripheral quantitative computerized tomography. Indicators of muscle performance included knee-extension torque, ankle plantar flexion and dorsiflexion strength, lower-extremity muscle power, and ankle muscle quality (ratio of ankle strength to the muscle area [kilograms per centimeters squared]). Gait performance was assessed by 4- and 400-m walking speed. Diabetes was ascertained by standard American Diabetes Association criteria. RESULTS Prevalence of diabetes was 11.4%. After adjustment for age and sex, participants with diabetes had lower muscle density, knee and ankle strength, and muscle power and worse muscle quality (all P tests. In multivariable linear regression models, lower-limb muscle characteristics accounted for 24.3 and 15.1% of walking speed difference comparing diabetic and nondiabetic subjects in the 4- and 400-m walks, respectively. CONCLUSIONS In older persons, diabetes is associated with reduced muscle strength and worse muscle quality. These impairments are important contributors of walking limitations related to diabetes. PMID:22596176

  5. Muscle size explains low passive skeletal muscle force in heart failure patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fausto Antonio Panizzolo

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background Alterations in skeletal muscle function and architecture have been linked to the compromised exercise capacity characterizing chronic heart failure (CHF. However, how passive skeletal muscle force is affected in CHF is not clear. Understanding passive force characteristics in CHF can help further elucidate the extent to which altered contractile properties and/or architecture might affect muscle and locomotor function. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate passive force in a single muscle for which non-invasive measures of muscle size and estimates of fiber force are possible, the soleus (SOL, both in CHF patients and age- and physical activity-matched control participants. Methods Passive SOL muscle force and size were obtained by means of a novel approach combining experimental data (dynamometry, electromyography, ultrasound imaging with a musculoskeletal model. Results We found reduced passive SOL forces (∼30% (at the same relative levels of muscle stretch in CHF vs. healthy individuals. This difference was eliminated when force was normalized by physiological cross sectional area, indicating that reduced force output may be most strongly associated with muscle size. Nevertheless, passive force was significantly higher in CHF at a given absolute muscle length (non length-normalized and likely explained by the shorter muscle slack lengths and optimal muscle lengths measured in CHF compared to the control participants. This later factor may lead to altered performance of the SOL in functional tasks such gait. Discussion These findings suggest introducing exercise rehabilitation targeting muscle hypertrophy and, specifically for the calf muscles, exercise that promotes muscle lengthening.

  6. [Calf circumference and its association with gait speed in elderly participants at Peruvian Naval Medical Center].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz Villegas, Gregory Mishell; Runzer Colmenares, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the association between calf circumference and gait speed in elderly patients 65 years or older at Geriatric day clinic at Peruvian Centro Médico Naval. Cross-sectional, retrospective study. We assessed 139 participants, 65 years or older at Peruvian Centro Médico Naval including calf circumference, gait speed and Short Physical Performance Battery. With bivariate analyses and logistic regression model we search for association between variables. The age mean was 79.37 years old (SD: 8.71). 59.71% were male, the 30.97% had a slow walking speed and the mean calf circumference was 33.42cm (SD: 5.61). After a bivariate analysis, we found a calf circumference mean of 30.35cm (SD: 3.74) in the slow speed group and, in normal gait group, a mean of 33.51cm (SD: 3.26) with significantly differences. We used logistic regression to analyze association with slow gait speed, founding statistically significant results adjusting model by disability and age. Low calf circumference is associated with slow speed walk in population over 65 years old. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Espana.

  7. Ischemia causes muscle fatigue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murthy, G.; Hargens, A. R.; Lehman, S.; Rempel, D. M.

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to determine whether ischemia, which reduces oxygenation in the extensor carpi radialis (ECR) muscle, causes a reduction in muscle force production. In eight subjects, muscle oxygenation (TO2) of the right ECR was measured noninvasively and continuously using near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) while muscle twitch force was elicited by transcutaneous electrical stimulation (1 Hz, 0.1 ms). Baseline measurements of blood volume, muscle oxygenation and twitch force were recorded continuously, then a tourniquet on the upper arm was inflated to one of five different pressure levels: 20, 40, 60 mm Hg (randomized order) and diastolic (69 +/- 9.8 mm Hg) and systolic (106 +/- 12.8 mm Hg) blood pressures. Each pressure level was maintained for 3-5 min, and was followed by a recovery period sufficient to allow measurements to return to baseline. For each respective tourniquet pressure level, mean TO2 decreased from resting baseline (100% TO2) to 99 +/- 1.2% (SEM), 96 +/- 1.9%, 93 +/- 2.8%, 90 +/- 2.5%, and 86 +/- 2.7%, and mean twitch force decreased from resting baseline (100% force) to 99 +/- 0.7% (SEM), 96 +/- 2.7%, 93 +/- 3.1%, 88 +/- 3.2%, and 86 +/- 2.6%. Muscle oxygenation and twitch force at 60 mm Hg tourniquet compression and above were significantly lower (P muscle oxygenation (r = 0.78, P muscle oxygenation causes decreased muscle force production in the forearm extensor muscle. Thus, ischemia associated with a modest decline in TO2 causes muscle fatigue.

  8. Effect of exercise-induced muscle damage on muscle hardness evaluated by ultrasound real-time tissue elastography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanagisawa, Osamu; Sakuma, Jun; Kawakami, Yasuo; Suzuki, Katsuhiko; Fukubayashi, Toru

    2015-01-01

    To assess the effect of exercise-induced muscle damage on muscle hardness and evaluate the relationship between muscle hardness and muscle damage indicators. Seven men (mean 25.3 years; 172.7 cm; 66.8 kg) performed the single-leg ankle plantar flexion exercise involving both concentric and eccentric contractions (10 sets of 40 repetitions). The hardness of the medial gastrocnemius (MG) was evaluated using ultrasound real-time tissue elastography before, from day 1 to 4, and day 7 after exercise. The strain ratio between the MG and a reference material was calculated. Simultaneously, we evaluated the magnetic resonance T2 value (an index of edema) of the triceps surae, the ankle dorsiflexion range of motion (ROM), and calf muscle soreness. Serum creatine kinase activity was assessed before, 2 and 4 h, and from day 1 to 4 after exercise. The MG showed lower strain ratio, indicating increased muscle hardness, on day 4 post-exercise (P muscle soreness among the post-exercise time points was similar. The decreased strain ratio did not correlate with the increased T2, the decreased joint ROM or muscle soreness. Muscle hardness increased after strenuous resistance exercise, but the change was not related with muscle edema, decreased joint ROM, or muscle soreness resulting from muscle damage.

  9. Heterogeneous oxygenation in nonexercising triceps surae muscle during contralateral isometric exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizuno, Masaki; Tokizawa, Ken; Muraoka, Isao

    2006-05-01

    To test whether changes in oxygenation of a resting skeletal muscle, evoked by a static contraction in a contralateral muscle, is uniform within a given skeletal muscle, we used near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS). Seven subjects performed 2 min static knee extension exercise at 30% of maximal voluntary contraction. Changes in oxygenated hemoglobin (HbO(2)) were monitored using multiple-channel NIRS (40 channels, 13 sources and 12 detectors) attached on the contralateral nonexercising triceps surae muscle. Changes in HbO(2) were expressed as a percentage of total labile signals. To characterize the distribution of changes in HbO(2), channels were compared between their positions on the triceps surae muscle, and represented as 'proximal versus distal' and 'lateral versus medial' portions. During static muscle contraction, the averaged changes in HbO(2) of all channels were correlated with those in calf blood flow (plethysmography; R (2)=0.188, P<0.05) and with calf vascular conductance (R (2)=0.146, P<0.05). HbO(2) did not differ significantly between the lateral and medial portions of the triceps surae muscle. In contrast, the decrease of HbO(2) in the proximal portion of the muscle was greater than that of the distal portion (P<0.05). These results indicate that the changes in oxygenation of a resting muscle, evoked by static contraction of the contralateral muscle, are heterogeneous.

  10. Supplementation of organic and inorganic selenium to late gestation and early lactation beef cows effect on cow and preweaning calf performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muegge, C R; Brennan, K M; Schoonmaker, J P

    2016-08-01

    Angus × Simmental cows ( = 48; BW = 595 ± 17.4 kg, BCS = 5.26 ± 0.05, and age = 2.3 ± 0.07 yr), pregnant with male fetuses, were used to determine the effect of Se source during the last 80 d of gestation and first 108 d of lactation on cow and calf performance. At 203 d in gestation, cows were blocked by BW, breed composition, age, and calf sire and randomly allotted to organic Se, inorganic Se, or no Se treatments. Diets contained corn silage, corn stover, haylage, dried distillers' grains with solubles, and minerals and were formulated to contain 10.4% CP and 0.90 Mcal/kg NEg during gestation and 12.1% CP and 1.01 Mcal/kg NEg during lactation. Diets were fed daily as a total mixed ration and none, 3 mg/d Se as sodium selenite, or 3 mg/d Se as Sel-Plex were top-dressed daily. At 68 d postpartum (DPP), milk production was calculated using the weigh-suckle-weigh procedure and a milk sample was collected to determine composition. At 108 DPP, cow-calf pairs were commingled until weaning at 210 DPP. Cow BW and BCS ( ≥ 0.56) did not differ between treatments at any time point during the study. Milk production, milk fat, and total solids ( ≥ 0.38) did not differ among treatments. Milk protein tended to increase in cows fed inorganic Se compared with cows fed organic Se ( = 0.07) and milk lactose tended to be greatest in cows fed organic Se ( = 0.10). Conception to AI and overall pregnancy rates did not differ between treatments ( ≥ 0.39). Calf weights and ADG did not differ through 108 DPP ( ≥ 0.77) or for the preweaning period ( ≥ 0.33). Plasma Se concentration was adequate for all cows and did not differ among treatments for cows ( ≥ 0.37) or calves ( ≥ 0.90). Liver Se concentrations in cows fed inorganic or organic Se were greater than in control cows ( < 0.01). Longissimus muscles biopsies taken from progeny at 108 DPP also did not differ between treatments ( = 0.45). In conclusion, dietary Se source did not affect cow performance, milk production

  11. A rare cause of calf swelling: the Morel–Lavallee lesion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borrero, C. G.; Kavanagh, E. C.

    2009-01-01

    Introduction Calf swelling is a common clinical presentation with a wide and varied differential diagnosis. The Morel–Lavallee is a rare cause of subcutaneous swelling, caused by post-traumatic shearing of the hypodermis from the underlying fascia. The potential space so created fills with blood, lymph and necrotic fat giving specific findings on MR evaluation. Materials and methods A case of a 53-year-old man with calf swelling is presented, with clinical and MRI correlation. Treatment options and clinical course are discussed. Conclusion The Morel–Lavallee lesion is a rare but important cause of calf swelling. MRI is the mainstay of diagnosis and treatment includes both surgical and minimally invasive modalities. PMID:19618237

  12. Impact of exercising muscles to exhaustion on blood markers in weight-training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Porto

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1980-0037.2008v10n3p230 Metabolic markers of physical exhaustion were evaluated in venous blood drawn from 8 men (20-30 years old with at least 3 years’ experience in weight-lifting training. They were submitted, in the morning, to an overload (exhaustion test starting at 80% of 1 RM (one repetition maximum on 8 muscle groups. Heart rate (HR was measured and samples of venous blood were collected before and immediately after the exhaustion test (ET and sent to a laboratory for blood gas analysis (pH, lactate, pO2, pCO2 and HCO-3 and measurement of electrolytes (Na+, Cl-, K+ and Ca++ and glycemia. The HR/kg ratios observed were in the following sequence of descending order: arm and hamstrings > shoulder and back > chest > quadriceps > calf. Results for NH4, pH, lactate and HCO-3 levels were changed in all 8 muscle groups, whereas Ca++, K+, Na+, Cl-, and uric acid did not change significantly after the ET. The muscle groups: back, biceps, triceps, chest, and hamstrings exhibited changes in seven to nine indicators while only 4 to 6 biochemical indicators changed in response to shoulder, calf, and quadriceps exercises. Thus, blood markers indicating acidosis, hemoconcentration and hyperglycemia were sensitive markers although with low specificity for the eight muscle groups. Calf and quadriceps had the highest tolerance for weight loading along with the smallest HR increase and lowest number of biochemical indicators changed. Therefore, it appears possible to reach muscle exhaustion with systemic responses in the blood by working out the arm muscles and hamstrings with lighter weights than for quadriceps and calf muscles.

  13. Woodland caribou calf recruitment in relation to calving/post-calving landscape composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara C. McCarthy

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Since the 1990s, Newfoundland’s woodland caribou (Rangifer tarandus caribou population has declined by an estimated 66%. Low calf recruitment has been associated to the decline, possibly triggered by increasing calf predation and/or decreasing resources. To investigate the role of landscape composition in this system, we studied the yearly (2005-2008 calving/post-calving range (CPCR of 104 satellite-collared females belonging to six herds. We mapped nine disturbance factors (e.g. roads, logging, etc, as well as vegetation cover types (e.g. coniferous, deciduous forests, etc, and determined the total area they occupied within CPCRs yearly for each herd. Using an information theoretic approach, we assessed the model that best explained variation in recruitment using these components. Based on corrected Akaike Information Criterion, the model that best explained variation in calf recruitment included total disturbance and deciduous forest area, both showing the expected negative relationship with calf recruitment. Other landscape variables among the models with ΔAICc < 2 were mixed forest, also with a suggested negative relationship, and barrens and wetlands with a significant positive trend. This study highlights the need to minimize total disturbance footprint and account for resulting changes in forest composition within CPCRs during land use planning. Expanding forestry operations and road infrastructure in critical woodland caribou habitat across Canada may additionally contribute to habitat loss via fragmentation. This in turn, may lead to range recession beyond the initial local avoidance footprint. We see the possibility of using calf recruitment models based on landscape parameters, among others, to predict the impact of new industrial developments on calf recruitment.

  14. Causes and correlates of calf mortality in captive Asian elephants (Elephas maximus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khyne U Mar

    Full Text Available Juvenile mortality is a key factor influencing population growth rate in density-independent, predation-free, well-managed captive populations. Currently at least a quarter of all Asian elephants live in captivity, but both the wild and captive populations are unsustainable with the present fertility and calf mortality rates. Despite the need for detailed data on calf mortality to manage effectively populations and to minimize the need for capture from the wild, very little is known of the causes and correlates of calf mortality in Asian elephants. Here we use the world's largest multigenerational demographic dataset on a semi-captive population of Asian elephants compiled from timber camps in Myanmar to investigate the survival of calves (n = 1020 to age five born to captive-born mothers (n = 391 between 1960 and 1999. Mortality risk varied significantly across different ages and was higher for males at any age. Maternal reproductive history was associated with large differences in both stillbirth and liveborn mortality risk: first-time mothers had a higher risk of calf loss as did mothers producing another calf soon (<3.7 years after a previous birth, and when giving birth at older age. Stillbirth (4% and pre-weaning mortality (25.6% were considerably lower than those reported for zoo elephants and used in published population viability analyses. A large proportion of deaths were caused by accidents and lack of maternal milk/calf weakness which both might be partly preventable by supplementary feeding of mothers and calves and work reduction of high-risk mothers. Our results on Myanmar timber elephants with an extensive keeping system provide an important comparison to compromised survivorship reported in zoo elephants. They have implications for improving captive working elephant management systems in range countries and for refining population viability analyses with realistic parameter values in order to predict future population

  15. Use It or Lose It: Skeletal Muscle Function and Performance Results from Space Shuttle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryder, Jeffrey

    2011-01-01

    The Space Shuttle Program provided a wealth of valuable information regarding the adaptations of skeletal muscle to weightlessness. Studies conducted during the Extended Duration Orbiter Medical Project (EDOMP) represented ground breaking work on the effects of spaceflight on muscle form and function from applied human research to cellular adaptations. Results from detailed supplementary objective (DSO) 477 demonstrated that muscle strength losses could occur rapidly in response to short-duration spaceflight. The effects of spaceflight-induced unloading were primarily restricted to postural muscles such as those of the back as well as the knee extensors. DSO 606 provided evidence from MRI that the observed strength losses were partially accounted for by a reduction in the size of the individual muscles. Muscle biopsy studies conducted during DSO 475 were able to show muscle atrophy in individual muscle fibers from the quadriceps muscles. Reduced quadriceps muscle size and strength was also observed during the 17-d Life and Microgravity Spacelab mission aboard STS-78. Multiple maximal strength tests were conducted in flight on the calf muscles and it has been hypothesized that these high force contractions may have acted as a countermeasure. Muscle fiber mechanics were studied on calf muscle samples pre- and postflight. While some responses were crewmember specific, the general trend was that muscle fiber force production dropped and shortening velocity increased. The increased shortening velocity helped to maintain muscle fiber power. Numerous rodent studies performed during Shuttle missions suggest that many of the effects reported in Shuttle crewmembers could be due to lesions in the cellular signaling pathways that stimulate protein synthesis as well as an increase in the mechanisms that up-regulate protein breakdown. The results have important implications regarding the overall health and performance capabilities of future crewmembers that will venture beyond

  16. Biological markers of neonatal calf performance: the relationship of insulin-like growth factor-I, zinc, and copper to poor neonatal growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, T W; Breher, J E; Farver, T B; Cullor, J S; Kehrli, M E; Oberbauer, A M

    2010-08-01

    Raising a heifer calf to reproductive age represents an enormous cost to the producer. Poor neonatal growth exacerbates the costs incurred for rearing, and use of blood variables that may be associated with poorly growing calves may offer predictive value for growth and performance. Thus, the principal objective of the present study was to describe changes in serum IGF-I, zinc, and copper from birth to 90 d in Holstein calves, while accounting for sex and twin status, in poorly growing calves and calves growing well. A second objective was to test the hypothesis that an association exists between these serum variables and morphometric indicators of growth. Measurements of BW, length, and height were recorded at birth and at 30, 60, and 90 d of age. Jugular blood (12 mL) was collected from each calf on d 1 to determine serum total protein, serum IgG, packed cell volume, serum zinc, serum copper, serum IGF-I, and CD18 genotype for bovine leukocyte adhesion deficiency; serum zinc, serum copper, and serum IGF-I (predictor variables) were also determined for each calf on d 2 through 10 and on d 30, 60, and 90. Stepwise multiple regression and logistic regression analyses were used to examine the relationships between the predictor variables and the dependent variables (BW, height, and length at d 30, 60, and 90 of life). Birth weight, sex, serum IGF-I (at all ages), serum copper, and the serum copper-to-zinc ratio were associated, to varying degrees, with the dependent growth variables. Birth weight was consistently the dominant predictor. In conclusion, these results suggest that lighter birth weight, reduced serum IGF-I, and inflammation may be important causes of poor growth in neonatal Holstein dairy calves.

  17. Muscle reflexes during gait elicited by electrical stimulation of the posterior cruciate ligament in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fischer-Rasmussen, T; Krogsgaard, M R; Jensen, D B

    2002-01-01

    We investigated the influence of electrical stimulation of the posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) on the motoneuron pool of the thigh and calf muscle during gait. The study group comprised eight young men without any history of injury to the knee joints. Multistranded teflon-insulated stainless...... over the vastus medialis, rectus femoris, vastus lateralis, biceps femoris caput longum, and semitendinosus muscles. The stimuli consisted of four pulses delivered at 200 Hz; the stimulus amplitude was two to three times the sensory threshold. The electrical stimulation of the PCL inhibited the ongoing...... muscle activity in both the quadriceps and the hamstrings. The latency of the inhibition ranged between 78 and 148 ms in the quadriceps, between 88 and 110 ms in the hamstrings and between 189 and 258 ms in m. gastrocnemius. Stimulation of the fat pad of the knee did not influence the thigh and calf...

  18. Inadequate Loading Stimulus on ISS Results in Bone and Muscle Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, A. J.; Genc, K. O.; Maender, C. C.; Gopalakrishnan, R.; Kuklis, M. M.; Cavanagh, P. R.

    2011-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Exercise has been the primary countermeasure to combat musculoskeletal changes during International Space Station (ISS) missions. However, these countermeasures have not been successful in preventing loss of bone mineral density (BMD) or muscle volume in crew members. METHODS We examined lower extremity loading during typical days on-orbit and on Earth for four ISS crew members. In-shoe forces were monitored using force-measuring insoles placed inside the shoes. BMD (by DXA), muscle volumes (by MRI), and strength were measured before and after long-duration spaceflight (181 +/- 15 days). RESULTS The peak forces measured during ISS activity were significantly less than those measured in 1g for the same activities. Typical single-leg loads on-orbit during walking and running were 0.89 +/- 0.17 body weights (BW) and 1.28 +/- 0.18 BW compared to 1.18 +/- 0.11 BW and 2.36 +/- .22 BW in 1g, respectively [2]. Crew members were only loaded for an average of 43.17 +/- 14.96 min a day while performing exercise on-orbit even though 146.8 min were assigned for exercise each day. Areal BMD decreased in the femoral neck and total hip by 0.71 +/- 0.34% and 0.81 +/- 0.21% per month, respectively. Changes in muscle volume were observed in the lower extremity (-10 to -16% calf; -4 to -7% thigh) but there were no changes in the upper extremity (+0.4 to -0.8%). Decrements in isometric and isokinetic strength at the knee (range: -10.4 to -24.1%), ankle (range: -4 to -22.3%), and elbow (range: -7.5 to - 16.7%) were also observed. Knee extension endurance tests showed an overall decline in total work (-14%) but an increased resistance to fatigue post-flight. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSIONS Our findings support the conclusion that the measured exercise durations and/or loading stimuli were insufficient to protect bone and muscle health.

  19. Myofiber ellipticity as an explanation for transverse asymmetry of skeletal muscle diffusion MRI in vivo signal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karampinos, Dimitrios C; King, Kevin F; Sutton, Bradley P; Georgiadis, John G

    2009-12-01

    Due to its unique non-invasive microstructure probing capabilities, diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) constitutes a valuable tool in the study of fiber orientation in skeletal muscles. By implementing a DTI sequence with judiciously chosen directional encoding to quantify in vivo the microarchitectural properties in the calf muscles of three healthy volunteers at rest, we report that the secondary eigenvalue is significantly higher than the tertiary eigenvalue, a phenomenon corroborated by prior DTI findings. Toward a physics-based explanation of this phenomenon, we propose a composite medium model that accounts for water diffusion in the space within the muscle fiber and the extracellular space. The muscle fibers are abstracted as cylinders of infinite length with an elliptical cross section, the latter closely approximating microstructural features well documented in prior histological studies of excised muscle. The range of values of fiber ellipticity predicted by our model agrees with these studies, and the spatial orientation of the cross-sectional ellipses is consistent with local muscle strain fields and the putative direction of lateral transmission of stress between fibers in certain regions in three antigravity muscles (Tibialis Anterior, Soleus, and Gastrocnemius), as well as independent measurements of deformation in active calf muscles. As a metric, fiber cross-sectional ellipticity may be useful for quantifying morphological changes in skeletal muscle fibers with aging, hypertrophy, or sarcopenia.

  20. Comparison of multi-echo dixon methods with volume interpolated breath-hold gradient magnetic resonance imaging in fat-signal fraction quantification of paravaertebral muscle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoo, Yeon Hwa; Kim, Hak Sun; Lee, Young Han [Dept. of Radiology, Gangnam Severance Hospital, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); and others

    2015-10-15

    To assess whether multi-echo Dixon magnetic resonance (MR) imaging with simultaneous T2{sup *} estimation and correction yields more accurate fat-signal fraction (FF) measurement of the lumbar paravertebral muscles, in comparison with non-T2{sup *}-corrected two-echo Dixon or T2{sup *}-corrected three-echo Dixon, using the FF measurements from single-voxel MR spectroscopy as the reference standard. Sixty patients with low back pain underwent MR imaging with a 1.5T scanner. FF mapping images automatically obtained using T2{sup *}-corrected Dixon technique with two (non-T2{sup *}-corrected), three, and six echoes, were compared with images from single-voxel MR spectroscopy at the paravertebral muscles on levels L4 through L5. FFs were measured directly by two radiologists, who independently drew the region of interest on the mapping images from the three sequences. A total of 117 spectroscopic measurements were performed either bilaterally (57 of 60 subjects) or unilaterally (3 of 60 subjects). The mean spectroscopic FF was 14.3 ± 11.7% (range, 1.9-63.7%). Interobserver agreement was excellent between the two radiologists. Lin's concordance correlation between the spectroscopic findings and all the imaging-based FFs were statistically significant (p < 0.001). FFs obtained from the T2*-corrected six-echo Dixon sequences showed a significantly better concordance with the spectroscopic data, with its concordance correlation coefficient being 0.99 and 0.98 (p < 0.001), as compared with two- or three-echo methods. T2{sup *}-corrected six-echo Dixon sequence would be a better option than two- or three-echo methods for noninvasive quantification of lumbar muscle fat quantification.

  1. Bioimpedance Measurement of Segmental Fluid Volumes and Hemodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery, Leslie D.; Wu, Yi-Chang; Ku, Yu-Tsuan E.; Gerth, Wayne A.; DeVincenzi, D. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Bioimpedance has become a useful tool to measure changes in body fluid compartment volumes. An Electrical Impedance Spectroscopic (EIS) system is described that extends the capabilities of conventional fixed frequency impedance plethysmographic (IPG) methods to allow examination of the redistribution of fluids between the intracellular and extracellular compartments of body segments. The combination of EIS and IPG techniques was evaluated in the human calf, thigh, and torso segments of eight healthy men during 90 minutes of six degree head-down tilt (HDT). After 90 minutes HDT the calf and thigh segments significantly (P < 0.05) lost conductive volume (eight and four percent, respectively) while the torso significantly (P < 0.05) gained volume (approximately three percent). Hemodynamic responses calculated from pulsatile IPG data also showed a segmental pattern consistent with vascular fluid loss from the lower extremities and vascular engorgement in the torso. Lumped-parameter equivalent circuit analyses of EIS data for the calf and thigh indicated that the overall volume decreases in these segments arose from reduced extracellular volume that was not completely balanced by increased intracellular volume. The combined use of IPG and EIS techniques enables noninvasive tracking of multi-segment volumetric and hemodynamic responses to environmental and physiological stresses.

  2. Reproducibility of rest and exercise stress contrast-enhanced calf perfusion magnetic resonance imaging in peripheral arterial disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiji Ronny S

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The purpose was to determine the reproducibility and utility of rest, exercise, and perfusion reserve (PR measures by contrast-enhanced (CE calf perfusion magnetic resonance imaging (MRI of the calf in normal subjects (NL and patients with peripheral arterial disease (PAD. Methods Eleven PAD patients with claudication (ankle-brachial index 0.67 ±0.14 and 16 age-matched NL underwent symptom-limited CE-MRI using a pedal ergometer. Tissue perfusion and arterial input were measured at rest and peak exercise after injection of 0.1 mM/kg of gadolinium-diethylnetriamine pentaacetic acid (Gd-DTPA. Tissue function (TF and arterial input function (AIF measurements were made from the slope of time-intensity curves in muscle and artery, respectively, and normalized to proton density signal to correct for coil inhomogeneity. Perfusion index (PI = TF/AIF. Perfusion reserve (PR = exercise TF/ rest TF. Intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC was calculated from 11 NL and 10 PAD with repeated MRI on a different day. Results Resting TF was low in NL and PAD (mean ± SD 0.25 ± 0.18 vs 0.35 ± 0.71, p = 0.59 but reproducible (ICC 0.76. Exercise TF was higher in NL than PAD (5.5 ± 3.2 vs. 3.4 ± 1.6, p = 0.04. Perfusion reserve was similar between groups and highly variable (28.6 ± 19.8 vs. 42.6 ± 41.0, p = 0.26. Exercise TF and PI were reproducible measures (ICC 0.63 and 0.60, respectively. Conclusion Although rest measures are reproducible, they are quite low, do not distinguish NL from PAD, and lead to variability in perfusion reserve measures. Exercise TF and PI are the most reproducible MRI perfusion measures in PAD for use in clinical trials.

  3. Some Studies On Neonatal Calf Diarrhea In Egypt Part 1: Causative ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The data confirms the principal causal agent in neonatal calf diarrhoea in Egypt as Escherichia coli, Rotavirus, Corona virus, Clostridium perfringens, Salmonella spp and Cryptosporidium spp as a single or mixed infection by the isolated agents. In addition, diet, management and sanitation are also significant contributory ...

  4. A rare cause of calf swelling: the Morel-Lavallee lesion.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Moriarty, J M

    2011-03-01

    Calf swelling is a common clinical presentation with a wide and varied differential diagnosis. The Morel-Lavallee is a rare cause of subcutaneous swelling, caused by post-traumatic shearing of the hypodermis from the underlying fascia. The potential space so created fills with blood, lymph and necrotic fat giving specific findings on MR evaluation.

  5. Continuous-Flow Total Artificial Heart Supports Long-Term Survival of a Calf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frazier, O. H.; Cohn, William E.; Tuzun, Egemen; Winkler, Jo Anna; Gregoric, Igor D.

    2009-01-01

    The development and clinical use of continuous-flow left ventricular assist devices (LVADs) stimulated our interest in developing a total heart replacement with continuous-flow rotary blood pumps. We constructed a continuous-flow total artificial heart (CFTAH) from 2 HeartMate II axial-flow LVADs and used this CFTAH to replace the native heart of a calf. The purpose of this experiment was to study the effects of total continuous flow on physiologic parameters at rest and during exercise after the animal recovered from surgery. We monitored pulmonary and systemic pump performance, and we assessed arterial blood gases, hemodynamic and biochemical variables, and neurohormone levels during the 7 weeks of CFTAH support. At day 36 after CFTAH implantation, the calf was exercised on a treadmill at increasing speeds for 40 minutes; total oxygen consumption, pump flow, blood pressure, and respiratory rate were monitored. Baseline hematologic levels were altered postoperatively but returned to normal by 2 weeks. We saw no signs of hemolysis or thrombosis during CFTAH support. The calf had a normal physiologic response to treadmill exercise. The animal gained weight and appeared to function normally during the study. The CFTAH operated within design specifications throughout the study. Homeostasis, end-organ and vasomotor function, and the ability to exercise are not adversely affected by 7 weeks of totally pulseless circulation in a calf. PMID:20069083

  6. Tissue culture media supplemented with 10% fetal calf serum contains a castrate level of testosterone.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sedelaar, J.P.M.; Isaacs, J.T.

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Human prostate cancer cells are routinely maintained in media supplemented with 10% Fetal Calf Serum (FCS) to provide androgen. In the present study, total and free testosterone levels in 10%FCS supplemented tissue culture media were determined and compared to levels in intact and

  7. Effect of calf sex on some productive, reproductive and health traits in Holstein cows

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chegini, A.; Hossein-Zadeh, N.G.; Hosseini-Moghadam, H.

    2015-07-01

    Records of Holstein cows from March 1992 to April 2008 from 194 large herds and comprising from 402,716 records for productive traits to 178,344 records of somatic cell count were used to study the effect of calf sex in different parities and calving season on the subsequent productive, reproductive and health traits in Holstein cows. T-test procedure of SAS software was used to investigate the effect of calf sex and season of calving on aforementioned traits. Cows with female calves had higher milk and fat yield, persistency of milk and fat yield and longer lactation length, while cows that gave birth to male calves had shorter calving interval and longer productive life. Also, cows with female calves had higher milk yield per day of lactation in the first two parities, but there was no difference in milk yield per day of lactation for parities ≥ 3. There was no relationship among mean somatic cell count and sex of born calf. Fall calves had the highest adjusted milk yield and milk yield per day of lactation, however, winter calves had the longest lactation lengthand productive life and the highest somatic cell count. Results from this study demonstrate that it seems necessary to consider the effect of calf sex on aforementioned traits when making decision to use sexed semen or conventional semen. (Author)

  8. Management practices to reduce lupine-induced Crooked Calf Syndrome in the Northwest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Many factors contribute to the incidence of lupine-induced “Crooked Calf Syndrome” (CCS) in the northwestern U.S. A 1-5% incidence of CCS is common on many ranches and higher incidences occur when environmental conditions are conducive to lupine population increases. Multiple management strategies s...

  9. Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus Serotype SAT 3 in Long-Horned Ankole Calf, Uganda

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dhikusooka, Moses Tefula; Tjørnehøj, Kirsten; Ayebazibwe, Chrisostom

    2015-01-01

    After a 16-year interval, foot-and-mouth disease virus serotype SAT 3 was isolated in 2013 from an apparently healthy long-horned Ankole calf that grazed close to buffalo in Uganda. The emergent virus strain is ≈20% different in nucleotide sequence (encoding VP1 [viral protein 1]) from its closest...

  10. Foot-and-mouth disease virus serotype SAT 3 in long-horned Ankole calf, Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhikusooka, Moses Tefula; Tjørnehøj, Kirsten; Ayebazibwe, Chrisostom; Namatovu, Alice; Ruhweza, Simon; Siegismund, Hans Redlef; Wekesa, Sabenzia Nabalayo; Normann, Preben; Belsham, Graham J

    2015-01-01

    After a 16-year interval, foot-and-mouth disease virus serotype SAT 3 was isolated in 2013 from an apparently healthy long-horned Ankole calf that grazed close to buffalo in Uganda. The emergent virus strain is ≈20% different in nucleotide sequence (encoding VP1 [viral protein 1]) from its closest relatives isolated previously from buffalo in Uganda.

  11. Replacing lactose from calf milk replacers : effects on digestion and post-absorptive metabolism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gilbert, M.S.

    2015-01-01

    Summary PhD thesis Myrthe S. Gilbert Replacing lactose from calf milk replacers – Effects on digestion and post-absorptive metabolism Veal calves are fed milk replacer (MR) and solid feed. The largest part of the energy provided to veal calves originates from

  12. Evaluation of cottonseed oil-cake meal as a protein source in calf ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Unknown

    Abstract. The growth performance of 18 Holstein and 20 Jersey heifer calves fed calf starter meals containing either cottonseed oil-cake meal (CSOCM) or soybean oil-cake meal (SBOCM) was compared. The diets were iso- nutritious in terms of crude protein and energy, and were fed from two weeks of age until two or ...

  13. Integrating scientific knowledge into large-scale restoration programs: the CALFED Bay-Delta Program experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, K.A.; Short, A.

    2009-01-01

    Integrating science into resource management activities is a goal of the CALFED Bay-Delta Program, a multi-agency effort to address water supply reliability, ecological condition, drinking water quality, and levees in the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta of northern California. Under CALFED, many different strategies were used to integrate science, including interaction between the research and management communities, public dialogues about scientific work, and peer review. This paper explores ways science was (and was not) integrated into CALFED's management actions and decision systems through three narratives describing different patterns of scientific integration and application in CALFED. Though a collaborative process and certain organizational conditions may be necessary for developing new understandings of the system of interest, we find that those factors are not sufficient for translating that knowledge into management actions and decision systems. We suggest that the application of knowledge may be facilitated or hindered by (1) differences in the objectives, approaches, and cultures of scientists operating in the research community and those operating in the management community and (2) other factors external to the collaborative process and organization.

  14. Giardia duodenalis assemblages in weaned cattle on cow-calf operations in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    To determine the prevalence of Giardia duodenalis in weaned beef calves in cow-calf operations, fecal specimens were collected from 819 6- to18-month-old calves in 20 states. After cleaning and concentrating cysts from feces, DNA was extracted from each specimen. The presence of G. duodenalis was de...

  15. Changes in Tissue Oxygen Saturation in Response to Different Calf Compression Sleeves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dermont, T.; Morizot, L.; Bouhaddi, M.; Ménétrier, A.

    2015-01-01

    Aim. The purpose was to examine the changes in tissue oxygen saturation (StO2) in response to the application of different commercially available calf compression sleeves. Methods. Eight subjects came to the laboratory to complete a session in seated position including 10 min of quiet rest followed by 3 min measuring calf StO2 without compression sleeves and then alternating of 3 min of passive rest and 3 min measuring StO2 with calf compression sleeves. A total of 15 different commercially available compression sleeves were studied in a randomized order. Calf StO2 was recorded using near-infrared spectroscopy. Results. StO2 was significantly increased with all compression sleeves (p < 0.05) compared with no compression (from +6.9% for the least effective to +22.6% for the most effective). Large differences were observed between compression sleeves (p < 0.05). StO2 was positively correlated with compression pressure (p < 0.05; r = 0.84). Conclusion. This study shows that wearing compression sleeves from various brands differently affects tissue oxygen saturation. Differences were linked to the compression pressure: higher compression pressures were associated with higher StO2. PMID:26464899

  16. Evaluation of cottonseed oil-cake meal as a protein source in calf ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Unknown

    South African Society of Animal Science. The South African Journal of Animal Science is available online at http://www.sasas.co.za/Sajas.html. 67. Short communication. Evaluation of cottonseed oil-cake meal as a protein source in calf starter meals. N.M. Bangani, C.J.C. Muller. # and J.A. Botha. Department of Economic ...

  17. Sex of calf and age of dam adjustment factors for birth and weaning ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Records on 2 257 Composite and 5 923 Tswana calves born between the period of 1988 and 2006 in Botswana were used to calculate additive correction factors for the effects of sex of calf and age of dam on birth weight and weaning weight. The mature age group in both breeds for the two growth characteristics was 5 ...

  18. Anatomy, death, and preservation of a woolly mammoth (Mammuthus primigenius) calf, Yamal Peninsula, northwest Siberia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fisher, Daniel C.; Tikhonov, Alexei N.; Kosintsev, Pavel A.; Rountrey, Adam N.; Buigues, Bernard; van der Plicht, Johannes

    2012-01-01

    A well-preserved woolly mammoth calf found in northwest Siberia offers unique opportunities to investigate mammoth anatomy, behavior, life history and taphonomy. Analysis of the fluvial setting where the specimen was found suggests it was derived from eroding bluffs during ice-out flooding in June

  19. Muscle cramps

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... spasm. Muscle cramps can occur while you play tennis or golf, bowl, swim, or do any other exercise. They can also be triggered by: Alcoholism Hypothyroidism (underactive thyroid) Kidney failure Medicines Menstruation Pregnancy Home Care If you have a muscle ...

  20. Effects of knee joint angle on global and local strains within human triceps surae muscle: MRI analysis indicating in vivo myofascial force transmission between synergistic muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huijing, Peter A; Yaman, Alper; Ozturk, Cengizhan; Yucesoy, Can A

    2011-12-01

    Mechanical interactions between muscles have been shown for in situ conditions. In vivo data for humans is unavailable. Global and local length changes of calf muscles were studied to test the hypothesis that local strains may occur also within muscle for which global strain equals zero. For determination of globally induced strain in m. gastrocnemius in dissected human cadavers several knee joint angles were imposed, while keeping ankle joint angle constant and measuring its muscle-tendon complex length changes. In vivo local strains in both gastrocnemius and soleus muscles were calculated using MRI techniques in healthy human volunteers comparing images taken at static knee angles of 173° and 150°. Imposed global strains on gastrocnemius were much smaller than local strains. High distributions of strains were encountered, e.g. overall lengthened muscle contains locally lengthened, as well as shortened areas within it. Substantial strains were not limited to gastrocnemius, but were found also in synergistic soleus muscle, despite the latter muscle-tendon complex length remaining isometric (constant ankle angle: i.e. global strain = 0), as it does not cross the knee. Based on results of animal experiments this effect is ascribed to myofascial connections between these synergistic muscles. The most likely pathway is the neurovascular tract within the anterior crural compartment (i.e. the collagen reinforcements of blood vessels, lymphatics and nerves). However, direct intermuscular transmission of force may also occur via the perimysium shared between the two muscles. Global strains imposed on muscle (joint movement) are not good estimators of in vivo local strains within it: differing in magnitude, as well as direction of length change. Substantial mechanical interaction occurs between calf muscles, which is mediated by myofascial force transmission between these synergistic muscles. This confirms conclusions of previous in situ studies in experimental animals

  1. The influence of training status on the drop in muscle strength after acute exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pingel, Jessica; Moerch, L; Kjaer, M

    2009-01-01

    Skeletal muscles fatigue after exercise, and reductions in maximal force appear. A difference in training status between the legs was introduced by unilateral immobilization of the calf muscles for 2 weeks in young men, who were randomly assigned to two groups, either a RUN group (n = 8...... to running exercise immediately after immobilization, the muscle strength of the triceps-surae muscles dropped even further, but just in the immobilized leg (41%; P muscle endurance when evaluating the effect of immobilization on muscle......) that was exposed to prolonged exercise (1-h running: individual pace) or a REST group (n = 12) that did no exercise after immobilization. Cross-sectional area (CSA) of the triceps-surae muscles was calculated by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) force of the plantar flexors...

  2. Three-Dimensional Muscle Architecture and Comprehensive Dynamic Properties of Rabbit Gastrocnemius, Plantaris and Soleus: Input for Simulation Studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tobias Siebert

    Full Text Available The vastly increasing number of neuro-muscular simulation studies (with increasing numbers of muscles used per simulation is in sharp contrast to a narrow database of necessary muscle parameters. Simulation results depend heavily on rough parameter estimates often obtained by scaling of one muscle parameter set. However, in vivo muscles differ in their individual properties and architecture. Here we provide a comprehensive dataset of dynamic (n = 6 per muscle and geometric (three-dimensional architecture, n = 3 per muscle muscle properties of the rabbit calf muscles gastrocnemius, plantaris, and soleus. For completeness we provide the dynamic muscle properties for further important shank muscles (flexor digitorum longus, extensor digitorum longus, and tibialis anterior; n = 1 per muscle. Maximum shortening velocity (normalized to optimal fiber length of the gastrocnemius is about twice that of soleus, while plantaris showed an intermediate value. The force-velocity relation is similar for gastrocnemius and plantaris but is much more bent for the soleus. Although the muscles vary greatly in their three-dimensional architecture their mean pennation angle and normalized force-length relationships are almost similar. Forces of the muscles were enhanced in the isometric phase following stretching and were depressed following shortening compared to the corresponding isometric forces. While the enhancement was independent of the ramp velocity, the depression was inversely related to the ramp velocity. The lowest effect strength for soleus supports the idea that these effects adapt to muscle function. The careful acquisition of typical dynamical parameters (e.g. force-length and force-velocity relations, force elongation relations of passive components, enhancement and depression effects, and 3D muscle architecture of calf muscles provides valuable comprehensive datasets for e.g. simulations with neuro-muscular models, development of more realistic

  3. Paretic muscle atrophy and non-contractile tissue content in individual muscles of the post-stroke lower extremity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsay, John W; Barrance, Peter J; Buchanan, Thomas S; Higginson, Jill S

    2011-11-10

    Muscle atrophy is one of many factors contributing to post-stroke hemiparetic weakness. Since muscle force is a function of muscle size, the amount of muscle atrophy an individual muscle undergoes has implications for its overall force-generating capability post-stroke. In this study, post-stroke atrophy was determined bilaterally in fifteen leg muscles with volumes quantified using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). All muscle volumes were adjusted to exclude non-contractile tissue content, and muscle atrophy was quantified by comparing the volumes between paretic and non-paretic sides. Non-contractile tissue or intramuscular fat was calculated by determining the amount of tissue excluded from the muscle volume measurement. With the exception of the gracilis, all individual paretic muscles examined had smaller volumes in the non-paretic side. The average decrease in volume for these paretic muscles was 23%. The gracilis volume, on the other hand, was approximately 11% larger on the paretic side. The amount of non-contractile tissue was higher in all paretic muscles except the gracilis, where no difference was observed between sides. To compensate for paretic plantar flexor weakness, one idea might be that use of the paretic gracilis actually causes the muscle to increase in size and not develop intramuscular fat. By eliminating non-contractile tissue from our volume calculations, we have presented volume data that more appropriately represents force-generating muscle tissue. Non-uniform muscle atrophy was observed across muscles and may provide important clues when assessing the effect of muscle atrophy on post-stroke gait. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Popliteal vascular entrapment syndrome caused by a rare anomalous slip of the lateral head of the gastrocnemius muscle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Patrick T.; Moyer, Adrian C.; Huettl, Eric A. [Mayo Clinic Scottsdale, Department of Radiology, Scottsdale (United States); Fowl, Richard J.; Stone, William M. [Mayo Clinic Scottsdale, Department of Vascular Surgery, Scottsdale (United States)

    2005-06-01

    Popliteal vascular entrapment syndrome can result in calf claudication, aneurysm formation, distal arterial emboli, or popliteal vessel thrombosis. The most commonly reported causes of this syndrome have been anomalies of the medial head of the gastrocnemius muscle as it relates to the course of the popliteal artery. We report two cases of rare anomalous slips of the lateral head of the gastrocnemius muscle causing popliteal vascular entrapment syndrome. (orig.)

  5. Modeling Muscles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodwyn, Lauren; Salm, Sarah

    2007-01-01

    Teaching the anatomy of the muscle system to high school students can be challenging. Students often learn about muscle anatomy by memorizing information from textbooks or by observing plastic, inflexible models. Although these mediums help students learn about muscle placement, the mediums do not facilitate understanding regarding integration of…

  6. Muscle pain

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    of muscle or tendons.4,14. Management of muscle pain. Non-Pharmacological Management. The non-pharmacological treatments for muscle pain are illustrated in Figure 1. Treatment modalities include the following. Transcutaneous electrical stimulation (TENS). TENS is a non-invasive procedure used in rehabilitation to.

  7. Muscle aches

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is most often related to tension, overuse, or muscle injury from exercise or hard physical work. The pain ... common causes of muscle aches and pains are: Injury or trauma, including sprains and strains Overuse including using a muscle too much, too soon before warming up, or ...

  8. The impact of obesity on skeletal muscle strength and structure through adolescence to old age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomlinson, D J; Erskine, R M; Morse, C I; Winwood, K; Onambélé-Pearson, Gladys

    2016-06-01

    Obesity is associated with functional limitations in muscle performance and increased likelihood of developing a functional disability such as mobility, strength, postural and dynamic balance limitations. The consensus is that obese individuals, regardless of age, have a greater absolute maximum muscle strength compared to non-obese persons, suggesting that increased adiposity acts as a chronic overload stimulus on the antigravity muscles (e.g., quadriceps and calf), thus increasing muscle size and strength. However, when maximum muscular strength is normalised to body mass, obese individuals appear weaker. This relative weakness may be caused by reduced mobility, neural adaptations and changes in muscle morphology. Discrepancies in the literature remain for maximal strength normalised to muscle mass (muscle quality) and can potentially be explained through accounting for the measurement protocol contributing to muscle strength capacity that need to be explored in more depth such as antagonist muscle co-activation, muscle architecture, a criterion valid measurement of muscle size and an accurate measurement of physical activity levels. Current evidence demonstrating the effect of obesity on muscle quality is limited. These factors not being recorded in some of the existing literature suggest a potential underestimation of muscle force either in terms of absolute force production or relative to muscle mass; thus the true effect of obesity upon skeletal muscle size, structure and function, including any interactions with ageing effects, remains to be elucidated.

  9. Skeletal muscle damage: a study of isotope uptake, enzyme efflux and pain after stepping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newham, D J; Jones, D A; Tolfree, S E; Edwards, R H

    1986-01-01

    We have studied the occurrence of skeletal muscle uptake of 99mtechnetium pyrophosphate (Tc-PYP), creatine kinase (CK) release and muscle pain in normal subjects after exercise. Five subjects stepped on and off a high bench in such a way that one leg stepped up and the other down. Pain only developed in the muscles used for descending: quadriceps, adductors and gluteal muscles of one leg and the calf muscle of the other. A large rise in plasma CK occurred in four subjects but no increased Tc-PYP muscle uptake was seen in the quadriceps. In the four subjects with high CK effluxes, increased isotope uptake was seen in the thigh adductors used when stepping down; in the two subjects with the largest CK effluxes there was extensive uptake into the gluteal muscles. Muscle pain preceded and was not well correlated with either the magnitude of the enzyme release or the amount and distribution of increased muscle isotope uptake. We conclude that delayed onset muscle pain, the cause of which remains unknown, is a poor indicator of muscle damage as indicated by circulating muscle enzymes and muscle isotope uptake. Tc-PYP uptake by skeletal muscle can provide useful information about the localisation and time course of muscle damage.

  10. Four weeks of speed endurance training reduces energy expenditure during exercise and maintains muscle oxidative capacity despite a reduction in training volume

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iaia, F. Marcello; Hellsten, Ylva; Nielsen, Jens Jung

    2009-01-01

    We studied the effect of an alteration from regular endurance to speed endurance training on muscle oxidative capacity, capillarization, as well as energy expenditure during submaximal exercise and its relationship to mitochondrial uncoupling protein 3 (UCP3) in humans. Seventeen endurance-trained...... runners were assigned to either a speed endurance training (SET; n = 9) or a control (Con; n = 8) group. For a 4-wk intervention (IT) period, SET replaced the ordinary training ( approximately 45 km/wk) with frequent high-intensity sessions each consisting of 8-12 30-s sprint runs separated by 3 min...... of rest (5.7 +/- 0.1 km/wk) with additional 9.9 +/- 0.3 km/wk at low running speed, whereas Con continued the endurance training. After the IT period, oxygen uptake was 6.6, 7.6, 5.7, and 6.4% lower (P

  11. Recovery of atrophic leg muscles in the hemiplegics due to cerebrovascular accidents. Computed tomographic study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Odajima, Natsu; Ishiai, Sumio; Okiyama, Ryouichi; Furukawa, Tetsuo; Tsukagoshi, Hiroshi.

    1988-02-01

    Thirty-five patients with hemiplegia due to cerebrovascular accidents were studied with regared to the muscle wastings before and after rehabilitation training. Hemiplegics were composed of 12 improved and 23 non-improved patients. The CT scan was carried out at the midportion of the thigh and largest-diameter section of the calf. Muscle size of each cross-sectional area was measured on CT image and the increase of size (..delta..S) in each muscle after training was calculated. The ..delta..S of quadriceps femoris was correlated with that of whole cross-section of the thigh. The gracilis in non-affected side was not correlated with that of whole muscles. In both legs, there was an increase in leg muscle size after training. These changes were nost marked in the non-affected side of the improved patients. After training the difference between the two limbs remained unchanged. Recovery of muscle wasting in both legs was seen first in the quadriceps in thigh and flexors in calf. Gracilis was relatively unchanged in comparison with other muscles. Remarkable increase of muscle size in non-affected side was worthwhile to note.

  12. Eccentric contractions affect muscle membrane phospholipid fatty acid composition in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helge, J W; Therkildsen, K J; Jørgensen, T B; Wu, B J; Storlien, L H; Asp, S

    2001-09-01

    This study investigated if prior eccentric contractions, and thus mechanical strain and muscle damage, exert an effect on the muscle membrane phospholipid fatty acid composition in rats, and whether a possible effect could be attenuated by dietary supplements. Twenty-three rats were randomised to three groups who received chow with added fish oil (n = 8), vitamin C (n = 8) or no supplement (n = 7). After 3 weeks of feeding, calf muscles on one side were stimulated electrically during anaesthesia causing eccentric contractions. Two days later the white gastrocnemius, a part of the stimulated calf muscle, was excised from both legs. In the muscles stimulated to contract eccentrically, compared to the control muscles, the proportion of arachidonic acid, C20:4,n-6 (17.7 +/- 0.6; 16.4 +/- 0.4% of total fatty acids, respectively) and docosapentanoeic acid, C22:5,n-3 (2.9 +/- 0.1 and 2.7 +/- 0.1% of total fatty acids, respectively) was uniformly higher across groups (P muscle. Thus one severe bout of eccentric contractions modulates the fatty acid composition of the muscle membrane phospholipids when compared to a control leg, and supplemental intake of fish oil or vitamin C did not attenuate this effect.

  13. Effect of creatine on aerobic and anaerobic metabolism in skeletal muscle in swimmers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, C H; Kemp, G J; Sanderson, A L; Dixon, R M; Styles, P; Taylor, D J; Radda, G K

    1996-09-01

    To examine the effect of a relatively low dose of creatine on skeletal muscle metabolism and oxygen supply in a group of training athletes. 31P magnetic resonance and near-infrared spectroscopy were used to study calf muscle metabolism in a group of 10 female members of a university swimming team. Studies were performed before and after a six week period of training during which they took either 2 g creatine daily or placebo. Calf muscle metabolism and creatine/choline ratios were studied in resting muscle, during plantar flexion exercise (10-15 min), and during recovery from exercise. There was no effect of creatine on metabolite ratios at rest or on metabolism during exercise and recovery from exercise. Muscle oxygen supply and exercise performance were not improved by creatine if compared to placebo treated subjects. Oral creatine supplementation at 2 g daily has no effect on muscle creatine concentration, muscle oxygen supply or muscle aerobic or anaerobic metabolism during endurance exercise.

  14. Managing equinus in children with cerebral palsy: electrical stimulation to strengthen the triceps surae muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmick, J

    1995-11-01

    A new therapeutic proposal for the management of equinus in children with cerebral palsy is to strengthen the calf muscles instead of weakening them surgically. Prior research indicates that in children with cerebral palsy the triceps surae muscle is weak and needs strengthening. Neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) was used as an adjunct to physical therapy. A portable NMES unit with a hand-held remote switch stimulated an active muscle gait cycle. Results are discussed for four children, who showed improved gait, balance, posture, active and passive ankle range of motion, and foot alignment. The toe walkers became plantigrade and the equinovalgus posture of the foot decreased. Spasticity did not increase.

  15. Treinamento muscular melhora o volume corrente e a capacidade vital no pós-operatório de revascularização do miocárdio Inspiratory muscle training improves tidal volume and vital capacity after CABG surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Bertolini Matheus

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar a função pulmonar e força da musculatura respiratória no período pós-operatório e verificar o efeito do treinamento muscular inspiratório sobre as medidas de desempenho da musculatura respiratória em pacientes submetidos à revascularização do miocárdio. MÉTODOS: Estudo randomizado, incluindo 47 pacientes submetidos à revascularização do miocárdio com circulação extracorpórea. Os pacientes foram divididos em grupo controle (GC, 24 pacientes, e grupo estudo (GE 23 pacientes, com idade média de 66,33 ± 10,20 anos e 61,83 ± 8,61 anos, respectivamente. O GE foi submetido à fisioterapia convencional e ao treinamento muscular inspiratório com threshold® IMT e o GC à fisioterapia convencional. Foram comparadas as pressões respiratórias máximas (Pimáx e Pemáx, volume corrente (VC, capacidade vital (CV e pico de fluxo expiratório (Peak Flow no pré-operatório (Pré-OP, 1º e 3º dias de pós-operatório (PO1 e (PO3. RESULTADOS: Observou-se redução significativa em todas as variáveis mensuradas no PO1, quando comparadas ao pré-operatório, nos dois grupos estudados, Pimáx (POBJECTIVE: To evaluate lung function and respiratory muscle strength in the postoperative period and investigate the effect of inspiratory muscle training on measures of respiratory muscle performance in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting. METHODS: A randomized study with 47 patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting with cardiopulmonary bypass. They were divided into study group (SG 23 patients and control group (CG 24 patients, mean age 61.83 ± 8.61 and 66.33 ± 10.20 years, EuroSCORE SG 0.71 ± 0.0018 and CG 0.76 ± 0.0029, respectively. The study group underwent physical therapy and inspiratory muscle training with threshold IMT® and CG underwent conventional physiotherapy. We compared the maximal respiratory pressures (MIP and MEP, tidal volume (TV, vital capacity (VC and peak expiratory flow

  16. Simultaneous electromyography and 31P nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy--with application to muscle fatigue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard-Poulsen, P; Thomsen, C; Sinkjaer, T

    1992-01-01

    The electromyogram (EMG) is often used to study human muscle fatigue, but the changes in the electromyographic signals during muscle contraction are not well understood in relation to muscle metabolism. The 31P NMR spectroscopy is a semi-quantitative non-invasive method for studying the metabolic...... changes in human muscle. The aim of this study was to develop a method by which EMG and NMR spectroscopy measurements could be performed simultaneously. All measurements were performed in a whole body 1.5 Tesla NMR scanner. A calf muscle ergometer, designed for use in a whole body NMR scanner, was used....... The subject had the left foot strapped to the ergometer. The anterior tibial EMG was recorded by bipolar surface electrodes. A surface coil was strapped to the anterior tibial muscle next to the EMG electrodes. Simultaneous measurements of surface EMG and surface coil 31P NMR spectroscopy were performed...

  17. Extent, causes and timing of moose calf mortality on the Nowitna National Wildlife Refuge: 1988 progress report

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report covers the extent, causes and timing of moose calf mortality on the Nowitna National Wildlife Refuge. 46 neonatal moose calves from the 1988 cohort were...

  18. Evaluation of sensory quality of calf chops: a new methodological approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etaio, I; Gil, P F; Ojeda, M; Albisu, M; Salmerón, J; Pérez Elortondo, F J

    2013-05-01

    A new method to evaluate the sensory quality of calf chops was developed by discussion with experts. Resulting method comprised four parameters: quality related to odor, texture, flavor and persistence. For each parameter, the sensory characteristics perceived are marked and, by using decision trees, corresponding quality is directly scored, so making the assessment more objective. Global sensory quality is calculated by weighting these four partial qualities. Due to sensory characteristic collection, the method also provides an exhaustive description of each sample. To check the appropriateness of the method, 127 calf chop samples were evaluated by a panel specifically trained to apply it. Results confirmed the suitability of the method to describe the samples and differentiate among them according to their quality level. This innovative approach can be very useful for quality control and also to study the effects of different factors on meat sensory quality. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Binding of a new bisphenol analogue, bisphenol S to bovine serum albumin and calf thymus DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yan-Qing; Zhang, Hong-Mei; Cao, Jian; Tang, Bo-Ping

    2014-09-05

    Interactions of bisphenol S, a new bisphenol analogue with bovine serum albumin and calf thymus DNA were investigated using different spectroscopic methods and molecular modeling calculation. According to the analysis of experimental and theoretical data, we concluded that hydrophobic interactions and hydrogen bonding primarily mediated the binding processes of bisphenol S with bovine serum albumin and DNA. In addition, the electrostatic force should not be excluded. Molecular modeling studies indicated that the binding site of bisphenol S to bovine serum albumin located in the subdomain IB, while bisphenol S was a groove binder of DNA. In addition, BPS did not obviously induce second structural changes of bovine serum albumin, but it induced a conformational change of calf thymus DNA. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Effects of level of social contact on dairy calf behavior and health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Margit Bak; Larsen, Lars Erik

    2014-01-01

    Housing preweaned dairy calves in pairs rather than individually has been found to positively affect behavioral responses in novel social and environmental situations, but concerns have been raised that close contact among very young animals may impair their health. In previous studies, the level......), individual housing with auditory, visual, and tactile contact (T), pair housing (P), or individual housing with auditory and visual contact the first 2 wk followed by pair housing (VP). At 6 wk of age, calves were subjected to a social test and a novel environment test. In the social test, all pair......-housed calves (P and VP) had a shorter latency to sniff an unfamiliar calf than did individually housed calves (I, V; and T), whereas calves with physical contact (T, P, and VP) sniffed the unfamiliar calf for longer than calves on the remaining treatments (I and V). In the novel environment test, calves...

  1. Non-intercalative, deoxyribose binding of boric acid to calf thymus DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozdemir, Ayse; Gursaclı, Refiye Tekiner; Tekinay, Turgay

    2014-05-01

    The present study characterizes the effects of the boric acid binding on calf thymus DNA (ct-DNA) by spectroscopic and calorimetric methods. UV-Vis absorbance spectroscopy, circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC), and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy were employed to characterize binding properties. Changes in the secondary structure of ct-DNA were determined by CD spectroscopy. Sizes and morphologies of boric acid-DNA complexes were determined by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The kinetics of boric acid binding to calf thymus DNA (ct-DNA) was investigated by isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC). ITC results revealed that boric acid exhibits a moderate affinity to ct-DNA with a binding constant (K a) of 9.54 × 10(4) M(-1). FT-IR results revealed that boric acid binds to the deoxyribose sugar of DNA without disrupting the B-conformation at tested concentrations.

  2. Trace elements deficiencies in the pathogenesis of respiratory distress syndrome in the mature newborn calf

    OpenAIRE

    Guyot, Hugues; Aliaoui, Hamani; Rollin, Frédéric

    2004-01-01

    In Belgium, respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) is one of the leading causes of neonatal death in the mature hypermuscled Belgian Blue calf (BB) but also occurs in other cattle breeds. Major clinical signs (tachypnea, tachycardia and sometimes depression) develop in the first hours after birth and are due to insufficiency of functional surfactant. Knowing that trace elements deficiencies can slow pulmonary maturation, the aim of this study was to investigate trace elements stat...

  3. Rheology of semi-dilute solutions of calf-thymus DNA

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We study the rheology of semi-dilute solutions of the sodium salt of calf-thymus DNA in the linear and nonlinear regimes. The frequency response data can be fitted very well to the hybrid model with two dominant relaxation times 0 and 1. The ratio (0/1)∼ 5 is seen to be fairly constant on changing the temperature ...

  4. Effect of early implementation of electrical muscle stimulation to prevent muscle atrophy and weakness in patients after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasegawa, Satoshi; Kobayashi, Masahiko; Arai, Ryuzo; Tamaki, Akira; Nakamura, Takashi; Moritani, Toshio

    2011-08-01

    Following anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction, restricted weight bearing and immobilization results in thigh and calf muscle atrophy and weakness. The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of electrical muscle stimulation (EMS) on prevention of muscle atrophy in patients during the early rehabilitation stage after ACL reconstruction. Twenty patients with acute ACL tears were divided into two groups randomly. The control group (CON group) participated in only the usual rehabilitation program. In addition to this protocol, the electrical muscle stimulation group (EMS group) received EMS training using the wave form of 20 Hz exponential pulse from the 2nd post-operative day to 4 weeks after the surgery. Muscle thickness of vastus lateralis and calf increased significantly 4 weeks after surgery in the EMS group, while it decreased significantly in the CON group. The decline of knee extension strength was significantly less in the EMS group than in the CON group at 4 weeks after the surgery, and the EMS group showed greater recovery of knee extension strength at 3 months after surgery. EMS implemented during the early rehabilitation stage is effective in maintaining and increasing muscle thickness and strength in the operated limb. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Governance for Resilience: CALFED as a Complex Adaptive Network for Resource Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David E. Booher

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available A study of California's water planning and management process, known as CALFED, offers insights into governance strategies that can deal with adaptive management of environmental resources in ways that conventional bureaucratic procedures cannot. CALFED created an informal policy-making system, engaging multiple agencies and stakeholders. The research is built on data from 5 years of field work that included interviews with participants, review of documents, and observation of meetings. We argue that CALFED can be seen as a self-organizing complex adaptive network (CAN in which interactions were generally guided by collaborative heuristics. The case demonstrates several innovative governance practices, including new practices and norms for interactions among the agents, a distributed structure of information and decision making, a nonlinear planning method, self-organizing system behavior, and adaptation. An example of a resulting policy innovation, a method to provide real-time environmental use of water while protecting a reliable supply of water for agricultural and urban interests, is described. We outline how ideas about complex adaptive network governance differ from ideas about traditional governance. These differences result in ongoing tension and turbulence as they do for other self-organizing governance processes that operate in a context of traditional governance.

  6. The effect of some molecules and ions on gastric function in the milk-fed calf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, F. R.; Razig, S. A. D.

    1973-01-01

    1. The abomasum of the milk-fed calf has been examined using an adaptation of the Serial Test Meal method devised by Hunt & Spurrell (1951). The emptying process, acid secretion and pepsin secretion were studied. 2. Using serial test meals of simple solutions instilled into the abomasum via a cannula, our investigation leaves no doubt that the osmolarity of the abomasal contents significantly modifies the rate of abomasal emptying. 3. Hypotonic and isotonic solutions of sodium chloride and sodium bicarbonate increase abomasal emptying but bicarbonate is most effective. 4. Increasing the concentration of solutes in the abomasal contents slows abomasal emptying. Sodium chloride, sodium bicarbonate, ammonium chloride and urea do not delay abomasal emptying until hypertonic concentrations are attained. Hypotonic solutions of potassium chloride, calcium chloride, glucose, lactose, hydrochloric acid and acetic acid delay abomasal emptying. 5. The results obtained in the calf show that the abomasum is under restraint probably from duodenal receptors as is the simple stomach (Hunt & Knox, 1968) and that an osmoreceptor as postulated by Hunt (1956) is an important factor in this mechanism. 6. Acid secretion is inhibited when hypertonic solutions are instilled into the abomasum. 7. Pepsin secretion is not affected by simple solutions in the abomasum. 8. Gastric function in the milk-fed calf appears to be controlled by mechanisms essentially similar to those already demonstrated in the simple stomach. PMID:4568911

  7. Duodenal ileus caused by a calf feeding nipple in a cow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerspach Christian

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this report was to describe duodenal obstruction caused by a rubber foreign body in a cow. Case Presentation The clinical, biochemical and ultrasonographic findings in a five-year-old Swiss Braunvieh cow with duodenal ileus caused by a calf feeding nipple are described. The main clinical signs were anorexia, ruminal tympany, decreased faecal output and abomasal reflux syndrome. Ultrasonographic examination revealed reticular hyperactivity and a dilated duodenum. A diagnosis of duodenal ileus was made and the cow underwent right-flank laparotomy, which revealed a dilation of the cranial part of the duodenum because of obstruction by a pliable foreign body. This was identified via enterotomy as a calf feeding nipple. The cow was healthy at the time of discharge four days after surgery and went on to complete a successful lactation. Conclusions To our knowledge, this is the first description of duodenal obstruction by a calf feeding nipple. This is an interesting case, which broadens the spectrum of the causes of duodenal ileus, which is usually caused by obstruction of the duodenum by a phytobezoar.

  8. Severe paraspinal muscle involvement in facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahlqvist, Julia R; Vissing, Christoffer R; Thomsen, Carsten; Vissing, John

    2014-09-23

    In this study, involvement of paraspinal muscles in 50 patients with facioscapulohumeral dystrophy (FSHD) was evaluated using MRI. The Dixon MRI technique was used in this observational study to quantify muscle fat content of paraspinal and leg muscles. Muscle strength in the neck, back, and legs was assessed with a handheld dynamometer. All subjects completed the Low Back Pain Rating Scale questionnaire. MRI findings were compared with 31 age-matched controls and correlated to muscle strength, back pain, and MRI findings in lower extremities. The fat fraction in muscles was significantly higher in patients with FSHD than in controls: paraspinal fat fraction was 38% in patients vs 20% in controls, thigh fat fraction was 36% vs 11%, and calf fat fraction was 37% vs 11%. Increased paraspinal fat fraction correlated with D4Z4 repeat size, FSHD severity score, fat fraction of the thigh, and muscle strength in the back. The prevalence of back pain was 3 times higher in patients with FSHD vs controls, but back pain did not correlate with the paraspinal fat fraction. This study shows a prominent involvement of paraspinal muscles in patients with FSHD, which should be considered in the management of this condition. © 2014 American Academy of Neurology.

  9. Changes in muscle cross-sectional area, muscle force, and jump performance during 6 weeks of progressive whole-body vibration combined with progressive, high intensity resistance training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberger, A.; Beijer, Å.; Johannes, B.; Schoenau, E.; Mester, J.; Rittweger, J.; Zange, J.

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: We hypothesized that progressive whole-body vibration (WBV) superimposed to progressive high intensity resistance training has greater effects on muscle cross-sectional area (CSA), muscle force of leg muscles, and jump performance than progressive high intensity resistance training alone. Methods: Two groups of healthy male subjects performed either 6 weeks of Resistive Vibration Exercise (RVE, squats and heel raises with WBV, n=13) or Resistive Exercise (RE, squats and heel raises without WBV, n=13). Squats under RVE required indispensable weight loading on the forefoot to damp harmful vibrations to the head. Time, intervention, and interaction effects were analyzed. Results: After 6 weeks of training, knee extensor CSA, isometric knee extension force, and counter movement jump height increased equally in both groups (time effect, Ptraining effects than RE only in plantar flexor muscles. RVE seems to be suitable in professional sports with a special focus on calf muscles. PMID:28574410

  10. Udder health in beef cows and its association with calf growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Studies outside the Nordic countries have indicated that subclinical mastitis (measured by milk somatic cell count or the California Mastitis Test), intramammary infections (IMI), or blind quarters in beef cows may have negative effects on beef calf growth. Knowledge on prevalence of such udder health problems in Swedish beef cows is scarce. Therefore, the main aim of this study was to investigate subclinical mastitis, IMI and udder conformation in a number of beef cow herds. Production of β-lactamase in staphylococci was also investigated. Associations between certain cow factors and subclinical mastitis and IMI, and associations between cow and calf factors and 200 day calf weaning weight were also studied. The herds were visited once within a month after calving and once at weaning. Udder examination and quarter milk sampling, for somatic cell count and bacteriology, were performed in 8 to 12 cows per herd and occasion. Results Approximately 50%, 40% and 10% of the cows had subclinical mastitis, IMI, and at least one blind quarter, respectively, but the prevalence varied markedly between herds. Intramammary infections (mainly due to staphylococci) were identified in 13-16% of the milk samples. Less than 5% of the staphylococcal isolates produced β-lactamase. Approximately 11% of the cows sampled twice had the same IMI (mostly Staphylococcus aureus) at both samplings. Cow factors of importance for subclinical mastitis and/or IMI were teat and udder shape, breed, parity, presence of blind quarters, and cow hygiene. No significant associations were found between udder health parameters studied and calf weaning weights. Conclusions Subclinical mastitis and IMI, but not blind quarters, were common in beef cows, but the prevalence varied markedly between herds. Most IMI were caused by staphylococci and more than 95% of those were sensitive to penicillin. Cows with large funnel-shaped teats or pendulous udder after calving, and cows with blind quarters

  11. Views on contentious practices in dairy farming: the case of early cow-calf separation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ventura, B A; von Keyserlingk, M A G; Schuppli, C A; Weary, D M

    2013-09-01

    The public has become increasingly interested in the welfare of food animals, but the food animal industries possess few mechanisms for public engagement. Here we present results from a web-based forum designed to allow stakeholders to share views on controversial issues in dairying. In response to the question "Should dairy calves be separated from the cow within the first few hours after birth?" participants were able to indicate "yes," "no," or "neutral" and either write a reason in support of their view or select reasons provided by other participants. Four independent groups of participants were recruited (a total of 163 people); 31% said they had no involvement in the dairy industry; the remaining 69% (with some involvement in the industry) were students or teachers (33%), animal advocates (13%), producers (11%), veterinarians (9%) and other dairy industry professionals (3%). Overall, little consensus existed among participants across groups; 44% chose "yes," 48% "no," and 9% "neutral." Responses varied with demographics, with opposition to early separation higher among females, animal advocates, and those with no involvement with the dairy industry. A fifth group was recruited at a dairy industry conference (an additional 28 participants); 46% chose "yes," 32% "no," and 21% "neutral." Across all 5 groups, opponents and supporters often referenced similar issues in the reasons they provided. Opponents of early separation contended that it is emotionally stressful for the calf and cow, it compromises calf and cow health, it is unnatural, and the industry can and should accommodate cow-calf pairs. In contrast, supporters of early separation reasoned that emotional distress is minimized by separating before bonds develop, that it promotes calf and cow health, and that the industry is limited in its ability to accommodate cow-calf pairs. These results illustrate the potential of web-based forums to identify areas of agreement and conflict among stakeholders

  12. Migratory herds of wildebeests and zebras indirectly affect calf survival of giraffes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Derek E; Kissui, Bernard M; Kiwango, Yustina A; Bond, Monica L

    2016-12-01

    In long-distance migratory systems, local fluctuations in the predator-prey ratio can exhibit extreme variability within a single year depending upon the seasonal location of migratory species. Such systems offer an opportunity to empirically investigate cyclic population density effects on short-term food web interactions by taking advantage of the large seasonal shifts in migratory prey biomass.We utilized a large-mammal predator-prey savanna food web to evaluate support for hypotheses relating to the indirect effects of "apparent competition" and "apparent mutualism" from migratory ungulate herds on survival of resident megaherbivore calves, mediated by their shared predator. African lions (Panthera leo) are generalist predators whose primary, preferred prey are wildebeests (Connochaetes taurinus) and zebras (Equus quagga), while lion predation on secondary prey such as giraffes (Giraffa camelopardalis) may change according to the relative abundance of the primary prey species.We used demographic data from five subpopulations of giraffes in the Tarangire Ecosystem of Tanzania, East Africa, to test hypotheses relating to direct predation and indirect effects of large migratory herds on calf survival of a resident megaherbivore. We examined neonatal survival via apparent reproduction of 860 adult females, and calf survival of 449 giraffe calves, during three precipitation seasons over 3 years, seeking evidence of some effect on neonate and calf survival as a consequence of the movements of large herds of migratory ungulates.We found that local lion predation pressure (lion density divided by primary prey density) was significantly negatively correlated with giraffe neonatal and calf survival probabilities. This supports the apparent mutualism hypothesis that the presence of migratory ungulates reduces lion predation on giraffe calves.Natural predation had a significant effect on giraffe calf and neonate survival, and could significantly affect giraffe population

  13. Effect of calf-raise training on rapid force production and balance ability in elderly men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ema, Ryoichi; Ohki, Shunsuke; Takayama, Hirokazu; Kobayashi, Yuji; Akagi, Ryota

    2017-08-01

    This study examined whether home-based, high-speed calf-raise training changes the rate of torque development (RTD) during plantar flexion contractions and balance performance in elderly men. Thirty-four healthy elderly men (73 ± 5 yr) were randomly assigned to a training or control group (n = 17 in each group). The subjects in the training group completed 8 wk (3 times/wk) of home-based bilateral calf-raise training using body mass. Before and after the intervention, RTD during plantar flexion contractions and center-of-pressure (COP) displacement during single-leg standing were measured. Surface electromyographic amplitude of the triceps surae and tibialis anterior during the strength and single-leg standing was measured. Clinical magnitude-based inferences were used to interpret the training effect, with the smallest worthwhile effect assumed to be 0.2 of the baseline SD. The peak RTD increased 21% (90% confidence limits, ±19%) relative to the control group, which was accompanied by corresponding changes of the medial gastrocnemius (MG) and soleus (SOL) activations. The effect on COP displacement was possibly trivial (0%, ±13%), whereas substantial reduction in the MG (-19%, ±15%) and SOL (-25%, ±13%) activations during standing was observed. Our findings indicate that calf-raise training at home, performed without special equipment or venue, induces a substantial increase in the plantar flexors' rapid force-generating capability and triceps surae activations. Although the training effect on standing balance performance was not substantial, observed changes in the triceps surae activations during standing are expected to contribute to future balance performance improvement.NEW & NOTEWORTHY Calf-raise training with the intent to move rapidly, without special equipment or venue, induces an improvement of explosive plantar flexion force, which is attributable to neuromuscular rather than musculotendinous adaptations. Although the training effect on balance

  14. Electromyographic analysis of skeletal muscle changes arising from 9 days of weightlessness in the Apollo-Soyuz space mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafevers, E. V.; Nicogossian, A. E.; Hursta, W. N.

    1976-01-01

    Both integration and frequency analyses of the electromyograms from voluntary contractions were performed in one crewman of the Apollo-Soyuz Test Project mission. Of particular interest were changes in excitability, electrical efficiency, and fatigability. As a result of 9 days of weightlessness, muscle excitability was shown to increase; muscle electrical efficiency was found to decrease in calf muscles and to increase in arm muscles; and fatigability was found to increase significantly, as shown by spectral power shifts into lower frequencies. It was concluded from this study that skeletal muscles are affected by the disuse of weightlessness early in the period of weightlessness, antigravity muscles seem most affected by weightlessness, and exercise may abrogate the weightlessness effect. It was further concluded that electromyography is a sensitive tool for measuring spaceflight muscle effects.

  15. Automated unsupervised multi-parametric classification of adipose tissue depots in skeletal muscle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valentinitsch, Alexander; Karampinos, Dimitrios C.; Alizai, Hamza; Subburaj, Karupppasamy; Kumar, Deepak; Link, Thomas M.; Majumdar, Sharmila

    2012-01-01

    Purpose To introduce and validate an automated unsupervised multi-parametric method for segmentation of the subcutaneous fat and muscle regions in order to determine subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) and intermuscular adipose tissue (IMAT) areas based on data from a quantitative chemical shift-based water-fat separation approach. Materials and Methods Unsupervised standard k-means clustering was employed to define sets of similar features (k = 2) within the whole multi-modal image after the water-fat separation. The automated image processing chain was composed of three primary stages including tissue, muscle and bone region segmentation. The algorithm was applied on calf and thigh datasets to compute SAT and IMAT areas and was compared to a manual segmentation. Results The IMAT area using the automatic segmentation had excellent agreement with the IMAT area using the manual segmentation for all the cases in the thigh (R2: 0.96) and for cases with up to moderate IMAT area in the calf (R2: 0.92). The group with the highest grade of muscle fat infiltration in the calf had the highest error in the inner SAT contour calculation. Conclusion The proposed multi-parametric segmentation approach combined with quantitative water-fat imaging provides an accurate and reliable method for an automated calculation of the SAT and IMAT areas reducing considerably the total post-processing time. PMID:23097409

  16. Substrate exchange in human limb muscle during exercise at reduced blood flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundgren, F; Bennegård, K; Elander, A; Lundholm, K; Scherstén, T; Bylund-Fellenius, A C

    1988-11-01

    The substrate exchange of the calf muscles during leg exercise was compared in patients with chronically reduced blood flow and in matched controls. The arteriovenous differences of glucose, lactate, pyruvate, free fatty acids, glycerol, acetoacetate, beta-OH-butyrate, oxygen, and carbon dioxide were analyzed at rest, at the end of two exercise periods at various work loads, and after 10 min of recovery. Calf blood flow was measured with an electrocardiogram-triggered, computerized, strain gauge, venous occlusion plethysmograph. The results indicate that there was increased extraction of oxygen and ketone bodies in patients with reduced blood flow during exercise, whereas the glucose extraction tended to be lower than in controls. The leg respiratory quotient was lower in the patients even at the point of claudicating pain, suggesting oxidation of endogenous fat. The simultaneously elevated lactate release can be explained by local hypoxia in some muscle fiber populations. The findings are discussed in relation to the enzymatic adaptations known to occur in the calf muscle tissue of these patients.

  17. Automated unsupervised multi-parametric classification of adipose tissue depots in skeletal muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valentinitsch, Alexander; Karampinos, Dimitrios C; Alizai, Hamza; Subburaj, Karupppasamy; Kumar, Deepak; Link, Thomas M; Majumdar, Sharmila

    2013-04-01

    To introduce and validate an automated unsupervised multi-parametric method for segmentation of the subcutaneous fat and muscle regions to determine subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) and intermuscular adipose tissue (IMAT) areas based on data from a quantitative chemical shift-based water-fat separation approach. Unsupervised standard k-means clustering was used to define sets of similar features (k = 2) within the whole multi-modal image after the water-fat separation. The automated image processing chain was composed of three primary stages: tissue, muscle, and bone region segmentation. The algorithm was applied on calf and thigh datasets to compute SAT and IMAT areas and was compared with a manual segmentation. The IMAT area using the automatic segmentation had excellent agreement with the IMAT area using the manual segmentation for all the cases in the thigh (R(2): 0.96) and for cases with up to moderate IMAT area in the calf (R(2): 0.92). The group with the highest grade of muscle fat infiltration in the calf had the highest error in the inner SAT contour calculation. The proposed multi-parametric segmentation approach combined with quantitative water-fat imaging provides an accurate and reliable method for an automated calculation of the SAT and IMAT areas reducing considerably the total postprocessing time. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. LEGS AND TRUNK MUSCLE HYPERTROPHY FOLLOWING WALK TRAINING WITH RESTRICTED LEG MUSCLE BLOOD FLOW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikako Sakamaki

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available We examined the effect of walk training combined with blood flow restriction (BFR on the size of blood flow-restricted distal muscles, as well as, on the size of non-restricted muscles in the proximal limb and trunk. Nine men performed walk training with BFR and 8 men performed walk training alone. Training was conducted two times a day, 6 days/wk, for 3 wk using five sets of 2-min bouts (treadmill speed at 50 m/min, with a 1-min rest between bouts. After walk training with BFR, MRI-measured upper (3.8%, P < 0.05 and lower leg (3.2%, P < 0. 05 muscle volume increased significantly, whereas the muscle volume of the gluteus maximus (-0.6% and iliopsoas (1.8% and the muscle CSA of the lumber L4-L5 (-1.0 did not change. There was no significant change in muscle volume in the walk training alone. Our results suggest that the combination of leg muscle blood flow restriction with slow walk training elicits hypertrophy only in the distal blood flow restricted leg muscles. Exercise intensity may be too low during BFR walk training to increase muscle mass in the non- blood flow restricted muscles (gluteus maximus and other trunk muscles.

  19. Extracorporeal shock wave therapy for the treatment of poststroke plantar-flexor muscles spasticity: a prospective open-label study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santamato, Andrea; Micello, Maria Francesca; Panza, Francesco; Fortunato, Francesca; Logroscino, Giancarlo; Picelli, Alessandro; Manganotti, Paolo; Smania, Nicola; Fiore, Pietro; Ranieri, Maurizio

    2014-01-01

    To assess the use of extracorporeal shock wave therapy (ESWT) for the treatment of equinus foot after stroke and to correlate the ESWT effect on spastic plantar-flexor muscles with echo intensity on the Heckmatt scale. The prospective open-label study examined 23 patients with poststroke lower limb spasticity. Adults with spastic equinus foot after stroke received one ESWT session on hypertonic plantar-flexor muscles. The effect on spasticity, degree of passive ankle dorsiflexion, and neurophysiological values were evaluated. Before treatment, participants underwent a sonography evaluation of calf muscles to identify echo intensity on the Heckmatt scale. Immediately after the session, ESWT induced a statistically significant reduction in muscle tone, increasing passive ankle dorsiflexion motion. At 30 days of follow-up, the effect persisted only in patients with echo intensity of spastic plantar-flexor muscles graded I, II, or III on the Heckmatt scale without any action related to spinal excitability. Mild adverse events were reported after the treatment but were resolved in a few days. ESWT is safe and efficacious for the treatment of poststroke plantar-flexor muscles spasticity, reducing muscle tone and improving passive ankle dorsiflexion motion. The effect was long lasting in subjects with echo intensity of calf muscles graded I, II, or III but was brief for echo intensity graded IV on the Heckmatt scale. The ESWT effect did not appear to be related to spinal excitability.

  20. Effects of two-stage weaning with nose flap devices applied to calves on cow body condition, calf performance, and calf humoral immune response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lippolis, K D; Ahola, J K; Mayo, C E; Fischer, M C; Callan, R J

    2016-02-01

    The effects of nose flap devices in calves before dam separation on cow BCS, pre- and postseparation calf performance, and humoral immune response were compared with traditional weaning. Primiparous and multiparous Angus and Hereford cows ( = 113) and their Angus, Hereford, and Angus × Hereford calves (179.4 ± 3.92 kg and 161 ± 22.7 d of age) were used. Cow-calf pairs were allocated to 1 of 2 treatments in a completely randomized design: 1) nose flap for 21 d before separation from the dam (NF) or 2) no nose flap for 21 d before separation from the dam (CON). Calves were separated from dams on d 0, and calves were placed in group feed-yard pens for 28 d. A subset ( = 75) of weaned calves were placed into 1 of 8 pens to evaluate DMI. Cow BCS was measured on d -21 and 56, and calves were given modified live vaccinations (d -21 and 1), challenged with ovalbumin (OVA; d 1), and weighed (d -21, 1, 7, 14, 21, and 28). In addition, blood samples were collected (d -21, 1, 14, and 28) to measure primary humoral immune response. Control calves tended to have greater BW on d 14 ( = 0.09) and 21 ( = 0.07) than NF calves, and CON calves had greater ( Serum neutralization tests for bovine viral diarrhea virus type 1 (BVDV-1) and bovine herpesvirus type 1 (BHV-1) were used to measure humoral response to a viral vaccination. Serum antibody titers to BVDV-1 for CON calves tended ( = 0.08) to be greater on d 1 and were greater ( Serum antibody titers for BHV-1 were greater ( serum BVDV-1 and BHV-1 titers, and humoral immune response to OVA were decreased in calves that received the nose flap treatment.

  1. Influences of supplemental feeding on winter elk calf:cow ratios in the southern Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    M. Foley, Aaron; Cross, Paul C.; Christianson, David A; Scurlock, Brandon M.; Creely, Scott

    2015-01-01

    Several elk herds in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem are fed during winter to alleviate interactions with livestock, reduce damage to stored crops, and to manage for high elk numbers. The effects of supplemental feeding on ungulate population dynamics has rarely been examined, despite the fact that supplemental feeding is partially justified as necessary for maintaining or enhancing population growth rates. We used linear regression to assess how the presence of feedgrounds, snowpack, summer rainfall, indices of grizzly bear density and wolves per elk, elk population trend counts, brucellosis seroprevalence, and survey date were correlated with midwinter calf:cow ratios, a metric correlated with population growth, from 1983–2010 from 12 ecologically similar elk herd units (7 fed and 5 unfed) in Wyoming, USA. Our statistical approach allowed for rigorous tests of the hypotheses that supplemental feeding had positive effects on calf:cow ratios and reduced sensitivity of calf:cow ratios to bottom-up limitation relative to top-down limitation from native predators. Calf:cow ratios generally declined across all herd units over the study period and varied widely among units with feedgrounds. We found no evidence that the presence of feedgrounds had positive effects on midwinter calf:cow ratios in Wyoming. Further, fed elk showed stronger correlations with environmental factors, whereas calf:cow ratios for unfed elk showed stronger correlations with predator indices. Although we found no consistent association between winter feeding and higher calf:cow ratios, we did not assess late winter mortality and differences in human offtake between fed and unfed regions, which remain a priority for future research. 

  2. Short communication: Effect of calf starter on rumen pH of Holstein dairy calves at weaning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laarman, A H; Oba, M

    2011-11-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of feeding calf starter on rumen pH of dairy calves during weaning transition. Twenty Holstein bull calves were paired into 10 blocks by starting date of the study and body weight, and fed either milk replacer and hay (MR) or MR, hay, and a commercial texturized calf starter (MR+S) in a randomized complete block design. All calves were fed 750 g/d of milk replacer as the basal diet. Calves on MR+S treatment were also fed a calf starter ad libitum to maintain similar energy intake between calves within blocks, and MR calves were fed additional milk replacer that was equivalent to energy from calf starter intake. When MR+S calves consumed a calf starter at 680 g/d for 3 consecutive d, rumen pH of a MR+S calf and his MR counterpart was measured continuously for 3 d using a small ruminant rumen pH measurement system. Treatment did not affect minimum pH, mean pH, maximum pH, standard deviation of mean pH, and duration or area under pH 5.8, indicating that calf starter consumption did not appear to affect rumen pH. However, hay intake was negatively correlated to area under pH 5.8, with a breakpoint at 0.080 kg/d intake, suggesting hay intake might play an important role in mitigating ruminal acidosis in dairy calves during weaning transition. Copyright © 2011 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. [Asymmetric hypertrophy of the masticatory muscles].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arzul, L; Corre, P; Khonsari, R H; Mercier, J-M; Piot, B

    2012-06-01

    Hypertrophy of the masticatory muscles most commonly affects the masseter. Less common cases of isolated or associated temporalis hypertrophy are also reported. Parafunctional habits, and more precisely bruxism, can favor the onset of the hypertrophy. This condition is generally idiopathic and can require both medical and/or surgical management. A 29-year-old patient was referred to our department for an asymmetric swelling of the masticatory muscles. Physical examination revealed a bilateral hypertrophy of the masticatory muscles, predominantly affecting the right temporalis and the left masseter. Major bruxism was assessed by premature dental wearing. The additional examinations confirmed the isolated muscle hypertrophy. Benign asymmetric hypertrophy of the masticatory muscles promoted by bruxism was diagnosed. Treatment with injections of type A botulinum toxin was conducted in association with a splint and relaxation. Its effectiveness has been observed at six months. Few cases of unilateral or bilateral temporalis hypertrophy have been reported, added to the more common isolated masseter muscles hypertrophy. The diagnosis requires to rule out secondary hypertrophies and tumors using Magnetic Resonance Imaging. The condition is thought to be favoured by parafunctional habits such as bruxism. The conservative treatment consists in reducing the volume of the masticatory muscles using intramuscular injections of type A botulinum toxin. Other potential conservative treatments are wearing splints and muscle relaxant drugs. Surgical procedures aiming to reduce the muscle volume and/or the bone volume (mandibular gonioplasty) can be proposed. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  4. Oxygen transport and intracellular bioenergetics on stimulated cat skeletal muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nioka, S; McCully, K; McClellan, G; Park, Jane; Chance, B

    2003-01-01

    A unique multiparameter recording of skeletal muscle bioenergetics, biochemistry and biomechanics has permitted determination of novel relationships among hemodynamics, cellular high-energy metabolites and mitochondrial bioenergetics in feline skeletal muscle. The study utilizes 31P NMR, NIR, and NADH fluorescence spectrophotometry, biochemical assays and muscle performance. Seven cats were anesthetized and mechanically ventilated. Calf muscles were stimulated through sciatic nerve electrical stimulation and tension was monitored by a strain gauge connected to the Achilles tendon. We stimulated the muscle to produce several workloads up to Vmax. We also changed FiO2 from normoxia to hypoxia for each %Vmax. From these results, the most sensitive indicators of cellular hypoxia leading to a reduction in muscle performance can be determined. Hemoglobin deoxygenation generally does not correlate with cellular hypoxia, although when the HbO2 drops below 30% saturation there is an increased incidence of cellular hypoxia. The [ADP], which is known to regulate mitochondrial function, has a close relation to the work, not to the hypoxia. On the other hand, the mitochondrial NADH does respond to cellular PO2. The degree of oxidation (NADH decrease) due to the ATP flux shifts with oxygen availability in mild to moderate hypoxia (at FiO2 down to 9%). As cellular hypoxia causes decreases in muscle performance (moderate to severe hypoxia), NADH is being reduced rather than oxidized with increasing workloads.

  5. Lumbar spinal muscles and spinal canal study by MRI three-dimensional reconstruction in adult lumbar spinal stenosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boissière, L; Moal, B; Gille, O; De-Roquefeuil, E; Durieux, M; Obeid, I; Dousset, V; Vital, J-M; Skalli, W

    2017-04-01

    Lumbar spinal stenosis is degenerative disc disease most common manifestation. If stenosis degree seems poorly related to symptom severity, lumbar muscles role is recognized. Many studies report imaging methods, to analyze muscle volumes and fat infiltration (FI), but remain limited due to the difficulty to represent entire muscle volume variability. Recently a 3D